Rokua Geopark guide ENG

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United Nations Educational, ScientiďŹ c and Cultural Organization

Rokua UNESCO Global Geopark


Discover Rokua Geopark

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Hello! In this guide we will explore Rokua Geopark together and find out about the Heritage of the Ice Age.

Pooki Mammoth

Piku Mammoth

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Rokua UNESCO Global Geopark

Oulu 30 mins -  25 km Laitasaari

Oulujoki River Valley Tar Trail

Pyhäkoski Montta Leppiniemi

Pälli

UNESCO GLOBAL GEOPARKS AROUND THE WORLD Liimanninkoski

Arctic Pole

Atlantic Ocean

EURO

TH NOR ICA R AME

PE

S U OMI–FINL AND

ASIA AFRICA

Pacific Ocean NAPAPIIRI

OCEANIA

Oulu Kajaani

Helsinki

RY

IV

A

AN N

SOUTH AMERICA

ARCTIC CIRCLE

ERS

ANTARCTIC

The First UNESCO Global Geopark in Finland 2010–2020

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United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

Rokua UNESCO Global Geopark


What is Rokua Geopark and the Heritage of the Ice Age? Rokua Geopark is Finland’s first UNESCO Global Geopark. There are more than 160 Geoparks in the world, exploring natural and cultural heritage through education, research and tourism. Rokua Geopark focuses on the heritage of the Ice Age. Over billions and thousands of years, the movement of bedrock and several ice ages have shaped the landscapes of Lake Oulujärvi, Rokua and the River Oulujoki. You can see the heritage of the Ice Age in high dunes, deep kettle holes, large mires, spectacular sandy shorelines and boreal forests carpeted with white lichen.

Utanen

Ahmas

Pookivaara Syvyydenkaivo Pikku-Rokua

Nuojua

Jylhämä Kankari Nimisjärvi

Väätäjänniemi

Ruununtörmä

Jaalanka

Kajaani 1 hour - 80 km Kuosto Kilonniemi

Teeriniemi Alassalmi Martinlahti

Kuvaja

10 km

What’s ice? Ice is a solid form of water. It occurs when the tem+ perature drops below the freezing point. 0 °C 32 F When the temperature rises, ice melts. Ice is – found in the ice cover of natural waters, such as in the River Oulujoki, Rokua’s kettle holes and Lake Oulujärvi, and in the snow cover, atmosphere and glaciers. During the Ice Age, Rokua Geopark was covered by a glacier more than two kilometres thick.

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Geological history Earth was born 4,600 million years ago MI L L IO N S O F Y E A R S A GO

Cyanobacteria or blue-green algae 4 ,0 0 0 M ILLION

3,000 MIL L ION

1.

L I V I N G OR GA N I S MS 1 squ a r e = 1 0 0 mi l l i o n y ear s

Landscape puzzle How the bedrock and life developed

You could think of Rokua Geopark’s landscape as a puzzle. The oldest pieces may have been in the bedrock for billions of years, while the youngest pieces were formed in the bedrock and soil in the last 11,000 years. Grouped by birth and age, these geological pieces of landscape create a story of evolution that reveals how the area received its current features. Rokua Geopark’s oldest gneiss rocks crystallised nearly 2,900 million years ago. The bedrock in Rokua Geopark was born long before dinosaurs, at a time when the only living organisms on Earth were bacteria.

1. Kilonniemi gneiss rock, Lake Oulujärvi

W IND

F LO W I N G WAT E R

F O R M AT I O N O F P E AT L A N D S

CONTINE N TA L ICE S HE E T

M E LT WAT E R STREAM

L A N D UP L I F T AND SHORE F O R M AT I O N S

A NCIENT CONTINE N T

O CE A N A N D M O UN TA I N S

S H A L LO W S E A A N D D E LTA

A N CI E N T CO N T I N E N T

2,700–2,600 MIL LIO N Y EAR S AG O

East Finland block

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Russian Karelia and Kola Peninsula blocks


Humans 2 million years ago Dinosaurs 230–65 million years ago

1,000 MIL L ION

2,000 MILLION

2.

3. 3. Kieksi conglomerate rock, Muhos formation, the River Oulujoki

2. Pyhäkoski granite rock, the River Oulujoki

O C EA N A N D M O UNTA I N S

Compared to the development of bedrock, the time human evolution has taken looks paper-thin on the timeline

S H A L LO W S E A A N D D E LTA

1, 820– 1, 7 9 0 M I L L I O N YE A RS AG O

1,200–600 MIL L ION YEARS AGO

Bedrock outcrops nd lt a fau ck nes dro zo Be ture c fra

ay Earth surface tod

Ancient crystallized bedrock

Present soil Muhos formatio n Bedrock depress ion

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PR ES ENT


Geological history T H O U S A N D S O F YE A R S AG O

Pookivaara Hill rises from the water

11,000

4.

ICE AGE

Lake Oulujärvi is formed The River Oulujoki begins

First plants

9,000

1 0 ,0 0 0

Rokua Geopark emerges from the ice

1 0 0 0 0 5.

8,000

6.

1 square = 1 0 0 years How soil developed Over a million years, Finland was repeatedly under a slow-flowing continental ice sheet. The ice sheet transported boulders and created smooth, striated rock formations known as “roche mountonnées”. The melt water stream deposited sand from the Muhos formation into an esker. Moraine ridges were formed on the bottom and edge of the ice sheet, while melting ice blocks created kettle holes in eskers. Rokua Geopark emerged from under the ice sheet between 10,700 and 10,500 years ago. Lake Oulujärvi was cut off from the early Baltic Sea, called the Ancylus Lake, about 9,500 years ago.

Continental ice sheet

N O R WAY

00

0 10

4. Erratic boulder, Väätäjänniemi, Va

OULU

SWEDEN

Rokua esker

00

0 11

ILOMANTSI 0 60 11 000 F I N L A N D 12 00 0 13 200 00 70 14 –1 0 20 18

t margin ee h s Ice EUROPE

There were mammoths in Finland during the Ice Age

CO NT INENTAL I C E SH EET

29,000–10,500 YEARS AGO

Continental ice sheet, thickness 2–3 km Core esker is deposited in the tunnel

500 km

MO R E T H AN 11,000 Y EAR S AG O

Sea

Erratic b Boulde oulders rs

Moraine ridges

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ala

7,000

5. Kettle hole, Syvyydenkaivo, Rokua

6. Shore bluff, Kuostonsaari, Oulujärvi

Literally “the Well of Deepness”, Syvyydenkaivo is Finland’s deepest natural-state kettle hole

M E LT WAT E R S T RE A M

L A N D UP L I F T AND SHORE F O R M AT I O N S

9 , 8 0 0 YE A R S AG O

9,500 YEARS AGO

Ice blocks melting into the sand

Sandy ridge

4,000

5,000

6,000

Shore bluff

Beach ridge Sandy beach

Original earth surface Kettle holes shoreline terraine

ice

ip Prec

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Pine

Geological history T H O U S A N D S O F YE A R S AG O

Alder

Birch Grasses

Peatland formation 1 0 ,0 0 0

7.

ICE AGE

Nuojua ravines 9,000

8,000

S TA GES OF V EGETAT ION

8.

1 sq u are = 100 years Soil development and stages of vegetation Wind carried fine-graided sand from sandy beaches, creating the dunes in Rokua. As a result of land uplift, the River Oulujoki began 9,500 years ago as an outlet for Lake Oulujärvi. In four thousand years, the land uplifted so much that the river channel reached Muhos near the current Pyhäkoski power plant. The tributaries and streams of the River Oulujoki carved deep valleys known as ravines into the sandy soils of the river valley. Peat formation began in wet depressions straight after the terrain exposed from water, and accelerated as climate cooled about 6,000 years ago. The development of channels and mires still continues.

wind

7. Parabolic dunes, Rokua

8. Aapa mire, Kuvaja, Vaala

F O R MAT IO N O F P E ATLANDS

WIND

9,500 Y EAR S AG O

10,000–9,000 YEARS AGO

dune sand Parabolic dunes

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Mire


7,000

6 ,000

Spruce

Coastline and the River Oulujoki delta in Muhos

5,000

4,000

9.

9. Ravines and meanders, the River Muhosjoki Greywacke Gneiss Quartzite

Granite

Conglomerate

Schist/ biotite Diabase

F LO W I N G WAT E R

Sandstone and claystone

5 , 0 0 0 YE A R S A G O

Ravine or a deep valley

Oxbow lake Meandering river

Rokua Geopark’s birthstone is gravel dyed brown by iron and formed into rock, known as Kieksi conglomerate, by the Lemmenpolku nature trail


Rokua Geopark emerges from under the ice sheet Margin of the continental ice sheet

Rokua and Manamansalo

10 , 70 0 – 10 , 60 0 Y EA R S A GO

9, 80 0 Y EAR S AGO

+

–

At the end of the Ice Age, the climate warmed up and the ice sheet started to melt. The margin of the ice sheet retreated from Manamansalo to Muhos in about 200 years. The present landscapes began to form when they were under the ice sheet. 12


Lake Oulujärvi and the River Oulujoki

The River Oulujoki in Muhos

9 , 500 YE A RS AGO

3 , 8 0 0 Y E A RS A GO

Area covered by the ice sheet

Drumlins under the ice sheet

Area covered by water

End moraines in front of the ice sheet Hummocky moraines in front of and below the ice sheet

Terrain

Melt water stream in a tunnel under the ice sheet Clacial bay and its age Beach ridges Shore bluffs

Dunes Kettle holes and esker mounds Peatland formation begins Muhos ravines and meanders Muhos delta

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Traces of the Ice Age Lake Oulujärvi landscape area

End moraines accumulated on the edges of melting ice sheet

Esker deposited by glacial melt water, and kettle lakes

Drumlins created under the flowing ice sheet

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Rocks smoothed and grooved by slow-moving ice

Sand and rocks detached from the bedrock by the continental ice sheet


Rokua landscape area

Water level of glacial bay Pookivaara

Esker deposited by glacial melt water, and kettle holes

Kettle holes at the sites where ice blocks melted

194,2 m

Wind-shaped dunes

Ancient beach ridges created by wind and waves

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Traces of the Ice Age The River Oulujoki Valley landscape area

Oulujärvi

The River Oulujoki was created when Lake Oulujärvi was cut off as a result of land uplift

Riverbed follows the fault lines in the rocks

Moving glacier has revealed faults in the rocks

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Rapids formed by the edges of fault lines

Potholes were created in strong rapids


The River Oulujoki Valley landscape area

Ancient riverbed delta

Ancient riverbeds and delta

The ancient delta is now lush farmland ua Rok

line ary und o b park Geo

Riverbed eroded by flowing water

Flowing water has eroded soil all the way to the bedrock

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Nordic plants and animals Mires

Barren heath on eskers

Black grouse Tetrao tetrix

Pine Pinus sylvestris

Beard lichen Usnea

Cloudberry Rubus chamaemorus

Cotton grass Eriophorum

Heather Calluna vulgaris

Crane Grus grus

Blue butterfly

Bog rosemary

Polyommatinae

Andromeda polifolia

Wild thyme

Thymus serpyllum

Sundew Drosera Sphagnum moss

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Marsh tea

Cup lichen

Rhododendron tomentosum

Cladonia


Lush herb-rich forests in river valleys

Rokua Geopark’s plants and animals have changed according to the geology and soil

Large copper Lycaena dispar

Goldenrod

Solidago virgaurea

Arctic starflower Trientalis europaea

Western thyme plume moth

Mezereon

Cep

Merrifieldia tridactyla

Daphne mezereum

Boletus edulis

Wood sorrel

Bracken Pteridium aquilinum

Oxalis acetosella

Reindeer lichen Cladonia rangiferina

Fly honeysuckle Lonicera xylosteum

Baneberry

Leafy lichen Peltigera aphthosa

Red-stemmed feathermoss Pleurozium schreberi

Actaea

Marsh marigold Caltha palustris

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Cultural history – from the Stone Age to present T HO U S A N D S O F YE A R S AG O

7 ,0 0 0

6,000

5,000

S TO N E A G E 1 squ a r e = 1 0 0 y e a r s

Säräisniemi ceramic

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Signs of Stone Age settlements The oldest artefacts discovered in the area are Comb Ceramic objects. They are more than 7,000 years old and were found in Säräisniemi. Pyhäkoski’s Stone Age dwelling sites are about 6,00–5,000 years old. Some Bronze and Iron Age discoveries have also been made.

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Tar and rapid shooting From the 16th century until the 1920s, tar was transported down the River Oulujoki from Kainuu by rowing boats. You can find many tar-burning pits in the area. From the 19th century until the 1940s, the rapids were a popular tourist destination

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Old churches Kainuu’s first church in Manamansalo was burned down in the violent skirmishes of the Russo-Swedish War (1578-1581). Muhos Church was built in 1634, Utajärvi in 1762 and Säräisniemi in 1782. Kalevala rune singers Folk healers and traditional storytellers, known as rune singers, lived in Ahmas from the 17th century until the 19th century. You can find their stories in Kalevala, the Finnish national epic. Emperor’s Road The Emperor’s Road, or Keisarintie in Finnish, was built between the fortresses in Oulu and Kajaani from the 17th century onwards. Tsar of Russia, Emperor Alexander I, visited Lake Oulujärvi in 1819.

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Stone Age dwelling site

Lamminaho farm

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Old churches

5

4,000


Pyhänsivu ski

Rokua axe

3 ,0 0 0

1,000

2,000

BR ONZE AGE

Peasant culture Built in the 1750s, Lamminaho House is a type of traditional farmhouse found in the Oulujoki Valley.

I R O N A GE Pyhäkoski 2 8 1 7 9 3 9

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The Great Northern War A well-known Finnish children’s story by Zachris Topelius, “The Birch and the Star”, is set in Muhos in the time of the Great Northern War (1713–1721).

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Salmon The Oulujoki has been famous for salmon since the 16th century. At the end of the 19th century, the Oulujoki attracted English fishers who were known as “salmon lords”.

9

10

11

9

2

MUSEOVIRAS TO

6

PR ES ENT

9 9

Ahmas 4

Salmon fly

Hydroelectric power plants The Oulujoki hydroelectric power plants and the residential areas for their workers were built between 1941 and 1957. They were designed by architect Aarne Ervi.

6 9 9

10 11

1 5 3 Säräisniemi

Cross-country skiing Rokuanvaara became a popular ski destination in the 1940s. But artefact finds show that people have been skiing in this area for 3,000 years. National park and hiking trails Rokua National Park was founded in 1956 and Oulujärvi Hiking Area in 1993. The first fire guard tower was built in Pookivaara, Rokua, in 1936.

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Pyhäkoski power plant 11

1

Manamansalo 2

The fire guard tower

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Time Travel Using modern virtual technology, you can discover how Rokua Geopark’s landscapes around Lake Oulujärvi, Rokua and the River Oulujoki have looked like through the ages. You can visit Rokua Geopark’s exhibitions and explore the unique Ice Age Heritage Story. Jump billions of years into the past and see the mountains as they were then, visit a continental ice sheet with a thickness of two kilometres, walk around a Stone Age village, and explore the sceneries of the early 20th century and today. With a VR headset and controller, you can get a realistic experience of the landscape around you, visit the surrounding area, watch how people lived their lives, view objects and perform tasks. The project has been designed by Rokua Geopark, Kajaani University of Applied Sciences, Geological Survey of Finland, the Museum and Science Centre Luuppi. The project has consulted scientists on geology, biology and human cultural history. DOWNLOAD THE FREE MAP APP ON YOUR SMARTPHONE

Explore the Time Travel with the Rokua Geopark mobile app

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In Rokua Geopark you can now discover how the River Oulujoki was in the old days

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Vocabulary English English

Finnish Finnish

Explanation Explanation

accumulate

kasaantua

gather together or acquire an increasing number or quantity of; to pile up

alga

levä

aquatic photosynthetic, eukaryotic organisms ranging in size from a single cell to large kelps

Ancylus lake

Ancylusjärvi

Ancylus lake was a fresh-water lake-stage before the present Baltic Sea ca. 10800 - 9000 BP (before present). It covered the area of the Baltic Sea, and even more. The signs of the lake´s shoreline can be found above 110 metres elevations above the present sea level in Rokua Geopark.

barren

karu

unable to produce plants or fruit; for example sandy soil

be buried

hautautua

something being totally covered under some matter or particles; for example an ice block buried by sand

block

lohkare, järkäle

a very large piece of some substance, for example ice

channel, crack

railo

a narrow space between two surfaces which have broken or been moved apart; for example in bedrock or in glacier

cyanobacterium

sinibakteeri

aquatic photosynthetic, prokaryotic single-cell organisms

deposit

kerrostua, kasautua

a layering of accumulated matter; used for example to describe process as water transports and accumulates sand

diabase

diabaasi

rock type crystallized in veins between magma chamber and Earth´s crust; contains of pyroxene and plagioclase feldspar, also variable amounts of olivine; mafic rock with dark colour

drumlin

drumliini

a water drop or spoon like formation created by moving glacier; consist of till

dune

dyyni

a hill of sand near a beach or in a desert; created by sand which is first transported and then accumulated by wind

erratic boulder

siirtolohkare

A boulder transported by a moving ice sheet or on iceberg floating in water.

esker

harju

A long ridge accumulated by melt waters of a glacier. It usually consists of sand and gravel.

fault

siirros

A sharp break in a substance with a displacement of the blocks on both sides of the break. Usually used to describe a displacement line in rocks.

feldspar

maasälpä

very common mineral in felsic and intermediate rocks like granite

felsic

hapan

minerals with light colour and relatively low density

flora

kasvillisuus

all the plants of a particular place or from a particular time in history

fold

poimu

A wave-like shape in a substance. In geology, fold is used to describe a certain structure in rocks.

folded

poimuttunut

The strata of the rock having a wavelike appearance.

formation

muodostuma

the way something is naturally made; for example an esker is a formation created by meltwater of a glacier

glacier

jäätikkö

a large mass of land ice that moves slowly; can be recognized different types like alpine glacier or cirque glacier

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English

Finnish

Explanation

glacial ice

jäätikköjää

Ice which has been under pressure for several years and has been compacted to plastic ice which has only a minimal amount of air inside. Usually demands at least 20 meters of firn and snow above it and 25-40 years.

glaciated rock, silokallio “roche moutonnee”

bedrock outcrop, that is shaped by moving glacier (by glacier erosion and abrasion); other side of the rock is shallow and flat, the other is steep and cracked

gneiss

gneissi

A rock type that has re-crystallized in high temperature and pressure, maintaining its solid state. Usually has a striated and folded appearance.

graben

hautavajoama

A place, where a block of bedrock has sunken below the surrounding areas, i.e. the Muhos formation

granite

graniitti

so called “intrusive igneous rock” consisting of quartz, potash feldspar, plagioclase feldspar and minor amounts of biotite; crystallized very deep in the Earth´s crust; various colours depending on mineral composition

ice sheet

mannerjäätikkö

a thick layer of ice that permanently covers an area of land

kettle hole

suppa

a pit formed at the end of ice age by a block of ice that melted inside sand

lichen

jäkälä

a grey, white, green or yellow plant-like organism that grows on rocks, walls and trees

Litorina Sea

Litorinameri

Litorina Sea was a salty-water sea-stage before the present Baltic Sea ca. 9000-3000 BP. It covered the area of the Baltic Sea, and wide areas of west coast in Finland. The signs of the sea´s shoreline can be found in elevations from 20 to 110 metres above the present sea level in Rokua Geopark.

mafic

emäksinen

minerals with dark colour and relative high density

melt water stream

sulavesivirta

a stream which begins from a glacier; melt water of a glacier

mire

suo

an area of deep, wet, sticky earth which consist mainly of peat

moss

sammal

any plant of the division Bryophyta

Muhos formation

Muhos-muodostuma

A large graben with length of at least 30 km, a wide of 5-10 km and a depth of 1 km in the deepest place. The formation stretches from Muhos to Hailuoto Island and probably even further west. Is full filled with sedimentary rocks.

open lake

järven selkä

a large and continuous part of a lake; for example Lake Oulujärvi has two largest open lakes in Finland

outcrop

kalliopaljastuma

The part of a rock formation that stands above the surface of the ground; surface exposure of the bedrock.

parabolic

parabolinen, “U:n muotoinen”

a parabolic curve is a type of curve made by an object that is thrown up in the air and falls to the ground in a different place; used for example to describe the shape of some dunes

peat

turve

a dark brown substance like soil that was formed by plants dying in low oxygen conditions and becoming buried by younger dyed plants

prehistory, (-historic)esihistoria(llinen)

a historic era that has finished after the Stone Age (in Southern and Mid Europe) or just after the Iron Age (in Finland and northern countries)

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Vocabulary English

Finnish

Explanation

sedimentary rock sedimentary rock

sedimenttikivi, “kerroskivi” sedimenttikivi, “kerroskivi”

schist schist shoreline shoreline shoreline stages shoreline stages

liuske liuske rantaviiva rantaviiva rantaviivan kehitysvaiheet rantaviivan kehitysvaiheet maaperä maaperä kerros, juonne, raita kerros, juonne, raita

A rock that has been formed by deposition of either the weathered remains (sand, clay, gravel etc.) of other rocks, the results (mud, substances etc.) by deposition of either the weathered remains (sand, clay, gravel etc.) of other rocks, the results (mud, Acalcareous rock that has been formed of biologicalsubstances activity or precipitation of solutions (salt, calcareous substances etc.). calcareous etc.) of biological activity or precipitation of solutions (salt, calcareous substances etc.). rock that has a strata-like appearance; originate to sediments rock that has a strata-like appearance; originate to sediments the edge of a sea, lake or wide river; usually more or less impacted by waves, wind, stream and even ice the edge of a sea, lake or wide river; usually more or less impacted by waves, wind, stream and even ice in the areas where ice has pressed the earth, the earth is rising very slowly. In such areas the shoreline is moving towards the sea, more ground. inrevealing the areas where ice has pressed the earth, the earth is rising very slowly. In such areas the shoreline is moving towards the sea, revealing more ground. the material on the surface of the ground in which plants grow; consist of different soil materials like sand or clay the material on the surface of the ground in which plants grow; consist of different soil materials like sand or clay A layer of (sedimentary) rock having approximately the same composition throughout. A layer of (sedimentary) rock having approximately the same composition throughout.

terva terva tervahauta tervahauta maankuoren laatta maankuoren laatta päätemoreeni päätemoreeni

An oil-like substance that is gained from pine trees by burning them in low-oxygen conditions. An oil-like substance that is gained from pine trees by burning them in low-oxygen conditions. A funnel-shaped structure where the blocks of pine covered with peat and moss were burned. A funnel-shaped structure where the blocks of pine covered with peat and moss were burned. A segment of earth´s crust which has a relative movement to its adjacent plates; can be continental or marine A segment of earth´s crust which has a relative movement to its adjacent plates; can be continental or marine a hill like formation (mound of rocks) deposited at the terminus of an alpine glacier or at the leading edge of an ice sheet; consist of till a hill like formation (mound of rocks) deposited at the terminus of an alpine glacier or at the leading edge of an ice sheet; consist of till

moreeni moreeni

Soil type that is created by rock matter accumulated directly by glacier; consist of rock particles variating from the finest clay particles to huge boulders. Soil type rock that is created by rock matter accumulated directly by glacier; consist of rock particles variating from the finest clay particles to huge rock boulders. rocks created by volcanism rocks created by volcanism

soil soil stratum, strata (mon.) strata stratum, (mon.) tar tar tar-burning pit tar-burning pit tectonic plate tectonic plate terminal or end moraineor end terminal moraine till till volcanic rock volcanic rock

tuliperäinen kivi tuliperäinen kivi

English English English accumulate accumulate alga alga Ancylus lake Ancylus lake

Chinese Chinese Chinese 积聚 积聚 藻类 藻类 Ancylus 湖 Ancylus 湖

barren barren be buried be buried block block

荒原 荒原 被埋葬 被埋葬 块 块

Explanation Explanation Explanation 聚在一起或获得的数量越来越多;堆积起来 聚在一起或获得的数量越来越多;堆积起来 水生光合作用真核生物,大小从单细胞到巨藻 水生光合作用真核生物,大小从单细胞到巨藻 Ancylus 湖是波罗的海之前的淡水湖阶段,约 10800 - 9000(距今)。它覆盖波罗的海区域,甚至更多。Rokua 地质公园海拔 110 米以上 Ancylus 湖是波罗的海之前的淡水湖阶段,约 10800 - 9000(距今)。它覆盖波罗的海区域,甚至更多。Rokua 地质公园海拔 110 米以上 的地方可以找到湖滨线的标志。 的地方可以找到湖滨线的标志。 无法生长植物或水果,例如沙土 无法生长植物或水果,例如沙土 被某些物质或颗粒完全覆盖的东西;例如,被沙子埋葬的冰块 被某些物质或颗粒完全覆盖的东西;例如,被沙子埋葬的冰块 非常大件的某种物质,例如冰 非常大件的某种物质,例如冰

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English

Chinese

Explanation

channel, crack

通道、裂纹

两个表面之间狭窄的空间,它们被破裂或分开;例如在基岩或冰川中

cyanobacterium

蓝细菌

水生光合原核单细胞生物

deposit

沉淀

一层聚集物;例如用于形容水输送和沙子堆积的过程

diabase

辉绿岩

在岩浆房和地壳之间纹路中结晶的岩石类型;包含辉石和斜长石,以及不同数量的橄榄石;深色镁铁质岩

drumlin

鼓丘

冰川移动形成的水滴或勺状结果;由富于粘土的冰碛物构成

dune

沙丘

临近沙滩或位于沙漠中由沙子形成的小山,由先被风吹走再被风吹积的沙子形成

erratic boulder

漂砾

被移动的冰盖或漂浮在水上的冰山带到别处的巨石。

esker

蛇形丘

冰川融水堆积而成的长脊。通常由沙子和砾石组成。

fault

破裂口

物质中尖形破裂口,裂口两边的块状物都发生了位移。通常用于形容岩石中的位移线。

feldspar

长石

长英质岩石和花岗岩等中间岩石中非常常见的矿物质

felsic

长英质

浅色、相对密度较低的矿物质

flora

植物群

特定位置的所有植物或者来自某个历史时期的所有植物

fold

褶痕

物质中的波浪形痕迹。在地质学中,褶痕用来描述岩石中的某种结构。

folded

褶皱的

具有波浪形外观的岩层。

formation

形成

某种物质天然形成的方式;例如蛇形丘由冰川融水形成

glacier

冰川

一大块缓慢移动的陆地冰;可以识别出不同的类型,如阿尔卑斯型冰川或冰斗冰川

glacial ice

冰川冰

压力作用下数年且已被压缩成塑料冰,内部只有极小量的空气。通常要求上方至少有 20 米的积雪,且已积压 25-40 年。

glaciated rock, 冰蚀岩,“羊背岩” “roche moutonnee”

基岩露头,由移动的冰川(冰川侵蚀和磨损)形成;岩石的一面浅而平坦,另一面陡峭且有裂纹

gneiss

片麻岩

在高温和高压下重新结晶的岩石类型,保持其固体状态。通常外观上条纹和褶痕。

graben

地堑

基岩下沉至周围地区以下的地方,即 Muhos 地层

granite

花岗岩

所谓“侵入火成岩”含有石英、钾长石、斜长石和少量黑云母;在地壳深处结晶;根据矿物成分的不同呈现不同的颜色

ice sheet

冰盖

永久覆盖一片陆地的厚厚的冰层

kettle hole

锅穴

冰河时代末期在沙子中融解的大块冰形成的冰坑

27


Vocabulary English

Chinese

Explanation

lichen

地衣

一种灰色、白色、绿色或黄色的植物状生物,生长在岩石、墙壁和树上

Litorina Sea

Litorina 海

Litorina 海是波罗的海之前的海水阶段,距今约 9000-3000。它曾覆盖波罗的海区域以及芬兰西海岸的辽阔区域。Rokua 地质公园海拔 20 至 110 米以上的地方可以找到海岸线的标志。

mafic

镁铁质

深色、相对高密度的矿物质

melt water stream

融雪水流

来自冰川的水流;冰川融水

mire

泥沼

深邃、潮湿的粘性土地,主要由泥煤组成

moss

苔藓

苔藓植物科的任何一种植物

Muhos formation

Muhos 地层

长度至少为 30 千米、宽度 5-10 千米、最深处深度 1 千米的大型地堑。该地层从 Muhos 延伸至 Hailuoto 岛,甚至可能更北部的地区。充 满沉积岩。

open lake

开口湖

湖大型而连续的部分;例如 Oulujärvi 湖在芬兰有两个最大的开口湖

outcrop

露头

岩层伸出地表的部分;基岩表面暴露部分。

parabolic

抛物线状

抛物线是一种曲线,即物体在空气中扔出并掉落在其他地方形成的一条曲线;例如用于形容某些沙丘的形状

peat

泥煤

类似于泥土的深棕色物质,植物在低氧条件下死亡并被更年轻的染色植物掩埋而形成

prehistory (-historic) 史前(-历史重要意义 在石器时代后结束的一个历史时期(南欧和中欧)或紧跟钢铁时代后的时期(芬兰及北部国家) 的) sedimentary rock

沉积岩

由其他岩石的风化残余物(砂、粘土、砾石等)、生物活动的结果(泥浆、含钙物质等)或溶液沉淀(盐、含钙物质等)的沉积物而形 成的岩石。

schist

片岩

具有地层外观的岩石;来源于沉积物

shoreline

海岸线

海、湖或宽阔河流的边缘;通常或多或少地受到波浪、风、溪流甚至冰的影响

shoreline stages

海岸线阶段

冰压住地面的区域,地面上升非常缓慢。在此类地区,海岸线朝着大海移动,出现更多的地面。例如,奥卢每年的陆地上升率是九毫 米。

soil

土壤

地表面供植物生长的物质;含有不同的土壤材质,例如沙子和黏土

stratum, strata (mon.)

地层,地层(复数)

(沉积的)岩层,通体具有大致相同的成分。

tar

焦油

通过在低氧条件下燃烧松树而获得的一种类似于油的物质。

tar-burning pit

焦油燃烧坑

一个漏斗状的结构,用于燃烧覆盖着泥煤和苔藓的松树块。

28


English

Chinese

Explanation

tectonic plate tectonic plate terminal or end moraine or end terminal moraine till till volcanic rock volcanic rock

板块 板块 终端或终端冰碛 终端或终端冰碛

English English

Japanese Japanese

Explanation Explanation

English accumulate accumulate alga alga Ancylus lake Ancylus lake

Japanese 堆積する 堆積する 藻類 藻類 アンシラス湖 アンシラス湖

barren barren be buried be buried block block channel, crack channel, crack cyanobacterium cyanobacterium deposit deposit diabase diabase

不毛 不毛 埋没する 埋没する ブロック ブロック 溝、亀裂 溝、亀裂 シアノバクテリア シアノバクテリア 堆積物 堆積物 輝緑石 輝緑石

drumlin drumlin dune dune erratic boulder erratic boulder esker esker fault fault

ドラムリン ドラムリン 砂丘 砂丘 漂石 漂石 エスカー エスカー 断層 断層

Explanation 要素を一か所に集める、または数や量が増減すること。積み重ねる 要素を一か所に集める、または数や量が増減すること。積み重ねる 単一細胞からサイズが大きなケルプ(昆布)に渡るまで、水中で光合成を行う真核生物 単一細胞からサイズが大きなケルプ(昆布)に渡るまで、水中で光合成を行う真核生物 現在より遡ること 10,800~9,000 年前に存在した、淡水湖。バルト海とそれ以降の領域にかけて存在していた。 湖の境界線を示す標識は、ロクア・ジオパークの現在の海面から 110m の地点より上にある。 現在より遡ること 10,800~9,000 年前に存在した、淡水湖。バルト海とそれ以降の領域にかけて存在していた。 湖の境界線を示す標識は、ロクア・ジオパークの現在の海面から 110m の地点より上にある。 植物や果実を生産することができない状態。例:砂地 植物や果実を生産することができない状態。例:砂地 いくつかの物質や粒子の下にあるものが完全に覆われている状態。例:砂に埋没した氷塊 いくつかの物質や粒子の下にあるものが完全に覆われている状態。例:砂に埋没した氷塊 氷など、ある物質の非常に大きな塊 氷など、ある物質の非常に大きな塊 壊れたり離れたりすることで、2 つの表面の間にできた狭いスペース。例:岩盤や氷河内 壊れたり離れたりすることで、2 つの表面の間にできた狭いスペース。例:岩盤や氷河内 水中で光合成を行う原核単一細胞 水中で光合成を行う原核単一細胞 堆積した物質の層。水が流れ、砂が蓄積する様子を表現する際に用いられる 堆積した物質の層。水が流れ、砂が蓄積する様子を表現する際に用いられる マグマ溜まりと地殻の間にある鉱脈で結晶化した岩石の一種。輝石と斜長石、 また変動はあるもののカンラン石を含んでいる。濃色の苦鉄質岩 マグマ溜まりと地殻の間にある鉱脈で結晶化した岩石の一種。輝石と斜長石、 また変動はあるもののカンラン石を含んでいる。濃色の苦鉄質岩 氷河の動きによってつくられた水滴またはスプーン状の地形。氷河堆積物によって形成される 氷河の動きによってつくられた水滴またはスプーン状の地形。氷河堆積物によって形成される 砂浜の近く、または砂漠にある砂の丘。まず砂が運ばれ、その後、風によって蓄積することで形成される 砂浜の近く、または砂漠にある砂の丘。まず砂が運ばれ、その後、風によって蓄積することで形成される 氷床、または水上に浮かぶ氷山の移動によって運ばれた岩石。 氷床、または水上に浮かぶ氷山の移動によって運ばれた岩石。 氷河の融解によって蓄積された長い峰。通常、砂や礫でできている。 氷河の融解によって蓄積された長い峰。通常、砂や礫でできている。 物質に鋭い割れ目が入り、その断面の両側に食い違いが生じたもの。一般的には、 岩石の変位線を表現するために用いられる。 物質に鋭い割れ目が入り、その断面の両側に食い違いが生じたもの。一般的には、 岩石の変位線を表現するために用いられる。

相对于其临近区块发生运动的 地壳区段;可以是陆地上的或是海洋的 相对于其临近区块发生运动的 地壳区段;可以是陆地上的或是海洋的 堆积在阿尔卑斯型冰川或冰盖前缘的山丘状构造(岩石堆);由富于粘土的冰碛物构成 堆积在阿尔卑斯型冰川或冰盖前缘的山丘状构造(岩石堆);由富于粘土的冰碛物构成

富于粘土的冰碛物构成 由冰川直接堆积的岩石形成的土壤类型;由从最细的粘土颗粒到巨大的岩石漂砾(岩石颗粒)组成。 富于粘土的冰碛物构成 由冰川直接堆积的岩石形成的土壤类型;由从最细的粘土颗粒到巨大的岩石漂砾(岩石颗粒)组成。 火山岩 火山作用形成的岩石 火山岩 火山作用形成的岩石

29


Vocabulary English

Japanese

Explanation

feldspar

長石

花崗岩など珪長質な中性岩によく含まれる鉱物

felsic

珪長質

明るい色で比較的密度の低い鉱物

flora

植物相

特定の場所、または歴史上の時間における植物全てを差す

fold

褶曲

物質において波のような形状を生み出す現象。地質学では、岩石に見られる特定の構造を表現するために用いられる。

folded

褶曲した

波のような見た目を持つ地層。

formation

地形

あるものが自然に形作られる方法。例:エスカーは氷河の融解水によって作られた形成物である

glacier

氷河

ゆっくりと移動する大きな陸氷。山岳氷河や圏谷氷河など、いろいろな種類のものがある

glacial ice

氷河氷

圧力がかかった状態で時感が経過したことによって、内部の空気量が最小限になりプラスチック状になった氷。通常、 上に 20 メートルのフィルンや積雪がある状態で 25~40 年程度を要する。

glaciated rock, “roche moutonnee”

羊背岩、「ロシュ・ム 氷河の侵食(氷河の侵食や摩耗による)で岩盤が露出すること。片面は浅く平らで、 トネ」 もう片面はは深くひび割れている

gneiss

片麻岩

高温・高圧で再結晶した岩石の一種で、固体の状態を保つもの。見た目は通常、 縞状で褶曲している。

graben

地溝

大きな岩盤が周辺地域より下に沈んでいる場所、例:ムホス地形

granite

花崗岩

いわゆる「石材として使用される火成岩」で、石英、アルカリ長石、斜長石および微量の黒雲母を含む。 地殻の非常に深いところで結晶化したもの。ミネラルの組成によって様々な色がある

ice sheet

氷床

ある土地を恒久的に覆っている厚い氷の層

kettle hole

甌穴(おうけつ)

氷河期末期、砂に覆われた状態で氷塊が融解したことで形成された穴

lichen

地衣類

岩、壁、あるいは木の表面に生えるグレー、白、緑または黄色の植物状の生物

Litorina Sea

リトリーナ海

現在より遡ること 9,000~3000 年前に存在した海(海水)。バルト海と、 フィンランド西海岸の幅広い領域にかけて存在していた。湖の境界線を示す標識は、 ロクア・ジオパークの現在の海面から 20~110m の地点より上にある。

mafic

苦鉄質

暗い色をしており、比較的高密度の鉱物

melt water stream

融解水

氷河から発する小川。氷河が溶けだした水

mire

泥濘(でいねい)

深く湿った、粘着性のある場所で、主に含む泥炭でできている

moss

コケ類

蘚苔植物に属する全ての植物

30


Vocabulary English

Japanese

Explanation

Muhos formation

ムホス地形

長さは少なくとも 30km 以上、幅 5~10km、深さは最大 1km に渡る大きな地溝。 フィンランド・ムホスからハイルオト島に至っており、おそらくその先、 更に西方向にも広がっていると見られる地形。堆積岩で占められている。

open lake

有口湖

湖の一部分で、大きく連続したもの。例:オウル湖はフィンランド最大の有口湖 2 つを有する

outcrop

露頭

地表の上に盛り上がるよう形成された岩石。岩盤の表面露出。

parabolic

放物線

空中で投げ出され、別の場所で地面に落下する物体が描く曲線の一種。砂丘の形状を表現する例として用いられる

peat

泥炭

植物が低酸素の環境で枯れ、その上から次に新しく枯れた植物が埋め込む形で形成された暗褐色の土壌状の物質

prehistory

先史時代

石器時代(南ヨーロッパ・中欧)の後、または鉄器時代(フィンランド・北ヨーロッパ)の直後に終焉を迎えた歴史区分

(-historic)

(歴史)

sedimentary rock

堆積岩

他の岩石が風化してできた残存物(砂、粘土、砂利など)、生物活性によって生じた物質(泥、石灰質物質など)、 または溶液の沈殿(塩、石灰質物質など)によって生じた物質が堆積することで形成された岩石。

schist

片岩

地層のような見た目の岩。堆積物によって作られる

shoreline

沿岸線

海、湖または幅のある河川の端。波、風、小川、更に氷の影響を多少受けることがある

shoreline stages

沿岸範囲

氷により地表に圧力がかかっている地域において、地盤隆起の速度はかなり遅くなる。 このような地域では沿岸線は海に向かって移動するため、出現する地盤面積が大きくなる。 例として、オウルの地盤隆起率は 1 年間で 9mm である。

soil

土壌

植物が成長する地表の原料となるもの。砂や粘土など、様々な土壌物質により構成される

stratum, strata (mon.) 層、地層

(堆積)岩の層で、全体を通してほぼ同じような構成を持つもの。

tar

タール

低酸素の環境で松の木を燃やすことによって作られる、油状の物質。

tar-burning pit

タール燃焼ピット

泥炭やコケで覆った状態で松の大木を燃焼させる、煙突のような形状の装置。

tectonic plate

テクトニックプレート 地殻の一部で、隣接したプレートに関連した動き

terminal or end moraine

ターミナルモレーン、 山岳氷河の末端、または氷床の先端に堆積した丘(岩の土手)状の地形。氷河堆積物によって形成される またはエンドモレーン

till

氷河堆積物

氷河により直接蓄積した岩石物質が形成する土壌の一種。非常に細かい粘土粒子から大きな巨礫に至る、 岩の粒子で構成される

volcanic rock

火山岩

火山活動によって形成された岩石

を行うもの。陸上または海、どちらも存在する

31


United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

Rokua UNESCO Global Geopark

The Rokua Geopark Guide is part of the Attractive Oulu Region 2020 project. Project Managers Venla Karkola and Mari Saastamoinen, Humanpolis Ltd. Graphic design and layout by Susanna Ukkola, Humanpolis Ltd. Maps and infographics by Geological Survey of Finland Harri Kutvonen, Tapani Tervo and Hannu Rönty, Humanpolis Ltd. Susanna Ukkola and Hannu Sievilä. Texts by Rokua Geopark, Geological Survey of Finland Tapani Tervo and Jari Nenonen, Kierikki Stone Age Centre Leena Lehtinen and Sami Viljanmaa, Northern Ostrobothnia Museum Mika Sarkkinen and Marika Kostamonvaara. Photos by Harri Tarvainen, Erik Saarnio, Kajaani University of Applied Sciences, Mikko Kiuttu, Susanna Ukkola, Hannu Kivelä, Skyfox, Fotoroos, Finnish National Board of Antiquities and Municipality of Utajärvi. Translations by Semantix and Rokua Geopark.