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Distance Education Newsletter

Issue 19

March 2011 The CSU Distance Education Newsletter

Inside: CSU News, Women’s History Month, Logophobia, Meet DE Students, Why I love Maf, Coal Seam Gas, Orange Blood (SES), Meet your DE rep, Regular Features and more. ©The DEN is a Rivcoll SRC Publication

The Den. Issue 19, March 2011  1.

From the editor Issue 19, March 2011



alutations to all DE and non DE readers

Hopefully everybody has settled in well to the 4. CSU News - Graduation changes, global semester. March is Women’s History Month and opportunities, keeping your energy up and in 2011 Women in the Business of Food is being highlighted on page 6. library news. 6. Meet your DE rep - Richard Maher

8. Women’s History Month 2011 -

Women in the kitchen

10, 28:Getting to know each other - Meet

DE students

18. Why I love Maf- because it’s ours. 22. Orange Blood - Queensland SES 26. What was I studying - Kylie Mercer


3. World Days this Month 7. Logophobia - an obsessive fear of words

Several students have introduced themselves to us and to the other contributors that have not been put in this month I have kept your contribution for other months when DE students have heavy study loads. A discussion on Maf after a Four Corners program on Coal Seam Gas resulted in me being asked to put some information together from sources that have allowed me to re-print information, read this on page 12 Information from CSU about student programs, graduation and how to keep energy levels high are available on pages 4-5. Offer the past months Australia and the world has witnessed many natural disasters. Thank you to Nathan Horswill for his article about being an SES volunteer in Queensland.

Congratulations to all those students who have or are about to attend their graduation ceremonies. Enjoy the day, I expect to see pictures 12. Environment Watch - Coal Seam Gas submitted for the April DEN.

15. Quiz - Psycho Killer 16 Technology with Curtis - Google

Jen Nicholson has once again provided our quiz - thanks Jen. I welcome Curtis Layton who will write each month for “Technology with Curtis.”


Best of luck if you are attending residential schools, if not enjoy the 20. Shaggy’s Recycled Crafts - Using Tea break and think about contributing to the April DEN. Bags Have a look at the back page for pleas for April contributions. Try to put something together during the break. 24. Through the Lens - My Desk

22. Book Reviews - Where the academic I have just found out that I have been accepted for the first ‘Green Steps’ worm takes a break from study

program to be held at CSU. I will be at Wagga from the 4th-8th of April if anybody has a chance to catch up. Off to a an introduction to PebblePad 27. Craft Corner: - what we do when we 3 on the 1st of April so watch The DEN next month to find out what is are not studying new.

30. Next Month - Quiz Answers

EDITOR/LAYOUT Sandra Stewart


Sharon Crossett, Shane Delves, Rebecca Fraser Gordon, Nathan Horswill, Rhia Killalea, Curtis Layton, GillLight, Valerie McDowell, Richard Maher, Kylie Mercer, Jen Nicholson, Rebekah Noble, Rachel Quittenden, Sandra Stewart, Jacqueline Wilcox, Linda White, Liz Williams

2  The Den. Issue 19, March 2011.

Sandra Stewart, Editor.

Email letters to the Editor & submissions to Disclaimer: The DEN is a Rivcoll SRC publication and the opinions expressed within are not necessarily those of the editor, staff or student members. Association by persons or companies with ‘The Den’ does not necessarily reflect the religious, political, sexual or racial beliefs of those parties. The Editor and Rivcoll SRC do not accept any responsibility for any omissions, errors, inaccuracies, or the views and opinions contained in any article accepted for publication. The editor reserves the right to edit or reject any articles submitted for publication.

March Days

World Days in March

8 I

th International Womens Day (recognised by UN) nternational Women’s Day (8 March) is a global day celebrating the economic, political and social achievements of women past, present and future. In some places like China, Russia, Vietnam and Bulgaria. International Women’s Day is a national holiday. 2011 celebrates its 100th year and the theme is Equal access to education, training and science and technology: Pathway to decent work for women.


nd World Day of Water (recognized by the UN) orld Day of Water (22nd March) is a day where water is acknowledged. Water is a basic requirement for all life, yet water resources are facing increasing demands from, and competition among, users including, manufacturing, resources mining and agriculture. The theme for 2011 is Water for Cities: Responding to the Urban Challenge.



st World Poetry Day (recognised by UNESCO) oetry is recognised as another form of dialogue among cultures. It supports poetry and the history of oral tradition as well as writing and its relationship with the other arts. The message for 2011 is that Poetry conveys a timeless message.


The Den. Issue 19, March 2011  3.

CSU News

CSU Graduation Changes

CSU Global


SU Global has International Short Study programs available for undergraduate distance ollowing the March to June 2011 domestic education students. graduation ceremonies, CSU will reschedule Benefits of international study experience include: future domestic graduation ceremonies to early * Cross-cultural communication December each year, commencing in December * Relationship management 2011. * Enhanced organisational and time management skills This change is a result of extensive consultation, * Increased self-confidence including a survey of students and feedback received during the Final Year Experience Project. Short Study Programs The new schedule will allow students to attend their These run for 1-10 weeks and cover a range of ceremony and receive their testamurs much closer destinations for a variety of study areas include to the completion of their course. Arts: India, Sweden, Thailand. Business: India, Korea. Education: India, Korea, Thailand, Vanauatu, Students who are scheduled to graduate in the USA. Science: Vietnam, China, Canada, switzerland, March-June 2011 domestic ceremonies will not East Timor. be affected by this change. Similarly, overseas ceremonies will not be affected in 2011 or in the Ideal for: future. Gaining academic recognition and hands on experience in your chosen career. At this stage of planning, the December 2011 domestic graduation ceremonies will commence on Exchange Prtogram Saturday 10 December and conclude on Saturday Undergraduate CSU students can spend one or 17 December (excluding Sunday 11 December). two semesters in another country while gaining Eligible students will be advised of the ceremony credit for the subjects they study. A chance schedule (date/time) after the census date of to combine study and world travel. Funding Session 2 (5 August 2011), and further information available. for staff will be distributed closer to the time. Re-printed with permission. There are 11 countries and 30 universities which Prof . Lyn Gorman may be available for you to study your chocen Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Administration) course.


For more information on CSU global go to

4  The Den. Issue 19, March 2011.

CSU News

Hitting the Energy Wall?


icture this, you’re sitting at your desk at 3:30 in the afternoon and all of a sudden you feel your eyes getting heavy, stomach starts to grumble and you can’t think straight. I’m sure I’m not the only one who has experienced this dreadful feeling. There are a number of reasons this happens, some more obvious than others. Let’s have a look; • • • • • food)

Lack of sleep Studying for too long at once Room to bright or dark Neighbours too loud or its too quiet Haven’t been eating (or eating the wrong

Library News


his column features information from one of our helpful library staff. I have been studying at CSU for over two years now and only just got brave enough (read desperate for help) to be forced into it. I started with the chat as this felt a little more anonymous and actually graduated to a phone Icall later in the month (I need a LOT of help). Ed The Library has great news for students struggling with the cost of getting books posted to them and having limited access to library staff during the day!

We are now making it even easier to borrow books as a DE student by including reply paid Although the above will cause tiredness, I’d like to postage labels with all library items lent to DE focus on the last one...NUTRITION. students living in Australia. Simply affix the labels to your parcels when posting them back Chocolate, lollies, chips, soft drink and coffee are to us, and we’ll take care of the cost. Never the common cures for tiredness, at least that’s what borrowed a book as a DE student? Well there’s you thought. High sugar and caffeine foods may never been a better time to try: just visit the give you that boost of energy you need to power library website through an assignment, but next time try and no- ** Please note that at this stage the return postage tice how long it lasts. service does not include items borrowed through the InterLibrary Loans scheme and does not extend Foods such as chips, lollies and chocolate are what to DE students living outside of Australia. we call “High GI or High Glycemic Index” foods. This means that they release their energy very quickly We’re also making it easier to contact us by for a boost but very quickly return you to your pre- extending our Live Chat service until 7pm vious state, TIRED. Monday to Thursday – this means you now have In times like this we should focus on Low GI foods more time to get your library queries answered. which give us sustained energy and keep us alert New to chat? Ask A Question: Live Chat is our for longer. Foods such as; instant messaging chat service, which will allow you to chat with Library staff in real time. Just • Fruit click on 'Ask A Question: Live Chat' on the Library • Low fat Yogurt website and type in your question - no accounts, • Wholegrain crackers downloads or personal information is required. • Baked beans • Cereal such as Special K Library website: library/ By including these types of Ask a Question: Live Chat: Low GI at snack and study au/division/library/help/live-chat time, you will feel more alert, be able to focus more Lisa Griffin and more much more pro- Team Leader, Information and Liaison Services ductive. Wagga, Albury Wodonga Shane Delves Division of Library Services Clinical Educator, APD Charles Sturt University Nutrition & Dietetics The Den. Issue 19, March 2011  5.

Meet your DE rep.

I would like to take the time to introduce myself. My name is Richard (a.k.a Dick), and I am a new board member of Rivcoll SRC located at the Wagga Wagga Campus. I am in my final semester of a Bachelor or Arts majoring in History. I have also been a DE student (in a very past life… I studied this “thing” called accounting) I have also been a disability student. So… Down to some business…. I am taking on most responsibilities within the SRC pursuant to distance education (DE) students. As a former DE student myself I wanted to take on this role as I believe I can understand the needs of DE students from both an objective and subjective viewpoint (chances are, I have been “there” (when we establish where “there” is) and I understand the situation you are in). I will endeavour to respond to all matters put forward by DE students in a timely and courteous manner, however, please be advised that I am new to the role, and to the SRC and I may need to ask some of my more experienced colleagues on the board for advice if I’m not sure myself, this can take some time, however, we want to “get it right” and to help you with diligent advice and representation. My office hours within SRC will be at this stage on Monday and Tuesday detailed below (as of 18 MAR 11 and is subject to change with notice on the student rep forum). These times will be set aside for all DE students wishing to ring in relation to DE student matters (this can be anything from, but not limited to, questions about residential schools, trouble contacting lecturers, library issues or just wanting some encouragement and a friendly voice, whatever… if I can help I will). Monday: 9:05am – 10:55am Tuesday: 10am-1pm SRC landline (02) 6933 2033 Email: de@rivcoll, i will check that email address on Monday and Tuesdays at the Rivcoll offices;. Alternatively you can send me an email (c/o rivcoll src) or message me on the forums (please title your message “DE RELATED” or something like that and please be sure to leave your contact details -also be advised I do NOT have access to your subject forums so please use one of CSU’s general forums like “Student rep” or “CSU General”). I would like to finish of by just stating that the SRC, on all campus’, is volunteer run, we are all students ourselves, our studies are important and we have the right to pursue them. However, we want to help you in a useful, competent and worthwhile way, but remember, we are here to help you, we don’t get paid (well I don’t ;) ), we do this because we genuinely want to help and make your uni experience as smooth as possible. Best Regards and Good Studying, Richard Director, Rivcoll SRC. Student Senate Rep (Rivcoll) Monday: 9:05am – 10:55am. Tuesday: 10am-1pm SRC landline (02) 6933 2033

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Fun with Words



an obsessive fear of words Siderodromophobia:

Fear of trains, railroads or train travel.

Xenodocheionology: Love of hotels.

Rhinotillexomania: Compulsive nose picking.

Logizomechanophobia: Having fear of computers.

Arachibutyrophobia: One having fear about peanut butter sticking to the mouth roof.


One who is attracted to lips.

Do these scare you? The Den. Issue 19, March 2011  7.

Women’s History Month

Women’s History Month 2011: Women in the Business of Food - Kitchen Business


he theme for WHM 2011 brings a focus to Australian women who made significant contributions to the history of food, whether in cooking or in education, science, or technology. In taking their skills and expertise into the public sphere, these women changed history by challenging perceptions about women’s unpaid domestic skills. From the late 19th century women moved into manufacturing jobs where mechanisation created paid jobs in clothing and in food – their traditional ‘home’ work. The concentration of jobs for women meant the gains of the labour movement did not extend to these industries until women organised to challenge gendered gains.

Image: The Australian War Memorial Picture Collection (item 1376060). Audrey Cahn. of factory workers in these industries were female.

8  The Den. Issue 19, March 2011.

The theme offers an intriguing way to celebrate the centenary of International Women’s Day, founded in 1911 to improve conditions for working women when most were employed in either clothing or food industries, where women worked everywhere from domestic kitchens to biscuit factories. By the 1920s in Victoria, two-thirds

Kitchen Business


n connecting the common interests of working women, the changes achieved laid the foundations for women earning their living in all aspects of ‘Kitchen Business’. With the centenary of International Women’s Day in mind, our theme might also include those women who made the kitchens they worked in campaign centres, like Pearl Gibbs who organised other Indigenous women in domestic service in Sydney in the 1920s and 1930s. Australian pioneers in the field of food include successful publicans like Anastasia Thornley of Gippsland, or Hannah Maclurcan who ran a fine dining table at the Queen’s Hotel in Townsville and became the famous proprietor of Sydney’s Wentworth Hotel. Others published recipe collections, like Harriet Wicken and Mina Rawson, often exploring ways to prepare local food plants like rosella and lilly-pilly, or animals like wallaby and bandicoot. Among their ‘daughters’ are today’s living legends of the kitchen, like Margaret Fulton. Pioneering food celebrity Flora Pell was as famed for her culinary skills as celebrity chefs today, though she communicated her kitchen talents without the aid of television. Today women food writers and restaurant critics remain a minority in a profession pioneered by Joan Campbell among others. Women chefs and restaurateurs face a similar challenge in reaching the top, with Mietta O’Donnell leading the way for later leaders like Christine Manfield, Gay Bilson, Alex Herbert and household names like Maggie Beer and Stephanie Alexander. Women like biochemist and nutritional physiologist Molly Dawbarn and Audrey Cahn, who pioneered the academic field of dietetics at Melbourne University, were part of the founding of food science in Australia in the last century. Domestic science became another means of translating traditional skills into employment skills in the early 20th century, with women successfully lobbying for the study and teaching of home economics and to have institutions like Melbourne’s Emily Macpherson College established. The centenary of International Women’s Day in 2011 is time to honour all those who fought to improve the lives of women. Women’s History Month Australia puts this focus on those cooks, writers, teachers and scientists who made good food their cause and changed opportunities and conditions for all of us. To join in the celebration of “Women in the Business of Food “ in March 2011 you can enter an event on the WHM 2011 Calendar; tell us the story of someone who contributed to our food history; or just visit our online Gallery in March to discover some fascinating facts about the history of Australian women in food industries. Dr Lenore Coltheart AWHF Reference Group October 2010 Reproduced with Permisssion Australian Women’s History Forum incorporaing Women’s History Month

The Den. Issue 19, March 2011  9.

Getting to Know Each Other Activities when not studying? Work, Facebook, Renovating a unit, chilling out with my man Pets: Ben who is a 6.5 year old Pure bred black lab, Axle who is a 1 year old Border Collie X (Kelpie?), Mr Tuddles the 6 month old cat, and then a tank full of fish Your thoughts on the environment: Well at the moment it appears someone has seriously pissed off mother nature (not Aylward as I am divorced & haven’t updated CSU yet) From Lavington (Albury), NSW. Bachelor of Business

Favourites: Party food: Kabana, cheese, chips & dip Television: Californication Music: Anything except country & opera Song: I love rock n roll – Joan Jett Movie: Gone in 60 Seconds, Moulin Rouge, Twilight Game: Does a sport count? If so then Inline Hockey (gosh I miss playing that) Book: April Fools Day – Bryce Courtenay and the Twilight series Things to do on a Sunday: Go for a drive, watch a movie, take the dogs to the weir

Rhia Killalea

(Accounting) Likes Music, the beach, nice drives with my man Dislikes Bitchy people, lack of sleep, To not have any financial debt (not to be rich, just comfortable) To one day be a good mum (when I have kids) To lose 20kgs and not put it back on LOL Warts or pimples hmmm, probably pimples as I find warts creepy LOL When you were young, what job did you want to have when you grew up? Real Estate Agent, Architect or Singer in a band What did you end up doing? Administration work, though I did work in a real estate office for awhile

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Most Embarrassing moment: Having a kid in my year 9 English class call out “gonorrhea” when I was about to do a speech (he worked out it sounded like my name) I nearly died. Memorable holiday: Any trip to Lake Cathie (near Port Macquarie) Photo: Rhia catching some rays whilst the dogs enjoy some time at the weir.

DE Students

Sharon Crossett

Pets: We have a budgie (Charlie) and a rabbit (Badger) Your thoughts on the environment: That people should be more aware of the footprints we leave behind

Whereabouts do you live? Penrith, NSW What are you studying? Masters in Education (Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages) What are your likes? Reading, computers What are your dislikes? Rude people, early mornings If you had 3 wishes what would they be? More sleep, more time and for the kids to stop growing!

Favourites: • Party food: Chocolate! • TV show: House, Lie to Me • music: Eclectic • Song: Eclectic • Movie: The Notebook, Avitar, The secret garden • Game: World of Warcraft • Book -:Daughter of the Empire (all three in the series) • Things to do on a Sunday: SLEEP

Would you rather have warts or pimples and why (you can’t say neither!)? Pimples... Cause they go away faster When you were young, what job did you want to have when you grew up? Teacher What did you end up doing? Teaching!

Activities when not studying? Facebook, reading, World of Warcraft, chasing around after my 2 kids.

• Most embarrassing moment - A peacock pooped on my head as a child when we were at the zoo • memorable holiday - Vanuatu 2004, our honeymoon

The Den. Issue 19, March 2011  11.

Environment Watch

Coal Seam Gas

After the recent program about Coal Seam Gas on ABC ‘s Four Corners a conversation started on the Maf. I said that I would try and put something together about it for this edition of The DEN. As I haven’t had the time to do research I contacted several website co-ordinators for permission to reproduce the information contained on them. I have tried to look at both extremes of views.

I have a very personal interest in this as I live in the Upper Hunter where the coal mining industry is out of hand, coal seam gas exploration is starting. The gas pipeline from Gunnedah to Kooragang Island will run past our property and the NSW Government Coal and Gas Strategy Scoping Paper lays out the expansion of coal and coal seam gas exploration for the next 25 years. I am against mining for Coal Seam Gas.

Sandra Stewart Ed.

Coal Seam Methane Gas Fact Sheet NSW What is Coal Seam Gas?

CSM (Coal Seam Methane) or CBM (Coal Bed Methane) is not Natural Gas, but methane gas found in coal seams. The coal seam normally acts as a water aquifer, the methane gas is trapped in the coal by the water. Methane gas has no smell, it will asphyxiate and is highly explosive. It is a greenhouse gas more than 20 times worse than CO2. When burnt, it produces 40% less greenhouse gas than coal. When it is being removed from the seam a large amount of fugitive methane escapes into the atmosphere cancelling any perceived benefit.

How is Methane Gas extracted from a Coal Seam?

A mining company needs a Petroleum Exploration Licence issued under the NSW Onshore Petroleum Act. Geological studies are conducted to determine which areas offer potential for CSM extraction. The company then identifies land where they can get permission from the owner to drill. A permit is applied for and exploratory holes are drilled to take core geological samples. Test wells are then drilled into the coal seam. The initial wells drilled are unlikely to produce sufficient gas until the coal seam has been fracture stimulated (fraccing). It is necessary to create fractures in the coal seam and create pathways through which the methane can flow. 12  The Den. Issue 19, March 2011.

A fracturing fluid is pumped into the coal seams at high pressures which crack the rock open where the seam is structurally the weakest - the gas can flow more easily into the well. Fracturing fluids are primarily water-based, but they contain many other chemicals, which may include acids, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes and hydrocarbons. Mining companies are very reluctant to reveal what they use in the fraccing process. The next stage in the development of a CSM well is to pump out all the water from the coal seam. This "produced" water is toxic, being extremely saline and containing a very broad range of carcinogens, heavy metals and radionuclides as well as man-made chemicals used in the drilling and fraccing processes. The water produced from the well has to be transported from the site by road tanker for proper disposal. The volume of water produced is normally greatest at first then, with pumping, it will gradually decline and the volume of gas will increase. CSM wells may produce from 5 to 100 cubic metres of water a day for several months or more. It is difficult to predict the volume of water that a well will produce without proper testing. After the water has been removed and the gas begins to flow, the test well will be left to run for several months during which time the methane is flared at the well head. During this time the mining company will be testing the flow rate and quality of gas produced.

Coal Seam Gas Application

A Petroleum Production Lease(PPL)must be applied for, compared to Natural Gas, which exists in a high pressure environment, CSM is under low pressure; this means that the mining company has to plan for a high density of wellheads in any area so that the CSM mine to be economically viable.

Health and Safety

CSM extraction. has many health hazards. The water taken from the coal seam is toxic. After the water has been removed from the coal seam, the dynamics of the coal seam have been changed causing the methane to be freed up and migrate; hopefully to the well head, however rocks can and do have fault lines by which the methane can find alternate avenues to the surface. There are many instances of methane coming out of household taps. CSM wells and pipelines are fire hazards; over 50% of wells tested in Queensland leak methane. They do sometimes catch fire and explode. Once the methane has been freed up from the coal, nothing will stop it flowing.

Water tables

CSM mining poses a serious risk to fresh water aquifers. The huge volumes extracted from the coal seam can then lead to a major depletion of connected aquifers which would be used for drinking water, agriculture and fire fighting. The assortment of chemicals used for drilling and fraccing cause serious contamination to fresh water aquifers and running groundwater streams and rivers.


The pollution of water tables and rivers leads to the mass death of all types of living creatures and plants. The installation of full scale industrial machinery scares away wildlife. The uncontrolled venting of fugitive methane emissions poisons the atmosphere.

The Law

Environmental regulation is minimal and government generally relies on information supplied by the industry. There is no independent review of the potential impacts of developing a CSM mine on community, health and environment. Local council has no power in the process. Exploration Licences cover most of NSW,.

Reproduced and adapted with the permission of Lock the Gate Alliance Inc. The official version - Australian Mine Atlas. Methane Gas (CH4) is recognised as a valuable resource. It is usually mixed with carbon dioxide, other hydrocarbons and nitrogen.


CBM forms by either biological or thermal processes. During the earliest stage of coalification (the process that turns plants into coal) biogenic methane is generated as a by-product of microbial action (similar to the mechanism which generates methane in council landfills). Biogenic methane is generally found in near-surface low rank coals such as lignite. Thermogenic methane is generally found in deeper higher-rank coals. When temperatures exceed about 50°C due to burial, thermogenic processes begin to generate additional methane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen and water. The maximum generation of methane in bituminous coals occurs at around 150°C. The methane produced is adsorbed onto micropore surfaces and stored in cleats, fractures and other openings in the coals. It can occur also in groundwaters within the coal beds. CBM is held in place by water pressure and does not require a sealed trap as do conventional gas accumulations. The coal acts as a source and reservoir for the methane gas while the water is the seal.

Extraction Technology

CBM is produced by drilling a well into a coal seam, hydraulic fracturing the coal seam then releasing the gas by reducing the water pressure by pumping away the water. Hydraulic fracturing of the coal seam is done by pumping large volumes of water and sand at high pressure down the well into the coal seam which causes it to fracture for distances of up to 400m from the well. The sand carried in the water is deposited in the fractures to prevent them closing when pumping pressure ceases. The gas then moves through the sand-filled The Den. Issue 19, March 2011  13.

Coal Seam Gas fractures to the well. A commercial operation needs the right combination of coal thickness, gas content, permeability, drilling costs (number of wells, seam depth and coal type), the amount of dewatering required to allow gas flow and proximity to infrastructure.


Although the presence of methane has been known ever since coal mining began, separate commercial production of CBM is a relatively recent step. This commenced in the USA in the 1970’s, and exploration for CBM in Australia began in 1976 in Queensland’s Bowen Basin when Houston Oil and Minerals of Australia Incorporated drilled two unsuccessful wells. In February 1996 the first commercial CMM operation commenced at the Moura mine in Queensland methane drainage project (then owned by BHP Mitsui Coal Pty Ltd). In the same year at the Appin and Tower underground mines (then owned by BHP Pty Ltd) a CMM operation was used to fuel on-site generator sets (gas fired power stations). The first stand alone commercial production of CBM in Australia commenced in December 1996 at the Dawson Valley project (then owned by Conoco), adjoining the Moura coal mine.


CBM exploration involves locating highly productive areas, known as ‘sweet spots’ or ‘fairways’. Initially, CBM was mainly sought within the Permian coal seams of the Bowen and Sydney Basins. However, since the early 2000’s, CBM exploration also targeted the relatively shallow depths of the lower rank coal seams of the Jurassic age Surat and Clarence-Moreton Basins in Queensland. Although these seams have less gas content than high rank Permian age coal these lower rank coals at shallow depths (100 to 600m) are more permeable and CBM can be more easily desorbed (or extracted), resulting in higher recovery factors.

14  The Den. Issue 19, March 2011.

Brown coal (or lignite) of Tertiary age also has become a target for CBM exploration in the Otway Basin in Victoria. Other prospective coal basins which have been targeted by CBM explorers include the Gunnedah, Gloucester, Galilee, Murray and Perth Basins. However, the Bowen Basin remains the most actively explored and developed basin in Australia for CBM. The basin’s share of CBM drilling activity exceeded 80% of Australia’s total in 2004. There are currently at least 18 companies actively exploring for CBM.


As at September 2005 the 2P reserves (proven plus probable) of CBM in Australia were 3 477 Petajoules (PJ) or more than 50 years of production life at current rates of extraction of 64 PJ per annum. Queensland has 3 410 PJ (or 98%) of the 2P reserves with the remainder (67 PJ) at the Camden operation in New South Wales. Of the Australian reserves 2 733 PJ (or 79%) occur in the Bowen Basin and 677 PJ (or 19%) occur in the Surat Basin. The Santos Ltd operated Fairview project in the Bowen Basin has 1 098 PJ of 2P reserves or 32% of Australia’s CBM reserves. Note that there are no CMM reserves.

Production In Australia the commercial production of CBM (including CMM) was zero in 1995. In 2003, CBM production was 40 PJ and by 2006 CBM production had doubled to 80 PJ with 73 PJ being produced in Queensland. In 2004, CBM accounted for about 4% of Australia’s total natural gas Creative Commons License. Reproduced with Permission. Michael Sexton Onshore Energy and Minerals Division Geoscience Australia. Australian Atlas of minerals resources, mines and processing centres.

Jen’s Quiz

PSYCHO KILLER - qu'est-ce que c'est?

How well do you know your movie psychos?... 1. Which psycho murdered his own mother, only to preserve her body and bring her back to life in his mind, acting out murders on her behalf? 2. Who uttered the words, ‘A census taker once tried to test me. I ate his liver with some fava beans and a nice chianti’? 3. In which 1980 movie does a writer descend into murderous madness after taking on the job of caretaker of a haunted hotel? 4. What is the name of the relentless psycho in the Halloween movies? 5. Which two Gotham City psychos were portrayed by Danny DeVito and Heath Ledger in the Batman movies? 6. In which futuristic movie does a teenaged psycho lead his ‘droogs’ on nightly rampages of ‘the old ultra violence’? 7. What was the name of the sadistic nurse in One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest? 8. Which 1987 movie spawned the scorned bunny boiler stalker? 9. Which self-appointed vigilante psycho is infamous for saying, ‘You talkin’ to me?’ 10. Who played Batemen in the 2000 film adaptation of American Psycho? 11. Which actor played a movie psycho who based his murders on the seven deadly sins? 12. In which 1990 film does the psycho tell her victim ‘I’m your number one fan?’ before breaking his ankles with a sledgehammer? 13. Which actors played the psychotic killing-spree duo in Natural Born Killers? 14. In which Coen brothers film does the psycho decide his victims’ fate on the flip of a coin? 15. Which mafia psycho is whacked when he impulsively murders a waiter for failing to bring him a drink? 16. Known for his evil roles, which English actor plays the corrupt psycho cop in The Professional opposite Natalie Portman and Jean Reno? 17. Which 1992 thriller portrays a victim terrorised by a psycho flatmate who changes her appearance to look like her, tries to steal her boyfriend, and kills her puppy? 18. Which American actress played a psycho most notably known for flashing her private parts at the camera? 19. Which psycho doll is also known as ‘The Lakeshore Strangler’? 20. Which ‘Mister’ is known for cutting the ear off his victim with a razor blade to the tune of ‘Stuck in the Middle’? The Den. Issue 19, March 2011  15.

Technology with Curtis

Google Is More Than A Search Engine Google Chrome

We all know the Internet is a great source of information if used correctly, and the program accessing the Internet can help you do that better. For now, I want to focus on Google Chrome. As the name suggests, the search engine giant Google has produced their own Internet browser, and it’s been out for a while. I’ll help identify the best features about Chrome and make the change to this browser.

What is Google Chrome?

Google Chrome is an Internet Browser that has a very minimalistic design (just like their search engine). In Chrome you’ll use tabs, which are at the top of the screen and can be dragged out of the window and dropped to move that tab to a new window. You can download a copy from their website:

Why would you want to change to Chrome?

There are a few reasons why you’d change, and the top 3 for Google Chrome are:

1.) Security 2.) Chrome Sync 3.) Chrome Web Store

Security is important when browsing the internet, but is also a big topic in itself. There’s lots of great information about the security between different Internet browsers available on the web. Google Chrome 10 has had zero security problems this year, however Internet Explorer 9 have already had to fix a security flaw. Considering that Chrome celebrated it’s 2nd birthday in December last year and already have an Internet browser that won’t let any nasties into your computer, you should feel secure surfing with Chrome.

Chrome Sync

Chrome Sync is something you can activate in Chrome that allows you to share everything you do in Chrome between multiple PCs. You first need a Google Account (if you use any Google services besides the search engine, you’ll have an account already) and it’s simple to setup. Your bookmarks, history, cookies, extensions, preferences and themes are all on your browser whether you’re surfing at home, or running Chrome from a USB stick in the library.

16  The Den. Issue 19, March 2011.

Google Chrome How do I turn on Sync? 1.) Open Google Chrome.

2.) Click the wrench icon in the top right hand corner of the browser and select Options. 3.) Click the “Personal Stuff” tab at the top of the window. 4.) Under “Sync:” click the “Set up sync” button. 5.) Sign in with your Google Account. If you want to fully set up an account, visit accounts/NewAccount 6.) If you like, you can customize what to Sync between the browsers you set this up with. For the most part, you will want to sync everything. 7.) It’s as easy as that! Do these steps for each browser you want to sync together and you’re all done!

Chrome Web Store

The Chrome Web Store is a website you can visit to install extensions and themes into Chrome. You can change the look and feel of the browser by picking any of the themes from the store and installing them. Extensions are like miniature programs that you can install into Chrome to work for you and, if you choose the right extensions, you can use many of them together to help speed up your work. Don’t let the name fool you, it’s not necessary to have to buy anything; most of what you need can be found for free!

How can I use extensions to help my study?

Extensions can be extremely powerful when used correctly, especially when you’re in “study mode” or surfing the Internet at home. You can download them from the Chrome Web Store ( or follow the links from this site of 20 useful extensions for studying;

20 Google Chrome Extensions Every PhD Student Needs:

These extensions range from tools that range from checking your email from any page to bringing up relevant wikipedia articles below your mouse simply by highlighting a word on a website. There’s an extension that allows you to add sticky notes onto sites to help remind you about things (which can be tricky when you’re flicking through multiple sources). If you share your sources and information on sites like Facebook, there’s great extensions to help share what you’re viewing directly to your friends, without having to switch between pages. They’ll even shorten the link to make it easier to share (see above, the website is a popular website address shortener, and this link was created and customized in Chrome with almost no effort.

Can I take Chrome with me?

You certainly can! If you grab a USB stick and head to the address below, you can download a copy of Chrome Portable. This way, you can plug your USB into any PC and have your favourite links and/or bookmarks open in seconds! Chrome Portable Download:

Go to: for a video about ‘10 Features of Google Chrome. Curtis Layton The Den. Issue 19, March 2011  17.

I love Maf because ...

I LOVE Maf because ... An admission first. I have bee na consistent ‘lurk er’ fo

r nearly 4 years I have never n eeded to post . This is because soone r or later, no m atter what the topic , someone will nearly always say exa ctly what I was thinking. Since I dislike re ading repetitiv e posts, I have never ad ded my agreem ent and I obviously hav e few original thoughts to start my ow n thread! Mostly I like th e jokes or funn y posts the best, but so metimes there is nothing more entertaining th an to read a real goo d s*** fight fro m the sidelines!! I’m going to miss it a lot. Kylie Mercer

ndly the frie s i F A ve the M ace. I love the o l I y h W pl ort e of the our, the supp r e h p s m atmo r, the hu ffers. e t n a b um o friendly this for ing from h t y n a s y discus cations...and a m e w pli at I love th ining to job ap ..this is what . a toilet tr ng in between nd fantastic. i a every th forum unique the makes :) Shaggy

18  The Den. Issue 19, March 2011.

Her on w e's an a fte hy like the I like t rthoug h h p whe n ev arty in e MAF: t the i eryo 'pro kitc t's n p e e he r' e rum s an on the lse is be n sub d be the ing c i n o g to ject fo rrec the ld tg M rela AF is w eneral to find x f som or get here yo orum, h u ethi ng o elp or j go to ust ff t see who he wal say l an bite d s. Lind aW hite

I love M AF b it is a p lace I ca ecause n suppor t, encou come for ra fun, lau ghter, a gement, n or two and sha argument r em ences w ith othe y experir st Plus I ca n lurk o udents. r post much a s I want as . Rebeka h Noble

it’s our place.’s our place. F MA ll go e v I lo e we a d ... us ocke a c be half c off ms a i l l Wi Liz

I love Maf because no matter if I have tears or laughter there is usually somebody there. It keeps me sane...or insane as needed. Maf people post great things to The DEN. Sandra Stewart

I love M A ed nutt F because I am ers who s are tryi urrounded by am whi ng similar le juggl min ing eve to achieve the rything same th dIt is our else life i salvatio throws ngs I n at tim at us. cry and es. Som suppor ewhere t ea got tha we c t suppo ch other thro ugh life an laugh and rt at ho ily don' . Many me and t ha their fri especia understand w ends an ven't hy they lly at a m d fam are d atu and Tim Tams an re age. Here w oing a uni cou else we e find u r can dre d stories abou ndersta se, t am up. things l We also Ogres, and an nding ike mer Post script ything get an e kins an ences w dv duc Some of these hi but the ch can explod ajazzling. We h ation about were posted on e quite n we ar e mostl spectac ave our differMaf last year just y friend ularly s ometim s again after I got the job, in the n es Mostly e x t : unfortunately didn’t ) thread. It has a lso bec save them all so that ome m y Faceb is why it is better to oo see :) A place to k where my f send things to: amily c be me a Oh and a n g ' t ain. I blood f also love MAF ri becaus e of the and talk ends I have m Ed ade. Pe with lik ople I c real flesh and e we've an mee known t an each ot her fore d hug MAF :) ver. I lo ve Jacque line Wil cox

The Den. Issue 19, March 2011  19.

Shaggy’s Recycled Crafts

Teabags Y

ou would be surprised what you can do with them. This month I have used the humble tea bag to decorate a note book cover, and also used them to decorate a pencil case I made out of a hair straightener box. When ever you are having a nice cup of brew, take the bag out before you have added sugar or milk..and leave the tea bag to dry. Once it is dry cut open the bag so as to get the maximum amount of teabag square...put the dry tea leaves on your garden ( it is good for it)...and keep the tea bag ‘fabric’. Some tea bags come apart really easily, others need some persuasion. You could also use round teabags for a different effect. You can also use the thread and label of the teabag.

Notebook Materials

6 tea bags 5 bread clips old rusty buckle garlic bag (thoroughly washed) cheese bag (thoroughly washed old button (complete with thread) paint

Method Soak the teabags in pva and stick them as they fit to the cover of the notebook. I was not fussy about how flat they sat, messy means texture. Once dry add the netting from the two bags, I used dimensional glue to help stick these down...add a few random staples for effect. Stick down the bread clips and lettering Attach the buckle to the lace, and stick these down. Add a flower, button and a few diamante glitter stickers. Finally hit the cover with random ‘blobs’ of paint by blowing air down a recycled straw.

20  The Den. Issue 19, March 2011.



Pencil Case Materials

Old Bread Knife (or other sharp cutting implement) Long Thick Cardboard Box (a hair straightener box works) watered down paint PVA gkue tea bags old patterns oldlace bubble wrap old cardboard tube brad split pin cord stickers

Method Cut the top off a small straightener box leave a hinge of card at the back Cover the box in paint ‘watered down’ with pva, stuck down tea bags, old patterns, old lace, and a fabric leaf. Once dry add blobs of paint with bubble wrap and an old cardboard tube. Add a ‘brad’ split pinto the front of the ‘lid’ and at the very bottom of the back of the box. (These are used as another anchor point to attach the cord to close the box) Stick the bubble wrap used for painting on the lid of the box. Add a few more ‘brads’, stickers and the flower soaked in glue.

y g g ha


The Den. Issue 19, March 2011  21.

Special Feature


Orange Blood (SES)

to those trying desperately to sandbag homes and move their possessions to higher ground. We provided advice on what they could or should do to protect themselves and their loved ones. As the waters started subsiding, multiple agencies provided assistance, including the State Emergency Service, Surf Life Saving I joined just after The Gap Storms which devastated Queensland and many other volunteer agencies. the suburbs of The Gap and Ashgrove with 70,000 homes losing power, and streets with downed After the trees and powerlines, some homes were destroyed Floods beyond recognition. For days after the event, December 2010 I spent a Until December 2010 there had been no other lot of time major events in Brisbane. Rains and storms started in orange, a weather domino effect which resulted in the providing flooding of the Brisbane/Ipswich area.The river assistance reached a peak on the 13th of January of 4.46 to the metres.The majority of suburbs lining the banks community of the Brisbane River were inundated with flood in the clean waters. Suburbs were blocked off from any sort of up, as well access, infrastructure was damaged or destroyed, off-duty time and whole communities were left with a muddy, in civvies smelly mess to clean up. helping the “Mud Army”, On the which was evening of a collective the peak I term for was out with the public who grabbed what equipment they the SES.Most could and went out into the streets and banded SES teams together to help fellow community members. were doing twelve hour Although muddy, dirty and smelly, there was a shifts in the great sense of pride and spirit knowing that the days before help I provided, both in civvies and in orange, was and after for the greater good of the community and that the peak. those people affected had someone to turn to in We were in their time of need. hire vehicles providing Queensland had been hit hard by the floods, assistance which had affected not only Brisbane, but irstly, who am I? My name is Nathan Horswill, and I am currently studying a Bachelor of Emergency Management here at Charles Sturt University via Distance Education. I am a volunteer in the State Emergency Service in Brisbane, QLD, and have been for just over two years.

22  The Den. Issue 19, March 2011.

Queensland Natural Disasters Ipswich, Toowoomba and the Lockyer Valley. More then 200, 000 homes were affected, and 20% of Queensland was under water.

take on a larger role in a disaster response team. No matter what, my blood will always run orange,

Tropical Cyclone Yasi

and the volunteer service will always be something I hold dear to me. Through all this time, one quote has stood with me, and that is the quote of Premier of Queensland, Anna Bligh who said: Tropical Cyclone Yasi asrrived on the 3rd of February 2011, as a category 5 system. Places most hit were Mission Beach, Tully Heads and Cardwell. It left behind it a trail of destruction, with homes destroyed, infrastructure wiped out and a mess that is still being cleaned up today. On the 9th of February, I was deployed to Townsville as part of Taskforce Mike One of the Brisbane SES Unit. We spent five days assisting Townsville SES teams to get through the large amount of jobs that needed tending to. I spent my time in the Incident Control Room, running the Communications side of operations, but went into the field on the last day and saw for myself the destruction that Yasi had brought on the area. Trees down everywhere, houses damaged. People were scared and worried for themselves.

“We are Queenslanders. We’re the people that they breed tough, north of the border. We’re the ones that they knock down, and we get up again.” The vision that has stood with me, is the vision of ordinary citizens, getting stuck in, getting dirty and helping complete strangers piece back together their homes, whether it be shovelling dirt and mud out of their homes, or helping clean the walls. There is a great sense of community and togetherness, with no signs of race, age or wealth issues holding anyone back. It was the community banding together as one, aiming towards to one goal, that of recovery that earned them the term “Mud Army”.

Emergency Management

It was the months leading up to these disasters that had me interested in the Emergency Management side of things. My mind started to wander as to a better way of doing things, and as the disasters went through their stages, my interest grew further. I hope to be able to use what I learn at CSU in my time with the volunteer State Emergency Service and to one day in the future The Den. Issue 19, March 2011  23.

Through the Lens



Gill Light

Elizabeth Williams. Too Tidy (Her words.)

24  The Den. Issue 19, March 2011.

My Desk

Sandra Stewart: My desk: Two views. BEFORE the clean up (which still hasn’t happened).Note the TV (for background noise). Below: Nutritional essentials - empty plate and LARGE coffee mug. Glass of wine. Camera for those shots out the window.

Creativity is NOT a pretty sight. That ’s my excuse and I am sticking to it! The Den. Issue 19, March 2011  25.

Study Courses

What I WAS studying.

do. I can nearly appreciate the uses for ‘stats’ even though, like algebra when we were school kids, seemed like useless information we will never have or want to use.

I have finished the Bachelor of Equine Science course and am waiting to graduate in April, subsequently, as I am bored and have no study to do, I’m treating this as a mini assignment! 20 odd years ago I attended the Riverina – Murray Institute of Higher Education (as Charles Sturt was known back then) and completed a diploma in Agriculture, horse husbandry strand. Our assignments were typed up on a typewriter, but the lecturers didn’t care if they were hand written either! There were no journal searches on the internet, just page turning in the library. Res schools went for 12 days twice a year and the compulsory student union subsidised everything. We had the ‘aggie’ tavern, $1 ‘cocktail’ nights, wine & cheese tasting, indoor rodeos and all sorts of night time entertainments. I remember drinking a lot……I think. Anyway it was the best fun ever and I thought anyone who didn’t go to Uni was mad. Fast forward to now and apparently my qualifications which I worked and drank so hard to get back then are no longer ‘relevant’. So I went back and did them again. It was much more educational this time, but not nearly as much fun! The drop out rate of students who start but never finish looks about the same to me, so I suppose that proves that the entertainment factor is not the most important aspect of the “university experience”. I have learnt a lot more from the ‘science strand’ than I did from the ‘equine strand’. Probably the greatest improvement in my knowledge bank attributable to the course would be the ability to research journal articles. There are quite a few aspects of horse care I am interested in that the course did not cover, but I cannot think of a single thing taught that was not useful, even if as an example of what NOT to 26  The Den. Issue 19, March 2011.

I am most disappointed that there is no ‘masters’ or ‘honours’ section of the Equine Science course. Only research options seem to be available to graduates. I may have to ‘cross over’ to animal science to continue studying, but not this year. This year, I’m holidaying. So now, I will be able to present my new ‘relevant’ qualifications and then will have to find which cardboard box contains the old certificate my Mum had framed so at least they are ‘filed’ together. Graduating and achieving the qualification won’t really do anything for me career wise (except make me ‘up to date’), but I will miss studying and attending Uni. Since I enjoy learning so much, even without the drinking and other entertainments, I guess I’ll be back! Cheers, Kylie Mercer.

Craft Corner

The piece on the right is Valerie’s ‘Masterpiece’ . It was taken from a photo of the farm I grew up on. It is of the Blowering Valley

DE Craft Corner Valerie McDowell shares with us some of the beautiful Counted Cross Stitch she has done over the last 10 years. She has completed many more but gives them away as presents.

Above is one of Scottish bagpipers that Valerie likes. Right: The cross stitch of a Tiger was given to Valerie by her kids for Mother’s Day to have completed by Father’s Day so they could give it to their father as he follows the Tigers in the NRL.

The Den. Issue 19, March 2011  27.

Getting to Know Each Other

Rachel Quittenden

Whereabouts do you live? Bacchus Marsh in Victoria, semi rural area about an hour West of Melbourne What are you studying? Post Graduate Certificate in Human Services

What are your likes? Talking to people about what interests them, I am very curious about what gets people going and why. Eating out, which is a luxury, I'll settle for a good coffee. Sewing, working with my hands. What are your dislikes? Unwarranted aggression, rudeness for the sake of it. Repeatedly using ignorance as a defence- it's okay to not know something, but then go and find out. If you had 3 wishes what would they be? More tolerance and communication between people generally, good health for my family and myself, for my kids to grow up to be balanced people who contribute to society and are generally happy. Would you rather have warts or pimples and why (you can’t say neither!)? Warts. Pimples I've got (still). Warts you can get rid of being a virus. Pimples just come and go as they please. Little buggers. When you were young, what job did you want to have when you grew up? I wanted to be a nun, I know it's not a job, but there it is. I also wanted to be a ballet dancer. Dancing nun maybe? What did you end up doing? Nursing Activities when not studying? Being a mum, procrastinating, entertaining fanciful ideas of artistic activites and DIY improvements around house. Pets: Lily, our fox terrier cross we adopted a couple of years ago. Lovely girl, we are very 28  The Den. Issue 19, March 2011.

lucky to have her.

Your thoughts on the environment: Myself and my family are still learning to integrate environmentally conscious measures into the everyday. Frustrated at leaders prioritisation of $$$ over climate change issues. Favourites: • party food: Chicco babies • TV show: Used to be Six Feet Under, now it's True Blood (sorry Australian programming) • Music: All time favourite, Beatles. I also love Kate Bush, still listen to The Whole Story often, much to my husband's annoyance. • Game Online: Bejewelled. See above re. procrastinating • Book: Loved Dicken's Oliver, had no idea that he was a political commentator. Amazed at books that remain relevant in any era. • Things to do on a Sunday: Gardening stuff, finding cheap things to do that are entertaining and fun to do with the kids, mini bushwalks mostly. Most embarrassing moment: I'm the queen of social gaffes, so it surprises me that I can't think of anything really specific to recount...if I remember I will promise to put on the MAF! memorable holiday Port Douglas about three years ago. No Maccas, great weather, walking everywhere, swimming over coral reef, happy children. Grandfather's farm growing up.

DE Students

Rebecca Fraser Gordon Whereabouts do you live? Wodonga VIC What are you studying? Masters Natural Resource Management What are your likes? Chocolate, horse riding, movies What are your dislikes? Noisy places, crowds If you had 3 wishes what would they be? Health, wealth and happiness for all those i care about Would you rather have warts or pimples and why (you can’t say neither!)? Warts, much easier to get rid of When you were young, what job did you want to have when you grew up? A marine biologist, because my friend wanted to be one. I had no idea what it was, but it sounded cool. What did you end up doing? Currently an Environmental Planning Consultant Activities when not studying? Horse riding, sleeping :-P love movies too but who has time? Pets: 1 horse (Fleur), 2 dogs (Patch and Matilda), both rescues, 3 goldfish (Smithy, Geronimo and Dexter)

Rebecca (L) with her little sister Amy (R). Favourites: • Party food: Chocolate and light and tangy chips. Yes, i mean together ;-) • TV show: Dexter • Music: Very broad • Song: Depends on the week, Bliss n Eso “Addicted” is copping a flogging on the ipod this week • Movie: The Matrix • Game: Elder Scrolls Oblivion (PC) • Book: Farseer Trilogy by Robin Hobb • Things to do on a Sunday: Sleep in, except for riding club Sundays, then apparently enjoy riding while being soaked to the skin Most embarrassing moment: Made an inappropriate “in” joke in the wrong crowd • memorable holiday: Plane hopping from Wagga Wagga NSW to Emerald QLD with the little sister to visit parents (both of us first time flyers, 3 planes in a day).

Your thoughts on the environment: I’ve been studying environmental science for 5 years now, i think that speaks for itself The Den. Issue 19, March 2011  29.

NEXT MONTH and beyond ... Email letters to the Editor & submissions to April Contributions Due: 21st April Autism

As world autism day falls in April if any body would like to put together a few words about living with Autism or living or caring foe a child or adult who has Autism.


Are you a volunteer for anything - tell us about it.


Poetry, Prose what ever you like, fiction or non-fiction. The topic is ‘My Most Memorable Bus Ride.

Photography “Shoes”

Please continue contributing to:

Why I Love Maf? What I am Studying. Meet Other DE Students DE Craft Also consider a book or movie review. I will post some guiding questions for the topics for April on the forums.

Missing in Action for March

Writer’s Corner - where are all our writers?

Bookworm - Book Reviews (I had one review but ran out of time and space. Ed)

30  The Den. Issue 19, March 2011.

Answers Psycho Killer Quiz

1. Norman Bates (Psycho), 2. Hannibal Lecter, 3. The Shining, 4. Michael Meyers, 5. The Penguin and The Joker, 6. A Clockwork Orange, 7. Nurse Ratchett, 8. Fatal Attraction, 9. Travis Bickle (Robert De Niro, Taxi Driver), 10. Christian Bale, 11. Kevin Spacey, 12. Misery, 13. Juliette Lewis and WoodyHarrelson, 14. No Country for Old Men, 15. Tommy DeVito (Joe Pecsi ‘Goodfellas’), 16. Gary Oldman, 17. Single White Female, 18. Sharon Stone (Basic Instinct), 19. Chucky, 20. Mr Blonde

The Victor

Poet: C.W. Longenecker

If you think you are beaten, you are. If you think you dare not, you don’t If you like to win but think you can’t, It’s almost a cinch you won’t. If you think you’ll lose, you’re lost. For out in the world we find Success begins with a fellow’s will It’s all in the state of mind. If you think you are outclassed, you are. You’ve got to think high to rise. You’ve got to be sure of yourself before You can ever win the prize. Life’s battles don’t always go To the stronger or faster man. But sooner or later, the man who wins Is the man who thinks he can. Acknowledgements: Photos sourced from stock.xchng All other photographs and graphics as acknowledged. The Victor:

The Den  

3rd Issue 19th March 2011

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