Page 1


UNIT 1 - English as a global language 1a - Tuning in 1. Claudius Galenus quote 2. Discussion 3. An interview 4. How much do you know about major Finnish companies? TEXT 1 - English and a company near you Exercises Vocabulary check 1. Reading comprehension 2. Words and phrases 3. Organic metaphors 4. Translation 5. Let’s do some research   6. Email 7. Who has which job? 8. Jobs in English 9. Timelines 10. Synonyms Word list 1b - Tuning in 1. Alphabets 2. Crossword Text 2 - The NATO Phonetic Alphabet  Exercises 1. Signposting 2. Storytellers 3. The NATO Phonetic Alphabet 4. Set phrases 5. Fillers 6. Adjectives 7. Interpretive listening 8. Pronunciation 9. Discussion 10. Let’s do some research Word list How are you doing? Unit review. Echoes UNIT 2 - A global village 2a - Tuning in 1. Quiz 2. Travelling abroad 3. An exchange year Text 1 - In a town called Vaasa Exercises 1. Vocabulary  2. Vocabulary:  Adjective + Noun Collocations

Innehåll


3. Reading comprehension - ‘it’ 4. Homophones 5. Proverbs 6. Nouns - Countable and uncountable 7. Possessive Pronouns: theirs 8. Past continuous  9. Discussion  10. Let’s do some research 11. Summary Word list 2b - Tuning in 1. Charades: Animal moves! 2. Fill in the blanks Text 2 - Why do pigs oink in English, boo boo in Japanese, and nöff-nöff in Swedish? Exercises 1. Reading comprehension 2. Vocabulary 3. Animal noises 4. Idioms with animals  5. Collective nouns for animals 6. Onomatopoeia 7. Let’s do some research: Poems to do with animals 8. Animals of Finland 9. The definite article the 10. Magazine article 11. Pronunciation & Spelling Word list How are you doing? Unit review. Echoes UNIT 3 – Communication style in different media 3a - Tuning in 1. Texts 2. Agreeing and disagreeing Text 1 - The written word Exercises 1. Vocabulary analysis   2. Text analysis 3. Words to do with writing texts 4: Make your own slogan/advert 5: Mini debate - Graffiti 6: Let’s do some research 7: Textspeak 8: Continue the story 9: Imperative for instructions 10: Idiomatic phrases to do with speaking and writing Word list


3a - Tuning in 1. Fact or opinion 2. The news 3. Wordsearch Text 2 - Broadsheet Text 3 – Tabloid Exercises 1. Reading comprehension 2. Vocabulary analysis 3. Text analysis 4. Text analysis: BLM march 5. Let’s do some research: Vocabulary profiler 6. Horoscope 7. Expressions: fact, opinion 8. Opinion piece 9. Read all about it 10. ‘Do you speak…?’ 11. Mistranslations and misunderstandings Word list How are you doing? Unit review. Echoes Unit 4 - Ethical Communication 4a - Tuning in 1. Walk a mile in my shoes 2. Put yourself in their shoes 3. Values Text 1 - Spirit in Motion Exercises 1. Reading comprehension 2. Reading comprehension, answer the questions in Swedish 3. Vocabulary  4. Appropriate language 5. Sports idioms 6. Let’s do some research 7. Superpowers 8. Homographs 9. Sporting equipment 10. Subject and verb agreement 11. Sports commentary Word list 4b - Tuning in 1. What to eat—or not Text 2 -Hunter Vs Vegan Exercises 1.Gap fill 2. Analysis


3. Listening comprehension, productive answers 4. Vocabulary 5. Pronunciation 6. Discussion 7. Oxymorons 8. Second conditionals 9. Synonyms 10. Translation 11. Written production Word list How are you doing? Unit review. Echoes UNIT 5 - Language and well-being 5a - Tuning in 1. How are you? 2. Photos of Mosul and Helsinki Text 1 - The Flight from Mosul Exercises 1. Topic sentences: Omar’s story 2. Summarization 3. Reading comprehension 4. Discussion 5. Analysis 6. Vocabulary 7. Phrasal verbs 8. Empathy 9. Verb + verb combinations 10. 9. Adjectives that describe emotions 11. A mood diary 12. Pronunciation—stress patterns Word list 5b - Tuning in 1. Poetry 2. TV words Text 2 - Anjella Nancie Exercises 1. Gap fill 2. Listening comprehension 3. Synonyms 4. Talk show 5. Time management 6. The Pomodoro technique 7. Negatives 8. Let’s do some research 9. Dramatization: Different types of people in a group 10. Idiolect Word list How are you doing? Unit review. Echoes


Unit 1

English as a Global Language In this unit you will: •

consider the Societal Competence

practise reading and listening comprehensions

explore the use of metaphor

write an email

expand your vocabulary: adjectives describing attitude

explore different alphabets

consider aspects of spelling and pronunciation


Societal Competence One of the six competencies that you will be working towards in upper secondary school is the Societal Competence.

Samhällelig kompetens: •

Demokratiska färdigheter, färdigheter att verka för en trygg, rättvis och hållbar framtid.

Förmåga att använda sin kompetens både för sitt eget och samhällets väl.

Förmåga till förnyelse, arbetslivsfärdigheter och entreprenörsattityd.

Work in pairs.

a b c d

Read the Societal Competence and then translate it into English.

Looking at both versions, in Swedish and English, now work with your partner to interpret the competence. What exactly do you think this means?

Discuss how English as a subject is relevant to this competence and to modern society generally.

Share your ideas with the class.

9


1 a — Tuning in Employment is nature’s physician and is essential to human happiness. — Galen (circa CE129—200)

1.

Claudius Galenus (Galen) was a Greek physician and philosopher whose ideas on medicine were, for many hundreds of years, hugely influential. Discuss what you think the quote means. Do you agree with it?

10


2.

Discussion For young people who will soon be joining the job market and for people looking for a career change, it is good to think about what professions will be most in demand in the future - those that will have the most job vacancies.

a b c d

In a small group discuss what you think the top five jobs of the next decade are. Number them in order of importance. Once you have come up with a list, compare your list with that of another group. The two groups must then agree on a final top five. Once the group lists have been agreed upon, the top fives are put to the whole class who must then agree on a class top-five list. Do some quick research, what are seen to be the top ten jobs of the future? Are there any similarities between these and those that you thought of?

11


1 a

— Text 1 English and a Company Near You If you think about successful Finnish companies, which ones come to mind?

Kone, Wärtsilä or Nautor’s Swan are all examples of Finnish companies that have roots in Finland and are at the same time internationally renowned. Furthermore, these businesses also have another commonality - they use English as their official language. This means that board meetings, documentation, training, and official intra-company communication are in

14


English. Kone, for example, had its first English-language board meeting in 1996 when the first non-Finnish member joined the board. Antti Herlin, the chairperson of Kone stated at the time that; ‘We could not function as a global company if we conducted business only in Finnish’. Indeed, with the Swedish and Finnish languages together only being spoken by about 0.2% of the world’s population, it is logical that in a globalised world, companies that have branched out to work across international borders, need to adopt a lingua franca that can be easily used across the whole organisation. However, as with a stone thrown into water, the decision to have English as an official language has caused ripples which have spread both within these companies and then further out into Finnish society. Within these sorts of companies, having English as the working language has obviously been a challenge for some employees and an opportunity for others. People with

15


poor language skills have risked experiencing a lack of English as being a barrier to career advancement. On the other hand, people with good English skills have found themselves being empowered in the international business environment. Moving out into the greater society, there has been a resulting push for a high-class language education, both for school students and adults. Consequently, the Finnish government has ploughed a great deal of money into lifelong language learning for its citizens. There have also been further knock-on effects of having multinational companies based in Finland. For example, many organisations, including Kone, Nokia and Wärtsilä, have their headquarters on the west side of Helsinki. Due to this, there has been an influx to this area of highly-educated foreigners coming to work for these flourishing firms. These are people who expect to receive service in English outside the work environment. The sheer number of people using English in this region meant that in 2017, Espoo decided to make English the third official language of the municipality. This means that Espoo is committed to providing schooling, day care, health care and all other services in English as well as in Finnish and Swedish. It can be seen, therefore, that in order to compete in a global world where English is the lingua franca, companies and countries need to work hard at giving their people excellent language skills. Luckily, Finland has an education system that has resulted in one of the most highly-educated populations in the world. Furthermore, Finland is placed consistently in the top five countries globally with the best English skills amongst its citizens. As a result, Finland not only produces successful multinational companies but also excels in attracting foreign workers, firms and institutions to set up shop within its borders.

16


1 a

— Exercises

Vocabulary check Before you look in detail at the word list for the passage, identify which words and phrases in the text are unfamiliar to you. Write them down, in whichever format you find most useful for learning new words. Make sure you do this every time you come across new vocabulary in this book.

17


1. Reading comprehension Mark the correct answer:

a

Kone, Wärtsilä and Nautor’s Swan are

o o o

b

share certain features are not alike have one thing in common

Finnish is so hard to learn. their employees all speak English. they operate in many different countries.

Having English as the company language is

o o o 18

not known of outside Finland

The three companies have English as their official language because

o o o

d

well known in many countries

Kone, Wärtsilä and Nautor’s Swan

o o o

c

well known in Finland

good for everyone in the company. demanding for some people but an advantage to others. challenging for everyone in the company.


Photo by Andrei Niemimäki (Flickr, CC BY-SA 2.0)

e

What is a consequence of having international organisations in Finland?

o o o

f

There is a need for English to be used in places such as shops and hospitals. There are more immigrants. There are more highly educated people in Finland than before.

Foreign companies set up branches in Finland because

o o o

it has its own multinational companies. its population has had first-class schooling. it is one of the best five places in the world to live.

19


2.

a

Words and phrases Find the words in the text which fit the definition

1.

Known about by many people, famous

____________________

2.

Sharing traits or features with another

____________________

3.

One or a series of waves caused by dropping

____________________

something into water 4.

An obstacle preventing movement

____________________

5.

Being more in control, having power

____________________

6.

Something that directly or indirectly causes something else to happen

7.

The arrival of large numbers of people or things

____________________

8.

A region or town that has its own local government

____________________

9.

To do really well at something

____________________

10. To start or open a business in a particular location

b

____________________

____________________

Put the correct words and phrases from the previous exercise into the sentences. You may need to change their form to fit the sentence, for example, singular to plural.

1.

The ______________________ of human pollution is that marine animals are dying.

2.

She came from humble beginnings to become a world- __________________ Mathematician.

20


3.

They say that to ______________________ at something, you must practise it for at least 10,000 hours.

4.

American baseball and Finnish baseball or boball have many ___________________

5.

A _____________________ of laughter spread around the classroom.

6.

I love getting up really early and watching the market traders _____________________ their stalls.

7.

The EU has reduced trade _____________________ It is now much easier to move goods around within its borders.

8.

The student union board in our school _____________________ the students to affect their studies and surroundings.

9.

Although it is only a small _____________________ , it has good services due to its high tax rate.

10. Venice experiences a huge _____________________ of tourists every summer.

21


C

22

Create six sentences, each containing at least one of the words from the exercises.


3.

Organic metaphors A metaphor is a figure of speech, often used in creative writing. It is used to describe or give more information about something by using the image of something else. For example, the moon sailed across the night sky. In this, the moon is being likened to a ship sailing across the sea.

In English, it is very common to use organic metaphors to describe situations and processes.

a

Work in pairs and look at the four organic metaphors in the text. See if you can tell their meaning from the context in which they are used and their literal meaning. Then look up their metaphorical meaning, were you correct?

Roots To branch out To plough Flourishing

Translate the literal meaning of the words into Swedish. Then see if there is a metaphorical equivalent in Swedish.

Roots To branch out To plough To flourish

23


b

Work in pairs and look at the 4 organic metaphors below. What is their literal meaning? What is their metaphorical meaning in a business context?

To sow the seeds To reap the benefits The green shoots of recovery To weed out

24


Translate the literal meaning of the words into Swedish. Then find out if there is a metaphorical equivalent in Swedish.

To sow the seeds To reap the benefits The green shoots of recovery To weed out

c 1.

Put the correct metaphor into the sentences

The economy is beginning to see the _____________________ after the recession.

2.

The company is planning to _____________________ into other countries.

3.

The disposable paper mask industry is _____________________ due to the pandemic.

4.

We are beginning _____________________ of our investment in team training.

5.

Although we operate in 34 countries, our _____________________ are firmly in Finland.

6.

How are we going to _____________________ the job applicants who are not suitably qualified?

7.

The only way to get ahead is to _____________________ back our profits into research and development.

8.

The cut in pay _____________________ of discontent among the workers.

25


4.

Translation Express the following sentences in English using words and phrases from the previous exercises. 1.

Han var en världsberömd musiker, men också en av de ödmjukaste människorna jag någonsin hade träffat.

2.

Nu är det dags att gallra bort de universitetssökande som inte har uppnått våra akademiska krav.

3.

Även om företaget har sina rötter i södra Frankrike, har det expanderat ut i resten av Europa.

4.

Han utmärkte sig i dykning eftersom han var marinbiolog.

5.

Effekterna av tillströmningen av turister var en ökad inkomst och en ökning av brottsfrekvensen.

6.

Han utmärkte sig genom att vara den första finländaren som vann guld i snowboard i OS.

26


5.

Let’s do some research Work in a small group. Each member of the group takes one of the following themes and spends ten minutes researching it. Then share your findings in your group.

6.

Foreign companies and institutions established in Finland

The European Chemicals agency

International schools in Finland

Finland’s global ranking in English skills

Lingua francas of the EU, WHO and UN

Email Write an email to a multinational Finnish company asking about work experience opportunities. You need to express:

Why you are interested in work experience in their company

What previous work experience you have

Why they should consider you (your positive attributes)

When you want the work experience to take place

27


7.

Who has which job? Work in pairs to read through the clues. Fill in the table with the information about each professional.

Job

Name

Age

Salary

Commute

HR Manager Web Developer Project Manager Summer Intern CEO

Clues:

28

The oldest employee has a 15-minute walk home.

Ulla Kekkonen earns 32,000€.

Louise Taylor takes two buses to work.

Sebastian Johansson is six years younger than the Project Manager.

The HR manager earns 43,000€.

Mohit Suri drives 45 minutes to work.

The CEO is 39 years older than the youngest worker.

The 48-year-old earns 105,000€.

The Project Manager has a car.

The summer intern is 20 years old.

The Web Developer is female.

The 59-year-old has the shortest commute.


8.

The HR Manager has a 30-minute metro ride to work.

The Project Manager is 11 years younger than the CEO.

Marko Vanhanen earns 7.5m€ annually.

The HR Manager earns 62,000€ less than the Project Manager.

The summer intern receives no pay.

The 31-year-old cycles 20 minutes to work.

Jobs in English What are the main job-hunting websites in Finland?

a b

Work in pairs or small groups and find some of the places where you can look for jobs online. Consider websites from both the private and the public sectors. For example, look at the websites of the companies mentioned in the text.

Make a mind map with your pair/group about which jobs are being offered in English on different sites. What fields are they in?

29


9.

Timelines Pick either a Finnish multinational company or a foreign company that has established itself in Finland. Find or create a brief timeline for that company. Present and explain the timeline to your group.

Founding date

30

Present day


10. Synonyms What word could replace the underlined word in each sentence? Choose the alternative that best fits the context and communicates a similar meaning. 1.

It is logical that in a globalised world, companies that have branched out to work across international borders. beneath - beyond - before

2.

Highly educated foreigners are coming to work for the flourishing Finnish firms. floundering - struggling - prospering

3.

Finland is placed consistently in the top five countries globally with the best English skills amongst its citizens. intermittently - frequently - sporadically

4.

How many foreign companies and institutions have been established in Finland? elaborated - annihilated - launched

5.

The influx of people to the capital region has tripled since 2017 flow - flush - flight

31


Word list barrier career chairperson committed commonality communication conduct consequently consistently corporation distinction documentation environment empowered excel expansion function global globalized headquarters humble individual influx institution logical marine mission multinational municipality obviously plough quoted region renowned ripple root sheer urban worldwide

32

/bærɪə/ /kəˈrɪə/ /ʧeəpɜːsən/ /kəˈmɪtɪd/ /kɒmənˈælɪti/ /kəmjuːnɪˈkeɪʃən/ /kənˈdʌkt/ /kɒnsɪkwəntli/ /kənˈsɪstəntli/ /kɔːpəˈreɪʃən/ /dɪsˈtɪŋkʃən/ /dɒkjumenˈteɪʃən/ /ɪnˈvaɪərənmənt/ /ɪmˈpauəd/ /ɪkˈsel/ /ɪksˈpænʃən/ /fʌŋkʃən/ /gləubəl/ /gləubəlaɪzd/ /hedˈkwɔːtəz/ /hʌmbl/ /ɪndɪˈvɪdjuəl/ /ɪnflʌks/ /ɪnstɪˈtjuːʃən/ /lɒʤɪkəl/ /məˈriːn/ /mɪʃən/ /mʌltɪˈnæʃənl/ /mjunɪsɪˈpælɪti/ /ɒbvɪəsli/ /plau/ /kwəutɪd/ /riːʤən/ /rɪˈnaund/ /rɪpl/ /ruːt/ /ʃɪə/ /ɜːbən/ /wɜːldˈwaɪd/

barriär karriär ordförande engagerad gemensamma kännetecken kommunikation leda, förrätta följaktligen; därför konsekvent bolag särdrag dokumentation omgivning; miljö självbestämmande utmärka sig expansion function global globaliserad högkvarter ödmjuk individuell tillströmning institution logisk marin uppdrag multinationell kommun uppenbarligen plog citera; nämna region berömd vågor; räfflor rot ren; genomskinlig urban världsomspännande


1 

— Tuning in b 1.

Alphabets Discuss the following questions in pairs:

2.

The English alphabet consists of five vowels and 21 consonants, do you know what these are?

How is this different from the Swedish alphabet?

What other alphabets do you know?

Do you know what the international phonetic alphabet is? Why might we need this when studying English?

Spelling Alphabet Look for the NATO Phonetic Alphabet (also known as the International Radiotelephony Spelling Alphabet) on the internet.

33


3.

Crossword

a

Complete the crossword puzzle.

Across 3.

Sound waves reflected back from a surface

7.

You have to wear this to school in the UK

9.

One thousand grams

10.

The name for a long, jagged chain of mountains

11.

Malt, Scotch and Bourbon are types of this

13.

A ballroom dance alternating quick and slow steps

15.

You might stay here while on holiday

Down

34

1.

Short for microphone

2.

The largest ethnic group in South Africa

4.

Name of endearment for someone called Charles

5.

The capital of Peru

6.

A country, capital city New Delhi

8.

The eleventh month of the year

12.

Shakespearean character who said ‘Oh sweet Juliet’

14.

A game with 18 holes


1

2

3

4

5 6

7

8

9

10 11

12 13 14 15

b

Once you have done the puzzle, can you see what all the answers have in common?

35


1 b — Text 2 The NATO Phonetic Alphabet English is the lingua franca of the skies and the seas. Its alphabet, the NATO Phonetic Alphabet, dates back to the days of WW1, although the form that is used today was not officially adopted by NATO until as late as 1956. The NATO Alphabet is a standardised series of words that allows aircrews around the world to understand each other no matter how bad the radio reception or their accent may be. Each word represents a letter of the alphabet and sounds so different that it can’t be confused with another.

36


Dialogue Listen to the dialogue. Fill in the blanks.

James:

Good morning, Top Bank, this is James speaking. How may I help you?

Siobhan:

Oh hi James, this is Siobhan Mulcahy, um, I need a new bank card.

James:

___________________ ; ___________________ by getting your details and then we can see what to do about the card.

Siobhan:

OK

James:

___________________ , could I have your name please?

Siobhan:

Um, it’s Siobhan Mulcahy

James:

___________________ could you spell that for me please?

Siobhan:

Er, S-I-O-B-H-A-N

James:

___________________ , did that start with S for Sierra or F for Foxtrot?

Siobhan:

S for Sierra then I-O-B

James:

P for Papa?

Siobhan:

No B.

James:

B for Bravo?

Siobhan:

Yes, B for Bravo. Then H-A-N

37


38

James:

N for November

Siobhan:

Yes, that’s right and my surname is M-U-L-C-A-H-Y

James:

___________________ , to repeat, that is M for Mike, U-L-C-A-H-Y.

Siobhan:

___________________ , Mulcahy, Siobhan Mulcahy. My parents are like super interested in their Irish roots, so they gave me a traditional Irish name. It’s a real drag as I have to spell it for people like aaall the time.

James:

_________________________ but it is nice to have a unique name.

Siobhan:

Yeh, whatever.

James:

___________________ , next I need your address.

Siobhan:

OK, it’s 19A Sherrouse Avenue, Monroe, Ouachita Louisiana

James:

___________________ , so let’s start at the beginning, 19A and then could you spell the street name for me please.

Siobhan:

(sighs) S-H-E-R-R-O-U-S-E Avenue

James:

___________________ , S for Sierra, H-E, double R for Romeo, O-U-S and then E for echo.

Siobhan:

Er, yes that’s right.

James:

Then you said it was Monroe... as in Marilyn Monroe.


Siobhan:

______________________________________

James:

Then could you spell the next name for me please?

Siobhan:

O-U-A-C-H-I-T-A

James:

___________________ , another good name, so O-U-A-D-H-I-C-A

Siobhan:

No, C not D and T not C.

James:

So O-U, C for Charlie, H-I, T for Tango, A - Ouachita

Siobhan:

Yeh, you got it.

James:

And that was Louisiana.

Siobhan:

L-O-U...

James:

It’s OK, I can manage that.

Siobhan:

(sighs).

James:

______________________________________ , I have all your details here now and I can see that you have already had a new bank card three times this year. Could you give me the details of why you need a new one now?

Siobhan:

Well, I was like, out with my friend Charlie last night and this like, crazy thing happened...

39


1 b — Exercises 1.

Signposting

Work in pairs.

a

Look at the words and phrases that you filled in in the listening exercise. Put them into the mind map centred on the idea of signposting. Place the words and phrases according to what function they have in the dialogue.

Signposting language is words and phrases that we use to guide the person we are communicating with through what we are saying. These parts of speech may show, for example, that we are moving on to a new topic, agreeing, finishing talking, or taking control of the conversation.

Signposting

40


b c 2.

Add as many other words and phrases as you can think of to the mind map.

Share your ideas with another pair.

Storytellers Work in a small group. Sit in a circle and, moving around the circle, take it in turns to continue the story. So storyteller 1 will continue from what Siobhan said and then storyteller 2 picks up from storyteller 1 and so on. Your teacher will tell you when to change storytellers. Be inventive!

3.

The NATO Phonetic Alphabet

a b c

Look back online at the NATO Phonetic Alphabet, do you know the words that go with each letter?

Listen and write down what you hear.

Spell your own name, address and email address for your partner, use the NATO alphabet if necessary.

41


d

One person in each pair takes one side of the table. Cover up your pair’s side. Sit facing away from each other, take it in turns to spell the names and addresses, one spells and the other writes down the details. Use the aviation alphabet where necessary.

Student A

Student B

Bhavana Navuluri Paramellow Street 20B Pallamallawa New South Wales 2399

Alastair Beauchamp 31 Longner Street Wrightsville Arkansas

Gruffydd Llewellyn Penrhiw 21 Dyffryn Ardudwy Gwynedd Wales

Aderiyike Adeyemi 2751 Alalubarika Street Ogbomoso Nigeria

Aderiyike is a common woman's name in Nigeria.

42


4.

Set phrases James works in the call centre of a bank. As we can see from his initial greeting ("Good morning, Top Bank, this is James speaking. How may I help you?"), he has been trained to use set phrases to help with his customer service.

a b

What other phrases in the dialogue do you think James has been trained to use? Many aspects of working life use very standardised phrases which you are often taught when starting a new job. Where do you think you might hear or read the following phrases?

Would you like your receipt?

May I see your ID please?

Do you have any allergies?

Please put your seat in the upright position.

Where to?

Press 1 for invoice enquiries; press 2 for refunds.

What flavour dip would you like?

Thank you for your email with the attachment showing the latest draft.

Are you ready to order?

I look forward to hearing from you soon.

Could you give me your date of birth?

43


d

Look at the phrases on the previous page. As you can see, most standardised work phrases have a certain level of formality and politeness. 1.

Put the phrases in order of politeness starting with the most polite.

2.

What is it about each phrase that gives it its level of politeness?

3.

Does the situation in which each phrase is used affect its level of politeness?

5.

Fillers If you look at the dialogue once again you will see that Siobhan often uses sounds such as er or um before she replies to James’ questions. These are called fillers. We use fillers because our mouth works a little quicker than our brain sometimes, so we need to make a sound to fill the gap while we’re formulating what we’re going to say.

a 44

Can you see any other fillers in the dialogue?


b

In pairs, record yourselves having a short conversation in English. Then listen to your conversation a few times. What fillers do you use to fill in the gaps? Are these the same fillers that you use in the other languages that you speak? Possible subjects could be:

6.

Adjectives

The weather in Finland

Your favourite meal

Which music artists you like and why

Learning to drive

Adjectives

a b c

What adjectives can you think of that describe James’ attitude in the call?

What adjectives can you think of that describe Siobhan’s attitude in the call?

Fill in the table with positive and negative adjectives to describe attitude. Share your answers.

Positive attitude adjectives

Negative attitude adjectives

45


d 7.

Which adjective would you use to describe your attitude during this lesson?

Interpretive listening Work in pairs.

Use the adjectives from exercise 6. Take it in turns to say the following phrases with one of the attitudes. Can your partner guess which attitude you are acting out?

8.

I don’t want it.

I’m so impressed.

I don’t want to eat cake.

He said what.

Oh I really enjoyed it.

This lesson is so much fun.

The boat leaves in an hour.

I can’t believe it.

Hurrah, sausage stew.

Congratulations on coming first.

I got (grade) for my English test.

Pronounciation

a 46

In pairs, read the poem aloud. Then listen to the correct pronunciation, how close were you?


The Chaos Dearest creature in creation Studying English pronunciation, I will teach you in my verse Sounds like corpse, corps, horse and worse. I will keep you, Susy, busy, Make your head with heat grow dizzy; Tear in eye, your dress you'll tear; Queer, fair seer, hear my prayer. Pray, console your loving poet, Make my coat look new, dear, sew it! Just compare heart, hear and heard, Dies and diet, lord and word. Have you ever yet endeavoured To pronounce revered and severed, Demon, lemon, ghoul, foul, soul, Peter, petrol and patrol? Billet does not end like ballet; Bouquet, wallet, mallet, chalet. Blood and flood are not like food, Nor is mould like should and would. Ricocheted and crocheting, croquet? Right! Your pronunciation's OK.

— Gerard Nolst Trenité (1922)

47


b 9.

Now record yourself reading the poem. How does it sound? Are there any particular words or sounds that you find difficult to pronounce?

Discussion In pairs or small groups discuss the following questions.

a b c d e

Which words do you find hard to pronounce in English?

What do you do if you are not sure how to pronounce a word? Where can you find the correct pronunciation?

Consider the words pronounce and pronunciation. What are the differences between them?

Which words do you find hard to spell in English?

What do you do if you are not sure how to spell a word?

10. Let’s do some research Go online and find out about the new Swedish Spelling Alphabet from 2018.

a 48

Does it differ from the NATO Phonetic Alphabet? If so, how?


b

Spell the following words using the new Swedish Spelling Alphabet: •

vänskap

skolmat

plastpåse

your own name

49


Word list

50

accent aircrew banquet billet bouquet chalet confused console corps corpse creation crocheting croquet demon dizzy endeavour foul ghoul khaki lemon mallet mould parquet patrol peter out petrol phonetic pronunciation queer reception revered rhyme ricochet seer sever standardise traditional unique viscount wallet

/æksənt/ /eəkruː/ /bæŋkwɪt/ /bɪlɪt/ /buˈkeɪ/ /ʃæleɪ/ /kənˈfjuːzd/ /kənˈsəul/ /kɔː/ /kɔːps/ /kriˈeɪʃən/ /krəuʃeɪɪŋ/ /krəukeɪ/ /diːmən/ /dɪzi/ /ɪnˈdɛvə/ /faul/ /guːl/ /kɑːki/ /lemən/ /mælɪt/ /məuld/ /pɑːkeɪ/ /pəˈtrəul/ /piːtə aut/ /petrəl/ /fəuˈnetɪk/ /prənʌnsɪˈeɪʃən/ /kwɪə/ /rɪˈsepʃən/ /rɪˈvɪəd/ /raɪm/ /rɪkəʃeɪ/ /siːə/ /seˈvə/ /stændədaɪz/ /trəˈdɪʃənl/ /juːˈniːk/ /vaɪkaunt/ /wɒlɪt/

accent flygplansbesättning festmåltid vedträ bukett fjällstuga förvirrad trösta kår lik skapelse virkning krocket demon; ond ande yr; virrig strävan illaluktande gast; likätare kaki, kakifärgad citron klubba form parkett patrull ta slut; sina bensin fonetisk uttal underlig (gammaldags) mottagning vördad rimma studsa siare, profet hugga av standardisera traditionell unik viscount (brittisk adelsman) plånbok


1b — Unit review How are you doing?

1.

Vocabulary Here is a summary of Text 1. Fill the gaps with suitable words from the text.

Many companies with _______________ in Finland have started using English as their _______________ language. For example, they hold ______________ ________________ in English because it is no longer possible for Finnish companies to ________________ out and operate globally if they only _______________ business in Finnish and Swedish. For their employees, a ________________ of good English skills can be a _________________ to career advancement. Consequently, a large amount of money has been ________________ into language training. Many ____________________ international firms have established their ____________________ in Finland, especially in Espoo where the municipality has __________________ English as an official language. The city is now __________________ to providing public services in English.

51


2.

Word search How many occupations can you find in the grid?

52

P

R

O

J

E

C

T

P

I

L

O

T

E

N

G

I

N

E

E

R

B

H

F

E

L

U

A

J

D

O

B

L

A

A

Y

A

E

R

C

M

E

C

H

A

N

I

C

C

C

S

C

A

V

D

E

W

K

R

F

H

T

E

O

N

E

E

A

Y

E

D

A

E

R

W

U

A

L

N

L

E

R

R

R

R

I

O

N

G

O

T

T

R

N

E

M

O

C

R

T

E

P

I

H

A

E

S

E

M

I

K

A

R

E

S

V

E

T

S

R

W

A

E

N

A

R

T

I

S

T

E

D

E

N

R

T

P

L

U

M

B

E

R

I

B


3.

Pronunciation task Listen to these pairs of words and then record yourself saying them.

horse worse

head heat

new sew

heart heard

lord word

petrol patrol

wallet ballet

flood food

53


1b 1.

— Echoes Make brief notes about this part of the course. Questions you can consider: •

What went well for you?

Has anything been difficult so far - how have you approached those things?

How does it feel to listen to yourself speaking English?

How did the pronunciation part go? How do you think you can improve this?

What words have you learned?

Emails are written in formal English. How did you find that exercise?l

Now put your reflection, recordings, email, timeline and translation into your portfolio.

o o o o o 54

Reflection Recording Email Timeline Translation


Unit 2

A Global Village In this unit you will: •

work on a group presentation

practise listening and reading comprehension

expand your vocabulary: collocations, homophones, proverbs, idioms

practise using the past simple and continuous verb forms

explore onomatopoeia as a literary device

explore some poetry

write a magazine article

practise the pronunciation of long vowel sounds


2a 1.

— Tuning in

Quiz How much do you know about working, studying and travelling abroad?

a

What is Global Vision International?

o

An organisation that sends used spectacles to developing countries.

o o

b

Tailor-made CVs in English. English-language textbooks. Language trips abroad.

Erasmus is the EU's programme to support education, training, youth and sport in Europe. What or who was Erasmus?

o o o 56

An international TV network

What types of services do companies such as EF, ESL and KAPLAN offer?

o o o

c

A global youth volunteer organisation.

The first space vessel. A Dutch scholar and philosopher. King Arthur’s horse.


d e

The Tall Ships’ Races take place ….

o o o

g

in European waters.

Travel around the world teaching languages. Teach a foreign language to the children in a host family. Provide childcare and do light cleaning for a host family.

What is the world’s top gap-year destination?

o o o

Thailand. Australia. The USA.

On average, how many people emigrate from Finland each year?

o o o

h

around the whole world.

What do au pairs do?

o o o

f

off of the coast of Finland only.

About 100,000. About 10,000. About 1,000.

Approximately how many foreign students study in Finland each year?

o o o

About 50,000. About 20,000. About 1,000.

57


2.

Travelling abroad Work in small groups. Each group takes one of the overseas travel options and researches it. Prepare a short presentation on the subject to show the other members of your class.

1.

Exchange programmes: what exchange programmes are there? Find two exchange programmes that interest you and find out some details about them.

2.

Working abroad: what options are available for young people who want to work abroad temporarily? Where can you go and what can you do?

3.

Studying abroad: where can you study in English? Consider issues such as fees, courses and the availability of accommodation.

4.

Overseas volunteer work: what different volunteer organisations are there? Which experiences interest you most?

5.

Interrailing: plan a month-long interrail trip anywhere in the world. Consider your itinerary and how much the trip would cost.

6.

Backpacking: plan a six-month backpacking trip anywhere in the world. Work out your itinerary, what you need to pack and how much money you’d have to save up to do the trip.

58


3.

An exchange year What does a student mean when they say they are ‘taking an exchange year’? Listen to Francesca talking about her gap year experience in the US and answer the questions.

1.

Where was Francesca staying?

2.

What does Francesca say is the positive outcome of things not going as expected with an exchange trip?

3.

Name two things that Francesca missed from Finland.

4.

What wouldn’t she recommend?

5.

Name two of the benefits that Francesca thought she got from her exchange.

59


2a

— Text 1 In a Town Called Vaasa Some people spend their whole childhood living in the same town or city. For others, frequently moving home is an experience that has a huge impact on their lives. Read the text, then in pairs consider how living in different countries has affected Patsy’s life through her childhood and into her adult years.

Patsy Nakell, Communication officer I don’t remember the first time I came to Finland, I was a tiny baby. However, I do remember playing with airline toys in the back of an airplane and feeling giddy and a little airsick. I must have been no more than five or six at the time. We did that almost every summer when I was a child. We traveled all the way from Beirut, where we

60

were living, to see my grandparents on the other side of the world,


in a town called Vaasa. This was mostly during school holidays. This continued until the year I turned 15, when it wasn’t a vacation at all. That time, I was coming to stay. I’m often asked where I’m from. It’s one of those baffling questions in life! Why is where I am from so interesting? Why not where I am now, or where I want to go in the future? Why does the past matter? It’s gone. Yes, of course, it defines us in many ways, but surely not as much as the choices we make today? My parents met in California in the 1950s. Hailing from what were considered at that time as emigrant countries -Lebanon and Finlandboth had arrived in the Golden State looking for work. Theirs was a whirlwind romance, and they were married six short months after their first date. However, when their visa expired, they decided to move to Lebanon - where I was born much later - but not before making a short detour to Finland to introduce their first-born, my eldest brother, to his grandparents. I remember so well those ancient black and white photographs, carefully glued onto the pages of photo albums. In the photos, the snow was thick on the ground, and my father’s coat looked thin on his hunched shoulders.

61


Growing up, Finland had always been this mythical place. It embodied everything fun: the holidays, the culture, the weather, the language (intriguingly enough) but, mainly, the peace and quiet. It was everything home wasn’t. It was a typical escape, where the proverbial grass was evergreen and shiny. My fondest memory of childhood is the delicious smell of crepes slowly frying over an open fire at my uncle’s summer cottage, sprinkled with wild raspberries and blueberries that we picked ourselves. Or maybe it is the smell of freshly cut grass and the whizzing mosquitoes in the endless summer nights. I never tired of these things. Before I could, we were on our way back home, to Beirut, war-torn and boiling under a merciless August sun. However, tourism and immigration are two very different ways to experience a country, and once I moved to Finland at 15, the thrill soon wore off. Although I was learning Swedish very quickly and making many new friends, the peace and quiet soon became oppressive, the food in school was unbearably bland, and the darkness of winter… well, let’s just say, it was hard. Soon enough, I was longing for the salty waves of my beloved Mediterranean Sea,

62


the sultry deliciousness of Lebanese cuisine, and my friends’ and family’s unembarrassed and unreserved expression of affection and love. I didn’t miss the war, but I did miss how closely it bonded us to our neighbors. War brings out the worst in people, but it also brings out the best in human nature. It is not surprising that later in my life, I find myself actually not too far from where I am from. As a humanitarian working for the United Nations, often in conflict zones, I witness that heartbreaking human contradiction all the time. While many would find the work hard (looking for the helpers, those better angels who make incredible sacrifices to help others in times of extreme crisis), it gives me immense strength and hope. What’s more, while I do miss home every time I move to a new country, I have learned that home, for me, is a state of mind. I have also learned that the longing for the embrace of loved ones, is a constant, and comforting, companion. It’s not where you’re from, it’s what you make of it.

The phrase 'Better angels' is a known cultural reference in US English. It refers to our good acts and thoughts. It was first used by Abraham Lincoln in his inaugural address: The mystic chords of memory, stretching from every battlefield and patriot grave to every living heart and hearthstone all over this broad land, will yet swell the chorus of the Union, when again touched, as surely they will be, by the better angels of our nature. (Abraham Lincoln, March 4, 1861)

63


2a 1.

— Exercises Vocabulary Look through the text to find the English equivalents of these words and phrases in Swedish.

yr att förvirra höra hemma från, komma från en blixtsnabb romans en kort omväg böjda axlar förkroppsligad berömda krigshärjad olidligt intetsägande spänningen försvann snart

64


2.

Vocabulary: Adjective + Noun Collocations

AM

GR

Adjectives

Some words are often found together: to a native English speaker they just sound right. For example, if there is a lot of traffic, they say there is heavy traffic. So heavy and traffic are just words that go together. These groups and pairings of words are called collocations. Some words collocate and some don’t: you can describe someone as being a tall person; but you can’t describe someone as being a long person. When you see a new word in a text, or when you hear a new word, make note of the words that surround it. It is easier to remember chunks of vocabulary rather than individual words.

65


a

Find words in the text that collocate with these nouns. Then, use an online collocation dictionary to find two other adjectives that collocate with each noun.

Example:

b

tiny

baby

1.

romance

2.

detour

3.

photographs

4.

place

5.

memory

6.

smell

7.

nights

8.

waves

9.

zones

10.

crisis

new-born

healthy

Use your imagination to write some sentences of your own using an adjective+noun combination that you found in the collocation dictionary. Example: In the photo, a young woman is holding her newborn baby.

66


c 3.

Underline other adjective + noun collocations in the text.

Reading comprehension - ‘it’ The word ‘it’ can be used in a text to refer back to something that was already mentioned. We use ‘it’ to avoid repetition and to improve the flow or cohesion of a text.

AM

GR

Pronouns

a

Find these phrases in the text and explain what ‘it’ refers to. 1.

It wasn’t a vacation at all

2.

It’s one of those baffling questions in life.

3.

It’s gone

4.

It defines us in so many ways

5.

It embodied everything fun

6.

Let’s just say, it was hard

7.

I did miss how closely it bonded us to our neighbours

8.

It gives me immense strength and hope

67


b 4.

It can also be used as the subject of a sentence to introduce an idea. This is called an ‘introductory’ it or an ‘empty’ it. Find an example of an ‘empty’ it in the text.

Homophones A homophone is a word that is pronounced exactly the same as another word but has a different meaning and a different spelling. An example of a word in the text that is a homophone is see. This is pronounced in the same way as sea but obviously has a different spelling and meaning.

68


a

What other words can you find in the text that have homophones? Write down the words and their homophone(s).

Word

Pair

see

b

sea

Complete the sentences with the correct word.

so sew I like to

different buttons onto my shirts.

The film was

boring. I fell asleep halfway through.

pause paws Carry a dog over salted roads. Otherwise, they may hurt their . A comma in a text represents a

in spoken language.

69


course coarse They met on the golf The fabric was arms.

hair hare The His

and rubbed unpleasantly on her

is said to be a magical beast in the UK. was shaved to a stubble.

waist waste I prefer to wear jeans with a high Throwing away food is such a

pair pear A twisted A

70

tree stood beside the gate. of jeans hung on the washing line.


board bored I never get

if I have my phone.

A

was nailed across the doorway.

there their favourite holiday spot was Malta. It is always warm

.

witch which No matter hour to get to school. I think I’ll dress as a

way you go, it takes about an for Halloween.

whether weather The I don’t really know

today is delightful. I passed my test or not.

71


The difference between a cat and a complex sentence is that a cat has claws at the end of its paws and a complex sentence has a pause at the end of its clause.

5.

Proverbs A proverb is a short, concrete and common saying or phrase that gives advice or shares a universal truth.

a

You have probably heard several of these proverbs in Swedish. Try to figure out the correct English equivalents.

1. Öga för öga, tand för tand 2. Två sina händer

3. När katten är borta (dansar råttorna på bordet)

4. Som en droppe i havet

5. Lätt fånget, lätt förgånget

72


6. Ränderna går aldrig ur

7. Sälj inte skinnet före björnen är skjuten

b

Go online and find out what the origin of each proverb is and when it was first used? Note your sources.

1. 2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

73


6.

Nouns - Countable and uncountable

a AM GR

Nouns

74

These phrases come from the text. Decide if the underlined nouns are countable (C) or uncountable (U). Example: I don’t remember the first time I came to Finland.

C

1.

It’s one of those baffling questions in life.

2.

Both had arrived in the Golden State looking for work.

3.

Theirs was a whirlwind romance

4.

The snow was thick on the ground

5.

the language that I didn’t speak

6.

It was everything home wasn’t

7.

crepes slowly frying over an open fire

8.

the peace and quiet did become oppressive

9.

I didn’t miss the war

10.

War brings out the worst in people.


b

True or false? Support your answer with an example sentence from the text.

o

If an uncountable noun is the subject of a sentence, the verb takes the singular form.

o

Uncountable nouns take an -s to form the plural.

o

Uncountable nouns can follow both the words a/an and the

o

Some uncountable nouns can also be countable depending on context.

Home is where the heart is. 7. AM

GR

Possessive pronouns

Life is what you make it.

Possessive Pronouns: theirs Theirs was a whirlwind romance.

= Their romance was a whirlwind romance. Shorten these sentences using theirs.

1.

The idea was Jim and Julie’s.

2.

This is our idea but the idea that Jim and Julie had was better.

75


8.

3.

Actually, our idea was better than the one that the others thought up.

4.

Their idea was so much better than ours.

Past continuous As you can see in the text, the past continuous is used in two ways:

AM

GR

1.

To show that an action was in progress when something else then happened; Although I was learning Swedish very quickly and making many new friends, the peace and quiet soon became oppressive.

Verbs past simple and past continuous

2.

To show that something continued over a period of time in the past; We traveled all the way from Beirut, where we were living.

76


a

Put the past simple or past continuous into the sentences.

1.

I

along the road when I an elephant. (walk, see)

2.

We

in Cape Town when the troubles (live, start)

3.

What

you

night? I

last

to call several times but you

didn’t answer. (do, try) 4.

When I

into the room, everyone (walk, laugh)

5.

Yesterday I I

6.

7.

He

in bed all day. (be, lie) a cup of tea when

she

(drink, call)

Why

you

your head when I 8.

so lazy.

Last week I only and

on home? (stand, come) carrots

ginger beer. (eat, drink)

77


9.

Discussion Tourism and immigration are two very different ways to experience a country.

a

b

78

Do you agree? In what ways are tourism and immigration different? In groups, compare how a tourist and an immigrant experience a country differently. You can use these ideas to get your discussion going.

The different goals and expectations they might have.

The preparation they need to do before their departure.

The things that can go wrong while they are abroad.

The benefits they can gain from the experience.

Summarise your ideas and present them to the rest of the class.


10.

Let's do some research: Culture Shock

- the four phases of cultural adjustment

Culture shock curve 6

Honeymoon period

Adaption

4 2 0

Adjustment

-2 -4 -6

Culture shock

1

2

3

4

5

6

Months in a foreign country

a

7

8

9

10

11

12

(Source – Sverre Lysgaard, 1955)

In groups, discuss what this chart might represent.

Researchers have identified four stages of cultural adjustment:

b

1.

Honeymoon phase

2.

Negotiation phase

3.

Adjustment phase

4.

Adaptation phase

Conduct some research online to find out more about the four phases of cultural adjustment or interview a person you know who has experience of cultural adjustment in a foreign country.

79


c d

11.

In groups, discuss what behaviour and emotions an immigrant might experience during each phase of cultural adjustment. Do you think all immigrants experience these four stages of adjustment in the same way? Based on your research, create a flyer for a talk about cultural adjustment being held at an education fair. The talk is aimed at students who are planning to go abroad to study.

Summary Imagine you are a journalist who has interviewed Patsy and recorded her story.

a b 80

Would you like to know more about Patsy? Think of three questions you would ask her if you met her.

You will publish the audio recording in an online magazine but you also need to summarise the interview in a short text (1000 characters) that will catch people's attention. Write the summary.


Word list affection airsick ancient baffling bland blinding conflict zone contradiction crepes detour embody escape evergreen expire fondest giddy heartbreaking humiliated hunched immense longing merciless mythical oppressive sacrifice sultry unembarrassed unreserved vacation war-torn whirlwind whizzing

/əˈfekʃən/ /eəsɪk/ /eɪnʃənt/ /bæflɪŋ/ /blænd/ /blaɪndɪŋ/ /kɒnflɪkt zəun/ /kɒntrəˈdɪkʃən/ /kreɪps/ /diːtuə/ /ɪmˈbɒdɪ/ /ɪsˈkeɪp/ /evəgriːn/ /ɪksˈpaɪə/ /fɒndɪst/ /gɪdi/ /hɑːtbreɪkɪŋ/ /hjuˈmɪlɪeɪtɪd/ /hʌnʧt/ /ɪˈmens/ /lɒŋɪŋ/ /mɜːsɪlɪs/ /mɪθɪkəl/ /əˈpresɪv/ /sækrɪfaɪs/ /sʌltri/ /ʌnɪmˈbærəst/ /ʌnrɪˈzɜːvd/ /vəˈkeɪʃən/ /wɔːtɔːn/ /wɜːlwɪnd/ /wɪzɪŋ/

tillgivenhet; kärlek flygsjuk uråldrig förbryllande smaklös förblindande konfliktzon motsägelse plättar omväg förkroppsliga flykt ständigt grön gå ut käraste yr hjärtslitande förnedrad krökt; hopkrupen enorm längtan obarmhärtig mytisk; sagotyngande offra tryckande, kvav obesvärad, frimodig öppenhjärtlig semester krigshärjad blixtsnabb vinande

81


2b a

b

— Tuning in Charades: Animal moves! Work in pairs or groups of four. Each of you needs to have three different animals on your mind. Take turns to act out (pantomime) each animal without speaking. Whoever guesses the animal fastest gets a point.

The animal kingdom Fill in the blanks in English using the suggestions in Swedish.

A horse makes the same sound wherever (1)

(den)

lives. Wouldn’t it make sense if we all used the same words for animal sounds no matter our language? In the following article you will read about the multilingual sounds of (2) (djurriket). How come every language (3)

(har hittat

på) animal sounds of its own? You have probably heard many (4)

(uttryck) using

animals in all the languages you know. The English say: “(5) (Det regnar) cats and dogs.” Do you know any animal expressions that you can impress (6) with.

82

(dina) friends


2b

— Text 2 The Guardian. 17 November 2014

The case for language learning

Why do pigs oink in English, boo boo in Japanese, and nöff-nöff in Swedish? Gary Nunn What goes boo boo in Japanese, chrum chrum in Polish, groin groin in French and nöff-nöff in Swedish? Clue: she may go by the name of Peppa, or demand to be called Miss. It is, of course, the pig who oinks in English, Italian and Spanish. In case you were wondering, it isn’t pigs that are multilingual, it’s us. The onomatopoeia we apply to animal sounds varies delightfully around the world. This diversity reflects the unique flavour and panache of different languages. It’s one of the many joys of exploring the linguistic quirks of other tongues. Just try, for example, not to smirk when you discover that dogs bau bau in Italian and guf guf in Spanish. Or that the sound for cows begins with ‘m’ in every language where records exist except Urdu, where they baeh. Similarly, Japanese is the only language where a cat meowing doesn’t begin with ‘m’. Instead, cats go nyan nyan. Linguists widely dispute the origins of language. The Bow Wow theory however (attributed by historical linguist Max Müller to German philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder) proposes that language all started with the perceived parroting of these animal moans, cries, grunts, whines, snorts and coos. Despite this, there are only a handful of research studies into international animal onomatopoeia. One of these is the almost impossibly cute Quack Project which asked children in London’s multilingual schools to make

83


the sounds that they perceive animals to make. The result is a series of audio sounds that vividly demonstrate how differently we imitate the sounds of animals across different languages. In another fascinating and fun study, Professor Derek Abbott from the University of Adelaide produces one of the most extensive pieces of research into this topic. His research focuses on what we’d write in the cartoon bubble for these creatures. Abbott explained that we’re still understanding why these sounds express themselves in different ways in different languages. Although there’s much variation, there’s also uniformity with many sounds which seems equally interesting. It’s an area of “academic neglect” according to Abbott, who cites the fact that “formal dictionaries traditionally excluded these types of words” as evidence that they were perhaps seen as too childish or frivolous to be addressed in serious studies. According to his study – a work in progress which, he says, is still in its early stages – the two sounds made by the same animal that are most different by country are that of the bumblebee. In every language except one, the bee’s famous buzz is represented by a ‘z’ or an ‘s’. In Japanese, however, a bee makes the noise boon boon. “It’s remarkable there’s no ‘z’ in there at all. Of all the sounds I’ve collected, that surprises me the most,” Abbott says.

84


Another surprise to Abbott was the quirkiness of the English onomatopoeia: “The English honk for a goose and gobble gobble for a turkey are rather odd in comparison to other languages (they glou glou in French and Greek and glu glu in Turkish). Also for a generic large bird we say squawk – but when interviewing people from other countries I usually get a blank stare when I ask them if they have an equivalent to squawk.” The English cocka-doodle-doo of the rooster does seem the most peculiar when compared with the Dutch kukeleku, German kikeriki and Hungarian kukuriku. What’s revealed by some of these sounds says as much about cultural differences as linguistic ones. “In English we have rather more sound words for dogs (woof, yap, bow wow, ruff, growl) than in any other language as English speaking countries tend to have the highest dog ownership per capita. There are also clear differences when you look at how the same language is used across different geographies and environments. “In Australia, camels have been introduced in the outback and so we have grumph. Unsurprisingly, I haven’t come across any sound for a camel in the US or UK. Similarly, in mainland Spain there is clou clou for a male turkey, but in Mexico they say goro-goro-goro,” says Abbot. Multilingual onomatopoeia is very human – it says far less about the animals than it does about us. When you consider we’re hearing the exact same sound but producing different representations of that sound, it reveals how malleable we’ve made our different tongues. Exploring these sounds makes us see the familiar and juvenile with renewed, fresh intrigue as adults. And to that, I say evviva in Italian, valio in Lithuanian, mabuhay in Filipino – or simply hurrah in English.

85


Unit 3

Communication style in different media In this unit you will: •

consider the Multidisciplinary and Creative Competence

practise agreeing and disagreeing

critically analyse different types of texts

practise debating

write some instructions

expand your vocabulary: idioms, newspapers

practise reading comprehension

produce an opinion piece


Multidisciplinary and Creative Competence One of the six competencies that you will be working towards in upper secondary school is the Multidisciplinary and Creative Competence.

Tvärvetenskaplig och kreativ kompetens: •

Nyfikenhet och motivation att lära sig och finna mening och kombinera information på ett nytt sätt.

Förmåga att strukturera och styra sitt eget lärande, källkritik och utveckling av färdigheter för kontinuerligt lärande.

Multilitteracitet i det digitala samhället.

Work in small groups.

a b c d e

Look at the Multidisciplinary and Creative Competence and translate it into English.

Looking at both versions, in Swedish and English, now work with your group to interpret the competence. What exactly do you think this means?

Discuss why you think the Finnish education board thinks that this competence is important for young people today.

What do you already do that supports this competence?

Share your ideas with the class.

109


3 a — Tuning in Text noun /tekst/

the original words and form of a written or printed work — (Merriam Webster)

1.

Work in small groups. Think about all of the different types of things that you write in your day-to-day lives. Then think about all of the different things that you read every day. Make a mind map putting the texts that you read and write daily into categories based on the purpose of the writing (for example, entertainment, information, social interaction, education).

110


2.

Agreeing and disagreeing

a

Work in pairs. Take the phrases from below and put them into the correct column depending on whether they are showing agreement or disagreement. Add two more of your own into each category.

I can see what you are saying but... That’s a good point, however...

I’m afraid I disagree.

I fully agree with what you are saying.

I understand your point of view but... Yes, you are right. You have a point there.

Agreeing

b

Absolutely.

I beg to differ.

On the other hand,

I agree.

That's exactly how I feel!

Disagreeing

Rebuttal tennis One of you reads out the statement. The second person then disagrees, giving a reason for their disagreement. Keep discussing each of the subjects for at least one minute, agreeing and disagreeing with each other, using the phrases in the table.

111


Energy drinks should be banned in schools.

Christmas is just about shops making money.

Education should be compulsory until you are 18.

Cats make the best pet.

It should be possible to get a drivers licence from the age of 16.

School food is great.

Everyone should sleep for at least eight hours a night.

Football is a better spectator sport than ice hockey.

With designer clothes you are just paying for the label, not the quality.

112

We no longer need televisions.


3a

— Text 1

The written word

Have you ever thought that a text is so much more than just black words on a white background? Write down all the different types of texts that you can think of. Then see if they are mentioned in this unit.

1.

Finegal's fizzy toothpaste. Finegal's makes your tongue tingle.

2.

Wall art

113


Unit 4

Ethical Communication In this unit you will:

154

consider the Ethics and Environment Competence

practise reading and listening comprehension

examine the language used to speak and write about people with disabilities

expand your vocabulary: idioms, homographs

examine how to discuss a controversial topic


Ethics and Environment Competence One of the six competencies that you will be working towards in upper secondary school is the Ethics and Environmental Competence.

Etisk kompetens och miljökompetens: Delområdet etisk kompetens och miljökompetens förmåga till värdebaserade och etiska handlingar för detta gemensamma bästa. Förmåga att värdesätta naturens mångfald och forskningsbaserad kunskap om klimatet. Förståelse av cirkulär ekonomi och hållbar konsumtion.

Work in pairs.

a b c d e

Read the Ethics and Environment Competence outline and then translate it into English.

Looking at both versions, in Swedish and English, now work with your partner to interpret the competence. What exactly do you think this means?

Discuss why do you think ethics and the environment have been placed together under one competence.

How do you think this is relevant in today’s world?

Share your ideas with the class.

155


4 a — Tuning in 1.

Walk a mile in my shoes If I could be you And you could be me For just one hour If we could find a way To get inside Each other's mind, mmm If you could see you Through your eyes Instead of your ego I believe you'd be Surprised to see That you'd been blind, mmm Walk a mile in my shoes Walk a mile in my shoes Hey, before you abuse, criticize and accuse Walk a mile in my shoes — Joe South 1970

a b 2.

What do you think the lyrics mean?

Reflect on how they make you feel.

Put yourself in their shoes Work in pairs. One of you imagines that they have a visual impairment, the other imagines that they use a wheelchair. Take it in turns to describe how your journey to school would be in that situation. Work through the journey from the moment you leave to getting into the classroom.

156


3.

a b c d

Values Work in small groups. Discuss what is meant by ‘personal values’. Then agree on a definition that explains what personal values are.

Look up a definition of personal values. How similar is this to your own definition?

Individually, write down a list of the five core personal values that you think most describe your own values (for example, trustworthiness, optimism, creativity).

Compare your lists. Which values do you most have in common? Is it important for everyone to have the same set of personal values?

157


4 a

— Text 1 Spirit in Motion

(=the motto of the Paralympic Games)

In recent times, the language we use to talk about physical and mental impairments and disabilities has changed a lot. Discuss why this change has taken place. Can you think of any examples?

The Paralympic mission is ‘to enable athletes with an impairment to achieve sporting excellence and inspire and excite the world’. The Paralympic Games are, in terms of athlete participation, the second-largest international sporting event after the Olympic Games and are televised all over the world to an ever-increasing audience. The Paralympic Games have introduced the general public to a world of disability sports that reaches beyond the floodlights and accolades of international competition and into the lives of millions of people everywhere. Achieving that mission ‘to inspire and excite the world’ largely depends on how the general public perceive disability sports. It is journalists who set the benchmark: the way that they talk and write about athletes with impairments will ultimately have an impact on the way we all talk about disabilities. Ultimately, it may also impact the way society behaves towards people with impairments and attitudes about diversity and inclusiveness.

158


The Paralympic Committee, which governs para-sports, publishes guidelines for journalists defining best practice for reporting on disability sports. In the past, news coverage of disabled sports would usually appear in a separate section of a newspaper or a website. On television, news items about the achievements of disabled athletes were always broadcast after the news on non-disabled athletes. What’s more, some para-sports, such as boccia and goalball, seldom got a mention. Nowadays, however, news channels are encouraged to include articles about disability sports events with other sports news coverage and to use social media to reach a wider audience. The overarching principle of para-sports journalism is that articles should focus first and foremost on the ambitions, training regimes and achievements of athletes, just as journalists report on non-disabled athletes. In other words, they should refrain from systematically defining athletes in terms of their injuries or

159


impairments. For example, David Brown is not a blind sprinter: he is a world record and gold medal sprinter, just as Usain Bolt is a world record and gold medal sprinter. He does, however, have a visual impairment which determines in which classification he can race. By the way, it is also inappropriate to describe a non-disabled athlete as ‘normal’. Many would argue that an Olympic sprinter like Usain Bolt is anything but ‘normal’! Neither should terms like ‘the handicapped’ or ‘paraplegics’ be used to group together people who may have a similar medical condition: a swimmer with paraplegia cannot be classified in the same way as a tennis player with paraplegia. Sometimes, the language that journalists use to report on athletes can unintentionally sound patronising. They inadvertently fall into the trap of using clichés, describing athletes as ‘victims’ who have endured immense ‘suffering’ in their lives and shown tremendous ‘courage’ in overcoming their ‘misfortune’. Recent surveys have revealed that most athletes do not wish to attract pity or be described in this way. Similarly, negative terms that were commonly used in the past are now considered inappropriate. A basketball team ‘use’ wheelchairs; they are not ‘confined’ or ‘bound’ to wheelchairs; neither are they sick or unhealthy. Furthermore, a physical impairment does not mean that a person also has intellectual difficulties. That is why it is, for example, highly insensitive to use a condescending tone of voice when interviewing a little person. However, it is also a fact that we love to read the backstories of our favourite sporting heroes and role models. This means that journalists need to exercise political correctness when interviewing athletes. For example, a journalist could ask an athlete what words they prefer to use to describe their own

160


impairment. There are also social, ethnic and cultural differences that influence how athletes wish their personal stories to be told. An athlete whose impairment is the result of a violent attack in a war-torn country may choose to tell their story in a very different way compared to an athlete who was born with a genetic condition. Moreover, some might prefer to not talk about their impairments at all. The vision of the Paralympic movement is that these outstanding athletes may bring about real social change through their inspirational achievements. How the message of hope is conveyed to a wider audience by the media is key to banishing the public’s misperceptions of disability and creating a more inclusive and diverse world. Penelope Roux

161


5.

Sports idioms Many idioms in English are phrases that have crossed over from the world of sports into everyday language.

a b

From which sport do you think the following idioms originated? Discuss your ideas with a partner.

Match the idioms to their definitions.

to move the goalposts

A burst of new energy that allows you to continue

a ballpark figure

To be totally focused and aware of what is happening

a front runner

Someone who is very successful and confident

a head start a second wind to go overboard a hot shot

168

Someone who is very likely to win something To do something to an excessive degree To change the rules in order to gain an advantage An advantage over other people in a situation

to be up to par

An estimated amount; a rough guess

to be on the ball

To be good enough; to be at the right level


c

Now put the correct idiom into each sentence — you may have to conjugate the verb.

1.

After struggling for about five kilometres, he got and sprinted the last 500 metres of the marathon.

2.

She was a bit of

in the stock exchange

and earned her first million by the time she was 27. 3.

Applying liquid eyeliner on your upper lid is not recommended if your eye makeup skills

4.

My interview went really well, they told me I was for the placement.

5.

I had just about saved up for a rabbit when my parents and said I had to buy the cage too.

6.

Could you at least give me

of how

many more minutes you’re going to be in the bathroom! 7.

Having been in the military gave my brother a huge over the other candidates when applying for universities in the UK.

8.

When navigating a boat through the archipelago, one must be

9.

My mum always

and concentrate at all times. with Christmas

decorations, no surface remains uncovered.

169


10. Subject and verb agreement Look at these verb phrases taken from the text.

Verbs

Is the subject of the phrase singular or plural? Is the verb form singular or plural?

The Paralympic Committee publishes guidelines ...

how the general public perceive disability

the way society behaves towards people with impairments

a basketball team uses wheelchairs

These are collective nouns, used to represent a group of people. Other examples include audience, choir, group, orchestra. As a general rule, collective nouns take a singular verb, but not always! If the sentence focuses on the individual members of a group, a plural verb can be used. Discuss the use of has and have in these sentences:

Manchester United has won the championship.

Manchester United have played brilliantly in tonight’s match.

Tip — If you’re not sure what verb form to use with a collective noun, use a singular verb.

174


11. Sports commentary Find a video of a Paralympic event in the last Paralympic Games. Verbs present continuous

Watch the video and then record yourself giving a brief commentary of the event. Include an explanation of the sport, a summary of the actual event and some of your own thoughts and opinions about the competition you saw.

Don’t forget to save a copy of the recording in your portfolio!

175


Unit 5

Language and Well-being In this unit you will:

196

consider the Welfare Competence

practise verbalizing your feelings

investigate topic sentences

practise reading and listening comprehension

expand your vocabulary: phrasal verbs, adjectives to describe emotions

examine tools that help support us through work and study

discuss how to say ‘no’


Welfare competence One of the six competencies that you will be working towards in upper secondary school is the Welfare Competence.

Kompetens för välbefinnande: •

Omsorg om sig själv och andra.

Förmåga att identifiera och använda sig av sina egna styrkor samt bygga upp en identitet.

Uthållighet i en värld med ständiga förändringar och överraskningar.

Work in pairs.

a b c d e

Read the Welfare Competence and then translate it into English.

Looking at both versions, in Swedish and English, now work with your partner to interpret the competence. What exactly do you think this means?

Why does this emphasise oneself as well as others?

How do you think you can work towards this competence in your daily life?

Share your ideas with the class.

197


Production — Module 2 To effectively write a text, you need to follow a few simple steps.

Before you start writing: o o o

Read the instructions carefully. Consider the length and the title. Make sure you understand what sort of text you are required to produce: blog, story, article, letter etc.

o o

Consider the level of formality the text will have. Look out for any information or any facts in the instructions that you need to keep in mind: numbers, names, graphs etc.

o o

Think about what vocabulary you need for the topic. Start by brainstorming ideas on a piece of paper. They can be in the form of a list or a mind map or whatever you find works for you.

Now that you know what to do, start writing! First, do a plan and then write your first draft :)

236


Before you submit the final draft of your text:

o Read through it carefully one more time. Have you o o o

o

answered the question?

Look closely at the grammar and tenses. Be careful with your capitalisation. Check that the reader can easily follow your ideas (cohesive markers). Make sure you have no typos.

When you are done, click send

Each type of text that you will be asked to write will have different expectations and formats. Here are the ones from Module 2.

Unless your teacher gives you different instructions, all written production should be between 800 and 1,300 characters in length.

Email Emails tend to use neutral or formal language, especially if they are used in a business context. The emails in this module both require more formal English. Formal language means: •

More use of the Latinate words such as those we looked at in Modiule 1, Unit 1. For example, words such as: occupation (not job) or educate (not teach).

More use of indirect language and modal verbs: Could you (not, can you) or I would like (not, I want)

237


No abbreviations: for example (not e.g.)

No slang: going to (not gonna)

Formal emails contain set phrases, for example: •

Dear Mr/Ms….,

Dear sir/madam, (used if you don’t know their name)

I am writing regarding…….

Please find attached …..

I would be very grateful if you could ….

I look forward to hearing from you.

Yours sincerely, (for use with someone’s name)

Yours faithfully, (with Dear sir/madam)

Emails are brief and have a strong structure.

238

1.

Greeting

2.

Paragraph 1: Refer to previous contact or make clear why you are writing.

3.

Paragraph 2: Discuss the main issue.

4.

Paragraph 4: Conclude and give information about when and how you can be contacted in reply.

5.

Sign off.


Production 1.

Open application

You are sending an email with an open application to a hardware store where you are hoping to get some part-time work. In the email you should: •

Express what sort of working hours you are interested in

Outline your relevant experience

Explain why you would be a good employee for the store

2.

Complaint

You ordered a pair of trainers online. When they arrived, they were the wrong size and a different colour than the ones you ordered. Write an email complaining to the company that you ordered them from.

Blog The language in a blog can be quite informal, you can use some spoken phrases and contractions such as it’s. However, the spelling, grammar, and structure still need to be correct and clear. •

Do consider your readers and what they will find to be an interesting topic.

You must refer to your readers in some way during the text - the easiest way to do this is by starting ‘Dear readers’.

Ask for comments at the end.

Production 1.

Animal rescue

You have started volunteering at a local animal rescue centre. Blog about your experiences.

239

Profile for Schildts & Söderströms

Voices and Echoes ENA2 Utdrag  

Utdrag ur Voices and Echoes ENA2, modul 2 i engelska för gymnasiet enligt GLP2021

Voices and Echoes ENA2 Utdrag  

Utdrag ur Voices and Echoes ENA2, modul 2 i engelska för gymnasiet enligt GLP2021

Recommendations could not be loaded

Recommendations could not be loaded

Recommendations could not be loaded

Recommendations could not be loaded