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jynfwiG ;f a&G;aumufyrJG sm; apmif-h unfah vhvma&;twGuf vufpJG

(Translated by the Burma Fund)

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(OSCE) . 'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@tpnf;rsm;ESifh vl@tcGit hf a&;qdik &f m&H;k (ODIHR) rS xkwaf 0jzef@csdonf? Al. Ujazdowskie 19, 00-557 Warsaw, Poland. www.osce.org/odihr 2


rlydik cf iG fh? OSCE/ODIHR 2003 TpmtkyfEiS fhywfoufaom rlyidk fciG u fh dk xde;f odrf;xm;ygonf? Txkwaf 0jzef@csdry_ g ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk vGwv f yfpmG toH;k รฐy Edik +f yD;/ ynma&;qdik &f m&nf&, G cf sufEiS fh pD;yGm;a&;t&aqmif&u G jf cif;r[kwaf om udprP sm;twGuf rdwLW yGm;Edik fygonf? odk@&mwGif Todk@wqifu h ;l ,ljzef@csrd r_ sm;udk (OSCE/ODIHR)od@k tcsut f vufrsm;. rl&if; ydik &f iS t f jzpf aus;Zl;wifa=umif; yl;wGJ azmfjy&ef vdt k yfygonf? rl&if;'DZidk f;? Damla Suar, Frankfurt Main, Germany ydv k efEidk if w H iG f Polygrafus Andrzej Adamiak rS yHkEydS fonf? rl&if;pmtkyfyHkESdyjf zef@csdru _ dk ,lEdkuw f ufuif;'rf;Edik if H tpdk;&rS axmufyhHun l Dra_ y;ygonf?

taxGaxG jrifuiG ;f

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1? a&G;aumufyGJ tuJjzwfjcif; 2? apmif=h unfah vhvma&; tpDtpOfrsm; csrSwaf qmif&u G jf cif;? 3? Oya'a=umif;qdik &f m ydik ;f jcm;oH;k oyfjcif;? 4? a&G;aumufyt GJ jiif;yGm;r_rsm;udk apmif=h unfah vhvmjcif;? 5? rJqENay;olrsm; rSwfyw Hk ifjcif;udpu P dk tuJjzwfjcif;ESihf a&G;aumufyJG-c&dik f e,fajrowfrw S fr_rsm;ukd tuJjzwfjcif;? 6? a&G;aumufyGJ pDrt H kycf sKyfyu Hk dk apmif=h unfah vhvmjcif;? 7? ud, k fpm;vS,af vmif;rsm;ESifh Edik if aH &;ygwDrsm; rSwfyw kH ifjcif;udk apmif=h unfah vhvmjcif;? 8? a&G;aumufyGJ rJq, G fpnf;&H;k r_udk apmif=h unfah vhvmjcif;? 9? owif;rD', D mrsm;udk apmif=h unfah vhvmjcif;? 10? rJay;jcif;ESifh rJa&wGujf cif;udk apmih=f unfjh cif;? 11? pm&if;oGi;f jcif;/ xyfqifhydk@aqmifjcif;ESifh xkwjf yefa=ujimcsuftm; apmif=h unft h uJjzwfjcif;? 12? tpD&ifcHwifoiG ;f jcif;ESifh axmufct H =uHรฐyjcif;?

rmwdum ed'gef; 1? a&G;aumufyGJ tuJjzwfjcif; u? a&G;aumufyGJEiS fh vl@tcGit fh a&;rsm;qdik &f m Edik if w H umpHEe_ ;f rsm; c? a&G;aumufyGJrsm; tuJjzwfjcif;wGif Edik if HwumpHcsdepf EH _e;f rsm;udk toHk;รฐyjcif; *? a&G;aumufyrGJ sm;udk tuJjzwfjcif;wGi/f jynfwiG ;f pHcsed fpHEe_ ;f rsm;udk toHk;รฐyjcif; C? ,cifu usi;f ycJah om a&G;aumufyGJEiS hf Edi_ ;f ,SOjf cif;? 2? apmif=h unf G jf cif;? unfah vhvma&; tpDtpOfrsm; csrSwaf qmif&u 4


u? vdt k yfcsurf sm;udk tuJjzwfowfrw S jf cif;? c? tpDtpOfa&;qGjJ cif;ESifh tzGJ@tpnf;qdik &f m udprP sm; *? tpDtpOfzGJ@pnf;yHkEiS fh vkyif ef;wm0efrsm;/ C? Edik if Hv;Hk qdik &f maqmif&u G af om pDrcH surf sm;? i? a'otvdu k fEiS fh Xmaetvdkuf pDrcH surf sm;? p? bufrvdu k fr?_ q? todtrSwðf yr_ &,ljcif;? 3? Oya'a=umif;qdik &f m ydik ;f jcm;oH;k oyfjcif;? u? Oy'a=umif;qdik &f mydik ;f jcm;oH;k oyfjcif;.ta&;}uD;yHk c? Oy'a=umif;qdik &f mydik ;f jcm;oH;k oyfjcif;twGuf tajccHru l ef@owfcsuf *? a&G;aumufyt GJ jiif;yGm;r_Z,m; a&;qGjJ cif;? 4? a&G;aumufyt GJ jiif;yGm;r_rsm;udk apmif=h unfah vhvmjcif;? u? tjiif;yGm;r_rsm;ajz&Si;f yHu k dk apmif=h unfah vhvmjcif;? c? a&G;aumufyt GJ jiif;yGm;r_rsm;udk ydik ;f jcm;oH;k oyfjcif; ? 5? rJqENay;olrsm; rSwyf w Hk ifjcif;udpu P dk tuJjzwfjcif;ESihf a&G;aumufy-JG c&dik f e,fajrowfrw S rf r_ sm;ukd tuJjzwfjcif;? u? rJqENay;olrsm;rSwfyw Hk ifjcif;ta&;}uD;yHk c? rJqENay;olrsm;pm&if;§ rSwfyw Hk ifjcif;ESifyh wfoufI tqifhtwef;ESiw hf dusreS u f efru _ kd tuJjzwfjcif;? *? rJqENay;olrsm;pm&if;ESifh vlO;D a&qdik &f mtcsut f vufrsm;udk E_id ;f ,SOv f suf ydik f;jcm;oH;k oyfjcif;? C? rJay;olrsm;pm&if;ESifhywfoufaom ppfwrf;rsm;? i? uGejf yLwmjzifh ppfaq;jcif;? p? trsm;jynfoq l idk &f m owif;jyef=um;a&;v_y&f mS ;r_rsm;udk apmif=h unfah vhvmjcif;? q? rJqENay;olrsm;rSwyf Hw k if&mXmersm;udk apmif=h unfah vhvmjcif;? Z? rJqENay;olrsm;rSwyf Hkwifjcif;qdik &f m cHo k rm"dtzGJ@rsm;udk apmif=h unfah vhvmjcif;? ps? a&G;aumufyGJ-c±dik ef ,fajr owfrw S fr_rsm;udk apmif=h unfah vhvmjcif;? 6? a&G;aumufyGJ pDrt H yk cf sKyfyu Hk dk apmif=h unfah vhvmjcif;? u? a&G;aumufyGJ pDrt H kycf sKyfr_ wnfaqmufyHk c? tuJjzwf&rnfh tc&mudpPrsm; kH ifjcif;udk apmif=h unfah vhvmjcif;? 7? ud, k pf m;vS,af vmif;rsm;ESifh Edik if aH &;ygwrD sm; rSwyf w u? Edik if aH &;ygwrD sm; rSwyf Hw k ifjcif;? c? Edik if aH &;,SOòf yiforl sm; rSwyf Hkwifjcif; *? trsKd;orD;ESifh vlenf;pkwidk ;f &if;om;rsm; rSwyf Hw k ifjcif; 8? a&G;aumufyGJ rJq, G pf nf;&H;k r_udk apmif=h unfah vhvmjcif;? 5


u? Edik if aH &;ygwrD sm;/ ud, k fpm;vS,af vmif;rsm;ESifh awG@qjkH cif;? c? rD', D mESiafh wG@qHjk cif;? *? tpd;k &0efxrf;rsm;ESifh awG@qjHk cif;? C? rJq, G fyGJrsm;udk apmif=h unfah vhvmjcif;? i? vHðk cHa&;wyfzGJ@0ifrsm;. vkyaf qmifcsurf sm;udk apmif=h unfah vhvmjcif;? p? rJqG,pf nf;±H;k r_toH;k p&dwfrsm;/ tvSLaiGyrm%ESihf tvSLaiGZpfjrpfrsm;udk apmif=h unfah vhvmjcif;? q? Edik if aH wmft&if;tjrpfrsm; tvGJo;Hk pm;vkyrf _ukd apmif=h unfah vhvmjcif;? Z? yÉdyuQ umuG,fwmqD;jcif;ESifh a&G;aumufyJu G mvt=urf;zufr_rsm;udk apmif=h unfah vhvmjcif;? ps? tjcm;udp&P yfrsm;udk apmih=f unfah vhvmjcif;? 9? owif;rD', D mrsm;udk apmif=h unfah vhvmjcif;? u? rD', D m apmih=f unfah vhvmjcif;. ta&;ygr_ c? rD', D mapmif=h unfah vhvmjcif;. &nf&, G cf suf *? rD', D mtwGujf yXmef;axm;aom Oya'a&;&muef@owfcsufudk tuJjzwfjcif; C? toHvi$ fhr'D D,mESiyfh EHk SdyfrD', D mudk apmif=h unfah vhvmjcif; i? tca=u;aiGay;&aom Edik if aH &;a=ujimjcif;rsm;ESihf rJqEN&iS f ynmay;a&;vkyif ef;rsm;udk apmif=h unfah vhvmjcif;? p? rD', D mESifo h wif;axmufrsm;tay: +cdr;f acsmufjcif;udk apmih=f unfah vhvmjcif; 10? rJay;jcif;ESifh rJa&wGujf cif;udk apmih=f unfjh cif;? u? rJay;jcif; ESifh rJa&wGufyu Hk dk apmif=h unfah vhvmjcif;? c? pifòyif rJ-Z,m;oGi;f jcif;? 11? pm&if;oGi;f jcif;/ xyfqifyh dk@aqmif f m; apmif=h unft h uJjzwfjcif;? aqmifjcif;ESifh xkwjf yefa=ujimcsut u? &v'fpm&if;oGi;f jcif;tm; apmih=f unft h uJjzwfjcif;. ta&;}uD;r_ *? a&G;aumufyGJt+yD;ae@ zGH@òz;wd;k wufr_rsm;tm; apmih=f unft h uJjzwfjcif;? c? uGejf yLwmjzifh &v'frsm;ydk@aqmifjcif;udk apmih=f unft h uJjzwfjcif;? 12? tpD&ifcw H ifoiG ;f jcif;ESifh axmufct H =uHðyjcif;? u? tpD&ifcHpmwifoiG ;f jcif;. ta&;ygr_ c? a'oqdik &f mapmif=h unft h uJjzwfolrsm;rS tpD&ifcpH mwifjcif; *? xdyw f u dk &f ifqidk rf q _ dik &f m tpD&ifcpH mrsm; C? xkwjf yefcsufrsm; i? aemufq;Hk tpD&ifcHpm p? tpD&ifcHpm jzef@a0jcif;? (OSCE) ESifh (ODIHR) ta=umif;

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0gaqm/ 2003 ckEpS f?

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aus;Zl aus;Zl;wifv$m TvufpGJpmtkyfu/dk Oa&myvHjk cHKa&;ESihf yl;aygif;aqmif&u G af &;tzG@J (OSCE) . a'otwGi;f &Sd jynfwiG f;a&G;aumuf yGrJ sm;apmifh =unfah vhvma&;tzGJ@rsm;. yl;aygif; aqmif&u G rf j_ zifh xkwaf 0Edik cf jhJ cif; jzpfygonf? Tod@k a&;om;&eft=uHtpnfukd (2001) ckESp/f arvwGif qvdkAufu;D ,m;Edik if &H /dS OD;aqmif aqmif&u G af e=uaomtzG@J rsm;ESihf vkyif ef;qdik &f m awG@qHak qG;aEG;yGJ wpfckrS ay:xGuv f mcJjh cif;jzpf+yD;/ xdv k aemufyikd f;wGi/f 0gaqmòr@wGiu f si;f yaom (OSCE/ODIHR) uGefz&ifw h iG f jynfwGi;f a&G;aumufyGJrsm; apmif=h unfah vhvmaeol tzGJ@tpnf;aygif; (25) cku wufa&mufI xyfrjH znfhpGuf ðypkc=hJ ujcif; jzpfygonf? 'Drdu k a&pDtzGJ@tpnf;rsm;ESifh vl@tcGit hf a&;qdik &f m&H;k (ODIHR) taejzif/h a&G;aumufyJGrsm;ðyjyif ajymif;vJa&; tjynfjynfqidk &f m 0efaqmifr_vyk if ef;tzGJ@ (Electoral Reform International Services) . tr_aqmif'g&u kd w f m qdik frGef atmhbeG f; (Simon Osborn) ud/k (ODIHR) . a&G;aumufyq JG ikd &f mXmeESihf TvufpJG pmtkyu f kd yl;aygi;f a&;om;Edik cf =hJ u f wGuf a&;om;taxmuftul ðycJ=h u onft h ay: aus;Zl;wif&aSd =umif; azmfjyvdyk gonf? (ODIHR) taejzif/h Tpmtkyt onfh Mark Stevens, Paul O'Grady, Jessie Pilgrim, Peter Eicher wd@k udk tvm;wl aus;Zl; wif&dSygonf? aemufq;kH taejzif/h (OSCE) taejzif/h Tpmtkyjf zpfajrmufa&;twGuf wavsmufv;kH tultnDay;cJo h nf/h Edik if w H uma&;&mrsm;qdik f &m trsK;d om;'Dru dk &uf wpftifpwDusL (National Democratic Institute for International Affairs) udk aus;Zl;wif&dS a=umif; azmfjyvdkygonf? txl;ojzifh (NDI) . yHkEdSyx f w k af 0r_rsm;xJrS ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk aumufEw _ af zmfjycGiahf y;onfh tay: txl;aus;Zl;wif&ySd gonf? (Holly Ruthrauff) . axmufyu hH lnrD u _ v kd nf; txl;aus;Zl;wif&&dS ygonf?

ed'gef; r=umao;rDEpS frsm;wGi/f a&G;aumufyGJrsm;ESihf jynfol@qENc, H lyrJG sm;udk apmifh =unfah vhvmonfv h kyfief;rsm; xGef;um; vmcJ+h yD;/ ‚if;wdk@udk 'Drdkua&pDtoGiu f ;l ajymif;a&;ESihf vl@tcGit hf a&;rsm;udk axmufcHyHhy;kd ay;&ef/ ta&;}uD;onfh vkyif ef; aqmifwmrsm;tjzpf aqmif&u G v f mcJ=h uygonf? a&G;aumufyJGrsm;onf 'Dru kd a&pDpepftwGuf r&Sdrjzpfta&;yg+yD;/ jynfolvx l k rsm;u tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;tay: ,H=k unfudk;pm;r_&jdS cif;ESihf a&G;aumufyJGrsm;ESihf oufqikd af omvkyif ef;pOfrsm;onfvnf; rnfokd@ aom'Dru dk a&pD tpdk;&rqdk. tm%mtajccHtw k jf rpftjzpf xlaxmifay;&ef ta&;}uD;ygonf? Edik if w H um. }uD;=uyfapmifh =unfrh o _ nf vltrsm;. tm&Hpk l;pdu k frt _ &&Sq d ;kH jzpf+yD;/ ydrk kdvo l drsm; xif&mS ;aponft h csdew f iG f/ jynfwiG ;f Y apmif=h unfah vhvm aeolrsm;. tcef;u¾ onfvnf; ydI k ta&;ygvmcJyh gonf? ,ae@umvwGi/f Oa&myvHðk cHa&;ESihf yl;aygi;f aqmif&u G af &; (OSCE) a'otwGi;f Y jynfwGi;f Ya&G;aumufyGrJ sm;udk apmif=h unf}h uD; =uyfae=uaomtkypf krsm;/ od@k r[kwf !Gef@aygi;f tzG@J rsm; (25) ckcef@ &Sad e+yDjzpfygonf?

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jynfwiG f;Y a&G;aumufyaGJ pmif=h unf}h uD;=uyfa&;vkyif ef;rsm;onf/ vltcGit hf a&;rsm;udk jr‡iw hf ifay;a&;ESifh umuG,f ay;a&;twGuf wdu k &f u dk t f axmuftulðyaeygonf? xdrk #ru/ yGiv fh if;jrifomaom/ vGwv f yfyiG v hf if;onfh a&G;aumufyJG vkyif ef;pOf rsm;udk wnfqOJ ya'rsm;/ Edik if w H umpHcsdepf EH _e;f rsm;ESihftnD aqmif&u G jf cif;onf/ 'Dru kd a&pDvrl _ todik ;f t0dik ;f wpfck . r&Sdrjzpfvt dk yfaomtcsufvnf; jzpfygonf? Edik if aH &;t& yg0ifaqmif&u G cf iG o hf nf ta&;}uD;ygonf? ta=umif;rSm ‚if;tcGit fh a&;onf/ tjcm;aomtajccHvl@tcGit hf a&;rsm;jzpfonfh vGwv f yfpmG xkwaf zmfajymqdck iG /hf v_y&f mS ;cGi/hf pka0;cGi/hf pnf;&Hk;toif;tyif;zGJ@pnf;cGifhrsm;ESifh cGjJ cm;r&Edik af tmif qufpyfaeaoma=umifh jzpfygonf? jynfwiG ;f &St d kyfprk sm;u a&G;aumufyaGJ pmif=h unfah vhvmr_ðy=ujcif;jzif/h Oya'csKd;azmufr_rsm;udk umuG,w f m;qD;ay;Edik +f yD;/ a&G;aumufyGv J yk if ef;pOfrsm; tay:Y &d;k om;oef@&Si;f r_ESifh wnf=unfcidk frmr_tay: vlxk.,H=k unfru _ kd wd;k wufapEdik fygonf? Ttcsuo f nfyif/ wzefjyef I jynfov l x l k. yl;aygi;f yg0ifr_uv dk nf; tm;ay;&m a&mufapjyefygonf? a&G;aumufyGJrsm;udk apmif=h unf}h uD;=uyfjcif;vkyif ef;rsm;onf/ vGecf ahJ om (10) ESpu f mvrSpI odoo d mom zGH@òz; wd;k wufvmcJyh gonf? ,cktcsdew f iG f todtrSwðf y xm;aomtcsurf Sm/ a&G;aumufyJGwpfc. k ,H=k unfu;kd pm;&r_rmS a&G;aumufyu GJ si;f yonfah e@&ufwiG o f mru/ a&G;aumufyJGrusif;yrD/ usif;y+yD;umvrsm;wGif jzpfysufr_rsm;ESiq hf ufpyftusKH;0if aeonfudk azmfjyvm=uygonf? tvm;wlyif/ tjynfjynfqikd &f mrS avhvmolrsm;a&m/ jynfwiG f;rS avhvmolrsm;yg/ ydI k pepf uszGJ@pnf;r_&aSd om/ ydI k bufpHk axmifpaHk pmif=h unfEh ikd af om a&G;aumufyaJG pmif=h unfah vhvma&;csnf;uyfykHrsm; csrSwaf qmif&u G f =u&ef vdt k yfygonf? TvufpGJpmtkyfwiG f jynfwiG f;&Sad &G;aumufyaJG pmifh =unfah vhvmol tkyfprk sm; toHk;csEdik o f nfh enf;em rsm;udk ðypkwifjyxm;jcif;jzpf+yD;/ ydI k jynfhpaHk om/ ydI k pepfusaom a&G;aumufyGaJ pmif=h unfah vhvmcsO;f uyfr_rsm; jzpfap&ef yHyh kd; ay;Edik v f drrfh nf jzpfygonf? azmfjyxm;aomenf;vrf;rsm;rSm Ttwdik ;f twdtusaqmif&Gu&f rnf[k rqdv k do k uJo h d@k / txl;oD;oef@jzpfaom enf;emrsm;vnf; r[kwfyg? Tenf;rsm;rSm jynfwiG ;f Y a&G;aumufyaJG pmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;twGuf vkyif ef;oHk; u&d,m wpfck tjzpftoHk;ðyEdik &f efom &nf&, G yf gonf? rdrw d kd@.&nf&, G fcsurf mS twdtusvdu k fem aqmif&u G &f rnfh tao;pdwfenf; emrsm;csrSwaf y;&ef r[kwb f J/ vGecf aJh omq,fpkESpf twGi;f / Edkiif w H umESihf jynfwiG ;f &Sd a&G;aumufyaJG pmif=h unfh avhvma&; tzGJ@rsm;u zGH@òz;ap&ef jznfq h nf;vmcJ=h u+yD;/ xda&mufpmG aqmif&u G Ef ikd cf ahJ om/ enf;emrsm;udk azmfjyay;&efom jzpfygonf? TtwGuaf =umifh TvufpGJpmtkyu f dk a&G;aumufyJGrsm;apmif=h unfh avhvma&;wGif yg0ifywfoufaeonfh Edik if HwumtzG@J tpnf;rsm;uvnf; toHk;ðyEdik +f yD;/ tvm;wlyif a&G;aumufyGrJ sm; apmif=h unfah vhvmr_wiG f wef;wlta&;ygonfh Edik if aH &;ygwD rsm;ESifh ud, k fpm;vS,frsm;udk apmif=h unfah vhvmae=uolrsm;uvnf; toHk; ðyEdik =f uygonf? a&G;aumufyJGrsm;udk apmif=h unfh avhvmonfhenf;vrf;rsm; zGH@òz;wd;k wufvmonfEiS t hf r#/ a&G;aumufyJGrsm;udk apmif=h unf}h uD;=uyf&ef csOf;uyfykHrsm;vnf;/ wd;k wufvm=uygonf? ar#mv f ifh&onfrmS / a&G;aumufyJGrsm; apmif=h unfah vhvmr_rsm; tawG@tñuHrsm;jym; ºu,f0vmonf ESit fh r#/ avhvmod&cSd &Jh aom oifcef;pmrsm;udk Edik if w H umESihf jynfwiG ;f &Sad vhvmolrsm;xHr/S (OSCE) a'owGi;f ESihf a'ojyify rS v_y&f mS ;aqmif&u G af e=uolrsm;xHrS ydkIzvS,af 0iSEikd =f uvdrfrh nf jzpfygonf? TvufpGJpmtkyfudk (OSCE) a'owGif;&Sd jynfwiG ;f Y a&G;aumufyaJG pmifh =unfah vhvm=uonfh tkypf k (20) ausmf. yl;aygi;f aqmif&u G frj_ zifh ðypkEdik cf jJh cif; jzpfygonf? xd@k tjyif urBm.tjcm;aomae&mrsm;rS jynfwiG ;f Y a&G;aumufyGaJ pmih=f unfh avhvm=uonft h kypf krsm;. tawG@tñuHrsm;udv k nf; xif[yfazmfjyxm;ygonf? xdk@tjyif TvufpJGpmtkyo f nf/ (OSCE) . 'Drdu k a&pDtzGJ@tpnf;rsm;ESifh vl@tcGit fh a&;qdik &f m&H;k (ODIHR) ESi/hf a&G;aumufyaJG pmif=h unfah vhvma&;udpPrsm;wGif aqmif &Gucf =Jh uaom Edik if w H umtzGJ@tpnf;rsm;. tawG@tñuHrsm;udv k nf;/ xkw, f lo;kH oyfazmfjyxm;ygonf? txl;ojzif/h Edik if H wuma&;&mudpPrsm; aqmif&u G af om trsKd;om;'Dru kd a&pD tifpwDusL (NDI) ESihf a&G;aumufyJGrsm; ðyjyifajymif;vJa&; qdik &f m Edik if w H um0efaqmifrt _ zGJ@ (ERIS) wd@k jzpf+yD;/ TvufpJGpmtkyfwiG f (OSCE/ODIHR) ESihf (NDI) wd@k . yHEk dSyx f w k f a0r_rsm;rS tcsufrsm;vnf; yg0ifygonf? xdk@tjyif jynfwiG f;Ya&G; aumufyGaJ vhvmapmif=h unf=h uonfh tkyfpkrsm;twGuf toH;k 0ifEidk fonfv h rf;!$ef pmtkyw f pfcrk mS (NDI) rS xkwaf 0aom/ “jynfwiG ;f &Sd tzG@J rsm;u a&G;aumufyJGrsm;udk rnfuo hJ @kd 9


apmif=h unf}h uD;=uyf=urnfenf;? u-t vrf;!$e”f ("How Domestic Organizations Monitor Elections: An A-Z Guide") jzpf+yD;/ TpmtkyfEiS fhy;l wGI J toHk;ðyEdik fygonf?

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1? a&G;aumufyGJ tuJjzwfjcif;? u? a&G;aumufyGJEiS fh vl@tcGit fh a&;rsm;qdik &f m Edik if w H umpHEe_ ;f rsm; c? a&G;aumufyGJrsm; tuJjzwfjcif;wGif Edik if HwumpHcsdepf EH _e;f rsm;udk toHk;ðyjcif; *? a&G;aumufyrGJ sm;udk tuJjzwfjcif;wGi/f jynfwiG ;f pHcsed fpHEe_ ;f rsm;udk toHk;ðyjcif; C? ,cifu usi;f ycJah om a&G;aumufyGJEiS hf Edi_ ;f ,SOjf cif;?  a&G;aumufyw GJ pfcu k dk ‚if;Edik if . H xm;&Sad om Edik if w H um uwdu0wfðycsufrsm;ESihf Edik if . H Oya'a=umif;qdik &f m pnf;rsOf;Oya'rsm;t& tuJjzwfjcif;?  (1990) ckESp/f “udak ya[*if rSwfwrf;” (Copenhagen Document) wGif yg0ifaom/ jynfwiG ;f a&G;aumufyJGrsm; qdik &f m (OSCE) .uwdu0wfðycsuu f dk txl;tav;xm;jcif;?  rlvu usi;f ycJah oma&G;aumufyrGJ sm;ESihf Edi_ ;f ,SOI f a&G;aumufyJGtajctaewd;k wufr_ tedrt hf jrifhukd xnfo h iG ;f pOf;pm;jcif;?

u? a&G;aumufyGJEiS fh vl@tcGit fh a&;rsm;qdik &f m Edik if w H umpHEe_ ;f rsm;1 yGiv fh if;jrifomonf/h vGwfvyfonfh a&G;aumufyJGrsm;wGif aygif;pnf;yg0ifaeonfh tcef;u¾wpfcrk mS / tajccHusonf/h vlwikd f; &&Sad p&rnfh tcGit fh a&;jzpfaom/ 'Drdkua&pDusonfh vltrsm;yg0ifaqmif&u G Ef ikd cf iG &hf o dS nfh tpd;k &wpfc&k &Syd ikd cf iG hfEiS /hf Edik if aH &; qdik &f mtcGit fh a&;rsm;udk av;pm;jcif;wdk@ jzpfygonf? Ttcsufrsm;udk Edik if HwumrSww f rf;trsm;tjym;wGif tav;ay;azmfjy G af e=uonfhEikd if Hrsm;u csrSwu f sifho;kH ae=uaomtcsurf sm;jzpfyg xm;=u+yD;/ ‚if;wdk@rSm (OSCE) tzGJ@twGif; yg0ifaqmif&u 2 onf? txif&mS ;qH;k tcsurf mS tjynfjynfqidk &f mvl@tcGit hf a&;a=ujimpmwrf; . tydk'f (21) jzpfygonf? Ttcsuw f iG af zmfjy xm;onfrmS tjynfjynfqidk &f m vl@tcGit fh a&;a=ujimpmwrf;/ tyd'k f (21) 1? vlwidk f;onf/ ‚if;wdk@Edik if . H tpd;k &qdik &f mvkyif ef;rsm;wGif wdku&f u kd jf zpfap/ vGwv f yfpmG a&G;cs,fwifajr‡mufxm;aom ud, k f pm;vS,rf sm;rS wqifjh zpfap/ yg0ifaqmif&u G &f ef tcGit hf a&;&So d nf? 2? vlwidk ;f onf/ ‚if;wdk@Edik if H. trsm;jynfoq l dik &f m0efaqmifrv _ kyfief;rsm;udk nDr#pGm &,lcHpm;ydik cf Gihf &Sad p&rnf?

1

(OSCE) a'otwGi;f &Sd 'Dru dk a&pDa&G;aumufyrGJ sm;ESiyfh wfoufI Edik if w H umpHEe_ ;f owfrw S cf surf sm;udk ydrk jdk ynfph pHk mG tuJjzwfcsurf sm;udk od&v Sd ydk g u (Existing Commitment for Democratic Elections in OSCE Participating States: A Progress Report) tpD&ifcpH mudk =unfyh g? TtpD&ifcpH mESifh tjcm; toH;k 0ifEidk rf nfh rSww f rf;rsm;udk (OSCE/ODIHR) . tifwmeufpmrsuEf mS (http://www.osce.org/odihr/elections/standards.) wGi=f unf&h _ Edik yf gonf? 2 tjynfjynfqidk &f mvl@tcGit fh a&;a=ujimpmwrf; (Universal Decleration of Human Rights) / Edik if o H m;tcGit fh a&;ESifh Edik if aH &;qdik &f m tjynf jynfqidk &f moabmwlncD suf (International Convenant on Civil and Political Rights) ESifh tjcm;aom ukvor*~.vl@tcGit fh a&;qdik &f mpHEe_ ;f rsm;udk urBmu h v k or*~/ vl@tcGit fh a&;qdik &f m r[mrif;}uD;&H;k . tifwmeufpmrsuEf mS (http://www.unhchr.ch) wGif &&SEd idk yf gonf?

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3? jynforl sm;. qENonf/ tpd;k & tm%mydik pf kd;r_. tajccHtw k jf rpfjzpfap&rnf? TqENrsm;udk yHkreS t f csed t f ydik f;tjcm;tvdu k f usi;f yaom/ ppfrSeaf oma&G;aumufyGJrsm;jzifh azmfjy&rnfjzpf+yD;/ Ta&G;aumufyJGrsm;udk vlwikd f;rcGjJ cm;rJay;cGi&hf I dS / v#K@d 0SufrJ ay;pepfjzifh jzpfap/ odk@r[kwf tvm;wlnDr#aom vGwv f yfonfhrq J ENay;Edik o f nfh vkyif ef;pOfrsm;jzifh usi;f yay;&rnf? tjynfjynfqidk &f mvl@tcGit fh a&;a=ujimpmwrf;onf/ aemufqufwjJG zpfay:vmrnfh vl@tcGit hf a&;qdik &f mpHxm;owfrw S cf suf rsm;ESifh uwdu0wfrsm;. tajccHtw k jf rpfjzpf+yD;/ TtcGit hf a&;rsm;wGif ukvor*~ Edik if o H m;tcGit hf a&;ESihf Edik if aH &;tcGihf 3 ta&;rsm;qdik &f m Edik if w H umoabmwlncD suf / Oa&myaumifp. D vl@tcGit hf a&;rsm;ESihf tajccHvw G v f yfciG hfrsm; umuG,f 4 apmihaf &Smufay;a&;qdik &f m Oa&myEdik if rH sm;. oabmwlncD suf ESihf (1990) ckESpw f iG f udak ya[*ifòr@Y usif;yaom Oa&my 5 vHðk cHa&;ESifh yl;aygi;f aqmif&u G af &;twGuf nDvmcH wGif uwdu0wfðycsufrsm;vnf;yg0ifygonf? Oa&myEdik if Hrsm;. uwd u0wfðycsufrsm;udk aemufyidk ;f wGif udak ya[*ifrw S w f rf;rsm;[k vlord sm;=uygonf?6 Tta&;ygaomrSww f rf;rsm;u Edik if Hrsm; wGif Edik if o H m;rsm;u tpd;k &.vkyif ef;aqmifwmrsm;wGif yg0ifaqmif&u G Ef ikd cf iG hf tcGit hf a&;twGuf/ a&G;aumufyrJG sm;. tcef; u¾udk tav;ay;azmfjyxm;ygonf? h csufrsm;udk tESpcf sKyf Oa&myvHðk cHa&;ESifh yl;aygi;f aqmif&u G af &;tzGJ@ (OSCE) .rSwfwrf;rsm;wGif Edkiif rH sm;vdkuef m&rnft azmfjy&v#if oifah vsmaf om umvtydik ;f tjcm;wGif vGwv f yfaoma&G;aumufyrJG sm; usi;f y&ef/  tenf;qHk; Oya'ðyv$waf wmfwpfcw k iG /f ae&mtm;vH;k udk vlxt k rsm;pk.rJjzifh a&G;cs,w f ifajr‡mufciG ðhf y&ef/  vlwidk ;f rJay;Edik af om/ wef;wlnDr#aom tcGit hf a&;&&Sad p&ef tmrcHcsuaf y;&ef/  rJqENay;r_rsm;udk v#Kd@0Sufpepfjzifah qmif&u G I f / ‚if;wdk@udk &dk;om;jzLpifpmG jzifh a&wGu/f tpD&ifcHwifjy&ef/ &v'fukd jynfot l rsm; od&aSd p&ef a=ujimay;&ef/  Edik if o H m;rsm;. tpd;k &ae&mXmersm;wGif a&G;cs,fcyH dik cf iG u hf kd av;pm;vdkuef m&ef/  Edik if aH &;ygwDrsm;wnfaxmifciG fhudk av;pm;vdu k ef m&ef/ xdk@tjyif ‚if;ygwDrsm;udk Oya'a&S@arSmufwiG f wef;wlcpH m;cGihf &Sad om tcGit fh a&;/ tm%mydik frsm;u wef;wlqufqaH om tcGihfta&;jzifh ,SOòf yifciG &hf adS p&ef/  vGwv f yfI r#wavsmu f efaom0ef;usiw f iG /f Edik if aH &;pnf;&H;k r_rsm; aqmif&u G cf iG &hf adS p&ef/ tm%mydik frsm;. ta&;,l aqmif&u G rf r_ sm;/ t=urf;zufrr_ sm;/ +cdr;f ajcmufr_rsm;/ ud, k fpm;vS,rf sm;tay:/ Edik if aH &;ygwDrsm;tay:/ rJay;ol jynf olrsm;tay: vufpm;acsc&H rnfudk a=umuf&HG@ae&jcif;rsm; r&Sad pyJ aqmif&u G fEikd af p&ef/  cGjJ cm;qufqrH u _ if;aomtaetxm;jzifh owif;rD', D mrsm;udk uef@owfwm;qD;r_ r&Sad pbJ toH;k ðycGi&hf &ef/  vdt k yfaomrJta&twGuf tEdik f&aom ud, k pf m;vS,frsm;udk tpd;k &Xmersm;wGif tyfEiS ;f &ef/ ponft h csurf sm; yg0if ygonf? vlwpfOD;. tcGit fh a&;rsm;udk umuG,af y;a&;twGu/f Oya'a=umif;t& epfemr_rsm;udk jyefvnfupk m;ay;aomvkyfx;kH rsm;udk tjynfjynfqidk &f m vl@tcGit fh a&;a=ujimpmwrf;wGif azmfjyxm;ygonf? (tydk'f 8/ 10 ESihf 11)? Edik if o H m;rsm;tcGit hf a&;ESihf 3

(UN International Convenant on Civil and Political Rights) ICCPR .tyd' k f (25) wGi/f Edik if o H m;wdik ;f ud/k cGjJ cm;uef@owfr_ r&Sad p&bJ/ rJay; cGifh tcGit fh a&;ESifh tcGiv fh rf;&Sad p&rnfjzpf+yD;/ a&G;cs,cf yH idk cf iG v fh nf; &Sad p&rnf[k azmfjyxm;onf?

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Council of Europe's European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (ECHR)

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CSCE aemufyidk ;f wGif OSCE tjzpf ajymif;zGJ@onf/

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Oa&myaumifp. D vl@tcGit fh a&;qdik &f m oabmwlncD surf sm;ESifh pHxm;owfrw S cf surf sm;udk aumifp. D tifwmeufpmrsuEf mS wGif &&SEd idk yf gonf? yl;aygi;f aqmif&u G af &;qdik &f mtzGJ@. rSww f rf;rsm;udk tdt k ufppf t D ;D . tifwmeufpmrsuEf mS wGif &&SEd idk yf gonf?

(www.coe.int) Oa&my vHðk cHa&;ESifh (www.osce.org)

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Edik if aH &;qdik &f m tcGit fh a&;rsm;qdik &f m Edik if w H umoabmwlncD suf (tydk'f 2/ (3)/ tyd'k f 9 ESihf tyd'k f 140 wdk@wGi)f aomfvnf; aumif;/ Oa&myaumifp. D vl@tcGit fh a&;rsm;ESihf tajccHvw G v f yfciG rhf sm; umuG,f apmihaf &Smufay;a&;qdik &f m Oa&myEdik if rH sm; . oabmwlncD suf (tydk'f 6/ 7 rS 13 txd) wGiv f nf;aumif;/ udak ya[*ifrw S w f rf;. tydk'f (5) wGiv f nf;aumif; T tcsurf sm;udk azmfjyxm;ygonf? Edik if t H rsm;tjym;onf trsKd;orD;rsm;taejzifh tpd;k &ESihf jynfoltrsm;.vkyif ef;rsm;wGif yg0ifaqmif&u G Ef ikd af &;udk ydkrw kd kd;wuf I pdw0f ifpm;r_&v Sd ma=umif; azmfjyvm=uygonf? tjynfjynfqkdi&f m vl@tcGit hf a&;a=ujimpmwrf;ESihf tjcm;aomEdik if w H um pmcsKyfpmwrf;rsm;/ (OSCE) . uwdu0wfðycsufrsm;wGif aocsm&Si;f vif;pGmazmfjyxm;onfrmS / vlwikd f;onf Edik if aH &;yg0if aqmif&u G cf iG fh tygt0if vl@tcGit fh a&;rsm;udk cHpmEdik cf iG &hf +dS yD;/ vdit f ygt0if tjcm;aomta=umif;jycsufrsm;jzifh cGjJ cm;qufqH cH&jcif; r&Sad p&[k azmfjyxm;ygonf? Tta=umif;udpEP iS hf ywfoufaom tao;pdwt f csufrsm;ud/k ukvor*~. trsK;d orD; 7 rsm;udk cGjJ cm;qufqcH &H jcif;rS yaysmufapa&;qdik &f m Edik if w H umoabmwlncD suf (CEDAW) ESihf (OSCE) . 1991 ckESp/f 8 vlom;&_axmifq h idk &f m armfpudkrSww f rf;rsm; (tyd'k f 40/ 40-4/ 40-8) wd@k wGif awG@Edik yf gonf? vlenf;pkwidk ;f &if;om;rsm; umuG,af pmifah &Smufay;a&;ESihf vlenf;pktkypf t k wGi;f yg0ifaom vlom;wdik f;. wef;wlEikd if aH &; &ydik cf iG fhrsm;rSm/ Edik if w H umvl@tcGit fh a&;qdik &f m Oya'rsm;wGif yg0ifazmfjyxm;+yD; jzpfygonf? ‚if;tcGit hf a&;rsm;udk ydkrkdw;kd wuftodtrSwðf yvm=u+yD;/ ydkI aqmif&u G af jz&Si;f ay;vm=uygonf? Todk@aom tcGit hf a&;rsm;udak zmfjyxm;onfh Edik if H wumOya'rsm;wGi/f ukvor*~. vlrsKd;a&;t&cGjJ cm;zdEdSyjf cif;qdki&f mudpPrsm;udk tqH;k owfa&;Edkiif w H um oabmwlncD suf 9 (tyd'k f-2)/ ukvor*~. wdik f;&if;om; odk@r[kwf vlrsK;d EG,fpw k pfc/k bmoma&;t&/ bmompum;t& vlenf;pkwiG f yg0ifol 10 S w f rf;rsm;wGif azmfjyxm;ygonf? rsm;. tcGit fh a&;qdik &f m xkwjf yefa=ujimcsuf (tyd'k -f 15)/ ESihf (OSCE) . armfpudrk w TpH xm;owfrSwcf sufrsm;udk tao;pdwfyI kd Edik if . H vlenf;pkrsm;udk tpd;k &ESihf trsm;jynfoq l ikd &f mvkyif ef;rsm;wGif 11 ydrk x dk ad &mufpmG yg0ifaqmif&u G fEdkiaf &;qdik &f m vGe;f 'ft=uHðycsuw f Gif azmfjyxm;ygonf? xl;jcm;aomtcsufrmS / udak ya[*ifrw S w f rf;rsm;. tydk'f (8) t&/ (OSCE) a'owGi;f Y Edik if w H umESifh jynfwiG ;f &Sd a&G; aumufyaGJ pmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;. tcef;u¾udk usK;d a=umif;jzifh azmfjyxm;ygonf? “Edik if jH cm;rSaomfvnf;aumif;/ jynf wGi;f rSaomfvnf;aumif;/ apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm; &Sad ejcif;tm;jzif/h a&G;aumufyG. J ,H=k unfukd;pm;&r_ukd jrifw h ufaponf” [k azmfjyxm;ygonf? tyd'k f (10) wGi/f Edik if o H m;rsm;. toif;tzG@J rsm;taejzif/h “jynfwiG ;f Yaomfvnf;aumif;/ ‚if;wdk@Edik if . H jynfy&St d vm;wltzGJ@rsm;ESiafh omfvnf;aumif;/ Edik if w H umtzGJ@tpnf;rsm;ESiahf omfvnf;aumif;/ qufpyfciG /hf qufo, G f owif;&,lciG &fh aSd p&rnf/” “Edik fiw H iG ;f ESifh Edik if w H umrS &if;jrpfrsm;&&S&d ef pnf;&H;k jcif;/ vufc&H ,ljcif;/ toH;k csEdik jf cif; &Sad p& rnf”[k azmfjyxm;onf? xdk@tjyif tydk'f (12) wGi/f yg0ifaqmif&u G =f uaomEdik if Hrsm;taejzif/h “tpd;k &r[kwaf omtzG@J 7

UN Convention for the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)

8 9 10

1991 Moscow Document on the Human dimension UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination UN Decleration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious or Linguistic Minorities

11

vGe;f 'ft=uHðycsurf sm;udk (1999) wGirf =l urf;a&;qGcJ +Jh yD;/ (OSCE) . wdik ;f &if;om;vlenf;pkrsm;qdik &f m r[mrif;}uD;&H;k u cef@tyfwm0efay;aom u|r;f usio f yl nm&Sirf sm;u ðypkc=Jh ujcif; jzpfygonf? Tt=uHðycsuf a&;om;aqmif&u G cf yJh u Hk dk atmufazmfjyygpmtkyw f iG f awG@&SEd idk yf gonf? The Origin

andf Nature of the Lund Recommendations on the Effective Participation of National Minorities in Public Life, Helsinki Monitor, Volume II, No. 4, 2000. 2001ckEp S w f iG f (ODIHR) u a&G;aumufyv GJ yk if ef;pOfrsm;wGif wdik ;f &if;om;vlenf;pkrsm;udk yg0ifaqmif&u G Ef idk af &;twGuf ulnyD yHh ;dk ay;a&;qdik f

&m vrf;!$ecf surf sm; (Guidelines to Assit National Minority Participation in the Electoral Process) udk xkwaf 0jzef@cscd yJh gonf? ‚if;udk (www.osce.org/odihr/documents/guidelines/gl_nmpa_eng.pdf) tifwmeufpmrsuEf mS wGif &&SEd idk yf gonf? 14


tpnf; (tJef*st D )dk rsm;. ud, k fpm;vS,rf sm;udk wnf&adS pjcif;/ w&m;&H;k rsm;a&S@wGif &Sad pjcif;jzif/h ,H=k unfrw _ nfaqmufaom vky&f yfwpfct k jzpf owfrw S v f ufc&H rnf”[k azmfjyxm;ygonf? qvdAk ufEidk if &H Sd jynfwG wiG ;f a&G;aumufyaGJ pmif=h unfah vhvma&;tkypf wpf kwpfcu k a&G;aumufyaJG pmif=h unfah vhvmcGihf &&Scd jhJ cif;? (1998) ckEpS fwiG /f qvdkAufEidk if Hom;rsm;u (jynfo@l rsufv;kH ) (Obcianske Oko) [k trnf&aom a&G;aumufyaJG pmif=h unfh avhvma&;tkypf w k pfpu k dk zGJ@pnf;cJ+h yD;/ xdEk pS f pufwifbmvtwGi;f usif;yaom ygvDrefvw $ af wmfa&G;aumufyGrJ sm;udk apmifh =unfah vhvmcJhygonf? odk@aomfvnf;/ Edik if w H uma&G;aumufyaJG pmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;ESihf Edi_ ;f ,SOyf gu/ Edik if HwumrStzGJ@rsm; udk rJ&Hkrsm;twGi;f odk@0ifa&mufcGiafh y;+yD;/ tqift h oD;oD;&Sd a&G;aumufyaJG umfr&Si}f uD;=uyfolrsm;ESiv hf nf; awG@qHck iG ahf y;xm;yg onf? odk@aomfvnf; jynfolrsufv;Hk tzGJ@rS avhvmolrsm;udk a&G;aumufyaJG umfr&Siu f TtcGit hf a&;rsm;ay;&ef jiif;qdck hJyg onf? jynfol@rsufvHk;tzGJ@u TqHk;jzwfcsuu f dk zGJ@pnf;yHt k ajccHOya'ESihf nD-rnDppfaq;&ef zGJ@pnf;yHkqikd &f mcH&k ;kH odk@ awmif;qdck +hJ yD;/ Edik if o H m;rsm;taejzifh a&G;aumufyJGrsm;wGif olw@kd .yg0ifaqmif&u G &f ef tcGit hf a&;&Syd Hu k kd wifjycJyh gonf? xl;jcm;ajymifajrmuf aomqH;k jzwfcsut f jzpf/ zGJ@pnf;yHkqidk &f mcH&k ;Hk u TtzGJ@udt k omay;cJ+h yD;/ qvdAk m;uD;,m;Edik if w H iG f a&G;aumufyJGrsm;Y jynfol rsm; avhvmapmih=f unf&h eftcGifhta&;&Syd u Hk dk tav;teufxm;azmfjyay;cJhygonf? (c)? a&G;aumufyrGJ sm;udk tuJjzwf&mwGif Edik if w H umpHcsed pf EH e_ ;f rsm;udk toH;k ðyjcif ðyjcif;? Edik if w H umrS todtrSwðf yvufcx H m;aom pHcsed fpHE_e;f rsm;ESi/hf a&G;aumufyJGwpfck rnfr#vkduef mudu k n f Dr&_ o dS nf qdo k nfrSm/ Edik if w H umESifh jynfwiG ;f &Sad &G;aumufyGJrsm;udk avhvmapmif=h unfhtuJjzwfolrsm; wdik f;wmEdik af om pH/ aywH owfrSwcf sujf zpf ygonf? Edik if w H umpHowfrw S cf sufrsm;onf/ ‚if;wd@k .oabmobm0t& ydI k a,bk,soabmqef+yD;/ Edik if t H rsm;u vdu k fem taumiftxnfazmfEidk af tmif us,jf yef@aomrlrsm;csrSwx f m;jcif; jzpfygonf? jynfwiG ;f &Sd a&G;aumufyJGrsm;udak vhvmapmifh =unfo h nfh tkyfpkrsm;taejzifh/ Ta,bk,stajccHrlrsm;ESihf wdku=f unft h oH;k ðy&mY tao;pdwfusaomjy\emrsm;ñuHawG@& Edik fygonf? odk@aomfvnf;/ tajccHOya'ot&/ Edik if HwumpHcsdefpEH _ef;rsm;onf jynfwiG ;f &Sad &G;aumufyaJG pmif=h unhaf vhvma&; tkypf kwpfct k oH;k ðy&eftwGuf &Si;f vif;jynfhpHkr&_ +dS yD;/ olwkd@udik w f G,af qmif&u G &f rnfh udpPrsm;ESihf tenf;i,ftcuftcJ&dSEikd fyg onf? odk@aomfvnf;/ tcsKd@aomjzpf&yfrsm;wGi/f jzpfay:aeaom tajctaeonf wdus&iS ;f vif;r_ r&Sb d /J Tod@k aomtajctae rsm;wGif Edik if w H umpHcsdefpEH _ef;rsm;ESifh owdxm;cGjJ cm;I tuJjzwf&rnf jzpfygonf? Edik if w H umpHEe_ ;f rsm;rSm Edik if w H ikd f;u vdu k ef maqmif&u G Ef idk &f eftwGujf zpf+yD;/ aumif;rGeaf om usix hf ;kH rsm;jzpfygonf? Tonfrsm;rSm vdv k m;qEN&adS omudprP sm;jzpf aomfvnf;/ twdtus rjzpfraevkyaf qmif&rnf[k rqdkvkdyg? atmufwiG af zmfjyxm;aom pmyd'k o f nf/ jynfwiG ;f &Sd a&G;aumufyaJG pmif=h unfah vhvma&;tkyfpkrsm; od&v dS akd om/ Edik if w H um pHcsdepf EH _e;f tcsKd@ESifh ywfoufI/ tcsKd@aomjy\emrsm;udk tusOf;csKH ;azmfjyxm;jcif;jzpf+yD;/ (OSCE) tzGJ@0ifEikd if rH sm;uvnf; vufcx H m;=uygonf? Ttcsufrsm;rSm tcsed fykHrSef a&G;aumufyJGusi;f yjcif;/ ppfrSeaf om a&G;aumufyJGrsm;/ vGwv f yfaom a&G; aumufyGJrsm;/ r#wr_&aSd om a&G;aumufyGJrsm;/ vlwikd ;f rJay; a&G;cs,cf yH ikd cf iG hfEiS hf v#Kd@0SufraJ y;pepfjzifh rJay;apjcif;wd@k jzpfygonf? Edik if w H dik ;f . tpdk;&rsm;onf/ Todk@uwdu0wfðyxm;aom tcsufrsm;udk aocsmpGmvdu k femusihfo;kH &ef t"dutm;jzif/h wm0ef &Syd gonf?

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tcsderf eS u f si;f yaom a&G;aumuf k nfrmS / a&G;aumufyJGrsm;udk tcsdefyHkreS fusi;f yay;jcif;jzpf+yD;/ Oya't&vnf; T aumufyrGJ sm; qdo tcsuu f dk jyXmef;xm;ygonf? a&G;aumufyGJwpfckEiS hf wpfc=k um;umvonf/ rqDavsm&f avmufatmif =um&Snaf ejcif; rjzpf oifyh g? 7-ESpq f o dk nfrmS Edik if H. t"duOD;aqmifot l wGuf a&G;cs,f&efusif;yaom a&G;aumufyJGrsm;t=um; =um&ef trsm;qH;k tcsed t f wdik f;twmjzpfoih+f yD;/ 5-ESpw f mumvqdo k nfrmS atmufvw $ af wmf/ ygvDrmefa&G;aumufyJGrsm;twGuf t=umoifq h ;kH tcsed jf zpfygonf? tpdk;&.tkycf sKyfa&;Xmersm;twGuf t&m&Srd sm;udk a&G;aumuf&mwGi/f &moufyefa&G;aumufxm;jcif;rsKd; rjzpfapoifyh g? ppfreS af oma&G;aumufy[ GJ k qdjk cif;rSm/ t"dutm;jzifh rJqEN&iS frsm;. trSefwu,fa&G;cs,frj_ zpfapoif+h yD;/ jynforl sm;. tpd;k & ajymif;vJciG fh tcGit fh a&;udk xif[yfap&ygrnf? tu,fI tm;xm;Edik af omtwdkut f cHu, kd fpm;vS,af vmif;rsm; r&Sdygu/ Edik if aH &;ygwDrsm;. zGJ@pnf;r_rsm;/ odk@r[kwf v_y&f mS ;aqmif&u G frr_ sm;/ udk,pf m;vS,af vmif;rsm;tay: usK;d a=umif;rqDavsmf aom uef@owfcsKyfcs,fr_rsm; csrSwx f m;ygu/ od@k r[kwf rJqEN&Sirf sm;taejzifh jyefvnfta&G;cs,fcrH nfh vuf&t dS m%mydik fukd usK;d a=umif;qDavsmfpmG rJay;ðzwfcsEidk &f ef tvm;tvmr&Sdygu/ xdak &G;aumufyJGrsm;. tppftrSejf zpfru _ kd ar;cGef;xkwfp&mjzpf vmaprnf jzpfonf? vGwv f yfaoma&G;aumufyrGJ sm; qdo k nfrmS / a&G;aumufyJGrwdkirf u D mv/ a&G;aumufyt JG wGi;f ESihf +yD;qH;k aomumvrsm;wGi/f vl@tcGit fh a&;rsm;ESifh tajccHvw G v f yfciG frh sm;udk apmifah &Smufvkduef m xde;f odr;f &efyif jzpfygonf? Edik if o H m;tm;vH;k / Edik if aH &; ygwt D m;vH;k / udk,pf m;vS,af vmif;tm;vHk;onf vGwv f yfpmG azmfjyajymqdck iG /hf vGwv f yfpmG pka0;cGi/hf pk&;kH cGi/hf v_y&f mS ;r_rsm; aqmif&u G yf idk cf iG fh &&Scd Hpm;Edik &f rnf jzpfonf? a&G;aumufyv JG kyif ef;pOfrsm;onfvnf; +cdrf;ajcmufr/_ t=urf;zufr/_ tkycf sKyfa&; tm%mt& ta&;,lc&H r_/ odk@r[kwf vufpm;acswHk@jyefc&H rnfh a=umuf&@HG r_rsm;rS uif;vGwcf iG hf&&dS ygrnf? owif;rD'D,mrsm; onfvnf; a&G;aumufyEGJ iS yfh wfoufI vGwv f yfpmG azmfjycGi&hf &dS rnf jzpf+yD;/ vlxt k ajcðy vlrt _ zG@J tpnf;rsm;onfvnf;/ a&G; aumufyGJEiS fhywfoufaom v_yf&mS ;aqmif&u G rf _rsm;wGif vGwv f yfpGm aqmif&u G fEikd cf iG hf &S&d ayrnf? Oyrmtm;jzifh- jynfwiG ;f &Sd a&G;aumufyaGJ pmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;onf/ rJay;r_/ rJa&wGurf _rsm;udk vGwfvyfpmG apmih=f unfhEkdicf iG &hf &dS rnf jzpf+yD;/ &v'frsm; pm&if;azmfjyr_onf jrifomap&rnfjzpf+yD;/ a&G;aumufyq JG ikd &f m aumfr&Sit f qift h m;vH;k wGiv f nf; jyefvnfppfaq;twnfðy Edik cf iG fh &S&d rnfjzpfonf? rJ&t Hk qifrh o S nf/ =um;tqifh a&G;aumufyJG tm%mydik frsm;ESihf aemufq;kH A[dak &G;aumufyaJG umfr&Sif txdyg qufo, G fppfaq; twnfðycGifh &&Sad p&rnf jzpfonf? r#waom a&G;aumufyrGJ sm; taejzif/h ,SOòf yif=uolrsm;. òyifyJGuiG ;f udk wajy;nDjzpfap&ef vdktyf+yD;/ Oya't&aomfvnf; aumif;/ tm%mydik rf sm;. qufqaH &;t&aomfvnf;aumif; wajy;nD&&Scd Hpm;Edik &f ef jzpfygonf? Oya'ydik ;f qdik &f mtaejzifh/ cGjJ cm;qufqrH r_ &Sad p&yJ/ r#wpGm taumiftxnfazmfoifhygonf? ud, k fpm;vS,af vmif;tjzpf 0ifa&mufta&G;cHvo kd rl sm;onf vnf; ‚if;wdk@.qENtwdik ;f aqmif&u G Ef idk cf iG fh &Sad p&ygrnf? trsm;jynfolyikd f t&if;tjrpfrsm;udv k nf; wpfzufapmif;eif;toHk;cs cGifh r&Sad p&yg? jynfot l rsm;. owif;rD'D,mXmersm;onfvnf;/ wef;wl&nfwl qufq&H ygrnf? a&G;aumufyGOJ ;D aqmifusif;y ay;rnfh tm%mydik frsm;onfvnf;/ bufvu dk frr_ &SdbJ aqmif&u G =f u&ygrnf? rJay;jcif;/ rJa&wGujf cif;/ rJpm&if;a&;oGif;jcif;udpP rsm;wGiv f nf; vdrv f nfru _ if;pGm aqmif&u G &f ygrnf? vdt k yfaomrJta&twGu&f &So d nfh udk,pf m;vS,frsm;udv k nf;/ tkycf sKyf a&;tm%m tyfEiS f;ay;&ygrnf? ud, k pf m;vS,rf sm;ESihf rJqEN&iS frsm;onf rauseyfz, G u f pd Prsm;/ apm'ur_rsm;&Sv d mygu/ Oya' a=umif;t& ajz&Si;f Edik cf iG &fh &Sd ef vdt k yf+yD;/ vGwv f yfaom w&m;pD&ifa&;pepft&vnf; qH;k jzwfcH,yl ikd cf iG hf &S&d ygrnf? Oya'csK;d azmufrr_ sm;twGuf wm0ef&Sdorl sm;udv k nf;/ ‚if;wdk@.tjypftwdik f; ta&;,lyikd cf iG hf &S&d ef vdt k yfygonf?

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vlwidk ;f rJay;a&G;cs,fyidk cf iG [ fh k qdo k nfrSm/ toufjynfhraD omEdkiif o H m;tm;vH;k onf cGjJ cm;uef@owfjcif;r&Sb d /J rJay;ydik cf iG &hf adS p &rnf jzpfygonf? xdk@tjyif xda&mufaom/ bufvkdurf u _ if;aom rJqEN&iS f rSwfyw kH ifjcif;pepf&&dS ef vdt k yf+yD;/ rJay;jcif;twGuf tcGef aumufccH iG fh r&Sdyg? roefpGr;f olrsm;ESifh jynfwiG ;f ae&ma&$@ajymif;ae=u&aom 'kuo Q nfrsm;tygt0if/ rJqEN&iS t f m;vH;k rJ &Hrk sm;odk@ oGm;a&mufraJ y;ydik cf iG fhESifh a&G;aumufy. JG tjcm;aomvkyif ef;pOfrsm;odk@ yg0ifaqmif&u G cf Gihf &S&d ygrnf? wdik f;&if;om;vl enf;pktkypf krsm;wGif yg0ifaom jynfolrsm;udak omfvnf;aumif;/ trsK;d orD;rsm;udak omfvnf;aumif;/ tjcm;tkypf krsm;udak omf vnf;aumif; uef@owfcsKyfcs,cf Girfh sm; r&So d ifhyg? vlwdik ;f rJay; a&G;cs,yf ikd cf iG q hf o kd nfrmS / qENrjJ ym;wdik ;f onf wlnaD omwefzkd;&Sd 12 &ygrnf? tcsK;d tpm;tvdu k f udk,pf m;ðycGi&fh aSd om pepf wGi/f c&dik f a'owdik ;f . ud, k pf m;vS,t f a&twGuo f nf rJqENe,f. twdik ;f twmudk vdu k I f / tcsKd;tvdu k f jzpfap&ygrnf? xd@k tjyif rJqEN&iS t f rsm;pk.qENukd ypfy,fonfhE, S jf zpfapavmufaom/ ud, k pf m;vS,t f wGuf rJa&wGuaf omtedrq fh ;Hk pHrsO;f onf/ usKd;a=umif;rqDavsmfavmufatmif jrifhrm;pGmowfrSwx f m;jcif; 13 rðyoifyh g? vlrsm;pkrt J & tEdik fq;Hk jzwfaompepf wGi/f vlOD;a&tvdu k /f odk@r[kwf rJvmay;aomrJqEN&iS rf sm;. ta&twGuf tvdu k /f owfrw S af om rJqENe,frsm;onfvnf;/ a,bk,stm;jzifh nDr#pGm &So d ifhygonf? (10) &mcdik Ef _e;f xufausmv f GeI f uGJ vGrJ j_ zpfaeygu/ pdk;&drfylyefp&m ta=umif;&Syd gonf? v#Kd@0Surf aJ y;pepfjzifh rJay;apjcif; qdo k nfrmS / rJqEN&iS frsm;u ‚if;wd@k .rJjym;rsm;udk wpfOD;wnf;oD;oef@a&;jcpfEikd cf iG &hf &dS rnf jzpf+yD;/ vHðk cHaom/ yk*v ~ u d vGwv f yfciG f&h aSd omrJ&t Hk wGi;f / trSwt f om;ðyxm;aom rJjym;udk rJyH;k xJo@kd rxnfch if=unfch iG &hf dS aom/ aemufydik ;f wGif ‚if;rJjym;ESifh rJay;oludk cGjJ cm;azmfxkwEf dik fonft h aetxm; r&Sad om tajctaejzpf&ygrnf? tkyfpv k u kd f rJay;apjcif;/ eD;pyfrt _ & rJay;apjcif;/ rJ&jHk yifyY rJay;apjcif;rsm; r&Sad p&yg? Ttcsufrsm;onf v#Kd@0Surf aJ y;pepfjzifh rJay;pepf udk xdcdkuaf pygonf? (*) a&G;aumufyrGJ sm;udk tuJjzwf&mwGif jynfwiG ;f pHcsed pf EH e_ ;f rsm;udk toH;k ðyjcif ðy ðyjcif;? a&G;aumufyGJrsm;udk Edik if w H umpHcsdepf EH _e;f rsm;ESifh nD-rnD tuJjzwfjcif;tygt0if/ jynfwiG ;f &Sd a&G;aumufyaJG pmif=h unfah eol rsm;taejzif/h aqmif&u G fEidk af omudpPrmS / ‚if;Edik if t H wGi;f jyXmef;xm;aom zGJ@pnf;tkycf sKyfykH tajccHOya'/ jynfwiG f;&Sd jyXmef; xm;aom Oya'rsm;ESifh nD-rnDuv dk nf; tuJjzwfEikd yf gonf? xdOk ya'rsm;. tm%mydik cf iG u hf kd tuJjzwf&efrmS zGJ@pnf;tkycf sKyf yHk tajccHOya'yg rlrsm;twdik ;f / vdu k ef mr_ &S-d r&Sjd zifh wdik ;f xGmEdik fygonf? tvm;wlyif/ tkycf sKyfa&;qdik &f m pnf;rsO;f rsm;udk vnf;/ oufqidk &f mOya'rsm;ESifh wdu k q f idk I f udu k fnrD &_ dS-r&Sd ppfaq;Edik fygonf? twdck sKyfazmfjy&v#i/f Edik if Hwpfck. Oya'rsm;ESihf zGJ@pnf;yHt k ajccHOya'wdk@rSm Edik if w H umwGif xdkEikd if . H uwdu0wfðyxm;csuf rsm;ESifh avsmn f DpmG jzpfoif+h yD;/ jynfwiG f;&Sd a&G;aumufyaJG pmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;taejzif/h a&G;aumufyJGukd Edik if HwumOya' jyXmef;csufrsm;ESiahf &m/ uwdu0wfðyxm;csufrsm;/ ESifh jynfwiG ;f &SdOya'rsm;ESihfyg wdu k q f ikd pf pfaq;tuJjzwfoifhygonf?14 (C) ,cifu usi;f ycJah om a&G;aumufyEGJ iS hf Edi_ ;f ,SOjf cif;? 12 13 14

Propotional representation Majority voting system

tzGJ@taejzif/h a&G;aumufyOGJ ya'rsm;ESifh ywfoufI/ yHrk eS t f m;jzifq h o dk vdk t=uHðycsurf sm;ay;ydk@avh&+Sd yD;/ (OSCE) a'o twGi;f vlom;&_axmifq h idk &f mu¾tm;vH;k ESifh ywfoufI/ jynfwiG ;f a&G;aumufyrGJ sm;qdik &f m yHpk u H ufwavmufrsm;udk tifwmeuf0ufbq f 'dk w f pfck ðypkxm;&Syd gonf? (ODIHR) . a&G;aumufyOGJ ya'rsm;ESifh a&G;aumufyt GJ pD&ifcpH mrsm; avhvmoH;k oyfcsurf sm;udk www.osce.org/odihr. tifwmeufpmrsuEf mS ay:wGif &&SEdf idk yf gonf? a&G;aumufyq GJ idk &f m yHpk u H ufwavmufrsm;udk www.legislationline.org. tifwmeufpmrsuEf mS wGif &&SEd idk yf gonf? Oa&myaumifp. D AD;epfaumfr&Siu f vnf; a&G;aumfyOGJ ya'rsm;ESifh ywfoufI t=uHðycsurf sm;udk ‚if;wdk@.tifwmeufpmrsuEf mS jzpf aom http://venice.coe.int. wGif azmfjyxm;ygonf? (OSCE/ODIHR)

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a&G;aumufyGJrsm;udk tuJjzwf&mwGi/f jynfwiG ;f &Sd a&G;aumufyaJG pmif=h unfo h rl sm;taejzifh ,cifusi;f ycJah oma&G;aumufyrJG sm; ESifh Edi_ ;f ,SOI f / wdk;wufvmr_tajctaeudk Edi_ f;,SOfpOf;pm;Edik fygonf? Tod@k aqmif&u G jf cif;udk Edik if w H umtzGJ@tpnf;rsm;ESihf jynfwiG f;&Sd a&G;aumufyaGJ pmif=h unf}h uD;=uyfa&;tzG@J rsm;u xkwjf yefxm;aom/ ,ciftpD&ifcHpmrsm;ESihf Edi_ ;f ,SOt f oH;k รฐyEdik fyg onf? (OSCE/ODIHR) tzGJ@. a&G;aumufyaJG pmih=f unfah vhvma&; tpD&ifcpH mrsm;ud/k tzGJ@. tifwmeuf0ufqkd'fpmrsuf ESm (http:?www.osce.org/odihr.) wGif &&SEd idk yf gonf?

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2/ apmi -fh unfah vhvma&; tpDtpOfrsm; csrSwaf qmif&u G jf cif;? ;? u? vdt k yfcsurf sm;udk tuJjzwfowfrw S jf cif;? c? tpDtpOfa&;qGjJ cif;ESifh tzGJ@tpnf;qdik &f m udprP sm; *? tpDtpOfzGJ@pnf;yHkEiS fh vkyif ef;wm0efrsm;/ C? Edik if Hv;Hk qdik &f maqmif&u G af om pDrcH surf sm;? i? a'otvdu k fEiS fh Xmaetvdkuf pDrcH surf sm;? p? bufrvdu k fr?_ q? todtrSwðf yr_ &,ljcif;?

 tuJjzwf&efvt dk yfaom/ jyefvnfppfaq;&ef vdt k yfaomudprP sm;udk azmfxw k fowfrw S jf cif;?  &&SEd idk af om vlEiS fh b¾mt&if;tjrpfrsm;udk azmfxw k o f wfrw S jf cif;?  pDrcH sufrsm; pwifraqmif&u G frDuyif/ tpDtpOfa&;qGjJ cif;ESihf tzG@J tpnf;qdik &f mudprP sm;wGif ñuH&Edik af om jy\emrsm;udk ajz&Si;f jcif;?  a&G;aumufyGJEiS fh Edik if aH &;tajctaetay:rlwnfI/ &&SEd ikd af om vlom;ESihf b¾mt&if;tjrpftay: rlwnfI aqmif&u G Ef idk af om vkyif ef;tpDtpOfEiS fh zG@J pnf;yHu k kd ðyvkyjf cif;?  tpDtpOf taumiftxnfazmfEdki&f eftwGuf t&nftaoG;jr‡iw hf ifay;jcif;?  bufrvdu k fr_EiS fh vdu k fem&rnfu h si0fh wfrsm;twdik ;f wdwdususvkduef mapjcif;?

u? vdt k yfcsurf sm;udk tuJjzwfowfrw S jf cif;? a&G;aumufyo GJ nf wpf&ufwnf;wGijf zpfonfh jzpf&yfr[kwaf oma=umif/h a&G;aumufyaJG e@rwdik rf Duyif/ jynfwiG ;f &Sd apmif=h unfh avhvmaeolrsm;taejzifh óuwifI/ aqmif&u G &f efrsm;udk tpDtpOfrsm;a&;qGx J m;&ygrnf? oufqikd af omEdik if . H trsKd;om; Oya'rsm;udk a=unufpmG / oHk;oyfavhvmxm;&efvt kd yf+yD;/ tu,fI a&G;aumufyaJG pmif=h unfah vhvma&;vkyif ef;rsm;Y jynfwiG f;&Sd tzGJ@rsm;tay: uef@owfcsKyfcs,fr_rsm;&Sv d mygu/ jyefvnf&ifqikd Ef dik af p&ef jzpfonf? uef@owfcsKyfcs,frsm;[kq&kd mY Oyrmtm;jzifh-a&G;aumufyaGJ pmif=h unfah vhvma&; vkyif ef;pOfrsm;udk tzGJ@tpnf;. zGJ@pnf;yHt k wGi;f xnfhoiG ;f a&;qGx J m;aom tzGJ@rsm;udk tm%mydik frsm;xH rSwyf w Hk ifap&efvt kd yfjcif;/ jynfwGi;f &Sd a&G;aumufyaJG pmif=h unfah vhvma&;tkypf rk sm;udk Edik if jH cm; tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;rS &efyaHk iGrsm;vufccH iG fh ydwfyifjcif;wd@k jzpfEikd fygonf? Todk@ Oya'rsm;udk oHk;oyf&mY/ a&G;aumufyaJG pmif=h unfh avhvmoltjzpf tqift h wef;owfrw S cf &H jcif; odk@r[kw/f Tod@k aomtqift h wef;udk owfrw S cf &H apa&;twGuw f ifjy awmif;qdo k nfv h yk x f ;Hk enf;rsm;Y vufawG@vdu k ef m&rnfh tcsufrsm;udv k nf; xnfo h iG ;f wGucf su&f ygrnf? vlxt k ajcðytzG@J tpnf;rsm;rS a&G;aumufyaGJ pmif=h unfah vhvma&;twGu/f toif;tyif;rsm;zGJ@pnf;&mY rnfod@k qHk;jzwfcsufay;rnfu/kd Edik if . H Oya'wpfcck Yk vrf;!$ejf yXmef;xm;Edik fouJo h dk@/ ‚if;twGuf vdu k fem&rnft h csufrsm;udv k nf; jyXmef;xm;Edik yf gonf? Ttcsuf onf ta&;}uD;aomta=umif;udpw P pfcjk zpf+yD;/ a&G;aumufyaJG pmif=h unfah vhvma&;v_y&f mS ;r_ jzpfEdik af cs&-dS r&Su d v kd nf; qH;k jzwf ay;Edik yf gonf? odk@twGuaf =umif/h TOya'jyXmef;csufyg vdt k yfcsurf sm;jynfrh aD pa&;twGuf wifóuaqmif&u G &f aomtcsed &f dS 20


Edik +f yD;/ wpfEpS f odk@r[kwf ‚if;xufyadk omtcsdet f wGu/f vkyif ef;aqmif&u G &f ef vHak vmufaom&efyakH iG&&Sx d m;&efvnf; vdt k yfyg onf? a&G;aumufyaGJ pmif=h unfah vhvma&;twGu/f vkyif ef;tpDtpOfrsm;a&;qG&J mwGif yxrtqift h aejzifh/ jynfwiG ;f Y v_y&f mS ;rnfh tkypf kwpfct k wGuf rdrdwdk@aqmif&u G Ef idk frnfh oifah vsmaf omtaetxm;/ twdik ;f twmyrm%/ a&G;aumufyaJG pmif=h unfah vh vma&;twGuf aqmif&u G &f rnft h csed fuu dk f v_y&f mS ;r_EiS /hf rdrdw@kd .tqdðk yv$mrsm;tay: rnfo@kd aomtaumif;qHk;&v'fxu G f atmif aqmif&u G Ef idk rf nfu/dk pOfpm;&ygrnf? TtwGuf vdt k yfcsufrsm;udk tuJjzwfowfrw S fjcif; (need assessment) aqmif&u G &f ygrnf? vdt k yfygu Tvdt k yfcsufrsm;udk tuJjzwfxm;csufrsm;udyk if tajcðyI vHak vmufaom&efyakH iG&&SEd ikd af &; twGuf wifjyaomtqdðk yv$m (proposals) rsm;a&;om;Edik fygonf? Tod@k tuJjzwfowfrSwjf cif;wGif vkyx f kH;vkyef nf; enf;emydik ;f t&a&m/ tkycf sKyfpDraH &;qdik &f mjy\emrsm;udkyg xnfhoiG ;f pOf;pm;&efvt kd yf+yD;/ ta&;t}uD;qH;k jzpfonfh a&G;aumuf yGu J dk vHak vmufaomtm&Hkpu dk fr_ ðyEdik af pa&;ESi/hf rdrd.vkyif ef;rsm;udk axmufyahH y;Edik &f ef vHak vmufaomtkycf sKyfpDrrH /_ b¾m a&;jynfph aHk eap&ef vdt k yfygonf? vdt k yfcsurf sm;udk tuJjzwfowfrw S jf cif;vkyif ef;. yxrOD;qH;k &nf&, G cf suw f iG f/ rdrw d kd@v_y&f mS ;r_. twdik ;f twmudk owfrSw&f ygrnf? t"dutm&Hx k m;rnfh ae&monf/ Oya'a=umif;qdik &f mudk cGjJ crf;oHk;oyfjcif;/ a&G;aumufyJG tkycf sKyfrq _ ikd &f mtzGJ@rsm;. zGJ@pnf;xm;yH/k xda&mufxufjrufr/_ bufvdu k jf cif;uif;r_/ apm'uwufjcif;ESihf arwWm&yfcHwifjyjcif;qdik &f m vkyx f ;kH tqifhrsm;/ Edik if aH &;ygwDrsm;ESifh ud, k fpm;vS,af vmif;rsm; rSwyf kHwifjcif;/ rJqEN&iS frsm; rSwfyw kH ifjcif;/ owif;rD', D mESihf a&G;aumufyJG twGuf b¾maiG&mS azGjcif;tygt0if a&G;aumufyJG rJq, G fpnf;&H;k r_qikd &f mudpPrsm;/ vl@tcGit hf a&; av;pm;vdu k femr_/ a&G; aumufyu GJ si;f yrnfah e@&ufEiS fh a&G;aumufy&GJ v'frsm;udk tpD&ifcHwifjyjcif;udpPrsm; jzpfEikd fygonf? od@k aomfvnf; a&G;aumufyJG rwdik fru D mvrsm;ESifh a&G;aumufy+GJ yD;qH;k +yD;aemuf umvrsm;onfvnf;/ a&G;aumufyu JG si;f yonfah e@uJo h kd@yif ta&;ygygonf? odk@twGuaf =umifh TtzGJ@tpnf;rsm;taejzif/h Tvkyif ef;pOfwpfcv k ;kH . tqifw h ikd f;udak pmif=h unfhae&ef qdo k nfrmS rjzpfEikd fyg? rdrd. OD;pm;ay;aqmif&u G fEidk o f nfv h yk if ef;udk a&G;cs,I f / ‚if;tay:tajccH+yD; vkyif ef;pOfrsm;a&;qGcJ srw S &f ygrnf? tcsKd@aom apmif=h unfah vhvma&;tzGJ@rsm;u/ a&G;aumufy. JG u¾wpfckuo kd m tm&Hx k m;aqmif&u G frnf/ od@k r[kwf tcsKd@vkyif ef;rsm;udk aqmif&u G rf nfudk owfrSwEf dik yf gonf? Oyrmtm;jzif/h tkypf w k pfct k aejzifh ‚if;.apmif=h unfah vhvma&;vkyif ef;twGuf &nf &G,cf suu f dk “trsKd;orD;rsm;/ vlenf;pkrsm;/ roefrpGrf;olrsm; a&G;aumufyGw J iG f yg0ifEikd rf t _ ajctaeudk avhvm&ef” od@k r[kw/f owif;rD'D,m/ Oya'a=umif;qdki&f mudp/P odk@r[kwf Tvkyif ef;pOf. wdusaomu¾wpfct k wGuo f m &nf&, G I f uef@owf aqmif&u G Ef idk fygonf? vkyif ef;pwifaqmif&u G frnfh tptaejzif/h jynfwiG ;f &Sd a&G;aumufyaJG pmih=f unfah vhvma&;tkyfpkwpfpo k nf/ ,cifa&G;aumufyJG rsm;ESifhywfoufI a&;om;azmfjyxm;=uaom/ Edik if w H umESifh jynfwiG ;f &Sd tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;. tpD&ifcpH mrsm;/ tjcm;vl@tcGifh ta&;apmih=f unfah vhvma&;tzGJ@rsm;. tpD&ifcHpmrsm;udk tjynft h pHak vhvmxm;oifyh gonf? xd@k tjyif/ oufqikd &f m Oya' a=umif;udpPrsm;udv k nf; cGjJ crf;pdwjf zmoHk;oyfr_rsm; ðyoifyh gonf? ‚if;uJo h kd@avhvmr_wiG f a&G;aumufyq JG idk &f m/ Edik if aH &;ygwDrsm; qdik &f m/ owif;rD', D mqdik &f mESifh tpd;k &r[kwaf omtzGJ@tpnf; (tJe*f st D )kd rsm;qdik &f m Oya'rsm;ESihf oufqikd af omta=umif; udpt P wGuf Oya'rsm;udk okawoeðyxm;oifhygonf? ,ciftawG@tñuHrsm;udk jyefvnfokH;oyfjcif;ESihf vuf&EdS ikd if aH &;/ pD;yGm; a&;/ vlra_ &;tajctaersm;tay: oH;k oyfjcif;wd@k aygi;f pyfum a&G;aumufyJGusi;f yay;rnf0h ef;usiftaetxm;udk oHk;oyf&yg rnf? a&G;aumufyOGJ ya'ESifh tjcm;oufqidk af omOya'rsm;udk=unf+h yD;/ a&G;aumufyaJG pmif=h unfah vhvma&;vkyif ef;pOfrsm; rpwifr/D a&G;aumufy. GJ tcsdeZf ,m;udk cef@rSef;wGucf sufxm;&ygrnf?

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a&G;aumufyt GJ rsKd;tpm;tay:rlwnfI/ a&G;aumufyaJG pmif=h unfah vhvma&; enf;emrsm;tay: rsm;pGmtusKd;oufa&muf ajymif;vJr_ &Sad pEdik fygonf? xdk@tjyif a&G;aumufyJGrwdik fru D mv/ apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;udk wm0efay;ae&mcsxm;&mYvnf; tusK;d oufa&muf ajymif;vJr_ odompGm &Sad pEdik fygonf? orwa&G;aumufyaJG vm/ od@k wnf;r[kwf ygvDrefv$waf wmfa&G; aumufyaGJ vm/ a'oqdik &f m a&G;aumufyGaJ vm/ jynfo@l qENc, H lyaJG vm ponft h ajctaersm;tay:rlwnfI rwlujJG ym;aom csO;f uyfr_enf;emrsm; vdt k yfEidk fygonf? a'oqdik &f mtvdu k f a&G;aumufyaJG pmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;udk pkpnf;pnf;&H;k rnfqdyk g u/ t=uHðyvdak omtcsufrSm xdkapmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;udk a&G;aumufyaJG umfr&Sifz@JG pnf;yHt k wdki;f wm0efay;ae&mcsxm;&ef jzpfygonf? odk@rSom ,lepfwpfcck si;f pDudk owfrSwx f m;aomrJqENe,ftvdu k /f tkycf sKyfa&;e,fajra'o tvdu k /f wm0ef,l apmif=h unfah pEdik rf nf jzpfygonf? a&G;aumufypJG epfonf vlO;D a&tcsK;d tvdu k f ud, k fpm;ðyapjcif;/ od@k r[kwf udk,pf m;vS,f wpfO;D odk@r[kwf trsm;ud, k fpm;ðycGi&fh aSd om rJqENe,frsm; owfrw S af ompepf/ odk@r[kwf ‚if;pepfEpS cf u k kd aygi;f pyfo;kH jcif; vnf; &SdEidk fygonf? a&G;aumufyo GJ nf wpf}udrw f nf;,SOòf yifapjcif;/ odk@r[kwf ESpcf gxyfausmòh yif&jcif;vnf; &SEd ikd fygonf? T tcsurf sm;onf ta&;ygaom rwluv GJ GJr_rsm; jzpfygonf? Oyrmtm;jzifh- wpfEikd if v H ;kH &SdrJrsm;rS pm&if;t&,laom ygvDrefa&G; aumufyq GJ dkygu/ apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;taejzifh ud, k fpm;vS,af vmif; rSwfyw kH ifjcif;qdik &f mudpPrsm;udk apmif=h unfah vhvm r_ ðyEdik frnf r[kwaf y? wpfEdkiif v H ;Hk tvdu k af qmif&u G af om a&G;aumufyo JG nf/ rJqENe,fajrrsm;tvdu k f a&G;aumufwif ajr‡mufrx _ ufpmv#if ydI k xif&mS ;r_ &Sdygvdrfhrnf? rwlujJG ym;aomtcsurf mS / tu,fI ygvDrefvw $ af wmfa&G;aumufyu JG kd vl trsm;pk.rJjzifh tEdik t f &_;H qH;k jzwfaom pepfu/dk rJqENe,frsm;udk tajccHIusi;f yygu/ od@k r[kwf a'oqdik &f mtpdk;&rsm;twGuf a&G;aumufyGJrsm; usi;f yygu/ apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;twGuf wòyifeufwnf;aomtcsed fwiG /f vdu k v f aH pmif=h unfhp&m oD; jcm;,SOòf yifa&G;aumufyGrJ sm; &Sad eEdik yf gonf? Ttcsufrsm;udk vdt k yfcsurf sm; tuJjzwfowfrSwjf cif;ðy&mwGif xnfo h iG ;f pOf; pm;&rnf jzpfygonf? Ttcsufrsm;u a&G;aumufyaJG pmif=h unfhavhvma&; enf;emrsm;udk tqH;k tjzwfay;Edik yf gonf? tcsK@d aom a&G;aumufyyGJ Hpk Hrsm;wGi/f ae&ma'orsm;tm;vH;k udk xda&mufpmG vdkuv f aH pmif=h unf&h ef qdo k nfrSm rjzpfEikd fyg? xdt k cg rdrdvt l iftm;ae&mcsxm;r_onf/ tcsKd@pHerlemoabmxm; aumuf,lrnfah e&mrsm;wGio f m wm0efay;Edik fygvdrhfrnf? od@k r[kwf a'owpfct k wGi;f om wm0efay;jcif;rsKd; jzpfEikd fygonf? aemufq;Hk xnfo h iG ;f pOf;pm;&rnft h csurf mS / jynfwiG f;&Sd a&G;aumufyaJG pmif=h unfah vhvma&;tzG@J rsm;onf a&G;aumufyJGEiS hf ywfoufonfh tjcm;aomv_y&f Sm;r_rsm;Y yg0if ywfouf&ef oihf-roif[ h al om udpPyifjzpfygonf? Oyrmtm;jzif-h vlxt k rsm; owif;tcsut f vufrsm; od&aSd p&efaqmif&u G af y;jcif;ESihf rJvmay;=u&ef v_H@aqmfr_ (get out the vote campaigns) rsK;d jzpf ygonf? odk@r[kwf a&G;aumufyGJtwGu/f tm%mydik frsm;twGuf tultnDaxmufyhHr_ wpfcck ðk yjcif;rsKd; jzpfygonf? od@k aomf Todk@aqmif&u G &f mwGif owd}uD;}uD;xm;I pOf;pm;qH;k jzwfoifyh gonf? ta=umif;rSm rdr. d rl&if; a&G;aumufyaJG pmih=f unfah vh vma&;v_y&f mS ;r_rsm;ESifh Todk@yl;aygi;f aqmif&u G jf cif;a=umif/h tusK;d pD;yGm;t& yÉdyuQr_rsm;/ xdyfwu kd jf zpfjcif; jy\emrsm;ay: ayguv f mEdik af oma=umifh jzpfygonf? &Hzef&cH gwiG f Tvkyif ef;pOfukd apmif=h unfah vhvmaer_ESihf Tvkyif ef;pOftwGi;f yg0if aqmif&u G af er_wdk@udk cGjJ cm;rsO;f om;aqmif&u G &f ef cufcw J wfygonf? c? tpDtpOfa&;qGjJ cif;ESifh tzGJ@tpnf;qdik &f m udprP sm;15 Todk@ &_jrifrt _ wdik f;twm/ vkyfief;yrm%/ apmif=h unfah &;vkyif ef;pOfrsm;twGuf tcsdeZf ,m;rsm; csrSwaf qmif&u G &f mY/ &&Sd Edik af om vltm;/ b¾ma&;tiftm;wdk@udk vufawG@uspGm ppfaq;=unfo h ifhygonf? jynfwiG f;Y a&G;aumufyaJG pmif=h unfah vh vmolrsm;tzGJ@onf wpfzGJ@csi;f tvdu k v f nf;jzpfEdik o f nf? pkaygif;xm;aom vlxt k ajcðy tzG@J tpnf;rsm;. r[mrdwt f zGJ@/ 15

(tJe'f t D idk )f tzGJ@. vrf;!$epf mtkyw f Gif jynfwiG ;f &Sd a&G;aumufyaGJ pmif=h unfah vhvma&;tzGJ@rsm;twGuf tpDtpOfa&;qGjJ cif;ESifh tzGJ@tpnf;qdik &f m udprP sm;udk ydI k tao;pdwaf vhvmEdik yf gonf? The NDI Handbook How Domestic Organizations Monitor Elections: An A-Z Guide, 1995. 22


uGe&f ufvnf; jzpfEidk fygonf? rnfodk@aom yHkpHyifjzpfap xda&mufpmG toHk;ðyEdik +f yD;/ (OSCE) a'owGif;ESifh Edik if w H umwGif Tenf;ESpcf kv;Hk udk xda&mufpmG toH;k ðycJ=h uygonf? 0efxrf;cef@xm;a&;qdik &f m udprP sm; tajcwus wnf&+Sd yD;aom vlr_tajcðy tzGJ@tpnf;wpfcu k jzpfap/ vlxt k ajcðytzG@J tpnf;trsm;ujzpfap a&G;aumufyu JG kd apmifh =unfah vhvmrnf[k qHk;jzwfv#i/f vltiftm; xyfrHpak qmif;&ef vdt k yfaumif;vdt k yfEikd fygonf? TudpPEiS hfywfouf I t"dujy\emESifh pOf;pm;&eftcsufrsm;rSm rnfonfw h m0efrsm;udk vpmay;rnfenf;?  vpmE_ef;xm;rsm; (Tvpmrsm;onf Edik if w H iG ;f &Sd tjcm;aomvlxt k ajcðytzGJ@tpnf;rsm;ESihf udkun f rD &_ adS p&rnf?)  cef@xm;rnfh pmcsKyfoufwrf;umv (‚if;wd@k udk wm0efay;rnfh apmif=h unfah vhvm&rnfhumv rwdik frw D iG /f tenf; i,fóuwifI 0efxrf;trsm;udk pmcsKyfcsKyfqkdoiho f nf? Oyrm-owif;rD'D,mrsm;udk apmif=h unfrh nfhorl sm;udk/ a&G; aumufyGJ pnf;&H;k r_ w&m;0ifrpwifru D mvwGi/f wm0efpwifay;oifyh gonf? a&G;aumufy+JG yD;onfEiS hf rsm;r=umrDwiG f yif olwdk@wm0efudk &yfqidk ;f oifyh gonf?)  a'owpfcw k iG f a&&Snf a&G;aumufyaJG pmif=h unfah vhvmol xm;&Sdoif-h roifh?  a'orsm;tvdu k f wm0efxrf;aqmifaeaom a&G;aumufyaJG pmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;udk vpmay;tyf&ef vd-k rvdkEiS hf apwem0efxrf;rsm;udk pnf;&Hk;oif-h roifh pOf;pm;&ef?  a&G;aumufyaGJ e@&ufwiG f wm0efay;rnfh a&wdak pmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;udk tca=u;aiGay;&ef vd-k rvdkEiS hf apwem 0efxrf;tjzpf pnf;&H;k rnfavm? owdðy&eftcsurf mS rnfonfhenf;jzifh tca=u;aiGay;onfrqd/k apwem0efxrf; tjzpfxrf;aqmif=uonfu h dpu P dk ao;odrfrj_ zpfapEdik +f yD;/ pdwt f m;xufoefr_enf;aom/ &nf&, G cf suftm;enf;aomol rsm;udk pkaqmif;wm0efay;rdwwfygonf? tu,fI “^m%fyal Zmfc”tjzpf ay;rnfqkdygu/ TaiGa=u;yrm%onf rJ&t Hk m%mydik rf sm;udak y;onfh tca=u;aiGxuf rydak poifhyg?  0efxrf;rsm;ESifh apwem0efxrf;rsm;twGuf olwkd@tuket f uscH pdu k o f kH;xm;aomtca=u;aiGrsm;udk jyefay;Edik &f ef twGuf oifah wmfaomE_ef;rsm;owfrw S x f m;&ef vdt k yfygonf? (Oyrm-oifwef;rsm;wufa&muf&eftwGu/f od@k r[kwf rJ&rHk sm;odk@ oGm;a&muf&eftwGuf c&D;pm;&dwfrsm;) TqH;k jzwfcsufrsm;onf/ &efyaHk iGtwGuf tqdðk ycsuu f kd rsm;pGmtusK;d oufa&mufr&_ adS p+yD;/ a&G;aumufyaJG pmif=h unfah vhvm a&; vkyif ef;rsm;twGuf &efyaHk iGaxmufyaHh y;rnf/h tvSL&Sifrsm;. pdwf0ifpm;r_tay:wGiv f nf; =oZmoufa&mufr&_ adS pEdik fyg onf? odk@twGuaf =umifh txufazmfjyyg jy\emrsm;udkpOf;pm;qH;k jzwfxm;onf/h vlpnf;&H;k wm0efay;r_ rl0g'udck srSwx f m;&ef t=uHðyvdkygonf? 0efxrf;rsm; odk@r[kwf apwem0efxrf;tjzpfwm0ef,=l uolrsm; taejzif/h tusK;d pD;yGm;t& yÉdyuQjzpfap rnfh rnfonfv h kyif ef;udkr# raqmif&u G af p&ef (Oyrmtm;jzif-h a&G;aumufyJG aumfr&Siw f iG f wm0efxrf;aqmifjcif;/ Edik if aH &; ygww D pfcck kwiG f tr_aqmif&mxl;/ acgi;f aqmifwm0ef,jl cif;/ odk@r[kwf udk,pf m;vS,af vmif;tjzpf rSwfyw kH ifxm;jcif;) wdus pGm owfrw S fxm;&ygrnf? tu,fI vlxt k ajcðytzG@J tpnf;rsm; pkaygi;f I !Gef@aygi;f tjzpfaqmif&u G =f uaomtajctaewGi/f yg0ifaqmif&u G af e=uaom tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;tm;vH;k taejzif/h bufvu kd fru _ if;ap&ef ta&;}uD;+yD;/ Edik if aH &;t& bufvkdurf _ uif;onf[v k nf; vltrsm;u jrifap&ygrnf? TtzG@J rsm;. tzG@J 0ifrsm;onfvnf;/ ‚if;wd@k .tjcm;aomv_y&f mS ;r_rsm;ESihf tusK;d pD;yGm;t& yÉdyuQrjzpfap&ef vkt d yfygonf? jynfwiG f;&Sd a&G;aumufyaGJ pmif=h unfah vhvmol tkyfprk sm;taejzif/h wpfEikd if v H ;kH tvdu k /f a'otvdkuf apmif=h unfo h l0efxrf;rsm; ESifh a&G;aumufyaGJ e@wGif apmif=h unfrh nfo h lrsm;ud/k pnf;&H;k onfh enf;emrsm; csrSwx f m;oif+h yD;/ t"duwm0ef,rl nfo h lrsm;udk 23


a=umfjimjzif/h vlxkowif;rD', D mrsm;wGif xnfo h iG ;f azmfjyjcif;jzifh pnf;&Hk;aqmif&u G Ef ikd yf gonf? apwem0efxrf;rsm;udk ‚if;wd@k . tvkyfrsm;twGuf t&nftcsi;f jynfhrrD _ &S-d r&Sd tuJjzwf&mY/ bufvu kd fru _ if;&Sif;jcif; &S-d r&S/d oufqikd &f mwm0eftwGuf oifh avsmrf _ &Sd-r&Sd tuJjzwf&ygrnf? xdk@tjyif vlrt _ zGJ@tpnf;. u¾toD;oD;odk@ us,fjyef@pGmqufpyfEikd &f ef/ tcGit hf vrf;jzpfEdik f r_&-Sd r&Su d dkvnf; =unf&h ygrnf? 0efxrf;rsm;ESifh apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;udk pnf;&H;k &mY/ jynfwiG ;f &Sd a&G;aumufyaJG pmif=h unfhavhvma&; tkyfpkrsm;taejzif/h jzpfEidk o f r# usm;-r/ touft&G,/f vlrsKd;pk/ bmompum;ajymqdrk _ pojzifh pHv k ifatmif pnf;&H;k oifhygonf? a'oqdik &f m tvdu k f apmih=f unfah vhvmolrsm;udk pnf;&H;k jynfhp+kH yD qdyk gu/ olw@kd udk aocsmoifwef;ay;&ygrnf? oifwef;qdik &f m pm&Guf pmwrf;vrf;!$efrsm;udv k nf;/ tjcm;tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;odk@ jzef@a0ay;&eftwGuf pOf;pm;Edik yf gonf? (Oyrmtm;jzif/h A[dak &G; aumufyaGJ umfr&Sio f dk@ ay;ydk@Edik +f yD;/ rdrv d kyif ef;. yGiv hf if;jrifomr_ukd xifay:atmif jyoEdik fygonf?) a&G;aumufyaJG vhvm apmif=h unfo h rl sm;udk ae&mcsxm;&mwGi/f jynfwiG f;&Sd apmif=h unfhavhvmonft h kypf krsm;taejzifh olw@kd aexdik &f ma'otvdu k f apwem0efxrf;tjzpf apmih=f unfah vhvmay;rnfhorl sm;. vkyftm;/ t=uH^m%fukd &,lEikd +f yD;/ apmif=h unfah vhvmolukd rJay; cGi&fh &Sad p&efvnf; aocsmap&ef aqmif&u G af y;&ygrnf? tzGJ@tpnf;qdik &f m ta=umif;udprP sm; tzGJ@tpnf;wpfckwnf;taejzifh aqmif&u G jf cif;twGuf tm;aumif;csuw f pf&yfrmS / trsm;ESihf pkaygi;f aqmif&u G jf cif;xuf/ pDrH cef@cGJr_EiS fh qH;k jzwfcsufrsm; csrSwf&mY ydkrv dk G,u f jl cif; jzpfygonf? tjcm;rwlaomtcsufrmS / trsm;aqmif&u G af om!Ge@f aygi;f tzGJ@taejzif/h rwlujGJ ym;aom e,fy,frsm;wGi/f udpw P pfcck si;f tay: u|rf;usifr&_ =dS uaom vlrt _ zGJ@tpnf;rsm;pkaygi;f rd=ujcif; jzpfygonf? (Oyrm-owif;rD', D mrsm;udk apmif=h unfah vhvmjcif;/ od@k r[kwf a'owpfct k wGi;f Y tajccdik af ejcif; jzpfonf?) od@k twGuaf =umifh avhvmapmif=h unfrh u _ dk ydrk dt k m;aumif;ap+yD;/ u|rf;usifr_ t&nftaoG;jynfhpGmvnf; aqmif&u G fEikd fygonf? !$ef@aygif;zGJ@pnf;r_reS for#rSm wwfEidk o f r# us,f0ef;pGm pnf;&Hk;&ef vdt k yfygonf? vltrsm;&dak oav;pm;cH&aom !Ge@f aygi;f tzGJ@rsm;pkpnf;jcif;jzif/h tzGJ@tpnf;wpfcck si;f aqmif&u G jf cif;xuf ydI k ,H=k unfukd;pm;r_ &&Sad pEdik fygonf? tzG@J i,fwpfcck si;f apmif=h unfah vhvmr_udk tzGJ@trsm;u aqmif&u G af e=uygu/ owif;rD', D mrsm;. tav;ay;r_cH&apa&;twGuf tcsi;f csif;òyif qdik af e=u&ygonf? a,bk,stm;jzif/h jynfwiG ;f Y a&G;aumufyaJG pmif=h unfah vhvma&; v_y&f mS ;ae=uaomtkyfpkrsm;onf/ tjcm;aom vlxt k ajcðy tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;ESifh vkyfief;csi;f xyfI vkyaf qmifaer_udk a&Smif&mS ;&ef vdt k yf+yD;/ txl;oD;oef@ tajc taersKd;rSom Todk@aqmif&u G foifyh gonf? xdk@tjyif owdðy&eftcsurf mS &efyakH iGaxmufyahH y;rnfh tvSL&Sit f zGJ@tpnf;wpfck taejzif/h vltrsm;ud;k pm;,H=k unfr_ &S+d yD;om;tzG@J tpnf;wpfcku aqmif&u G +f yD;om;jzpfaeonfah e&mwGi/f a&G;aumufyGu J kd apmih=f unfhrnft h jcm;v_y&f mS ;r_rsm;twGuf &efyakH iGaxmufyahH y;&ef jzpfEikd af jcenf;ygonf? Tod@k aomtajctaersK;d wGi/f v_yf &Sm;r_opfrsm;. tiftm;udk ydkrdktm;aumif;vmap&ef/ vuf&&dS adS eaom v_y&f mS ;r_rsm;udk ydkrt kd m;jznfah y;&efom jzpfoifyh gonf? !Gef@aygi;f tzGJ@twGi;f yg0ifae=uaomtzGJ@0ifrsm;t=um; qufqaH &; wwfEikd o f r# ajyjypfacsmarG@ap&ef vdt k yfygonf? yg0if ywfoufaeaom vlxt k ajcðy tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;. tm%mydik u f , kd pf m;vS,rf sm;u oabmwlncD suw f pfck a&;qG/J vufrw S f a&;xd;k Edik =f u&ef t=uHðyvdyk gonf? trsm;pka=uvnfEikd af om qH;k jzwfcsucf srw S yf jkH zpfap&ef/ tzG@J tpnf;qdik &f mjy\emrsm;udk ajz&Si;f Edik af p&ef/ b¾ma&;qdik &f m tpD&ifcpH mrsm;. yGiv hf if;jrifomr_ukd tm;aumif;ap&ef/ TtzG@J taejzifh bkwt f zG@J / od@k r[kwf 'g&u dk w f mrsm;.aumfrw D w D pfcu k dk zGJ@pnf;&mYpOf;pm&efrmS t"duusaom ae&mrsm;twGuq f v kd #if trnftqdðk ywif oGi;f jcif;/a&G;aumufjcif;ðy&efjzpfygonf?odk@aomfvnf; v_y&f mS ;r_rsm;. epP"0l aqmif&u G &f efupd rP sm;udrk l pDrcH ef@cGrJ a_ qmif&u G o f l rsm;ESifh t,f'w D mtzGJ@ (,lepf) rsm;ESio fh m vufvx J$ m;oifyh gonf? (atmufazmfjyxm;csurf sm;udk =unfyh g?)

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b¾ma&;qdik &f mudprP sm; apmif=h unfah vhvma&;vkyif ef;wpfct k wGuf vHak vmufaom&efykHaiG&&Sx d m;&ef ta&;}uD;ygonf? od@k twGuaf =umifh pDpOfxm; aomzGJ@pnf;yHkonf/ (1) &&Sx d m;aom vHak vmufonf&h efyaHk iG/ (2) tjcm; tydak qmif;&&SdEikd o f nfh &efyakH iGrsm;tay:tajccHI zGJ@ pnf;oifyh gonf? apmif=h unfah vhvmr_ vkyif ef;rsm;udk taumiftxnfazmf&ef/ aemufxyf&efyakH iGrsm; vdt k yfr&_ v dS mygu/ jynf wGi;f &Sd apmih=f unfah vhvma&;tkypf kwpfck taejzif/h jynfwiG ;f ESihf Edik if w H um&Sd tvSL&Sirf sm;xHo@kd csnf;uyf&ef pOf;pm;oifyh g onf? odk@aomfvnf; tu,fI vdt k yfaomb¾maiGa=u; wpdww f ydik f;/ odk@r[kwf wpfpv kH ;kH ra&muf&v dS mygu aqmif&u G Ef ikd f &ef/ ta&;ay:tpDtpOfwpfck a&;qGx J m;&S&d ef t=uHðyvdyk gonf? xd@k tjyif tvSLaiGay;vmonfhtzG@J tpnf;rsm;taejzif/h ,ck uJo h dk@ a&G;aumufyaGJ pmih=f unfah vhvm&jcif;twGuf tzG@J tpnf;.vGwv f yfrE_ iS hf &nf&, G cf suu f kd rxdyg;apa&;twGu/f owd xm;aqmif&u G o f ifhygonf? jzpfEidk af om tvSL&Sirf sm;rSm tpd;k &rsm;pkzGJ@xm;onft h zGJ@tpnf;rsm;/ (Oyrm Oa&myaumfr&Si/f oH&;kH rsm;/ zGH@òz;a&;ESihf enf; ynmyl;aygi;f aqmif&u G frq _ idk &f m at*sipf Drsm;/ Edik if w H um tpd;k &r[kwaf omtzGJ@tpnf; (tJe*f sDt)kd rsm;ESifh azmifa';&Sif;rsm; jzpfygonf? &efyaHk iGawmif;cHru _ dk taxmuftulðyap&eftwGu/f tao;pdwaf zmfjyxm;aom tqdðk yv$m (Proposal) wpfck vdt k yfEikd fyg onf? tcsKd@aom Edik if Hwum&Sd tvSL&Sirf sm;u Todk@awmif;cHwifjyvmolrsm;twGu/f vrf;!$ecf sufrsm; a&;qGx J m;&S+d yD;/ ‚if; wdk@. pHtwdik ;f twdtus tqdðk ycsuw f ifjy&rnfh yHkpHrsm; &Sdwwfygonf? Todk@ tqdðk yv$ma&;om;&mwGi/f t=uHðyvdak om tcsurf mS &efyaHk iGaxmufyaHh y;a&;twGuf OD;pm;ay;udpPrsm;/ r[mAsL[mrsm;/ pDpOfxm;aom v_y&f mS ;r_. u¾wpfpw d f wpf ydik ;f pwifonfEiS /fh rlvuwnf;u óuwif&&Sx d m;aomEdik if w H um tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;. axmufyx hH m;r_rsm;/ xnfo h iG ;f azmfjy&ef vdt k yfygvdrfhrnf? a,bk,stm;jzifh tqdðk yv$mwGi/f pDrcH suaf cgif;pOf (Project Title)/ t"du ta=umif;tcsurf sm; azmfjy csu/f (Oyrm-'Dru dk a&pDxGe;f um;a&;/ yÉdyuQrsm; umuG,fwm;qD;a&;/ tJe*f sDtrkd sm; t&nftaoG;jr‡iw hf ifay;a&; pojzif)h yg&&Sd ef vdt k yfygonf? xdk@tjyif tao;pdwfbwf*suu f v kd nf; azmfjy&ef vdyk gonf? (,l&akd iGjzif/h tar&duefa':vmjzif/h a'ocH aiGa=u;jzif)h xdk@tjyif yef;wdik /f &nf&, G cf su/f pDrcH sut f ay: pOf;pm;r_aemufct H a=umif;/ ypfrw S fxm;aom tusK;d cHpm;&zG,&f dS onfh jynfot l kyfprk sm;/ tjcm;xnfo h iG ;f pOf;pm;csufrsm; tusO;f (Oyrm- yl;wGI J &efyakH iGaxmufyEhH ikd o f nfh tajctae/ tcsed f Z,m; ponf) wdk@udk aocsm&Si;f vif;pGm azmfjyay;&ygrnf? rlt&/ tqdðk yv$mrsm;udk tvSL&Sit f rsm;xH wwfEikd o f r#jzef@a0 ay;ydk@&ygrnf? 0efxrf;rsm;. vpmESifh apwem0efxrf;rsm;. toH;k pm;&dwrf sm;udpt P jyif/ c&D;oGm;vma&;ukefuspm;&dwrf sm;omru/ bwf *sux f JwiG f xnfo h iG ;f azmfjy&ef vdt k yfrnfu h dpPrsm;rSm/ &H;k cef;iSm;&rf;ctwGuf ukeu f spm;&dw/f &Hk;ypPn;f rsm;/ 0efaqmifrr_ sm;/ qufo, G af &;pepfrsm;/ yHkESdyx f kwaf 0pm;&dwfrsm;/ oifwef;pmapmifrsm;twGuf xkwaf 0r_pm;&dwrf sm;/ ay:aygufvmEdik af om wnf;cdak exdik af &;pm;&dwfrsm;/ vltrsm;od&&Sd atmif aqmif&u G af &; (publicity) pm;&dwrf sm;/ apmif=h unfah vhvmoltjzpf owfrw S af zmfjy&ef ypPn;f rsm; (Oyrm-bufwq H dyfrsm;ESihf wD-&Syrf sm;) ponfwkd@vnf; xnfo h Gi;f azmfjy&ef vdt k yfygvdrhfrnf? vdt k yfcsurf sm;tm;vHk;twGuf bwf*suw f iG x f nfo h iG ;f azmfjy&efvt kd yf+yD;/ ta&;ay:udpPrsm;twGuv f nf; yrm%tenf;i,f udk xnfo h iG f;azmfjy&ygrnf? wifjyaom bwf*suf.taetxm;tay:=unfI h / pepfwus&iS ;f vif;pGmazmfjyxm;yHkEiS hf jynfwiG f;&Sd apmif=h unfah vhvma&;tzGJ@taejzifh vGeu f JpmG &nfreS f;csuf rxm;&Sdy/kH &&Sv d mrnfh &efyakH iGtay: aumif;rGepf mG toH;k csEidk rf nfh t&nftcsif;&Syd H/k wwfEidk for# ac|wmpGm wifjyxm;yHu k kd tvSL&Siu f txif}uD;av;pm;r_c&H Edik fygonf?

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ay;tyfvmrnfh b¾maiGudk rnfonfah e&mrsm;wGif OD;pm;ay;oH;k pGrJ nfukd tvSL&Sifrsm;u odv=kd uygvdrfrh nf? od@k twGuf a=umifh pepfusaomb¾ma&;xde;f csKyfr_EiS fh oifah vsmaf om b¾ma&;tpD&ifcHpmrsm;wifjyr_rsm;rSm txl;ta&;}uD;vSyg onf? tu,fI vlxt k ajcðytzGJ@tpnf;rsm;yl;aygif;I !Ge@f aygi;f tzG@J zG@J pnf;aqmif&u G yf gu/ oD;jcm; b%fpm&if;wpfckziG v hf Spf aqmif&u G &f ef vdt k yfygvdrfhrnf? odk@aomfvnf; Tod@k aqmif&Gu&f ef vrf;!$ecf suu f dk tzG@J rsm;. oabmwlncD suf/ vlxk tajcðy tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;. zGJ@pnf;yHkpnf;rsO;f / oufqikd &f m Edkiif H.Oya'rsm;ESifh pDrcH ef@cGaJ &;qdik &f m pnf;rsOf;rsm;t& aqmif&u G f &ef vdt k yfygonf? *? tpDtpOfzGJ@pnf;yHEk iS fh vkyif ef;wm0efrsm;/ tu,fI jynfwiG ;f &Sd a&G;aumufyaJG pmif=h unfah vhvma&;tzGJ@wpfcu k / ‚if;wd@k taejzifh rnfod@k vufawG@ususapmif=h unfh }uD; =uyfEidk rf nfudk qH;k jzwfygu/ xda&mufaom tzG@J tpnf; zG@J pnf;yHðk y&ef udpu P kd pOf;pm;&ygrnf? tawG@tñuHrsm;t&/ apmif=h unfh avhvmrnft h zGJ@tpnf;. zGJ@pnf;yHkonf/ tydik ;f u¾ (3) ck yg0ifoifhygonf? (1) vkyif ef;tpDtpOfrsm;udk pDrcH ef@cGaJ &;ESihf vltrsm;odk@ xkwjf yefa=ujimcsufrsm;ESifh tpD&ifcHpmrsm;xkwjf yefay;rnfh tzGJ@,lepf/ (2) yl;aygif;aqmif&u G rf _EiS hf oH;k oyfrv _ kyf ief;rsm; vkyaf qmifrnft h zGJ@,lepf/ (3) b¾ma&;/ axmufyahH &;/ oifwef;udprP sm;tygt0if tkycf sKyfa&;vkyif ef;rsm; aqmif&u G f rnfh tzGJ@,lepfwdk@jzpfygonf? yHjk znf&h ef?

C? Edik if v H ;Hk qdik &f maqmif&u G af om pDrcH surf sm;? 1? pDrcH ef@cGaJ &;ESifh t,f'w D mqdik &m f&m tzGJ@,lepf TtzGJ@onf/ avhvmapmif=h unfah &;qdik &f m vkyif ef; tpDtpOfrsm;tm;vH;k ud/k yl;aygi;f ndE‡ di_ ;f r_ &Sad p&eftwGu/f aqmif&u G &f rnfh wm0ef&Sdygonf? xdw k m0efrsm;wGif Edik if w H um rdom;pkrsm;/ tvSL&Sirf sm;ESihf qufo, G fy;l aygi;f aqmif&u G af &;&ef/ Edik if H twGi;f t"duusaom yg0ifywfoufaeolrsm;ESihf qufo, G &f ef/ avhvmapmif=h unfah &;qdik &f m rl0g'rsm;ESihf enf;emrsm;csrSwf &efEiS fh/ vltrsm;odk@ xkwjf yefrnfah =ujimcsurf sm;/ tpD&ifcHpmrsm;twGuf oabmwlnDra_ y;&eftwGuf wm0efrsm;tygt0if jzpfygonf? tu,fI vlxt k ajcjyK t&yfzufvlrt _ zG@J tpnf;rsm;ESihf !Gef@aygif;tzGJ@udk zG@J pnf;ygu/ tzG@J toD;oD;rS ud, k pf m; vS,v f t $J yf ay;ydk@vmolrsm;ud/k TtzGJ@. tzGJ@0ifrsm;tjzpf owfrw S fEikd fygonf? tjcm;enf;vrf;wckrmS / rnfonft h zGJ@tpnf; rSvmonfjzpfap/ ta&;r}uD;vSb/J oifah vsmaf om u|rf;usirf t _ &nftcsi;f ESifh jynfhpo kH lukd Tvkyif ef;tpDtpOfrsm;udk pDrcH ef@cGJ ap&eftwGuf wm0efay;&efjzpf+yD;/ t&yfzufvrl t _ zGJ@tpnf;rsm;. ud, k fpm;vS,rf sm;yg0ifaom aqG;aEG;0dik ;f zd&k rfuo kd D;oef@zG@J I/ vltrsm;odk@ xkwjf yefaom a=ujimcsurf sm;/ tpD&ifcpH mrsm;twGuf oabmwlncD su&f ,lap&ef jzpfygonf? ‚if;rSm 'g&u dk w f mrsm;. bkwaf umfrDwDtjzpf zGJ@pnf;Edik fygonf? pDrcH ef@cGJa&;ESihf t,f'w D mqdik &f m tzG@J ,lepfo@kd 0efxrf;rsm;udk cef@xm; Edik +f yD;/ vltrsm;ESifh qufq&H rnfhvyk if ef;rsm;tm;vH;k twGu/f jyef=um;qufo, G af &;t&m&St d jzpf/ xm;&SEd ikd yf gonf? 2? yl;aygi;f aqmif&u G rf E_ iS fh oH;k oyfrv _ yk f ief;rsm; vkyaf qmifrnft h zG@J ,lepf TtzGJ@onf a&G;aumufyq GJ idk &f m ta=umif;udpPrsm;/ jy\emrsm;ESihf ywfoufI A[dt k qifw h iG f avhvmapmif=h unfrh nfh tzGJ@ ,lepf jzpfygonf? Edik if t H wGi;f t"duusaom yg0ifywfoufaeolrsm;ESihf qufqI H / a'orsm;/ c&dik rf sm;rS wufvmaom owif;tcsut f vufrsm;udk yl;aygi;f qufpyfr/_ oH;k oyfyikd f;jcm;r_ vkyfrnfjzpfonf? &&SEd ikd for#aom vltm;/ aiGtm;&if;jrpf 26


tajctae/ owfrw S x f m;aom t"duusonfh ta=umif;udprP sm;tay: rlwnfI/ TtzGJ@,lepf.vkyif ef;rsm;onf/ atmuf azmfjyyg vkyif ef;{&d,mrsm;udk aqmif&u G =f urnf jzpfonf? Oya'ydik ;f qdik &f m? ? Oya'jyXmef;csufrsm;udk ydik ;f jcm;oH;k oyfjcif;? w&m;&Hk;rsm;/ w&m;a&;qdik &f m 0efxrf;rsm;ESihf m qufo, G rf _ xm;&Sjd cif;ESifh ‚if;wdk@. vkyif ef;rsm;udk apmif=h unf}h uD;=uyfaejcif;? tjiif;yGm;r_qdik &f m udprP sm;tay: qHk;jzwfcsuf rsm;udk apmif=h unfah vhvmaejcif;rsm; yg0ifygonf? a&G;aumufyGJ tkycf sKyfa&;? ? Edik if aH wmf a&G;aumufyaJG umfr&Sirf S 0efxrf;rsm;ESihf qufo, G fI/ a&G;aumufyEJG iS hf ywfouf &; I vkyif ef;pDrcH ef@cGJrr_ sm;udk apmif=h unfah vhvmjcif;/ a&G;aumufyaJG umfr&Si. f qH;k jzwfcsufrsm;/ tkycf sKyfa&;qdik &f m vkyif ef; qH;k jzwfcsurf sm;udk Edi_ ;f ,SOaf vhvmjcif;/ rJqEN&iS frsm;pm&if; rnfr#wdusr_ &S-d r&Su d kd avhvmjcif; ponfhvyk if ef;rsm; yg0ifyg onf? owif;rD', D m? ? owif;rD'D,mXmersm;/ owif;axmufor*~rsm;§tpnf;t&H;k rsm;ESihf qufo, G x f m;&Sjd cif;/ a&G;aumufyJG m umvtwGi;f owif;rD', D mrsm;. aqmif&u G fyu kH kd apmif=h unfah vhvmjcif;rsm; yg0ifygonf? v_y&f mS ;r_ urfyed ;f (Campaign) rsm;? ? Edik if aH &;ygwDrsm;/ ud, k fpm;vS,af vmif;rsm;. pnf;&H;k rJq, G af &;tzGJ@rsm;ESihf rsm; qufo, G x f m;+yD;/ vGwv f yfpmG pk&;Hk cGi/fh pka0;cGihf/ azmfjycGihf &Sd-r&Sdukd apmif=h unfah vhvmjcif;/ owif;tcsurf sm; &,ljcif;vkyif ef; rsm;tjyif/ a&G;aumufyGJ rJq, G fpnf;&Hk;v_y&f mS ;r_ 0ef;usi. f r#wr_/ wef;wljzpfr_w@kd udv k nf; apmifh=unfah vhvm&ef vkyif ef;rsm; tygt0if jzpfonf? Edik if w H iG ;f &Sd vlenf;pkrsm;?; ? Edik if t H wGif;&Sd trsKd;om;a&; vlenf;pk udk,pf m;vS,frsm;/ TudprP sm;ESihf oufqdik af omtpdk;& Xme/ tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;/ t&yfzufvrl t _ zGJ@tpnf;rsm;ESifh qufoG,x f m;&Sjd cif;/ apmif=h unfah vhvmjcif;/ Edik if t H wGi;f a&G;aumuf yGv J kyif ef;pOfrsm;wGif trsK;d om;a&; vlenf;pkrsm; yg0ifaqmif&u G fr_ taetxm;udk avhvmjcif;rsm; yg0ifygonf? vdiu f jGJ ym;r_? ? wef;wltcGit fh vrf;&&Sad &;twGuf aqmif&u G af y;ae=uaom tpd;k &Xmersm;/ tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;/ tpdk;& r[kwaf om tzGJ@rsm;ESifh qufoG,I f / a&G;aumufyv JG kyif ef;pOfrsm;wGif trsKd;orD;rsm; yg0ifaqmif&u G rf _ tcsuftvufrsm;&,l jcif;/ apmif=h unfah vhvmjcif;tygt0if/ trsK;d orD;rsm; ta&;ESihf ywfoufaomta=umif;udprP sm;udk azmfjyjcif;rsm;udk avhvm apmif=h unf&h ef jzpfonf? a'oqd G rf ?_ ? vrf;!$ecf sufrsm;/ !$e=f um;csufrsm; ay;jcif;tyg a'oqidk &f m apmif=h unfah vhvmaeolrsm;. yl;aygi;f aqmif&u t0if/ a'oqdik &f mrsm;rS ay;ydk@vmaom tpD&ifcHpmrsm;udk vufcjH cif;/ ydik ;f jcm;oH;k oyfjcif; vkyif ef;rsm; tygt0ifjzpfygonf? TtzGJ@,lepfwiG f oufqidk &f mu|rf;usirf t _ &nftcsif;&Sad om 0efxrf;rsm;jzifh pkzJG@oif+h yD;/ Oyrmtm;jzifh- Oya'a=umif;qdik &f m u|rf;usifr&_ aSd om 0efxrf;rsKd; yg0ifoifhygonf? xdk@tjyif pm&if;tif;ESihf ywfoufI 0efxrf;rsK;d yg0ifoif+h yD;/ udef;*%ef;tcsuf tvufrsm;udk pm&if;ðypkavhvm&ef/ Edi_ ;f ,SOaf vhvm&ef/ pm&if;oGi;f &ef/ ude;f *%ef;qdik &f m cGjJ crf;pdwjf zm&eftwGuf aqmif&u G f apoifyh gonf? 3? tkycf sKyfa&;ESifh avhusio fh ifwef;ay;a&;tzGJ@ ,lepf

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T,lepfonf/ tkycf sKyfa&;qdik &f mudpt P 00udk wm0ef,loif+h yD;/ aiG0if-xGufbwf*sufpm&if;ESihf pm&if;rsm;ðypkjcif;/ vlopfrsm; pnf;&Hk;pkaqmif;jcif;/ apwem0efxrf;rsm;qdik &f m tcsut f vufrsm; pkaqmif;xm;&Sjd cif;udpPrsm; tygt0ifjzpfygonf? apmifh =unfah vhvma&; yl;aygif;aqmif&u G rf _EiS fh oHk;oyfrv _ yk if ef;rsm; vkyaf qmifrnft h zG@J ,lepf (Observation Co-ordination and Analysis Unit) ESifh yl;aygif;aqmif&u G I f / oifwef;qdik &f m pm&Gupf mwrf;rsm; ðypkxw k af 0jcif;tygt0if/ yl;aygi;f nd‡Ei_d ;f a&; qdik &f m oifwef;rsm;ay;jcif;/ oifwef;ay;rnfh q&mrsm;udk pnf;&H;k jcif;/ tqifq h ifw h ikd ;f wGi&f adS eaom 0efxrf;rsm;ESihf apwemh 0efxrf;rsm;twGuf oifwef;rsm;pDpOfjcif;/ oifwef;rsm;udk tuJjzwfjcif;udprP sm;twGuf wm0ef&ydS gonf? pDrcH ef@cGaJ &;ESifh t,f'w D mqdik &f m tzGJ@,lepfEiS fh apmif=h unfah vhvma&; yl;aygi;f aqmif&u G frE_ iS hf oHk;oyfrv _ kyif ef;rsm; vkyaf qmif rnft h zGJ@,lepf/ tzGJ@0ifrsm;udk oifwef;rsm;ay;&mY/ tqifjh rifhpmG pDraH qmif&u G I f ay;oifhygonf? tu,fI a'oqdik &f m twGi;f wGif t&nftcsif;&So d rl sm;/ tqifoif&h Edik yf gu toH;k csoifyh gonf? od@k r[kwyf gu Edik if t H wGi;f &Sd apmif=h unfah vhvma&; tzGJ@rsm;onf/ Edik if w H umrS u|rf;usio f lrsm;. tultnDudk &,loifyh gonf? Tod@k &,l&mwGif/ tjcm;Edik if rH S a&G;aumufyJG apmif=h unfah vhvma&; tawG@tñuH&aSd om/ jynfwiG f;apmif=h unfah vhvma&; tzGJ@rsm;xHrjS zpfap/ odk@r[kwf Edik if w H umtzGJ@ tpnf;rsm;xHrS jzpfap/ odk@r[kwf TudpPrsm;udk u|rf;usiaf om tpd;k &r[kwo f nfh (tJef*st D )kd tzG@J rsm;xHrS jzpfap &,lEikd fyg onf? tu,fI avhusio fh ifwef;ay;r_rsm;+yD;ygu/ pDrcH ef@cGaJ &;ESihf t,f'w D mqdik &f m tzGJ@,lepfEiS hf apmif=h unfah vhvma&; yl;aygi;f aqmif&u G frE_ iS fh oH;k oyfr_vyk if ef;rsm; vkyaf qmifrnft h zG@J ,lepfrsm;rS tzGJ@0ifrsm;ud/k 0efxrf;rsm;ESihf a'oqdik &f mtqif/h atmufajctqif0h efxrf;rsm;udk oifwef;rsm; xyfraH y;&eftwGuf toH;k csEikd yf gonf? i? a'otvdu k Ef iS fh Xmaetvdu k f pDrcH surf sm;? t&if;tjrpfrsm;u tajctaeay;cGiðfh yonft h wdik ;f / jynfwiG ;f &Sd apmif=h unfah vhvma&;tzGJ@rsm;onf/ a'oqdik &f mtqifhrsm; wGiv f nf; apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;csxm;Edik +f yD;/ a&G;aumufyJGrwdik rf D tóuumv/ rJay;pOf/ rJa&wGupf Of/ rJpm&if;a&;oGi;f pOf umvrsm;Y apmif=h unfah vhvmapEdik fygonf? a'oqdik &f mtqifrh sm;wGif wnf&adS pmif=h unfhEikd jf cif;tm;jzifh/ txl;ojzifh c&dik rf sm;/ jrLeDpDy,fòr@e,ftqifrh sm;wGif ud, k pf m;vS,af vmif;pm&if;ay;oGif;rSwyf Hw k if=u&aom/ ygvDrefv$waf wmf a&G; aumufyGJrsm;ESifh a'oqdik &f mtpd;k &a&G;aumufyJGrsm;twGuf txl;ta&;}uD;vSygonf? xd@k tjyif a'oqdik &f mtqifw h G if tiftm;aumif;aumif;jzifh aqmif&u G Ef idk jf cif;tm;jzif/h rJqEN&iS pf m&if;Z,m;rsm;. wdusr/_ a&G;aumufyJGrq J , G fpnf;&H;k r_rsm;ESihf 0ifa&mufpGuzf ufjcif; &S-d r&Sw d dk@ud/k taumif;qH;k od&dSEikd =f uygonf? k &f ma'otwGi;f &Sd oufqikd af eaom a'oqdik &f m apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm; (Regional Monitors) onf/ olw@kd tajcpdu ta&;ygorl sm;tm;vH;k ESifh qufo, G rf _udk xde;f odrf;xm;oifo h nf? olwd@k .wm0efrsm;wGi/f vGwv f yfpmG pnf;&Hk;cGi/hf pka0;cGi/hf vGwv f yfpmG azmfjyajymqdck iG fh tajctaeudk apmif=h unft h uJjzwfjcif;/ a&G;aumufyv JG kyif ef;pOfrsm;wGif a'oqdik &f mtpd;k &rsm;. tcef;u¾/ a&G;aumufyGJ tkyfcsKyfru _ ¾ESifh tjcm;aomtkycf sKyfa&;qdik &f mXmersm;/ w&m;a&;0efxrf;rsm;/ tpd;k & tr_vu kd f t&m&Srd sm;/ vHðk cHa&;Xmersm;. pGr;f aqmifrr_ sm;udk avhvmtuJjzwfjcif;/ a'oqdik &f m owif;Xmersm;. yg0ifywfoufaer_EiS hf bufrvdu k fr_rsm;udk avhvmtuJjzwfjcif;/ vdiu f jJG ym;r_EiS hf wdki;f &if;om;vlenf;pkrsm;. ta=umif;udprP sm;udk avhvmtuJ jzwfjcif;rsm; yg0ifygonf? xdkorl sm;udk rJqEN&iS fpm&if; ppfwrf;aumufr_rsm;twGuv f nf;/ toH;k ðyavh&=dS u+yD;/ vdt k yfygu rJqEN&iS frsm; rSwfyw Hk if&mXmersm;Y/ vkyif ef;pOfrsm;udk apmif=h unfah p&ef apcdik f;Edik yf gonf? oifah vsmaf om oifwef;rsm;ay;+yD; aemufwiG /f a&G;aumufyq GJ dik &f m tjiif;yGm;r_rsm;udk =um;emaomcH&k ;kH rsm;Yvnf;/ apmif=h unft h uJjzwfapEdik &f ef/ apcdik ;f Edik fyg onf? a'oqdik &f m apmif=h unfhavhvmolrsm;udk &ufowWywftcsK@d rS/ vtcsKd@wdik f vdt k yfrt _ ajctaet&ESihf cGiðhf yEdik af om &if;jrpftajctaet& wm0efay;Edik fygonf? olwkd@.apmif=h unfhavhvm tuJjzwfrw _ m0efrsm;tjyif/ a'oqdik &f mapmif=h unfh

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avhvmolrsm;ud/k vlopfrsm;pkaqmif;jcif;/ oifwef;ay;jcif;/ }uD;=uyfa&;vkyif ef;rsm;ESihf apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;udk ae&mcs jcif;vkyif ef;rsm;twGuv f nf; wm0efay;Edik fygonf? avhvmolrsm; (Observers) ud/k rJ&Hkrsm;ESifh rJa&wGu&f mae&mrsm;wGif rJay;&mYvnf;aumif;/ rJa&wGu&f m/ rJpm&if;a&;oGif; &mY wm0efay;Edik fygonf? xdkorl sm;udk tòyifraJ &wGufrv _ kyif ef; (Parallel vote tabulation) Y yg0ifaqmif&u G &f efvnf; wm0efay;Edik fygonf? odk@r[kwf rJ&rHk sm;rS&v'frsm;udk ud, k fpm;ðyxm;onfherlemrsm;jzif/h tjrefraJ &wGuf cef@rSef;r_ (Quick count) twGuv f nf; wm0efay;Edik fygonf? Tvkyif ef;rsm;udk vkyaf qmifapEdik &f ef/ usKd;yrf;apoifhygonf? 16

p? bufrvdu k rf ?_ jynfwiG f;Y a&G;aumufyGaJ pmif=h unfah vhvm=uaom tkypf krsm;onf/ rdrad qmif&u G o f r#aom vkyif ef;rsm;Y/ bufvu kd fru _ if; &Si;f ap&ef/ aocsmaqmif&u G &f ef ta&;}uD;vSygonf? tkyfpw k ckv;kH taejzifh jzpfap/ woD;yk*v ~ avhvmolrsm;taejzifh jzpfap/ owdðy&efrmS / vltrsm;. xifjrifc&H r_onfvnf;/ vufawG@tajctaeuJo h kd@yif ta&;}uD;a=umif; oabmaygux f m;&ygrnf? tcsed w f idk f;Y bufvdkurf u _ if;&Sif;pGm aqmif&u G af ea=umif;/ vltrsm;u jrifap=u&ygrnf? tu,fI jynfwiG f; a&G;l aumufyJG apmif=h unfah vhvma&;tzGJ@wck. bufvdkurf u _ if;&Si;f jcif;tay:/ tajctae tqifw h pHw k ckY oHo,&Scd &H ygu/ Ttcsuf a=umifh ‚if;.awG@&Scd surf sm;ESifh tpD&ifcpH mrsm;tay: xdcu kd fysuf,iG ;f apEdik fygonf? (OSCE) a'otwGi;f wGi/f (OSCE/ODIHR) XmeatmufY&Sad om Edik if Hwumapmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;onf/ usihf0wfrsm;

udk av;pm;vdu k fem=u&ygonf? jynfwiG ;f Y a&G;aumufyaJG pmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;rSm/ Tusihf0wfrsm;twdik ;f vdkuef maqmif &Gu&f eftwGu/f wm0efr&S=d uyg? odk@aomfvnf;/ Tusihf0wfrsm;udk tajccHI/ ‚if;wdk@.ud, k fyikd f usi0hf wfrsm;udk ðypkEikd =f uyg onf? tcsKd@aomEdik if Hrsm;wGi/f a&G;aumufyGJusi;f yaom tm%mydik frsm;u/ apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;twGuf usihf0wfrsm;udk a&;qGjJ yXmef;&ef vdt k yf=uonfvnf; &Sdygonf? od@k aomfvnf;/ Tusihf0wfpnf;urf;rsm;onf/ olw@kd . tajccHtcGit hf a&;jzpf aom apmif=h unfah vhvmcGiu fh dk rxdyg;apoifhb/J xdt k csufrsm;a=umifo h m a&G;aumufyJG vkyif ef;pOfrsm;udk ydkrw kd kd;wufap&ef tm;jznfo h ifyh gonf? (ODIHR) Edik if w H um a&G;aumufyaGJ pmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;twGuf usi0hf wfrsm;

 apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;onf/ olw@kd .wm0efxrf;aqmifaepOftwGi;f / bufvkdurf _ r&Sad p&ef wif;wif;usyfusyf vdu k ef m aqmif&u G &f rnf? xdk@tjyif Edik if . H tm%mydik frsm;/ Edik if aH &;ygwDrsm;/ ud, k fpm;vS,af vmif;rsm;ESihf ywfoufI tav;uJazmfjy jcif;/ rdrdpw d óf uufukd azmfjyjcif; rnfonft h csdefr# tvsO;f r&Sad p&? odk@r[kwf a&G;aumufyv GJ kyif ef;pOfEiS fh ywfoufI tjiif;yGm; zG,f vdycf Jwif;vif;jzpfaeaom rnfonfjh y\emtay: rqd/k &nf!e$ ;f azmfjyjcif; r&Sad p&? 16

rJ&rHk sm;rS&v'frsm;udk ud, k pf m;ðyxm;onfeh rlemrsm;jzif/h tjrefrJa&wGuf cef@reS ;f r_ (Quick count) onf/ rJ&v'fwu d sru _ dk qH;k jzwfEidk &f ef twGuf txl;toH;k 0ifvyS gonf? txl;ojzifh rJ&&Srd t _ csK;d tvdu k f a&G;cs,cf &H aom Edik if v H ;Hk qdik &f m a&G;aumufyGJrsm; (National propotional contest) wGif jzpfygonf? pifòyifrJa&wGurf _ (PVT) xuf wdusre_ nf;aomfvnf;/ tjrefrJa&wGuf cef@reS ;f r_enf;onf/ zGJ@pnf;aqmif&u G &f ef vG,u f +l yD;/ (PVT) xuf pmv#i/f &v'fudk tjrefoad pEdik yf gonf? odk@aomfvnf; vdt k yfaomtcsurf mS / erlem&,lxm;rIrsm;onf/ aocsmud, k pf m;ðyr_ &Sad p&ef jzpfygonf? odk@ twGuaf =umif/h Edik if v H ;Hk qdik &f m vlra_ &;ESifh vlO;D a&qdik &f mudprP sm;twGuf tawG@tñuH&aSd om pm&if;tif;ynm&Siu f yg0ifaqmif&u G I f / t=uH^m%f rsm; ay;oifyh gonf? 29


 apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;onf/ owif;rD'D,mrsm;ESihf ywfoufIaomfvnf;aumif;/ od@k r[kwf tjcm;aompdw0f if pm;zG,f yk*~Kd vfrsm;ESifh ywfoufIaomfvnf;aumif;/ olwkd@.avhvmawG@&Scd sufrsm;ud/k yk*Kd~ vfa&;tjrif&jzpfap/ tcsdef rwdik frD wifóuIjzpfap/ xifjrifcsufay;jcif;rsm; rðyvky&f ef xdef;odr;f apmifhpnf;&rnf? olw@kd taejzifh apmif=h unfah vh vmoltjzpf aqmif&u G v f _y&f mS ;aomvkyif ef;rsm;. oabmobm0ESihf ywfoufI a,bk,sowif;tcsut f vuf rsm;udk rSwcf sufcsjcif;udk uef@owfxed f;csKyf&rnf?  apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;onf/ olw@kd . ed*;kH csKyfq;kH jzwfcsurf sm;udk aumif;pGmrSww f rf;wifxm;aom/ tcsut f vuf jynfhpaHk om/ twnfðyoufaojyEdik af om taxmuftxm;rsm;tay:wGio f m/ tajccHðyvky&f rnf? oGm;a&muf=unfh &_co Jh r#aom rJ&Hkrsm;wGi/f pm&if;tif;t& yHkpHpm&Gufrsm;jznfo h iG ;f jcif;udk txl;vdv k m;pGm aqmif&Guo f ifo h nf?  apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;onf/ a&G;aumufy+JG yD;umv jyefvnfppk nf;ajz&Sif;r_ aqG;aEG;yGw J iG f yg0if&efvt kd yfonf? vdt k yfygu zufpfydk@puf/ w,fvDzek f;rsm;rSwqifh yg0ifaqmif&u G fEkdio f nf?  apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;onf/ tdr&f iS Ef dik if H tpdk;&u/ od@k r[kwf a&G;aumufyJG aumfr&Siu f xkwaf y;xm;aom/ owfrw S af zmfjyxm;onfh oufaocHu'fjym;rsm;udk ,laqmifomG ;&rnf? pdwf0ifpm;aom tm%mydik frsm;u awmif;cH vmygu/ olwdk@ud, k o f w l dk@ azmfxw k af jymqd&k rnf?  apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;onf/ ygww D ckcEk iS fh yl;wGaJ zmfjyaom trSwt f om;/ ta&mif/ acgi;f pD;rsm;udk 0wfqifazmfjy jcif; rðy&?  apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;onf/ olw@kd .wm0efxrf;aqmifaepOfumvtwGi;f / wm0ef0wW&m; raESmifh,u S frad p&ef ðyrlaqmif&u G &f rnf? a&G;aumufyv JG kyif ef;pOf/ a&G;aumufyu JG sif;yonfah e@ vkyif ef;aqmifwmrsm;/ od@k r[kwf rJ a&wGujf cif;udk 0ifa&mufpu G fzufjcif; r&Sad p&?  apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;onf/ rrSeu f efrr_ sm;udk a'oqdik &f m a&G;aumufyt JG m%mydik frsm;odk@ today;/ od&adS pvdkyg u/ aqmif&u G Ef idk o f nf? odk@aomf !$e=f um;csufrsm;ay;jcif; rnfonft h cgr# rðyvky&f ? od@k r[kwf a&G;aumufyt JG &m&Sd rsm;ESifh qef@usifI !$e=f um;csufrsm; ay;jcif; rðy&?  apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;onf/ Edik if . H wnfqJ Oya'rsm;ESihf pnf;rsO;f rsm;udk apmifx h def;=u&rnf? tjcm;apmif=h unfah vhvma&;qdki&f m pnf;urf;rsm;wGi/f atmufygtcsufrsm;vnf; yg0ifygonf?  Edik if aH &;ygwt D rsm; tygt0if/ jzpfEikd o f r# tus,t f jyef@aom oufqikd &f mawG@qHak qG;aEG;&rnfo h lrsm;ESifh awG@qHo k ifo h nf? apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;onf/ TaqG;aEG;yGJrsm;udk tkycf sKyfaeaomEdik if aH &;ygwcD snf;ESihf jzpfap/ twdu k t f cHygwDrsm;csnf;ESifh jzpfap/ aqmif&u G &f ef rnfonft h cgr# uef@owfcsKyfcs,fxm;jcif; r&Sdap&? tvm;wlyif/ ygwDpHk a&G;aumufyaGJ umfr&Sifwnf&dS aeygu/ apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;onf/ Edik if aH &;a&mifpOfwef;toD;oD;rS tzGJ@0ifrsm;ESifh awG@qH&k rnf?  rJq, G f pnf;&Hk;v_y&f mS ;r_rsm;wGif rnfonft h cgr# yl;aygif;yg0ifjcif; r&Sad p&? odk@aomf apmif=h unfah vhvm&eftwGuf wufa&mufjcif;udk vufcHEidk fonf?  tusK;d pD;yGm;t& yÉdyuQ&aSd pEdik fonf/h rnfonfv h kyif ef;aqmif&Gurf _rsKd;wGifrS yg0ifywfoufjcif; r&Sad p&? TudpPrsm; wGif txl;ojzifh pD;yGm;a&;oabmwlncD sufrsm;ðyjcif;jzpfonf? od@k aomf TudpPrwdik frw D nf;u óuwif&adS ecJah om/ qufvufaqmif&u G af eqJjzpfaom/ u|rf;usirf _ oufarG;0rf;ausmif;qdik &f m vkyif ef;rsm;onfvnf;/ ‚if;.vkyaf qmif &rnfh tcef;u¾udk tjrif&y_ af xG;ap&ef jzpfygu/ tygt0if jzpfonf?

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 rdrd yk*K~d vfa&;t& apmif=h unfah vhvmonfjh zpf&yfEiS /hf tjcm;aom apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;u wifjytpD&ifc=H uonfh jzpf&yfrsm;ESifh &Si;f vif;uGjJ ym;pGm azmfjyoifo h nf?  tpD&ifcw H ifjyr_onf r#w&efvdktyf+yD;/ Tvkyif ef;pOftwGi;f tðyoabmaqmifonfh jzpfay:wd;k wufr_rsm;ESihf &v'f aumif;rsm;udv k nf; azmfjyoifhonf? tvm;wl rrSeu f efrr_ sm;ESihf pnf;rsO;f csKd;azmufrr_ sm;udkvnf; azmfjy&rnf?  xdcu dk v f , G af om ta&;}uD;owif;rsm; vufc&H &Sv d mygu/ v#Kd@0Suf apmifx h ed ;f &rnf? txl;ojzifh +cdrf;ajcmufonf/ odk@r[kwf t=urf;zufrr_ sm; ywfoufaeonf[k pGyfpaJG zmfjy=uonfh owif;rsm; jzpfonf?  a&G;aumufyt GJ &m&Srd sm;u wrifwum&nf&, G I f Tvkyif ef;pOf wckv;kH tay: ,H=k unfr_enf;ap&efaqmif&u G jf cif; r[kwaf omfvnf;/ tawG@tñuHenf;r_/ Oya'ESihf ru|r;f 0ifra_ =umif/h trSm;rsm;ðyvkyfz, G &f o dS nfuv kd nf; todtrSwf ðyxm;&ygrnf?

q? todtrSwðf yr_ &,ljcif;? jynfwiG f;Y a&G;aumufyaGJ pmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;ESihf/ Edik if Hwumavhvmolrsm;onf/ a,bk,stm;jzifh a&G;aumufyt JG kycf sKyf a&;tm%mydik rf sm;xHrS todtrSwðf yr_ &,l&ef/ av#mufxm;&ef vdt k yfygonf? a&G;aumufyJGavhvmrnfhol trsm;tjym; twGu/f todtrSwðf yr_rsm; xkwaf y;&efqo dk nfrmS / }uD;av;aomvkyif ef; jzpfygonf? Oya't&jyXmef;xm;aom vdt k yfcsuf rsm;ESifh avsmn f Donf/h odk@r[kwf a&G;aumufyt GJ yk cf sKyfa&; !$e=f um;csufrsm;ESihf avsmn f o D nf/h jynfwiG f;avhvma&;tzG@J rsm;udk om/ todtrSwðf yay;onfu rsm;ygonf? tkycf sKyfa&;ESihf avhusio hf ifwef;ay;a&; tzG@J ,lepfrsm;u/ vdt k yfaomtaxmuf txm;tjynft h pHu k dk/ tm%mydkirf sm;odk@/ tcsdefrD wifjyEdik &f ef aocsmaqmif&u G &f ygrnf? od@k rSom todtrSwðf yr_/ oufao u'fjym;rsm; csucf si;f xkwaf y;&,l Edik =f urnf jzpfonf? tm%mydik frsm;ESihf aumif;rGeaf om vkyif ef;qufqaH &;xde;f odrf;xm; jcif;onfvnf;/ Todk@ todtrSwðf y/ cGiðfh ycsuf &&Sad &;twGuf/ vG,u f al csmarG@apygonf?

31


3? Oya'aOya'a-umif;qdik &f mudyk idk ;f jcm;oH;k oyfjcif; u? Oy'a=umif;qdik &f mydik ;f jcm;oH;k oyfjcif;.ta&;}uD;yHk c? Oy'a=umif;qdik &f mydik ;f jcm;oH;k oyfjcif;twGuf tajccHru l ef@owfcsuf *? a&G;aumufyt GJ jiif;yGm;r_Z,m; a&;qGjJ cif;?

 a±G;aumufyGJEiS fh pyfqidk af om Oy'rSeo f r#udk &SmazGaz:xkwjf cif;ESihf aumif;pGmtu|rf;w0if&jdS cif;?  Oya'a=umif;qdik &f m ydik ;f jcm;oH;k oyfjcif;tm;jzif/h TOya'rsm;u 'Dru kd a&pDa±G;aumufyGrJ sm;twGuf tusK;d ðyyHt k wdik ;f twmudk tuJjzwfjcif;?  a±G;aumufyt GJ wGif;rSm jzpfvmp&m&Sad omjy\emrsm;udk axmufjy&efEiS hf a±G;aumufyt JG +yD;rSm ðyjyifajymif; vJa&; t=uHðycsufrsm;ay;&ef twGu/f Oya'rsm;.csdK@,Gif;csufrsm;ud&k mS azGaz:xkwjf cif;?  Oya't&jyefvnfupk m;r_rsm;vkyEf dik jf cif;&Sd-r&SdEiS hf ‚if;wd@k onf Oy'qdik &f mtjiif;yGm;r_rsm;udk trsKd;tpm; cGjJ cm;jcif;? ta=umif;&if;avhvmjcif;wd@k twGuf taxmuftulay;Edik jf cif;&Sd-r&Sd odEikd af tmif a±G;aumufyJG tjiif;yGm;r_ pm&if;Z,m;udk a&;qGjJ cif;?

(u) Oy'a=umif;qdik &f mydik ;f jcm;oH;k oyfjcif;.ta&;}uD;yHk a&G;aumufyaGJ pmif=h unfah vhvmr_.ta&;}uD;aom &_axmifw h pfcrk mS Oy't&pnf;urf;owfrw S fro _ nf 'Drkdua&pDa&G;aumufyJG rsm;ud/k rnfonft h wdik ;f twmtxd taxmuftulay;a=umif; ydki;f jcm;oH;k oyfjcif;yif jzpfonf? tajccHOya'ESihf a&G;aumuf yGJ Oya'tm;vH;k yg0ifoifah om Tydik ;f jcm;oH;k oyfrr_ sKd;udk apmif=h unfrh _nE‡d id_ ;f a&;tzG@J ESihf ydik ;f jcm;oH;k oyfa&;tzGJ@wdk@rS Oy'a&;&m u|rf;usio f rl sm;u apmpD;Edik for#apmapmpD;pD;umvuwnf;yif vkyx f m;oifhygonf? ±d;k ±d;k &Si;f &Sif;udpPrsm;udk tajccHOya'jzifh ajz&Si;f I &ygonf? odk@aomf A[dak &G;aumufyaGJ umfr&Sirf S xkwfjyefrnfh tkycf sKyfrq _ ikd &f mvkyx f kH;vkyfenf; tqifq h ifhyg0ifaom pnf;rsOf;/ pnf;urf;rsm;jzifh ajz&Si;f v#iv f nf; &ygonf? od@k jzpf&m pnf;rsO;f pnf;urf;rsm;udyk g ydik ;f jcm;oH;k oyfoifyh gonf?

32


Oya'a&;&mpnf;urf;uef@owfr_rsm;udk ydik ;f jcm;pdyjf zmr_onf vl@tcGit hf a&;tygt0if Edik w f umtpOftvm/ tqift h wef;ESihf udu k n f aD tmif/ odk@r[kwf Oya'rsm; ydrk dk uspfvpfodyo f nf; (wenf;) ydkrx kd ad &mufatmif/ t=uHðycsufrsm;a&;om;&mY ay: xGuv f mEdik fygonf? t=uHðycsufrsm;a&;om;&mY a&m&mwdusatmif *±kðyoifo h nf/ tb,fah =umift h =uHðy&a=umif;ESihf ywfoufIvnf; a&a&vnfvnf&iS ;f jyoifo h nf? a&G;aumufyJGrwdik frDrmS jzpfap/ a&G;aumufyJGt+yD;rSm jzpfap/ a&G;aumufyJG Oya'ajymifvaJ &;ESifh ydkradk umif;rGefvma&;twGuf wifjyonfo h abmjzifh t=uHðycsufrsm;udak &;om;Edik yf gonf? (c) Oy'a=umif;qdik &f mydik ;f jcm;oHk;oyfjcif;twGuf pnf;urf;uef@owfcsuf (OSCE/ODIHR) u ðypkay;xm;aom jynfhpo kH nfv h rf;!$efcsurf sm;onf a&G;aumufyGOJ ya' qdik &f mydik ;f jcm;oH;k oyfjcif; twGuf pnf;urf;uef@owfcsuftjzpf taxmuftulay;ygonf?17 a&G;aumufyJGEiS hfywfoufaomta=umif;t&mrsm;udk jyefvnfpDppf&mY wnDwnmwnf;jzpfap&ef/ tm;xm;avmufp&mjzpfap&ef/ a±S@aemufn! D $waf p&efEiS hf rSeu f efwu d sap&ef 18 &nf±, G v f suf vrf;!$ecf sufrsm;udk ðypkxm;jcif;jzpfonf? atmufrmS tusOf;csKyfuakd z:jyxm;ygonf? tydik f;toD;oD;Y vrf;!$ecf suw f ckpD ESifh xnfo h iG ;f pOf;pm;p&m ar;cGe;f wpfppkH D yg0ifygonf? Oya'a&;&m pnf;urf;uef@owfcsuf wnfaqmufykH Oya'a&;&ma'pnf;urf;uef@owfcsuaf &;qG&J mY trsm;jynfoltvG,w f ul em;vnfEikd &f rnf/ jrifomxifom&S&d rnf/ 'Dru kd a&pDa&G;aumufyjGJ zpfajrmufa&;twGuf vdt k yfaom t*Fg&yftm;vH;k ESihf pyfqidk &f rnf? xdk@jyif rJray;rD uwnf;uyif óuwifI t+yD;tjywf csrSw+f yD; jzpfae&rnf?  Oya'a&;&mpnf;urf;owfrSwcf suf. &nf±, G cf suo f nf &Si;f vif;jywfom;jcif;/ jrifomxifomjcif;/ESihf trsm;jynfol em;vnfEidk jf cif; &Syd govm;?  vl@tcGit fh a&;udk zGJ@pnf;tkycf sKyfyt Hk ajccHOya'ygjyXmef;csurf sm;jzifh umuG,af pmif=h uyfay;xm;ygovm;?  (a&G;aumufyEGJ iS )fh ywfoufqufpyfaeaom Oy'tm;vHk;(zGJ@pnf;tkycf sKyfyt kH ajccHOya'/ taxGaxGa&G;aumufyJGEiS hf tjcm;a&G;aumufyGJrsm;qdik &f mOya'/ Edik o f m;/ Edik if aH &;ygw/D owif;rD', D mESihf trsm;jynfoq l ikd &f mjyef=um;a&;Oya'/ a&G;aumufyOGJ ya' csKd;azgufr_EiS fh pyfqikd af om &mZ0wfOya'jyXmef;csurf sm;/&mZ0wfru _ sihfx;kH Oya'rsm;/ ESifh A[dak &G;aumufyaGJ umfr&Si. f !$e=f um;csufrsm;tñuH;0ifygonf?) udk pDppf=unf+h yD;yg+yDvm;? a&G;aumufypGJ epf owfrw S x f m;aom a&G;aumufyGJpepfonf rnfonft h zGJ@tpnf;rsm;udk a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufoenf;/ESpu f mvtydik ;f tjcm; tvdu k af &G;aumufyu GJ si;f y}udr/f a&G;aumufyu GJ si;f ya&;tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;zG@J pnf;jcif;udp&P yfrsm;wGif 'Dru kd a&pDa&G;aumuf yGt J wGuv f t dk yfaom tedrq fh ;Hk pHcsdefrsm;&Sad tmiftmrcH&rnf?  a&G;aumufyGJpepfonf 'Dru dk a&pDa&G;aumufyt JG wGuf tedrfq h ;kH pHcsed frsm;&Sad tmif tmrcHygovm;?  tenf;qHk;/ Oya'ðyv$waf wmfw&yf. trwfae&mtm;vH;k twGuf 'Drkdua&pDa&G;aumufyt JG & a&G;aumufygovm;? 17

Guidelines for Reviewing a Legal Framework for Elections, OSCE/ODIHR, Warsaw, 2001, produced in colloboration with the International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (International IDEA). 18 Oya'qdik &f m tajccHrrl sm;udk ydik ;f jcm;ppfaq;aomtcg/ pDppf ppfaq;olu/ aemufq;Hk tpD&ifcpH mudk (OSCE/ODIHR) tzGJ@. a&G;aumufyGJ

avhvmapmif=h unfah &; ud, k pf m;vS,f tzGJ@rsm; (Election observation missions) . tpD&ifcpH mrsm;ESifh wdik yf ift=u&H ,lEidk yf gonf? TtpD&ifcpH m rsm;ud/k OSCE/ODIHR . tifwmeufpmrsuEf mS http://www.osce.org/odihr wGif &,lEidk yf gonf? 33


 'Drdu k a&pDa&G;aumufyGJrsm;udk oifah wmfaomumvtydik ;f tjcm;tvdu k u f si;f yygovm;?  Oya'a&;&m pnf;urf;uef@owfcsuo f nf a&G;aumufyu JG si;f ya&;tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;zG@J pnf;ay;yHkEiS hf pDppfyw kH @kd tay:rSm tm%mwnfygovm;?  rJqENEiS t fh nDtm%mtyfEiS ;f a&;twGucf srSwaf om a&G;aumufyJGz@JG pnf;yHkEiS hf/ wOD;csi;f ud, k fpm;vS,af vmif; twGuv f yk yf idk cf iG t fh yfEiS f;aom vkyx f kH;vkyef nf;tqifq h ifw h @kd udk &Si;f vif;jywfom;pGmaz:jyxm;ygovm;?  a&G;aumufyGJpepfonf vlenf;pkrsm;udk cGjJ cm;r_r&Sdb/J w&m;r#wpGm qufqHygovm;? a&G;cs,w f ifajr‡ ajr‡mufcGciG fh Oya'a&;&m pnf;urf;uef@owfcsuo f nf vlrsm;pku, kd pf m;ðy touft±G,&f dSoEl dik if o H m;tm;vH;k udk vlwikd ;f rJay;cGihfEiS hf wef;wlraJ y;cGifh &&Sad p&rnf?  vlrsm;pku, dk fpm;ðy touft±G,&f o Sd l Edik if o H m;tm;vH;k onf vlwikd ;f rJay;cGifEh iS fh wef;wlraJ y;cGihf &&Syd govm;?  Oya'a&;&m pnf;urf;uef@owfcsuo f nf Oya'a±S@arSmufwiG f vlwikd ;f wef;wljzpfonf [laomtajccHay:rSm cGjJ cm;qufqrH r_ &Sdb/J rJay;cGi&fh &Sad tmif tmrcHygovm;?  rJay;cGit fh ay:rSm uef@owfr_rsm; od@k r[kwf csKyfcs,fr_rsm;&Sdygovm;? tu,fI&So d nfqykd gu/ c|i;f csuo f abm aqmifaom ywf0ef;usit f ajctaersm;a=umifjh zpfa=umif;/ &Si;f vif;jywfom;pGm &Sif;jyxm;ygovm;? GJ m%mydik t f zG@J rsm; a&G;aumufyaGJ umfr&Sirs frsm; /a&G;aumufyt Oya'a&;&m pnf;urf;uef@owfcsuo f nf a&G;aumufyq JG ikd &f m oD;jcm;vGwv f yfaom/ xd@k jyif ormorwfusaompDrt H yk cf sKyfr_ t& a&G;aumufyaGJ umfr&Sirf sm; /a&G;aumufyt JG m%mydik t f zGJ@rsm; zG@J pnf;jcif;/v_y&f mS ;aqmif&u G jf cif;ðyap&rnf?  Oya'a&;&m pnf;urf;uef@owfcsuo f nf a&G;aumufyaJG umfr&Sifrsm;udk oD;jcm;vGwv f yfpGm ESihf ormorwfuspGm zGJ@pnf;apygovm;?  Oya'a&;&m pnf;urf;uef@owfcsuo f nf a&G;aumufyaJG umfr&Sifrsm;udk oD;jcm;vGwv f yfpGmESifh ormorwfuspGm v_y&f mS ;aqmif&u G af pygovm;?  Oya'a&;&mpnf;urf;uef@owfcsufonf a&G;aumufyaJG umfr&Sifrsm;zGJ@pnf;jcif;ESihf v_y&f mS ;aqmif&Gurf _rsm;udk yGiv fh if;jrifom apygovm;? wdk@jyif ‚if;wdk@.vkyaf qmifcsufrsm;udk avhvmolrsm; apmif=h unfEh ikd fatmif óuwif pDraH y;xm;ygovm;?  Oya'a&;&mpnf;urf;uef@owfcsufonf a&G;aumufyaJG umfr&SiftoD;oD;rsm;. vkyfyikd cf iG rhf sm;ESihf wm0efrsm;udk jzpfap/ tpd;k &tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;/ wm0efvuf&t dS m%mydik frsm;ESihf aumfr&Sifrsm;.qufqaH &;ta=umif;udjk zpfap &Si;f vif;jywfom;pGm t"dy`g,f zGiq fh jdk yygovm;?  Oya'a&;&mpnf;urf;uef@owfcsufonf a&G;aumufyaJG umfr&Sifw&yf. qH;k jzwfcsufwckudk y,fveS &f ef vHak vmufaom tcGift h vrf;ay;ygovm;?  Oya'a&;&mpnf;urf;uef@owfcsufonf a&G;aumufyaJG umfr&SiftzG@J 0ifrsm; rw&m;ojzifh xkwfy,frcH&atmif umuG,af pmifh a&Smufay;ygovm;? rJay;olrsm;rSwyf w Hk ifjcif;/rJay;olrsm;pm&if;

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Oya'a&;&m pnf;urf;uef@owfcsurf sm;onf rJay;olrsm;pm&if;udk jrifomxifomatmifEiS hf rSefuefwu d spmG xm;&Sad p&rnf? rJay;cGi&fh aSd omEdik if o H m;rsm;. rSwyf w Hk ifciG u fh dk umuG,af pmifah &Smufap&rnf? xd@k jyif vlrsm;udk Oya'ESihfrnDbJ od@k r[kwf rrSef ruef/ rSwfyw Hk ifay;jcif;/xkwfy,fjcif;rjzpfatmif óuwifumuG,af y;ap&rnf?  rSwfyw Hk ifjcif;jzpfpOfonf rSeu f efwu d s+yD;/jrifomxifom&Sad om rJay;olrsm;pm&if;udók uwifprD x H m;ygovm;?  rJay;olrsm;rSwfyw Hk ifjcif;twGuf jynfph &kH efvt kd yfaomtcsufrsm;udk &Si;f vif;jywfom;+yD;/wdusaompum;jzifh az:jyxm;ygovm;?  rJqEN&iS fwOD;taejzifh rSwyf Hkwif&eftwGuf rnfonfhpm&Gufpmwrf;rsm;vdt k yfonfukd Oya'u &Si;f vifjywfom;pGm az:jyay;xm;ygovm;?  rSwfyw Hk ifjcif;ESifyh wfoufaom qH;k jzwfcsuw f cktay: apm'uwufEikd af &;twGuf vkyfx;kH vkyfenf;tqifq h ifu h kd &Si;f vif;jywfom;aompum;jzifh az:jyxm;ygovm;?  rSwfyw Hk ifjcif;ESifh ywfoufaom qH;k jzwfcsuw f cktay: apm'uwufEikd af &;twGuf aemufqkH;tcsed o f wfrw S cf suu f dk &Si;f vif;jywfom;pGm az:jyxm;ygovm;?  rJqEN&iS fwOD;. yk*~Kd vfa&;tcsuftvufrsm;ESifh owif;tcsut f vufrsm; rw&m;ojzifhxw k af z:jcif;rcH&atmif umuG,af pmifah &Smuf ay;xm;ygovm;? Edik if aH &;ygwrD sm;ESifh ud, k pf m;vS,af vmif;rsm; Oya'a&;&mpnf;urf;uef@owfcsufonff Edik if aH &;ygwDrsm;ESihf udk,pf m;vS,af vmif; rSefor# Oya'a±S@arSmufwiG f vlwikd f;wef; wl jzpfonf[al omtajccHay:rSm wef;wlnrD # ,SOòf yifta&G;cHEikd fap&rnf?  Edik if aH &;ygwDrsm;ESifh ud, k pf m;vS,af vmif;rSeo f r#udk Oya'a±S@arSmufwiG f wef;wlnDr#atmif tmrcHcsuaf y;xm;yg ovm;?  Edik if aH &;ygwt D aeESijfh zpfap/oD;jcm;vGwv f yfaom(woD;yk*v ~ )udk,pf m;vS,af vmif;taeESijhf zpfap/ ud, k fpm;vS,f avmif;rsm;udk ta&G;cHciG &fh atmiftmrcHcsuaf y;xm;ygovm;?  Oya'a&;&mpnf;urf;ue@fowfcsufonf Edik if aH &;ygwDrsm;ESifh udk,pf m;vS,af vmif;rsm;tm;vHk;twGuf nDnmaom òyifuiG ;f wckay;xm;ygovm;?  a&G;aumufyGJEiS fhywfoufI ud, k fpm;vS,af vmif;rsm;rSm jynfpH&k efvt kd yfaomtcsut f vufrsm;udk pyfqikd fr&_ adS om/ oifah vsmaf om/ wdusaom pHxm;csufrsm;ay:rSmtajccHI owfrw S x f m;+yD;/ Oya'rSm &Si;f vif;jywfom;pGm az:jy xm;ygovm;?  ud, k pf m;vS,af vmif;rsm;rSwfyHkwifjcif;qdik &f m vkyfx;kH vkyfenf;rsm;udk Oya'wGif cdik frsmwdusaompum;jzifh usK;d a=umif;qDavsmfpmG ESifh &Sif;vif;jywfom;pGm az:jyxm;ygovm;?  Oya'a&;&mpnf;urf;ue@fowfcsufonf ud, k fpm;vS,af vmif;rSwyf w kH ifjcif;ESiyhf wfoufaom qHk;jzwfcsufrsm;udk w&m;Oya'tjrifjzifh jyefvnfppD pfapygovm;?  Oya'onf rJq, G v f _y&f mS ;r_umvtwGi;f Edik if aH &;ygwDrsm;ESifh udk,pf m;vS,af vmif;rsm;. vkyaf qmifcsurf sm; tay:rSmpnf;rsOf;pnf;urf;jzifx h de;f uGyaf y;ygovm;? xd@k jyif tpdk;&pGuzf ufru _ if;+yD;/ wufºu/ yGihfvif;aom rJq, G v f _y&f mS ;r_twGuf óuwifpDraH y;xm;ygovm;?  Oya'a&;&mpnf;urf;ue@fowfcsufonf a&G;cs,fwifajr‡mufc&H oly*k ~Kd vf. Edik if aH &;ygwu D l;ajymif;r_a=umifh oufwrf;raphb/J xdyk k*~dKvf. tcGit fh m%mtqH;k owfomG ;jcif;rjzpf&atmif umuG,af pmifah &Smuf ay;ygovm;?

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owif;rD', D mudk xdawG@cGiEfh iS fh wef;wlciG fh Oya'a&;&m pnf;urf;uef@owfcsuo f nf Edik if aH &;ygwrD sm;ESihf udk,pf m;vS,frsm;tm;vH;k owif;rD', D mxdawG@cGi&fh adS p&rnfjzpf onft h jyif/tpd;k &ydik f odk@r[kwf tpd;k &csKyfudkiaf om owif; rD'D,mwGif wef;wlnrD #pmG ESichf jJG cm;r_r&Sd qufqcH aH p&rnf? rJqG,f v_y&f mS ;r_umvtwGi;f Edik if aH &;ygwDrsm;ESifh ud, k fpm;vS,rf sm;tm;vH;k rdrw d kd@tjrifrsm;ESihf xifjrifcsurf sm; vGwv f yfpmG xkwf az:cGit fh ay: usKd;a=umif;rqDavsmaf omuef@owfcsurf sm; rxm;&Sad p&?  Oya'a&;&mpnf;urf;ue@fowfcsufonf Edik if aH &;ygwDrsm;ESifh udk,pf m;vS,af vmif;rsm; tm;vH;k udk owif;rD', D mESifh xdawG@ cGi&fh aSd p+yD;/ tpdk;&ydik f odk@r[kwf tpd;k &csKyfuikd af om owif;rD', D mwGif wef;wlnDr#ciG &hf adS pygovm;?  Oya'a&;&mpnf;urf;ue@fowfcsufonf wef;wlnDr#qufqHr&_ &Sda&;twGuw f &m;r#waom/ ±dk;&Si;f aom/ trSefwu,ftoHk;csI&aom yHkpw H pf&yfcsrSwfxm;ygovm;?  Oya'a&;&mpnf;urf;ue@fowfcsufonf rJq, G fvy_ &f mS ;r_umvtwGi;f Edik if o H m;rsm;/ ud, k fpm;vS,af vmif;rsm;ESihf ‚if;wdk@. axmufct H m;ay;olrsm;taejzifh rdrdw@kd .tjrifrsm;ESihf xifjrifcsufrsm;udk vGwfvyfpmG az:jyEdik af tmif tmrcHygovm;? rJq, G v f y_ &Sf&mS ;r_ b¾maiGEiS fh toH;k pm;&dwrf sm; ;r_b¾maiG b¾m Oya'a&;&mpnf;urf;ue@fowfcsufonf rJq, G fvy_ &f mS ;r_b¾maiGEiS hf toH;k pm;&dwfrsm;udp&P yfwGif Edik if aH &;ygwDrsm;ESihf ud, k f pm;vS,af vmif;rsm;tm;vH;k udk Oya'a±S@arSmufrmS wef;wlnrD #jzpfap&rnf;?  Oya'a&;&mpnf;urf;ue@fowfcsufonf rJq, G v f y_ &f mS ;r_b¾maiGEiS hf toH;k pm;&dwrf sm;udp&P yfwGif Edik if aH &;ygwDrsm; ESiu fh dk,f pm;vS,af vmif;rsm;tm;vH;k udk Oya'a±S@arSmufrmS wef;wlnrD #jzpfapygovm;?  Oya'a&;&mpnf;urf;ue@fowfcsufonf rJq, G fvy_ &f mS ;r_rsm;twGuf jynfol@b¾maiGo;kH pGcJ iG hf od@k r[kwf tpd;k &ydik f t&if;tjrpfrsm;oH;k pGcJ iG t fh wGuf óuwifpDrx H m;ygu/ ToHk;pGcJ iG u hf kd Edik if aH &;ygwrD sm;ESihf ud, k fpm;vS,rf sm; tm;vH;k onf Oya'a±S@arSmufwiG f wef;wlnrD #jzpfonf[al om tajccHay:rSmpDrx H m;ygovm;?  ud, k yf dik f rJq, G fvy_ &f mS ;r_&HyaHk iGrsm;tay:xm;&Sad om uef@owfcsufrsm;onf usKd;a=umif;qDavsmjf cif;/ &Si;f vif; jywfom;jcif;&So d nft h jyif trSefwu,fusihfo;kH I&Edik fygovm;?  Oya'a&;&mpnf;urf;ue@fowfcsufonf rJq, G fvy_ &f mS ;a&;tvSLaiGrsm;/ toH;k pm;&dwrf sm; ta=umif;tpD&ifcjH cif; ESifh ywfoufI umvtydik ;f tjcm;owfrw S af y;xm;ygovm;?  Oya'a&;&mpnf;urf;ue@fowfcsufonf rJq, G fvy_ &f mS ;a&;tvSLaiGrsm;/ toH;k pm;&dwrf sm;ta=umif; tpD&ifcpH m rsm;udk trsm;jynfol =unf±h SKEdkifatmif óuwifprD x H m;ygovm;? apmif apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm; Oya'a&;&mpnf;urf;ue@fowfcsufonf jynfwiG ;f /jynfyapmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;/ owif;rD', D m/ Edik if aH &;ygwrD sm;ESihf ud, k f pm;vS,af vmif;rsm;. ud, k fpm;vS,rf sm;tzdk@a&G;aumufyv GJ kyif ef;jzpfpOftm;vH;k udk odomjrifomatmif óuwifprD H xm;& rnf?  Oya'a&;&mpnf;urf;ue@fowfcsufonf jynfwiG ;f ESihf Edik if w H umapmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;tm; a&G;aumufyjJG zpfpOf . bufaygi;f pHu k dk apmif=h unfah vhvmcGiðhf yxm;ygovm;?  Oya'a&;&mpnf;urf;ue@fowfcsufonf owif;rD', D m/ Edik if aH &;ygwDrsm;ESihf udk,f pm;vS,af vmif;rsm;. ud, k fpm; vS,rf sm;tm; a&G;aumufyjGJ zpfpOf.bufaygi;f pHu k kd apmif=h unfah vhvmcGiðhf yxm;ygovm;?

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 Oya'a&;&mpnf;urf;ue@fowfcsufonf apmif=h unfah vhvmolwOD;tjzpfrSwyf kHwifa&;twGuf vdktyfaom tcsut f vufrsm;ESifh ywfoufI &Si;f vif;jywfom;aom/ wduscdik rf maom pHxm;csurf sm;csrSwfay;xm;ygovm;?  Oya'a&;&mpnf;urf;ue@fowfcsufonf Edik if aH wmfjyXmef;Oya'u apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;twGuf todtrSwðf y xm;aomtcsufrsm;ESifh rnfonft h csed frmS todtrSwðf yxm;onf wdk@ESiyhf wfoufI&Sif;&Si;f vif;vif; odxm;yg ovm;?  Oya'a&;&mpnf;urf;ue@fowfcsufonf apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;. tcGift h a&;ESihfywfoufIaomfvnf;aumif;/ rnfonft h csed f/ rnfonft h ajctaersm;atmufrmS apmif=h unfhavhvmoltjzpfrS &yfqikd ;f Edik jf cif;ESihf ywfoufI aomfvnf;aumif;/ &Si;f &Sif;vif;vif; odxm;ygovm;?  Oya'a&;&mpnf;urf;ue@fowfcsufonf apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;.tcGit hf a&;ESifh tpDpOfwusa&G;aumufyJG pDrt H kycf sKyfrw _ dk@=um;wGif xde;f nSday;ygovm;?  apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;tzdk@rsm;pGmtcuftcJawG@ap+yD;/ &mr#waomapmif=h unfah vhvmr_tzdk@t[ef@twm;jzpfap aom Oya'qdik &f m/ vdu k femp&mtcsut f vufrsm;&Sdygovm;? rJqENay;jcifEiS yfh wfoufaom vkyx f ;Hk vkyef nf;tqifq h ifh Oyaa&;&mpnf;urf;ue@fowfcsufonf rJqENuv kd #K@d 0Surf &_ adS p&rnfjzpf+yD;/ rJqENtm;vHk;udk wef;wlnrD #pGm/ w&m;r#wpGmESihf yGiv fh if;jrifompGm a&wGujf cif;/Z,moGi;f jcif;&Sad p&rnf?  Oyaa&;&mpnf;urf;ue@fowfcsufonf rJqENrsm;udk v#Kd@0SufraJ y;pepfjzifh ay;apygovm;?  Oyaa&;&mpnf;urf;ue@fowfcsufonf rJay;olrsm; udkrjJ ym;xkwrf ay;rDrmS vlrrSm;atmif vHak vmufpmG ppfaq;apyg ovm;?  Oyaa&;&mpnf;urf;ue@fowfcsufrmS rrSerf uefraJ y;jcif;ESihf t=udr=f udrt f vDvDraJ y;jcif;wd@k rjzpf&avatmif vHak vmufaom umuG,af pmif=h uyfay;r_rsm; yg0ifygovm;?  Oyaa&;&mpnf;urf;ue@fowfcsufrmS rJray;rD/ rJay;aepOfEiS hf rJay;+yD;aemufydik ;f Y rJjym;rsm;/ rJ±kHo;kH ypPnf;rsm; tm;vH;k . vHðk cHa&;twGuf vHak vmufaomjyXmef;csufrsm;yg0ifygovm;?  Oyaa&;&mpnf;urf;ue@fowfcsufonf xl;jcm;csu&f adS om rJay;olrsm; od@k r[kwf txl;trsK;d tpm; tjzpf owfrw S fxm;aom rJay;olrsm;twGuf xl;jcm;aomrJay;enf;rsm; ay;xm;ygovm;? xdk@jyif Ttjcm; aomrJay;enfrsm;.vkyx f Hk;vkyef nf;tqifq h ifo h nf rJvðkH cHrv _ nf;&S/d v#Kd@0Sufrv _ nf;&Sad p&efvt kd yfaomtcsurf sm;ESihf tnDjzpfygovm;?  Oyaa&;&mpnf;urf;ue@fowfcsufonf vlwOD;wnf;u a&G;aumufyw JG ckwnf;rSm xl;jcm;aomrJay;enf;udak &m yHrk eS fraJ y;enf;udkyg toH;k ðyonfhtjzpfrsKd;r&S&d avatmif óuwifumuG,x f m;ygovm;? rJa&wGijf cif;ESifh Z,m;oGi;f jcif;ðy&mY yGiv fh if;jrifomr_&S&jcif djS cif; Oyaa&;&mpnf;urf;ue@fowfcsufonf rJqENtm;vHk;udk wef;wlnrD #pGm/ w&m;r#wpGmESihf yGihfvif;jrifompGm a&wGujf cif;/ Z,m; oGi;f jcif;&Sad p&rnf?  Oya'a&;&mpnf;urf;ue@fowfcsufonf rJa&wGujf cif;ESifh Z,m;oGi;f jcif;udk apmif=h unfah vhvmEdkiaf tmif apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;tm; oifah vsmaf om enf;vrf;rsm;ay;xm;ygovm;?

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 Oya'a&;&mpnf;urf;ue@fowfcsufonf vufjzifh rJa&wGujf cif;ESihf Z,m;oGi;f jcif; rðybJ/ pufjzifha&wGuaf om ae&mrsm;wGif puf/uGejf yLwmtrmxnf/tajymhxnfEiS hf tjcm;ypPn;f rsm;tm;vHk;jzif o h D;jcm;vGwfvyfpmG aqmuf&u G Ef idk af tmif óuwifprD Hxm;ygovm;?  Oya'onf apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;taejzifrh aJ y;XmetoD;oD;. &v'frsm;udak ygif;um/ aemufq;kH tajz &&Sad pEdik af om yHpk t H & pm&if;Z,m;pm&Gut f m;vHk;udk &&Sad pEdik fygovm;?  Oya'onf &v'faz:jyaom pm&if;Z,m;rsm;Y xl;jcm;aomrJay;enf;rsm; (ae&ma±$@ajymif;rJay;jcif;ESihf pmyd@k pepfjzifh rJay;jcif;uJo h dk@aomrJay;enf;rsm;) .&v'frsm;ESihfywfoufaom tao;pdyt f csut f vufrsm;yg0ifapygovm;?  Oya'onf rJ±t Hk qifrh S A[dak &G;aumufyaJG umfr&Sit f qift h xd/ &v'ftao;pdyrf sm;udk csucf si;f trsm;jynfolo@kd a=unmjcif;ESifh yHkEySd fowif;rD', D mwGiyf kHEdSyx f w k af 0jcif;ðyapygovm;?  Oya'onf a&G;aumufy&GJ vm'frsm;. aemufqkH;twnfðya=unmjcif;/ ud, k pf m;vS,af vmif;rsm;udk today;jcif; jzpfpOfrsm;ESifh ta&G;aumufcu H dk,pf m;vS,af vmif;rsm;.&mxl;oufwrf;rsm;udk &Si;f vif;jywfom;pGm jyXmef; owfrw S af y;xm;ygovm;?  rJjyefvnfa&wGujf cif;twGuf vdktyfaomtcsut f m;vH;k ;ESihf vkyfx;kH vkyef nf;tqifq h ifw h d@k udk &Si;f vif;jywfom; pGmaz:jyxm;ygovm;?  a&G;aumufyt GJ opfusif;ya&;twGuv f t kd yfaomtcsut f m;vH;k ;ESihf vkyx f ;kH vkyfenf;tqifq h ifu h kd &Si;f vif; jywfom;pGm az:jyxm;ygovm;? rJqEN&iS tcG ftcGit fh a&;bufr&S yfwnfay;jcif; Oyaa&;&mpnf;urf;ue@fowfcsufonf rJqEN&iS t f cGit hf a&;bufrS &yfwnfay;&eftwGuf xda&mufaom vkyx f kH;vkyef nf;rsm; ESifh ukpm;enf;rsm; jyXmef;xm;&rnf?  Oya'a&;&mpnf;urf;ue@fowfcsufonf rJqEN&iS t f cGit hf a&;bufrS &yfwnfay;&eftwGuf xda&mufaomvkyx f ;kH vkyfenf;rsm; ESifh ukpm;enf;rsm; jyXmef;xm;ygovm;?  Oya'csKd;azgufrr_ sm;twGuf owfrw S fxm;aomjypf'%frsm;onf usKd;a=umif;qDavsm+f yD;/oifah vsmyf govm;?  Oya'a&;&mpnf;urf;ue@fowfcsufonf a&G;aumufyOJG ya'csK;d azgufr_EiS hfywfoufI rnfolw@kd uw&m;pGq J kdEikd fonf qdak omtcsurf sm;ESifh w&m;pGq J jdk cif;jzpfpOfw@kd udk &Sif;vif;jywfom;pGmaz:jyxm;ygovm;?  Oya'a&;&mpnf;urf;ue@fowfcsufonf a&G;aumufyaJG umfr&Sifq;Hk jzwfcsuu f kd (jyefvnfppfciG hfESihf t+yD;owfp&D if csucf sciG &fh aSd om w&m;±H;k odk@) t,lcw H ifciG t hf wGuf óuwifpDraH y;xm;ygovm;?  Oya'a&;&mpnf;urf;ue@fowfcsufonf rauseyfcsuw f cktwGuf w&m;pGq J jkd cif;/ pOf;pm;jcif;/ESifh qH;k jzwfjcif;wdk@ twGuf tcsdeu f ef@owfcsufrsm;jyXmef;ay;xm;ygovm;? (*) a&G;aumufyt GJ jiif;yGm;r_Z,m; a&;qGjJ cif; rJqEN&iS frsm;qdik &f mOya'udk ydik ;f jcm;oH;k oyf&mY/ a&G;aumufyt JG jiif;yGm;r_rsm;twGuaf jz&Sif;csufrsm;udk txl;tm±Hpk du k o f ifh yg onf? TuJo h dk@aom ydik ;f jcm;oH;k oyfrr_ sm;vkyfygu Oya'a&;&mjyefvnfupk m;r_rsm; vkyI f &-r& qH;k jzwfEikd frnft h jyif/ Oya' a&;&mtjiif;yGm;r_rsm;udk rSww f rf;ðypkjcif;ESit fh a=umif;&if;avhvmjcif;jzpfpOftwGut f axmuftuljzpfapygvdrfhrnf? TuJh odk@aom ydik f;jcm;oH;k oyfrw _ cka=umifh a&G;aumufyt JG jiif;yGm;r_rsm;pD&ifqkH;jzwf&eftm%mtyfEiS f;cHxm;aom tm%mydik frsm;. tcef;u¾/w&m;r#wr_EiS fh u|rf;usiv f rd mR r_wdk@udk tuJjzwfEikd fygvdrhfrnf?

38


a&G;aumufyt GJ jiif;yGm;r_rsm;ESifhywfoufaom Oyaa&;&mpnf;urf;ue@fowfcsufonf atmufygwd@k udk &Si;f vif;jywfom;pGm t"dy`g,zf iG q fh jdk y&rnf?  rauseyfrt _ wGuf wdik fwef;p&mjzpfapaom vkyaf qmifcsufrsm;(Oyrm- wpHw k OD;udk r±d;k rom;rrSefruefrSwyf kHwif ay;jcif;) ESifh vkyaf qmif&efysufuu G rf (_ Oyrm – wpkw H OD;udk rSwfyw kH ifay;&efysufuu G jf cif;)?  wdik w f ef;cH&avmufz, G &f m &Sad omyk*K~d vf(rsm;) odk@r[kwf tzGJ@tpnf;(rsm;) ESihf wdik w f ef;cH&onf[k today;cH&rnfh olrsm;  wdik w f ef;r_rsm;udk pD&ifqH;k jzwf&eft&nftcsi;f &Sad om tzG@J tpnf;?  rauseyfru _ dk t&nftcsi;f ESijfh ynfph aHk omtzG@J tpnf;od@k wdik w f ef;&rnfhenf;[ef (Oyrm – pmjzif)h ?  rauseyfru _ dk wdik fwef;jcif;ESifh pD&ifq;Hk jzwfjcif;wdk@twGuf tcsed u f ef@owfcsufrsm;?  y,fvSeq f ;Hk jzwfjcif;cH&aom wdik fwef;r_ukd t,lcw H ifykHenf;[efESihf cHt k zG@J rsm;?  wdik w f ef;oltwGuf csrSwaf y;aom rnfonfo h ufomcGihfurkd qdk az:aqmifay;a&;twGuf vdt k yfaom vkyx f Hk;vkyef nf;rsm;?  Oya'csLd ;azgufrt _ wGuf jypf'%frsm;? Tydik ;f jcm;oH;k oyfcsufudk t+yD;owf+yD;onfEiS w fh ðyifeuf/a&G;aumufyt JG csed fZ,m;ESiq hf ufpyfvsuf ae@pGt J pOftwdik ;f Z,m; oGi;f a&;rSwf xm;&rnf? TjzpfpOfonf Oya'rsm;wGiyf g&adS om [muGurf sm;/xyfaer_rsm;ESihf tcsi;f csi;f yÉdyuQ jzpfaeaom jy Xmef;csufrsm;udk az:xkwaf pEdik fonft h jyif/ Oyaa&;&mpnf;urf;ue@fowfcsufw&yf ydrk kdw;kd wufaumif;rGeaf p&ef t=uHðywif jycsufrsm;a&;&mY vnf; toHk;0ifEidk fygonf? erlemZ,m;wckraS umufEw Sk cf sufudk atmufrmS az:jyxm;ygonf? Tjzpf&yfY tu,fI wdik fwef;olwOD;u rJqEN&iS pf m&if;rSm rrSefruefrwdrusjzpfaer_wckudk jyifqifay;yg&efwifjy+yD;v#i/f w&m;r usihfx;kH Oya' (Civil Procedure Code) tcef; (30) t& TrrSefruefrwdrusjzpfaer_udk apm'uwufonfqdyk gthH? oufaojyonfw h ikd f TrrSerf uefrwdrusjzpfaer_udk jyifqif ay;&efwm0efr&Sad =umif;ud/k ol (odk@r[kw)f olrtaejzifah wG@&S&d ayvdrhfrnf? tu,fI wdik w f ef;oltaejzifh orw a&G;aumufyGJ Oya' tcef; (20) t& TrrSefruefrwdrusjzpfaer_udk apm'uwufonfqkdygu/ jyifqifay;aprnfh ukpm;r_ wcku&dk &SEd idk fygvrd fhrnf? odk@&mwGif orwa&G;aumufyOJG ya'ygjyXmef;csuft& y%mr rJqEN&iS frsm;pm&if; xkwjf yeft+yD;/ (3) &uf twGi;f rSm wdik fwef;&efvdktyfygonf? w&m;rusihfx;Hk Oya't&rl wdik ;f wef;&ef tcsdefyakd y;xm;ygonf? odk@jzpf&m Z,m; a&;qGx J m;jcif;tm;jzifh wdik fwef;a&;twGuf rwlnaD omtcsdejf yXmef;csufrsm;udk awG@&SEd dik yf gonf? w&m;rusix fh ;kH Oya'/ tcef; (30) wGif jyefvnfjyif qifay;&eftwGuf tm%mwnfapaomjyXmef;csuf ryg&o dS jzifh ‚if;. [muGuu f v kd nf; jrifawG@Edik fyg onf?

39


a&G;aumufyt GJ jiif;yGm;r_Z,m; erlemyH mypHk H a&G;aumufyGJ qdik &f m usL;vGerf r_ sm;

wdik w f ef;Edik &f ef Oya'jyXmef; csufrsm; rsm;

wdik w f ef;vdo k l f ef; tm;wdik w cGiðfh y+yD;/ wm0ef &Sol dox l t H oday; apaom apaom jyXmef;csuf

wdik w f ef;cGifh &Sol dol

wdik w f ef;aom enf;[efEiS fh wdik w f ef;&m ae&m

wdik w f ef;r_t wGuf tcsdef uef@owfcsuf

wdik w f ef;r_udk pOf;pm;&ef tcsdeu f ef@owf csuf

t,lc0H ifjcif;

tm%mouf a&mufap&ef ESihf jypf'%fowf rSw&f ef jyXmef;csuf

rJqEN&iS pf m&if; rrSerf uefjzpfr_

orwa&G; aumufyOGJ y a'/ yk'rf (20)

rJay;Xmea&G; aumufyaGJ umf r&Sif (PSEC) ESifh wdik =f um; rSt k wGuw f m 0ef&o Sd x l H today; jcif;

rJqEN&iS f odk@ r[kwf tjcm;ywf ouf&m yk*K~d vfrsm;

rJay;Xmea&G; aumufyaGJ umf r&Si/f pmjzif/h

y%mr rJqEN &Sirf sm;pm&if; xkwjf yef+yD;/3&uftwGi;f

a&G;aumufyrGJ wdik rf q D v dk #if 3&uftwGi;f / a&G;aumufyaGJ e@ qdv k #if csucf si;f

c±dik w f &m;±H;k

rJqEN&iS pf m&if; rrSerf uefjzpfr_

w&m;rusifh xH;k Oya'/yk'rf (30) (txl;ojzifh a&G;aumufyGJ twGuf usihf oH;k onf?)

rJay;Xmea&G; aumufyGJ aumfr&Sif

rJqEN&iS f odk@ r[kwf tjcm;ywf ouf&m yk*K~d vfrsm;

±H;k wifw&m; pG&J efyrHk eS pf nf; rsO;f rsm;&Sd aom c±dik f w&m;±H;k

a&G;aumufyGJ rwdik rf D 5&ufxuf aemufrus ap&

wdik w f ef;aom ae@rSpI 3-&uf

txufw &m;±H;k

trSm;jyifay; &efEiS /hf trSm; jyifEikd af =umif; &Si;f vif;pGmxk acsEikd jf cif;r&Sd ygu(PSEC) tzG@J 0ifukd '%faiGwyf&ef r&Sd

(PSEC)

40


4?a&G GJ jiif;yGm;r+rsm;udk apmif-h unfah vhvmjcif; 4?a&G;aumufyt u? tjiif;yGm;r_rsm;ajz&Si;f yHu k dk apmif=h unfah vhvmjcif;? c? a&G;aumufyt GJ jiif;yGm;r_rsm;udk ydik ;f jcm;oH;k oyfjcif; ?

 wdik w f ef;r_ trsKd;tpm;rsm;ESifh tqifrh sm;udv k nf;aumif;/ wdik w f ef;r_EiS hf t,lcrH r_ sm;. jzpfay:yHt k qifq h ift h vdu k f ajz&Si;f ay;oltzGJ@tpnf;rsm;udkvnf;aumif; az:xkwjf cif;?  wdik w f ef;r_EiS fh t,lcHr_rsm;.jzpfay:yHt k qifq h ifu h v kd du k I f tjiif;yGm;udak vhvmjcif;?  wdik w f ef;r_EiS fh t,lcHr_pepfu yg0ifywfoufolrsm;tzd@k oifah vsmfaom Oya'qdik &f mjyefvnfupk m;r_rsm; rnfonft h wm yrm%txd&&Sda=umif;udk tuJjzwfjcif;?

a&G;aumufyu GJ mvtwGi;f Y ud, k pf m;vS,af vmif;rsm;/ ygwrD sm;/Edik if o H m;rsm;/ a&G;aumufyt JG m%mydik rf sm; yg0ifywfoufae aom tjiif;yGm;r_rsm;ay:ayguw f wfygonf? tjiif;yGm;r_rsm;ajz&Si;f &ef Oya'qdik &f mvkyx f ;kH vkyef nf;rsm;udk tm;xm;jcif;onf w&m;Oya'pdk;rdk;a&;ESifh w&mOya'vkyif ef;. c&D;a&mufrt _ ay:,H=k unfr}_ uD;xGm;vma=umif;taxmuftxm;jzpfEikd fygonf? xdk@twlyif pD&ifq;Hk jzwfr_r&Sjd cif; odk@r[kwf pD&ifq;kH jzwfra_ ESmifah ES;jcif;onf w&m;ojzifw h ikd fwef;csufrsm;twGuf jyefvnfuk 19 pm;ay;aom pepf. ajymhnHhru _ dk az:jy&ma&mufygonf? (u) tjiif;yGm;r_ k dk apmif=h unfah vhvmjcif ;rr_ sm;ajz&S sm;ajz&Si;f yHu mjcif; apmif=h unfah vhvma&;ESifh ydik ;f jcm;oH;k oyfa&;tzG@J (Observation and Analysis Unit) . Oya'a&;&mu|rf;usio f lrsm;t aejzifh tjiif;yGmr_toD;oD;udk pm&if;ðypkxm;&efEiS hf a&qH;k a&zsm;vdu k I f avhvm&efóu;yrf;oifo h nf?tjiif;yGm;r_tenf;tusOf; r#avmufomjzpfymG ;rnf[ak r#mfvifx h m;ygu tjiif;yGm;r_toD;oD;udk vufa&;jzift h aotcsmpm&if;oGi;f jcif;tm;jzifh Tvkyf ief;udk aqmif&u G fEidk fygonf?tu,fI tjiif;yGm;r_ tawmfrsm;rsm;jzpfymG ;rnf[k ar#mv f ifx h m;ygu/ tjiif;yGm;r_rsm;. tao; pdyf tcsut f vufrsm;udk uGejf yLwm tcsut f vuf b%fY rSww f rf;wifxm;Edik fygonf?rnfonfeh nf;jzifjh zpfap/ pm&if;ðypk jcif;pepfonf twlwjl zpfoifhonf? +yD;cJah omtcef;rSmaqG;aEG;wifjycJah om a&G;aumufyt JG jiif;yGm;r_Z,m;onf w&m; Oya'a&; vkyif ef;. rnfonft h pdyt f ydik f;rsm;udak pmif=h unfah vhvmoifah =umif;az:xkw&f mY taxmuftulay;ygvrd hfrnf? taumif;qH;k rSm wdik fwef;csufrdwLW rsm;udk pkaqmif;&efjzpfonf?(apmif=h unfah vhvma&;)XmecsKyf&dS toif;taeESiahf &m/ e,f ajra'otvdu k f apmif=h unfavhvmolrsm;taeESihfyg rdwLW &&SEd ikd favh&adS om ae&mrsm;rSm-wdik w f ef;ol/ trSm;usL;vGefonf[k pGyfpcGJ &H aomyk*K~d vf/ odk@wnf;r[kwf tr_ziG fhwidk =f um;&mXmejzpfaom w&m;±H;k odk@r[kwf a&G;aumufyaJG umfr&Sif wd@k jzpfonf? 19

a&G;aumufyGJtjiif;yGm;r_EiS fh ywfoufI owif;tcsut f vufrsm; xyfro H &d v Sd ydk gu/ (Resolving Election Disputes in the OSCE Area: Towards a Standard Election Disputes Monitoring System, OSCE/ ODIHR, Warsaw, 2001.) udk =unfy h g? TrSww f rf;udk OSCE/ ODIHR . tifwmeufpmrsuEf mS http://www.osce.org/odihr wGif &&SEd idk yf gonf? 41


wdik w f ef;r_ta=umif; owif;tcsuftvufrsm;udk tjiif;yGm;r_apmif=h unfah vhvma&;yHpk w H iG f tpDtpOfwusrSww f rf;wifoifh +yD;/ atmufygtcsufrsm;yg0ifapoifo h nf?           

wdik w f ef;oltrnf? wdik w f ef;csux f w J iG f trSm;usL;vGeo f nf[k pGyfpcJG &H aom yk*Kd~ vf od@k r[kwf tzG@J tpnf;? wdik w f ef;csuu f =dk um;emppfaq;rnfh tm%mydik t f zG@J .trnf? oufqidk &f m =um;emppfaq;a&;tm%mydik t f zG@J od@k tr_ziG w hf ikd =f um;aomae@pGJ? tjiif;yGm;r_jzpfymG ;aomae&m? tjiif;yGm;r_jzpfymG ;&m tkycf sKyfa&;c±dik f odk@r[kwf rJqENc±dik f? pGyfpcGJ sut f usOf;csKyf? (apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm; odk@r[kwf apmif=h unfah vhvma&;tkyfp. k ) xifjrifo;kH oyfcsurf sm;? pHpk rf;avhvmr_ pwifaomae@pG?J pHpk rf;avhvmaomtzGJ@ odk@r[kwf pHkprf;avhvmol.trnf? pD&ifq;Hk jzwfa&;tm%mydik t f zGJ@u wdik w f ef;r_ukd =um;emrnfah e@pG?J

apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;taejzifh wdik w f ef;r_ta=umif;ESifyh wfoufI owif;tcsut f vufrsm;Edkio f r#rsm;rsm;&atmif óu; yrf;&rnf? odk@aomf oufqidk &f mtm%mydik frsm;. tcef;u¾udk xdcu kd af tmifrvkyfrad p&ay? ormorwfusap&ef tvdk@iSm/ buftm;vH;k rS vlyk*~dKvfrsm;udak wG@Edik af tmif tpGrf;ukeóf u;pm;&rnf? apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;onf wdik ;f wef;olrsm;ESiahf wG@ qH&k mY qENpGJpw d frxm;rdatmif owdðy&rnf? apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;taejzifh jzpfymG ;aeaomjy\emudk =um;0ifajz&Sif;ay;Irjzpfay? wdk@jyifp&D ifq;kH jzwfay;cGiv hf nf;r&Sd acs? apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;taejzif/h wdik fwef;olrsm;udak wG@qHk&mY a&G;aumufyGt J m%mydik rf sm;xHo@kd w&m;0iftr_wikd =f um; xm;jcif;&Sd-r±/S/d odk@r[kwf w&m;±H;k odk@ t,lcw H ifxm;jcif;&Sd-r&Sad r;=unf&h rnfjzpf+yD;/oufqikd &f mpm&Gupf mwrf;rsm;udk awmif; ,l&rnf?tu,fI Tenf;vrf;rsm;twdik ;f vkyx f m;jcif;r&Syd gu/jzpfEikd fz, G &f mwdik w f ef;r_rsm;ESihf t,lcrH _rsm;vkyaf tmifwikd w f ef; olrsm;udk wdu k w f eG f;&rnf? tr_toD;oD;udk trnfemray;vsuf eHygwfpOfwckpw D yfay;&rnf?wdik fwef;r_jzpfpOfwiG f wd;k wufjzpfay:r_tvdu k f owif;tcsuf tvufopfrsm;udk rSww f rf;wifxm;&rnf? Oyrm- y%mrpHkprf;avhvmr_rsm;vufpowf+yD;aemuf/ pD&ifq;kH jzwfa&;tm%mydik f tzGJ@ odk@r[kwf tr_pq GJ adk &;tm%mydik t f zGJ@u w&m;0if=um;emppfaq;r_rsm;pwifrnf[k qHk;jzwfvu kd af omtcgY wd;k wufjzpf ay:r_tqifo h pfwck+yD;qH;k oGm;+yDjzpfonf?wdik w f ef;r_EiS hfywfoufaom =um;emppfaq;r_jzpfpOfujkd yefavhvmEdik &f eftwGuf wyf xm;aomtr_eHygwu f dk =unf&h rnf? pHpk rf;avhvmolrsm;onf w&m;±H;k odk@r[kwf a&G;aumufyaJG umfr&Siu f wdik w f ef;r_wckukd txl;ojzifh xif&mS ;ausm=f um;aom tr_rsm;udk =um;emppfaq;aomtcgY w&m;±H;k od@k r[kwf a&G;aumufyaJG umfr&Si±f ;kH od@k wufa&mufEikd af tmifóu;pm;&rnf? w &m;±H;k odk@r[kwf a&G;aumufyaGJ umfr&Sio f dk@wufa&mufvsuf wdik w f ef;r_wckta=umif;udak pmif=h unfah vhvmaom rnfonfh apmif=h unfah vmolrqdk =um;aetusq;Hk pdw"f gwjf zifh avhvm&rnfjzpf+yD;/ atmufygtajccHvrf;!$ecf surf sm;udk vdu k ef m&rnf?  tcsed fraD &muf&&Sd efEiS fh =um;emppfaq;r_ukd wenf;enf;jzift h aESmuft,Surf ay;rdap&ef? 42


 =um;emppfaq;aeaomtr_ta=umif;ESiyhf wfoufI owif;y;ydk@jcif;/ xifjrifcsuaf y;jcif;ðy&mY owdxm;&ef? (ta=umif;rSm ‚if;wdk@onf pD&ifq;Hk jzwf&efpOf;pm;&mY xnfo h iG f;pOf;pm;p&mtjzpfygomG ;wwfaoma=umifjh zpfonf?)  tr_xYJ oufaoxGuq f djk cif;rðyrdatmif a&SmifusO&f ef? w&m;±Hk; odk@r[kwf a±G;aumufyGJaumfr&Sif a±S@arSmufwiG f tr_wck=um;emppfaq;yHt k a=umif; apmif=h unfah vhvm&mY atmuf ygtcsut f vufrsm;udk rSww f rf;wifoifo h nf?  wdik w f ef;olonf w&m;±Hk; odk@r[kwf a&G;aumufyaJG umfr&Sio f @dk rdrd.wdik fwef;csuu f dk axmufcHwifjyonft h aejzifh pm&Gufpmwrf;taxmuftxm;jzifjh zpfap/ E_wx f u G q f ckd sujf zifjh zpfap oufaotaxmuftxm;wifjyEdik jf cif;&Sd-r&Sd?  pdwf0ifpm;oltjcm;yk*K~d vfrsm;u oufaotaxmuftxm;wifjyEdik jf cif;&Sd-r&S?d  =um;emppfaq;jcif;udk trsm;jynfoal ±S@arSmufwiG f vkyaf qmifjcif;&S-d r&S?d (owif;rD', D mESihf omreftrsm; jynfow l d@k tygt0if pdw0f ifpm;oltjcm;yk*~dKvfrsm;a±S@arSmufwiG f vkyaf qmifjcif;&S-d r&S?d ) od@k wnf;r[kwf =um;emppfaq;r_ tpdwt f ydik ;f wpHw k &mudk apmif=h unfah vhvmIr&aom wcg;ydwpf pfaq;r_jzifh vkyaf qmifjcif;&Sd-r&S?d  =um;emppfaq;ol tm%mydik t f zGJ@onf vlwikd f; (wdik =f um;olrsm;/oufaorsm;/ESihf pdwf0ifpm;Ivma&muf=um;emol rsm;tygt0if)tay:w&m;r#wpGmqufqjH cif;&Syd Hak y:-ray:?  ðcH=unfv h u dk fygu =um;em;ppfaq;olrsm;onf ormorwf&ydS akH y:-ray:?  =um;emppfaq;oltm%mydik t f zGJ@.qH;k jzwfcsufonf ,ciftvm;wltr_rsK;d rsm;wGif qH;k jzwfco hJ nfrsm;ESihf a±S@aemuf nDjcif;&S-d r&S?d  =um;emppfaq;r_ta=umif;apmifh=unfah vhvmol.aumufcsut f m;vH;k udk axmufct H wnfðyay;aom tjcm;avhvmawG@&Scd surf sm;? (txl;ojzifh =um;emppfaq;oltm%mydik t f zG@J .xifjrifo;kH oyfcsufrsm;) txufygtcsut f vufrsm;tjyif/=um;em;ppfaq;aecsed Yf apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;onfatmufygtcsut f vufrsm;udk vnf;rSww f rf;wifxm;&rnf?  wdik w f ef;olrsm;ESifh pdwf0ifpm;oly*k ~Kd vfrsm;udk a±S@aea±S@&yfrsm;u ud, k pf m;ðyaqmif&u G af y;jcif;&Sd-r&S?d  wdik w f ef;ola=umifjh zpfay:vmaom Oya'a&;&m jy\emrsm;?  wdik w f ef;olrsm;ESifh pdwf0ifpm;olrsm;u rdrdw@kd bufurkd rd w d @kd axmufcw H ifjy&mY av#mufvw J ifjyaom w&m;Oya'qdik &f m jyXmef;csufrsm;?  usix fh ;Hk Oya'pnf;rsO;f rsm;udk w&m;±H;k u vdu k ef myH&k aom twdik f;twmyrm%?  qH;k jzwfcsucf sucf s&ef ,laomtcsed t f wdik f;twm?  txuf±Hk;odk@t,lcw H ifjcif;ESifhywfoufI ESpfbuftr_onfrsm;udk w&m;±Hk;u ay;aomodaumif;p&mrsm;? apmif=h unfah vhvmr_nESd _id ;f a&;ESifh ydik ;f jcm;oH;k oyfa&;tzGJ@ (Observation and Analysis Unit) . Oya'a&;&m u|rf;usif olrsm;taejzifh tr_rsm;udk pm&if;ðypk+yD;/ w&m;Oya'pepfatmufrmS ‚if;wdk@pcef;oGm;yHu k kd apmif=h unfah vhvmoifhonf?tjiif; yGm;r_apmif=h unfah vhvma&;yHkpHrsm;wGijf znfo h iG f;&eftwGuf e,fajra'oqdik &f m apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm; pkaqmif;cJah omt csut f vufrsm;tjyif pm&if;ðypka&;pepfwiG f atmufygtcsufrsm;vnf;yg0ifoifo h nf?  wdik w f ef;oludik pf aGJ om Oya'tajccH? (wdik ;f oludik pf GaJ om Oya'. oufqikd &f myk'frudk ud;k um;az:jy&rnf?)  tqift h wef;? ( wbufbufu rnfonft h xuf±kH;odk@ t,lcHwifxm;jcif;&Sd-r&Sd? od@k wnf;r[kwf xyfrI H pOf;pm; ay;&eftwGuf aemufxyftpd;k &tzGJ@tpnf; wckod@k wifxm;jcif;&S-d r&Sd?) 43


 w&m;±Hk; odk@r[kwf a&G;aumufyGJaumfr&Sif ponfw@kd ucsrSwaf om t+yD;owfq;kH jzwfcsuf? (qH;k jzwfcsu. f Oya' tajccHudk ud;k um;az:jy&rnf?)  tm%mwnfapjcif; (qH;k jzwfcsufudk taumiftxnfaz:ay;jcif;&S-d r&S?d rnfonft h csderf Sm rnfo@kd taumiftxnf az:onf? rnfonft h wdik ;f twmtxd taumiftxnfaz:ay;onf?)  jynfwiG f;apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;u owfrSwaf om wdik w f ef;r_trsK;d tpm; odk@r[kwf tqift h wef;? (aemufvmrnft h cef;wGif =unfhyg?) (c) a&G;aumufyt GJ jiif;yGm;r_rsm;udk ydik ;f jcm;oH;k oyfjcif; apmif=h unfah vhvmr_nESd _id ;f a&;ESifh ydik ;f jcm;oH;k oyfa&;tzGJ@ (Observation and Analysis Unit) . Oya'a&;&m u|rf;usif olrsm;taejzifh wdkiw f ef;r_toD;oD;udk trsKd;tpm;cGjJ cm;owfrw S fxm;&rnf?owfrw S fxm;aomtrsKd;tpm;rsm;onf oufqikd f &m Oy'wGijf yXmef; xm;aom a&G;aumufyq GJ dik &f musL;vGefr_ trsKd;tpmrsm;;ESihf qufE, G rf &_ &dS rnf?trsK;d tpm;cGjJ cm;r_EiS fh ywf oufaom erlem yHpk Hrsm;udk atmufrmS ay;xm;ygonf?  a&G;aumufyaGJ umfr&Sifrsm;zGJ@pnf;jcif;  ygwDrsm; /ud, k fpm;vS,af vmif;rsm; rSwfyw kH ifjcif;  rJqENay;olrsm;rSwyf Hw k ifjcif;  w&m;r0ifrq J , G v f _y&f mS ;jcif; (ygwDrsm;)  w&m;r0if rJq, G fvy_ &f mS ;jcif; (tpd;k &.tzG@J tpnf;rsm;)  a&G;aumufyt GJ a=umif;rsm;udk owif;rD'D,mrsm;uowif;az:jyjcif; h u S w f kducf u kd jf cif;  owif;rD'D,mrsm;.owif;az:jyyHrk sm; /owif;axmufrsm;udk aESmif,  rJq, G v f _y&f mS ;r_rsm;udk taESmifht,Suaf y;jcif; (ygwDrsm;)  rJq, G v f _y&f mS ;r_rsm;udk taESmifht,Suaf y;jcif; (tpdk;&.tzG@J tpnf;rsm;)  a&G;aumufyaGJ e@wGif rJqENay;cGifhudk usL;vGecf sK;d azgujf cif;  v#Kd@0SufraJ y;pepf. vHðk cHa&;udk usL;vGecf sK;d azgujf cif;  rJa&wGuaf epOfumvtwGi;f usL;vGecf sKd;azgufrr_ sm;  rJrsm;aygi;f aeOf/Z,m;oGif;aepOfumvtwGi;f usL;vGecf sKd;azgufr_rsm;  pkpak ygi;f &v'fonf a=ujimxm;onft h wdik ;f rSefuefwu d sjcif; Ttcsut f vufrsm;yg0ifaom tcsut f vufb%fwckxm;&Sjd cif;tm;jzifh trsK;d tpm;;cGjJ cm;owfrw S x f m;aom tjiif;yGm;r_ rsm;ESifh ajz&Si;f yHrk sm;udk a&wGuaf z:jyEdik yf gvrd rhf nf? Ttcsut f vufrsm;wifjyyHk pHerlemwckukd atmufrmS xnfo h iG ;f az:jyxm; yg onf?TpHerlemonf wdik w f ef;r_trsK;d tpm;toD;oD;twGux f m;&So d ifah om Z,m;rsm;ESihf trsK;d tpm;wckrmS yg&adS om wdik f wef;r_wckcsi;f twGurf w S w f rf;wifyu Hk dk tpOfvu kd af z:jyxm;ygonf?Z,m;tm;vH;k rSmygaom wdik w f ef;r_tm;vH;k udk ppfaq; =unfjh cif;tm;jzifh (a&G;aumufyEGJ iS yfh wfoufaom rnfonfv h yk af qmifcsuu f wdik w f ef;r_trsm;qH;k jzpfay:apoenf;/)/ (azguf zsuu f sL;vGerf r_ sm;onf rnfonfah e&mrSmtrsm;qH;k jzpfymG ;oenf;/) ESihf (pepfu wdik w f ef;r_rsm;udk auseyfavmufzf , G &f m ajz &Si;f ay; Edik jf cif;&S-d r&S)d qdo k nfwdk@udk jrifawG@Edik af yvdrrhf nf? pepfu yg0ifywfoufaeolrsm;twGuf avsmu f efaom Oya'qdik f &m jyefvnfupk m;r_ vkyaf y;Edik jf cif;&S-d r&Sd tuJjzwf&mY Ttcsut f vufrsm;onftvGet f axmuftuljzpfygvrd rhf nf? Tt csut f vufrsm;a=umifh a&G;aumufypGJ rD t H yk cf sKyfa&;tzG@J twGi;f qH;k jzwfcsucf s&mY ñuHawG@&wwfaomjy\emrsm;udk jrifawG@ Edik yf gvrd rfh nf? 44


wdik w f ef;r_rsm;Z,m; Z,m; Z,m; Z,m; Z,m; Z,m; Z,m;

(1) a&G;aumufyaGJ umfr&Sirf sm; (EC) zG@J pnf;jcif; ESiyhf wfoufaom wdik w f ef;r_rsm; (2) ygwrD sm;ESiu fh , dk pf m;vS,af vmif;rsm; rSwyf w kH ifjcif; (REGPC) ESiyhf wfoufaom wdik w f ef;r_rsm; (3) rJqENay;olrsm;rSwfyw Hk ifjcif; (REGV) ESihfywfoufaom wdik w f ef;r_rsm; (4) ygwDrsm;ESifh udk,pf m;vS,af vmif;rsm;u w&m;r0ifrJq, G v f y_ &f mS ;jcif; (ICPC) ESiyhf wfoufaom wdik w f ef;r_rsm; (5) tpd;k &.tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;u w&m;r0if rJq, G v f y_ &f mS ;jcif; (ICSI) ESiyhf wfoufaom wdik w f ef;r_rsm; (6) rJq, G v f _y&f mS ;r_rsm;udk ygwDrsm;ESifh ud, k pf m;vS,af vmif;rsm;u taESmift h ,Suaf y;jcif; (OCPC) ESifhywfoufaom wdik w f ef;r_rsm;? Z,m; (7) rJqG,v f _y&f mS ;r_rsm;udk tpd;k &tm%mydik rf sm;u taESmift h ,Suaf y;jcif; (OCSA) ESihfywfoufaom wdik w f ef;r_rsm; Z,m; (8) a&G;aumufyaGJ e@wGif rJqENay;cGifhukd usL;vGecf sK;d azgufjcif; (VED) ESihfywfoufaom wdik w f ef;r_rsm; Z,m; (9) v#Kd@0Surf aJ y;pepf. vHรฐk cHa&;udk usL;vGecf sKd;azgujf cif; (SB) ESiyhf wfoufaom wdik w f ef;r_rsm; Z,m; (10) a&G;aumufyaGJ e@ rJrsm;a&wGuaf epOf usL;vGefcsK;d azgufjcif; (CED) ESifyh wfoufaom wdik w f ef;r_rsm; Z,m; (11) rJrsm;aygi;f aeOf/Z,m;oGi;f aepOfumvtwGif; usL;vGecf sKd;azgufrr_ sm; (ATV) ESihfywfoufaom wdik w f ef;r_rsm;

45


wdik w f ef;r_rsm;Z,m; erlemyHpk H trSwfpOf

ae@pGJ

qH;k jzwfol

wdik =f um;ol e,fajr

wdik =f um;csut f usO;f wdik =f um;r_aemufyikd ;f tajctae

Z-1 /EC -1

15-8-03

ðrd@awmf A[dk a&G;aumufyGJ aumfr&Sif

w&m;r#w aomtpd;k & ay:ayguaf &;yg wD

wdik =f um;csut f jzpfrSef A[dak &G;aumufyaGJ umfr&Sif onf a&G;aumufyOGJ ya'/ yk'rf (15)t&/ ZkeH ,fajr100 rSmaexdik faejcif;r&Sd olwOD;udk ZkeH ,fajr(100) .a&G;aumufyaGJ umfr&Si. f tzGJ@0iftjzpfcef@xm;onf?

trSw-f 100

wdik =f um;ol.Oya'tajccH a&G;aumufyOGJ y'/yk'fr(15) t&/ZkeH ,fjra&G;aumufyGJ aumfr&Siw f ck.tzGJ@0if onf tqdyk g ZHek ,fajrwGif aexdik o f jl zpf&efvt dk yf onf? av#mufxm;aom ouf omcGifh w&m;r#waomtpd;k &ay: ayguaf &;ygwu D jzpfapvdk onfrmS - A[dak &G;aumufyGJ aumfr&Sit f aejzifh tzGJ@0if *|epf rpfudk y,fzsu+f yD;v#i/f vuf&aSd exdik o f jl zpfjcif;t ygt0if/ tzGJ@0ifjzpf&ef Oy a'jyXmef;csuEf iS u fh u dk n f D olwOD;udk cef@tyf&efjzpf onf?

17-8-03 ae@wGif apmif=h unfah vhvmol *sed ;f 'd;k onf Ttr_EiS fh tjcm;tr_trsm; tjym;ta=umif;aqG;aEG;aom A[dak &G; aumufyaGJ umfr&Siftpnf; ta0;wcko@kd wufa&mufco Jh nf? A[dak &G;aumufyGJ aumfr&Sio f nf *|efprpf.ae&yfaxmuf txm;udk ±Smay;&efEiS fh odk@r[kwyf gu ol@ udk ZHek ,fajra&G;aumufyGaJ umfr&SiftzG@J 0iftjzpfrSy,fzsuyf pfrnft h a=umif; ZHk e,fajr -100 odk@ zufuP pmwapmify@kd ay;&ef t wGi;f a&;rSL; ud! k e$ f=um;cJh onf? 21-8-03 ae@wGif apmif=h unfah vhvmol a&mbwf*sKH ;onf Ttr_ta=umif;aqG; aEG;aom A[dak &G;aumufyaJG umfr&Sif t pnf;ta0;odk@wufa&mufco hJ nf?A[dak &G; aumufyaGJ umfr&Sio f nf ZHek ,fajr(100) rSwifjyaom/ taemufyidk f;ðrd@ e,f.cdkiv f kH aomtdraf xmifpZk ,m;rdwLW w apmif&&Sd xm;+yD;/ *|efprpfonf ZHek ,f ajr (100)rSm aexdik o f jl zpfa=umif; oufao +yovdu k f onf? xk@ad =umifh w&m;r#w aomt pd;k & ay:ayguaf &;ygw. D wdik w f ef;csuu f ykd ,fcs vdu k o f nf?

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(u) rJqENay;olrsm;rSwyf w Hk ifjcif;ta&;}uD;yHk rJay;olrsm;rSwfyw Hk ifjcif;onf jynfol@vdt k ifqENtay:tajccHaom tpdk;&w&yfay:ayguaf &;wGif jynfol@tusKd;pD;yGm;twGuf tvGet f a&;}uD;onft h jyif/ jynfol@ud, k pf m;vS,jf zpfa&;twGuóf u;yrf;ae=uaom yk*d~Kvfrsm;twGuv f nf; tvGet f a&;}uD; onf? Tvkyif ef;onf rJay;cGifhr&So d lrsm;udk rJray;Edik af tmif yvSyx f m;jcif;ESihf rJay;cGi&hf o dS lrsm;udk rJay;Edik af tmif az:xkwf jcif;/ rSwfyw Hk ifjcif;wdk@twGuf tc&musaom vkyif ef;jzpfonf? twdck sKyfajym&v#i/f rJay;olrsm;rSwyf kHwifjcif;onf a&G; aumufyGJ. *k%o f u d mQ twGuf tvGet f a&;}uD;onf? rJqENay;olrsm;rSwyf Hw k ifjcif;onf yHo k ¾meftrsKd;rsKd;&Syd gonf?tcgtm;avsmpf Gm(a&G;aumufyJG wckrwdik fr)D vkyo f nfvnf;&S/d yHk rSef vkyo f nfvnf;&Sd (wESpw f }udrf odk@r[kwf tvSnu hf spepfjzif/h vpOfyifv#i)f vkyfonfvnf;&Sdonf? vly*k d~KvfwOD;csiu f tp csv D yk fonfvnf;&Sd (rSwyf w Hk ifXmeodk@vlrsm;oGm;a&muf&efvo kd nf?)/ tpd;k &u tpcsv D kyo f nfvnf;&Sd (t&m&Srd sm;u wtdrf wufqif; 0ifxu G +f yD;rSwfyw Hk ifonf?)odk@r[kwf tpd;k &uvkyfonf§ol@tvdt k avsmufvyk jf zpfonf (Edik if Hom;§ trsKd;om; rSwfyw Hk ifpm&if;rS trnfrsm;udk,o l nf?) vnf;&So d nf? tpd;k &uvkyaf om § ol@tvdt k avsmufvyk jf zpfaom rSwyf Hw k ifjcif; 47


tvkyw f iG f tpdk;& odk@r[kwf wOD;csi;f yk*K~d vfrsm;taeESihf yHkreS frSwyf w kH if&mrSmaomfvnf;aumif;/ tcgtm;avsmfpmG rSwfyw kH if &mrSmaomfvnf;aumif;/ cGefpu dk ftm;pdu k f yg0ifp&mrvdak omfvnf; rJay;cGi&hf o dS t l m;vHk;rSm rSwfyw kH ifpm&if;udk ppfaq;cGi&hf &dS rnft h jyif rSwyf Hkwifpm&if;oGi;f jcif;ESifh ywfoufI apm'uwufciG Ehf iS hf jyifqifciG fv h nf;&S&d rnf?rJay;olrsm;rSwyf kHwifjcif;onf rjzpfraevky&f rnfu h dpv P nf; jzpfEidk o f nf? qEN&dSrv S ky&f aomudpPvnf;jzpfEikd o f nf? a&G;aumufyt GJ &m&Srd sm; rdrt d vkyu f dkrSerf Seu f efuefvkyjf cif;/ rJay;olrsm;pm&if;rl=urf;xkwjf yefonfukd trsm;jynfow l kd@u pdwf 0ifwpm;wkH@jyefjcif;/ ESifh vlwOD;csi;f uvnf; rdrw d d@k .trnf/ae&yfwkd@udk twnfðyay;Edik jf cif;&SdrSomv#if rSeu f efwu d saom rJ qEN ay;olrsm;pm&if;udk &&SEd idk frnfjzpfonf? rJqENay;olrsm;pm&if;wGif rJay;cGi&hf o dS lrsm;. trnf/ ae&yfvdyfpmESihf tao;pdwf t csut f vufrsm;yg0ifonf?tu,fI pm&if;rSm trnfenf;vGe;f ygu Edik if o H m;rsm;onf wrif&nf±, G I f aomfvnf;aumif;/ rSm;,Gi;f Iaomfvnf;aumif; rJay;cGijfh iif;y,fc&H onfo h abmjzpfonf?tu,fI pm&if;0ifoo l yd frsm;vGef;aeygu pm&if;t&/ vltrsm;rSm ‘wap>raJ y;olrsm;’ ud, k pf m;/ w&m;r0ifaomrJay;cGi&hf aeonfo h abmjzpfonf? rJqENay;olrsm;rSwyf Hw k ifjcif;.ta&;ygra_ =umifh rJay;olrsm;pm&if;rSeu f efwu d sr_EiS hfywfoufaom jy\emrsm;onf rJqENay; olrsm;/ Edik if aH &;ygwDrsm;/a&G;aumufyt GJ &m&Sdrsm;qDraS eI wufvmwwfygonf? wcgw&HY a&G;aumufyt JG ay: trsm;jynfol t,Ht k =unfuif;atmifóu;yrf;onft h aeESifh pm&if;rSeu f efwdusr_r&Sad =umif; r[kwrf rSepf GyfpJGrr_ sm; vkyw f wf=uonf? TuJh odk@ aompGypf cGJ sufrsm;ESifhywfoufI pHkprf;avhvmjcif;/r[kwfrrSeaf =umif;oufaojyjcif;rðyygu a&G;aumufyv JG kyif ef; jzpfpOft ay: trsm;jynfo, l =Hk unfr_udk xdcu dk af pEdik fygonf?jynfwiG f;apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;onf ‚if;wd@k .todtjrifEiS hf vltiftm; a=umif/h rJqENay;olrsm;pm&if;.rSefuefwu d sr_/ rSwyf w Hk ifjcif;vkyfief;jzpfpOf.tqift h wef;wd@k ESihfywfoufaom taxmuft xm;tcsut f vufwdk@udk trsm;jynfolEiS fh a&G;aumufyt JG m%mydkirf sm;xHwifjyay;Edik fygonf? tcsKd@aomwdik ;f jynfrsm; odk@r[kwf a&G;aumufyJGrsm;twGurf l rJqENay;olrsm;pm&if; rvdt k yfacs?om"utaeESiahf z:jy&ygv#i/f tcsKd@wdik ;f jynfrsm;Y trsm;jynfow l dk@onf cdik v f akH omtaxmuftxm;tjzpf rdrw d d@k .Edik if Hu;l vufrw S fukd xkwjf yjcif;tm;jzifh rJay;cGi&fh o Sd nf?rJay;t+yD;wGif ESp}f udrrf aJ y;Ir&atmif Edik if u H ;l vufrw S u f kd wHqyd cf wfESyd o f nf? rJqENay;olrsm;pm&if;udk roH;k aom tcgrsKd;Yjzpfap/ toHk;ðy&avmufatmif ,H=k unftm;xm;p&mr&Sad omtcgrsKd;Yjzpfap/ vufacsmif;rsm;rSmrSio f w k f vdr;f aomenf;udv k nf;toH;k ðyEdik yf gonf? (c) rJqENay;olrsm;pm&if;§ rSwyf w Hk ifjcif;ESiyfh wfoufI tqift h wef;ESiw hf u d srSeu f efru _ kd tuJjzwfjcif; rJqENay;olrsm;rSwyf Hw k ifjcif;jzpfpOf. tqift h wef;udk ðcHit kH uJjzwf&efEiS hf rJqENay;olrsm;pm&if;.rSeu f efwu d sr_ukd wckcsi;f tuJjzwf&eftwGuf jynfwiG ;f apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;onf atmufygtc&mudp&P yfrsm;udk xnfhoiG ;f pOf;pm;oifhonf?  rJqENay;cGit fh wGufpx H m;csufrsm;onftrsKd;om;tajccHOya'.jyXmef;csufrsm;/Edik if w H umtqifhtwef;owfrSwf csurf sm;ESifh udu k n f jD cif;&S-d r&S?d  rJqENay;cGi&fh Sdorl sm; owfrw S af &;jzpfpOfwiG f jynfot l m;vHk;onf cGjJ cm;qufqjH cif;rcH&bJ/ rSwfyw kH if&eftcGit hf vrf; tvHt k avmuf&-r&?  rJqENay;cGi&fh Sdorl sm; owfrw S af &;vkyfx;kH vkyfenf;tqifq h ifo h nf avsmu f efr&_ -dS r&S?d ‚if;udk rSerf eS fuefuefvkyaf qmif jcif; &Sd-r&Sd?  rJqENay;olrsm;pm&if;wGif rJqENay;cGi&hf o dS lrsm;.trnfrsm;om yg0ifonfqakd omtcsuo f nf [kw-f r[kwf? yg0ifaomtrnfrsm;onf avmavmvwfvwfjzpfjcif;ESihf rSeu f efwu d sjcif;&Sd-&S?d

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 trsm;jynfo/l Edik if aH &;ygwDrsm;ESifh vlxt k ajccHtzGJ@tpnf;rsm;onf rJqENay;olrsm;pm&if;wGif trSm; odk@r[kwf xdecf sefrr_ sm; ±SmazG=unf&h ef tcGit fh vrf;tvHt k avmuf &Sd-r&S?d  trsm;jynfo/l Edik if aH &;ygwDrsm;ESifh vlxt k ajcðytz@Gt J pnf;rsm;onf rJqENay;olrsm;pm&if;wGif xyfjznfjh cif;/ y,fzsujf cif;/ odk@r[kwf trSm;jyifjcif;wd@k ESihfywfoufI tqdkwif&efEiS hf uef@uGu&f eftcGit hf vrf;tvHt k avmuf&-dS r&S?d  tqdw k ifjcif;ESifh uef@uGujf cif;wdk@udk rSefrSeu f efuefpOf;pm;jcif;/rJqENay;olrsm;pm&if;wGif oifah vsmfaom ajymif;vJr_rsm; vkyaf y;jcif;&S-d &Sd?  Edik if aH &;ygwDrsm;ESifh vlxt k ajcðytzGJ@tpnf;rsm;tm; rJqENay;olrsm;ESihf ywfoufaomy%mrpm&if;/ jyifqifcsufpm&if;ESifh t+yD;owfpm&if;rsm;udk ay;-ray;?  rJay;XmewckwiG f oH;k aom rJqENay;olrsm;pm&if;onf t+yD;owfpm&if;[kw-f r[kw?f rJqENay;ap&mY TrJqENay;olrsm; pm&if;udk rSefreS fuefueftoH;k ðy-rðy? tu,fI jynfwiG f;apmif=h unfah vhvma&;tzGJ@u rJqENay;olrsm;pm&if;rSeu f efwu d sr_&adS &;ESihfywfoufI t}uD;tus,fp;kd &drf ruif;jzpfaeygu/ oHo,jzpfrad om rrSeu f efrwdusr_rsm;udk wckcsi;f pOfjyEdik af vmufatmif tao;pdyfppkH rf;avhvmEdik yf gonf? TuJo h dk@aompHpk rf;avhvmr_rsm;onf tcsed , f &l onft h jyif u|rf;usirf _vnf;tawmftwefvkdtyfonfjzpf&m jynfwiG ;f apmifh =unfah vhvma&;tzGJ@taejzifh pHkprf;avhvmr_rvkyfrDrmS TudpPuakd jz&Si;f &efvakd =umif; aumif;pGmoabmaygufxm;&ef vdkyg onf? TuJo h dk@aom tuJjzwfcsurf sKd;vky&f mY todtrSwðf yxm;oifah omtcsufrmS rnfonfw h ikd ;f jynfrmS rS &mE_ef;jynfhrSef uefwu d saom rJqENay;olrsm;pm&if;r&Sd [laomtcsufyifjzpfonf? (*) rJqENay;olrsm;pm&if;ESifh vlO;D a&qdik &f mtcsuftvufrsm;udk E_id ;f ,SOv f suf ydik ;f jcm;oH;k oyfjcif; rJqENe,fpkpak ygif;yrm%ESifh rJqENay;Edik forl sm;. oifah wmfaomta&twGuu f kd E_id f;pm=unfjh cif;tm;jzifh rJqENay;olrsm;pm &if;.rSeu f efwdusr_udk y%mrtm;jzifhpaf q;=unfhEikd yf gonf? vlOD;a&qdik &f mtcsut f vufrsm;udk trsK;d om;pm&if;tif;rsm;ESifh ywfoufIwm0ef&aSd om tpd;k &at*sipf q D DrS &Edik fygonf? Tat*sipf o D nf oef;acgifpm&if;aumuf,lrw _ ckvky+f yD;wdik ;f rSm vlO;D a&qdik &f mtcsut f vufrsm;udk topfðypkxm;jcif;&S&d rnf?(18)ESpt f xufvOl ;D a&ESihfrq J ENe,fyrm%udk E_id ;f ,SO=f unfjh cif; tm;jzifh rJqENay;olrsm;pm&if;.yrm%ESihfywfoufI jy\em&SdEikd af =umif; t}uD;tus,fawG@&ayvdrfrh nf? tu,fI rJqEN e,fajronf omreftm;jzif&h o Sd ifo h nfxuf tvGew f &m}uD;aea=umif;awG@&S&d onfjzpfap/tvGeaf o;i,faea=umif; awG@&S&d onfjzpfap/ a±S@qufI f ppfaq;oGm;oifo h nf?pm&if;jy\emonf vlrt _ odik f;t0dik ;f wcktay: tjcm;vlrt _ odik f;t0dik f;rsm; rSm xufyI dk oufa&mufr&_ Sd-r&St d uJjzwf&eftwGuf rSm;,Gif;c|waf csmfrw _ ckonf a'otvdkuf rwluGjJ ym;wwfjcif; &Sd r&Spd pfaq;=unfh&rnf? (C) rJay;olrsm;pm&if;ESiyfh wfoufaom ppfwrf;rsm; tu,fI rJqENay;olrsm;pm&if;ESifhywfoufI rrSeu f efrwdusr_tawmfrsm;rsm; &Sad eonf[k pGyfpjJG cif;rsm; od@k r[kwf oHo, rsm; jzpfyGm;aeygu/ odk@wnf;r[kwf rJay;olrsm;pm&if;ESihf vlOD;a&qdik &f mtcsut f vufrsm;udk E_id ;f ,SOv f suf ydik f;jcm;oH;k oyf =unf&h mrS jy\emrsm;ay:xGufvmonfqdkygu rJqENay;olrsm;pm&if;rsm;ESihfywfoufppfwrf;xkwEf ikd fygonf? TuJo h @kd aom ppfwrf; rsm;rSude;f *%ef;rsm;udk tajccHI rJqENay;olrsm;pm&if;. tqift h wef;/rSeu f efwu d sr_w@dk ESihf ywfoufIaumufcsuf csEidk fygonf?

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pm&if;wGif0ifaeaomtrnftawmfrsm;rsm;onf twkta,mifrsm;jzpfonf odk@r[kwf pnf;urf;csuEf iS rhf udu k n f D[al om pGyf pGrJ r_ sm;&Sad eygu TpGypf cGJ sufreS f-rrSef twdtusaz:jy&eftwGuf “pm&if;0iforl sm;ppfwrf;” (ac:) “vlpm&if;ppfwrf;”vky&f rnf? pm&if;0ifolrsm;ppfwrf;vky&f jcif;.&nf±, G cf sufrmS rJay;olrsm;pm&ifrS trnfa&G;xkwx f m;aomvlrsm;udk rJqEN&iS rf sm; ud, k pf m;ðypHerlemtjzpf az:xkwjf yo&efjzpfonf?xdk@aemuf Tvlrsm; pm&if;0ifjcif;onf rSe-f rrSe/f olwd@k onfaz:jyygvdyfpm rsm;wGif avmavmq,f aexdkijf cif;&S-d r&SEd iS fh olwkd@onfraJ y;&efpnf;urf;csufEiS u hf u kd fnjD cif;&Sdr&Sw d @dk udk oufaojy&ef jzpf onf? pm&if;0ifolrsm;ppfwrf;xkw&f mY jynfwiG ;f apmif=h unfah vhvma&;tzG@J taeESihf yxrOD;pGm/ pm&if;tif;u|rf;usio f rl sm;/ vlO;D a&pm&if;u|rf;usiforl sm;ESifhtwlwI GJ rJqENay;olrsm;pm&if;rS tcdik t f rm,H=k unfavmufpGm usyef;a&G;xkwx f m;aom pHerlemjy vlpm&if;wckðypk&efjzpfonf?vlwidk ;f udk wOD;csif;ppfwrf;xkw&f efrmS vdkvnf;rvdt k yf/ vufawG@tm;jzifv h nf; rjzpf Edik af cs? a'ocHapmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;taeESihf trnfa&G;xkwx f m;aomvlyk*Kd~ vfwOD;csif;udk ±SmazG/ awG@qHak r;jref;&efEiS hf rJqENay;olrsm;pm &if;ygvdyfpmwGiaf exdik jf cif;&S-d r&S/d olwkd@.tjcm;aom rSwfyw kH ifjcif;qdik &f m tao;pdwf tcsut f vufrsm; (touf/ arG;ouU&mZf ponfrsm;) rSeu f efjcif;&Sd-r&Sw d dk@udo k ufaojy&rnf? xdk@aemuf tqdkygy*k d~Kvfonf aoqH;k cJ+h yDvm;/ jynfwiG f;wae&m&modk@ajymif;a±$@oGm;+yDvm;/ Edik if jH cm;od@k xGuo f Gm;+yDvm;/ odk@wnf;r[kwf b,fwek ;f urSr&Scd o hJ lvm; qdkonf wdk@udk pdppf=unf&h rnf? tu,fIvdyfpmrSm ±SmrawG@ygu (vdt k yfygv#i)f xdky*k Kd~ vf tdrrf Sm&Sad vmufaomtcsed frsm;rSm tenf;qHk;oH;k }udrcf ef@ oGm;=unf&h rnf? Tppfwrf;rS&&Sad om owif;tcsut f vufrsm;udk ar;cGe;f pOft& rSwfwrf;wifxm; jcif;/ uGejf yLwmrSmxnfo h iG ;f jcif;ESifh ydik f;jcm;oHk;oyfjcif;ðy&rnf? Tod@k vkyjf cif;tm;jzif/h rJqENay;olrsm;pm&if;&Sd rnfonft h 0if pm&if;rsm;onf twkta,mifjzpfa=umif;/ odk@r[kwf pnf;urf;csufEiS hfrudkun f aD =umif; twdtus !$ejf yEdik fvrd rhf nf? tu,fI rJay;cGi&fh o Sd t l rsm;tjym;udk rJqENay;olrsm;pm&if;rS y,fxm;onf[k ajymoHqkdo=H um;&ygu/ jynfwiG ;f apmif=h unfh h lrsm;ppfwrf;”[kvnf;ac:aom “y,fpm&if;ppfwrf;” aumuf&efvt dk yfEikd yf gonf? avhvmolrsm;taeESifh “pm&if;oGi;f &rnfo “y,fpm&if;ppfwrf;”.&nf±, G cf sufrmS rJay;&efpnf;urf;csufEiS hfuu kd n f o D lrsm;ESifh rSwfyw kH if&efóu;pm;cJo h lrsm; rJqENay;olrsm; pm&if;rSm rygbJ/ b,favmufrsm;rsm;&Sad eovJqkdonfukd oufaojy&efjzpfonf? “vlpm&if;ppfwrf;” udpw P iG f/ a'ocH apmifh=unfh avhvmolrsm;u usbrf;a&G;xkwx f m;aomvlrsm;udk awG@qHak r;jref;&onf? ,ckr/l vrf;ay:Yvnf;aumif;/ aetdrfrsm;Y vnf;aumif;/ olwdk@.trnf/ ae&yfvdypf m/ rJqENay;&efpnf;urf;csufEiS u hf kdun f jD cif;&S-d r&Sd ESihf rSwfyw kH if&ef óu;pm;cJjh cif;&Sd-r&Sd wdk@udk ±SmazGaz:xkw&f efjzpfonf? xd@k aemuf Towif;tcsuftvufrsm;udk ar;cGef;pOft& rSww f rf;wifxm;&rnf? xdk@aemuf tESaD wG@qHak r;jref;cHc&hJ olrsm;udk rSwyf w kH ifay;cJjh cif;&Sd-r&Sd pdppf=unh&f eftvd@k iSm/ &&Sx d m; aom tao;pdyt f csut f vufrsm;udk a=ujimxm;aom rJqENay;olrsm;pm&if;ESiw hf u dk q f ikd fppfaq;&rnf? Tenf;vrf;udk toH;k ðyjcif;tm;jzifh rJqENay;cGijfh iif;y,f (txl;ojzifh Tod@k jiif;y,fro _ nf vlenf;pktrsKd;om;rsm;tay:xdcdu k jf cif;&Sd-r&S)d cH&olO;D a&ESifh trsKd;tpm;udk ydik ;f jcm;oH;k oyfEidk fygvdrhfrnf? Tppfwrf;wckcu k dk aumuf,o l l a'ocHapmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;onf aumif;pGmavhusix hf m;olrsm;jzpf&rnft h jyif ,Ofaus; jyLiSmolrsm;vnf;jzpf&efvdkygonf?olwdk@onf rdrw d @kd ud, k fpm;ðyaomtzG@J tpnf;ta=umif;ESihf rdrdw@kd ar;jref;aeaom owif;t csut f vufrsm;udk tb,fah =umifv h t dk yfa=umif; yGihfyiG hfvif;vif;ajymjy&rnf? ppfwrf;aumuf,lra_ =umifh a=umufvef@roGm; atmif owdxm;&rnf? a&G;aumufyt GJ m%mydik frsm;qDrS y%mr rJay;olrsm;pm&if;rxkwjf yefrDrmS rnfonfhppfwrf;rsK;d udrk # aumufIrjzpfacs? tjypf temtqmrsm;±SmawG@ygu ðyjyif&eftcsed &f atmif/ ppfwrf;rsm;udk a&G;aumufyjGJ zpfpOftrS/D apmEdik o f r#apmapm aumuf,&l 50


rnf? wcgw&HY/ jynfwiG ;f apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;onf A[dt k qif/h a&G;aumufyt JG m%mydik frsm;qDrS y%mr rJqENay;olrsm; pm&if;rdwLW awmif;,lI &wwfonf?Todk@awmif;,l&&Sad &;onf cufcw J wfonf? ta=umif;rSm a&G;aumufyGJ tm%mydik rf sm; u jiif;qefwwf=uaoma=umifjh zpfonf? odk@wnf;r[kwf a'otqifrh mS om&&Sw d wfaoma=umifjh zpfonf?“pm&if;0ifolrsm; k qifajyap&eftvd@k iSm jynfwiG ;f apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;taeeSi/hf jzpfEikd yf gu/ ppfwrf;” twGuf usbrf;a&G;xkw&f mY ydrk dt rJqENay;olrsm;pm&if;udk tDvufxa&mepfrw d LW jzifh &atmifóu;pm;oifyh gonf? (i) uGejf yLwmjzifph pfaq;jcif; uGejf yLwmjzifhppfaq;jcif;wGif trSm;rsm;ESit fh vm;tvmrsm;±SmazG&eftwGuf rJqENay;olrsm;pm&if; tDvufxa&mepfrdwLW udk ydik ;f jcm;oH;k oyfjcif;yg0ifonf? TuJo h dk@aomppfaq;r_rsKd;udk a&G;aumufyt JG m%mydik frsm; od@k r[kwf enf;ynmqdik &f mtwdik fyifcH yk*~Kd vfrsm;u vkyaf vh&o Sd nf? jynfwiG ;f apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;taejzifh Todk@aomuGejf yLwmppfaq;r_rsm;. enf;pepf/ vkyf udik yf HkEiS fh &v'frsm;udk ppfaq;=unfch iG &fh &Sd rnft h jyif/ uGejf yLwmppfaq;r_rsm;udk udk,w f ikd u f d, k u f s vkycf iG hfvnf;&S&d rnf? uGejf yLwmjzifhppfaq;jcif;onf rJqENay;olrsm;pm&if;&Sd rSww f rf;rSw&f mrsm;udk =unfh±u _ m/ owfrw S x f m;aompHxm;csurf sm; ESiu fh dkun f aD om rSww f rf;rSw&f mrsm;ud±k SmazGjcif;jzpfonf? TuJho@kd ppfaq;=unfjh cif;tm;jzifh rJqENay;olrsm;pm&if;rSm &Sw d wf aomtrSm;rsm;udk ±SmazGaz:xkwEf idk fygonf? TuJo h kd@aomtrSm;rsKd;rsm;wGif rSeu f efwu d sjcif;r&Sad om rSww f rf;ta&twGu/f tcsut f vufrjynfhpaHk omrSwfwrf;rsm;/ xyfaeaomrSwfwrf;rsm;/ pnf;urf;csufEiS hfrnDaomrSww f rf;rsm;/rcsay;oifah om rJ qENe,fajrodk@csay;jcif;/ xyfjznfhay;jcif;/y,fzsufypfjcif;/ ESihf jyefjyifay;jcif;wdk@yg0ifonf? uGejf yLwmppfaq;r_jzifv h nf; vuf&dS rJqENay;olrsm;pm&if;ESifh ,cifrq J ENay;olrsm;pm&if;/ odk@r[kwf oef;acgifpm&if;tcsut f vufrsm;udk E_id f;,SO=f unfEh ikd +f yD;/ vuf&rSd q J ENay;olrsm;pm&if;&Sjd y\emrsm;udak y:vGiaf prnfh jcm;em;csut f awmfrsm;rsm;udk az:xkwEf ikd yf gonf? TuJo h @kd aom ppfaq;r_rsm; toH;k 0if./r0if.qdo k nfrSm wu,fwrf;tm;jzifh ,cifrq J ENay;olrsm;pm&if;ESihf oef;acgifpm&if;tcsut f vuf rsm; rSeu f efwu d sr_ &Sd-r&Sd[al omtcsuaf y:rSmrlwnfygonf? rJqENay;olrsm;pm&if;udk apmif=h unfah vhvm&mY tcsi;f csif;olðyif/ud, k ðf yifjzpfaeaom trsm;jynfo@l tusKd;pD;yGm;rsm;udk csdeq f =unf&h rnf? om"utaeESiafh z:jy&ygv#i/f vly*k d~Kvfa&;vHðk cHru _ kd xdcu kd Ef ikd af omwdik ;f jynfrsm;Y rJqENay;olrsm;pm&if;ESifyh wf oufaom tcsKd@owif;tcsuftvufrsm;udk xde;f xdef;odr;f odr;f xkwjf yefoifhygonf? udp&P yftm;vH;k Y Edik if o H m;wdik ;f . at; at;vlval ecGiu fh dk xnfo h iG ;f pOf;pm&rnfjzpf+yD;/ jynfwiG ;f apmif=h unfah vhvma&;tzGJ@rsm;onf Edkiif o H m;rsm;ESihfywfoufI rdrd wdk@&&Sx d m;aom owif;tcsuftvufrsm;udk wm0efopd dw"f gwfjzift h oH;k cs&ayrnf? tZm&Dapmif apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;tzGJ@u rJqENay;olrsm;pm&if;wGif rrSeu m;odod omomawG@&Sjcif djcif; f efrr_ ssm;od trsm;jynfol@tusKd;aqmif tZm&D jynfwiG f;avhvmapmif=h unfha&;tzG@J (Azeri domestic group For the Sake of Civil f efrr_ sm; odod Society) onf ygvDrefa&G;aumufyGJrwdik fr/D (2000) ckESp/f Ed0k ifbmvtwGif;Y/ rJqENay;olrsm;pm&if;rSm rrSeu omom&Sad ecJah =umif;pdk;&drfruif;jzpfcJo h nf? odk@jzpfI “pm&if;0iforl sm;ppfwrf;” a&m “y,fpm&if;ppfwrf;”yg enf; 2-enf; pvH;k udyk g oH;k vsuf pm&if;ppf&eftzGJ@uqH;k jzwfco hJ nf? TudpPukdaqmif&u G &f eftwGu/f tzG@J onf wdik ;f jynf. e,fajrqdik &f m a&G;aumufycGJ ±dik af ygi;f (100) teuf c±dik f (20) udak &G;cs,+f yD;aemuf/ apwemh0efxrf;(40)udk oifwef;ay;jcif;ESifh xda&muf aom owif;ay;ydk@r_pepfwckudk wnfaqmufco Jh nf? c±dik t f oD;oD;Y apwemh0efxrf; yk*d~Kvfwkd@u rJqENay;c±dik t f csKd@udk usyrf; a&G;xkwcf o Jh nf? wzef rJqENay;olrsm;pm&if;rS vltrnftcsKd@udk usbrf;a&G;xkwjf yefonf? xd@k aemuf xdak &G;xkwx f m;aom vlrsm;. trnfpm&if;oGi;f r_rsm; rSeu f efwu d sjcif;&Sd-r&Sd owfrw S &f eftwGuf olwkd@awG@qHkar;jref;Edik af tmifóu;pmcJhonf? 51


xdu k o f ifah om a&G;aumufyeGJ ,fajrrSm pm&if;oGif;xm;jcif;&Sd-r&Sd owfrw S &f eftwGuf pHerlemrJqEN&iS t f kypf kukd awG@qHk ar;jref;cJo h nf? tzGJ@tpnf;XmecsKyfodk@ tpD&ifcHpmrsm;ay;yd@k +yD;v#i/f tpD&ifcHpmrsm;udk pm&if;tif;u|rf;usio f rl sm;u ydik f;jcm; oH;k oyfco Jh nf?&&Sd aomtcsuftvufrsm;t&/ tZm&D jynfwiG ;f avhvmapmif=h unfah &;tzG@J u tpD&ifcw H ifjyonfrmS wwdik ;f jynfvHk; rJqENay;olrsm;pm&if;. trnfpm&if;0ifol (30) &mE_ef;rSm rrSeu f efr_rsm;&Sad eonf[I l jzpfonf? (p) trsm;jynfoq l idk &f m owif;jyef=um;a&;v_y&Sf&mS ;r_ rsm;udk apmif=h unfah vhvmjcif; ;r_rsm;ud Edik if o H m;rsm; rJqENay;olrsm;pm&if;rSm rdrw d dk@trnfrsm;yg-rygppfaq;=unf±h a_ tmif od@k r[kwf rSwyf w kH ifatmif tpdk;&tm%m ydik frsm; aqmif&u G af om owif;jyef=um;a&;v_y&f mS ;r_rsm;udk jynfwiG ;f avhvmolrsm;taeESihf apmif=h unf&h efvt dk yfaumif;vdk tyfEidk yf gonf? rJay;cGi&fh o Sd lrsm;udk pm&if;roGif;bJxm;onf[lIvnf;aumif;/ xl;jcm;aom rJqENay;ol tkyfprk sm; (txl; ojzifh vlenf;pktrsK;d om;rsm;xJrv S t l kyfprk sm;) udk yxkwx f m;onf[lIvnf;aumif;/ trnftrsKd;rsK;d wyfvsuf vltrsm; tjym;udk pm&if; oGif;xm;onf[I l vnf;aumif; vltrsm;oHo,jzpfae=uygu Todk@ apmif=h unf&h ef vdt k yfonf? jynfwiG ;f apmif=h unfah vhvm olrsm;taejzifh tuJjzwfEikd af omudpPrsm;rSm owif;jyef=um;r_ukd tcsderf Sv D ky-f rvky/f rSeu f efwu d sjcif;&S-d r&S/d rJay;cGi&fh o Sd l Edik if H om;tkypf kwpkpu k dk yxkwx f m;jcif;&Sd-r&SEd iS hf vlrsm;Edik o f r#rsm;rsm; rJay;Edik af vmufatmif owif; xkwjf yefay;jcif; &Sd-r&S[ d al om udpPrsm;jzpfonf?TudpPrsm;udk atmufygtwdik f;aqmif&u G Ef ikd yf gonf?  Tudpu P dk owif;rD', D m-apmif=h unfah &;vkyif ef;wGif xnfo h iG ;f jcif;?  tm%mydik frsm;xkwjf yefonfh vufurf;pm&Gurf sm;/ydpk wmrsm;uJho@kd aom owif;jyef=um;r_rsm;. ta=umif;t&m/ ta&twGuEf iS fh jzef@csdyw Hk dk@udk ppfaq;=unfjh cif;?  (vlenf;pktrsKd;om;rsm;udk yxkwx f m;onf [laom jy\em&Sdv#i)f tm%mydik w f kd@xkwjf yefonfh owif;jyef=um;r_ rsm;udk “vlenf;pk”bmompum;rsm;jzif&h Edik jf cif;&Sd-r&Sd ppfaq;=unfjh cif;? jynfwiG ;f apmif=h unfah vhvma&;tzGJ@wzGJ@taejzifh rJqEN&iS rf sm;pm&if;oGi;f rcH&[k oHo,&Sad ev#iaf omfvnf;aumif;/Tudpu P kd “y,fpm&if;ppfwrf;” jzift h rSew f u,fppfaq;=unfv h #iaf omfvnf;aumif;/ Edik if o H m;rsm;rSwyf w kH ifatmifEiS hf rJqENay;olrsm; pm&if;wGif rdrw d dk@trnfrsm;yg-rygppfaq;=unfah tmif ud, k yf ikd o f wif;jyef=um;a&;Xme xm;&S&d efvt kd yfEikd yf gonf? Tod@k xm;&Syd gu xkwjf yefay;aom twif;tcsut f vufrsm;onf rSeu f efwu d s&rnft h jyif/ trsm;jynfol trsm;qH;k rJqENay;Edik f a&;twGuf &nf±, G x f m;&rnf? jynfwiG ;f apmif=h unfah vhvma&;tkypf t k aejzifh (pm&if;xJxnf&h ef tav;xm;jcif;odyrf cH&ol rsm;jzpfonf)h vli,frsm;/ vlenf;pktrsK;d om;rsm;xJryS *k Kd~ vfrsm;uJo h @kd aom txl;tkypf rk sm;udk ypfrw S x f m;&ef vdt k yfwwfygonf? jynfwiG ;f apmif=h unfh avhvma&;tkypf w k pktaejzifh Tv_y&f mS ;r_rsK;d vkyyf gu owdðy&efrmS bufvu kd o f nf [k Edik af &;ygwrD sm;.pGypf pGJ &m jzpfwwfonf [laomtcsuyf ifjzpfonf? od@k jzpf&m rdrad y;yd@k aom owif;tcsut f vuf rSeo f r#onf wu,fwrf;ormorwfusap&rnf? (q) rJqENay;olrsm;rSwyf w Hk if&mXmersm;udk apmif=h unfah vhvmjcif; (Edik if o H m;rSwyf Hkwifpm&if;rS xkwef w _ f,jl cif; od@k r[kwf wtdrfwufqif; pm&if;aumuf,jl cif;ay:rSmtajccHaompepfrsK;d r[kwf yJ) Edik if o H m;rsm;taejzifh owfrSwx f m;aom rSwfyw kH ifXmersm;wGif óuwifrw S fyw kH if&ef Oya'ujyXmef;xm;ygu apmif=h unfh avhvmolrsm;tzdk@ TrSwfyw Hk ifjcif;vkyfx;Hk vkyfenf;tqifq h ifu h kd apmif=h unfah vhvm&efvt kd yfEikd fygonf?rJqENay;jcif;ESihf rwl bJ/ rJqENay;olrsm;rSwfyw Hk ifjcif;vkyif ef;onf &uftcsKd@r#avmufEiS hfr+yD;/ oDwif;ygwfrsm;ESichf sDI=umwwfonf? tu,fI apmif=h unfah vhvma&;tzGJ@wzGJ@onf owfrw S fxm;aom rSwfykHwifXmersm;wGif rJqENay;olrsm;rSwfyw kH ifjcif;udk apmif=h unfhrnf[k qH;k jzwfxm;ygu/ Xmewckpu D akd e@pOfapmif=h unfrh nfvm;/ rSwfyw kH ifXmersm;. erlemyHpk w H ck owfrw S fI aqmif&u G rf nfvm; qdo k nfudk óuwifq;Hk jzwfxm;&rnf? xdk@jyif/ rdr. d tzG@J i,frsm;udk ae&mtES@H a±$@ajymif;v_y&f mS ;aprnf 52


vm;/ tajcpdkux f m;rnfvm; qdkonfuv dk nf;qH;k jzwfxm;&rnf? tu,fI/ XmetcsKd@.rSwfyw kH ifjcif;vkyif ef;onf tjcm;Xme rsm;xuf jy\emydjk zpfzG,&f o Sd nf[k oHo,jzpfygu Tenf;ESpfenf;pvHk;udak ygi;f pyfusio hf kH;&ef qH;k jzwfEikd fygonf? rSwfyw Hk ifjcif;jzpfpOfudk rnfodk@apmif=h unfah vhvmrnft h a=umif; qH;k jzwf+yD;onfEiS /hf jynfwiG f;apmif=unfah vhvma&;tzG@J onf apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;udk rSwfyw Hk ifjcif;ESifyh wfoufI oifwef;ay;+yD;v#i/f ±d;k &Si;f aom ppfaq;csupf m&if;yHkpHEiS hf tpD&ifcHpm a&;oGi;f &efyHkprH sm;ay;tyf&rnf? rSwfyw Hk ifXmewckukd ae@pOfapmif=h unfah om apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;onf atmufygwd@k udk rSww f rf;wif&rnf?  rSwfyw Hk ifcaJh omvlO;D a&?  pnf;urf;csufEiS u fh dkun f aD omfvnf; rSwfyw kH ifciG hf jiif;y,fc&H olO;D a&?  pnf;urf;csufEsifhrudu k fnaD omfvnf; rSwfyw kH ifciG &hf olO;D a&?  w}udrx f ufydI k rSwfyw Hk ifxm;olO;D a&?  vkyx f Hk;vkyef nf;tqifq h ifu h dk rSefreS fuefuef usifo h ;Hk jcif;&S-d r&S?d  rSwfyw Hk ifXmeonf tvG,fwul0ifxu G I f &-r&? tcsdefrSezf iG jhf cif;/tcsed freS fyw d jf cif;&Sd-r&Sd?  rSwfyw Hk ifXmerSm ±kyf0wWKypPn;f rsm;tvHt k avmuf&dS-r&Sd?  tcsut f vufrsm;udkrSeu f efpmG rSww f rf;wifjcif;&Sd-r&S?d pm&if;ðypk&eftwGuf trsK;d om;rSwfyw Hk ifXmeodk@Ttcsut f vufrsm;udk yd@k -ryd@k ? tpD&ifcpH ma&;oGi;f &efyHkpHrsm;onf wdusjcif;/toHk;ðy&vG,u f jl cif;/ &Si;f vif;jcif;&S&d rnf? tzG@J taejzifh rSwfyw kH ifvkyif ef;atmif jrifjcif;&Sd-r&Sq d Hk;jzwfEidk &f eftwGuf tpD&ifcHpmwdik f;udk tcsuftvufb%frmS xnfo h iG ;f &rnf? Ttcsuftvufrsm;onf rSwfyw Hk ifE_e;f rsm;ESifhywfoufI vdt k yfaom tcsut f vuf rsm;jzpfrnft h jyif/ jy\emjzpfymG ;aome,fajrrsm;ESihf rSwyf Hw k ifr_ enf;yg;aome,fajrrsm;udv k nf; n$ejf yay;ayvdrrhf nf? (Z) rJqENay;olrsm;rSwyf w Hk ifjcif;qdik &f m cHo k rm"dtzG@J rsm;udk apmif=h unfah vhvmjcif; a&G;aumufyu GJ mvtcktwGi;f Y Edik if o H m;rsm;/ud, k fpm;vS,af vmif;rsm; od@k r[kwEf ikd if aH &;ygwDrsm;onf pm&if;wifxm;aom trnfrsm;ESifhywfoufI apm'uwufjcif;/ uef@uGujf cif;rsm;ðywwf=uonf? Ttjiif;yGm;r_rsm;udk rJqENay;olrsm; rSwyf w kH if jcif;qdik &f m cHo k rm"dtzGJ@/a&G;aumufyaGJ umfr&Sif odk@r[kwf w&m;±H;k wd@k u =um;emqHk;jzwfavh&dSonf? =um;emppfaq;aom t &m&Srd sm; ormorwf&-Sd r&S/d rSefuefaomvkyx f kH;vkyef nf;tqifhqifu h kd a±S@aemufn! D w $ pf mG usifo h ;kH jcif;&Sd-r&S/d uef@uGuo f u l kd a&m uef@uGucf &H oudkyg cHk±;Hk odk@wufa&muf&eftcsdeaf y;jcif;&S-d r&Sd tuJjzwf&eftwGuf Ttjiif;yGm;r_rsm;udak pmif=h unfah vh vmEdik fygonf? Todk@apmif=h unfhavhvm&mY/ Oya'udk ormorwf ususEiS hf a±S@aemufn! D w $ fpGmusio hf ;kH jcif; &S-d r&St d uJjzwf &eftwGuf jynfwiG ;f apmif=h unfhavhvma&;tzG@J taejzifh tjcm;aomtjiif;yGm;r_rsm;(wr_csif;pD)rSm apmif=h unfah vhvm&eft oH;k ðycJah om enf;pepfrsm;/ enf;vrf;rsm;udk vdt k yfovdðk yjyif,lEikd fygonf? od@k wnf;r[kwf uef@uGuo f lEiS hf uef@uGucf &H ol rsm;. erlemyHkpw H ckupdk pfwrf; xkw, f El idk yf gonf? (ps) a&G;aumufy-GJ c±dik ef ,fajr owfrw S rf r_ sm;udk apmif=h unfah vhvmjcif; Oa&myvHðk cHa&;ESifhyl;aygif;aqmif&u G af &;tzGJ@ (OSCE) .uwdu0wfðyr_rsm;t& wef;wlnDr#ud, k pf m;ðyEdik af &;twGuf rJtm; vH;k onf wefz;dk csif;wln&D rnfjzpfonf? qdv k o dk nfrmS a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufc&H aom ud, k pf m;vS,t f oD;oD;onf rSwfyw kH if xm;aom a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufot l a&twGun f w D n l Dr#udk ud, k pf m;ðyxm;&rnf[I l jzpfonf? om"utm;jzifah z:jy&rnf qdv k #i/f trsm;pk rJpepfwiG f (majority voting system) wGif rJqENay;olyrm%onf rJqENe,fajrwckEiS w hf ckwiG f (10) &mE_e;f 53


xufausmI f ruGmjcm;ap&ay?tcsK;d tpm;tvdu k f udk,pf m;ðypepf (proportional representation system) wGif rJqENay; olyrm% onfumG jcm;r_ &SdEidk fygonf? odk@&mwGif c±dik fe,fajrtoD;oD;twGuf udk,pf m;vS,t f a&twGuo f nf rJqENay;ol yrm%. tcsKd;tpm;ay:rSmrlwnfonf?a&G;aumufyOJG ya'onf a&G;aumufyJG-c±dik ef ,fedrw d fowfrw S &f mY tao;pdwf us+yD;/ wnDwnmwnf;&Sad om pHxm;csufrsm;owfrSwx f m;oifo h nf? c±dik fe,fajrwckv#ifowfrw S x f m;&rnfh rJqEN&iS t f a& twGuEf iS fh e,ferd dwrf sm;. yx0D0ift&/ tkycf sKyfa&;t&/ ordik ;f t&awmufav#mufwnf&dSvmr_wkd@udk xnfo h iG ;f pOf;pm;& rnf? Edik if aH &;t& =um;aea&;rluu dk idk fpv GJ suf/ e,fedrw d frsm;udk yGi;f vif;jrifompGma&;qG&J rnf? taumif;qH;k rSm Edik if aH &;orm; r[kwfaom u|rf;usifol ynm&Sirf sm;.aumfr&Sit f zGJ@ua&;qGjJ cif; jzpfonf? jynfwiG ;f apmif=h unfah vhvma&;tzGJ@onf rJtm;vHk;onf wefzd;k csi;f wln&D rnf[al omrlukd jzpfEikd o f r#jzpfEikd af tmif taumiftxnfaz:a&;twGuf a&G;aumufyJG c±dik f e,fajrrsm;udk yGiv fh if;jrifompGm a&;qGo J vm;/ od@k r[kwf pdwóf uufa&G;cs,jf cif;/ cGjJ cm;cGjJ cm;vkyjf cif;/ bufvkdujf cif; tm;jzifh a&;qGo J vm;qdo k nfudk tuJjzwf&rnf?

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6? a&G;aumufyGJ pDrt H yk csKyf fcsKyfyu Hk dk apmif-h unfah vhvmjcif; u? a&G;aumufyGJ pDrt H kycf sKyfr_ wnfaqmufyHk c? tuJjzwf&rnfh tc&mudpPrsm;  a&G;aumufyGJ pDrt H kycf sKyfrE_ iS yfh wfoufI zGJ@pnf;yH/k vkyif ef;u|rf;usifrf _EiS x hf ad &mufrw _ kd@udk tuJjzwfjcif;?  a&G;aumufyGJprD t H yk cf sKyfra_ qmif&Gu&f mY ormorwf&-dS r&S/d yGiv hf if;jrifomr_&dS-r&Sdw@kd udk tuJjzwfjcif;?  ykrH eS t f pnf;ta0;usif;yEdik af &;ESi/hf qufpyfywfouf&mowif;tcsut f vufrsm;&&Sad &;twGuf a&G;aumufyaGJ umfr&Sif tqift h m;vH;k ESihf aumif;rGeaf om tvkyfoabmqufqHrw _ &yf wnf aqmufxm;jcif;?

(u) a&G;aumufypGJ rD t H yk cf sKyfr_ wnfaqmufyHk a&G;aumufyw GJ ckprD t H yk cf sKyf&ef wm0ef,&l aomtzG@J tpnf;wckonf yg0if,OS òf yifaom Edik if aH &;ygwrD sm;ESihf trsm;jynfow l @kd . ,H=k unfru _ v dk ufuidk ðf yxm;&rnf? trsm;tm;jzifh a&G;aumufyrJG sm;udk A[dak &G;aumufyaJG umfyaJG umfr&Sif (CEC) [k ac:qdk avh&aSd om trsK;d om;a&G;aumufyaGJ umfr&Siu f 0efxrf;tzG@J od@k r[kwf twGi;f a&;r_;wOD;jzifh a&G;aumufyrJG sm;udk }uD;=uyf onf? TtzGJ@tpnf;onf t+rJwrf;tzGJ@tpnf;jzpfavh&o dS nf? (CEC) atmufrmS aqmif&u G af e=uaomtzG@J tpnf;rsm; onf wdik ;f jynf. pDrt H yk cf sKyfa&;c±dik f odk@r[kwf a&G;aumufycJG ±dik rf sm;rSm tajccHavh&adS om atmufqifh a&G;aumufyJG aumfr&Sirf sm;ESifh a&G;aumufyGJ c±dik t f oD;oD;twGuf rJay;Xmeaumfr&Sirf sm;jzpfonf? a&G;aumufypJG rD t H yk cf sKyfr_ tqifh toD;oD;. zGJ@pnf;yHEk iS w fh m0efrsm;udk Oya'jzifh &Si;f vif;jywfom;pGm csrw S af y;oifo h nf?

!$ef =um;c suf ESifh pnf;rs Of;

A[dak &G;aumufyaGJ umfr&Sif

tpD &ifcH

a'oqdik &f ma&G;aumufyaGJ umfr&Sirf sm; c&dik af &G;aumufyaGJ umfr&Sirf sm; (¹ciG ;f csu)f

pm wif jcif;

rJ&aHk &G;aumufyaGJ umfr&Sirf sm;

pnf; urf;rs

ESifh &v'f

a&G;aumufyaGJ umfr&Sif tkycf sKyfr_ erlem yHpk t H qifq h ifh

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e,fajrtpd;k &/ jynfxaJ &;0ef}uD;Xme/ w&m;a&;0ef}uD;Xme uJho@kd aom tpd;k &.tjcm;tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;udv k nf; a&G;aumufyGJ umvtwGi;f Y tcef;u¾wckcrk S yg0ifaqmif&u G &f ef vkyyf ikd cf Git hf yfEiS ;f Edik fygonf? Todk@vkyyf kdicf iG t hf m%mtyfEiS ;f ygu a&G; aumufyGJpDrt H yk cf sKyfr_udk apmif=h unfo h nfhenf;wl/ TtzG@J tpnf;rsm;udv k nf;apmif=h unfo h ifhygonf? a,bk,stm;jzif/h apmif=h unfah vhvmr_nESd i_d ;f a&;ESihf ydik ;f jcm;oH;k oyfa&;tzGJ@ (Observation Co-ordination and Analysis Unit) u A[dak &G;aumufyaGJ umfr&Si. f vkyif ef;udak pmif=h unfh&rnf? a'oapmif=h unfah vhvma&;tzG@J u a'oa&G;aumufyJG aumfr&Si. f vkyif ef; (ESifh vdt k yfygu c±dik af &G;aumufyaJG umfr&Si. f vkyif ef;udyk g) apmif=h unfah vhvm&rnfjzpf+yD;/ apmif=h unfah vh vmol wOD;csi;f url rJay;Xmetqifah &G;aumufyaJG umfr&Siu f dk apmif=h unfah vhvm&rnfjzpfonf? jynfwiG f;apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;onf tqift h m;vH;k &Sd a&G;aumufyJGpDrt H kycf sKyfa&;tzGJ@rsm;ESihf vkyif ef;oabmqufqrH _ r jywf&aSd eatmifóu;pm;&rnf? apmif=h unfah vhvmr_ndSEid_ ;f a&;ESihf ydik f;jcm;oHk;oyfa&;tzGJ@0ifrsm;ESihf a'otqifah pmif=h unfah vh vmolrsm;onf oifah wmfaoma&G;aumufyaGJ umfr&Sifrsm;/ aumfr&Sif0efxrf;rsm;ESihf yHkrSeaf wG@qH+k yD;v#if óuwifjyifqifr_rsm; rnfodk@jzpfay:aea=umif;udk pHkprf;avhvmoifo h nf? aumfr&Sifrsm;.yHkrSet f pnf;ta0rsm;od@k vnf;wufa&muf+yD;/ qHk;jzwfcsuf rsm;udk a&;rSw&f rnf? &Edik fygu/ a&G;aumufyt JG m%mydik frsm;xkwjf yefaom qH;k jzwfcsu/f pnf;rsOf;ESihf !$e=f um;csufreS o f r#ukd pkaqmif;+yD;v#if/ pDppf=unf&h rnf? pnf;rsOf;pnf;urf;rsm;ESihf Oya'uJo h @kd tm%mwnfaomtjcm; yk'rf rsm; xkwjf yefjcif;&Sd-r&Sd od&atmif tpd;k &jyefwrf;rsm;udk =unf±h &_ rnf? TuJo h d@k aom yk'frrsm;ESihf pnf;rsO;f pnf;urf;rsm; tm%mwnfa&;twGuf ‚if;wdk@udk yHkESdyx f w k af 0ay;&rnf? (c) tuJjzwf&rnfh tc&mudprP sm; pHpk rf;avhvm tuJjzwf&rnfh tc&musaoma&G;aumufyJGpDrt H yk fcsKyfrq _ ikd &f mudp&P yfrsm;rSm â a&G;aumufyaGJ umfr&Sif zGJ@pnf;jcif; - a&G;aumufyaJG umfr&Sirf sm;cef@tyfjcif;/vkyif ef;wm0efrsm;owfrw S af y;jcif; wdk@ESiyhf wf oufaomenf;emrsm;udk a&G;aumufyOGJ y a'wGif az:jyxm;&rnf? a&G;aumufyaJG umfr&Sirf sm;udk oD;jcm;vGwv f yfpmG ESihf orm orwfuspmG zGJ@pnf;&rnf?a,bk,stm;jzifh/ Edik if aH &;ygwDrsm;rS aeIr#r#wwac:,lxm;aom udk,pf m;vS,frsm;udk trsm;pkt jzpfyg0ifap&rnf?a&G;aumufyGv J kyif ef;udk t jynf t h 0,H=k unfr&_ =dS uaom wdik ;f jynfrsm;Y w&m;ol}uD;tzGJ@0ifrsm;tygt0if t rsm;av;pm;cH&aom/=um;aeoabmxm;&Sad om/xd@k jyif tawG@tñuH&adS omyk*Kd~ vfrsm;xnfhoiG ;f vsuf a&G;aumufyaJG umfr&Sifukd zGJ@pnf;oifo h nf? tzGJ@0ifrsm;udkt&rf;um a&mz,f&mS ;jcif;rðyap&ay? â a&G;aumufyaGJ umfr&Sirs frsm;. oD;jcm;vGwv f yfrE_ iS hf ormorwfusr_ - a&G;aumufyaJG umfr&Sirf sm;udk oD;jcm;vGwv f yfpmG ESifh ormorwfuspGm zGJ@pnf;oifo h nfomru/ Taumfr&Sifrsm;onf oD;jcm;vGwv f yfpmG ESihf ormorwfuspGmvnf; aqmif &Guo f ifo h nf? aumfr&Siw f dk@udk pGuzf ufjcif; odk@r[kwf +cdr;f ajcmufjcif;rðyap&ay? a&G;aumufyaJG umfr&Sifrsm;onf cGjJ cm;r_uif; pGmESifh wnfqOJ ya'ESiafh vsmn f DpGm vGwv f yfpmG xkwaf z:cGihf/ vGwfvyfpmG oif;yif;zGJ@cGi/hf vGwfvyfpmG pka0;cGihf wd@k udt k mrcH&rnf? cGjJ cm;qufqjH cif; odk@r[kwf tm%mtvGo J ;Hk pm;ðyjcif;rSeo f r#onf a&G;aumufy. JG w&m;r#wr_ukd t}uD;tus,f+cdrf;ajcmuf &ma&mufygonf? â yGiv fh if;jrifomr_&S&jcif djS cif; - a&G;aumufyGaJ umfr&Sif;rsm;onf yGiv hf if;jrifompGm aqmif&u G &f rnf? rdrw d kd@vkyif ef;. rnfonfh rsufEmS pmbufudkrqdk tppftaq;cH&efvrf;zGix hf m;&rnf? ygwDu, kd pf m;vS,frsm;udk aumfr&SifrSmxnfo h iG ;f xm;jcif;/ owif;rD 'D,mtwGuf vrf;zGix fh m;jcif;ESifh qH;k jzwfcsufrsm;udk rqdik ;f rwGxw k af 0jcif;wd@k tygt0ifenf; vrf;aygi;f rsm;pGmjzifh yGiv hf if;jrif omr_&aSd tmifaqmif&u G fEidk fygonf? odk@&mwGif apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;taejzifh aumfr&Sit f pnf;ta0;rsm;udk wdu k f±u kd x f d 57


awG@Edik jf cif;r&Sdwwfacs? â 0efxrf;rsm;cef@xm;jcif;ESifh avhusiafh y;jcif; - a&G;aumufyJGaumfr&Sit f zGJ@0ifEiS hf 0efxrf;tm;vH;k onf a&G;aumufyJGrwdik frD uwnf;uyifóuwifI oifah vsmfaom/tqift h wef;rSaD omoifwef;rsm;&&Sx d m;oifhonf?TonfrmS wm0efxrf;aqmifyx kH rf; aqmifenf;ta=umif;udk tjynft h 0em;vnfap&efjzpfonf?a&G;aumufyaJG umfr&Siw f iG f trsKd;orD;ESifh vlenf;pkvlrsKd;rsm;. tcsK;d tpm;udk rsm;Edik t f r#rsm;rsm;yg0ifapoifo h nf? â t&if;tjrpfrsm; - a&G;aumufyGJpDrt H yk cf sKyfrt _ zGJ@wGif yGiv hf if;jrifomr_vnf;&S/d vHak vmufrv _ nf;&So d nft h jyif oD;jcm;vGwf vyfrv _ nf;&So d nfh bwf*suw f ck&aSd p&rnf? ,H=k unfpw d cf s&avmufaoma&G;aumufyJGwckO;D pD;usif;yEdik af &;twGuf aumfr&Sif rsm;udk tcsdet f vHt k avmufay;&rnft h jyif/ oifah wmfaomtcsdeYf vnf; vdt k yfaomb¾maiGa=u;ESihf ypPnf;rsm;jznfh qnf; ay;&rnf? a&G;aumufyGJprD t H yk cf sKyfr_ tqifhtoD;oD;. t"duvkyyf ikd cf iG hfrsm;udk atmufygZ,m;jzifah z:jyxm;ygonf?

a&G;aumufyGypJG rD t H yk cf sKyfa&;tm; apmih=f unf=h uyfrwfjcif; a&G;aumufyt GJ yk cf sKyfa&;tqifq h ifh

pDrt H yk cf sKyfa&;qdik &f m vkyif ef;pOfrsm;ESifh vkyaf qmifcsurf sm;  Oya'tm; ormorwfusus/ r#wr_&pdS mG taumiftxnfaz:jcif;  avhvmolrsm;udk w&m;0if todtrSwðf yjcif;  rJqENe,fajr/ c&dik ef ,ferd w d rf sm;udk abmifcwf owfrw S jf cif;  pDrt H yk cf sKyfa&;qdik &f m pnf;rsO;f pnf;urf;rsm; xkwjf cif;  tjiif;yGm;r_rsm;udk ajz&Si;f jcif;

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 ygwrD sm;twGuf usi0fh wfou d mQ yk'f  rD', D mrsm;twGuf usi0fh wfodumQ yk'f  rJqEN&iS rf sm; rSwyf w Hk ifjcif;udk }uD;=uyfjcif;  Edik if aH &;ygwrD sm;ESifh ud, k pf m;vS,rf sm; rSwyf w Hk ifjcif;  a&G;aumufyb GJ 他maiGa=u;tm; pDrcH ef@cjGJ cif;  a&G;aumufyq GJ idk &f m ypPn;f ypP,rsm; xkwaf 0jcif;udk pDrcH ef@cjGJ cif;  a&G;aumufyq GJ idk &f m ypPn;f ypP,rsm; jzef@a0jcif;  a&G;aumufyt GJ &m&drS sm;ESifh atmufajc a&G;aumufyaGJ umfr&Sirf sm;twGuf oifwef;rsm;udk }uD;=uyfjcif;  &v'frsm;udk Z,m;jzifjh yqdjk cif;/ jzef@a0jcif;/ xkwjf yefjcif;  ygwrD sm;/ uk, d pf m;vS,rf sm;. a&G;aumufyq GJ idk &f m toH;k p&dwrf sm;udk apmif=h unf=h uyfrwfjcif;

a'oqdik &f m/ c&dikf af &G;aumufyaGJ umfr&Sirf sm;

 pnf;rsO;f pnf;urf;rsm;ESifh Oya'rsm;tm; r#wpGm/ ormorwfuspmG taumiftxnfaz:jcif;  tjiif;yGm;r_rsm;udk ajz&Si;f jcif;  ygwrD sm;/ ud, k pf m;vS,rf sm; rSwyf w Hk ifjcif;  usi0fh wfou d mQ yk'fEiS t fh nD apmif=h unft h uJjzwfjcif; +yD;pD;jcif;  rJqEN&iS f rSwyf w Hk ifjcif;/ rJqEN&iS pf m&if;tm; jyifqifjcif;rsm;/ }uD;=uyfjcif;  atmufajcaumfr&Sirf sm;twGuf oifwef;rsm;udk }uD;=uyfjcif;/ oifwef;ay;jcif;  a&G;aumufyq GJ idk &f m ypPn;f ypP,rsm; jzef@a0jcif;  atmufajca&G;aumufyaGJ umfr&Sirf sm;tm; }uD;=uyfjcif;

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 &v'frsm;udk Z,m;jzifh jyqdjk cif;  &v'frsm;udk xkwjf yefa=ujimjcif;  a&G;aumufyGJ ypPn;f ypP,rsm;udk jyefvnford ;f qnf;jcif;/ odak vSmiford ;f qnf;jcif;/

rJ&aHk umfr&Sirf sm;

 pnf;rsO;f pnf;urf;rsm;ESihf Oya'rsm;tm; r#wpGm/ ormorwfuspmG taumiftxnfaz:jcif;  a&G;aumufyyGJ pPn;f ypP,rsm; vufc&H ,ljcif;  rJqENay;jcif;udk }uD;=uyfjcif;  rJa&wGujf cif;  &v'frsm;ESifh ypPn;f ypP,rsm;udk jyefvnfay;tyfjcif;

jynfwiG f; a&G;aumufyaGJ pmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm; xnfhoiG ;f pOf;pm;&rnfh tc&mjy\emrsm;rSm –  a&G;aumufyaGJ umfr&Sifrsm;onf rJqENay;oltm;vH;k tay: wef;wlnrD #pGmESihf ormorwfuspGmqufqyH govm;?  a&G;aumufyaGJ umfr&Siw f &yfu csrw S af omqHk;jzwfcsuw f pHw k ckonf ormorwfusr_EiS hfywfoufI jy\emrsm;  ay:ayguaf pygovm;?  a&G;aumufyaGJ umfr&Sifrsm;onf tpd;k &t&m&Srd sm; od@k r[kwf Edik if Ha&;ygwDrsm;. ta=umif;rJh odk@r[kwf Oya'rJph u G fzufrr_ sm;rS uif;vGwfpmG aqmif&u G fEikd fygovm;?  rJqENay;yGt J wGuf a&G;aumufyGJaumfr&Sirf sm;.óuwifjyifqifr_rsm;onf a&G;aumufyG. J *k%o f dumQ udk tmrcHygovm;?  a&G;aumufyaGJ umfr&Sifrsm;onf qH;k jzwfcsurf sm;csrSw&f mY yGiv hf if;jrifompGm csrSwfygovm;?  a&G;aumufyaGJ umfr&Sifrsm;onf Oya'jyXmef;csufrsm;udk av;pm;vdu k ef maeygovm;?  a&G;aumufyaGJ umfr&Sifrsm;.qH;k jzwfcsufrsm;onf w&m;r#waom/qDavsmt f yfpyfaom t,lcjH cif;twGuf vrf;zGix fh m;ygovm;?  a&G;aumufyaGJ umfr&Sifrsm;onf Oya'jyXmef;csufyg tcsed fuef@owfcsurf sm;udk av;pm;vdu k femaeygovm;?  a&G;aumufyaGJ umfr&Siw f ckckonf zdtm;ay;cH&jcif; od@k r[kwf jcdr;f ajcmufc&H jcif;&Sad eygovm;?  trsm;tm;jzifh a&G;aumufyaGJ umfr&Sifrsm;onf yg0ifywfoufoltm;vH;k . ,H=k unfpdwcf sjcif;cH&ygovm;? tu,fI ,H=k unfpw d cf sjcif; rcH&[kqdkygu a0zefjypfwifrr_ sm;udk xkacs&iS ;f vif;jyygovm;?  vlenf;pkvrl sKd;rsm;ESifh trsK;d orD;rsm;onf a&G;aumufyaJG umfr&Sifrsm;wGif vHak vmufpmG ud, k pf m;ðyyg0ifciG &hf ygovm;?

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7?ud, k pf m;vS,af vmif;rsm;ESifh Edik if aH &;ygwDrsm; rSwyf w Hk ifjcif;udk apmih-f unfh avhvmjcif;? u? Edik if aH &;ygwrD sm; rSwyf Hw k ifjcif;? c? Edik if aH &;,SOòf yiforl sm; rSwyf Hkwifjcif; *? trsKd;orD;ESifh vlenf;pkwidk ;f &if;om;rsm; rSwyf Hw k ifjcif;

 uk, d fpm;vS,af vmif;rsm;ESifh ygwDrsm;tm;vH;k a&G;aumufyJw G iG f 0ifa&muf,OS òf yif&mwGif wef;wlEiS fh usKd ;a=umif;qDavsmaf om tcGifhtvrf;rsm; &-r& pHpk rf;&eftwGuf a&G;aumufyJ, G OS jf ydKifolrsm; rSwfyw Hk ifjcif;udk teD;uyfavhvmjcif;?  rSwyf HkwifciG jfh iif;y,fc&H jcif;/ tjiif;y,fc&H r_tay: t,lcH0ifjcif;wd@k ESihf qufEG,af om taxmuf txm;rsm; tm;vH;k . rdwLW rsm;udk &,lxm;jcif;?

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udak ya[*ifoabmwlncD suf tyd'k f (7)wGif Edik if o H m;rsm;onf wOD;csi;f aomfvnf;aumif;/ Edik if aH &;ygwrD sm;. odk@r[kwf tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;. ud, k fpm;vS,rf sm; tjzpfaomfvnf;aumif;/ cGJjcm;qufqcH &H jcif;r&daS pbJ Edik if aH &; wm0ef/ od@k r[kwf tpd;k &&mxl;rsm;twGuf ,SOòf yifciG &fh aSd p&rnf[k tmrcHxm;onf? Edifk if aH &;tiftm;pkrsm;ESifh v_y&f mS ;r_rsm;tm;vH;k onf cGJjcm;qufqcH &H jcif;r&db S J wef;wltcGit fh a&;t& ud, k pf m;vS,rf sm;udk wifoiG ;f Edik &f rnf? Edik if aH &;tiftm;pktcsKd@tm; csed J@apaom &nf&, G cf sujf zifh Oya'udk rw&m; od@k r[kwf cGJjcm;qufqpH mG usio hf ;kH jcif;onf 'Dru kd &ufpDenf;usaom a&G;aumufyGJrsm;twGuf (OSCE) uwdu0wfrsm;. tESpo f m&ESihf uGJvJG aponf? (u) Edik if aH &;ygwrD sm; rSwyf w Hk ifjcif; a&G;aumufyGJOya'onf Edikf if aH &;ygwDrsm;ESifh ud, k fpm;vS,frsm; rnfo h nft h csdew f iG f rnfod@k wifoiG ;f &rnfukd owfrw S o f nf? oD;jcm;Oya'wck (Oyrm Edik if aH &;ygwrD sm;qdik &f m Oya'wck) u tkypf kwpkonf ygww D cktjzpf rnfod@k rSwfyw kH if&rnfukd owfrw S af umif; owfrw S fEidk fonf? xdk@a=umifh Edik if aH &;ygwDrsm; rSwfyw kH ifjcif;qkid &f m Oya'wckckukd a&G;aumufyJG tjiif;yGm;r_Z,m; (tcef; 4 udk &_yg) wGif xnfo h iG ;f +yD;v#i/f ydik f;jcm;oH;k oyfoifo h nf? jynfwiG ;f apmif=h unfah vhvma&;tzGJ@u av#mufxm;olrsm;onf rSwfyHkwifjcif;qdik &f mowfrSwcf sufrsm;ESihf +yD;jynfph Hk jcif; &dS- r&dSESifh pnf;rsO;f pnf;urf;rsm;tm; r#r#ww/ ormorwfusus vdu k ef musio fh ;Hk jcif; &dS- r&dS udk avhvm &rnf? ta&;t}uD;qH;k tvkyw f ckrmS jynfwiG ;f apmif=h unfah vhvma&;tzGJ@onf vkyif ef;pOfwckv;kH tm; Edik if Hwum pHcsdefp! H $e;f rsm;tjyif/ vGwv f yfpmG toif;tyif; wnfaxmifciG fh ESifv h nf; udu k n f Dr&_ -Sd r&dS a0zefyifkd ;f jcm;oiho f nf? (c) Edik if aH &; ,SOòf yiforl sm; rSwyf w Hk ifjcif; a&G;aumufyGJOya'onf ygwDrsm;/ ud, k pf m;vS,af vmif;rsm;tm; a&G;aumufyJw G ckwiG f 0ifa&muf,OS òf yifolrsm;tjzpf w&m;0ifrw S fyHkwifap&rnf? Oya'qdik &f mpnf;urf;uef@owfcsufukd tuJjzwf&mY Oya'yg ,if;tcef;onf Edik if H wumESihf jynfwiG ;f pHcsdepf H!e$ ;f rsm;ESifh udu k fnrD _ &dS- r&du S dk az:jyoifo h nf? rSwfyw kH ifjcif;qdik &f m vkt d yfcsufrsm;onf &Si;f &Si;f vif;vif;ESihf em;vnfv, G af omt&mrsm; jzpfoifo h nf? pay:aiGtajrmuf trsm;awmif;qdjk cif; od@k r[kwf rSwfykHwifav#mufv$mwGif rwefwqrsm;jym;aomtrnfrsm; xnfo fh iG ;f ay;&efawmif;qdjk cif; uJo h @kd aom Edik if aH &;t& cGJjcm;qufqrH o _ abmaqmifaom awmif;qdck surf sm;udk rxnfo h iG f;oifah y? ygwDwck odk@r[kwf uk, d pf m;vS,f avmif;wOD; rSwyf w kH ifciG jhf iif;y,fc&H r_twGuf t,lcw H ifciG &fh &dS rnf? a&G;aumufyGJvyk if ef;pOf. ta&;}uD;aom tpdwt f ydik ;f wckuakd qmif±u G af epOftwGi;f / jynfwiG ;f apmif=h unfh avhvm a&;tzGJ@onf rSwyf Hw k ifxm;aom ygwDrsm;/ ud, k fpm;vS,frsm;avmif;rsm;pm&if;udo k mru/ rSwfyw kH ifciG fh jiif;y,fc&H aomygwDrsm;/ ud, k fpm;vS,favmif;rsm;pm&if;udv k nf; ðypkxm;oifo h nf? txl;ojzifh av#mufxm;olrsm;onf rSwfyw Hk ifjcif;twGuf pHxm;csufrsm;ESifh jynfph jHk cif;&Sd-r&dSEiS hf a&G;aumufyJaG umfr&Sio f nf Oya'udk r#wpGm/ ormorwfuspGm taumiftxnf az:cJjh cif;&S-d r&dS avhvmoiho f nf? rSefuefoifah vsmfjcif; r&daS om vkyaf qmif csurf sm;rSmud, k pf m;vS,af vmif;rsm;tm; aemufq;Hk tcsdeo f wfrw S cf sufuakd omfvnf;aumif;/ udk,pf m;vS,f avmif;tjzpf av#mufxm;&ef vdt k yfaom vkyx f ;Hk vkyef nf;udak omfvnf;aumif; vHak vmufpmG todray;jcif;/ od@k r[kwf owfrw S x f m;aomvdt k yfcsufrsm; (vufrw S frsm;aumuf,jl cif; od@k r[kwf pay:aiGay;&jcif;) a=umifh rvdt k yfbJ yifyef;qif;&Japjcif;/ cGJjcm;qufqrH o _ abmoufa&mufapjcif;wdk@ jzpfonf?

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vufrw S rf sm;udk rSerf rSefppfaq;aom vkyif ef;pOfonf wcgw&HwiG f wzufowfypkH rH sKd; jzpfomG ;wwf+yD;/tjiif; yGm;zG,&f mudpP jzpfomG ;wwfonf? ,if;odk@jzpfay:&aom ta=umif;rSm wef;wlnrD #pGmESihf a&S@aemufnn D Gwpf mG usifo h ;kH Edik af &;twGuf vkyx f ;Hk vkyfenf;rsm;udk aphpyfaocsmpGm a&;qGJrxm;aoma=umifh jzpfonf? xd@k jyif rnfonfh tajccHrsm;tay:wGif w&m;0ifav#mufvm$ tm; jiif;y,f&rnf[I l Oya'u &Si;f &Si;f vif;vif; owfrSwrf xm; jcif;a=umifv h nf; jzpfonf? Oyrm jyefvnfjyifqifay;I&Edikf af om toem;cHpmwGif rnfonfhtcsurf sm;u vkyx f ;kH vkyfenf;t& tm;enf;aponfukd vnf;aumif;/ y,fcs&rnfh toem;cHpmwGif rnfonfh tcsufrsm;u tajctjrpf usustm;enf;aponfudkvnf;aumif; Oya't"dym` ,fzGiyfh Hw k iG f tjiif;yGm;r_rsm; ay:xGuv f mEdik o f nf? avhvmolrsm;onf ty,fc&H aom ygwrD sm;/ ud, k fpm;vS,frsm;ESihf Oya'csK;d azmufcaJh omfvnf; ty,fc&H jcif;r&Sd[k qdak om ygwDrsm;/ ud, k pf m;vS,rf sm;udk txl;tm&Hpk u kd o f ifhonf? xGuaf y:vmor# tjiif;yGm;r_rsm;udk aocsmpGm pm&if;ðypkxm;oifo h nf? xdk@jyifxt dk r_rsm;udk tqifjh rifah &G;aumufyJG tm%mydik f odk@r[kwf w&m;&H;k rsm; (Oya't& av#mufxm;Edik af om rnfonhw f &m;&H;k rqd)k u =um;emppfaq;r_ðyaepOfrSmvnf; apmif=h unfah vhvmoiho f nf? uk, d pf m;vS,af vmif;jzpfvadk omolrsm;ESiyfh wfoufI usKd ;a=umif;nDaom uef@owfcsufrsm; xm;&dES ikd +f yD;/ ‚wdk@rSm wdik ;f jynftwGi;f tcsdeu f mvwpfct k xd aexdik o f jl zpf&efvjkd cif;/ tedrq hf ;kH owfrw S fxm;aom rJqEN&N iS rf sm;. axmufcrH &_ &efvjdk cif; odk@r[kwf tedrq fh H;k owfrSwx f m;aom rJay;Edik o f t l oufxuf yd}k uD;&efvjkd cif;wd@k jzpfonf? tcsKd@rw S yf w Hk ifjcif; vkyx f ;Hk vkyef nf;rsm;wGif txl;ojzifh Ekid if aH wmf.atmufajctqifw h iG f ud, k pf m;vS,af vmif; tcsK@d odk@r[kwf ud, k pf m;vS,af vmif;tm;vH;k a&G;aumufcaH om wdik ;f jynfrsm;wGif ud, k pf m;vS,af vmif;rsm;ESihf ygwD rsm;onf A[dak &G;aumufyGJtm%mydik w f iG f rSwyf w Hk if&efrvdt k yfyJ/ a'oqdik &f mESihf c&dik t f qifh a&G;aumufyJG tm%mydik x f w H iG f rSwyf w Hk if&ef vdt k yfonf? wcgw&HwiG f ESpaf e&mpvH;k wGif rSwyf w kH if&ef vdt k yfEikd o f nf? ,if;uJo h @kd aom tajctaersm;atmufwiG f a'oqdik &f m apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;onf ygwED iS u hf , dk pf m;vS,af vmif; rSwyf w kH ifjcif;ta=umif; apmif=h unfah vhvmjcif; tpD&ifcpH mwifjcif;ðyoiho f nf? av#mufvm$ wifjcif; ESihf t,lcw H if jcif;wdk@EiS yfh wfoufIaomfvnf;aumif; A[d&k ;Hk csKyfod@k jyefvnftpD&ifc&H rnfh enf;vrf;rsm;ESihf ywfoufIaomfvnf; aumif; olwdk@tm;/ tusO;f oabmr# &Si;f jyxm;oiho f nf? ud, k pf m;vS,af vmif;rsm;ESifh Edik if aH &;ygwrD sm; rSwfyw Hk ifjcif; vkyfx;kH vkyfenf;rsm;udk tuJjzwfa&;twGuf vrf;!$ef csurf sm;rSm  Edikf if aH &;ygwDrsm;ESiu fh , dk pf m;vS,favmif;rsm; trnfpm&if;wifoiG f;jcif;twGuf w&m;0ifav#mufv$mrsm; rSef- rrSepf pfaq;csed fwiG f wufa&mufEidk af tmifñud;pm;jcif;/  ppfaq;+yD;aomw&m;0ifav#mufvm$ rsm;udk a&G;aumufyJt G m%mydik frsm;u wajy;nD*±kpu kd I f ppfaq;cJjh cif; &d-S r&dS od&dSEidk &f eftwGuf ñud;pm;pdppf=unfjh cif;/  a&;xd;k xm;aom vufrw S frsm; rSeu f efa=umif;ppfaq;&eftwGuf w&m;0if vrf;!$ecf suf odk@r[kwf !$ef =um;csurf sm;xkwjf yefxm;jcif;&d-S r&dS az:jyjcif;/  y,fcsr_rsm;tm; ta=umif;jycsufcikd v f jHk cif; &dS-r&dSppfaq;jcif;/ ta=umif;jycsuo f nf usdK;a=umif;qDavsmrf _ &d-S r&dS ppfaq;jcif; ESifh y,fcsc&H aom w&m;0ifav#mufvm$ rsm;ESihf y,fcsrcH&aom tjcm;aom ygwD/ ud, k f pm;vS,af vmif;rsm;. av#mufvm$ rsm;udk Edi_ ;f ,SOaf vhvmjcif;/ 63


 a&G;aumufyGJaumfr&Siw f pfcu k uk, d pf m;vS,af vmif;rsm;/ ygwDrsm;udk vufc&H ef/ y,fcs&eftwGuf qH;k jzwf csucf s&mwGif rJay;jcif;&d-S r&dS ppfaq;jcif;/aumfr&Sit f zGJ@0ifrsm;u rnfodk@rJay;cJ=h uonfudk od&&Sd eftwGuf ,if;udpq P ;Hk jzwfcaJh om tpnf;ta0;rSww f rf;rdwLW udk awmif;cHjcif;/  vufcjH cif;cH&aomEdik if aH &;ygwDrsm;/ ud, k pf m;vS,af vmif;rsm;ESihf y,fcsc&H aom Edik if aH &;ygwDrsm;/ ud, k pf m; vS,af vmif;rsm;udk rnfodk@/ rnfonft h csed w f iG f qH;k jzwfcsut f a=umif; today;cJo h nfukd pHkprf;jcif;/  tu,fI w&m;0ifav#mufvm$ rsm;onf ty,fcsccH &Jh ygu ygwD od@k r[kwf udk,pf m;vS,af vmif;u ,if; qH;k jzwfcsut f ay: t,lcw H ifcjJh cif; &d-S r&dS pHkprf;jcif;ESihf tu,fI wifcyJh gu rnfonfah e&modk@ ‚wd@k t,l cHwifco Jh enf;ESifh ,if;t,lcHrS rnfonf&h v'fxu G af y:cJo h enf; ponfw@kd udk pHkprf;jcif;?

(*) kH ifjcif; (*) trsKd;orD;ESifh vlenf;pkwidk ;f &if;om;rsm; rSwyf w jynfwiG ;f apmif=h undah vhvma&;ktzGJ@wckonf trsK;d orD;ESihf wdik ;f &if;om;vlenf;pk rnfr#ukd ygwDrsm;rStrnf pm&if;wifoiG ;f onfEiS fh a&G;aumufyGJtm%mydik frsm;rS rSwfyw kH ifciG fðh yonfukd avhvmoiho f nf? (OSCE) a'o twGi;f &dw S ikd ;f jynfrsm;u ‚f;wdk@widk ;f jynftwGi;f tpd;k &tkycf sKyfa&;wGif trsKd;orD;ESihf wkid ;f &if;om;vlenf;pkrsm; yg0iftyk cf sKyfciG t fh wGuf tumtuG,af y;xm;aom Edik if Hwum vl@tcGit hf a&; pHcsdefp! H $e;f rsm;udk av;pm; vdu k fem ygrnf[k uwdu0wfðyxm;onf (tcef; 1 udk &_yg)? ,if;vkyif ef;tm; apmif=h unft h uJjzwfjcif;tm;jzifh jynfwiG ;f avhvma&;tzGJ@u jynfov l l xt k m; trsK;d orD;ESifh wdik ;f &if;om;vlenf;pkrS rnfr# ta&twGuo f nf trnfwifoiG ;f jcif;cH&+yD;/ rnfr# atmifjrifpmG rSwfyw Hk ifjyF;jzpfa=umif;rSww f rf;ESifh cGJjcm;qufqcH H &r_tay: avhvmqef;ppfcsuf wpfcu k kdvnf; wifjyEdik o f nf?

64


8? a&G;aumufyrGJ q J , G pf nf;±H;k r+ukd apmih-f unfah vhvmjcif; u? Edik if aH &;ygwrD sm;/ ud, k fpm;vS,af vmif;rsm;ESifh awG@qjkH cif;? c? rD', D mESiafh wG@qHjk cif;? *? tpd;k &0efxrf;rsm;ESifh awG@qjHk cif;? C? rJq, G fyGJrsm;udk apmif=h unfah vhvmjcif;? i? vHðk cHa&;wyfzGJ@0ifrsm;. vkyaf qmifcsurf sm;udk apmif=h unfah vhvmjcif;? p? rJqG,pf nf;±H;k r_toH;k p&dwfrsm;/ tvSLaiGyrm%ESihf tvSLaiGZpfjrpfrsm;udk apmif=h unfah vhvmjcif;? q? Edik if aH wmft&if;tjrpfrsm; tvGo J ;Hk pm;vkyrf _ukd apmif=h unfah vhvmjcif;? Z? yÉdyuQ umuG,fwmqD;jcif;ESifh a&G;aumufyJu G mvt=urf;zufr_rsm;udk apmif=h unfah vhvmjcif;? ps? tjcm;udp&P yfrsm;udk apmih=f unfah vhvmjcif;?  yg0if,OS òf yifolrsm;ESifhyHkrSeaf wG@qHkI ‚wdk@.vGwv f yfpmG xkwaf z:ajymqdck iG /hf toif;tyif; zGJ@ pnf;cGifhEiS fh pk&;Hk cGifhrsm;ESifyh wfoufI taESmift h ,Suw f pHw k ck ñuHawG@&jcif;&d-S r&dSppfaq;jcif;/  oufqidk &f mwm0ef&dSorl sm;ESiv fh dkuyf gI wdik fwef;csufrsm;udk vdu k fvaH qmif&u G af y;jcif;?  aoG;xd;k v_H@aqmfaom rdef@cGe;f rsm; yg&Sd-r&du S kd ppfaq;&eftwGuf rJq, G v f x l t k pnf;t a0;rsm;ESifh a[majymyGJrsm;odk@ wufa&mufjcif;?  tm%m&ygwrD sm;tusdK;twGuf Edik if yH ikd t f &if;tjrpfrsm; rw&m;ojzifh toH;k ðyjcif;&dS -r&dS ppfaq;jcif;?  rJq, G v f _y&f mS ;r_rsm;tm; jcdr;f ajcmufjcif;/ aESmif, h Sujf cif; odk@r[kwf =um;0ifpu G fzufjcif;ESihf ywfoufaom oufaotaxmuftxm;rsm;udk ppfaq;jcif;/ apmih=f unfah vhvmjcif;?  avhvmapmif=h unfo h lrsm;tzdk@ rJq, G v f KS yf&mS ;r_rsm;tm;vH;k / txl;ojzifh pd;k &drfz, G af umif; aom tjzpftysufrsm;ta=umif; tpD&ifcw H ifjyEdik af om vkyif ef;zGJ@pnf;yHw k ckw k nfaqmuf jcif;?

tajccHvw G v f yfciG frh sm;onf rJq, G yf GJumv. 'Dru kd &ufpDenf;usaom o&kyo f uef yDjyifa&;twGuf r&drS jzpf ta&; ygaomt&mrsm; jzpfonf? Edik fiaH &;wGif yg0ifolrsm;tm;vH;k onf vGwv f yfpmG toif;tyif;zGJ@pnf;cGiu hf dk &&do S ifh onf? 65


‚wdk@. rJq, G fpum;rsm;udk vGwv f yfpmG xkwaf z:ajymqdck iG &hf o Sd if+h yD;/ +cdr;f ajcmuf [ef@wm;jcif; wpHw k &m r&dSbJ ‚wdk@.rJqEN&iS rf sm;udk pkpnf;Ekdicf iG v fh nf; &do S ifo h nf? Edik if o H m;rsm;wGiv f nf; ‚wdk@. Edik if aH &;,H=k unf csuu f dk vGwv f yfpmG az:xkwfEidk af om tcGit fh a&;&do S ifo h nf? rJqG,yf Jq G dik &f m pnf;rsO;f pnf;urf;rsm;rS yg0iforl sm; tm;vH;k wef;wltusdK;cHpm;r_&adS pa&;twGuf ta&;}uD;aomtpdwt f ydki;f wckrmS yGihfvif;r_ jzpfonf? ,if;pnf;rsO;f pnf;urf;rsm;udk yGiv fh if;pGmESifh tESH@tjym;oabmaqmifpGm ausmom;&ifom;rcGJjcm;bJ usio hf ;kH &rnfjzpfonf? rJq, G fvy_ &f mS ;pOftwGi;f yg0if,OS òf yifot l m;vH;k wajy;nDvy_ &f mS ;cGi&fh &dSr_ twdik ;f twmonf a&G;aumufyJv G kyif ef; wckv;kH udk tuJjzwf&mY ,H=k unfpw d cf s&avmufaom wdik ;f xGmonfh bm&dkrw D mjzpfavh&dSonf? tedrhfq;kH tm;jzif/h a&G;aumufyJw G Gi f 0ifa&muf,OS òf yifot l m;vH;k . tajccHowif;tcsut f vufEiS fh ‚wd@k .Ekid if aH &; rl0g'rsm;udk rJqEN&iS rf sm; odoifo h nf? a&G;aumufyGJrwdik cf if&ufrsm; apmif=h unfah vhvmjcif;. &nf±, G cf surf mS yg0ifolrsm;tm;vH;k twGuf wef;wl v_y&f mS ; Edik af om tcGit fh vrf; &S-d r&dES iS fh Edkiif o H m;rsm;. vGwv f yfpmG az:xkwcf iG /hf pk&;kH cGi/hf toif;tyif; wnfaxmifciG fhEiS hf oGm;vmv_y&f mS ;cGifhrsm;tm; av;pm;vdu k ef mjcif; &S-d r&Sd tuJjzwfjcif;jzpfonf? yHrk Set f m;jzifh ,if; vGwv f yfciG hfrsm;tm; wdik ;f jynfwck. tajccHOya'wGif xnfo h iG ;f jyXmef;onf? txl;ojzifh ,if;vGwfvyfciG hf rsm;tm; a&G;aumufyJOG ya'jzifh a&G;aumufyGJumvwckwiG f tumtuG,ðf yay;onf? ,if;tcGit hf a&;rsm;onf (OSCE) uwdu0wfrsm;ESihf Edik if w H umvl@tcGit fh a&; pHcsed fp! H $e;f wdk@wGif yg0if=u+yD;/ Oya'ESifh vufawG@vkyfief; vkyaf qmifcsdew f idk ;f wGif ‚tcGit fh a&;rsm;udk umuG,af pmifah &Smuf&rnf jzpfonf? apmif=h unfah vhvmr_ukd a±G;aumufyJG apmif=h unfah vhvmr_nd‡Eid_ ;f a&;ESihf ydik f;jcm; a&G;aumufyGJrwdik cf ifumv oH;k oyfa&;tzGJ@(Observation Co-rdination and Analysis Unit) .tzGJ@0ifrsm;u A[dt k qifhrSm aqmif±u G +f yD;/ a'oqkid &f m apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;u a'oqdik &f mtqifhrmS aqmif±Guo f ifh onf? jynfwiG ;f apmif=h unfh avhvma&;tzGJ@. rsufpdEiS efh m;rsm;tjzpf a'oqkid &f m apmif=h unft h uJcwforl sm;onf rJqENay;yGJ rpwifrD tajctae &_axmift h m;vH;k ESiyfh wfoufI jynfhp/Hk rSeu f efaom owif;tcsut f vufrsm;udk axmufyhH ay;oifo h nf? xdk@a=umifh ‚wdk@tm; aumif;rGefpmG &Si;f jyxm;&rnf? ‚wd@k rSm qufo, G af &;vrf;a=umif; aumif;rGepf mG &dSoifo h nf? a&G;aumufyGJtóuumv tpD&ifcpH m wifoiG ;f jcif;yHkpu H kd aumif;aumif; em;vnf xm;&rnf jzpfonf? a&G;aumufyGJtóuumvtwGi;f a'oqdik &f mapmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;onf Edik if aH &;ygwrD sm;/ ud, k pf m;vS,f avmif;rsm;/ oufqidk &f ma&G;aumufyGJt&m&dSrsm;/ tpd;k &t&m&drS sm;ESihf yHkrSefawG@qjkH cif; ESihf vlxrk JqG,yf JGrsm;/ vlxt k pnf;ta0;rsm;udk wufjcif;jzifh rJq, G fyGJjzpfay:wd;k wufr_rsm;udk tqufrjywf avhvmoifo h nf? vHðk cHa&; wm0ef&o Sd lrsm;/ jynfwiG ;f rD', D mrsm;/ tjcm; tpd;k &r[kwaf om tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;/ uk, d pf m;vS,rf sm;/ ygwD axmufcHorl sm;/ jynfolrsm;ESihfvnf; tquftoG,f vkyo f ifhonf?tywfpOftpD&ifcHpmrsm; wifjyjcif;/ tjzpf tysuf tao;pdwt f pD&ifcHpmrsm;/vlxt k pnf;ta0; wckcsi;f pD. tpD&ifcpH mrsm; wifjyjcif;jzifh a'o qdik &f m apmih=f unfah vhvmolrsm;onf wdik ;f jynft0Sr;f rJq, G fyJrG sm;ESifhywfoufI A[k&d ;Hk csKyfu &Si;f vif; jywfom;aom yHu k m;csyf wcsyfuakd &;qGJ&mY taxmuftulay;Edik rf nf jzpfonf? avhvmolrsm;onf ‚wdk@wifjyaomta=umif;t&mtm;vH;k udk wdu k &f u kd jf rifawG@orl sm; jzpfcsirf S jzpfEikd o f nf? ,if;od@k aom tajctaersm;atmufwiG f pGyfpGJcsufrsm;rSef-rrSeaf vhvm&efEiS fh rSefuefwu d spmG tpD&ifc&H ef ta&;}uD;onf?usdK;a=umif;nDnw G af om oHo,wckuif;pifomG ;avmufatmif oufaotaxmuf txm;rsm;udk ppfaq;=unf&h ef vdt k yfaom &mZ0wfr_rsm;ESihf rwlyg? a&G;aumufyaJG pmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;tzd@k oufao taxmuftxm;uHv k Hk jynfhpaHk =umif;aumufcsucf sEdik af &;twGuf ,H=k unfpw d cf s avmufz, G f&m t&if;tjrpf tajrmuf trsm;rS&&Sad om tvm;wl om"ursm; tqifoif&h dSae&efvt kd yfonf? apmif=h unf avhvmolrsm; taejzifh 66


‚wdk@.tpD&ifcHpmrsm;onf ‚wdk@ud, k w f ikd jf rifawG@caJh om tjzpftysurf sm; od@k r[kwf tjcm;olrsm; ud, k pf m;wifjytpD&ifc&H aom tjzpftysufrsm;jzpfa=umif; &Si;f vif;pGm wifjyoifhonf? tu,fI 'kw, d tcsujf zpfygu owif;t&if;tjrpfonf *k%fodumQ &daS om/ ,H=k unfpw d cf s&aomt&if;t jrpf[w k f - r[kwu f kdvnf; tuJjzwfoifo h nf? (u) Edik if aH &;ygwrD sm;/ k pf m;vS,af vmif;rsm;ESihf awG@qHjk cif; sm;/ ud, apmif=h unfah vhvmr_nEd‡ _id ;f a&;ESifh ydik ;f jcm; oH;k oyfa&;tzGJ@.tzGJ@0ifrsm;ESifh a'oqdik &f m apmif=h unfah vhvmol rsm;onf ygvDrefwiG f ud, k fpm;ðyaeolrsm;/ ud, k pf m;ðyr_r&daS omfvnf; axmufcrH t _ rsm;tjym;&&daS eolrsm; tygt0if t"du Edik if aH &;ygwDrsm;ESifh awG@qHkoifo h nf? awG@qykH JGrw S qifh ‚wd@k . rJqG,fvy_ &f mS ;r_rsm;ESihfywfoufaom owif;tcsut f vufrsm; pkaqmif;jcif;ESifh ‚wd@k wifjyvdak om ta=umif;t&mrsm;udv k nf; em;axmifjcif; ðyoifo h nf?tu,fI Edik if aH &;ygww D cku pGyfpJcG sufwckðyvkyfygu/a'oqdik &f m apmif=h unhaf vhvmolrsm;u tjcm; t&if;tjrpfrsm;rSaeI ,if;pGyfpGJcsuf rSe-f rrSef oufaojy&ef óu;yrf;oiho f nf?tu,fI ygwDwcku w&m;&H;k od@k r[kwf a&G;aumufyGJaumfr&Six f Hodk@ rauseyfcsuw f ck wdik fwef;ygu/ avhvmolrsm;onf pmjzifh a&;om; az:jy xm;aomrdwLW rsm;udk awmif;,loif+h yD;/tjiif;yGm;r_apmif=h unfah vhvma&; vrf;!$erf _rsm; twdik ;f vdu k ef musio hf ;Hk oifo h nf? Edik if aH &;ygwDrsm;ESiafh wG@qaHk omtcgwiG f ygwDrsm;ESihf ‚wdk@.bufawmfom;rsm;rSm ‚wdk@ae&m &&daS &; twGuf pmem/ axmufcrH &_ atmifóu;yrf;rnf[laom uk, d fyidk t f pDtpOf&w dS wfa=umif;udk apmif=h unfah vhvmol rsm;u owdcsyfoiho f nf? orwa&G;aumufyGJwiG f apmif=h unfah vhvmr_n‡dEid_ ;f a&;ESihf ydik ;f jcm; oH;k oyfa&;tzGJ@onf xdyw f ef;ud, k fpm;vS,af vmif;tm;vH;k ESifh awG@qo kH ifo h nf? ygvDrefpepfa&G;aumufyJEG iS hf a'oqdki&f m a&G;aumufyJG rsm;wGif a'oqdik &f mapmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;onf Edik if aH &;e,fy,frS udk,pf m;vS,af vmif; trsKd;rsK;d ESiafh wG@q&kH ef óu;yrf;oiho f nf? (c) rD', D mESiafh wG@qjHk cif; apmif=h unfah vhvmr_nEd‡ _id ;f a&;ESifh ydik ;f jcm; oH;k oyfa&;tzGJ@onf tcef; (9) wGif az:jyxm;ouJo h @dk Ekid if aH wmf tqifh wGif rD'D,mESifh qufqo H ifhonf? a'oqdik &f m apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;onf a'otqifh rD'D,mrsm; ESiahf wG@qI kH ‚wd@k . ydik q f idk o f rl sm; (ownership)/ t,f'w D mhtmabmf/ pmzwfy&d\wfEiS hf oufqikd af om owif; tcsuf tvufrsm;&,l&efEiS fh ‚wdk@awG@ñuH&aom uef@owfr/_ aESmif, h Surf _rsm;ESihf ywfoufaom tpD&ifcHpmrsm;udk &,l oiho f nf? a'owGi;f rD', D mrsm;ESiafh wG@qHjk cif;onf tjcm;aompGypf JcG sufrsm;udk wdu k q f ikd fppfaq;Edifk af om tcGihf tvrf;udk &&daS p+yD;/ ud, k pf m;vS,af vmif;rsm;/ a&G;aumufyGJtkycf sKyfykHEiS fh a&G;aumufyJv G kyf ief;pOfwiG f yg0ifaom tpd;k &Xmersm;tay: owif;axmufrsm;ESifh t,f'w D mrsm;. oabmxm;udv k nf; tuJjzwfEidk o f nf? a'oqdik &f m apmif=h unfah vhvmolwkd@onf A[k&d ;Hk rSciG ðfh ycsuf wpHw k &mr&&db S /J rD', D modk@ a&G;aumufyJv G kyif ef;pOfEiS hf ywfoufI rnfonfh xifjrif,q l csufr# ray;oifah y? (*) tpd;k &0ef &0efxrf;rsm;ESifh awG@qHjk cif; apmif=h unfah vhvmr_nEd‡ i_d ;f a&;ESifh ydik ;f jcm;oH;k oyfa&;tzGJ@EiS fh a'oqdik &f mapmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;onf avhvma&; tpDtpOftwGuf toH;k 0ifrnfo h wif;tcsut f vufrsm;&,l&eftwGuf jynfo@l 0efxrf;rsm;ESiahf wG@qo Hk ifo h nf? awG@qrHk r_ sm;tm;vH;k wGif rawG@qcHk ifuwnf;u avhvmolrsm;taejzifh ‚wd@k rnfonht f &mudk ar;&efvt kd yfonfukd wdwu d sus óuwifq;Hk jzwfxm;oih+f yD;/ jynfol@0efxrf;wpfO;D . tcsed u f kd rjzKef;oifah y?

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a&G;aumufyGJumvtwGi;f avhvmolrsm;onf jynfo@l 0efxrf;rsm;. v_y&f mS ;r_rsm;ESihf ywfoufI rauseyfcsurf sm;/ pGypf GJcsurf sm; ñuHawG@Eikd o f nf? Oyrm t&m&dw S OD;u ud, k pf m;vS,w f OD; od@k r[kwf ygwD wygwt D m; rJq, G f v_@H aqmfjcif;rS [ef@wm;aESmif, h u S jf cif; odk@r[kwf ud, k pf m;vS,w f OD; od@k r[kwf ygww D ygwt D m; wuf wufºuºujrSiw fh ifay;jcif; ponfjzifh pGypf GJc&H Ekid o f nf? xdu k o Jh dk@aom pGypf JcG surf sm;udk rSe-f rrSeo f ufaojy&ef cufcJ vSonf? od@k aomf taotcsm *&kwpdu k f pHpk rf; az:xkw&f rnf? tb,fa=umihq f adk omf ‚wkd@onf a&G;aumufyJG qdik &f m Edik if w H um uwdu0wfrsm;udk csK;d azmufonfomru jynfwiG ;f Oya'udyk g csK;d azmufjcif;jzpf onf? xd@k tjyif =um;jzwf tkycf sKyfa&;tm%mudk tvGJo;Hk pm;ðyaeonfo h abmvnf;onf? tpd;k &0efxrf;rsm;.vky&f yfEiS yfh wfoufaom pGypf JcG surf sm;udk tpd;k &a&S@ae/ ykvyd w f yfzJ@G / w&m;&H;k od@k r[kwf a&G; aumufyGJaumfr&Six f o H kd@ wifjyEdik o f nf? ,if;uJo h @kd aom tajctaersK;d wGif avhvmolrsm;onf ‚ tjiif;yGm;r_ jzpfpOfukd avhvmoih+f yD;/ wd;k wufrt _ vdu k f tpD&ifco H ifo h nf? tjcm;aom tajctaersK;d wGif rsujf rifoufaorsm; onf xkwaf zmfajymqdv k adk om qENr&d=S uonfomru/ t&m&Sw d OD;. vky&f yfo@kd r[kwf xdecf serf '_ %fuckd x H m;& olw@kd uvnf; rdrw d dk@tzdk@w&m;r#wr_EiS fh Oya't&jyefvnfupk m;ay;r_&vdrrhf nf[k r,H=k unf wwf=uacs? apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;u xdu k o Jh dk@aom (vky&f yf odk@r[kwf xdecf serf '_ %f) cH&ol rsm;udk ‚wd@k vkyyf ikd cf iG &hf adS om w&m;Oya'enf;vrf;rsm;twdik ;f vkyaf qmif&ef wdu k w f eG ;f ay;oihaf omfvnf;/ twif;tusyf zdtm;ray;oifah y? ,if;uJo h dk@aom tajctaersK;d wGif avhvmolrsm;twGuf }uD;av;aom tcuftcJ}uD; um; pGypf JcG surf sm;udk rSerf rSef rnfuo Jh @kd taumif;qH;k óu;pm;pHpk rf;rnfEiS fh pGypf GJco H t l m; ‚wd@k bufjcrf;rSajym qdck iG u hf kd rnfonft h csed w f iG f ay;&rnf[I l jzpfonf? pGypf GJc&H aom ygwED iS x fh yd w f u dk af wG@qEHk ikd f aom rnfonfh qH;k jzwfcsurf sK;d rqdk A[d&k ;kH ESihf t=uH^m%f,o l ifo h nf?pGypf GJc&H aomygwED iS fh awG@qykH JrG sm;wGif avhvmolrsm;u ‚wkd@u, kd w f ikd Ef iS hf ‚wd@k . owif; ay;olrsm;udk umuG,af pmifah &Smufay;&rnf? (C) rJq, G pf nf;±H;k r_rsm;udk apmifh=unfah vhvmjcif; k pf m;vS,af vmif;rsm;. A[dt k qifw h iG f apmif=h unfah vhvmr_nEd‡ i_d ;f a&;ESihf ydik ;f jcm;oH;k oyfa&;tzGJ@onf ygwDrsm;/ud, v_y&f mS ;r_tcsdefpm&if;udk xm;&So d ifo h nf? atmufajctqifhwiG f A[d&k ;kH odk@ tcsdepf m&if; rdwLW rsm;ay;ydk@oifah om a'oqdik &f mapmif=h unft h uJjzwforl sm;onfvnf; Tod@k yifxm;&So d ifo h nf? Tod@k xm;&Sjd cif;tm;jzifh apmif=h unfh avhvmolrsm;tzdk@ yg0if,OS òf yifol wpfO;D csi;f pD. rJqG,v f x l kpak 0;yGJrsm;/ tpnf;ta0;rsm;. ta&twGuu f kd apmif=h unfah vhvmr_nd‡Eid_ ;f a&;ESihf ydik ;f jcm;oH;k oyfa&;tzGJ@tzd@k a&m/ a'oqdik &f m tpD&ifcw H ifjyEdik fonht f jyif/ apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;tzdk@yg rdrw d dk@vkyif ef;rsm;udkpDr&H mwGif taxmuftuljzpfEikd fonf? avhvmolrsm;onf wufa&mufcaJh om rJq, G fyGJ pnf;±H;k yGJwckcsi;f pDtwGuf tpD&ifcpH m tjynft h pHk a&;oifo h nf? toH;k ðyvG,I f pepfwusowfrw S x f m;onfh yHpk w H ck ðyvkyo f ih+f yD; atmufaz:jyyg tcsufrsm; yg0ifoiho f nf?  vlxpk &k ;Hk yGJ/ tpnf;ta0;/ tcrf;tem;wckusi;f yaom ygwD od@k r[kwf ud, k fpm;vS,af vmif;. trnf/  tcrf;tem;usi;f yaomtcsdef (tpESifh tqH;k )/ ae@pGJ ESihf ae&m/  a[majymolrsm;. trnfrsm; ESihf ‚wdk@. wm0efrsm;/ Oyrm ygwDacgi;f aqmif/ pm&if;yg uk, d fpm;vS,f avmif; rsm;ponfjzif/h tcrf;tem;odk@wufa&mufaom vlO;D a&cef@rSe;f ta&twGu/f  tpnf;ta0;/ tcrf;tem;udk [ef@wm;aESmif, h u S rf &_ Sd- r&d/S &dSygu rnfoel nf;/  tcrf;tem;odk@wufa&muf&ef tusyu f idk cf jJh cif; &d-S r&d/S 68


 rdef@cGe;f . t"duta=umif;t&mrsm;ESifh tjcm;xifjrifcsufrsm;a&;Edifk &f ef avhvmoltwGuf ae&mxdik cf if;/  a[majymolrsm;u t=urf;zufr_jzpfay:apa&; ajrSmufx;kd yifah umfpum;vH;k rsm; odk@r[kwf tjcm;ygwDrsm;/ ud, k pf m;vS,af vmif;rsm;/ axmufco H rl sm;tm; t=urf;zufwu kd fcu kd af pa&; aoG;xd;k vH@_ aqmfaom pum; vH;k rsm; toH;k ðycJjh cif; &d-S r&dS ponfwdk@jzpfonf? tu,fI avhvmolrsm;u rJqG,pf nf;±H;k r_wckwiG f toH;k ðycJah om pum;vH;k onf rJqG,yf Jt G =urf;zufru _ kd jzpfay: apEdik o f nf odk@r[kwf tm;ay;tm;ajrSmufjzpfapEdik o f nf[k oH;k oyfrdygu xdak [majymol toHk;ðycJo h nfh pum;rsm; udk twdtusrw S fwrf;wifoifo h nf?tu,fIa[majymolu t=urf;zufrj_ zpfay:apa&; ajr‡mufay;aeygu a'o qdik &f mapmif=h unfhorl sm;onf A[dXk mecsKyfodk@ ‚wd@k . pd;k &drfruif;jzpfru _ kd csucf si;f wifjyoifo h nf? usi;f ycGifhr&aom rJq, G fpnf;a0;yGJrsm;/ vlxkpnf;a0;yGJrsm;ESihf tjcm;tcrf;tem;rsm;udv k nf; avhvmolrsm;u tpD&ifco H ifo h nf? tu,fI tm%mydik frsm;u tcrf;tem;wcktwGuf cGiðhf yrdef@ay;&ef jiif;qefygu rnfonfh ta=umif;a=umifh qH;k jzwfco Jh nfudk avhvmolrsm;u od&&Sd efóu;yrf;oih+f yD;/ ,if;ta=umif;jycsurf sm;onf qDavsmrf _ &d-S r&du S v dk nf; tuJjzwfoiho f nf? (i) vHðk cHa&;wyfzGJ@0ifrsm;. vkyaf qmifcsurf sm;udk apmif=h unfah vhvmjcif; rJq, G u f mvESifh rJay;aom vkyfief;pOfwckv;Hk twGi;f vHðk cHa&;wyfzJG@0ifrsm;wGif rJqEN&iS frsm;ESihf ud, k pf m; vS,af vmif;rsm;tm; tjcm;olrsm;+cdr;f ajcmufjcif;rS umuG,af y;&efEiS hf ormorwfuspmG aqmif&u G af y;&ef [laom wm0efESpfrsK;d pvH;k &do S nf? +cdr;f ajcmufjcif;onf ud, k fpm;vS,rf sm;ESifh rJqEN&iS frsm; tay:wGif qd;k usKd ; oufa&mufr_rsm;&d+S yD;/ txl;ojzifh vHðk cHa&;wyfzGJ@0ifrsm;u usL;vGeaf omtcgwiG f ydkrI kd tEW&m,f jzpfay:aponf? +cdr;f ajcmufru _ kd twdtusaz:jy&ef cufcJaomfvnf; +cdr;f ajcmufr_ txl;ojzifh vHðk cHa&;wyfzJG@0ifrsm; usL;vGeaf om +cdr;f ajcmufrr_ sm;us,u f s,jf yef@jyef@jzpfay: rnfh tvm;tvmrsK;d udkrl txift&Sm;awG@&wwfonf? a&G;aumufyGJEiS q fh ufE, G rf &_ adS om zrf;qD;r_/ xde;f odr;f r_tm;vH;k udk avhvmolrsm;u taotcsm rSww f rf;wif oih+f yD;/ avhvmoifo h nf? Ekid if aH &;v_yf&mS ;wufºuolrsm;udk a&G;aumufyJu G mvtwGi;f zrf;qD;jcif; od@k r[kwf xde;f odr;f jcif;onf tvGeq f ;dk 0g;aom tjzpfrsm;jzpf+yD;/ a&G;aumufyJv G kyif ef;pOfonf Ekid if w H um pHcsdefp! H $ef;rsm;ESihf udu k fnrD _r&Sad =umif; jyqdak eonf? (p) rJq, G pf nf;±H;k r_toH;k p&dwrf sm;/ tvSLaiGyrm%ESihf tvSLaiGZpfjrpfrsm;udk apmif=h unfah vhvmjcif; rJq, G yf GJ b¾ma&;ESifh toH;k p&dwq f idk &f m udp&P yfrsm;onf (OSCE) a'otwGi;f ESihf tjyif ESpcf pk vH;k wGif wpp jrifw h ufvmaeaom pd;k &drpf &maumif;onfh udp&P yfrsm; jzpfonf? Edik if o H m;rsm;onf ‚wd@k . Edik if aH &;ygwrD sm;ESihf ud, k pf m;vS,af vmif;rsm;tm; rnfou l aiGa=u;qkid &f m taxmuftyHrh sm;ay;aeonfukd odv=dk u+yD;/ rnfr# tultnD&onfEiS fh rnfuo Jh dk@ toH;k ðyaeonfuv kd nf; odv=kd uonf? xd@k a=umifh jynfwiG ;f apmifh =unfah vhvma&; tzGJ@rsm;u rJq, G yf GJtoH;k p&dwrf sm;ESifh tvSLaiGZpfjrpfrsm;udk aocsmpGmpHpk rf;&efvo fkd nf[k aumufcsucf srnfh tvm;tvmrsm; wppwd;k yGm;vmaeonf? yGiv fh if;r_EiS fh wm0efcrH u _ kd ydrk w kd ;kd wufvmatmif Oya'tajymif;tvJ rsm; ðyvkyaf y;a&;wGif xkwjf yefay;aom tpD&ifcpH mrsm;u taxmuftulwck jzpfEidk yf gonf?

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rJq, G fpnf;±H;k r_b¾ma&;ESifh toH;k p&dwq f idk &f m udp&P yfrsm;udk apmif=h unft h uJjzwf&efrmS txl; cufcJaom udp&P yf jzpfonf? a&G;aumufyGJOya'u Edik if aH wmfXmewpfck odk@r[kwf a&G;aumufyJaG umfr&Sit f m; rJq, G f pnf;±H;k r_ tvSLaiGrsm;ESihf toH;k p&dwrf sm;udk apmif=h unfah vhvm&ef cGiðfh yay;onfhwikd af tmif/ oufqikd &f mXmersm;onf ,if;udpu P kd pDraH qmif&u G &f mwGif tcuftcJrsm;udk awG@&&dS onf? Edik if aH &;ygwDrsm;/ udk,pf m;vS,af vmif;rsm;ESifh axmufco H lrsm; (wwd,ygwD toH;k p&dw[ f ak c:onf?) . pkpak ygi;f toH;k p&dwu f dk rnfo h @kd aomtcgr# &Si;f jyjcif; r&daS y? ygwD odk@r[kwf ud, k pf m;vS,af vmif;tvSLaiGrsm;. Zpfjrpfukd trsm;jynfoq l ikd f &mtzGJ@tpnf; od@k r[kwf tpd;k &Xmersm;rS ppfaq;vdkru _ v dk nf; rnfodk@aomtcgr# róuqdck aJh y? jynfwiG ;f avhvma&;tzGJ@rsm;onf a&G;aumufyJv G kyif ef;pOfyg ,if;tcef;u¾ESiyhf wfoufI apmif=h unfah vhvm&m wGif tcuftcJrsm;&Sad =umif;ESifh tEW&m,fyifv#i&f adS =umif; owdxm;oiho f nf? txl;ojzifh Ekid if aH wmfXmersm;uJo h k@d pHpk rf;ppfaq;a&;tm%m ‚wdk@xHwiG f r&daS y? a&G;aumufyGJOya'u Edik if aH &;ygwDrsm;ESifh ud, k fpm;vS,af vmif;rsm;udk ‚wd@k .toH;k p&dwfrsm;twGuf wm 0efc&H ef ajymqdak umif; ajymqdkEidk o f nf? xdu k o Jh dk@Oya'rsK;d &dSygu tvSLaiG. Zpfjrpf (odk@r[kwf toH;k p&dw. f &nf&, G cf su)f / aiGv$Jajymif;ay;onfh yrm%ESiafh e@&ufwdk@udv k o l &d iS =f um; xkwaf z:ajymqd&k rnf[al omowif; tcsurf sm; a,bk,s tm;jzifh vdt k yfonf? Edik if aH &;ygwDrsm;ESifh ud, k pf m;vS,af vmif;rsm;onf a&G;aumufy-JG rJq, G fpnf;±H;k r_ b%fpm&if;wck oD;oef@ziG v hf Spf toH;k ðy&ef vnf;vdt k yfaumif; vdt k yfEidk o f nf?tu,fI a&G; aumufyJOG ya'wGif ,if;uJho@dk om vdt k yfcsufrsm;yg&Sdygu xdOk ya'tay:av;pm;vdu k femr_ &d-S r&du S dk avhvmolrsm;u apmif=h unfh avhvmoiho f nf? xd@k tjyif avhvmolrsm;onf b¾ma&;tpD&ifcpH mrsm; jynfph Hkr&_ Sd-r&S/d wdusr&_ -dS r&d/S owfrw S af y;xm;aomtcsed t f wGi;f rSmxkwjf yefjcif;&S-d r&Sw d kd@ukd tuJjzwfay;&ef óu;yrf;oifo h nf? Ekid if aH &;ygwDrsm; ESihf ud, k pf m;vS,af vmif;rsm;onf wef;wlqufqcH &H jcif; &d-S r&SEd iS ft h csed frt SD cgrD Oya' usio fh Hk;r_twdik ;f twm udkvnf; jyefvnfo;kH oyfoifo h nf? tu,fI rJq, G yf GJtoH;k p&dwt f ay: Oya't&uef@owfxm;ygu avhvmolrsm;onf ,if;uef@owfcsurf sm; qDavsmfr&_ -Sd r&d/S ud, k pf m;vS,af vmif;rsm;/ ygwDrsm;udk xda&mufaom rJq, G fyJrG sm; ðyvky&f eftwGuf vHak vmuf aom toH;k p&dwf oH;k cGihf ay;xm;jcif; &d-S r&du S v dk nf; tuJjzwfoifhonf?ygwDrsm;/ud, k pf m;vS,af vmif;rsm;. ‚udp&P yf tay: tjrifrsm;udv k nf; avhvmolrsm;u odatmifóu;yrf;oiho f nf? a&G;aumufyGJOya'u Edik if aH &;ygwDrsm;/ ud, k fpm;vS,af vmif;rsm;udk toH;k p&dwfrsm;twGuf wm0efc&H ef jyXmef; xm;jcif;r&Syd gu jynfwiG ;f avhvmolrsm;onf vlo&d iS =f um;xkwaf z:xm;aom toH;k p&dwrf sm;udk apmif=h unfh avhvmoiho f nf? Oyrm &kyjf rifo=H um;/ a&'D,/kd owif;pm/ a=umfjimbkwfw@kd jzifah =umfjimjcif;ESihf ygwD pmay/ ydkpwm tajrmuftrsm; xkwaf 0jcif; ponfwdk@.wefzd;k udk od&ESd ikd &f ef óu;yrf;oifo h nf? rJqG,yf JrG sm;. ukeu f sp&dw/f txl; ojzifh vlxpk nf;a0;yGJ}uD;rsm;. ukeu f sp&dwu f v dk nf; cef@rSe;f Edik o f nf? rD'D,mwGif a=umfjimxnf&h efay;oGi;f aiGudk apmih=f unft h uJjzwfjcif;onf vGepf mG &Si;f vif;+yD;/ xda&mufonf? a=umfjim toHvi$ o fh mG ;aom tcsdeEf Sifh t}udr/f okd@r[kwf yHkEdSyfr'D D,mwGif a=umfjim. t&G,t f pm;ESihf tqifh ae&m. ukeu f sp&dwu f kd wGucf sufEidk o f nf (tcef; 9 udk &_yg?)? ,if;wGucf sufr_rsK;d rsm;udk ygww D ck od@k r[kwf ud, k fpm;vS,af vmif;wOD;. a,bk,s toH;k p&dwu f dk wGucf suf&mwGif toH;k ðyEkid fonf?

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ydpk wmrsm;ESifh ygwD. a=umfjimypPn;f ypP,rsm; toH;k p&dwu f dk apmif=h unfah vhvm&ef ydkrI kd cufcJonf? ,if; ypPn;f rsm;udk xkwv f kyaf y;aom yHkESdyw f u dk o f mv#if pdwcf s&aom owif;t&if;tjrpf jzpfaoma=umifh jzpf onf? (owif;tcsut f vufEiS hf yufoufI yxrOD;pGmtm;jzif/h ygwD odk@r[kwf ud, k pf m;vS,af vmif;tm; ar;jref;oihf onf? a&G;aumufyJOG ya'onf wcgw&HY yHkESdyx f w k af 0aompm&Gupf mwrf;rsm;wGif Edik if aH &;ygwD od@k r[kwf ud, k pf m;vS,af vmif;.trnf/ yHkEdSyfpuf. trnfrsm; az:jyay;&efjyXmef;xm;onfjzpf&m/ jynfwiG ;f avhvmolu yHEk ydS fr_ ta&twGuEf iS hf tao;pdwu f ek fusp&dwu f adk r;jref;=unfEh ikd o f nf? tu,fI ,if;owif; tcsuo f nf =uef@=umaeygu vkyaf qmifEikd af om enf;vrf;rSm jrifawG@ae&aom ydpk wmta&twGuu f kd a&wGufI yHEk dSyx f kwaf 0 aom t&nftaoG;tvdu k f ukeu f sp&dwu f kd cef@rSe;f wGucf sufEidk fonf? tcsdefuek af om tvkyw f pfcjk zpf+yD;/ wdusr_ vnf; r&dv S yS g? odk@aomf ,if;od@k vkyjf cif;tm;jzifh toH;k p&dwyf rm%ESifh ywfoufI t!$e;f ude;f tcsKd@ukd &&SEd idk fonf?

&dar;eD kar;eD;,m;Ed havv h molrsm;onf rJq, G pf nf;±H;k r_ b¾ma&;udp&P yfudk pHpk rf;ppfaq;jcif; ,m;Edik if H jynfwiG ;f apmif=h unfavh av

(1999) ckEpS f Ed0k ifbmvwGif &d;k ar;eD;,m;Edik if t H wGi;f vlxq l ENppfwrf;aumuf,rl w _ cku Edik if aH &;ygwrD sm;rS rJq, G pf nf;±H;k r_&yH aHk iGrsm;toH;k ðyr_EiS fh &HyaHk iGZpfjrpfrsm;tay: vlx, k =Hk unfrt _ qifh xdwv f ef@p&maumif; avmufaom tqifo h kd@ a&muf&adS ea=umif; zGix fh w k jf ycJo h nf? ,if;udp&P yfukd vlxt k =um; pHpk rf; ppfaq;a&; ESihf tajctwifaqG;aEG;Edik af &;twGuv f rf;zGiafh y;&efóu;yrf;onft h aeESihf 'Dru kd a&pD vkv d m;aom tzGJ@tpnf; (PDA) [k ac:qdak om a'ocHjynfwiG ;f avhvma&;tpktzGJ@u u|r;f usio f l tzGJ@wzGJ@tm; 2002- ckEpS f a&G;aumufyJu G mvtwGi;f ,if;udp&P yfudk pHpk rf;ppfaq;&ef txl;wm0efay;cJo h nf? u Edik if aH &;ygww D ygwcD si;f pDEiS fh ‚wd@k a=umfjimud, k pf m;vS,rf sm;. aiGa=u;oH;k pGJrt _ rsK;d tpm;ESihf yrm%/ tvSLaiGZpfjrpfrsm;ESifh ywfoufI owif;tcsut f vufrsm; pkpnf;cJo h nf? rsm;jym;vSaom rD', D mrsm; wGif toH;k ðycJah om ae&m/ tcsed yf rm%udk wGucf su=f u+yD;/ukeu f sp&dwu f kd wGucf sucf =Jh uonf? tcsK@d ygwrD sm; onf tjcm;olrsm;xufyI kd (PDA) tzGJ@EiS fh ydrk dk yl;aygi;f aqmif&u G v f =dk uonf?txl;ojzifh tvSLaiGZpfjrpfrsm; ESihf ywfoufI ydrk I kd yl;aygi;f aqmif&u G v f =kd uonf? rJq, G pf nf;±H;k r_ pkaqmif;&&daS om owif;tcsut f vufrsm;rS tajccHI (PDA) u az:xkwjf yEdik af omtcsurf mS toH;k p&dw. f tcsKd@tpdyt f ydik ;f rsm;wGif Oya'.pnf; rsO;f uef@owfcsurf sm;onf vHak vmujfcif;r&Sd [lIjzpfonf? ,if;vkyif ef;. &v'ftjzpf xkwjf yefcaJh om tpD &ifcpH mudk toH;k ðyI (PDA) onf yGiv hf if;r_EiS w hf m0efcrH r_ sm; ydrk &dk adS pa&;twGuf rJq, G pf nf;±H;k r_qidk &f m b¾ma&; Oya'rsm;wGif ðyjyifajymif;vJrr_ sm;vkyaf y;&ef pnf;&H;k aqmf=ocJo h nf?

(PDA)

rJq, G pf nf;±H;k r_tvSLaiGrsm;. Zpfjrpfrsm;udk apmih=f unfah vhvm&efrmS ydI k yifcufcJonf? tb,fa=umihq f akd omf ,if;udp&P yftwGuf ,H=k unf&avmufaom owif;rsm;&&eftwGuf owif;Zpfjrpfrsm;rSm Edik if aH &;ygwrD sm;/ ud, k pf m; vS,af vmif;rsm; ud, k w f idk yf if jzpfonf? tu,fI a&G;aumufyJOG ya'onf Edik if aH &;ygwrD sm;ESihf ud, k pf m;vS,f avmif;rsm;tm; tvSLaiGZpfjrpfudk xkwaf z:jy&efjyXmef;xm;jcif;r&Syd gu/ Edik if aH &;ygwrD sm;/ ud, k pf m;vS,f avmif;rsm;onf ,if;owif;tcsut f vufrsm;udk ‚if;wdk@qENjzifh xkwaf z:jyrnfh tvm;tvm r&Sad y? ,if;uJo h @kd aom tajctaersK;d wGif rSe-f rrSepf pfaq;Ir&aom owif;tcsut f vufrsm; pkaqmif;xm;jcif;onf tusKd ; &S-d r&Sd wu,fyifra&&maom udpjP zpfonf[k aumufcsucf s&rvdjk zpfaeonf? od@k aomfvnf; ygwrD sm; ESihf ud, k pf m;vS,af vmif;rsm;tm; tvSLaiG 71


ZpfjrpfEiS yhf wfoufI tao;pdwf ajz=um;ay;&ef arwWm&yfcjH cif;onf vkyx f u kd o f nft h vkyjf zpfa=umif; (PDA) .tawG@ tñuHujyqdak eygonf? (q) Edik if aH wmft&if;tjrpfrsm; tvGJo;Hk pm;vkyrf u _ kd apmif=h unfah vhvmjcif; 20 tcsKd@ wdik ;f jynfrsm;wGif a&G;aumufyJOG ya'onf Edik if aH &;t& 0ifa&muf,OS òf yiforl sm;udk Edik if aH wmft&if;tjrpf rsm; oH;k pGJciG afh y;onf? Edik if aH wmf. wdu k &f u dk fb¾ma&; taxmuftyHrh sm;/ Edik if aH wmf. owfrw S fxm;aom t&if; tjrpfrsm;tm; toH;k ðycGi/fh vlxk tpnf;ta0;rsm;twGuf tpd;k &ydik t f aqmuftOD;rsm;tm; toH;k ðyydik cf iG fhEiS fh tpd;k & ydik f rD'D,mrsm;tm; toH;k ðycGifh ponfwdk@ yg0ifonf? t&if;tjrpfrsm;udk ,SOòf yifot l m;vH;k twGuf nDwn l Dr# a0cGJay;&rnf? ygwDrsm;tm;vH;k ESihf ud, k pf m;vS,af vmif;tm;vH;k onf wef;wlnDr# wlnDr# pGm&-r& avhvmolrsm;u pHkprf;avhvmoifo h nf? t&if;tjrpfrsm;udk wpHw k &maom pHowfrw S cf surf sm; ay:rSm tajccHðyI &&Sad p&rnf jzpf onf? tu,fI TuJo h dk@&&Sad p±d;k rSeyf gu avhvmolrsm;onf atmufygtcsurf sm;udk tuJjzwfoifhonf?    

pHowfrw S cf sufrsm;onf cdik rf mwdusjcif;ESifh &Si;f &Si;f vif;vif;owfrw S x f m;jcif; &Sd-r&d/S pHowfrw S cf sufrsm;onf usKd ;a=umif;qDavsmrf _EiS hf r#wr_ &d-S r&/dS pHowfrw S cf sufrsm;udk ,SOòf yifoltm;vH;k tay:rSm wax&mwnf; usio hf H;k jcif; &d-S r&d/S rnfonfh ,SOòf yifoludkrS rw&m;ojzifx h cd du k af pjcif;r&Sad om yrm%ESihf t}udrfrsm;t& t&if;tjrpfrsm;udk cGJa0ay;jcif; &d-S r&d/S Edik if aH wmf. t&if;tjrpfrsm;jzpfaom vlom;ESifh ypPn;f OpPmrsm;udk tvGJo;kH pm;rðy&efrmS vuf&Sd wdik ;f jynf tkycf sKyfaeaom ygwDrsm;. wm0efjzpfonf? 'Dru dk a&pDEidk if HwEdik if w H iG f tpk;d &ykid fypPn;f OpPmrsm;udk wdik ;f jynf twGi;f &dS vlom;tm;vH;k wajy;nDyidk q f idk cf iG &fh o dS nf[I l a,bk,stm;jzifh vufcx H m;onf? xkd@a=umifh tpk;d &ydik f ,mOfrsm;/ &H;k Xmeae&mrsm; ESiafh =u;eef;qufo, G af &;rsm;tm; tjcm;aom ,SOòf yifolrsm;enf;wl wef;wlcHpm;cGihf ray;xm;ygu wOD;wa,muftwGuf toH;k rðyoifah y? xdk@tjyif jynfol@0efxrf;rsm;onf a&G;aumufyJG pDrH tkycf sKyfa&;vkyif ef;rsm;wGif wdu k &f u kd yf g0if&ygu (Oyrma&G;aumufyGJaumfr&Sifemrsm;/rJ&Hkt&m&drS sm;/ w&m;ol}uD; rsm;ESihfvðkH cHa&;0efxrf;rsm;)‚wdk@wiG f ormorwfusr_ux dk de;f odr;f &ef txl;wm0ef&o Sd nf?a&G;aumufyJG pDrt H kycf sKyf a&;wGif wdu k &f u kd fryg0if&aom tjcm;jynfol@0efxrf;rsm;onfvnf; ‚wdk@. vkyyf ikd fciG fh od@k r[kwf =oZmudk toH;k ðy I a&G;aumufyJv G kyif ef;pOfrmS 0ifa&mufpGuzf ufjcif; rvkyo f ifhay? a&G;aumufyGJtusKd ;&v'ftwGuf taxmuftyHhrsm; (patronage) toH;k ðyjcif;/ vlxv k kyt f m;rsm; toH;k ðyjcif;ESihf tvm;o¿mefwal omtpDtpOfrsm; toH;k ðyjcif;onf tpd;k &. ravsmu f efaf om vky&f yfwckjzpfonf? ,if; vky&f yfukd 20

oD&v D uFmEdik if &H Sd tzGJ@tpnf;wpfcjk zpfaom vl@tcGit fh a&;tzJG@ (Institute of Human Rights) u/ (2001) ckEpS f orw a&G;aumufyGJumvtwGi;f “jynfol@yidk yf pPn;f xde;f odr;f umuG,af &;pDru H ed ;f ”[k trnfwyfI/ Ekid if yH idk f t&if;tjrpfrsm;udk tpd;k &ygwrD sm;rS tvGJo;Hk pm;vkyrf u _ dk tvGeaf umif;rGev f aS om apmif=h unft h uJjzwfr_ wckjzifh tqH;k owfco Jh nf? xdt k zGJ@. awG@&cdS surf sm;tm; Oa&my or*~ avhvma&;rpf&iS . f a&G;aumufyGJqikd &f m ‚.tpD&ifcpH mwGif ud;k um;az:jycJo h nf? ,if;tpD&ifcpH mtm; atmufyg tifwmeuf pmrsuEf mS wGif awG@&Sd Ekid yf gonf? http://www.europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/sri_lanka/election_report/index.htm.

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az:xkwjf y&efEiS fh ,if;tpDtrHrsm;. xda&mufru _ dk wkid ;f wm&ef cufcJaomfvnf; ‚wd@k onf tusKd ;cHpm; cGihfrsm;udk tpd;k &trnfjzifah y;jcif;rðybJ/Edik fiaH &;ygww D ck odk@r[kwf ud, k fpm;vS,af vmif; wOD;.trnfjzifh axmufyhH ay;jcif; &S-d r&dS pOf;pm;oifo h nf? ‚pDrcH sufrsm;onf a&G;aumufyJt G csdefrwdik cf ifwiG f tusKd ;&v'f ay:xGujf cif;/ od@k r[kwf pwifjcif;/ &d-S r&dS rSww f rf;wifEidk o f nf? tcsKd@widk ;f jynfrsm;wGif Edikf if aH wmfEiS fh xdk@xuferd ahf om tqifw h iG f vuf&t Sd kycf sKyfaeaom ygwrD sm;/ udk,pf m;vS,f avmif;rsm;onf ‚wdk@.tusKd ;pD;yGm;twGuf jynfol@t&if;tjrpfrsm;udk tvGJo;kH pm;vkyaf eonf[k avhvmawG@&Sd &onf? tpd;k &0ef}uD;rsm; ESifh t&m&drS sm; vdu k ef m&eftwGuf usihf0wf*% k o f dumQ yk'f odk@r[kwf vrf;!$ecf suf rsm;wnf&ySd gu avhvmolrsm;onf ,if;tcsufrsm;vdu k femr_ukd apmif=h unfah vhvmoifo h nf? ,if;uJo h @dk aom vrf;!$ecf sufrsm;r&dyS gu avhvmolrsm;tm; a&G;aumufyGJumvtwGi;f Edik if aH wmft&if; tjrpfrsm; ESihf pyfvsO;f aom Oya'/ toH;k ðyyHt k a=umif;wd@k ukd *±kwpdkuo f ifwef;ay;&rnf? Edik if Hyikd t f &if;tjrpfrsm; toH;k ðyr_udk apmih=f unfah vhvm&mwGif txl;owdxm;&efvdt k yfonf? avhvmolrsm;onf tvGJo;Hk pm;r_ trSew f u,fjzpfcaJh om jzpf&yftm;vH;k udk txl;owdðyI tao;pdwu f spGmESifh rSeu f efwduspGm rSww f rf;wifoihfonf? ,if;t&if;tjrpftvGJo;kH pm;vkycf aJh om t&if;tjrpfrsm;. ukefuspm;&dwu f kdvnf; wGucf suf xm;Ekid o f nf? owdcsyfp&maemufxyfta&;udp&P yfwpfckrmS jynfol@0efxrf;rsm; od@k r[kwf ppfom;rsm;tm; ygww D ck od@k r[kwf ud, k pf m;vS,af vmif;wOD; (tm%mvuf&t Sd pk;d &tm%mydifk frsm;ESihf qufE, G fr&_ aSd omolrsm;jzpfavh&o dS nf) udk rJay;&ef zdtm;ay;r_ jzpfonf? ,if;vky&f yfrsKd;onf Edik if t H awmfrsm;rsm;wGif jzpfymG ;aea=umif; avhvmawG@&&Sd +yD;/ vl@tcGit fh a&;csK;d azmufrr_ sm;ESifh ywfoufIvnf;jy\emrsm; ay:xGufvmaponf? vkyif ef;cGifwiG f w&m;r0if rJq, G fr_rsm;/ zdtm;ay;r_/ +cdr;f ajcmufr_rsm;/ Edkiif aH &;tquftoG,jf zifh tvkyf&jcif;ESifh ukef ypPn;f / 0efaqmifr_ wdk@ukd tcrJah y;jcif;tm;jzifh (jynfol@b¾maiGrS [kwo f nfjzpfap/ r[kwo f nfjzpfap) rJ0,fjcif; ponfh pGypf JcG sufrsm;udk ESH@EHS@ pyfpyfpkHprf;az:xkwo f ifhonf? (Z) Z) yÉdyuQ umuG,w f mqD;jcif;ES ;ESifh a&G;aumufyJu G mvt=urf;zufrr_ sm;udk apmif=h unfah vhvmjcif; a&G;aumufyGJrsm;onf t=urf;zufrw _ pHw k &mryg0ifyJ Ekid if aH &;tm%mtwGuf 0ifa&muf,OS òf yif&ef tcGit hf vrf;rsm; ay;jcif;omjzpfonf? odk@aomf uHta=umif;rvSpmG yif wcgw&HwiG f t=urf;zufrr_ sm; jzpfay:wwfonf? xdko@kd aom jzpf&yfrsK;d wGif yÉdyuQudk xde;f csKyfudik w f , G &f efEiS hf ajz&Si;f ay;&efwm0efonf oufqikd &f mtm%mydik frsm;xHwiG f om&do S nf? jynfwiG ;f avhvmolrsm;u ,if;jzpf&yfudk eD;eD;uyfuyf apmif=h unfo h iho f nf? jynfwiG ;f apmif=h unfah vhvma&; tzGJ@rsm;onf a&G;aumufyGJumvt=urf;zufr_ umuG,w f mqD;a&;vkyif ef;wGif tusKd ;aqmifaom tcef;u¾rS 0ifa&mufvy_ &f mS ;Edik o f nf? jynfwiG ;f apmif=h unfah vhvma&;ktzGJ@rsm;u yÉdyuQ rjzpfymG ;atmif umuG,w f m;qD;&eftwGuf atmifatmifjrifjriff óu;yrf;&&Scd aJh om enf;vrf;wckrmS Edik if aH &;ygwDrsm;/ ud, k fpm;vS,frsm;udk pka0;ap+yD;v#i/f a&G;aumufyGJumvtwGi;f rnfo@kd usi=hf uHaexdik frnf[al om usihf0wf oduQmyk'f udk tm;vH;k oabmwlcsrw S af pjcif; jzpfonf? TuJo h kd@aom usi0hf wfrsm;onf tm%moufa&muf jcif; r&daS omfvnf;/ vdu k ef musio fh ;Hk r_ &dS-r&dSk apmif=h unfah vhvmEdik +f yD;/ trSew f u,fjzpfymG ;onf[k awG@&&dS aom csK;d azmufrr_ sm;udk vlo&d iS =f um; &_H@cs&rnf? uHaumif;axmufrpGmyif a&G;aumufyJEG iS hf qufE, G faom t=urf;zufr_ rsm;onf (OSCE) a'otwGi;f wGif urBmt h jcm;a'orsm;xufyI dk tjzpfenf;onf? 73


rGew f eD *D ±d;k wGif jynfwiG ;f apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;u Edik if aH &;ygwrs Drsm;. usi0fh wfupd w P iG f =um;0if aqmif±u G af y;jcif; rGew f eD *D &dw k iG f (2001) ckEpS /f Ekid if w H iG ;f a&G;aumufyJrG sm; aqmif&u G af epOfumvtwGi;f / apmif=h unfah vhvmol awmfawmfrsm;rsm;ESifh Edik if o H m;wdk@u a&G;aumufyJrG Jq, G pf nf;±H;k r_rsm;onf t=urf;zufrq _ o D @kd OD;wnfae a=umif; wpp pd;k &drrf uif;jzpfco Jh nf? yÉdyuQ rjzpfymG ;atmifñud;yrf;onft h aeESihf 'Dru kd &ufwpf toGiu f ;l ajymif;a&; Ekid if o H m;rsm; (CDT) [kac:aom jynfwiG ;f avhvma&;tpktzGJ@wpfcu k rGew f eD *D &d;k &dS Edifk if aH &;ygwD rsm;udk t =urf;zufrr_ sm; a&SmifusOEf ikd af &;ESihf ywfoufI aqG;aEG;&ef zdwaf c:cJo h nf? t=urf;zufrE_ iS fh trke;f w&m;rsm; jzpfymG ;apEdifk af om pum;vH;k rsm; od@k r[kwf enf;vrf;rsm;udk a&SmifusOaf &; tygt0if aumif;rGepf mG usi=fh uHaexdik af &;twGuo f wfrw S af y;xm;aom usi0hf wfou d mQ yk'u f kd ygwrD sm;tm; vwfrw S af &;xd;k &ef (CDT) u wifjycJo h nf? tacstwifaqG;aEG;yGJtcsK@d ðyvky+f yD;aemuf ygww D pfcrk v S JI G Edik if H a&;ygwt D m;vH;k vwfrw S x f ;dk &ef oabmwlc=Jh uonf? ,if;usi0fh wfou d mQ yk'o f nf a&G;aumufyJaG vhvmol rsm;tm; vdu k ef musio fh ;kH r_&rSd &dS apmif=h unft h uJjzwf&eftwGuf tud;k tum;wpfck tjzpfvnf; vkyaf qmif ay;cJo h nf? csK;d azmufrr_ sm;&dcS aJh omfvnf; (CDT) u vlo&d iS =f um; xkwaf z:ajymqdck &Jh m/ t=urf;zufro _ nf &kyv f ;kH ay:rvm cJah y? a&G;aumufyGJEiS q fh ufE, G af om t=urf;zufrr_ sm;udk apmif=h unfah vhvma&; enf;pepfrmS a&G;aumufyJG tjiif;yGm;r_ukd apmif=h unfah vhvmjcif;wGif toH;k ðyaom enf;pepfEiS hf qifwo l nf? t=urf;zufru _ kd ud, k w f ikd jf rifawG@caJh om a'o tqifh apmif=h unft h uJjzwforl sm; odk@r[kwf apmif=h unfah vhvmr_nE‡d id_ ;f a&;ESihf ydik ;f jcm; oH;k oyfa&;tzGJ@ (Observation Cordination and Analysis Unit) .tzGJ@0ifrsm;onf atmufygtcsurf sm; yg0ifaom “ta&;}uD; aom tjzpftysuyf pkH H pm±Gu”f udk a&;jznfh ay;&rnf?       

a&G;aumufyGJqidk &f m odk@r[kwf tkycf sKyfa&;qdik &f m c&difk t f ygt0if tjzpftysuf. ae&m/ usL;vGecf &H ol (rsm;)/ usL;vGeo f l (rsm;) (tu,fI odygu) tjzpftysujf zpfysucf aJh om ae@&uf rsujf rifoufaorsm; ESifh ykvyd w f yfzJG@0ifrsm;. tpD&ifcpH mtygt0if tjzpftysuf. oabmobm0/ ykvdyw f yfzGJ@rS ,if;tjzpftysuftm;pHpk rf;az:xkwaf ejcif; &Sd-r&dS / tjzpftysut f rsK;d tpm; avhvmolrsm;onf owif;tcsut f vufpak qmif;&mwGif ormorwfusus aqmif&u G f&rnf? rsujf rifoufaorsm; us,u f s,jf yef@jyef@a&G;cs,I f awG@qHak r;jref;&rnf? oifah vsmyf gu ykvdyw f yfzJG@0ifrsm;udyk g awG@qakH r;jref;&rnf? tjzpftysuw f ckudk trsK;d tpm; cGJjcm;az:jyjcif;onf ,if;tjzpftysu. f oabmobm0udk avhvmqef;ppfjcif;ESihf a&G;aumufyGJ ESiq fh ufE, G af om t=urf;zufrj_ zpfymG ;ESKef;udk wGucf su&f mwGif ta&;ygonf? ,if;udpu P kd vkyaf qmif &ef enf;vrf;wckrmS t"duESifh omrn tjzpftysurf sm;udk cGJjcm; owfrw S jf cif;jzpf onf? t"du tjzpftysurf sm; rSm vlowfr/_ 74


vlowf&efóu;yrf;tm;xkwrf /_ rk'rd ;f r_/ rk'rd ;f usi&hf efóu;yrf; tm;xkwrf /_ tjyif;txef emusiaf pr_/ ±ke;f &if;qefcwfr/_ rD;&d@_ r/_ vk,ufr/_ ESifh wdu k cf u dk rf r_ sm; yg0ifonf? omrntjzpftysurf sm;wGif +cdr;f ajcmufrr_ sm;/ ypPn;f OpPm zsuq f ;D r_rsm; ESihf 21 ajrSmufx;dk yifah umfvyk af y;jcif;rsm; yg0ifEidk o f nf? avhvmolrsm;u ,if;uJo h dk@aom udp&P yfrsm;wGif usL;vGeo f t l m; w&m;Oya't& pD&ifjcif; &d-S r&du S kd avhvmoihf onf? w&m;0ifpHkprf;az:xkwjf cif;rsm;wGirf u l m; 0ifa&muf pGwzf ufjcif; rðyvkyo f ifah y? a&G;aumufyGJwcktwGi;f t=urf;zufr_rsm;tESH@tjym; jzpfay:jcif;onf jynfwiG ;f apmif=h unfhavhvma&;tzGJ@ wzGJ@tzdk@ a&G;aumufyGJwcktay: tqd;k jrifaom xkwjf yefa=ujimcsuw f ck xkwaf pavmufaom t"du ta=umif;tcsuf wckjzpfo f nf? ,if;uJo h dk@aom tjrifjzifh tjzpftysuftm;vH;k udk aocsm&Si;f vif;pGm rSww f rf;wifjcif;/ ppfaq;jcif;rsm; ðyvkyo f ifo h nf? xdk@tjyif a&G;aumufyGJrsm;/ Edkiif aH &;taxmuftyHh rsm;a=umifh odk@r[kwf ‚wd@k ESiq hf ufE, G af oma=umifh jzpf&aom &mZ0wfrr_ sm;ESifh tjcm;aom w&m;r0if v_y&f mS ;r_rsm;udk a&G;aumufyJG rsm;/ Edik if aH &;taxmuftyHhrsm;ESihf rqdik fyJ oD;oef@jzpf&aom &mZ0wfrE_ iS fh tjcm;aom w&m;r0ifv_y&f mS ;r_rsm;udk aocsmpGm *&kwpdu k f cGJjcm;oiho f nf? (ps) tjcm;udp&P yfrsm;udk apmih=f unfah vhvmjcif mjci;f a&G;aumufyGJavhvmr_rsm;onf yHrk Set f m;jzifh Edik if aH &;udp&P yfrsm;xuf a&G;aumufyJGrsm;. vkyif ef;pOfuo kd m tav; ay; tm&Hpk u dk =f uaomfvnf;/ ae&mwdik ;f wGif Tod@k jzpfonf[rk qdkEikd af y?tcsKd@aom jynfwiG ;f avhvm a&;tpktzGJ@ rsm;onf bufvdkujf cif;r&Sad omfvnf; Edik fiaH &;qdik &f mudp&P yf[k owfrw S faumif; owfrSwEf difk af om a&G;aumufyJG. tcef;u¾rsm;udk tm&Hpk u dk &f ef a&G;cs,=f uonf? Oyrm jynfwiG ;f avhvma&; tzGJ@rsm;onf Edkif if aH &;ESihf qufE, G af eaomatmufyg udp&P yfrsKd;rsm;udk apmif=h unfah vhvm&ef vdt k yfaumif;vdt k yfEikd fygonf?  rJq, G fpnf;±H;k r_udk ta=umif;t&mtay: tajccHIvkyo f avm/ vlyk*Kd~ vftay: tajccHIvkyo f avm?  rJq, G fpnf;±H;k r_umvtwGi;f rnfonfu h dp&P yfonf tm±Ht k pdu k fc&H qH;k jzpfcJo h enf;?  ud, k pf m;vS,af vmif;ESifhygwDrsm;onf rvdv k m;tyfaaom rJq, G fpnf;±H;k r_rsm;udk rnfonfh twdik ;f twm txd vkycf o Jh enf;?  trsK;d orD;rsm;/ vlenf;pkrsm;/ roef;rpGr;f rsm; od@k r[kwf tjcm;vlrt _ pdyt f ydik ;f rsm;ESihf txl;oufqikd af om udp&P yfrsm;udk udk,fpm;vS,af vmif;rsm;u rnfuJo@kd wifjycJo h enf;?  rJq, G u f mvtwGi;f bmoma&;onf tcef;u¾wcktjzpf yg0ifcjJh cif; &d-S r&d?S  yÉdyuQvGev f l@tzGJ@tpnf;wGif usi;f yaom a&G;aumufyJjG zpfcJhygu a&G;aumufyJv G yk fief;pOfonf ydI k aoG;uGJapoavm? odk@r[kwf wdik ;f jynfpnf;vH;k a&;udk taxmuftuljzpfapoavm?  rJq, G u f mvtwGi;f *&kðyrdavmufaom a'oqdik &f m jcm;em;r_rsm; &dS -r&dS?

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,if;enf;vrf;ESiyfh wfoufI ydrk o dk &d v dS ydk gu pmzwfoo l nf oD&v d uFm&dS a&G;aumufyGJt=urf;zufr_ apmif=h unftuJjzwfa&;Xme (CMEV) . tifwmeufpmrsuEf mS wGif 0ifa&muf=unf&h E_ idk yf gonf? http://www.cpalanka.org

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tu,fI jynfwiG ;f avhvma&;tzGJ@rsm;onf vkyif ef;pOfwckwnf;udo k m tm&Hkpu kd v f o kd nfh wdkiaf tmif/ rJq, G f pnf;±H;k r_ukd wGe;f tm;ay;aeaom jzpfEidk if aH &;tcif;tusi;f ESihf udp&P yfrsm;udk em;vnf;xm;&ef ta&;}uD;onf? Oyrm a&G;aumufyJq G ikd &f m udp&P yfrsm;udk rJqEN&iS frsm; rnfr#em;vnf=uonfEiS fh rnfr# owif;tcsut f vuf &&dx S m; onfukd avhvm&mwGif taxmuftuljzpfaponf? ygwDrsm;tcsi;f ESifh udk,pf m;vS,f avmif;tcsi;f csi;f wd@k t=um; tqifah e&mcsi;f jywfjywfom;om; jcm;em;aeonfrsm;udk rJqEN&iS rf sm; odxm; jcif;&d-S r&dS avhvm&mwGiv f nf; taxmuftul jzpfaponf? rJq, G fpnf;±H;k r_rsm;udk ud, k fpm;vS,af vmif;rsm;ESiyhf gwDrsm; rnfuo Jh @kd (Oyrm vlxkpak 0;yGJ/ tacstwifaqG; aEG;yGJ/ wtdrw f uf wtdrq f if; qENaumuf,jl cif;/ tDvufxa&mepfqufo, G af &; ponfhenf;vrf;rsm;jzif)h vkyaf qmif ae=ua=umif;ESihf rnfonfeh nf;vrf;onf txda&mufq;Hk jzpfa=umif; tuJjzwfjcif;onfvnf; toH;k 0ifonf? tu,fI rJqEN&iS frsm;onf a&G;aumufyGJwiG f pdw0f ifpm;r_ enf;yg;aeygu ‚wd@k onf a&G;aumufyJu G kd ta&;}uD; onf[k rxifjcif;/ od@k r[kwf ud, k pf m;vS,af vmif;rsm;onf tajctaeudo k abm raygufbJ&aSd ejcif; od@k r[kwf rJqEN&iS w f dk@onf rdrw d kd@rJqENay;v#ifvnf; wckcx k ;l jcm;vmrnf[k r,H=k unfjcif; wdk@jzpfwwfygonf?

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9? owif;rD', D mrsm;ud mrsm;udk apmih-f unfah vhvmjcif; u? rD', D m apmih=f unfah vhvmjcif;. ta&;ygr_ c? rD', D mapmif=h unfah vhvmjcif;. &nf&, G cf suf *? rD', D mtwGujf yXmef;axm;aom Oya'a&;&muef@owfcsufudk tuJjzwfjcif; C? toHvi$ fhr'D D,mESiyfh EHk SdyfrD', D mudk apmif=h unfah vhvmjcif; i? tca=u;aiGay;&aom Edik if aH &;a=ujimjcif;rsm;ESihf rJqEN&iS f ynmay;a&;vkyif ef;rsm;udk apmif=h unfh avhvmjcif; p? rD', D mESifo h wif;axmufrsm;tay: +cdr;f acsmufjcif;udk apmih=f unfah vhvmjcif;

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(u) rD', D m apmih=f unfah vhvvmjcif;. ta&;ygr_22 urBmu h v k or*~vl@tcGit fh a&;a=ujimpmwrf;. tcef; (19) wGif vGwv f yfpmG xkwaf z: ajymqdck iG u hf kd jyXmef;xm; onf? (OSCE) a'otwGi;f &dS wkid ;f jynfrsm;onf “vlwikd ;f onf tjyeftvSef qufo, G cf iG hf tygt0if vGwv f yfpmG xkwaf z:ajymqdck iG fh tcGit fh a&;&d&S rnf” [k jyXmef;xm;aom udak ya[*if oabmwlpmcsKyfyg tyk'd f (9) udk xyfavmif; twnfðyxm;onf? xdk@tjyif tyd'k f (7 )u Edik if aH &;ygwrD sm;ESihf uk, d pf m;vS,af vmif;rsm;onf rD', D mudk cGJjcm;jcif;r&dS tydwt f yiftwm;tqD;r&Sd toH;k ðycGi&fh &dS rnf[k qdx k m;onf? tu,fI Edik if o H m;rsm;onf tpd;k &tzGJ@twGi;f rdrw d d@k . ud, k pf m;vS,rf sm;udk a&G;cs,&f mY a±G;cs,af &; twGuv f t kd yfaom owif;tcsuf tvufrf sm;r&dyS gu 'Dru kd a&pDonf rnfo@kd r# zGH@òz;wd;k wufrnf r[kwaf y? tvm;wlpmG yif tu,fI toHvi$ &hf m wGif rvdv k m;tyfaom tpd;k &pGuzf ufrE_ iS ñfh uHawG@ae&ygu odk@wnf;r[kwf owif;axmufrsm;onf qifqmjzwf jcif;udak omfvnf;aumif; +cdr;f ajcmufjcif;udak omfvnf;aumif; cHae&ygu/ rD', D monf rnfo@kd r# zG@H òz;wd;k wufEikd f rnf r[kwaf y? 'Dru dk a&pDEiS fh owif;vGwv f yfciG fh tpOftvm&Sn=f umpGm wnf&aSd eaom wdik ;f jynfrsm;wGif Edik if o H m;rsm; tvG,w f ul od&EdS idk af &;twGuf vGwv f yfpmG ajymqdck iG /fh owif;vGwv f yfciG /fh vGwv f yfpmG owif;&,lEikd cf iG fh wd@k EiS hf ywfoufI apmif=h uyfumuG,af y;enf;tcsKd@ wpwpwd;k wufaumif;rGev f mcJo h nf? tvm;wlyif 'Dru kd a&pD wnfaqmufxm;+yD;aom wdik ;f jynfrsm;wGif tcsed jf ynfh owif;axmufrsm;onf bufvu kd rf q _ ef@usiaf om rdrw d @kd ud, k w f ikd v f u kd ef m&rnfh usi0fh wfpnf;rsO;f rsm;udk ðypkxw k jf yef=uonf?'Dru kd a&pDusio hf ;kH p wdik ;f jynfrsm;wGif ,if;uJo h @dk aomtpOftvmESihf pHcsed pf ! H e$ ;f rsm; zGH@òz;wd;k wufr_ enf;yg;=uao;onf? xd@k a=umifh xdu k o Jh @kd aom wdik ;f jynfrsm;&dS Edik if o H m;rsm;tzd@k yI kd yif f mru/ ta&;}uD;onfrmS rD', D mt&nftcsi;f jynf0h r_&adS &; (professionalism) ESifh t*wduif;a&; wd@k ukd awmif;qd&k efo Edik if aH &;ygwrD sm;/ ud, k pf m;vS,af vmif;rsm;/ tpd;k &t&m&drS sm;ESifh jynfo h @l a&;&m udp&P yfrsm;ta=umif; rD', D m. az:jycsurf sm;udk apmif=h unfah vhvm&efvnf; jzpfonf? vlxx k ifjrifcsufrsm;tay: =oZmv$r;f rd;k &mwGif tDvufxa&mepf ESihf yHEk Syd frD', D m yHkpHESprf sKd;pvH;k onf ta&;}uD; aom tcef;u¾rS yg0if=uonf? w&m;r#wr_&adS om a&G;aumufyJw G cktwGuf rD'D,m/txl;ojzihf &kyjf rifo=H um; wef;wl oH;k pGJEdik cf iG o fh nf tvGet f a&;ygonf? xdk@a=umifh a&G;aumufyJGumvtwGi;f a&G;aumufyJq G ikd &f m owif;az:jycsufEiS hf rD'D,mvGwfvyfciG fh ESpcf pk vH;k udk pepfwus ESifh ormorwfuspGm apmif=h unft h uJ jzwfjcif;onf a&G;aumufyGJapmif=h unfah vhvmr_wckwiG f ta&;ygaom tpdwftydifk ;f wpfcjk zpfonf?

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,cktcef;onf a&mbwf Ed&k pfa&;om;aom =um;jzwfumva&G;aumufyGJtwGi;f / owif;rD', D mtm; apmif=h unft h uJjzwfjcif;/ NDI tao;pdwv f ufpGJpmtkyf [laomacgi;f pOfjzifh 2002 ckEpS f wGif xkwaf 0cJah om Edikf if w H uma&;&m trsK;d om;'Dru dk a&pDtzGJ@ NDI . pmapmifwckrS taxmuftxm;tcsKd@ udk xkwEf w _ x f m;jcif; jzpfonf? rD', D mapmih=f unfah vhvmjcif;ESifh ywfoufI ydrk o dk &d v dS ydk gu jynfwiG ;f avhvma&;tzGJ@rsm;onf rD', D mapmif=h unfah vhvmjcif;tpDtpOfwck rnfuo Jh dk@ taumiftxnf az:aqmif&rnfudk tao;pdwf az:jyxm;aom ,ckpmapmifEiS w fh u dk q f idk af vhvmoifo h nf? xdk@tjyif Article XIX u rD', D mapmih=f unft h uJjzwfjcif;ESifh pHEe_ ;f rsm;twGuf toH;k 0ifaom vrf;!$ecf suEf pS cf u k dk xkwaf 0cJonf? pmapmifEpS cf rk mS 'Dru dk a&pDtoGiu f ;l ajymif;a&;umvtwGif a&G;aumufyGJowif;ay;ydk@ r_rsm;twGuf vrf;!$ecf surf sm; (1994) ESifh a&G;aumufyGJtpD&ifcpH mwifoiG ;f jcif; - rD', D mapmif=h unfah vhvmjcif;twGuf vufawG@ vrf;!$ecf suw f ck (1998) jzpfonf? ,if;pmapmifrsm;udk Article XIX .tifwmeufpmrsuEf mS http://www.article19.org wGif &&dES idk o f nf?

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odk@aomf yk*v ~ u d ydik rf 'D , D mESifh jynfoyl idk rf 'D , D mrsm;. usi0fh wfou d mQ udk xde;f csKyf&mwGif odoo d momuGJjym; jcm;em;aom jyXmef;csurf sm;&daS =umif; avhvmolrsm;u odxm;oifo h nf? yHEk ySd f od@k r[kwf tDvufxa&mepfenf; vnf;jzifh toH;k ðyaom jynfoyl ikd rf 'D , D mwGif rJqEN&iS rf sm;udk ormorwf ESihf bufvu kd rf u _ if;aom owif; tcsuf tvufay;&ef wm0ef&o Sd nf? jynfoyl ikd t f oHvi$ o fh rl sm; odk@r[kwf jynfoyl idk yf EkH ydS rf 'D , D m. oabmwl a=ujim pmwrf;rsm;ESi/hf od@k r[kwf Oya'rsm;wGif ,if;tcsuu f dk jyXmef;xm;avh&o Sd nf?tu,fI ,if;uJo h @kd jyXmef;xm;jcif; r&d[ S q k o kd nfw h ikd /f jynfoyl ikd rf 'D , D mrsm;onf r#r#wwqufq&H rnf[k (OSCE) . uwdu0wf (udak ya[*if oabmwlpmcsKyf/ tyd'k f (7) rsm;wGijf yXmef;xm;onf? ud, k pf m;vS,af vmif;rsm;onf tm%mydik rf sm;. wef;wl tcGit hf a&; ay;r_tay:wGif ,SOòf yifoif+h yD;/ rJq, G pf nf;±H;k r_ukd w&m;r#wr_&adS om ywf0ef;usif tajctae atmufwiG f ðyvkyEf ikd af tmif Edik if aH wmfr0l g'u vkyaf qmifay;&rnf[k oabmwl pmcsKyfuaz:jyxm;onf? ygwrD sm;ESifh ud, k pf m;vS,avmif;rsm;ta=umif;udk rD', D mu bufrvdu k af z:jy&rnf[al om &nf&, G cf sujf zifh a&G;aumufyGJrJq, G pf nf;±H;k r_umvtwGi;f yk*v d~ u d ydik rf 'D , D mrsm; rnfuo Jh @dk aqmif&u G &f rnfEiS yhf ufoufaom Oya' tcef;rsm;onf jynfwiG ;f Oya'wGiv f nf; yg0ifEikd o f nf? &Hzef&cH gqo kd vdk ,if;uJo h @kd aom pnf;rsO;f pnf;urf;rsm;onf yHEk ySd rf 'D , D m tay:wGiv f nf; owfa&mufr_ &dES ikd o f nf? od@k aomf ,if;uJo h @dk aom Oya'rsm;/ pnf;rsO;f pnf;urf;rsm; r&Syd gu yk*v ~d u d ykid rf 'D , D mrsm;onf bufrvdu k af om owif;tmabmfrsm; &d&S rnf[al om Edik if w H um owfrw S cf suf rsm; r&daS y? Oyrm Edik if aH &;ygww D ck.owif;pmonf ,if;Edik if aH &;ygwt D wGuf yvufazmif; ozG,f aqmif&u G af y; Edik rf nf[k ar#mv f ifEh ikd o f vd/k tjcm;aom yk*v ~ u d owif;pmrsm;onfvnf; wpHw k &maom ud, k pf m;vS,af vmif;rsm; od@k r[kwf ygwrD sm;udk axmufc&H efrmS usKd ;a=umif;qDavsmaf yonf? (c ) rD', D mapmif=h unfah vhvmjcif;. &nf&, G cf suf bufvdkurf _uif;aom rD'D,mapmif=h unfah vhvmjcif;. &nf&, G cf sufrmS  a&G;aumufyGJrJq, G u f mvtwGif; rD', D mvGwv f yfciG Ehf iS yhf wfoufaom vGwv f yfI/ ,H=k unfpw d cf s& avmufaom tuJjzwfcsuw f ckwifjyay;&ef?  a&G;aumufyGJrJq, G u f mvtwGif; r#wpGm rD', D mtoH;k ðyr_/ owif;az:jyr_EiS hf ywfoufaom vGwfvyfI/ ,H=k unfpw d cf s&avmufaom tuJjzwfcsuw f ck wifjyay;&ef?  rD'D,mtm; aESmuf,u S jf cif;/ +cdrf;ajcmufjcif;rsm;udk vlxkxo H kd@ today;&ef?  r#r#wwowif;ydk@aom tqift h wef;udk xde;f odr;f xm;atmifEiS hf t=urf;zufr_rsm;/ trke;f rsm;udk v_@H aqmfay;aom tmCmwpum;rsm;/tjcm;vkyaf qmifcsurf sm;rS a&SmifusOaf tmif owif;axmufrsm;/ t,f'w D mrsm;ESifh ydik &f iS frsm;udk wdu k w f Ge;f &ef/  Ekid if w H um pH!$e;f pHE_e;f rsm;ESifh udkun f rD &_ adS p&eftwGuf rD', D mOya'rsm;ESiphf nf;rsO;f pnf;urf;rsm;wGif taumif;bufodk@ajymif;vJrr_ sm;jzpfay:vmatmif pnf;&H;k vSKH @aqmf&ef? (* ) rD', D mtwGujf yXmef;axm;aom Oya'a&;&muef@owfcsuu f kd tuJjzwfjcif; rD'D,mapmif=h unfah vhvmjcif;rpwifcifwiG /f rD', D musihf0wfou d mQ tay:xde;f csKyfxm;aom oufqidk &f m Oya'rsm;/ pnf;rsO;f pnf;urf;rsm;udk jyefvnfppd pf=unf&h ef vdt k yfonf? rD', D mapmifh=unfah vhvmolrsm;onf apmif=h unfh avhvmr_n‡dEid_ ;f a&;ESihf ydik ;f jcm; oH;k oyfa&;tzGJ@wiG fyg0ifaom Oya't=uHay;rsm;ESihf yl;wGJ vkyaf qmifoiho f nf? jyefvnfppD pfjcif;wGif oufqidk &f mzGJ@pnf;yHt k ajccHOya'yg jyXmef;csufrsm;/ Oya'rsm; ESihf tm%mydik f tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;rS csrSwx f m;aom 79


qH;k jzwfcsufrsm; yg0ifoifo h nf? oufqidk &f m tm%mykid f tzGJ@tpnf;rsm; jzpfaom rD', D m pHEe_ ;f xde;f odr;f a&;tm%mydik f (Media Standards Authority)/ vkyif ef;vdik fpifxw k af y;aomtm%mydik f (licensing Authority)/ toHvid_ ;f toH;k ðycGicfh say;aom tm%mydik f (Frequency Licensing Authority) ponfh tm%mydik f tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;ESihf awG@qo Hk iho f nf? ,if;tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;onf rD', D mtay:wGif tm%mpuf}uD;}uD;rm;rm;&d=S u+yD;/ ‚wd@k .vkyif ef;wm0efrsm;ESihf tcef;u¾udk &Si;f &Si;f vif;vif; em;vnfxm;&ef ta&;}uD;onf? ‚wd@k . tcef;u¾ &Si;f vif;csuu f kd a&G;aumufyJG tjiif;yGm;r_rsm;Z,m; (tcef; 3 ESifh 4 udk &_yg) wGif xnfo h iG ;f +yD;/ rD', D m tjiif;yGm;r_rsm;udk Z,m;uGuw f iG f oD;oef@tkyfpt k jzpf rSww f rf;wifjcif;jzifh taxmuftuljzpfEkid o f nf? (C)toHvi$ rfh 'D , D mESifh yHEk ySd rf 'D , D mudk apmif=h unfah vhvmjcif; a&G;aumufyGJrpcif tenf;qH;k wv=udKI rD', D mapmif=h unfhavhvmjcif;udk tedrq hf ;kH tqifh pwif vkyu f ikd f oifo h nf? aemufq;Hk &v'frsm; xkwjf yefa=ujim+yD;onfEiS hf wòyifeuf ,if;vkyif ef;udk tqH;k owf&rnf jzpfonf? taumif;qH;k rSm a&G;aumufyGJpDrt H yk cf sKyfaf &;u a&G;aumufyGJrsm;twGuf pwifjyifqifonfEiS hf ,if;vkyif ef;udk apmEdik o f r# tapmqH;k pwifvkyaf qmifoih+f yD;/ a&G;aumufcH udkf,pf m;vS,rf sm;u w&m;0ifwm0efrsm; vufc&H ,lonfh tcsdef txd qufvuf vkyaf qmifoifhonf?apmih=f unfah vhvmjcif;rsm;udk a&G;aumufyJ+G yD;onfah emufyikd ;f rSmvnf; tem*wf rD'D,mbufvu dk rf u _ q dk ef@usiI f / rD', D mvGwv f yfciG hfrsm;twGuf vl@tzGJ@tpnf;wGif tjrJwrf;wnfjrJomG ; Edik af tmif qufvufvkyaf qmif Ekid o f nf? rD'D,mapmif=h unfah vhvmr_. yxrtqifrh mS rnfonfrh D', D mtrsK;d tpm;tm; apmih=f unft h uJjzwfoihfonfukd a&G;cs,&f ef jzpfonf? ,if;vkyif ef;tm; atmufygtcsufrsm;u tqH;k tjzwfay;ygonf? apmif=h unfah vhvma&;tzGJ@twGu&f &SEd idk af om b¾ma&;t&if;tjrpfEiS hf vly*k ~Kd vft&if;tjrpf/ vGecf aJh oma&G;aumufyGJrsm;twGi;f &&Scd aJh om rD', D maz:jyr_qikd &f m tawG@tñuHEiS t hf odtjrif usi;f yrnfah &G;aumufyGJ trsKd;tpm; - orwa&G;aumufyJ/G ygvDrefa&G;aumufyJG od@k r[kwf a'oEW& a&G;aumufyJ/G Ekid if t H 0Sr;f rD'D,m. zGJ@pnf;yHkEiS fh ydik q f idk fr/_ rwlnaD om rD', D mtrsK;d tpm;tvdu k f pmzwfo/l em;axmifol/=unf@&@_ olrsm;. trsK;d tpm;/ta&twGuf wd@k ESihf ywfoufY &&SEd idk af om ude;f *%ef;rsm;)/  rD'D,myHpk t H rsK;d ;rsK;d . ta&;ygyHkrsm;ESiyfh wfoufI &&SEd ikd af om jynfo@l oabmxm; tcsuftvufrsm;/  &kyjf rifo=H um;ESifh a&'D,dyk idk q f idk rf _EiS fh ywfoufaom owif;tcsuftvufEiS hf  vlenf;pk wdik ;f &if;om; ta&;aqmif&u G af eaom rD', D mtrsK;d tpm; ponfwkd@jzpfonf?

    

rnfonfrh D', D mtrsK;d tpm;udk apmif=h unhaf vhvmrnf[k a&G;cs,q f ;kH jzwf&mwGif t"dutcsufrmS a±G;cs,f rJqEN ay;&ef toH;k ðy&aom owif;tcsut f vuf &&d&S mae&mjzpfoifo h nf? xd@k a=umifh vltrsm;qH;k =unfah om &kyjf rifo=H um;tpDtpOf/ vlrsm;qH;k em;axmifaom a&'D,dktpDtpOf ESifh vlajymtrsm;qH;k owif;pmrsm;udk ypfrSwf xm;oifo h nf? (OSCE) a'otwGi;f wGif &kyjf rifo=H um;onf a&'D,kdEiS hf owif;pmrsm;xufydrk kdI xda&mufr& _ o Sd nf? OD;pm;ay; wcktjzpf

owif;aqmif;yg;rsm;ESifh tcsuftvufrsm;xkwfvi$ ahf y;aeaom Edik if aH wmfyikd f toHvi$ &hf rkH sm;udk apmih=f unft h uJjzwfoifo h nf? tb,fa=umifq h adk omf ‚wdk@wGif bufrvdu k &f [laom wm0ef&aSd eaoma=umifh jzpfonf? ae&mtESH@ odk@r[kwf vlO;D a&;awmfawmfrsm;rsm;xH v$ix fh w k fEidk af om tjcm; &kyjf rifo=H um;rsm;udkvnf; apmif=h unfh tuJjzwfoifo h nf? 80


“Edik if aH &;t& jy\em&dSEidk af om ae&mrsm;”[k wHqyd cf wfxm;aom a'otwGi;f &dS &kyjf rifo=H um;rsm;ESihf rD', D mrsm;udv k nf; xnfo h iG ;f oifo h nf? xdk@tjyif vlenf;pkrsm; ta&;aqmif&u G af eaom rD', D mrsm;udv k nf; apmih=f unft h uJjzwf&ef pOf;pm;oiho f nf? txl;ojzifh wdik ;f &if;om;vlenf;pkrsm;. tcGihf ta&;ESiyhf wfoufaomjy\em &Sad eygu odk@r[kwf emrnf=uD;aom ud, k fpm; vS,af vmif;rsm;/ ygwDrsm;onf wdik ;f &if;om; vlenf;pkrsm;rS vmonfqkdygu ‚wdk@uadk pmif=h unfah vhvm&ef pOf;pm;oifo h nf? rD'D,mapmih=f unfah vhvmjcif;onf uk, d pf m;vS,af vmif;rsm;/ Edik if aH &;ygwrD sm;/ a&G;aumufyJGprD t H kycf sKyfr_EiS hf tjcm;qufE, G &f m ta=umif;t&m;rsm; owif;az:jyr_. ta&twGuEf iS hf t&nftaoG;udv k nf; wdik ;f wmonf? apmih=f unfah vhvm&ef a&G;cs,fxm;aom tjcm;ywfouf&m ta=umif;t&mrsm; onf rJqEN&iS frsm;tay: =oZm v$r;f rd;k r_t&dq S ;Hk aom ta=umif;t&mrsm; jzpfoiho f nf? jynfwiG ;f avhvma&; tzGJ@wzGJ@onf rJqEN&iS rf sm;tay: oufa&mufr&_ adS om t"duta=umif;t&m od@k r[kwf udpP&yfrsm;udk pdwf0ifpm;Ekid fonf? ,if;ta=umif;t&mrsm;ESihf udp&P yfrsm;ukd az:jyjcif;onf bufvu dk frE_ iS fh udk,yf dik q f ifqmjzwfawmufjcif;. a&csed fukd owfrw S &f mwGif ta&;yg Edik o f nf? ygwDrsm; odk@r[kwf ud, k pf m;vS,rf sm;. tjrifrsm;udk tjcm;Edik if aH &;òyifbufrsm;u wdu k &f u kd af csyaom Edik if aH &; pum;ppfx;dk yGJrsm;. a&csdeu f t dk uJjzwf&efvnf; ta&;}uD; ygonf? qufE, G fr&_ adS om ta=umif;t&mrsm; ( · trSwt f om;jyxm;aom ta=umif;t&mrsm;onf qufE, G fr_ &Sd-r&Sd a&G;cs,&f ef jzpfonf) wGif yg0ifonfrsm;rSm atmufygwdk@jzpfonf?                  

orw orw.ajyma&;qdck iG &fh o dS l odk@r[kwf ajyma&;qdck iG &hf aSd om&H;k tpd;k & 0ef}uD;csKyf t"dutpd;k &0ef}uD;rsm; (tu,fI0ef}uD;tm;vH;k u a&G;aumufyJGwiG f yg0ifygu tm;vH;k udk qdv k dkonf?) Edik if aH &;ygwaD cgi;f aqmifrsm; Edik if aH &;ygwDrsm;ESifh xdyfwef;udk,pf m;vS,af vmif;rsm; a'oqdik &f m jynfe,ftkycf sKyfa&;rSL;rsm; · a&G;cs,cf x H m;&aom jrdK@awmf0efrsm; · a'oEW&tkycf sKyfa&;tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;. acgi;f aqmifrsm; · oydwaf rSmufxm;aom ygwDrsm; · (tu,fI &dyS gu) ajr‡mufx;dk yifah umf aoG;xd;k ay;aom pum;vH;k rsm; ESihf rke;f wD;a&;rdef@cGe;f · wdik ;f &if;om;vlenf;pkrsm; ESifh vlenf;pkbmompum;udk rD'D,mwGif toH;k ðyr_ · “rJq, G fpnf;±H;k r_ww d q f dwf (Campaign Silence)” umv · vlxo k abmxm;aumuf,jl cif; owif;ay;ydk@csufrsm;tay: pnf;rsO;f ue@o f wfr_rsm; · tca=u;aiGay;I ygwED iS fh ud, k fpm;vS,af vmif;a=umfjimjcif;· rJqEN&iS f ynmay;a&;v_y&f mS ;r_rsm; · jynfwiG ;f apmif=h unfah vhvma&;tzGJ@ ·

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rD'D,mapmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;onf Oya'ucGifðh yxm;avh&dSaom “tcrJh avvdi_ ;f xkwv f i$ chf sde”f ESihf tjcm;aom owif;ay;ydk@r_wdk@udk cGJcGJjcm;jcm;jrifoifo hf nf? ,if;udpEP iS yhf wfoufI apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;u atmufygtcsuf rsm;udk tuJjzwfoihfonf?  tcrJah vvdKS if;xkwv f i$ cfh sdefEiS fhywfoufaom Oya'jyXmef;csufrsm;udk av;pm;vdu k femjcif; &dS-r&dS?  avv_id ;f xkwv f i$ fhr_EiS fhywfoufaom “ owfrw S cf surf sm;onf” xkwv f i$ o hf t l m;vH;k twGuf wef;wlr_ &d-S r&dS (Oyrm xkwfvi$ afh omtcsdefwm)?  =unf&h o _ rl sm; =unf&h _Eikd af vmufaom xkwv f i$ chf sdeEf iS hf xkwv f i$ hfr_ypkH t H & xkwfvi$ chf jJh cif; &Sd-r&dS?  tcrJh avvdi_ ;f xkwv f i$ jfh cif;onf Edik if o H m;rsm;tm; a&G;cs,pf &m&Sdonfrsm;ESihf ywfoufI em;vnf oGm;atmif tusKd ;ðyEdik jf cif; &dS-r&d?S rD'D,mapmif=h unft h uJjzwfjcif;wGif toH;k ðyaom enf;pepfonf owif;tpDtpOf / owif;ay;ydk@rsm;wGif a&G;cs,f xm;aom ta=umif;t&mrsm;twGuf wifjyr_ t=udrt f a&twGufEiS fh t&nftaoG;udk pHpk rf;avhvmjcif; yifjzpfonf? TonfrSm ,if;xkwv f i$ fhrr_ sm;onf ormorwfus+yD;/ r#wr_&aSd om owif;axmufvyk if ef;. tajccH pnf;rsO;f pnf;urf;rsm;ESihf tjyeftvSeq f ufE, G fr_ &d-S r&dS pHkprf;avhvm&efjzpfonf? yHEk ySd frD', D mESifhywfoufI ta&twGuf cGJjcrf;avhvmjcif;onf a&G;cs,x f m;aom ta=umif;t&mwcktwGuf ay;aomae&mtus,t f 0ef;udk pwk&ef;pifwDrw D mjzifh wdik ;f wmjcif;jzpfonf? toHvi$ rhf 'D D,mwGif ta&twGuf qdik &f m apmif=h unfah vhvmjcif;onf uifr&m/zefom;rsufemS jyif wGifxu G af y:vmaom ta=umif;t&m. tcsed w f m odk@r[kwf a&'D,w kd iG f =um;vdu k &f aom tcsed w f mudk csed frw S ef m&Djzifw h ikd ;f wmjcif;jzpfonf? xd@k jyif wpfpkHwOD;u ol od@k r[kwf olrtm; az:jyoGm;jcif;/ odk@r[kwf ud;k um;oGm;jcif;. tcsed w f mudk wdik ;f wmjcif;vnf; yg0ifonf? owfrw S x f m;aomta=umif;t&mwckct k wGuf oH;k pGJaomtcsed w f mudk wkid ;f wmaepOf wcsed w f nf;rSmyif apmif=h unfh avhvmolrsm;onf ydI k eufeJodraf rG@aomjy\emrsm;udk xifxifay:ay:jzpfvmapEdik af om ta=umif;tcsurf sm; tm;vnf; wdik ;f wmEdik af o;onf? Oyrm tcsKd@ygwDrsm;. udk,pf m;vS,af vmif; od@k r[kwf ud, k fpm;ðyolrsm;onf t+rJvydk if/vlu, dk fwidk pf um;ajymvsuf avvdKS if;ay:wGif ay:vmwwf+yD; tjcm;olrsm;rSmrl ud;k um;cH&jcif; od@k r[kwf ‚wdk@. xkwjf yefcsufrsm;udk owif;a=ujimolu twdck sKyfI az:jyjcif;omcH&onf? &kyo f o H wif;tpDtpOfrsm;wGif tcsed w f idk ;f wmr_rsm;udk atmufygtwdik ;f xyfrH cGJpdwEf dik yf gonf?  oufqidk &f mta=umif;t&mESiyfh wfoufIaz:jyaom owif;aqmifyg;wcktwGuf pkpak ygi;f tcsdefpuUe@f (txufwiG f az:jyxm;onf)?  &kyjf rifo=H um;rsuEf mS jyifwiG f udk,pf m;vS,af vmif;wOD;/ ygww D ck xGuaf y:vm+yD;/ pum;ajymqdak om pkpak ygi;f tcsdefpuUef@?  ud, k pf m;vS,af vmif; odk@r[kwf ygwu D k, d pf m;ðyolwpfO;D . &kyfykH toHww d x f u G af y:vmonfh tcsed fpuUe@f (,if;wdik ;f wmr_rsm;udk ,cifwidk ;f wmr_rsm;ESifh Edi_ ;f ,SOaf omtcgwGif rwlnaD om ta=umif;t&mtrsK;d rsK;d udk rnfuo Jh dk@ yHak z:onfukd awG@&vdrfhrnf?)  &ky&f iS f odk@r[kwf "gwfyHkrygonfhwidk f udk,pf m;vS,f od@k r[kwf ygwDu, dk fpm;ðyol. toHudk =um;&aom tcsed f puUef@?  &kyo f v H i$ fhxw k frw _ iG f owif;trsKd;tpm;tvdu k ef &mcsxm;yHk tpDtpOf?

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t&nftaoG;qdik &f mqef;ppfavhvmr_onf owif;az:jyyHak voHukd tuJjzwfjcif;jzpfonf? txl;ojzifh ta=umif; t&m odk@r[kwf udp&P yfwckudk vdkvm;axmufco H nfo h abm od@k r[kwq f ef@usio f nfo h abm od@k r[kwf =um;ae oabmjzifh yHak z:xm;ovm;qdo k nfudk tuJjzwfjcif;jzpfonf? owif;az:jycsu. f wdusr_EiS hf v$r;f rd;k csKyfuikd v f o kd nfh oabm &d-S r&dS avhvmpHkprf;jcif;vnf;yg0ifonf? rSeu f efwu d sr_r&djS cif;ESihf v$r;f rd;k csKyfuidk jf cif; om"ursm;rSm ygww D ck odk@r[kwf udk,pf m;vS,af vmif;wOD;udk omap/tjcm;ygwD odk@r[kwf udk,pf m;vS,af vmif;rsm; udek mapvdak omoabmjzifh xifjrifcsuo f abmxm;aumufcjH cif;?  ygww D ck odk@r[kwf udk,pf m;vS,af vmif;wOD;ESihfywfoufaom xifjrifcsufrsm;tay: aumif;usKd ; od@k r [kwf qd;k usKd ;oufa&mufaprnfh owif;rsm;udk xdecf sex f m;jcif;?  oufaotaxmuftxm;r&Sad om owif;wyk'u f kd tjzpfrSet f jzpfwifjyjcif;?  owif;orm;wOD;u rdr. d xifjrifcsuf odk@r[kwf ygwD0ifwOD;.xifjrifcsuf odk@r[kwf yk*~vu d tudsK;pD; yGm;udk owif;tjzpf az:jyjcif;?  axhaigjh cif;/ taxmuftxm;rcdkiv f jkH cif;/pnf;rapmifjh cif; odk@r[kwf apmfum;jcif; oabmaqmifaom az:jycsurf sm;/ xifjrifcsufrsm; odk@r[kwf yHak z:csufrsm;udk toH;k ðyjcif;?  uifr&mt,ltqudk &nf&, G cf suf&&dS jdS zifh toH;k ðyjcif;/ Oyrm ygwD odk@r[kwf ud, k fpm;vS,af vmif;teD; rSmjcH&aH eaomvlxu k dk ,cif&o dS nfxuf ydkr}dk uD;onfhyaHk y:apjcif; od@k r[kwf ydak o;i,fonfhyakH y:apjcif;?  Ekid if aH &;t&0ifa&muf,OS òf yiforl sm;udk ydkI}uD;}uD;us,u f s,jf zpfomG ;atmif od@k r[kw/f ao;odro f mG ; atmif od@k r[kwf avSmifajymif&,farmp&mjzpfoGm;atmif "gwfyHk od@k r[kwf toHzefw;D csufrsm; toH;k ðyjcif;? rD'D,mapmif=h unfah vhvmjcif;wGif owif;tpDtpOfrsm;tjyif/ ud, k fpm;vS,af vmif;rsm;. pum;ppfx;kd yGJrsm;/ pum;0dik ;f aqG;aEG;cef;rsm;ESifh rsuaf rSmufa&;&mtpDtpOfrsm;udv k nf;xnfo h iG ;f Edkio f nf?ud, k fpm;vS,af vmif;rsm;. pum;ppfx;dk yGJrsm;udk ydik ;f jcm;oHk;oyf&mY udfk,pf m;vS,w f OD;csif;pDonf oabmwlxm;aom pnf;rsO;f rsm; atmufwiG f wef;wl&nfwq l ufqcH &H jcif; &dS -r&dS ESifh ‚ “pum;ppfx;kd yGJ pnf;rsO;f rsm;”ud, k Yf u a=umif;usKd ; qDavsmrf &_ Sd-r&dS tuJjzwf&ef&nfrSe;f xm;oiho f nf? pum;0dik ;f aqG;aEG;cef;rsm;ESihf rsufarSmufa&;&m tpDtpOfrsm;. &nf±, G cf suo f nfonf em;axmifoEl iS fh =unf@&o _ rl sm;tm; vufiif;jzpfysuaf eaom udp&P yfrsm;tay: twGi;f usustjrifEiS hf todynmay;&ef jzpfaoma=umif/h tpDtpOfwcktwGi;f wGif bufrvdu k af om tjrifwck ay;vdrhfrnfawmhr[kwaf y? odk@aomf tpDtpOf pD;&D;wckv;Hk ðcHvu dk v f #ifrl bufrvdkut f jrif usio hf ;kH onfh oabmaqmifoiho f nf? ,if;uJo h @kd aom tpDtpOfrsm;wGif ajr‡mufx;dk yifah umfvkyaf y;aom pum;vH;k rsm;ESifh tmCmwpum;rsm;udk aocsmpGm apmih=f unfah vhvmoifo h nf? yHEk ySd frD', D mwGif t,f'w D mhtmabmfrsm;/ acgi;f aqmifrsm;. oabmxm;tjrifrsm;/ay;pmrsm;udk owif;az:jy csufrsm;ESihf cGJjcm;owfrw S x f m;oifo h nf?yxrtrsKd;tpm;udk ydik ;f jcm;oH;k oyf=unfhygu pmapmifpmwrf;rsm; (ygww D ck odk@r[kwf ud, k pf mvS,af vmif;wOD;udk axmufc+H yD;/tjcm;olrsm;udq k ef@usifaom pmrsm;ESihf t,f'w D mhtmabmf rsm;) . bufvkdurf _ukd tusKd ;&S&d Sd rD;armif;xd;k jyEdik o f nf? taxGaxGowif;az:jycsufrsm;url ormorwfusatmif &nfpl;xm;oifo h nf? a&G;aumufyGJumvtwGi;f tpk;d & vkyaf qmifcsurf sm;ta=umif; owif;ay;yd@k jcif;onf cufcJaomjy\em wckay:ayguaf pygonf? tpd;k &. ta&;}uD;aom vkyaf qmifcsurf sm;ESihf oufqikd af om owif;tcsut f vufrsm;udk Edik if o H m;rsm;tm; rD', D mrsm;u ay;oihfygonf? od@k &mwGi, f if;uJo h dk@aom owif;ay;ydk@r_rsm;onf vuf&Sd tkycf sKyfaeaomygwD odk@r[kwf !$ef@aygi;f tpk;d &w&yf.today;pum;rsm;udk rJqEN&iS frsm;xH a&mufapjcif;tm;jzifh xdyk gwD odk@r[kwf xdt k pd;k &udk ododomom tusdK;jzpfxGe;f apygonf? tpd;k &ESio hf ufqikd af om owif; ay;yd@k csufrsm;udk 83


tuJjzwf&mwGif tm%mvuf&ySd *k ~Kd vfrsm;u ‚wdk@ jyefvnfta&G;cH&a&; pnf;&H;k v_@H aqmf&ef twGuf toH;k ðyaom “rl0g'qdik &f mxkwjf yefa=ujimcsufrsm;” ESihf “jynfov l x l t k a&; xkwjf yefa=ujimcsufrsm;” [lI taotcsmcGJjcm;owfrw S x f m;&rnf? “jynfov l x l t k a&; xkwjf yefa=u jimcsufrsm;” onf aumif;rGeaf om tpk;d &w&yf. wu,fwrf;w&m;r#waom ta=umif;jycsurf sm;a=umifh trSefwu,fvt kd yfaom t&mrsm;jzpfEikd f ygonf? Oyrm tpk;d &ude;f *%ef;rsm; xkwjf yefjcif;wdk@jzpfonf?tjcm; wbufYrl/a&G;aumufyJu G mvwcktwGi;f rSm tm%mvuf&dSygwD odk@r[kwf !Gef@aygi;f tpd;k &w&yfudk axmuf cHapa&;twGuf vlxkuq kd , G w f &m;a[m&mwGif “rl0g'qdik &f m xkwjf yefa=ujimcsufrsm;” udk toH;k ðyonf? ta&twGuEf iS fh t&nftaoG;qdik &f mtcsut f vufrsm;udk txl;ðyvkyx f m;aom apmih=f unfah &;yHkprH sm;wGif xnfo h iG ;f +yD;aemuf/tcsut f vufpak qmif;aom uGejf yLwm tcsut f vufb%fxJokd@ xnfo h iG ;f &rnf? xdkrw S qifh tvG,w f ul zwf&E_ dik af om wifjyr_rsm;jzpfonfh a'giv f u kd fZ,m;rsm; ESifh puf0ikd ;f yHZk ,m;rsm; tjzpfo@kd xyfqifh ajymif;vJEidk o f nf? rSww f rf;wifxm;aom tcsut f vufrsm;/ wdwaf cGrsm;ESihf owif;pmrsm;udk rSww f rf; odr;f qnf;&mXmersm;wGif odr;f qnf;oiho f nf? tu,fI &v'frsm;tay: ar;cGe;f xkwfp&mrsm; &dv S mygu aemifwiG f jyefvnfppfaq;wdu k =f unfEh dki&f ef twGuf jzpfonf? pepfwustaumiftxnfaz:+yD;/ rSeu f efwu d spGm wifjyEdik yf gu/ ta&twGuEf iS hf t&nftaoG; qef;ppfavhvm csufrsm;onf oufqidk o f lrsm;tm;vH;k tm; ‚wdk@.tjrifrsm;udk wifjyEdik cf iG hf ay;&mwGif rD', D mrsm;u wef;wlnrD #pGm az:jyay;jcif; &S-d &dS ESihf ywfoufI cdik frmaom taxmuftxm;jzpfEdik yf gonf? owif;tpD tpOfrsm;udk ta&twGuEf iS t hf &nftaoG;t& apmif=h unfah vhvmr_rsm;rSay:xGuv f maom erlemZ,m; wckukd atmufwiG f az:jyxm;onf?TerlemZ,m;wGif Edik if aH wmfyidk f &kyjf rifo=H um;vdik ;f wvdik ;f u tm%mvuf&o dS rwudk rsufEmS ay; aomtm;jzifh t=uD;tus,b f ufvu dk af z:jyxm;a=umif;awG@&ygonf?

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(i) tca=u;aiGay;&aom Edik if aH &;a=ujimrsm;ESihf rJqEN&iS f ynmay;a&;vk ynmay;a&;vkyif ef;rsm;udk apmif=h unfavhvmjcif mjc ; tca=u;aiGay;a&aom Edik if aH &;a=umfjimrsm;udk apmif=h unft h uJjzwfjcif;onf tusdK;&do S nf? od@k aomf tcsed u f ek f onf? a=umfjimrsm;onf (Oya'ucGifðh yygu) wae@v;Hk tcsdefra&G; vmEdkiaf oma=umifh tDvufxa&mepf rD'D , D mrsm;udk tqufrjywf apmih=f unft h uJjzwf&ef vdt k yfonf? a=ujimrsm;. ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk ydik ;f jcm; oH;k oyfjcif;tm;jzifh rnfoludk t"duypfrw S x f m; wdu k cf u kd af eonf/ ajrSmufxd;k yifah umpum; od@k r[kwf tmCmwpum;rsm; toH;k ðyjcif;&d-S r&dS ESihf rsm;ajrmifvaS om ud, k fpm;vS,af vmif;rsm; odk@r[kwf ygwDrsm;. t"du trSmpum;rsm;udk awG@&dSEikd fygvdrhfrnf? xdk@jyiftca=u;aiGay;xm;aom a=umfjim. t&nftaoG;ESihf ywfoufI ,H=k unf&aom owif;tcsut f vufrsm;udkvnf; &&SEd idk yf gonf? xdkraS eI/ aiGa=u;rnfr# oH;k pGcJ Jhonfuv kd nf; cef@rSe;f &&dES ikd o f nf? (rJq, G pf nf;±H;k r_b¾maiGa=u; udak pmif=h unfah vhvmjcif;tcef;rSm &_yg?)

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tu,fI a&G;aumufyGJqidk &f mvkyif ef;pOfEiS fh ta&G;cs,cf rH nfh tzGJ@tpnf;. tcef;u¾ESihf vkyif ef;pOfrsm;udk od&rSd _ tm;enf;ygu jynfwiG ;f avhvma&;tpktzGJ@wzGJ@onf rJqEN&iS yf nmay;tpDtpOfESihf jynfol@owif; jzef@jzL;a&; tpDtpOfrsm;udk apmih=f unft h uJjzwf&ef qH;k jzwfaumif; qH;k jzwfEidk o f nf? tu,fI rJqEN&iS pf m&if; jy\em od@k r[kwf yl;aygi;f yg0ifaqmif&u G fr_ tm;enf;aomjy\em&Sad eygu ta&;}uD;ae+yD[k aumufcsuf csEidk fonf? rJqEN&iS yf nmay;a&;ESihf jynfol@owif;jzef@jzL;a&; tpDtpOfrsm;onf vlenf;pkwikd ;f &if;om;rsm;twGuf jzef@jzL;ay;aom owif;tqifEh iS hf ywfoufI toH;k 0ifaom todynmrsm; yHyh ;dk ay;Edik o f nf? Oyrm owif;tcsuf tvufrsm;ukd wdik ;f &if;om; bmompum;rsm;jzifh a&;om;xm;jcif; &S-d r&dS ESifh bufvu dk rf &_ adS om ta=umif;t&m rsm; yg0ifjcif; &Sd-r&dS ponfwkd@jzpfonf?

(p) rD', D mESio fh wif;axmufrsm;tay: +cdr;f acsmufjcif;udk apmih=f unfah vvmjcif; jynfwiG ;f avhvma&;tpktzGJ@onf owif;axmufrsm;ESifh rD', D mtzGJ@tpnf;rsm;rS udk,pf m;vS,rf sm;udk tquftoG,ðf yvkyI f rD', D mapmih=f unft h uJjzwfjcif;tm; rnfuo Jh @dk vyk q f mifaeonfukd &Siv f if;jy&ef yHrk Seaf wG@qHk oihfonf? xdk@tjyif wdik ;f jynftwGi;f rD', D m ydik q f ikd frE_ iS fh zGJ@pnf;yHt k a=umif; em;vnfvmap&ef ESihf ñuHawG@ae&aom zdtm;/ od@k r[kwf aESmuf,u S fr_rsm;udk pHpk rf;&ef twGuv f nf; jzpfonf? yHrk eS f aESmifh,u S w f ufaom yHpk Hrsm;rSm ud, k fwikd q f ifqmjzwfcikd ;f jcif;/ t=urf;zufjcif; odk@r[kwf wdu k &f u kd u f saom Edik if aH &; zdESyd fr_ rSonf rw&m;ojzifh tcGepf pfaq;jcif;/ vkyfyidk cf iG v hf ikd fpiftjiif;yGm;r_EiS fh owif;pmuke=f urf; &&daS &; aESmuf,Sujf cif;ESihf jzef@csaD &;wGif aESmih, f u S jf cif;paom oG,f0u kd I f aESmif, h Suaf om yHpk HrsKd;txd &do S nf? jynfwiG ;f avhvma&;tzGJ@u aESmif, h u S fr_EiS fhywfoufaom pGyfpGJcsufrsm;udk rSeu f efjcif;&d-S r&dS apmif=h unfah vhvm &rnft h jyif ESihf wduspGm rSww f rf;wifxm;&rnf? jzpf&yfwckcsi;f udk aocsmpGm a&;rSwx f m;+yD;/ apmif=h unfh avhvmoGm;&rnf jzpfonf? aESmif, h u S fr_pGypf GJcsufrsm;onf aemufq;Hk wGif rD', D mtzGJ@tpnf;rsm; od@k r[kwf owif;axmufrsm;u Oya'a=umif;t& wdik ;f wef;onft h jzpftxd a&mufomG ;wwfonf? xdu k Jo h @kd aom jzpf&yf rsK;d wGi/f ,if; tjiif;yGm;r_ukd tjcm;aom a&G;aumufyGJqidk &f mtjiif;yGm;r_rsm;uJo h kd@yif apmif=h unfah vhvmoiho f nf? (tcef; 4 udk &_yg)

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10? rJay;jcif; ESifh rJa&wGujf cif;udk apmif-h unfah vhvmjcif; u? rJay;jcif; ESifh rJa&wGufyu Hk dk apmif=h unfah vhvmjcif;? c? pifòyif rJ-Z,m;oGi;f jcif;?

 ðyvky&f rnfh avhvmr_rsm;. obm0ESihf twdik ;f twmudk qH;k jzwfjcif;?  a&G;aumufyGJvyk fx;Hk vkyfenf;rsm;/ tpD&ifcHpmyHkpHrsm;/ usi0hf wf*k%o f u d mQ rsm;ESihfywfoufIavhvmol rsm;tm; avhusiafh y;jcif;?  avhvmolrsm;tm; tqift h m;vH;k wGif taxmuftyHEh iS hf enf;pepfrsm; tjynft h 0ay;jcif;?  aumif;rGeaf om qifu h JtpD&ifcrH _wck wnfaxmifjcif;?  tpD&ifcpH myHkpHrsm; tcsdefrjSD yefvnfay;ydk@jcif;ESihf ydik ;f jcm;oH;k oyfjcif;?

86


tajccdik af eaom jynfwiG ;f avhvma&;tzGJ@widk ;f eD;yg;onf rJay;jcif;ESihf rJa&wGujf cif;udk apmif=h unfah vhvm&ef óu;yrf; tm;xkwjf rJjzpfonf? odk@aomf rJ&aHk vhvma&; apwemh0efxrf;axmifEiS chf sDI pkqnf;&jcif;onf a'owGi;f ESihf wEdik if v H ;Hk twdik ;f twmtwGuf vlom;t&if;tjrpf ajrmufrsm;pGm oH;k pGJ&onf? wcgw&HwiG f tjcm;avhvma&; vkyif ef;rsm;udt k xdcu dk cf I H toH;k ðy&onf? xdk@a=umifh jynfwiG ;f avhvma&;tzGJ@wcktaeESihf a&G;aumufyJaG e@wGif rnfonft h &mudk avhvmrnfESifh xdt k a=umif;t&mudk rnfuJho@kd taumif;qH;k jzpfatmif avhvmrnfukd &Si;f &Si;f vif;vif; odxm;oifo hf nf? atmufaz:jyygar;cGe;f rsm;udk apmEdik for#tapmqH;k pOf;pm;xm;oifo h nf? taumif;qH;k rSm avhvma&;vkyif ef;pOf (needs assessment) vkyaf qmifaepOftwGi;f pOf;pm;oiho f nf?

vdt k yfcsufrsm;pHkprf;

 avhvmolrsm;udk rJay;Xme(rJ±)Hk wdik ;f wGif xm;oifhvm; odk@r[kwf rJ&kHrsm;teuf usyrf;a±G;cs,x f m;aom pHerlemrJ&;Hk rsm;wGio f m xm;oihfygvm;?  wae@v;Hk rJay;jcif;ESifh rJa&wGujf cif;udk apmif=h unfah vhvm&eftwGuf avhvmolrsm;udk rJ&w kH &Hw k iG f xm;oifyh govm;?  rJ&aHk wmfawmfrsm;rsm;wGif rJay;jcif;udk avhvm&eftwGuf avhvmolrsm;udk “t&Si”f xm;oifyh govm;?  “tao” xdik frnfh avhvmolrsm;udk Edik if aH &;t&jy\em&SEd ikd af om rJ&t kH m;vH;k wGif ae&mcsxm;oihyf g ovm;?  rJ&w Hk idk ;f rS &v'frsm;udk apmif=h unfah vhvmjcif;/ rSww f rf;wifjcif; ðyvky&f ef &nf&, G o f ifhygovm;?  usyrf;a±G;cs,x f m;aompHerlemrJ&t Hk csKd@rS &v'frsm;udo fk m apmif=h unfah vhvmjcif;/rSwfwrf;wifjcif;ðy&ef &nf&, G o f ifyh gvm;?  rnfonfh vlom;t&if;tjrpfEiS fh b¾ma&; t&if;tjrpfrsm; &&dES dkiyf goenf;?  rJay;jcif;rpwifcifumv&Snt f wGi;f toH;k ðyaom t&if;tjrpfrsm;ESihf rJay;aomae@twGuf apmif=h unfh avhvmolrsm; pkaqmif;jcif;/oifwef;ay;jcif;twGuf toH;k ðyaom t&if;tjrpfwd@k .rSeu f efaomtcsK;d tpm;onf tb,fenf;?

“tao”

(u) rJay;jcif; ESifh rJa&wGuyf u Hk dk apmif=h unfh avhvmjcif; taumif;qH;k yHpk w H ckrmS avhvmolrsm;onf rJay;aecsed Ef iS fh rJa&wGucf sdew f iG f tzGJ@ (2) zGJ@cJGI vkyaf qmifoiho f nf? vHðk cHa&;twGuv f nf; jzpf+yD;/ aemuftcsufrmS vkyif ef;twlwuGvkyaf qmifaeaom avhvma&;tzGJ@ (2) zGJ@onf wzGJ@.avhvmr_rsm;udk wzGJ@u jyefvnfppfaq;jcif;/ Ed_i;f ,SOjf cif;ðyI &aoma=umifh jzpfonf? od@k aomfvnf; t&if;tjrpfjy\ema=umifh jynfwiG ;f apmif=h unfah vhvma&;ktzGJ@wzGJ@taeESi/hf apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;udk wOD;csi;f csxm;&ef qH;k jzwfp&m&So d nf? avhvmolrsm;onf ‚wdk@.apmif=h unfah vhvma&;wm0efrsm;udk rxrf;aqmifcifwiG f tjynfht0 jyifqifxm;oihf onf? txl;ojzifh ‚wdk@onf oifwef;tpDtpOfrsm;udk wufa&mufoif+h yD;/ a&G;aumufyJOG ya'rsm;/ jznfph u G f pnf;rsO;f pnf;urf;rsm;udk odxm;oifo h nf? xkd@tjyif jynfwiG ;f avhvma&;tzGJ@u a&;qGJxm;aom apmif=h unfh avhvma&; tpD&ifcpH myHkpu H dk rnfodk@jznfph GuI f / jyefvnfay;ydk@&rnfukd od&x Sd m;oifo h nf? ‚wd@k onf usi0hf wf *k%o f u d mQ rsm;udk av;pm;vdu k ef mygrnf[k oabmwl&efrmS rvkyrf jzpf tvkyw f pfcjk zpfonf? rdrdw@kd apmif=h unfh avhvm&rnfh e,fajrESiv hf nf; tu|r;f w0if&&Sd rnft h jyif/ rJ&aHk e&mrsm;ESifhrJa&wGufrnfh ae&mrsm;udv k nf; od&x Sd m;oifhonf? 87


tu,fI avhvmolrsm;udk rJ&w Hk ±HkwiG o f m ae&mcsxm;ygu/ ‚wd@k onf rJay;jcif;jzpfpOfwav#mufv;kH rJ±kH rSm&Sad e&rnfjzpf+yD;/tu,fI xdrk J&w Hk iG f rJa&wGufygu rJa&wGujf cif;+yD;onftxd rJ&w kH Gif &daS e&rnf? tu,fI avhvmolrsm;onf a&$@ajymif;vkyu f idk &f aom tzGJ@wGiyf g&ySd gu/‚wd@k 0ifa&mufavhvmaom rJ&w kH ikd ;f wGif tenf;qH;k / rD;epf oH;k q,f=um avhvmoihfonf? apmif=h unfah vhvmjcif;tzdk@ta&;}uD;onfrmS ta&twGuf r[kwf t&nf taoG;om jzpfonf? rJ&w Hk &HkwiG f a&wGujf cif; +yD;ajrmufygu avhvmolrsm;onf rJ&v'frSww f rf; rdwLW wpHkukd t&,lxm;+yD;v#i/f &v'fpm±Gupf mwrf;rsm; rJqENv$mrsm;ESihf rJay;&mwGit f oH;k ðyaom tjcm;ypPn;f rsm; udk rJ-Z,m;oGi;f Xmeodk@ ydk@&mwGiv f dkuyf g&rnf? avhvmolrsm;onf tcgcyford ;f rSm ormorwfusaompdwu f kd ESv;kH oGi;f xm;oifo h nf?Edik if aH &;ygwDrsm;/ ud, k f pm;vS,af vmif;rsm;/ tm%mydkirf sm;ESiyfh wfoufIvnf;aumif;/ a&G;aumufyJEG iS hf qufEG,af om udp&P yfwpHw k ck ta=umif; ajymqdjk cif;wGiv f nf;aumif;/ bufvdkujf cif; od@k r[kwf rdrdtóuufuakd z:jyajymqdjk cif;rsm; rnfonft h cgr# rðyvky&f ? wbufbufudk tm;ay;axmufc&H ma&mufaom trSwt f om;rsm;/ od@k r[kwf ta&mifrsm; 0wfqifjcif; rðyoihaf y? avhvmolrsm;onf ‚wdk@. wm0efrsm;udk ±d;k ±d;k ukyfuyk f vkyaf qmifoih+f yD;/a&G;aumufyJG vkyif ef;pOf. rnfonft h cef;u¾udkrS 0ifa&muf rpGufzufoifhay?tu,fI pnf;rsO;f pnf;urf;ESihf rudu k n f o D nfw@kd ukd awG@&dSygu/ rJ&w Hk m0ef&dSorl sm;xHodk@today;oih+f yD;/rnfonft h cgr# !$e=f um;csuaf y;jcif; od@k r[kwf rJ&w kH m0ef&o dS lrsm;. qH;k jzwf csuu f kd y,fzsujf cif;rsm; rðyvkyo f ihaf y?aumufcsuq f JGr_rsm;tm;vH;k onf aumif;rGefpmG rSww f rf;wifxm;aom/ tcsut f vuft&jynfpaHk om/ cdkiv f akH om taxmuftxm;rsm;tay:wGio f m tajccHoiho f nf? apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;onf rdrdwdk@.wm0efrsm;udk xrf;aqmifaeaom tcsed w f ikd ;f wGif ,Ofaus;odraf rG@oihfonf? rdrdwdk@onf apmif=h unfah vhvma&;vkyif ef;tpDtpOftwGuf wm0ef,x l m;aom jynfwiG ;f apmifh =unfah vhvma&; tzGJ@udk ud, k pf m;ðyaea=umif; trSw&f oifo h nf? rJ&o kH @kd 0ifa&mufaomtcgwiG f rJ&OkH uUX ESihf tjcm;rJ&w kH m0ef&o Sd l rsm;xHwiG f ud, k u fh u dk , dk f rdwq f ufyg? rJ&0Hk efxrf;rsm;tjyif/ avhvmolrsm;onf ygwDrsm; od@k r[kwf ud, k fpm;vS,f rsm;udk ud, k pf m;ðya&muf&adS eaom avhvmolrsm;/ Edik if w H umavhvmolrsm;ESihf rdwq f ufoifo h nf? tu,fI rJqEN&iS frsm;ud, k fwikd f rdrdwdk@.,H=k unfpdwcf sru _ dk tuJjzwf&efEiS fh pnf;urf;csKd; azmufr_owif;rsm;udk em;qif&ef a&muf&aSd eygu xdo k rl sm;tm;vH;k ESihf rdwq f ufoiho f nf? ,H=k unfpw d cf s&avmufaom tjrifoabmxm;rsm;tm;vH;k udk xnfo h iG ;f pOf;pm;oihfonf? tcsKd@aomolrsm;onf ‚wdk@.ud, k u f sdK;twGuf owif;tcsut f vufrsm;udk vdkovdt k oH;k csEdik af tmif óupm;wwf=ua=umif; avhvmolrsm; owdcsyfoiho f nf? xkd@a=umifh tajctaewckEiS hfywfoufI bufvu kd fru _ if;pGm tuJjzwfEikd f a&;twGuf rdrd.ud, k yf idk q f ;Hk jzwfcsufuo dk m toH;k ðyoiho f nf? jzpfEkid yf gu/ tkypf kwpfpkpDrS vltrsKd;tpm;aygi;f pHkEiS fh pum;ajymqdo k iho f nf? rJay;jcif;ESifhrJa&wGujf cif;vkyif ef;pOfudk avhvm&mwGif atmufaz:jyyg udp&P yfrsm;udk xnfo h iG ;f pOf;pm;oifo h nf?

rJ&yHk wf0ef;usif  rJ&o Hk nf &SmazG&vG,u f yl govm;?  rJ&o Hk t dk oGm;& cufygovm;? 88


 rJ&t Hk wGi;f okd@r[kwf tjyif odk@r[kwf ywf0ef;usiw f iG f rJqG,yf JGypPn;f rsm;/ od@k r[kwf rJq, G fvy_ &f Sm;r_ vuQ%mrsm; &daS eygovm;?  +cdr;f acsmufjcif;/ vmbfay;jcif; odk@r[kwf aESmif, h u S jf cif;ESihfywfoufaom wpHw k &m taxmuftxm; &dyS govm;?  rJ&w Hk iG f wm0efEiS hfroufqdik af omolrsm; &daS eygovm;?  vHðk cHa&;wm0ef&o dS rl sm;onf roihaf vsmaf omtðytrlrsm; ðyvkyaf eygovm;? H rsK;d rsK;d jzifh rJay;&ef rufv;kH rsm; ay;aeygovm;?  rJqEN&iS frsm;tm; tm%mvuf&Sdy*k ~Kd vfrsm;u yHkpw

a&G;aumufyGJ t&m&Srd sm;  rJ&t Hk &m&Srd sm;onf aocsmpGmavhusiafh y;xm;+yD;/ rJay;jcif;/ rJa&wGujf cif;vkyx f ;kH vkyfenf;rsm;ESihf tu|r;f w0if&ySd aHk y:ygovm;?  rJ&t Hk &m&Srd sm;onf ‚wdk@. wm0efrsm;ta=umif; vGwv f yfpmG ajymqdck iG &hf ydS akH y:ygovm;?  ‚wdk@. wm0efrsm;udk ormorwfuspGm xrf;aqmifygovm;?  cef@tyfxm;aom 0efxrf;tm;vH;k a&muf&ydS govm; odk@r[kwf wpHw k pfO;D onf rJ&akH umfr&Siw f iG f  xrf;aqmifjcif;rS wm;jrpfjcif; cHxm;&ovm;?

&ky0f xˆKypPn;f rsm;    

rJ&yHk pPn;f rsm; tvHt k avmuf&dSygovm;? rJ&yHk pPn;f rsm;udk o,f,lydk@aqmif+yD;aemuf rJ&HkrzGihfr=D um;umvwGif vkðH cHpmG xdr;f odr;f xm;ygovm;? rJy;Hk rsm;udk rJ&t Hk &m&Sdrsm; twdik ;f om;jrifae&aomae&mwGif xm;ygovm;? rJqENvm$ rsm;onf toH;k ðy&efvG,u f yl govm;? ueOD;wGif rJ&u kH rJqENvm$ rnfr# vufc&H &dcS Jhygoenf;?

rJqEN&iS pf m&if;  rJqEN&iS fpm&if;wGif rJqEN&iS rf nfr#yg&o dS enf;? trSew f u,frJqENay;+yD;olrnfr# &So d enf;? (,if;tcsuf onf rJqENay;jcif;.tvm;tvmudk rSe;f q=unf&h mY axmuftuljzpfapEdik o f nf?  rJqEN&iS fpm&if;rS rJay;cGi&fh o Sd t l ajrmuftrsm; z,fxw k cf x H m;&yHak y:aeygovm;?  rJqEN&iS fpm&if;wGif trnfrsm; rsm;vGe;f aeyHak y:ygovm;?  rJqEN&iS frsm;onf a&G;aumufyGJ{&d,mtwGi;f aexkid forl sm; jzpf[ef&Sdygovm;?

rJqEN qENay;jcif;qdik &f m vkyx f ;Hk vkyef nf;rsm;    

rJy;Hk onf vHðk cHa&;twGupf w d cf s&ygovm;? rJqEN&iS fonf rJray;cifwiG f rSwfyw Hk ifjyo&ef vdt k yfygovm;? rJqENvm$ rsm;udk rJqEN&iS rf sm;xHodk@ aoaocsmcsm/ vHv k ðHk cHðcH xkwaf y;ygovm;? rJqENvm$ rsm;wGif oufqidk &f mrJ&Hkwq H yd w f ;Hk ±du k fEdSyx f m;jcif;ESihf /odk@r[kwf rJ&t kH &m&Sd (rsm;). vufrw S f a&;xd;k xm;jcif;&dyS govm;? 89


rJay;cGi&fh o Sd lrsm;udk rJay;cGiðfh yygovm;? rJay;cGifhr&do S l wpHkwOD;tm; rJay;&ef cGiðfh yygovm;? rJay;onft h cef;tjyifwiG f w&m;r0ifrJay;aeol rJqEN&iS frsm; &dyS govm;? rdom;pktvdu k frJay;jcif; (rJay;aomtcef;twGi;f wGif wpfO;D xufru&daS ejcif;) udk cGiðhf yygovm;? rJqEN&iS frsm;tm; tcGi&fh o Sd nfxufyI dk rJqENv$mrsm;ay;ygovm;? rJy;Hk ydwq f dk@aeonfqadk om taxmuftxm;&dyS govm;? rJqENay;jcif; vkyfx;Hk vkyef nf;rsm;udk rJqEN&iS rf sm;od&ySd Hk ay:ygovm;? tultnDvadk om rJqEN&iS rf sm;udk aumif;rGefpmG ulnDygovm;? rJay;jcif;vkyif ef;pOfudk pDrt H yk cf sKyf&mwGif tvGet f rif;tcsde=f uef@=umr_ &dyS govm;? Hk &m&Srd sm;u aumif;rGefpmG pDrt H kyfcsKyfygovm;? rJqENay;jcif;vkyif ef;pOfudk rJ&t ygwDrsm; odk@r[kwf ud, k pf m;vS,af vmif;rsm;. at;*sirhf sm; odk@r[kwf vufaxmufrsm;tm; rJay;jcif;/ rJa&wGujf cif;wdk@udk avhvm&ef Oya'ESit fh nD cGiðhf yygovm;?  at;*sirfh sm; odk@r[kwf vufaxmufrsm;onf +cdr;f ajcmufjcif; odk@r[kwf aESmuf,u S jf cif;rsm; cH&yg ovm;?  at;*sirfh sm; odk@r[kwf vufaxmufrsm;onf a&G;aumufyJv G yk if ef;pOfwiG f 0ifa&mufpu G zf uf&ef tm; xkwjf cif;/ odk@r[kwf ud, k x f v d ufa&muf pGuzf ufjcif;ðyygovm;? od@k r[kwf ygww D ck od@k r[kwf ud, k f pm;vS,af vmif;wOD;tm; rJay;atmif rJqEN&iS rf sm;udk qGJaqmif&ef/ +cdr;f acsmuf&ef tm;xkwjf cif; od@k r [kw/f ud, k x f v d ufa&muf qGJaqmifjcif;/ +cdr;f acsmufjcif;ðyygovm;?           

xl;jcm;aomenf;jzifh rJqENay;r_rsm;udk txl;*&kðyoifo h nf? xl;jcm;aomrJqENay;r_wiG f óuwifrJay;jcif;/ a&G@ajymif;rJ ay;jcif; ESifh ppfom;rsm;/ tusO;f om;rsm;ESifh aq;&Hw k ufaeaom vlemrsm;rJay;jcif;wk@d yg0ifonf?  óuwifrJay;jcif;wGif pnf;rsO;f pnf;urf;/ vHðk cHa&; ESihf yGiv hf if;jrifomr_ tjynft h 0 &dSygovm;?  a&G@ajymif;rJy;Hk rsm;udk Oya'ESiafh vsmn f pD Gm toH;k ðyygovm;?  tu,fI usef;rma&;raumif;ol ESifh ouf}uD;&G,t f kdrJqEN&iS frsm;twGuf tdrfwiG f rJay;aom aemuf qufwGJrJqEN&iS pf m&if;udk toH;ðk yygu ,if;pm&if;xJrmS trnfrsm; xl;xl;uJuJrsm;aeygovm;?  tod&&Sd aSd &G;cs,rf ð_ yvkyfEidk &f eftwGuf ppfom;rsm;/ tusO;f om;rsm; ESiahf q;&Hw k ufvlemrsm;tm; vHk avmufaom rJq, G fpnf;±H;k r_ taxmuftxm;rsm; axmufyahH y;jcif; &dyS govm;?  ppfom;rsm;/ tusO;f om;rsm;/aq;±Hw k ufvlemrsm;twGuf xl;jcm;aomenf;jzifhrJqENay;olrsm; rSwyf w kH ijfcif; tpDtpOfrsm; &Syd govm;?  ppfom;rsm;/ tusO;f om;rsm; odk@r[kwf aq;&Hw k ufvlemrsm; v#dK@0SufrJyH;k wGif rJay;&mY/ +cdr;f ajcmufr_ t EW&m,fru S if;a0;ap&ef vHak vmufaom Oya'rsm; csrSwx f m;+yD;ygovm;?  ppfom;rsm;onf ‚wdk@. t&m&drS sm;a&S@wiG f rJay;&efpnf;urf;xkwx f m;ygovm;?  t&m&drS sm;onf ppfom;rsm;tm; rnfodk@rJay;&rnfukd !$e=f um;ygovm;?

rJa&wGujf cif; vkyx f ;Hk vkyef nf; fh if;jrifompGm aqmif&u G yf govm;?  rJa&wGujf cif;udk yGiv  rJa&wGujf cif;udk avhvmolrsm;/ at;*sirfh sm;/ ygwDrsm;/ udk,pf m;vS,af vmif;rsm;. vufaxmufrsm; tm;vH;k =unf&h E_ ikd fygovm;? 90


 rJqEN&iS frw S fyw Hk ifpm&if;teuf rJqENay;+yD;a=umif;rSww f rf;wifxm;aom ta&twGuEf iS hf vufawG@rJ ay;aom rJta&twGuf rnfuJhodk@ uGmjcm;oenf;?  rJrsm;udk tpDtpOfwus/ vHðk cHpmG a&wGuyf govm;?  rJa&wGu+f yD;aomtcg toH;k rðyaom rJrsm;tm; vHðk cHpmG xm; &djS cif;/ y,fzsujf cif; od@k r[kwf zsuq f ;D jcif;ðyygovm;?  rJqENvm$ tay:wGif a&G;aumufyGJt&m&drS sm;u trSwt f om;vkyjf cif; odk@r[kwf rSwcf suaf &;jcif; ðy xm;ygovm;?  w&m;r0ifaom rJqENvm$ rsm;udk rSefreS u f efuef ppfaq;jcif;/ tjcm;rJqENvm$ rsm;ESihf oD;jcm;xm;jcif; ðyygovm;?  w&m;r0ifrJqENvm$ rsm; rwefwqrsm;jym;aeygovm;?  wkid w f ef;csurf sm;udk oifah vsmpf mG ajz&Si;f ay;ygovm;?  at;*sirfh sm; odk@r[kwf vufaxmufrsm;onf rJa&wGujf cif;wGif pGufzuf&ef óu;yrf;jcif; odk@r[kwf ud, k x f v d ufa&muf pGufzufjcif;rsm; &dSygovm;?  rJa&wGu&f mY wm0efEiS rfh oufqidk o f rl sm; &daS eygovm;? &daS eygu vkyif ef;pOfwiG f ‚wdk@onf rnfonft h cef;u¾rS yg0ifaeygoenf;?

qmifjf cif; &v'frsm; t+yD;owfjcif; ESifh o,f,yl dk@aqmi  rJa&wGu+f yD;csdew f iG f &v'frSww f rf; rsm;udk rSeu f efpmG a&;om;+yD; / wm0ef&o Sd t l m;vH;k u vufrw S fx;kd yg ovm;?  rJa&wGu+f yD;csed w f iG f avhvmolrsm;/ ygwDEiS fh ud, k fpm;vS,af vmif;rsm;. at;*sirhf sm;ESiv hf ufaxmuf rsm;onf &v'frw S fwrf; rdwLW rsm; &&dyS govm;?  &v'frsm;udk vlo&d iS =f um; a=ujimygovm;? &v'frw S w f rf;rdwLW udk trsm;jrifatmifjyoxm;ygovm;?  a&G;aumufyGJpnf;rsO;f pnf;urf;rsm;/ rJqENvm$ rsm; ESihf rJay;&mwGiftoH;k ðyrnfh ypPn;f rsm;udk txufqifh a&G;aumufyGJaumfr&Sio f dk@ yGifhvif;jrifompGmESifh vHðk cHpmG o,f,yl govm;?  a&G;aumufyGJypPn;f rsm;udk txufqifah &G;aumufyJaG umfr&Sifo@kd wdu k &f u kd fy@kd aqmifygovm; odk@r[kwf tjcm;wae&modk@ v$Jajymif;ygovm;? rJay;jcif;/ rJa&wGujf cif;ESifh ywfoufaom ,cifapmif=h unfah vhvmr_tawG@tñuHudk a&G;aumufyJaG e@ vkyx f ;kH vkyef nf;rsm; ydik ;f jcm;oH;k oyfjcif;ESiafh ygi;f pyfjcif;tm;jzifhf jynfwiG ;f apmif=h unfah vhvma&;tzGJ@tzdk@ rJqENay;jcif; ESifhrJa&wGujf cif; vkyif ef;pOf. rnfo h nft h ydik ;f udk txl;tm&Hkpdku&f efvt dk yfa=umif; qH;k jzwf&mwGif taxmuftuljzpfap&rnf? Oyrm ,ciftawG@tñuHrmS rJrsm;udw k oDowef;}uD;pkðyHay;jcif;onf tcsKd@ae&m rsm;wGif jy\em&dSEikd jf cif; od@k r[kwf rJ&kHrsm;od@k a&G;aumufyJq G ikd &f m pm&Gufpmwrf;rsm; aemufusrS a&muf vmjcif;wdk@ukd awG@&Edik o f nf? rJay;jcif;ESifh rJa&wGujf cif;udk apmih=f unfah vhvmcsdew f iG f apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm; a&;jznf&h ef ðyvkyaf y;xm;aom tpD&ifcpH myHkpx H JrmS ,if;vdt k yfcsurf sm;ukd xif[yfay:vGiaf poifo h nf?ta&;}uD;qH;k rSm tpD&ifcpH myHpk Hrsm;onf &Si;f vif;/ wdusI toH;k ðy&efv, G ful&rnf? tzGiafh r;cGe;f rsm; rsm;pGmyg0ifaom ppfaq;csupf m&if;&Sn}f uD;rsm;onf uGejf yLwmxJodk@oiG ;f &mwGif tcsed frsm;pGm,l&+yD;/ ydik ;f jcm;oHk;oyfrv _ yk &f mwGiv f nf; vGepf mG cufcJonf? tpD&ifcpH mrsm; jyefvnfay;tyfaomtcgwGif pm&Guw f yHw k yifjzpfaewuf+yD;/ qufo, G af &;vrf;a=umif;wGiv f nf; tcuftcJrsm;udk 91


jzpfapEdkio f nf? tpD&ifcHpmyHkpH a&;qGJorl sm;onf avhvmolrsm; vG,u f lpmG em;vnfap&rnf[al omtcsuu f kd owdcsy&f rnf? xdk@a=umif/h avhvmoltrsm;pkonf yHkpHrsm;udk ‚wdk@ rnfr#em;vnf&vG,u f I l / rnfr#a&;jznfh& vG,u f al =umif;od&atmif a&G;aumufyGJae@rwdik cf ifwiG f prf;=unfo h iho f nf?

tpD&ifcpH myHpk w H ckonf “[kwo f nf” odk@r[kwf “r[kwyf g” [lI tajzay;Edik af om ar;cGe;f rsm;yg&rnfjzpf+yD; tu,fIjy\emrsm;&Syd gu jy\emrsm;udk wef;pDjyxm;aomtydak r;cGe;f rsm;yg&rnf?erlemyHpk u H kd atmuf wGif az:jyxm;onf?

erlemyHpk H 1 ta&twGuf :

qdik &f m ar;cGe;f rsm;

awG@co Jh nf? rawG@cyJh g? wpfpw Hk pfO;D u wpfcgxufyI kd rJay;onfudk oihaf wG@cyJh govm;? awG@&ydS gu b,fEpS }f udrrf # oifjrifawGcyJh goenf;?

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“a&G;aumufyGJaumfr&Sio f nf rJqEN&iS fpm&if;wGif ryg0ifolrsm;udpu P kd rnfuo Jh kd@ udik w f G,af jz&Si;f cJo h enf;?” [laom tzGiafh r;cGe;f rsm;udk jzpfEidk o f r# a&SmifusOo f iho f nf? pum;vHk; trsm;tjym; toH;k ðyjcif;onf ydik ;f jcm;oH;k oyfr_ vky&f mY vGefpmG cufcJ+yD;/ txl;ojzifh tpD&ifcpH m axmifaomif;csI D zwf&aom tcgwiG f ydkrI kd cufcJaponf? tu,fI tzGiahf r;cGe;f rsm;udk toH;k ðy &rnfqydk gu a&;om;xm;aom rSwcf surf sm; tay:wGio f m tm;xm;& jcif;xuf avhvmolrsm;tm; óuwifowfrw S +f yD;om; tajzrsm; ay;xm;oiho f nf? ,if;erlemyHpk Hukd atmufwiG f az:jyxm;onf?

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rJ&o Hk nf rnfo h nft h wGuaf =umifh tcsderf DS rzGicfh o Jh enf;? (oifah vsmaf om tajz(rsm;)wGif trSwjf cpfyg? Oyrm 2}udKwif wGuf csuf xm; aom ar;cGe;f rsm;

a&G;aumufypGJ m&Gupf mwrf;rsm; r&dI S vm;? a&G;aumufyaGJ umfr&Siw f iG f vltjynft h pHw k ufa&mufjcif; r&dI S vm;?

rJ&w Hk iG f vHjk cHKa&;udk jcdr;f ajcmufjcif;rsm; &daS eIvm;? a&G;aumufyaGJ umifr&Sio f nf taqmuftOD;twGi;f okd@ 0if&r&Ivm;?

tjcm;&dyS gu (aus;Zl;jyKI a&;om;jyyg)? -----------------------------------------

toH;k 0ifEidk af om wwd,yHkpaH r;cGe;f wpfcrk Sm avhvmolrsm;tm; ‚wd@k avhvmxm;cJhrE_ iS hfywfoufI txif[yfq;kH az:jycsuw f pfcu k dk a&G;cs,af pjcif;tm;jzifh jy\emwcktay: xifjrifcsuf ay;apjcif;jzpfonf? ,if; erlem yHpk aH r;cGe;f udk atmufrmS awG@Edik fygonf? ,if;yHkpo H nf rJ&w kH cktay: t=urf;zsO;f ðcHiakH vhvm&mwGif txl;toH;k 0ifonf? ,ciftawG@tñuHrsm;t& avhvmolrsm;onf wef;pDjyxm;aom tuJjzwfcsuf (az:jycsuf) rsm;teuf tv,f&dS tuJjzwfcsufuo dk m a&G;cs,jf ywwf=uojzifh a,bk,stm;jzifh yHpk aH &G;qGo J lrsm;onf tuJjzwfcsuf (az:jycsu)f rsm;udk r *%ef;jzifah y;jcif;/odk@r[kwf tuJjzwfcsuf (3) ck jzpfap/ (5) ckjzpfap ay;jcif;udk a&Smif&mS ;oifo h nf?

,ckrJ&w Hk iG f rJay;jcif;pDraH qmif&u G cf suw f ckv;Hk tay: rnfodk@ ,lqoenf;? (oihx f ifjrifcsuEf iS yfh wfoufI taumif;qHu k , dk pf m;jyKaz:jyay;rnft h ajzudk 0dik ;f Ijyyg? erlemyHk pH 3 ar;cGe;f av; rsKd ; yHpkH H

csKd ;azgurf r_ ±Syd g

tao;tzGJcsKd ;azgurf _

tcsKd @±Sd

qd;k qd;k ±Gm;±Gm;csKd ;azgurf _

tenf;tusO;f ±Sd

t"ducsKd ;azgurf }_ uD;rsm;

trsm;tjym;±Sd

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avhvmolrsm;taeESifh tpD&ifcHpmyHpk Hudk &Si;f vif;pGm jznfhpu G I f tdro f kd@rjyefcif wm0efay;tyfxm;ol od@k r[kwf ae&mwGif tpD&ifcpH mrsm; jyefvnftyfE&SH ef ta&;}uD;a=umif;udk oifwef;umvrSm tav;wif; ajym=um;xm;oifh onf? tu,fI jynfwiG ;f apmif=h unfah vhvma&;tzGJ@wzGJ@onf txl;wufwufºuºu&dyS gu owif;tcsut f vuf ydrk kd &&d&S ef twGuf ydI k &_yaf xG;aom tpD&ifcjH cif;pepfwckukd a&;qGJI&Edik o f nf? Oyrm rJ&zkH iG jhf cif;/ reufcif;rJay;jcif;udk avhvmjcif;/ ae@vnfcif;rJay;jcif;udak vhvmjcif; ESifh rJa&wGujf cif;wd@k twGuf oD;jcm; tpD&ifcpH m yHpk rH sm;udk toH;k ðyEdik o f nf? tu,fI ,if;enf;emudk toH;k ðyygu jynfwiG ;f avhvma&;tzGJ@ wckwiG f ydrk rkd sm;jym;vmaom tpD&ifcpH myHpk rH sm;ESit hf csut f vufrsm; ukd pDraH qmif&u G Ef idkf af om vkyEf idk &f nf&&dS rnf jzpfonf? tpD&ifcpH myHkpHrsm;rS owif;tcsuftvufrsm;udk uGejf yLwmtwGi;f od@k avhusiahf y;xm;aom 0efxrf;rsm;u tcsut f vufqef;ppfcGJjcrf;ol. }uD;=uyfrj_ zifh tv#it f jref/wdwdusus oGi;f &rnf?tu,fI jynfwiG ;f apmifh =unfah vhvma&;tzGJ@wzGJ@onf ‚wdk@ukd,yf dik f tcsut f vufcJjG crf;avhvma&; uGejf yLwm aqmh0J,m rxkwv f kyfEikd f ygu/ u|r;f usiaf omvlra_ &;odyy`H nm&Siw f OD; odk@r[kwf ude;f *%ef;ynm&Siw f OD;ESihf aqG;aEG;wdik yf ifoifo h nf? taumif;qH;k rSm tcsut f vufqef;ppfcGJjcrf;olEiS fh tpD&ifcHpmyHpk aH &;qGJow l kd@onf tpD&ifcpH mwGif ar;cGe;f enf;enf; jzifh tcsut f vuftrsm;qH;k &Edik af &; yl;aygi;f vkyu f idk o f iho f nf? jynfwiG ;f avhvma&;tzGJ@wzGJ@onf ‚.apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;twGuf wdik ;f wef;pmyHpk rH sm;udyk g wygwnf; ay;vdu k &f ef qH;k jzwfEidk o f nf?Edik if o H m;rsm;ESifh avhvmolrsm;onf rJ&0kH efxrf;rsm;ESiyhf wfoufaom w &m;0if wdik w f ef;pmrsm;wifjy&mwGif ,if;yHpk rH sm;udk toH;k ðyEkid o f nf? avhvmolrsm;onf aqmif±u G af y;r_rsm;udk apmih=f unfh Edik af &;twGuf A[d±k ;kH od@k wikd w f ef;aom wdik w f ef;pmrdwLW rsm; ay;ydk@oifo h nf?od@dk r[kwf avhvmolrsm;onf e,fajrqdik &f mudprP sm;tpD&ifc&H mY qd;k &Gm;aompnf;urf;csK;d azmufrr_ sm;ta=umif; tao;pdwf wifjyEdik o f nf? Tenf;tm;jzifh ta&;}uD;aom jy\emrsm;. trsK;d tpm;/ }udrEf e_ ;f / wnfae&mwdk@EiS yfh wfoufaom owif;tcsuf tvufrsm;udk pkpnf;I&Edik o f nf? e,fajrqdik &f mudprP sm;tpD&ifccH su/f wdik w f ef;pmrsm;trsK;d rsK;d ESiyhf wfoufaomydik ;f jcm;oH;k oyfcsuEf iS hf rJay;jcif;/ rJa& wGujf cif; avhvma&;yHpk rH sm;rS wqif&h &daS om owif;tcsut f vufrsm;udk tóuxkwjf yefa=ujimcsuf xkwaf &; twGuf tcsed rf pDS pk nf;oiho f nf? taumif;qH;k rSm tóuxkwjf yefa=ujimcsuu f kd a&G;aumufyJaG e@rS (48) em&DtwGi;f xkwjf yefoiho f nf? tcsKd@tajctaersm;wGif tcsut f vufxnfo h iG ;f aomtzGJ@onf avhvmcJah om rJ&t kH m;vH;k rS tcsut f vufrsm;udk tóuxkwjf yefrt _ wGuf tcsed rf o SD iG ;f &efrmS rjzpfEikd af cs? ,if;uJo h @kd aom tajctaersm; atmufwiG f avhvmol tpDcpH mrsm;rS ud, k pf m;ðypHerlemwpfct k m; tóuxkwjf yefcsux f w k &f eftwGuf toH;k ðy oih+f yD;/ ðcHijkH ynhpf akH om qef;ppfavhvmr_tm; t+yD;;owftpD&ifcpH mtwGuf toH;k ðyoiho f nf?

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(c) òyif rJ-Z,m;oGi;f jcif; 23 (c) pifòyif òyi pifòyif rJ-Z,m;oGi;f jcif; (PVT) . &nf&, G cf sufrmS Edik if aH &;ygwDrsm;/ ud, k fpm;vS,af vmif;rsm;ESihf jynfov l l xktwGuf &v'frsm;.w&m;0ifru _ dk tuJjzwfEidk af tmif ,H=k unfpw d cf s&aom owif;tcsut f vufrsm; axmufyahH y;&efjzpfonf? (PVT) ðyvky& f ef vdk-rvdu k dk tapmydik ;f wGif óuwifI qH;k jzwfxm;&efrmS ta&;}uD;onf? tb,fa=umifq h akd omf ‚udpaP qmif±u G af omtzGJ@tpnf;. apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;udw k ikd ;f jynf w0Sr;f vH;k ae&m csxm;r_EiS yhf wfoufI pOf;pm; p&m&daS oma=umihf jzpfonf? tzGJ@tpnf;wckonf rJ&t Hk m;vH;k rS &v'frsm;udk pkpnf;vkyaf qmifvakd omfvnf; vufawG@wGif vltiftm;ESihf qufo, G frr_ sm; tajrmuftrsm; vdt k yfjcif;a=umifh t[ef@twm; jzpfEikd o f nf? xdo k kd@jzpfygu rJ&w kH csK@d wGif wduspGm jyifqifxm;owfrw S x f m;aom usyrf;erlemyHkpHrJ±rkH sm;onftvGefreS u f efwu d sEdik o f nf? xd@k jyif aocsmoyf&yfpmG ðyvkyf xm;ygu jynfwiG ;f avhvma&;ktzGJ@wzGJ@tzdk@ wpHv k ;kH qdik &f m &v'fEiS hfywfoufI ,H=k unf pdwfcs&avmufaom a[mude;f rsm; xkwEf idk yf gonf? jynfwiG ;f apmif=h unfah vhvma&;ktzGJ@wzGJ@onf usyrf;erlemyHpk H. taetxm;ESifh t&G,t f pm;udk qH;k jzwfaom tcgwGif u|r;f usiaf om vlr_oyd yH` nm&Si/f pm&if;tif;ynm&Sif od@k r[kwf vlxt k jrifrsm;aumuf,al om tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;ESihf wdik yf ifoiho f nf? vlO;D a&ESio fh ufqidk af om tcsut f vuf acgi;f yg;onft h jyif/ vlO;D a&tpdyftusJ rwluJjG ym;r_rsm;&daS om ae&mrsm;wGif tawmftwef}uD;aom erlemyHpk Hukd oH;k &efvt kd yfa=umif;/ Oyrm rJ&kHrsm;. q,f&mckid Ef _e;f xnfhoiG ;f &ef vdt k yfa=umif; tawG@tñuHrsm;u jyqdo k nf? Tonf ESifh ajymif;jyeftajctaersKd;wGif erlemyHkpHao;ao;udk omtoH;k ðyEdik +f yD;/ TerlemyHpk aH o;ao;rSaeI wwdik ;f jynfv;kH &Sad ±G;aumufyJGrsm;twGuf tjynft h 0vnf; ,H=k unfpdwcf s&/ tjynft h 0vnf;rSeu f efwu d saom&v'frsm;udk &&SEd ikd fygonf? trsm;pkrJjzifh qH;k jzwfaompepf (majoritarian voting system) udk toH;k ðyaom jrdK@jytkyf csKyfa&;a&G;aumufyJGrsm; od@k r[kwf rJqENe,fajrtrsm;udk t"dutm;jzift h ajccHaom a&G;aumufyGJrsm;rSm apmif=h unfah vhvmygu rJqENe,fajrwpfck odk@r[kwf c&dik t f qifw h iG f erlemyHkp. H taetxm;ESihf t&G,t f pm;udk txl;*&kðyoiho f nf? tb,fa=umifq h akd omf a'oEW&qkid &f m rwlx;l jcm;csufrsm;udk xnfo h iG ;f pOf;pm;&ef vdt k yfaoma=umihjf zpfonf? usyrf;erlemyHkpw H iG f xnfo h iG ;f &rnfh rJ&Hkrsm;udk a&G;cs,&f efEiS hf uGejf yLwmy&dk*&rfwck jyifqif&eftwGuf (PVT) 'DZikd ;f tzGJ@onf rJ&rHk sm;tm;vk;Hk twGi;f &dS rJay;rnfo h rl sm;. ta&twGu/f ae&m/t±G,t f pm;wdk@ESihf ywfoufaom owif; tcsut f vuf f u kd af om rJ&kHrsm;rS &v'frsm;udk pmrsufEmS w&Gupf m erlemyHkpt H pD&ifcpH m twdtus vdt k yfvdrrfh nf? PVT twGuaf &G;cs,v pm±Gurf sm;wGif avhvmolrsm;u rSeu f efwu d spGm rSww f rf;wif &rnf? tu,fI Oya'u jynfwiG ;f apmif=h unfah vhvmolrsm;udk rJ&kHrsm;twGi;f rJa&wGujf cif;udk apmif=h unfch iG hf ray;ygu/ jynf wGi;f avhvma&;tzGJ@wzGJ@onf ‚. avhvmolrsm;tm; rJ&kHrsm;jyifywGijf yoxm;aom &v'f rdwLW rsm;rS rJ&&kH v'frsm;udk 23

pifòyifr-J Z,m;oGi;f jcif;ESifh ywfoufI ydrk o dk &d v dS ykd gu tvsit f jrefa&wGujf cif;ESifh a&G;aumufyGJapmih=f unfah vhvmjcif;/ vlxt k ajcðy tzGJ@ tpnf;rsm;ESifh Edik if aH &;ygwrD sm;twGuf NDI vrf;!$ecf suf (2002) ckEpS ?f The Quick Count and Election Observation, An NDI Guide for Civic Organizations and Political Parties, NDI, 2002. Edik if w H uma&;&m trsK;d om;'Dru dk a&pDtzGJ@rS xkwaf 0onf) udk =unfyh g//

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rSww f rf;wifcidk ;f Edik o f nf?tjcm;enf;vrf;wckrSm rJa&wGucf sed fumvtwGi;f rJ±Hk rsm;wGi&f aSd eaom rJ&akH umfr&Sit f zGJ@0ifrsm; odk@r[kwf Edik if aH &;ygw/D udk,pf m;vS,af vmif;rsm;. vufaxmuf rsm;rSwqifh &v'frw d LW rsm; &&dSEkdio f nf? jynfwiG ;f apmif=h unfah vhvma&;tzGJ@wzGJ@tzdk@ (PVT) vufawG@rvkyaf qmifcifumvtwGi;f ‚. tpD&ifcjH cif;/ qufo, G jf cif;pepfrsm;udk prf;oyf=unfjh cif;onf tusdK;&do S nf? Tod@k prf;oyf=unfjh cif;tm;jzifh ,H=k unfpw d cf s& avmufaom (PVT) wckvyk af &;twGuf enf;pepftay:wGif ,H=k unfr& _ jSd cif;ESifh tpktzGJ@. vkyfEidk fprG ;f udk aumif;pGm jrifawG@&jcif; tusKd ;aus;Zl;rsm;udk &&dES dik o f nf? Todk@jzifh a&G;aumufyJv G drn f mr_rsm;udk [ef@wm;Edik fonf? (PVT) wck. &v'frsm; xkwjf yefcsdeo f nf ta&;}uD;onfjzpf&m/ jynfwiG ;f avhvma&; tpk tzGJ@wzGJ@ taeESihf rnfonfh tcsed w f iG f xkwjf yefoiho f nfukd óuwifI qH;k jzwfxm;oiho f nf? yÉdyuQtajctaersm;atmufwGif qmAD;,m;jynfwiG ;f avhvmolrsm;u pifðydif rJ-Z,m;oGi;f jcif;vkyif ef;udk aqmif&u G jf cif;? ˇ 1997 ckEpS f ESifh 2000 ckEpS t f =um;wGif qmAD;,m; (tJeef *f sDt)dk wckjzpfaom CeSID onf qm;AD;,m; a&G;aumuf ˇ yGJrsm;udk avhvmjcif;rjyKvky&f ef tm%mydik frsm;. wm;jrpfjcif;udk cHc&Jh onf? xdu k Jho@dk aom tajctaewGif CeSID onf 2000 ckESpf pufwifbmv z,f'&,fa&G;aumufyJGrsm;umv twGi;f pifðydifr-J Z,m;oGi;f jcif;vkyif ef; ´ wckvyk &f ef qH;k jzwfco Jh nf? CeSID u ‚. apwemh 0efxrf;rsm;tm; rJa&wGuf tjyD; w&m;0if vlo&d iS =f um; uyfxm;aom &v'frsm;ESifh ygwDu, dk pf m;vS,rf sm;udk avhvmpH;k prf;&ef rJ&jkH yif ywGif ae&mcsxm;cJo h nf? k iG f ‚wdk@. A[kXd mecsKyfukd ykvyd rf sm;u 0ifp;D jyD;/ qufwu kd q f o kd vdyk if a'o qdik &f m 10 rJray;cif &ufowWywftvdw &H;k rsm;udv k nf; 0ifa&mufp;D eif;cJo h nf? ‚wd@k . apwemh0efxrf;rsm;vHjk cHKa&;twGuf CeSID onf pifðydirf -J Z,m;oGi;f jcif;vkyif ef; twGuf ñudwifjyifqifru _ kd v#Kd @0u S pf mG vkyaf qmif&ef qH;k jzwfco Jh nf? &_y&f y_ f axG;axG;Edik af om vkyif ef;pOfwckjzpfonfaomfvnf; w,fvzD ek ;f ESihf tifwmeufrq S ifh qufo, G af om txl;vHðk cHa&;pepfudk backup Server qmAmESit hf wl wnfaxmifco Jh nf? rJay;onfah e@rwdik cf ifwiG yf if aemufq;kH !$e=f um;csurf sm;ESifh yHpk rH sm;udk ay;ydk@co Jh nf? ‚. vkyif ef;rsm; tm;enf;csed J@atmif óu;yrf;r_rsm; &dcS aJh omfvnf; CeSID onf rJay;jyD; eHeufcif; (4) em&D (30) rdepfwiG f rJ&aHk ygi;f / (1096) xufruaom rJ&rkH sm;rS &v'frsm;udk xkwjf yefEidk cf o Jh nf? Kostunica twGuf atmifyGJudk ,if;&v'frsm;u cef@reS ;f wGujf yxm;aomfvnf; jynfaxmifpak &G;aumufyJaG umfr&Sirf S xkwjf yefaom rDvq dk AD pfonf a&S@wef;rSO;D aqmifaejyD;/aemufw}udrf xyfIa±G;aumuf&efvt kd yfrnhf ta=umif; xkwjf yefcsuEf iS hf vm;vm;qef@usiaf ecJo h nf? qmAD;,m;vlxu k jynfaxmifpk aumfr&Si. f &v'frsm;udk todtrSwrf ðycJah y? a&S@qifh d &v'fwpHu k kd aemufqifq h o dk vdyk if aumfr&Sio f nf Kostunica onf orwae&m tEdik &f onfqakd om 'kw, a=ujimcJo h nf?

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11? 11?pm&if;oGi;f jcif;/ xyfqifyh dk ah qmifjcif; ESihf xkwjf yefa-ujimjcif;tm; apmih-f unfh tuJjzwfjcif;? u? &v'fpm&if;oGi;f jcif;tm; apmih=f unft h uJjzwfjcif;. ta&;}uD;r_ *? a&G;aumufyGJt+yD;ae@ zGH@òz;wd;k wufr_rsm;tm; apmih=f unft h uJjzwfjcif;? c? uGejf yLwmjzifh &v'frsm;ydk@aqmifjcif;udk apmih=f unft h uJjzwfjcif;?

 &v'frsm; pm&if;oGi;f jcif;ESifh xyfqifjh zef@a0jcif; vkyif ef;pOfrsm;ESihf tu|r;f w0if&aSd eapjcif;?  tqifw h idk ;f wGif &v'fpm&if;oGi;f jcif;ESif xyfqifjh zef@a0jcif;rsm;tm; apmih=f unft h uJjzwf aom pepf wpfck wnfaqmufjcif;?  a&G;aumufyGJtvGefzGH@òz;wd;k wufrr_ sm; txl;ojzifh a&G;aumufyJG&v'ftm; Oya'a=umif;t& pdeaf c:r_rsm;udk aocsmpGm apmif=h unft h uJjzwfjcif;?

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u? &v'fpm&if;oGi;f jcif;tm; apmih=f unft h uJjzwfjcif;. ta&;}uD;r_ &v'frsm;pm&if;oGi;f jcif;ESifh pm&if;xkwjf yefjcif;onf txl; rSm;,Gi;f Edik af om/ csKyfuikd t f oH;k csc&H Edik af om vkyif ef;rsm;jzpfonf? xdk@a=umifh jynfwiG ;f avhvma&;tpktzGJ@wpfco k nf a&G;aumufyJv G kyif ef;pOf. ,if;u¾rsm;udk aocsmpGm/ pnf;pepfusus apmih=f unft h uJjzwfoiho f nf? avhvmolrsm;onf &v'frsm; rJpm&if;oGi;f jcif;ESihf pm&if;xkwjf yefjcif;vkyif ef;rsm;wGif awmufav#muf&adS ejcif;jzifh csKyfuidk t f oH;k csjcif;udk umuG,w f m;qD;Edik o f nf? a&G;aumufyGJae@twGi;f rJqEN&iS fta&twGuu f de;f *%efrsm;udk wcsKd@u az:jy=u+yD;/ wcgw&HwGif uGejf yLwmpepfut dk oHðk yI owif;tcsut f vufrsm;udk rSwfwrf;wif=uonf? jynfwiG ;f avhvma&; tpktzGJ@wpfco k nf ,if;tcsut f vuf. rdwLW rsm;udk &,loih+f yD; aemiftcgwiG f rJqEN&iS f ta&twGuf ude;f *%ef;wGif &kww f &wf xljcm;pGm jrifw h ufvmygu rSefrrSef jyefvnf ppfaq;I &Edik o f nf? rJqEN&iS f ta&twGuu f de;f *%ef;onf rJ&&kH v'fygtcsut f vufEiS hf udu k fnrD &_ Sdr&dS ppfaq;I &Edik o f nf? ykrH eS t f m;jzifh rJ&w Hk pf&. Hk &v'fta&twGurf sm;tm; a'oqdik &f ma&G;aumufyJaG umfr&Siw f pfckxo H @kd yd@k ay;&onf? xdk@aemuf a'oqdik &f m&v'frsm;udk pkpnf;I Edik if aH wmftqifh A[dak &G;aumufyJaG umfr&Six f Ho@kd yd@k ay;&onf? jynfwiG ;f avhvm a&;tpktzGJ@wpfco k nf &v'frsm;pkpnf;jcif;ESifh o,f,lyd@k aqmifjcif;yHpk u H dk tjynft h 0 em;vnf&rnf? avhvma&;tpktzGJ@onf rJpm&if;oGi;f jcif;tqifw h pfcjk cif;pDwiG f &do S if+h yD;/ vufajymif;vufvJv $ kyaf omae&mrsm;wGif txl;avhusix hf m;aom tpktzGJ@ rsm;udk wm0efcsxm;oiho f nf? jzpfEidk fygu rnfonfah e&mwGirf qdk &v'frsm;udk wae&mrSwae&mod@k tv$Jtajymif;wGif vdu k v f Hydk@aqmifoiho f nf? avhvmolrsm;onf w&m;0ifpm&if;oGi;f xm;aom&v'frw d LW rsm; od@k r[kwf pm&ifoiG ;f vkyif ef;pOf tqihw f idk ;f rS pnf;rsO;f oabmwlcsurf sm;udk &,loihfonf? rjzpfEdik yf gu xkwjf yefa=ujimaom tqifw h ikd ;f twGuf txl;jyifqifxm;aom wmvD pm&Gufrsm;&dS &v'ftao;pdwfrsm;udk rSww f rf;wifoifo fh nf? ,if;&v'frsm;udk rJ&rkH sm;wGif avhvmolrsm;pkaqmif;&rdaom &v'frsm;ESifh wdu k =f unfhoif+h yD;/ ygw/D ud, k fpm;vS,f avhvmolrsm;/ tjcm;a'owGi;f ESifh Edik if w H umavhvmolrsm;rS &&dx S m;aom&v'frsm;ESiv fh nf; wdu k =f unfhEidk o f nf? avhvmolrsm;onf rJpm&if;oGi;f jcif;ESihf xyfqifyh kd@aqmifjcif;rsm;twGuf pnf;rsO;f pnf;urf;yg vkyx f H;k vkyef nf;rsm;tm; vku d femjcif;&drS &dS tpD&ifcw H ifjyoih+f yD;/ rJjyefvnfa&wGufygu rsufjrif oufaotjzpf &So d iho f nf? c? uGejf yLwmjzifh &v'frsm;ydk@aqmifjcif;udk apmih=f unft h uJjzwfjcif;? tcsKd@widk ;f jynfrsm;wGif wifóu&v'frsm;udk A[dak &G;aumufyJaG umfr&Six f Ho@kd tD;ar;vfjzifh yd@k ay;onf? avhvmolrsm;onf ,if;vkyif ef;pOfudk óu;pm;apmif=h unfo h iho f nf? taumif;qH;k rSm rJ&w kH pfcjk cif;pD. &v'frsm;udk a&G;aumufyJt G &m&dw S pfO;D OD;u zwfjyrnfjzpf+yD;/ uGejf yLwmtoGi;f odk@ owif;tcsut f vufoiG ;f aom yk*d~KvfrS twnfðyay;&rnf jzpfonf? tcsK@d wdik ;f jynfrsm;wGif uGejf yLwmtwGi;f tcsut f vuf rdwLW udk y&ifx h w k I f vufco H rl S vwfrSwx f ;kd ay;onf? xdu k Jo h d@k aom tajctaersK;d wGif avhvmolrsm;onf vufcHrw d LW wpfcu k kd awmif;cHoih+f yD;/ uGejf yLwmtwGi;f od@k xnfo h iG ;f &aom ‚wdk@vuf0,fwiG &f adS om wmvDp&Gufrsm;jzifh ,if;&v'frsm;udk ppfaq;oifo h nf? jynfwiG ;f avhvma&;tpktzGJ@wpfco k nf &v'frsm;v$Jajymif;ay;ydk@&mwGif toH;k ðy&ef uGejf yLwmy&d*k &rf &drS &dS ar;jref;oih+f yD;/ xdrk o S m uGejf yLwmu|rf;usio f w l pfO;D ESifh ,if;y&d*k &rfudk rJray;cif óuwifI ppfaq;Edik frnf jzpfonf? *? a&G;aumufyGJt+yD;ae@ zGH@òz;wdu k w f ufrr_ sm;tm; apmih=f unft h uJjzwfjcif;? 98


a&G;aumufyGJ&v'frsm; xkwjf yef&mwGif aESmifah ES;jcif;/ a&G;aumufyJ&G v'frsm;ESihf ywfoufaom owif;tcsut f vuf jynfph rkH _ r&djS cif;/ rajz&Si;f &aom wdik fwef;csufrsm; od@k r[kwf &v'frsm;xkwjf yeft+yD; rnfo@kd qufjzpfrnf[al om aumvm [vrsm;a=umifh a&G;aumufyGJwpfct k +yD; aemufwpfae@onf wif;usyrf _rsm;/ ra&&mr_rsm;ESihf a&mjyGe;f jynfhEHS@aewufonf? xdk@a=umifh jynfwiG ;f avhvma&; tpktzGJ@wpfckonf a&G;aumufcu H , kd fpm;vS,frsm; wm0ef,ljcif;tygt0if/ a&G;aumufyJG tvGefzGH@òz;wd;k wufrr_ sm;udk aocsmpGm apmih=f unft h uJjzwfoifhonf? jzpfEidk o f r# ae&mrsm;wGif jynfwGi;f avhvma&;tpktzGJ@onf a&G;aumufyJt G m%mydik frsm;rS xkwjf yefaom aemufq;kH &v'frsm; rSef-rrSef ppfaq;jcif; tao;pdwv f yk if ef;udk aqmif&u G o f iho f nf? &v'frsm;tm; a&G;aumufyJOG ya'wGif jyqdx k m;ouJo h d@k a&G;aumufyGJt+yD; aemufwae@ owfrSwx f m;aom tcsed w f iG f xkwjf yefoihfonf? pkaqmif;jcif;/ rSefrrSefppfaq;jcif; ESihf aemufq;Hk &v'fxw k jf yef&mwGif rvdt k yfaom aESmifah ES;r_rsm; od@k r[kwf uGm[csufrsm;udk rSwo f m;I pHpk rf;az:xkwo f iho f nf? jynfwiG ;f avhvma&;tpktzGJ@wpfcrk S &v'frsm; rSefrrSefppfaq;jcif;onf a&G;aumufyJw G pfc. k &v'ftay: vlxk,=kH unfr_ ydrk kd aumif;rGefEidk af pjcif; odk@r[kwf tu,fI pnf;urf;ESihfrnD!w $ frr_ sm;&dyS gu &v'frsm;udkyg pHpk rf;jcif;rsm; ðyvkyfEikd fonf? (OSCE) a'otwGu;f &Sd Edik if Htrsm;pkwiG f ygwDrsm;ESihf ud, k fpm;vS,rf sm;onf a&G;aumufyJGwpfc. k &v'fukd pdeaf c:Edik af om

tcsed u f mvudk owfrw S af y;xm;onf? ,if;uJo h kd@aom tjiif;yGm;r_rsm;udk tcef; 4 wGif az:jyxm;aom enf;emudk toH;k ðyI aocsmpGm apmih=f unft h uJjzwfoiho f nf? ‚if;udp&P yfrsm;onf vH;k 0 "dG[jzpfz, G f ta=umif;t&mrsm;jzpfonf? jynfwiG ;f avhvma&;tpktzGJ@rsm;onf w&m;&H;k tr_wpfc. k wd;k wufr_rsm;udk apmih=f unft h uJjzwfoih+f yD;/ owif;rD', D m odk@r[kwf tr_onfrsm;xHrS owif;tay:wGif rtm;xm;oihaf y? a&G;aumufyGJtvGeu f mvrsm;wGif jynfwiG ;f avhvmolrsm;onf aemufq;kH &ufowfrw S cf sufrsm;vGJacsmjf cif;/ qH;k jzwfcsuf vkyx f ;Hk vkyfenf;rsm;wGif pnf;urf;vGJacsmrf r_ sm;&djS cif;/ pnf;urf;vGJacsmfr_rsm;ESihf ywfoufI pGwfpJcG sufrsm;udk pHpk rf;az:xkw&f mwGif aESmifah ES;jcif;/ avhvmolrsm;odk@r[kwf Edik if Ha&;ygwrD sm; ESiyhf iG v hf if;r_enf;yg;jcif;paom vkyif ef;rsm;qdik &f m jy\emrsm;udk apmih=f unfo h iho f nf? a&G;aumufyJw G Gif yg0ifrJqENay;cJah om Edik if o H m; od@k r[kwf ud, k fpm;vS,f wpfO;D wpfa,mufudk rJay;cJah oma=umifh vufwkH@jyefjcif; od@k r[kwf vufwkH@jyef&efjcdr;f ajcmufjcif;rsm;udv k nf; pHpk rf; az:xkwo f ifhonf? rD', D mrS wcsKd@aomtkyfprk sm;onf jynfolvx l t k m; rJ&v'fvrd v f nfrw _ pfcðk yvky&f eftwGuf jyifqifae aom tcsut f vufrsm;udv k nf; apmih=f unfo h iho f nf? jynfwiG ;f avhvma&;tpktzGJ@wpfco k nf pepfwusóu;udik cf s,fvS,yf kHpw H csKd@ xGuaf y: vmjcif; odk@r[kwf a&G;aumufyJw G pfc. k &v'ft}uD;tus,x f cd dkuEf dikf zf G,&f adS om jy\emrsm;tm; pHkprf; az:xkw&f ef jyifqifxm;oihfonf? tao;pdwf wdwu d sus udp&P yfrsm;udk pHpk rf;az:xkw&f ef txl;tvkyt f zGJ@rsm;udk cef@tyfay;jcif;rsm;vnf; ,if;jyifqifrw _ iG f yg0ifonf? jynfwiG ;f avhvma&;tpktzGJ@wpfco k nf Edik if aH &;ygwDrsm;/ vl@abmiftzGJ@tpnf;twGi;f &dS tjcm;aom tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;awG@qo kH ih+f yD;/ rJqEN&iS frsm;xHwiG f &dSEidk af om pdk;&drcf sufrsm;udk em;axmifjcif;/ rJvdrrf _EiS hfoufqikd af om oufao taxmuf txm;rsm;udk vufc&H ,ljcif; odk@r[kwf vdt k yfEidk af om tjcm;aom owif;tcsuftvufrsm;udv k nf; &,loihfonf?

99


12? H -uHรฐyjcif; 12? tpD&ifcpH mwifoiG ;f jcif;ESifh axmufct u? tpD&ifcHpmwifoiG ;f jcif;. ta&;ygr_ c? a'oqdik &f mapmif=h unft h uJjzwfolrsm;rS tpD&ifcpH mwifjcif; *? xdyw f u dk &f ifqidk rf q _ dik &f m tpD&ifcpH mrsm; C? xkwjf yefcsufrsm; i? aemufq;Hk tpD&ifcHpm p? tpD&ifcHpm jzef@a0jcif;?

 avhvmoltpktzGJ@rsm;twGi;f oufqikd &f mowif;tcsufrsm;udk owfrw S cf surf sm;qD;od@k tcsed frSD xkwv f i$ fhEidk af paom tpD&ifcpH mwifjcif; vkyif ef;abmifwpfck wnfaqmufjcif;?  tpD&ifyHkpHrsm;/ &_a'gifph t Hk ywfpOftpD&ifcpH mrsm;/ rJq, G fyJx G dyw f kduaf wG@rt _ pD&ifcHpmrsm;ESihf a&G;aumufyGJae@ tpD&ifcHpmrsm;udk wnfaqmufjcif;?  xkwjf yefa=ujimcsufrsm;ESifh tpD&ifcpH mrsm;onf wdusr_&jSd cif;/ aumif;rGepf mG xkwv f yk jf cif; ESifh oufqidk &f mtzGJ@tpnf;rsm;ESifh woD;yk*~vu d rsm;xHodk@ jzef@a0jcif;?

100


u/ tpD&ifcpH mwifoiG ;f jcif;. ta&;ygr_ a&G;aumufyGJavhvma&;wGif tpD&ifcpH mwifjcif;onf r&drS jzpfta&;ygaom u¾wpfcjk zpfonf? tpD&ifcpH mwifoiG ;f jcif;onf avhvmxm;cJo h r#udk jynfol@rSww f rf;tjzpf wifjyEdik o f vdk tem*wf a&G;aumufyJGrsm;twGufvnf; tud;k tum;wpfct k jzpf toH;k ðyEdik fonf? tpD&ifcHpmtm; vlo&d iS =f um; wifjyEdik &f eftwGuf yHkrSet f wGi;f pnf;tpD&ifcHpmrsm; xkwjf yef&efvt kd yf+yD;/ ,if;tpD&ifcpH mrsm;udv k nf; qef;ppfavhvmr_rsm; ðyvky&f ef vdt k yfonf? tpD&ifcHpmwifoGi;f jcif;pepf. zGH@òz;wd;k wufr_EiS hf pepfusaom tpDtpOf &d&S efvdktyfvdrrhf nf? jynfwiG ;f avhvma&;tpktzGJ@wpfco k nf a&G;aumufyJw G pfcrk ðyvkycf ifwiG f vlo&d iS =f um; tpD&ifcpH m wpfapmif xkwjf yef&ef odk@r[kwf a&G;aumufyGJt+yD;rSom tpD&ifcHpm xkwjf yef rjyefukd qH;k jzwfoifhonf? oihaf wmfaom tcsed t f cg odk@r[kwf yHrk eS t f ajccHwpfct k ay:wGif az:jyvdu k fonfEiS t fh nd a&G;aumufyJrG wdik frDS tpD&ifcóH uwifxw k jf yefjcif;onf tkyfpw k pfpt k m; vkyif ef;pOfwpfcv k ;Hk tm; tðyoabmaqmifaom ,lqcsufwpfcu k kd ay;pGr;f Edik o f nf? jynfwiG ;f avhvma&; tpktzGJ@ trsm;pkonf xdu k o Jh kd@enf;emudk toH;k ðy=uonf? odk@aomf wjcm;tkypf krsm;url a&G;aumufy+JG yD;onft h cgrSom ‚if;wd@k . oH;k oyfcsufudk ay;vd=k uonf? rnfuo Jh dk@aom enf;emudk toH;k ðyonfjzpfap jynfwiG ;f avhvma&; tpktzGJ@wpfco k nf y%mr xkwjf yefcsufEiS fh a&GaumufyGJt+yD; aemufq;Hk ydwt f pD&ifcHpmudk xkwjf yef&ef &nf&, G foiho f nf? ,if;tpD&ifcHpmrsm;onf a&G;aumufyGJvyk if ef;pOfwckv;Hk ESifh oufqidk af om wdusaom avhvmcsurf sm; jzpfayvdrrhf nf? avhvma&;tpDtpOfwpfcrk ðyvkycf ifwiG /f jzpfEidk af csawG@&cSd sufrsm;. tus,t f 0ef;udk pOf;pm;xm;oifo h nf? jzpfEikd af om tajc taersm;udk rnfodk@tpD&ifcHpmwifjy&rnfudk qH;k jzwf&eftwGuf pkaygi;f pOf;pm;r_rsm; (Brain storming) ðyvkyfoiho f nf? jzpfEidk af csrsm;udk jzpfEidk af cs&aSd om &v'frsm;ESifh wGJzwfI owfrSwf&rnf? apmih=f unft h uJjzwfr. _ tpydik f;wGif ,if;udp&P yfrsm;udk pOf;pm;xm;jcif;/ r[mAsL[mESihfenf;AsL[mrsm;udk tcsdefyifkd ;f tvdu k f jyefvnfo;Hk oyfjcif;tm;jzifh jynfwiG ;f avhvma&;tpktzGJ@wpfckonf &&dv S maom owif;tcsut f vufrsm;udk xdxd a&mufa&muftoH;k ðy&eftwGuf aumif;rGefpmG jyifqifxm;+yD; jzpfvrd hfrnf jzpfonf? c? a'oqdik &f mapmif=h unft h uJjzwforl sm;rS tpD&ifcpH mwifjcif; a'oqdik &f mapmih=f unft h uJjzwforl sm;onf a&G;aumufyJrG pcif&ufyikd ;f tajctaersm;ukd yHkrSet f pD&ifcpH m wifoiG ;f &eftwGuf jyifqifr_rsm; ðyvky&f ef vdt k yfonf? ta&;}uD;aom tjzpftysuf ESifh rJq, G fyJq G idk &f m ykpH rH sm;tjyif/ ‚if;wdk@onf yHrk eS t f usO;f csKyftpD&ifcHpmudk tenf;qH;k wpfywfwcg ðypkoihfonf? aumif;rGeaf om tpD&ifcpH mwifoiG ;f jcif;pepfwpfcjk zpf&ef ‚if;tywfpOf tpD&ifcHpma&;om;enf; yHpk w H pfct k m; óuwifI csrSwx f m;oiho f nf? ‚if;tpD&ifcpH monf owfrSwcf sdef twGi;f jzpfco Jh nfrsm;udk ar;cGe;f jzifh yHak z:oihfonf? u¾wpfckpDwiG f óuwif oabmwlxm;aom acgi;f pOfwpfckpD yg0if&rnf? ,if;yHpk HwiG f  a,bk,sEdik if aH &; tajctaetusO;f csKyf? ? tao;pdwf tjzpftysufrsm; od@k r[kwf ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk yHak z:jy+yD; &ufowWywftwGi;f a'owGi;f Edifk if aH &;tajctae. tusO;f csKyfwpfcjk zpfonf?

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 a&G;aumufyGJ pDrt H kycf sKyfa&;? ? a&G;aumufyJt G m%mydik rf sm;onf tcsed fEiS hfwajy;nD rJqENay;rnfh aetwGuf jyifqifjcif; &dS r&d/S rJ&t Hk a&twGuq f ikd &f m tcsut f vufrsm;ESihf tjcm;aom oufqdik &f m udp&P yfrsm;tm; jyifqifjcif; &dSr&dS tpD&ifcjH cif;  a&G;aumufyGJqidk &f mtjiif;yGm;r_rsm;? ? tao;pdwt f jiif;yGm;r_tpD&ifcpH mrsm;tjyif a'oqdik &f m apmif=h unfh tuJjzwfolrsm;onf ‚if;wdk@a'otwGi;f &dS tjiif;yGm;r_e,fy,fEiS hf jyefvnf wHk@jyefcsufrsm;udk pm&if;ðypk/ tr#irf jywfap&ef ,cktcef;udk toH;k ðyoiho f nf?  rJqEN&iS fynmay;jcif;? ? rnfolu xkwjf yefxm;aom t&m/ rnfonft h a=umif;t&mESihf rnfonfh t&m oufa&mufr&_ dSonfwdk@jzpfonf?  Edik if aH &;rJq, G fpnf;&H;k r_? ? ygwDrsm;/ ud, k pf m;vS,frsm; vkyaf qmifaeaom t&mrsm;/ ‚if;wd@k . tpnf;ta0;rsm;/ wm;qD;ydwfyifc&H jcif; od@k r[kwf jcdr;f ajcmufc&H rsm;tm; ‚if;wd@k &ifqfkdiaf e&jcif; &drS &d/S wifjyvmaom pd;k &drzf , G f udp&P yfrsm; ESihf jynforl sm;xHrS rJq, G yf JGrsm;tay: wH@k jyefcsuf wdk@yg0ifonf?  owif;rD', D m? ? a&G;aumufyJGrJq, G fyJrG sm;tay: a'owGi;f rD', D mrsm;. tpD&ifcyH /kH rD', D mrsm;u yg0if,OS òf yifolrsm;tm; oihw f ifhaom toH;k ðycGirhf sm; axmufyhHay;jcif; &drS &d/S owif;wifjyyHk r#wr_ &drS &d/S az:jyyg owif;wifjycsut f ay: ygwDrsm;/ ud, k fpm;vS,frsm;ESihf jynfolvlxrk sm;. wHk@jyefcsuf ponfwd@k jzpfonf?  0efxrf;tkycf sKyfa&;? ? vlxt k zGJ@tpnf;rsm;onf rJq, G fyGJwiG f bufvu kd fr_ &dSr&d/S Edik if aH wmftzGJ@tpnf;rsm;onf rJq, G fyJrG sm;udk uef@owfyw d fyifjcif; od@k r[kwf ygwDrsm;/ ud, k pf m;vS,rf sm;ESihf ‚if;wdk@. axmufcHorl sm;tay: rsuEf mS vdu k q f ufqjH cif;qdik &f m tpD&ifcrH sm; xGufvmjcif; &drS &dS ESihf vlxt k zGJ@tpnf;rsm;onf Oya'abmiftwGi;f vkyu f dik af qmif&u G jf cif; &drS &dS wdk@jzpfonf?  rJqEN&iS frsm;tm; jcdr;f ajcmufjcif;ESifh yÉdyuQ? ? ygwDrsm; odk@r[kwf tjcm;olrsm; (tao;pdwf twdtus az:jy&rnf?) rS rJqEN&iS rf sm;tay: jcdr;f ajcmufaom tjzpftysufrsm; &drS &d/S yÉdyuQwpfck jzpfymG ;Edik af om tajctae!$ejf ycsufrsm; &drS &d/S &dyS gu ,if;yÉdyuQrsm;tm; wpHkw&mumuG,x f m;+yD;jcif; &drS &dS ESihf yÉdyuQ odk@r[kwf t=urf;zufr_rsm; &dSr&dS ponfwdk@jzpfonf?  trsK;d orD;rsm; yl;aygi;f yg0ifr_? ? a&G;aumufyJv G kyif ef;pOftwGi;f trsK;d orD;rsm;onf wdu k &f u kd f od@k r[kwf oG,0f dkuaf omenf;jzifh cGJjcm;qufqcH &H jcif; &drS &dS odk@r[kwf wpHkw&m pd;k &drrf uif;zG,fupd &P yfrsm; ay:aygujf cif; &drS &dS ESifh trsKd;orD;rsm;onf ta&twGurf sm;rsm;jzifh vkyif ef;pOftwGi;f yl;aygi;f aqmif&u G jf cif; &dSr&dw S kd@jzpfonf?  wdik ;f &if;om;vlenf;pkrsm;. yl;aygi;f yg0ifr?_ ? tu,fI ae&mwpfco k nf wdki;f &if;om; vlenf;pkrsm; aexkid f&m ae&mwpfcjk zpfygu ‚if;wdk@onf vkyif ef;pOftwGi;f tuef@towfr&dS yg0ifciG hf &r&/ ‚if;wdk@ylaygi;f yg0ifr_ &dSr&dS ESihf txl;pd;k &drzf , G &f adS om udp&P yfrsm;udk aqG;aEG;xm;jcif; &drS &dw S kd@jzpfonf?

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 rSwo f m;p&m tjcm;udp&P yfrsm; tpD&ifcpH monf uspfvpf/ &Siv f if;+yD;/ tcsut f vufrSeu f ef&rnfjzpfonf? a&mf,rf;csurf sm;udk a&SmifusO&f rnfjzpf+yD;/ ud, k w f ikd favhvmxm;aom ta=umif;t&mESihf apmif=h unft h uJjzwfolxH ay;yd@k xm;aom ta=umif;t&m ESpcf t k m; aocsmpGmcGJjcm;I tpD&ifco H iho f nf? pGwpf JGcsuw f pfck ðyvkyx f m;ygu apmih=f unftuJjzwfolonf ,if;pGwfpJcG sut f m; aemufxyf t&if;tjrpfwpfckEiS hf rSefuefa=umif; &drS &d/S oufaojyEkid jf cif;&drS &dS !$ejf yoiho f nf? A[d&k ;kH ylaygif;avhvma&;ESihf qef;ppfcJjG crf;a&;,lepf twGi;f &dS tpD&ifcpH mrsm;udk zwf&&_ ef/ tpDtpOfwusxm;&d&S ef/ trsK;d tpm;cGJ&ef ESihf tusOf;csKyf&ef wm0ef&o Sd l twdtusxo H dk@ tpD&ifcHpmrsm;udk vHjk cHKpGmay;yd@k oiho f nf? aemufxyfpkHprf;&efvt kd yfaom ta&;udp&P yfrsm;&dyS gu xdyk k*K~d vfonf qufo, G &f ef t"duae&m jzpfoiho f nf? jzpfEdik yf gu/ a'oqdik &f mapmih=f unft h uJjzwfoo l nf yHrk eS af qG;aEG;yGJrsm;ðyvky&f eftwGuf A[d&k ;kH od@k oGm;a&mufoiho f nf? wcsKd@udp&P yfrsm;wGif tpD&ifcpH mtusO;f csKyfrsm;udk apmih=f unft h uJjzwfol xHjyefvnfy@kd aqmif ay;oiho f nf? xdrk Som ‚if;wd@k taeESihf Edik if t H 0Sr;f tjzpftysufrsm;ESifh ywfouf+yD; od&SdEikd frnfjzpf+yD;/ yHkpHtrsK;d tpm;udkvnf; cGJjcm;owfrSwEf ikd frnfjzpfonf? *? xdyw f u dk &f ifqidk rf q _ idk &f m tpD&ifcpH mrsm; A[d&k ;Hk csKyfonf a&G;aumufyGJEiS fhqufE, G af om xdyw f kdu&f ifqikd rf r_ sm; tjrefq;kH odxm;&rnf? owif;tcsut f vufrsm;onf uspv f pf/ &Si;f vif;I oufaojyEkid af om owif;rsm; jzpfEidk o f r# jzpfoihfonf? apmih=f unft h uJjzwfolrsm;tm; xdyfwu kd f &ifqidk rf _rsm;udk tpD&ifc&H eftwGuf wd;k awmif;I/ em;vnf&efv, G fual om atmufygacgi;f pOfrsm;jzifh yHkpw H pfcu k kd ay;xm;oiho f nf?  xdyw f dkurf . _ tao;pdwaf jymjycsufrsm;  apmih=f unft h uJjzwfolrsm;rS pDpOfxm;aom aemufqufwJv G kyif ef;rsm;  A[d&k ;Hk csKyfrS awmif;cHxm;aom aemufqufwJv G kyif ef;rsm; wkd@jzpfonf? C? xkwjf yefcsurf sm; tapmydik ;f wGif ajymqdck o Jh nft h wdik ;f yif jynfwiG ;f avhvma&;tpktzGJ@wpfck a&G;aumufyJu G mvwpfct k wGi;f =um;jzwftpD&ifcHpmrsm; odk@r[kwf xkwjf yefa=ujimcsufrsm; xkw&f ef qEN&SdEikd o f nf? ‚if;vkyif ef;obm0. oH;k oyfcsuo f nf tðyoabmaqmifaomfvnf;/ ,if;vkyif ef;obm0rSwqifh zdtm;ay;r_rsm;udk vrf;zGiahf y;aom yHkprH sK;d jzpfEikd o f nfuv kd nf; tpktzGJ@wpfcu k owdðyoihfonf? *k%fou d mQ &dI S pepfwus okawoeðyvkyfxm;aom tpD&ifcHpmrsm;onf a&G;aumufyGJqidk &f mvkyif ef;pOf. tqift h wef;qdik &f m ta&;}uD;aom owif;tcsut f vufrsm;udk vlxt k m; axmufyaHh y;Edik frnfjzpf+yD;/ aemufxyf vGJrmS ;aom vkyaf qmifcsufrsm; od@k r[kwf t=urf;zufr_rsm;udk wm;qD;Edik frnfjzpfonf? jynfwiG ;f avhvma&;tpktzGJ@wpfcrk S xkwjf yefonfh ta&;}uD;aom vlxx k ifjrifcsuo f nf a'owGi;f ESifh Edik if t H 0Sr;f . pdwf0ifpm;r_tjrifq h ;Hk &daS ecsde/f a&G;aumufyGJt+yD;vwfwavmtcsed w f iG f jzpfEikd fz, G &f o Sd nf? ,if;xkwjf yefa=ujimcsufonf y%mrxkwjf yefa=ujimcsufjzpfonf? tb,fa=umihq f adk omf ‚if;xkwjf yefa=ujimcsuo f nf a&G;aumufyJv G yk if ef;pOf (Oyrm wkid =f um;csurf sm; ESifh t,lcHrsm;) . u¾rsm;tm;vH;k jynfph jkH cif;r&daS o;csed f xkwjf yefjcif;jzpf+yD;/ avhvmxm;or# vkyif ef;pOf. u¾rsm;tm;vH;k tay: qef;ppfavhvmcsuw f pfcu k o kd m xkwjf yefoifhonf? xkwjf yefa=ujimcsuf xkwjf yeft+yD; 103


xyfavmif;pk;d &drrf uif;r_rsm; ay:xGuv f mjcif; odk@r[kwf owif;tcsut f vuftopfrsm; ay:xGufvmygu aemufxyfxw k jf yefa=ujimcsufwpfct k m; y%mrxkwjf yefa=ujimcsu. f aemufqufwJG tjzpf xkwjf yefEikd o f nf? xkwjf yefa=ujimcsuo f nf atmufyg ta=umif;t&moH;k &yftay:wGif xnfo h iG ;f pOf;pm;oiho f nf? 1? a&G;aumufyGJqdik &f m t"duta=umif;t&mrsm;udk pHpk rf;avhvmjcif;

      

aemufco H rdik ;f a=umif; Oya'abmif a&G;aumufyGJtyk cf sKyfa&; a&G;aumufyGJrJq, G fyGJEiS fh rD', D mtygt0if a&G;aumufyJt G óutajctae a&G;aumufyGJqikd &f m wdik fwef;csufrsm;ESihf t,lcrH sm; a&G;aumufyGJae@ rJpm&if;oGi;f jcif; ESifh &v'ftygt0if a&G;aumufyJt G vGet f ajctae

2? owif;tjzpfxw k jf yefoihaf om xdww f u dk af wG@r_rsm;  ta&;}uD;aom pd;k &drcf surf sm;udk jzpfay:apcJah om xdyw f kduaf wG@r_rsm;. tao;pdwf? txl;ojzifh a&G;aumufyJEG iS fh qufE, G af om t=urf;zufrr_ sm;? 3? oH;k oyfcsuf - a&G;aumufyGJqidk &f m ðcHiHk avhvmcsufrsm;

Edik if w H umuwdu0wfrsm; ESifh 'Dru dk &ufwpfa&G;aumufyJGrsm;qdik f&m pH!$e;f rsm;tm; vdu k femjcif; ESihf txl;ojzifh a&G;aumufyJG Oya'ESifh tajccHOya'rsm;ponfh oufqidk &f m Edik if aH wmfOya'rsm; jyXmef;jcif; paom a&G;aumufyJGvyk fx;kH vkyfenf;rsm;ukd pHpk rf;avhvmjcif;? y%mra&G;aumufyGJtvGef xkwjf yef a=ujimcsut f m; jynfwiG ;f avhvma&;tpktzGJ@wpfck. t"duawG@&cSd surf sm; ESihf oH;k oyfcsufrsm; tjzpf &_jrifEidk fonf? xdk@a=umifh xkwjf yefa=ujimcsuo f nf t"dutcsufrsm;tay: &Si;f vif;xm;aom az:jy csurf sm;ESit fh wl &Si;f vif;I uspfvpfr&_ &dS rnf? tqH;k r&dS tao;pdwrf sm; ESihf ta&;}uD;aom ta=umif;t&m enf;yg;r_ukd a&SmifusOo f iho f nf? &Snv f sm;aom yHak z:csufrsm;ESiOhf yrmrsm;udk aemufq;kH tpD&ifcpH mtwGuf csefxm;oiho f nf? aemufq;Hk taeESifh avhvma&;tpktzGJ@wpfco k nf awG@&cSd sufrsm;tm; pkpnf;I aemufq;kH ydwf qef;ppfavhvm csuv f yk af qmif&ef vdt k yfonf[al om t,ltqESihf ESiq fh ef@usiI f apmvsifpmG xkwfvi$ ahf om oH;k oyfcsut f wGuf rD', D m. zdtm;ay;r_rsm;udk xde;f !d&S rnf? vkyif ef;pOfu¾rsm;qdik &f m tpD&ifcpH mrsm;udk qef;ppfrr_ sm; ðyvky+f yD;onfEiS hf wòyifeuf rJay;jcif;/ rJa&wGujf cif;ESifh pm&if;oGi;f jcif;vkyif ef;pOfrsm;tay: oH;k oyfcsufrsm;ESit hf wl a&G;aumufyJt G =udK umvESihf 104


oufqidk af om xkwjf yefa=ujimcsu. f tcsut f vufrsm;tm; a&G;aumufyJGrwdkicf ifwiG f jyifqifEidk o f nf? jynfwiG ;f avhvma&;tpktzGJ@wpfco k nf y%mrxkwjf yefa=ujimcsuf tcsderf DSxw k jf yefEikd &f ef twGuf tpD&ifcHpm wifoiG ;f jcif; vkyif ef;abmifwpfcu k dk wnfaqmufoiho f nf? tkyfpw k pfpo k nf y%mr xkwjf yefa=ujimcsuf wpfck xkwjf yef&eftwGuf tavmoH;k q,frjzpfoihaf y? tb,fa=umihq f akd omf ‚if;.oH;k oyfcsufrsm;onf pdwf0ifpm;r_trsm;qH;k jzpfvrd frh nf jzpf+yD;/ a&G;aumufyGJt+yD; aemufyidk ;f &ufrsm; wGif jynfov l x l kEiS hf rD'D,monf txl;pdw0f ifwpm;&daS ecsdew f iG f owfa&mufrt _ &dq S ;kH jzpfaoma=umihf jzpfonf? i? aemufq;Hk tpD&ifcpH m aemufq;Hk tpD&ifcHpmudk a&G;aumufyGJwpfct k +yD; ESpv f twGif; xkwjf yefoiho f nf? ,if;tpD&ifcpH mwGif avhvmxm;or# a&G;aumufyGJvyk if ef;pOf. u¾tm;vH;k tay: tao;pdwf qef;ppfoH;k oyfcsurf sm; yg0ifoiho f nf? tpD&ifcpH monf &Si;f vif;pGma&;om;xm;+yD;/ a&G;aumufyGJu|rf;usio f rl [kwo f lrsm; em;vnfEikd af pa&; taotcsm tm&Hpk kduo f iho f nf? tpD&ifcpH myg xkwaf z:ajymqdck surf sm;tm;vH;k onf rSefuefaom taxmuftxm;rsm;jzifh oufaojyEdik &f efrmS r&drS jzpfvt dk yfonf? oHo,&dSz, G f taxmuftxm;rsm;udk rxnfhoiG ;f oifah y? aemufq;kH tpD&ifcpH mwGif atmufyg tcef;rsm; yg0ifoiho f nf[k t=uHðyxm;onf?             

tusO;f csKyf ed'ge;f ESifh todtrSwðf yjcif;rsm; Edik if aH &;aemufco H rdik ;f Oya'a=umif;qdik &f m qef;ppfavhvmjcif; rJqEN&iS frw S fyw Hk ifjcif;vkyif ef;pOf ESifh ppfaq;xm;aom rJqEN&iS fpm&if;. &v'frsm;udk qef;ppfavhvmjcif; a&G;aumufyGJpDrt H yk cf sKyfa&;tm; apmif=h unft h uJjzwfjcif; ud, k pf m;vS,rf Swyf Hw k ifjcif;tm; avhvmjcif; a&G;aumufyGJrJq, G fyGJtm; avhvmjcif; rD'D,mapmif=h unft h uJjzwfjcif; rJay;jcif;/ rJa&wGujf cif; ESifh rJpm&if;oGi;f jcif;tm; avhvmjcif; w&m;0if &v'frsm;ESifh oH;k oyfcsuf wdik w f ef;csurf sm;tay: ajz&Si;f csufrsm; ESihf vHak vmufaom aphpyf!SdEi_d ;f a&;pepf axmufct H =uHðycsurf sm;

axmufct H =uHKjycsufrsm;tm; a&G;aumufyGJvyk if ef;pOf wd;k wufaumif;rGeaf pa&;twGuf tðyoabmaqmifaom t=uHðy csurf sm; ay;rnf[al om tjrifwpfcjk zifh &Si;f vif;pGm yHak z:oiho f nf? pmjzifah &;om;az:jyaom xkwfjyefa=ujimcsufrsm;ESihf tpD&ifcHpmrsm;tjyif jynfwiG ;f avhvma&;tpktzGJ@ wpfck onf awG@&cdS sufrsm; ESifh axmufct H =uHðycsurf sm;. tusOf;csKyfukd a&G;aumufyJt G m%mydik frsm;/ Edik if aH &;ygwDrsm;/ vlxt k ajcðytzGJ@tpnf;rsm; ESifh Edik if w H umrdom;pkxo H d@k E_wt f m;jzifw h ifjy&ef qEN&aSd umif; &dSEkdio f nf? ,if;vkyif ef;rSwqifh ydrk adk umif;rGeaf omvkyif ef;pOfwck&&daS &; tjrifzvS,Ef idk af om tcGit hf vrf;wpfc&k &dES ikd +f yD;/ jynfwGi;f avhvmoltpktzGJ@wpfckEiS hf 105


t"duaqG;aEGolrsm; t=um; txl;ojzifh tm%mydik frsm;ESifh a&G;aumufyJpG Drt H kyo f lrsm; t=um; ,H=k unfrw _ nfaqmuf&mwGifvnf; taxmuftulรฐy Edkio f nf? E_wt f m;jzifh tpD&ifcpH mrsm;udk pmtm;jzifhwifjyaom tpD&ifcpH mrsm;tm; vlo&d iS =f um; xkwjf yef+yD;csucf si;f odk@r[kwf rxkwjf yefcif/ a&G;aumufyJGumvtwGi;f yHkrSef tcsdefyikd ;f odk@r[kwf tm%mydik frsm;/ Oya'รฐytrwfrsm; ESihf a&G;aumufyJpG rD t H kycf sKyfa&;tygt0if pdwf0ifpm;olrsm;jzifh us,u f s,jf yef@jyef@รฐyvkyaf om a&G;aumufyGJt+yD; ES;D aESmzvS,yf JGrsm;wGiv f nf; wifjyEdik o f nf? p? tpD&ifcpH m jzef@a0jcif; xkwjf yefa=ujimcsufrsm;ESifh tpD&ifcpH mESpfrsK;d pvH;k udk wdik ;f jynf. t"dubmompum; (pum;rsm;) jzifh xkwjf yefoihfonf? jzpfEidk fygu wdik ;f &if;om;bmompum;rsm; ESihf Edik if Hwumjzef@a0jcif;twGuf t*Fvyd fbmomESihfyg xkwaf 0oiho f nf? xkwjf yefa=ujimcsufrsm;ESit fh pD&ifcpH mrsm;udk a'owGi;f ESifh Edkif if HwumrD', D m/ Edik if w H umtzGJ@tpnf;rsm;ESihf tefe*f st D rkd sm;/ oH&;Hk rsm;/ Edik if aH wmftm%mydik frsm;/ Edik if aH &;ygwrD sm;/ ud, k pf m;vS,rf sm;/ tvSL&Sirf sm; ESihf Edik fiw H umrdom;pkxHo@kd jzef@a0 oiho f nf? xkwjf yefa=ujimcsufrsm;ESit fh pD&ifcHpmrsm;udk jynfwiG ;f avhvma&;tpktzGJ@wpfck. tifwmeufpmrsufEmS wGif vnf; az:jyoiho f nf?

106


(OSCE) ESifh (ODIHR) ta-umif; 'Drdu k &ufpt D zGJ@tpnf;rsm;ESihf vl@tcGit fh a&;&H;k (ODIHR) onf (OSCE) . t"dutzGJ@tpnf;jzpf+yD;/ ‚if;onf yl;aygi;f yg0ifaomEdik if Hrsm;tm; “vl@tcGit fh a&;ESit hf ajccHvw G fvyfrr_ sm;udk tjynft h 0vdkuef m&ef w&m;Oya'pd;k rd;k r_ukd qkyu f idk &f ef/ 'Drdu k a&pD. tajccH Oya'orsm;udk jr‡iw fh if&ef ESihf vl@tzGJ@tpnf;twGi;f onf;cHrw _ &m; jyef@yGm;ap&efenf;wl 'Drku d &ufwpftzGJ@tpnf;rsm;tm; wnfaqmuf&ef/ tm;aumif;vmap&ef ESihf tumtuG,af y;&ef (1992 [,fvfpifuD a=ujimpmwrf;) ” paom vkyif ef;rsm;wGif ulnDyhHy;kd ay;onf? ydv k effEidk if H0gaqmjrdK@wiG f tajcpdu k af om (ODIHR) tm; (1992) yJ&pfxyd o f ;D aqG;aEG;yGJwiG f vGwv f yfaom a&G;aumufyGJrsm;qdik &f m&H;k tjzpf wnfaqmufc+Jh yD;/ (1991) ckEpS /f arvwGif vkyif ef;rsm; pwifaqmif&u G cf o Jh nf? wpfEpS =f um aomtcgwiG f vl@tcGit fh a&;ESifh'rD du k a&pDðykjyifajymif;vJa&; tygt0if vkyfyikd cf iG fw h ;kd csJ@vmjcif; tay: xif[yfr&_ aSd p&eftwGuf &H;k . trnftm; ajymif;vJco Jh nf? (ODIHR) onf Oa&my&dS a&G;aumufyGJavhvmr_e,fy,fwGif OD;aqmiftzGJ@tpnf;wpfcjk zpfonf? (ODIHR) onf (OSCE) a'o twGi;f &dS a&G;aumufyGJrsm;onf Edik if w H iG ;f Oya'rsm;/ Edik if w H umpHcsdefp! H $e;f rsm;ESihf udu k fnrD &_ Sdr&dS pHkprf;avhvm

&eftwGuf axmifcsaD om avhvmolrsm;ESit fh wl rsm;jym;vSaom avhvma&;rpf&iS frsm;udk pDr/H wm0efcaH qmif&u G af eonf? ‚. olrwlx;l jcm;aomenf;emrsm;jzifh a&G;aumufyJv G kyif ef;pOfyg tcef;u¾rsm;ESifh ywfoufaom twGi;f usus owif;rsm;udk axmufyaHh y;onf? taxmuftyHah y;a&;ya&m*sufrsm;rSwqifh (ODIHR) onf yl;aygi;f yg0ifaom Edik if Hrsm; twGuf ‚if;wdk@. a&G;aumufyGJvyk if ef;pOfrsm; wd;k wufapa&; tultnDay;onf? (ODIHR) . 'Drkdua&pDðyjyifajymif;vJa&;vkyif ef;rsm;wGif atmufyg aqG;aEG;p&mta=umif;t&m e,fy,frsm; yg0ifonf?

‚if;wdk@rSm w&m;Oya'pd;k rd;k a&;/ vl@xt k ajcðyvl@tzGJ@tpnf;/ vGwv f yfpmG vSKyf&mS ;oGm;vmcGi/hf vdiw f ef;wla&; ESihf vluek u f ;l jcif; ponfwdk@jzpfonf? (ODIHR) onf (OSCE) uwdu0wfrsm;+yD;jynfp&kH efEiS hf 'Drkdua&pDtaqmuftOD;rsm; wd;k wufz@HG òz; vmapa&; ESprf sKd;pvH;k twGuf 0dkfi;f 0ef;ulnaD qmif&u G &f ef ESppf Of ypfrw S x f m; tultnDay;a&;tpDtpOf (100) xufrenf; taumiftxnfaz:aeqJ jzpfonf? (ODIHR) onf vl@tcGit hf a&;umuG,af pmifah &Smufa&;tm; twufynmqkid &f m tultnDay;a&; ya&m*sufrsm;ESifh

vlom;tcef;u¾udp&P yfrsm;twGuf oifwef;rsm;yd@k csjcif; ponfv h yk if ef;pOfrsm;rSwqifh jr‡iw hf ifonf? xd@k tjyif (ODIHR) onf yl;aygi;f yg0ifaom Ekid if Hrsm;. (OSCE) vlom; tcef;u¾qdik &f m uwdu0wfrsm; taumiftxnfaz:jcif;ESifh ywfoufI ESpfpOf jyefvnfo;Hk oyfonf? ‚if;. t=urf;zufqef@usiaf &;vkyif ef;rsm;wGif (ODIHR) onf vlom; tcef; u¾udp&P yfrsm; em;vnf odjrifvmapa&; ESihf t=urf;zufrt _ m; jzpfay:apaom tcsuftvufrsm;udk tajccHusus &Si;f vif;Edik af om ya&m*sufrsm;udk aqmif&u G v f #uf&o Sd nf? (ODIHR) onf yl;aygi;f yg0ifaom tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;tm; a&mr ESif pifwD (Roma and Sinti) qdik & f m ‚wd@k . rl0g'rsm;ESihf

ywfoufI t=uHn%fay;onf? (ODIHR) onf a&mrESihf pifwDEikd if Hrsm;t=um; t&nftaoG;jrSiw hf ifa&;vkyif ef;rsm;/ uGe, f ufwnfaqmufjcif;rsm;udk jrSiw fh ifay;+yD;/ a&mrESihf pifwu D kd,pf m;vS,rf sm;tm; rl0g'csrSwaf &;vkyif ef;rsm;wGif 107


yg0ifapa&; tm;ay;tm;ajrSmufรฐyonf? (ODIHR) onf Ekdiif w H iG ;f ESihf Edik if w H umaqmif&u G o f rl sm;t=um; a&mr ESifh pifwu D dp&P yfrsm;ESifh oufqidk faom owif;tcsut f vufrsm; zvS,&f eftwGuf owif;tcsut f vufrsm;pkpnf;&m/ jzef@cGJ&mae&mwpfct k jzpf aqmif&u G af y;onf? (ODIHR) vkyaf qmifcsut f m;vH;k tm; (OSCE) tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;/ uGi;f qif;pDrcH sufrsm;enf;wl tjcm;aom Edik if w H um

tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;ESiv fh nf; eD;eD;uyfuyf yl;aygi;f wm0efcaH qmif&u G o f nf? ydrk do k &d v Sd kdygu (ODIHR) tifwmeufpmrsufEmS (www.osce.org/odihr) wGif &&dES idk o f nf?

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aemufausmtzH;k r=umao;rDEpS frsm;wGi/f a&G;aumufyGJrsm;ESihf jynfol@qENcH,yl GrJ sm;udk apmifh =unfah vhvmonfv h kyfief;rsm; xGe;f um; vmcJ+h yD;/ ‚if;wdk@udk 'Dru dk a&pDtoGiu f ;l ajymif;a&;ESihf vl@tcGit hf a&;rsm;udk axmufcHyHhy;kd ay;&ef/ ta&;}uD;onfh vkyif ef; aqmifwmrsm;tjzpf aqmif&u G fvmcJ=h uygonf? a&G;aumufyGJrsm;onf 'Dru kd a&pDpepftwGuf r&Sdrjzpfta&;yg+yD;/ jynfov l x l k rsm;u tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;tay: ,H=k unfu;dk pm;r_&jdS cif;ESihf a&G;aumufyJGrsm;ESihf oufqdik af omvkyif ef;pOfrsm;onfvnf; rnfod@k aom'Dru dk a&pD tpdk;&rqdk. tm%mtajccHtw k jf rpftjzpf xlaxmifay;&ef ta&;}uD;ygonf? Edik if w H um. }uD;=uyfapmifh =unfrh o _ nf vltrsm;. tm&Hpk l;pdkurf t _ &&Sq d ;kH jzpf+yD;/ ydkrv kd o l drsm; xif&mS ;aponfh tcsed w f iG /f jynfwiG f;Y apmif=h unfah vhvmaeolrsm;. tcef;u¾ onfvnf; ydI k ta&;ygvmcJhygonf? jynfwiG ;f &Sd apmifh =unfah vhvma&;tzGJ@rsm;a=umif/h Oya'csKd;azmufr_rsm;udk umuG,w f m;qD;Edik +f yD;/ a&G;aumufyv JG kyif ef;pOftay: oef@&Si;f pif=u,fr_EiS fh cdik rf mwnf=unfr_tay: vlxk,=Hk unfr_ wd;k wuf&&Sad pygonf? TvufpGJpmtkyfonf/ jynfwiG ;f &Sd apmif=h unfah vhvma&;tzG@J rsm;twGuf enf;emrsm;ESifh vkyif ef;oH;k enf;vrf; u&d,mrsm;udk azmfjyay;xm;+yD;/ ‚if;wdk@udk toH;k ðyI/ pepfusaom zufpjkH ynfhpakH om a&G;aumufyJGavhvmapmif=h unfah &; vkyif ef;rsm; aqmif&u G fEidk fygvdrfhrnf?

109


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110

Handbook on Election Monitor Burmese  

Burma , Myanmar .