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THE HIDDEN AGENDA Are you in control of your thoughts?

Rit Limphongpand

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CONTENTS INTRODUCTION

The book of media bias

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Know the communicator

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Know the lies

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EFFECT

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Reasons for lies

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Propaganda model of media

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Problem of lies

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Methods of manipulation

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Thailand

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U.S. media

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Personal

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Political

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Cultural and Social

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SOLUTION

Design for change

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REFERENCE

Bibliography

86

Photography credits

87

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INTRODUCTION |

INTRODUCTION

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INTRODUCTION |

THE BOOK OF MEDIA BIAS Does media bias affects our thinking, and reasoning? In the recent times, the media has been known for sensationalizing many news events and giving unnecessary importance to certain issues. They wanted to spread their agenda through news and information in order to influence the minds of the audiences. This book is inspired from the situation of biased media my home country. This situation involves with two protest groups. They have their own media sources, which are considered to be news spinners, driving people to take action against the government and oppose each other side. In general people are too easily influenced by disinformation spread by the media. During my research on situation of media bias in U.S., I've found out that media bias causes more issues other than just political ones, and that people are not aware of the media

manipulating their way of thinking, even though many realize the media is biased. Someone might say the bias will never be resolved because the media industry is too big for us to handle. Still, If it can’t not be resolved, but at least we “audiences” can help to reduce it. Starting with ourselves by try not to be manipulated by those lies. As a graphic designer, I hope that this book will be useful to the reader by giving insights information and propose design solutions of the problems from media bias.

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KNOW THE COMMUNICATOR Definition of Media “Media” are the storage, transmission channels and tools used to store and deliver information or data. It is often referred to as synonymous with mass media or news media, but may refer to a single medium used to communicate any data for any purpose. In this book we'll focus on the bias in “mass media.” Mass media refers collectively to all media technolog ies, including telev ision, f i lm, newspapers, newsletter, magazines and other form of publications. As time and technology progressed, and as the Internet grew, more and more avenues of mass media started arising. The reach of these channels is far more profound and deep, and there are certainly two ways of looking at this accessibility to news and informations including blogging, social networking, news websites, podcasts, message boards and video sharing. These are tools that used for mass

communications, and to the organizations which control these technologies. Some people also refer to the mass media as the “mainstream media,” referencing the fact that it tends to stick to prominent stories which will be of interest to public audiences. Media plays a ver y impor ta nt role in shaping the personality of people in our society. We often get our role models by hearing about their actions and images from the media. And over the years, mass media has played an important role in making people understand

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our democracy , concerning about the strengths and weaknesses of the economy of our country, the population figures, the various problems faced by the nation, achievements of the governments in different sectors, through the immediate and precise reporting of different forms of media. Media plays an important role in building a sense of unity and pride among the people of a nation. In those countries where there are many cases, religions and languages

reporting. One of those effects is the issue of media bias. According to The SAGE: Handbook of Media Studies, contemporary research demonstrates a n i ncr e a si ng level of c onc ent r at ion of media ownership. It is characterized by the ownership of a large number of media outlets by a small number of corporations or media conglomerates. Media concentration is closely related to media bias.

Media plays a very important role in shaping the personality of people in our society. spoken, media has even more responsibility to convey the news to the public. Media makes the public aware of their fundamental rights and their duties towards their families, state and the nation. The effects of mass media are truly everlasting. Though the positive effects are many, there are some negative effects associated with mass media. News which is published without having been checked whether it is fact or not, can create unnecessary confusion and extreme feelings among the common masses. There have been many instances of huge fights and controversies emerging, because of improper

Some news and information from the media can end up being biased so as not to offend advertisers or owners. Countries, major multinational corporations own media stations and outlets. Often, many media institutions survive on advertising fees, which can lead to the media outlet being influenced by various corporate interests. Other times, the ownership interests may affect what is and is not covered.


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KNOW THE LIES Definition of Media Bias Media bias refers to the bias of journalists and news producers within the mass media in the selection of which events and stories are reported and how they are covered. The term "media bias" implies a pervasive or widespread bias contravening the standards of journalism, rather than the perspective of an individual journalist or article. The direction and degree of media bias in various countries is different. For example in my countr y the situation of media bias is serious. A nd for some countries, where government controls the media, such as China, Iran, Burma Libya and North Korea, they also have media bias but towards the government perspectives and benefits. Practical limitations to media neutrality include the inability of journalists to report all available news stories and facts, and the

requirement that selected facts be linked into a consistent narrative. Since it is impossible to report everything, selectivity is inevitable. Government influence and market forces can result in biased reporting. Some experts often point out that mass media is the single most powerful device for controlling and persuading the masses, and it is naturally exploited in any number of ways for its persuasive power. Advertising, political persuasion, special interests, and covering

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of controversial issues, are several ways that media acts in biased ways. From what I've researched and having a conversation with my party participants that I invited them to have a discussions about media bias. I found out that almost everyone including myself has their own definition of media bias. My own definition of media bias is when the news is being reports with prejudice, using false information to report on a news, including cover up the truth from the public audience,

EUGENE LEE “ For me when you say bias, I'm talking about statistical bias. I think media biases are always there, because when you're delivering news or anything, It's just-someone's-opinion. People who write, when you ask them what they do, they don't say they just report, they are creating art, every time. So there's always going to be this bias. But how do make it, you make it by manipulating statistics and numbers...Going back when we talking about the 50's 60's 40's.

“I think the media bias it's just what people what to hear. Like when you what to hear something, you what to hear it all the time and you shut yourself to another point of view.” —Ben Lim also using media as tools for a propaganda. these are the definitions from people that I've a conversation with: MEDELINE PRICHASON “ Media bias just means only believing in what the media tells you, not looking at another source, limiting yourself from what media said.”

Advertising account executive

When people met FDR Franklin D. Roosevelt for the first time, so many times people were shocked that he was a paralytic because he had Polio. When he was a child he was put in a wheelchair. And when they did news on every picture, they made sure that on every picture you never took pictures of FDR below your


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waist. There were no picture or you rarely saw him on a wheelchair. So when people actually met him in person, they were surprised that he didn’t walk around. And that's a media bias right there.” MORGAN McGEHEE “ When you touch on the word manipulation—it's like media manipulation of our perspective, I think...When they try have us to follow one perspective or their perspective of what they what us to think.” NNAMDI IHEMELU “ For me, media bias comes down to like money, who's paying who to get one point across. Like Fox is different from CNN or MSNBC and they all have their own little point that they try to get across. But it has to do with selling something. Is it Coca Cola or is it Budlight? It all has to do with who's getting paid. So media bias means money to me.” DIANA BURMAN “ It think it's playing on the lack of information and playing with the full information and they write what they thought.” BEN LIM “ From the media producer point of view because I'm studying in advertising. Every profession they have their own rights to do. That’s why the reporter always says ‘It might happen’, ‘This thing might happen.’ They use the words and provided what they think. I think the media bias it's just what people want to hear. Like when you want to hear something, you what to hear it all the time and you shut yourself to another point of view. I think it depends on

people. Media just delivers what they've been paid for.” PRAMETH SOPHONTHAMMASIT “ The first thing that comes up to mind for the media bias is the benefits and opinion for the person. In my field, in the films. Going back to 1910, the English government used the documentary to persuade and influence people to get elected for another terms, so these documentaries were propaganda. So the media bias concerns benefit of organiztion or for some people. It can be money or power.” SIRANA HANWONGRITH “ The media means the channel that you use to send messages to the people and the bias is the massage and the bias is what a PR or marketing person has to get across by using the media to get into the people. So the media depends on each channel because for media itself is like a weekly newspaper and national newspaper, they have they own target audience. So then they are going to pick some stories that could help to support their image and also send the right message. So they say something that people want to hear.” BRADFORD EXANTUS “ Media bias for me would also be like believing in what you see. Because most of the time what are we seeing on the TV is horrible—It's negativity, humiliation and we believe in what they say.” Form my conclusion, the reason that almost everyone has their own definition of media bias is. because of their personal experience, background, occupation. Ultimately, it depends on what they've learned about the media.

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THERE IS NO PUBLIC CONSENSUS ON DEFINITON OF WHAT “MEDIA BIAS” IS

Source: American Society of Newspaper Editors | http://asne.org


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29%

BELIEVE BIAS IS “FAVORITISM TO A PARTICULAR SOCIAL OR POLITICAL GROUP.”

29%

BELIEVE BIAS IS “HAVING AN AGENDA AND SHAPING THE NEWS TO REPORT IT.”

30%

BELIEVE BIAS IS “NOT BEING OPEN-MINDED AND NEUTRAL ABOUT THE FACTS.”

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BELIEVE ALL OF THESE ISSUES ARE MEDIA BIAS.

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REASON FOR LIES Fourteen types and reasons of media bias 1. DISTORTION When a journalist or people connected with reporting of a particular event have a prejudiced opinion about things, which ultimately results in a distortion of the story. 2. POLITICAL Sometimes, there are media that may show a political bias towards certain news events. This happens when the publication or channel is in favor of a particular political party. 3. JOURNALIST A journalist may also be biased towards a particular incident and may add his/ her personal opinion to the news report. It's a reporter's subjective comments about objective facts. Making one side's ideological perspective look better than another. This kind of media

bias is purely based on the journalist’s own opinion which is not considered to be purely ethical as well. 4. RACIAL AND RELIGIOUS Racial and religious bias can happen when the journalist or news reporter gives reports in favor of a particular race and religion. Racism is a major issue, which can also end up in biased news reports. 5. ADVERTISING Advertisers or corporate companies may also influence the way certain reports are presented. Reports in this case, are presented in favor of the particular corporate to give it prominence. 6. TIME AND RATING Bias is also created by time constraints and by the demand for higher ratings to gain more


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market share and more advertising revenue. News outlets must appeal to the broadest possible consumer base. 7. STORY SELECTION Media bias can be seen when an editor or producer may give importance to a specific story on the page or on air to promote certain viewpoints. This type of bias can happen when an editor/producer wants to highlight the story for personal reasons or outside influences. 8. OMISSION Bias may also involve omission of facts while reporting stories. Such omission may be of critical information, so as to present certain individuals in a favorable manner. 9. SENSATIONALIZE A particular form of media bias can also happen when the publication or news channel wants to sensationalize one particular news event to gain attention from the audience. 10. PUBLIC INTEREST The media tends to appeal to a specific target audience, which means stories that affect a large number of people on a global scale are more likely to revceive less coverage in some media markets and countries, such as a school shooting, a celebrity scandal, a plane crash or a shocking story. For example compared to a different country, recent conflicts in Egypt and Libya might be afforded coverage in the U.S. but not in Thailand. The news about conflict in Africa rarely appears on Thai media, while the Earthquake and Tsunami that recently struck Japan revceived wide coverage. On the contrary, flooding in southern province of Thailand that

killed 21 people and stranded thousands of tourists revceived less coverage than the Japan disaster, which happened at the same period of time. This type of bias is a function of what the public is interested in and wants to hear. 11. CONFLICT OF INTEREST Sometimes the bias has also been claimed in an issue referred to as a conflict of interest, where owners of media outlets have vested interests in other commercial companies, political parties or are even producers among competitive media outlets themselves. 12. S ECTION OF SOURCES This bias can be seen when a reporter uses such phrases as “experts believe”, “observers say,” or “ most people believe” to make audiences believe that a news source is realiable. 13. PLACEMENT Most people read only the headline. Bias by placement is where in the newspaper, in an article a story or event is printed. This involves the pattern of placing news stories so as to understate or promote particular information or news. 14. ENDORSEMENT AND CONDEMNATION This form of media bias can be seen where the reporting on stories has involved endorsement or condemnation of public policies instead of presentation of facts.

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OF PEOPLE BELIEVE THAT SENSATIONAL NEWS STORIES GET COVERAGE BECAUSE THEY ARE EXCITING NOT BECAUSE THEY ARE IMPORTANT.


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Source: American Society of Newspaper Editors | http://asne.org


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PROPAGANDA MODEL OF MEDIA Hypothesizing systematic biases of U.S. media The propaganda model is a conceptual model in political economy proposed by Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky, who state how propaganda, including systemic biases, function in mass media. The propaganda model seeks to explain how populations are propagandized and how consent for economic, social and political policies are “manufactured� in the public mind due to this propaganda. Although the model was based mainly on the characteristics of U.S. media, Chomsky and Herman believe the theory is applicable to any country that shares the basic economic structure and organizing principles as the cause of media biases. The theory consists of five general classes that determine the type of news that is presented in news media. These five classes are: OWNERSHIP OF THE MEDIUM Since mass media outlets are currently either

large corporations or part of conglomerates the information presented to the public will be biased with respect to these interests. According to this reasoning, news items that most threaten the corporate financial interests will face the greatest bias and censorship. MEDIUM'S FUNDING SOURCE Most newspapers have to maintain a high proportion of advertising in order to cover the costs of production; without it, they would have to increase the price of their newspaper.


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According to this filter, the news itself is nothing more than “filler” to get readers to see the advertisements which makes up the real content, and will thus take whatever form is most attracting to readers. According to The Propaganda Model: An Overview by David Cromwell, A 1992 U.S. the study of 150 news editors found that 90% said that advertisers tried to interfere with newspaper content, and 70% tried to stop news stories altogether. 40% admitted that

SOURCING The mass media are draw n into mutual benefit relationship with powerful sources of information by economic necessity and reciprocity of interest. Therefore, the media concentrate their resources where major news stories are likely to happen. Editors and journalists who offend these powerful news sources, the media will become reluctant to present articles that will harm corporate interests that provide them with the resources.

“A 1992 U.S. study of 150 news editors found that 90% said that advertisers tried to interfere with newspaper content and 70% tried to stop news stories altogether.” —David Cromwell advertisers had in fact influenced a story. In the US, the figure is ten billion dollars a year on TV advertising alone. An advertising-based system makes survival extremely difficult for radical publications that depend on revenue from sales alone. Advertising is like media ownership, therefore acts as a news filter.

Scottish writer and activist.

Robert W. McChesney, a professor of communications at the University of Illinois states that Professional journalism relies heavily on official sources. Reporters have to talk to the White House press secretary, the business association, the army general. What those people say is news. Their perspectives


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are automatically reasonable or trustworthy. But if a journalist talk to prisoners, labouring class workers, homelesses, or protesters, you will automatically draw their perspectives as unreliable or dishonest, instead you've become an advocate and are no longer a “neutral” professional journalist. FLAK For Chomsky and Herman “f lak” refers to negative responses to a media statement or program. The term “f lak” has been used to describe what Chomsky and Herman see as targeted efforts to discredit organizations or individuals who disagree with or cast dubiousness on assumptions, which are viewed as favorable to established power. In the U.K., environmental journalist Andrew Rowell states that, Britain's archaic libel laws prevent much of the real truth about the destructive nature of many of U.K.'s leading companies from ever being published or broadcast.

ANTI-COMMUNIST AND FEAR Communism once posed the primary threat according to the model. Communism and socialism were portrayed by their leader or detractors as threatening freedoms of speech, movement, and the press. Herman and Chomsky state that such a portrayal was often used as a means to silence voices critical of elite interests. The fifth filter also applies to media demonization of anti-globalization protesters, which are often described as “rioters” and perceived as a threat.

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THE PROBLEM Why is Media Bias an Issue? There is a rational behind the changing of news content. Given that the average audience wants to be entertained and the time and attention available to commit to news stories, the press has shaped its focus to deliver content in an entertaining and compact size format. As a result, news stories are present to ignite an emotive response to grab attention from the audience. As a result, news stories are presented to ignite an emotive response to grab attention from the audience. Often, this attempt is misleading. The use of words to imply suspicion, vague, controversy and fear to elevate public interest. This is seen as good media presentation because it gets audiences to pay attention. The benefit of increasing mass media distribution is an increase in advertising revenue. Therefore, the ration behind a sensationalizing of news content has been shaped by the public interest.

It is probably understood by most that the news media is doing this on a regular basis. But media bias reaches deeper, affecting the mind of the audiences because it’s so subtle. The sensational depiction of events is overt and thereby acceptable by most of society. But the covert misrepresentation of facts, either by omission or sensationalized are not perceived as if the facts are covered. We need to understand there are always two sides to every story. As a result, both sides


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need to be given equal representation and equal weight so that the audience can decide for themselves what the meaning of the news is. Even though the Media Code of Ethics clearly states as a core value, it is not always follow through. Additionally, journalists have a difficult time not selecting their stories, words and sources independent of their personal views and the views of their newsroom.

those who favor the right to choose Palestinian, while an audience has assigned a negative label to those who want to preserve the right to Israel. Therefore, words to describe any person, event, or entity can quickly shape the mind of the audience in a very subtle way. SOURCES The selection of news sources for stories by journalists should be present both sides of

But media bias reaches deeper, affecting the mind of the audiences because it’s so subtle. These are some examples of covert media bias that the average news consumer would digest without a thought are: WORDS The selection of words to describe one side, compared to the other can slant an audience perception. An example would be, describing one side of the Israel and Palestinian issue as ProIsrael versus Pro-Palestinian. To give both words the same weight, one would need to describe each as Pro-Israel and Anti-Israel, or Pro-Palestinian and Anti-Palestinian. As you can evaluate for yourself, if a reporter uses the “Pro-Palestinian” versus “Anti-Palestinian” terms, an audience has automatically assigned a positive label to

perspective. Eventhoug if this is achieved, the quality and of the source may be higher on one side than the other, or only one source is quoted on one side and several on the other. This could lead to a slanted story, which can imply as the unbalanced reporting. NEWS SELECTION The news is often controlled by the newsroom. Topics are accepted and others overlooked given the agenda of the powers that based upon what topics fit into the headline news. This is important to realize because the big issue is being missed by the public by not seeing all perspectives, political campaigns, business empire, and every aspect of people’s lives. Beyond


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ignoring news, the media may even be sarcastic while promoting others. POLITICAL AGENDA It would be impossible to believe that a support of a political candidate or party by any news media wouldn’t affect its news coverage. As a result, it is cautious for audiences to examine the political views of the media and the reporters. It is easy for the media and its reporters to becoming a promotion for a political party figure or any

subject of self-interest, rather be a nonpartisan and reporting facts. The audiences do not know this, they can be influenced to believing that the best candidate represented through media has the whole truth. POWER AND PRIVILEGE Often those in power or in positions of privilege have positive repoting than an average person. This can give the wrong idea to an audience. An example of painting someone one way or


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another would be citing behaviors of one that are positive, like a candidate kissing babies, while in the same article, an opposing candidate is shown or described as being exhausted by his/ her campaign schedule. This type of coverage is a subtle way to improve the standings of one candidate over another. Media bias is extensive as presented in the points above. When one adds the overt practice of sensationalizing news, an audience has a

huge task whether or not they know it. This is of great concerns because if most of the people most of the time, believe everything they read or view, they will ultimately become the servants of those who write or publish, by voting (or not voting) for candidates or issues from the same biased perspective. Therefore an inquiry by all is required if we are to make independent decisions that affect people’s lives.

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METHODS OF MANIPULATION The ways that the media use to influences us The media are seen as powerful tools to manipulate, influence and persuade audiences. And they have their methods of manipulation for these purposes. The example we all know is advertising. But we shall take a look at the methods by which the biases are presented. OMISSION AND SUPRESSION Manipulation involves the information that is left unmentioned to keep it from being aired or published (also happens with censorship). Sometimes the omission includes not just essential details of a story but the entire story itself, even one of a major important issue. LIES The media could lie about a story or making up news by using false information, manipulating photographs, also including numbers and statistics to create a false impressions.

A c c or d i ng t o New York T i me s, i n 2005, there was a large amount of fake and prepackaged news created by U.S. government departments, such as the Pentagon, the State Department and others, and disseminated through the U.S. media. The New York Times noted a number of issues including: 1. The U.S. under Bush administration using public relations to making news. Issues with this have included that: - A number of these government-made news segments are made to look like local news


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segments are made to look like local news (either by the government department or by the receiving broadcaster). - Sometimes these reporters have fake reports such as when a “reporter” covering airport safety was actually a public relations professional working under a fake name for the Transportation Security Administration. - Other times, there is no mention that a video segment is produced by the government. - Where there is some attribution, news stations simply rebroadcast them but sometimes without attributing the source. 2. These segments have reached millions. 3. This benefits both the government and the media outlets. 4. This could add up to propaganda within the U.S. as well as internationally. REPETITION Media bias often repetitively mentions a certain news story to make the audience remember what it is being told. It could lead people to believe that it is true, very widespread, and much more important than it really is. LABELING Media bias seeks to manipulate our perception of a story with a positive or negative label. The label defines the story and does it without having to deal with actual particulars that might lead us to a different conclusion. For example, some positive labels are “political stability,” “the president's firm leadership,” “a strong defense” and “a healthy economy.” And for some common negative labels are “guerrillas,” “terrorists”, “conspiracy theories,” and “gangsters,” and

These are rarely treated within a larger context of social relations and issues. FACE-VALUE One way to lie is to accept at face-value what are known to be official lies, uncritically passing them on to the public without enough confirmation or could be is perceived as “objectivity.” COMISSION Within the space or time limit constraining them, reporters are supposed to provide roughly equal time to presenting the best perspective of different sides of an issue. If the reporter presents only one perspective or passes along only the “facts” espoused by liberals without any acknowledgment that conservatives disagree, then he has committed bias by commission. For example, if liberals say “A” and conservatives say “B” then the story should summarize both perspectives. A nthor obvious example in U.S. media is Fox News that present the news favoring to the Republican Party. FRAMING Journalist can create a desired impression without possibility to obvious support and without going too far from the aspect of journalism objectivity. Framing is bending the story, achieved in the way the news is made, the placement, the tone of presentation, vague words, the headlines and photographs, also in the visual and auditory effects of the broadcasted media. For example, reporters using tone to sustain their credibility such as, “How will the situation end?... Only time will tell.” or “No one can say for sure.”

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“The people will believe what the media tells them they believe.” —George Orwell

English author and journalist.


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EFFECT |

EFFECT

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EFFECT IN THAILAND Biased media divides protesters in Thailand I want to point out the example of a serious situation of media bias that affects the people in Thailand, my home country. Some media in Thailand is considered to be news spinners that drive people to take action against the government, with these people easily influenced by the disinformation spread by the media. Each protest group operates their own media outlets. The United Front for Democracy Against Dictatorship (UDD), whose supporters are commonly called “Red Shirts” who draw their support from rural and working-class Thais, operate People’s Channel TV and others media such as radio, newspaper, magazines and websites. The movement receives support from former Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra. The People’s Alliance for Democracy (PAD) was formed to lead demonstrations against the government of Thaksin Shinawatra, also called

the National Liberation Alliance Thai Patriots Network or the “Yellow Shirts” supported by the Sondhi Limthongkul-owned Manager Media Group, including Manager Daily newspaper and the ASTV satellite television channel and conservative division of the Thai Army, some leaders of Democrat Party, and members of state-enterprise labor unions. The PAD consists of mainly of royalist upper and middle-class and Southerners. They get the news from ASTV, and others media outlets, including websites. Both side media considered to be overtly biased.


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UDD supporters have been the anti-PADs since the 2006 coup d'état, which overthrew Thaksin five weeks before a scheduled general election. They accused the PAD of supporting the coup d'état. From then on, clashes between supporters of the two groups have taken place from time to time. And the tools that have been used to spread hatred between both sides stem from the media. Also, the UDD has been criticized by the PAD as being an "anti-monarchist", and even a "republican" movement, and many Web

working class people, who tend to believe in what media said. For example, most of the taxi drivers in Bangkok, the capital city of Thailand, tend to support the UDD. They will receive news from People’s Channel radio or so called Red Shirt Channel. The news is present on this station mostly about the negative news and failure of the current government, promoting their supported political parties. I recall to asking one of these Taxi drivers, “Why do you listen to this station?, Why don't you want to

The greatest threat of media bias is it can influence mind of the mass and make people believe in those lies, regardless of the reality and the truth. sites and other media supportive to the UDD have been shut down under Thailand's strict lese majeste laws. From my personal experience when I watch and read both sides media I found out that sometimes they lie about the information or facts, making up the stories and using words to try to manipulate the audience. Although, some stories are true, many aren't. People who have been influenced by the lies of both media, the most that I've seen are

listen to something else? Don't you know some of the information is false?” And he said “I want to believe because I believe in Mr. Thaksin Other stations are always lying about him.” The same goes with PAD. Most supporters are middle class and they get their news from ASTV station and mostly from the website of Manager Newspaper, which has an obvious bias towards Thaksin Shinawatra and his supportes. The news on the website presents opposite facts to the Red Shirt Channel. One of my friends


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who studied at the same university when I was in my undergraduate degree was a supporter of PAD. He read the news from the website all day. When I ask him why did he always read news from this website, and whether he knew about the news bias. The answer was “They aren't biased, they tell the truth and other sources are instead biased towards the Yellow shirts.� A nother exa mple is my fa m i ly. My grandmother always reading magazines from the Manager group and my aunt is watching

the news from the People's channel. If they ever talked about the same issue, they held to different perspectives that they received from the media, always having a big argument. I think the greatest threat of media bias is its influence on the minds of the masses, making people believe in those lies, regardless of the reality and the truth.

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“Some media have resorted to telling their viewers and listeners to even kill the prime minister of the country.” —Korkaew

Thai Columnist


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U.S. MEDIA Reporting on the riot situation in Thailand The riot situation of the “Red Shirt ” protesters riot in Bangkok on May 19th, 2010—was reported with CNN giving one side of the story of the protesters. There were accusations of Dan Rivers CNN’s correspondent in Thailand and Sara Snider inter viewed the Red Shirt protesters and their leaders. According to the president of Thailand Satellite Television Association, Niphon Naksompop, who compared video clips of the riot situation in Thailand by foreign media, including CNN, Al Jazeera and France 24. Niphon states that “CNN inter viewed protesters and their leaders, who said they only had slingshots, fireworks, firecrackers and rocks while the troops were armed with war weapons. But Al Jazeera showed the picture of protesters holding guns.”

On the other hand, no direct interviews with government officials had been shown, no interviews or witness statements from residents or civilians in the area who had been harassed or who suffered from the actions of the protesters. Also, CNN was criticized for being pro-Thaksin Shinawatra. Entertainer Kamol Sukosol Clapp, who lives in downtown Bangkok, said he had gone to the critical areas and see if the violence would possibly reach his house. He had heard rumors spread in the area and needed to check out what was actually happening on the ground. He was at the same spot that CNN's Dan Rivers was


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reporting on one occasion, and his experience was different from what the reporter was saying. These are some of the accusations from one of the Thai citizens who wrote a letter to CNN. “Your news network, by its longtime transnational presence and extensive reach, has been put in a position of trust and care; CNN’s journalists, reporters, and researchers have a

seem to have been solely taken from the anti-government protest leaders or their followers/sympathizers. Yet, all details about the government’s position have come from secondary resources. No direct interviews with government officials have been shown; no interviews or witness statements from ordinary Bangkok residents or civilians unaffiliated with

It's also involved with perception of how Westren audience will see my counrty and understand the real situation that happened. collective responsibility to follow the journalist’s code and ethics to deliver and present facts from all facets of the story, not merely one-sided, shallow and sensational half-truths.” “CNN should not negligently discard its duty of care to the international populace by reporting single-sided or unverified facts and distorted truths drawn from superficial research, or display/distribute biased images which capture only one side of the actual event.” “Mr. Rivers and Ms. Snider have NOT done their best under these life-threatening circumstances because many other foreign correspondents have done better. All of Mr. Rivers and Ms. Sniders’ quotes and statements

the protesters, particularly those who have been harassed by or suffered at the hands of the protesters, have been circulated.” These are the examples of media reporting on one side of the story, with a lack of correction or balanced information. Apart from the bias by the Western Media, it's also involved with the perception of how Westrern audiences see my counrty and understand the real situation as it happened.


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“ We are not just fighting against those in the media that give distorted stories. We are also battling the perception of how developed countries see developing countries.” —Somtow Sucharitkul

Thai musical composer and author


EFFECT |

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| THE HIDDEN AGENDA

48 | COUNTING SHEEP


EFFECT | 49

PERSONAL How media bias affects us The media affects our daily lives in numerous ways, from television, radio, print media and internet. Many people today are not aware the media is manipulating their way of thinking and influence their opinions on certain issues such as abortion, homosexuality, racism, and politics. Today's media can easily influence on us faster than you think because of the advancements of technology. News is very easy to access. We can receive the news from everywhere and any time that we want and it makes the bias grow faster and spread more widely. The effect of bias starts from personal issues but it might eventually lead to the bigger problems. As I mentioned in a previous chapter and about the situation in my country is an example about why media bias is a problem, which can influence our perception, the way

we think, our decision making, or even on how we interact with each other. There are two psychological explanations of a person who has been influenced by media bias: HOSTILE MEDIA EFFECT The hostile media effect sometimes called the hostile media phenomenon, refers to the finding that people with strong biases toward an issue perceive media coverage as biased against their opinions. Proponents of the hostile media effect argue that this finding cannot be attributed to the presence of bias in the news reports, since


50 | THE HIDDEN AGENDA

partisans from opposing sides of an issue rate the same coverage as biased against their side and biased in favor of the opposing side. According to Economist Jeremy, he states that

references that painted Israel in a positive light a nd 26 references t h at pa i nted Isr ael unfavorably. Pro-Israeli viewers, who watched the very same clips, spotted 16 references that

According to Economist Jeremy Burke, he states that even unbiased viewers actually prefer viewers actually prefer biased reporting. even unbiased viewers actually prefer states that even unbiased viewers actually prefer biased reporting. According to Washington Post article by staff writer Shankar Vedantam entitled “Two Views of the Same News Find Opposite Biases,” article by staff writer Shankar Vedantam. He exa mines how pro-Israel a nd pro-A rab audiences frequently view the same news through two very different news filters and form diametrically opposing views about the nature of that news. Vedantam refers a 1982 study of 144 subjects–of both pro-Israel and pro-Arab dispositions–who were asked to view the same 6 television news segments about the 1982 Isreal-Lebanon conflict. The results, according to Vedantam, “Pro-Arab viewers heard 42

painted Israel positively and 57 references that painted Israel negatively. Both groups were certain they were right and that the other side didn’t know what it was talking about.” The psychological explanation for the hostile media effect results in a combination of two human cognitive biases. The first bias, confirmation bias, is the tendency to prefer evidence that supports our own beliefs and preconceptions regardless of whether the information is true. The second bias, attribution error, refers to the tendency to overvalue dispositional explanations for the behavior of others, while undervaluing situational factors. For instance, we make mistake and we blame it on others. And I would say the situaton of media bias in my counrty, the hostile media effect phenomenon has already happened.


EFFECT |

THE THIRD-PERSON EFFECT Third-person media effect is a psychological hypothesis first formulated by psychologist W. Phillips Davison in a seminal 1983 article in Vol. 47 of Public Opinion Quarterly. In that article, he wrote “In its broadest formulation, this hy pothesis predicts that people will tend to overestimate the influence that mass communications have on the attitudes and behavior of others. More specifically, individuals who are members of an audience that is exposed to a persuasive communication will expect the communication to have a greater effect on others than on themselves.” The explanation for the fact that people on both sides of an issue can see the media as biased against their own perspective is that each observer assumes an unbalanced effect will be achieved by information, arguments or facts supporting the “wrong” side of the issue. Others (the third persons), the observer reasons, will be excessively influenced by the information, arguments or facts. This phenomenon is in the minds of many audiences to believe that media was truly balanced or unbiased. They would lean toward the “correct” side of the issue. In other words, to determine what they feel is the overt bias of the media, they would want to see more overt bias in their direction. For example, liberals argue there have much liberal bias in media today, and cite conservative radio talk show host Rush Limbaugh, conservative political commentator, an opinion leader in conservative politics and conser vatism or Fox News as

evidence. Eric Alterman, a media columnist for The Nation magazine, wrote a book in 2003 entitled “What Liberal Media?” to respond to accusations by conservatives of liberal bias in media. And in November 2002, former Senate Minority Leader, Tom Daschle went to argue that Limbaugh were elevating dangerous attitudes in the minds of the public. When asked if he believed there was a link between such conservative talk radio criticism and his personal security, he said: “I do. Oh, absolutely... certainly in terms of threats, I think that there’s no question.” According to Slate online magazine writer Jack Shafer concludes of this issue “Whenever conservatives talk to liberals about press biasor vice versa-they talk right past one another. Both factions seem to work backward from their conclusions to the evidence and damn what the other side says.” There is a similarity between U.S. and Thai media bias issues, with both sides are claiming that the opposition is biased. This can be used as example of the third person media effect.

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“One great truth of political life is that each side is absolutely convinced that the other has an unfair advantage in getting its views out.” —James Fallows

A national correspondent for The Atlantic Monthly


EFFECT | 53


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EFFECT | 55

POLITICAL How media bias affect the voters and electoral politics In a representative system of government, policy outcomes are affected by the political preferences and the beliefs of the voters. The media plays a key role in shaping these preferences and beliefs. It collects, summarizes, and frames the information that voters use in their voting decisions. The media injects bias into news coverage of a political candidate or party. To give the U.S. media as an example, Fox News considered to be the case of a new media source that is more positive to the Republicans than others. So Fox News reports more positive (and less negative) news about the Republican candidate. A rational viewer, knowing the exact degree of the bias, realizes that often bad news hasn’t been reported and good news is overstated. If the viewer has a sense of media is being biased, he or she will take into account the media

source’s bias and discount the news about the candidate. This is the case for an audience who receives a news for the first time. But if a viewer who isn’t aware about the bias watches reports about a Republican or Democrats candidate and finds the reports to be positively related to what an audience had expected, that an audience may reformed his or her beliefs thinking that the candidate is a truly good candidate. That viewer may even switch party lines, which could have an impact on voting in the U.S. presidential election.


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Interestingly, by 2001 Fox News Channel replaced CNN as the ratings leader in the cable news war, and has remained the highest-rated cable news source to date. Fox News is the most commonly used primary source of political information for television audiences. In fact, daily newspapers are the only media outlet that is used more often as a primary news source than Fox News.

Coverage of Party Conventions, the research found that prime-time coverage of the 2004 Democratic National Convention on Fox News was significantly more negative in tone than its coverage of the Republican Convention. This same study also found that Fox News’s convention coverage of Democratic nominee John Kerry was more negative than coverage of George W. Bush.

Daily newspapers are the only media outlet that is used more often as a primary news source than Fox News. Several political observers and pundits credit the success of Fox News to the station’s ability to appeal to conservatives who were d isappoi nted w it h t rad it iona l net work television news and who perceived traditional outlets to have a liberal bias. Preliminary experimental research on this topic indicates that the regular Fox News audience has in fact become more Republican since the channel was established. Data from the Pew Research Center’s Biennial Media Consumption study shows that more than ⅓ of all Republicans or 36% watch Fox News on a regular basis. According to From Net work News to Cable Commentary The Evolution of Television

As for the electoral politics. According to media criticism organization Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting (FAIR), Democratic candidate John Edwards was falsely maligned and was not given coverage consistent with his standing in presidential campaign coverage bec au se h is messages have quest ioned corporate power. A poll of 2008 U.S. presidential election voters released on March 14, 2007 by Zogby Internationa l repor ts that 83% of those surveyed believe that there is a bias in the media, with 64% of respondents of the opinion that this bias favors liberals and 28% of respondents believing that this bias is conservative.


EFFECT |

In August 2008 the Washington Post ombudsman wrote that the Post had published almost three times as many page 1 stories about Barack Obama than it had about John McCain since Obama won the Democratic party nomination that June. In September 2008 a Rasmussen poll found that 68% of voters believed that “most reporters try to help the candidate they want to win.� 49% of respondents stated that the reporters were helping Barack

Obama to get elected, while only 14 percent said the same regarding John McCain. And 51% said that the press was actively "trying to hurt" Republican Vice Presidential nominee Sarah Palin with negative coverage. These was an example to point out that the media have a great effect on the political system and have great influnces on voters to choose their support to a political party.

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PERCENTAGE OF PUBLIC USING MEDIA AS PRIMARY SOURCES FOR INFORMATION ON INTERNATIONAL AND NATIONAL NEWS

Source: The Pew Research Center’s December 2004 Political Typology Survey, release date May 10, 2005.


EFFECT | 59

Television Other Media

Fox News

13%

CNN

12%

MSNBC

CNBC

ABC News

CBS News

NBC News

Local News

Newspaper

Radio

Magazines

Internet

1%

9%

10%

7%

9%

2%

2%

5%

17%

12%


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“The bites of information voters receive from both print and electronic media are simply insufficient for constructive political discourse.” —William E. Hudson

Author of American Democracy in Peril


EFFECT |

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EFFECT | 63

CULTURAL & SOCIAL EFFECT Media bias towards racial, religion and gender Because the diversity of U.S. population. The media tends to be bias against other race or could be called “racism” or “stereotype” against others nationalities and religions. And from the conversation that I had with others, this could include a gender as one of the biased issue. RACISM The media have devoted most of the time to mention negative aspects and too little time to describing the background problems of AfricanAmericans. What is not a crisis is not usually reported. The news media respond quickly interest to the report conflicts and controversies of racial stories. One of the main reasons for the insufficient coverage of the essential causes of racial stereotypes in the U.S. is that the condition of blacks itself is not a matter of high interest

to the white majority. Their interest in black America is focused upon situations in which their imagined fear becomes a real problem. Accoriding to Ronald L. Taylor, The Harm Wrought by Racial Stereotype. Research had disclosed that most serious crimes (homicide, rape, robbery, and assault) in inner cities are committed by a very small proportion of African-American youth, some 8% by estimates. Even though the bias to characterize some African-American males as criminals continues in our society. It is common for police officers


64 | THE HIDDEN AGENDA

stop African-American males. Clearly that the negative media stereotype has affect the African-American community. ARAB AND ISRAEL CONFLICT Most of the U.S. and U.K. tend to provide distorted coverage of the Israel-Palestine conflict. There are a number of factors that contribute to this pattern of biased, omission, and misrepresentatio. Media coverage of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict uses loaded words that reflect a distinctly anti-Arab. According to detailed study conducted in 2002 by Glasgow University showed that in British television news, Palestinians are called “activists,” “militants,” “extremists,” “gunmen,” “bombers,” “terrorists,” “killers,” “assassins,” “attackers,” “self-styled Palestinian martyrs”

and “fanatics.” Israelis are “soldiers” or “troops” and even when an Israeli group tried to bomb a Palestinian school, they were not “terrorists” but instead called “vigilantes.” The studied also showed an ignorance and misunderstanding about the issue. A group of U.S. college students was asked, “Who is occupying the occupied territories and what nationality are the settlers?” Only 29% knew the correct answers. Some thought the Palestinians occupy the occupied territories, but the Israelis are the settlers. Others thought the Israelis occupy the occupied territories but the Palestinians are the settlers. Only a smaller number of students thought the Palestinians were both the settlers and the occupiers.


EFFECT | 65

The studied conclude that the lack of understanding of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict leads to a lack of interest of the real situation. RELIGION The Media have tendency to place attention on race and religion when describing a person or groups of people. The public has learned to connect those descriptions with terrible events. After the September 11 attacks, the media focused on Muslims as a cause of the attacks. There usually have reports of Islamic-

study by Religious Discrimination in England and Wales, found that most Muslim and Hindu respondents said hostility, verbal abuse, and unfair media coverage had become more frequent in recent years. Muslim organizations reported more unfair treatment than other religious groups. Pagans and people from new religious movements also complained of open hostility and discrimination, and of being labelled child abusers and cults. Another issue is the biased often seen

The study by Religious Discrimination in England and Wales, found that most Muslim and Hindu respondents said hostility, verbal abuse, and unfair media coverage had become more frequent in recent years. Americans being harassed and abused because of their religious alignment and nationalities that match with the terrorist that attacked on the incidents. According to WorldWide Religious News, organization representing the religions said hostility and violence remained concerns. The

with new religious movements. It is often be the case that audience get is a negative aspect and sensationalized. For example, the most new or minority religious movements only receive a media coverage when something sensational occurs, the mass suicide of a cult or illegal activities of a leader in the religious movement.


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GENDER Most media coverage rely on men as experts in the fields of business, politics and economics news. Women in the news are more likely to be featured in stories about accidents, natural disasters, or domestic violence than in stories about their professional abilities or expertise. Canadian journalist Jenn Goddu studied newspaper and magazine coverage of three women’s lobby groups over fifteen years period. She discovered that journalists tend to focus on

reported that only 18% of stories quote women, and that the number of women stories only have 10% of total news coverage. News talk shows are also a questionable issue. The White House Project reports that only 9% of the guests on Sunday morning news shows, such as Meet the Press and Face the Nation are women, and even then they only speak 10% of the time and leaving 90% of the discussion to the male guests. Project president Marie Wilson warns that the lack of representation for women

AFJ reported that only 18% of stories quote women, and that the number of women stories only have 10% of total news coverage. the domestic aspects of the politically active woman’s life, such as details about the high heels stashed in her bag, her habit of napping in the early evening, and her lack of concern about whether or not she is considered ladylike, rather than her position on the issues. The lack of women’s coverage seems to be a worldwide issue. In 2000 the Association of Women Journalists (Association des femmes journalistes or AFJ) studied news coverage of women and women’s issues in 70 countries. AFJ

will have profound consequences on whether or not women are perceived as competent leaders, because “authority is not recognized by these shows. It is created by these shows.” Journalism professor at Boston University Caryl River states that “Politically active women are often underestimated and stereotyped by the media. When Hillary Clinton was still first lady, she was referred to as a “witch” or “witchlike” at least 50 times in the press. Rivers writes, “Male political figures may be called


EFFECT |

mean and nasty names, but those words don’t usually reflect superstition and dread. Did the press ever call Presidents Carter, Reagan, Bush, or Clinton warlocks?” Women athletes are also given short coverage in the media. Margaret Carlisle Duncan and Michael Messner studied sports coverage on three network organizations in Los Angeles. They report that only 9% of airtime was dedicated to women’s sports. On the contrary, 88% of airtime dedicated to male athletes. On ESPN’s national sports show Sports Center, where women athletes just have 2% of airtime. And according to the Canadian Association for the Advancement of Women, Sports and Physical Activity, women athletes receive just 3% of sports coverage in major Canadian networks. Another example according to Michael Messner, the media also appears to be bias against women’s sports by the way the events are covered. The share quantity of coverage is a fraction of the men’s coverage. Messner found

during the 1993 basketball tournaments, for example, that 41 stories ran for the men, and only ten stories for the women, the men’s stories ran longer than the women’s, were more in depth, and had more video footage. In short, the media was telling the viewing audiences which of the two events they wanted you to watch, which was of better quality, and in the long run, building an audience of viewers so they can charge future sponsors top dollar. Television networks have the ability to build audiences, and they choose to with men’s sports. Media images of women in sports are also different from the male. Female athletes are increasingly photographed in sexy poses or we could say for “beauty rather than her game.”

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EFFECT | 69

“Politically active women are often disparaged and stereotyped by the media. When Hillary Clinton was still first lady, she was referred to as a ‘witch’ or ‘witchlike’ at least 50 times in the press.” —Caryl River

Journalism professor at Boston University


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| THE HIDDEN AGENDA


SOLUTION |

SOLUTION

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| THE HIDDEN AGENDA


SOLUTION |

DESIGN FOR CHANGE Five design solutions for media bias. The media bias may seem to be a minor problem and some might say that media bias is just the way the media does bussiness. But if you take a look at the examples and consequences from previous chapters, you will find that media bias is harmful—and can affect some people physically and mentally. As I mentioned in the previous chapters and had discussioned with my party participants about the problem of media bias. The inherent problem that they pointed out is that this bias separates us, and makes us perceive and treat each other differently. Some of my participants also pointed out that people who have been manipulated and influenced by the bias, mostly are uneducated or less educated people because they haven't enough critical thinking skills to analyze and understand the messages from the media.

I think media bias is a problem that we should care about because we are the audiences of the media and we receive the information from them every day. And the bias can always manipulated us easily because it's a subtle matter and it can control us to make us believe in the lies and disinformation from the media. It might start as a minor personal problem. But eventually if the situations get worse it could become a major problem to our society. As a graphic designer, I'm proposing five solutions of media bias problem.

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News Sources General discussion forum for all new sources related topics.

Recommended News Sources Weekly recommendation of trusted and reliable news sources.

Media Watchdog The list of unreliable and biased new sources by members.

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SOLUTION |

INTERNET DISCUSSION FORUM

“They don’t want to consider other media because they are lazy and afraid.” — Madeline Prichason

PROBLEM People are lazy about watching or reading other media sources that they aren’t familiar with or regularly view, and they are afraid that the facts from the other sources will be against their beliefs. AUDIENCE News addicted and people who are interested in current events DESIGN SOLUTION Creating an internet forum to encourage people to exchange their persepectives and discuss news and news sources. And they can review and provide good and reliable news sources for others.

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SOLUTION |

POSTER CAMPAIGN

“Media is geared towards the uneducated.” — Morgan McGehee

PROBLEM The uneducated tend to buy into media bias more than educated people because educate individuals generally have more critical thinking skills. AUDIENCE Uneducated and less educated people DESIGN SOLUTION Creating an awareness poster campaign to spread awareness about those who are targeted by the media and educate them to understand about media bias and how it works.

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SOLUTION | 79

MEDIA BIAS GUIDEBOOK

“Scare tactics are the best way to get the information across.” — Nnamdi Ihemelu

PROBLEM People are not aware about how the media is using strategies, such as scare tactics, expert quotes and vague words to influence us. AUDIENCE General Public DESIGN SOLUTION Creating a guidebook about the media and the methods that they use to influence us. To bring awareness to people so that they don't entirely believe in the information that they receive from the media until it has been proved or confirmed that it's true.


80 | THE HIDDEN AGENDA


SOLUTION |

EVENT AND DOCUMENTARY FILM

“ The media’s the most powerful entity on earth. They have the power to make the innocent guilty and to make the guilty innocent, and that’s power. Because they control the minds of the masses.” — Malcolm X

Militant leader

PROBLEM Media can manipulate and influence our thoughts, which could be related to nationality, race and how we interact to each other. AUDIENCE General Public and journalist DESIGN SOLUTION Creating an event to show a documentary about the example of the negative influence of media bias. Usinge this event to engage journalists and public audiences in dialogue to bring awareness about consideration of other factors, including their prejudices and biases. Also it is essential to encourage journalists to be neutral when reporting and stay devoted to their ethics.

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MEDIA

Every student should learn about Media Literacy

LITERACY News & Eventy What is Media Literacy?

Why students should learn Media literacy? Recources for Teachers & Students Site Map Contact us

Supported and Cooperating with


SOLUTION | 83

PROMOTING MEDIA LITERACY

“ From my point of view, All you have to do is increase everybody's Media Literacy, which means that you have to build in Media Literacy into the education system.” — Allan Mann

Principal at Allan Mann Communications

PROBLEM Media literacy is teaching a limited area study and not every student will be inclined to learn this subject. The more media literacy you have, the more skills of experiencing, interpreting and analyzing the media you are. AUDIENCE Students and educators DESIGN SOLUTION Creating a website to promote media literacy to bring awareness at the school level to make a students understand, raise critical thinking skills, and analyze the messages that inform through the media.


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REFERENCE | 85

REFERENCE


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BIBLIOGRAPHY KNOW THE COMMUNICATOR “Mass Media.“ Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mass_media>. “Mass Media Effects.“Buzzle Web Portal: Intelligent Life on the Web. <http://www.buzzle.com/ articles/mass-media-effects.html>. KNOW THE LIES “Media Bias.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Media_bias>. REASON FOR LIES “Types and Reasons of Media Bias.” Buzzle Web Portal: Intelligent Life on the Web. <http://www. buzzle.com/articles/types-and-reasons-of-media-bias.html>. “Types of Media Bias.” StudentNewsDaily.com - Make Sense of Current Events!. <http://www. studentnewsdaily.com/other/types-of-media-bias/>. PROPAGANDA MODEL OF MEDIA “Propaganda Model.“ Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Propaganda_model>. “The Propaganda Model: An Overview, by David Cromwell.” Chomsky.info : The Noam Chomsky Website. <http://www.chomsky.info/onchomsky/2002----.htm>. PROBLEM OF LIES Day, Bernie. “Why Is Media Bias an Issue?” The Media Research Center of Alaska. METHODS OF MANIPULATION “Methods of Media Manipulation.” Inicio. <http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/sociopolitica/ sociopol_mediacontrol19.htm>. “Michael Parenti: Monopoly Media Manipulation.” Michael Parenti Political Archive\. <http:// www.michaelparenti.org/MonopolyMedia.html>. THAILAND “The Influence Of Thai Media On Politics.” What Form of Money Is Used in Thailand? Characteristics of Music of Thailand. <http://www.thailandattraction.com/politics/TheInfluence-Of-Thai-Media-On-Politics.html>. U,S. MEDIA Bangkok Pundit. “Is CNN’s Coverage Really Biased?” Asian Corresponden. <http:// asiancorrespondent.com/32492/is-cnn-s-coverage-really-biased/>. “Answers Sought to Media ‘bias’” Nationmultimedia.com. <http://www.nationmultimedia.com/ home/2010/05/25/politics/Answers-sought-to-media-bias-30130098.html>. PERSONAL “A Psychological Explanation for Censorship and Claims of ‘Media Bias’.” Technology Liberation Front — Keeping Politicians' Hands off the Net & Everything Else Related to Technology. <http:// techliberation.com/2006/07/24/a-psychological-explanation-for-censorship-and-claims-ofmedia-bias/>. POLITIC Morris, Jonathan S. “Slanted Objectivity? Perceived Media Bias, Cable News Exposure, and Political Attitudes.” (2006): 1-23. Print.


REFERENCE |

Della Vigna, Stefano, and Ethan Kaplan. “The Fox News Effect: Media Bias and Voting.” (2006): 1-44. Print. CULTURAL & SOCIAL Balkaran, Stephen. “Mass Media and Racism.” (1999): Yale University. 21 Oct. 1999. <http://www. yale.edu/ypq/articles/oct99/oct99b.html>.Cohen, Jeff. “Media Coverage of Religion.” Fairness & Accuracy In Reporting (FAIR), 1 Dec. 1999. <http://www.fair.org/index.php?page=2586>. Fenton, Tom. “Media Bias and the Israel-Palestine Conflict | Analysis.” TucsonSentinel.com Tucson News, Info & Commentary. 26 Apr. 2010. <http://www.tucsonsentinel.com/opinion/ report/042610_israel_palestine/media-bias-and-israel-palestine-conflict/>. Killgore, Andrew, and Paul Findley. “Bias and Distorted Media Coverage of Israel/Palestine.” If Americans Knew - What Every American Needs to Know about Israel/Palestine. <http://www. ifamericansknew.org/media/bias.html>. “Media Coverage of Women and Women's Issues.” Media Awareness Network | Réseau éducation Médias. <http://www.media-awareness.ca/english/issues/stereotyping/women_and_girls/ women_coverage.cfm> “Religious Bias ‘on Increase’” Editorial. WorldWide Religious News. The Guardian, 27 Feb. 2001. <http://wwrn.org/articles/4071/?>. Person, Erik F. “Gender Bias in American Sports: Lack of Opportunity, Lack of Administrative Positions and Lack of Coverage in Women's Sports.” The Sport Digest. United States Sports Academy America's Sports University. <http://thesportdigest.com/archive/article/gender-biasamerican-sports-lack-opportunity-lack-administrative-positions-and-lack-coverage>. Williams, Armstrong. “The Media's Bias Against Black Men in America.” (2006). NewsMax. com: America's News Page - News Archives. <http://archive.newsmax.com/archives/ articles/2006/3/30/140755.shtml>.

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Scott Hornby, 42-43

Greg Putrich, 10

Fabio Polenghi, 46-47

hey-gem, 13

rinzing, 49

Aaron Tennies, 14

http://www.greenglancy.com, 52-53

Paul Gorbould, 18-19

Jaime Solano, 54

Olivia Shavies, 22-23

Sarah Schuch, 57

Angela Massagni, 24

Jogeshwar Mishra , 58-59

http://www.businesspundit.com, 27

http://minnesotaindependent.com, 60-61

Ron Wise, 30-31

Paul Kitagaki Jr., 62

http://projectenlightenment.com, 34-35

Alaa Badarneh, 64

http://www.cyber-watchdog.com, 38 (Above)

Tulane Public Relations, 67

Christophe Archambault, 38 (Below)

Carry Devorah, 68-69

http://faranginbangkok.wordpress.com, 41

Chrisolux, 72

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Designed and printed by Rit Limphongpand GR 600, Visual Communications Lab, Spring 2011 Academy of Art University, San Francisco, California, USA Course Instructor : Phil Hamlett & Hunter Lewis Wimmer ESL Support : Amy Shipley & Diep Le Proofread : Justin Walsh Paper : Epson Premium Presentation Paper Matte Double-sided Cover : Hardcover with dust Jacket Printer : Epson stylus photo 1400 Typeface : Knockout and Chronicle by Hoefler & Frere-Jones Š Copyright Rit Limphongpand 2011


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