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LUX

OFFICE HEALTHCARE EDUCATION SPECIAL

APRIL 2015 | ISSUE 44 | www.luxmagazine.co.uk | www.luxreview.com

Would these people work harder under different lights? Sure, Sure, lighting lighting can can cut cut your your energy energy bills, bills, but but can can it it boost boost productivity productivity too? too?

‘‘

Lighting can be such an amazing healing factor for patients on our hospital wards”

TRIED & TESTED: LED PANELS

PLUS »

Lux takes a closer look at 11 of the best new 600x600 panels

O LI-FI: DATA IN LIGHT O LIGHTING AND HEALTH O3 WAYS TO LIGHT A LIBRARY OFFICIAL PUBLICATION OF


Are you responsible Dave Thrower/Reds h i f tP ho t

Managing an emergency lighting network carries with it significant responsibilities: You’ve got to comply with the latest legislation and best practice, keep energy and maintenance low and not least, ensure your building’s occupants are safe at all times.

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EDITOR’S COMMENT 05

Let’s work smarter

ROBERT BAIN EDITOR

W

KATHRINE ANKER DEPUTY EDITOR

ALAN TULLA TECHNICAL EDITOR

MARK HALPER ONLINE NEWS EDITOR

RAY MOLONY PUBLISHER

GORDON ROUTLEDGE CONTRIBUTOR

DAVE TILLEY CONTRIBUTOR

LIZ PECK CONTRIBUTOR

LUX

OFFICE HEALTHCARE EDUCATION SPECIAL

APRIL 2015 | ISSUE 44 | www.luxmagazine.co.uk | www.luxreview.com

Would these people work harder under different lights? Sure, Sure, lighting lighting can can cut cut your your energy energy bills, bills, but but can can it it boost boost productivity productivity too? too?

‘‘

Lighting can be such an amazing healing factor for patients on our hospital wards”

TRIED & TESTED: LED PANELS

PLUS »

Lux takes a closer look at 11 of the best new 600x600 panels

O LI-FI: DATA IN LIGHT O LIGHTING AND HEALTH O3 WAYS TO LIGHT A LIBRARY OFFICIAL PUBLICATION OF

Cover: Will biodynamic light change how we work? Turn to page 80

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hat’s the lighting like where you work? If you work in lighting, you will no doubt have a prepared answer to this question – and perhaps a brochure and a business card to go with it. Normal people, on the other hand, won’t have much to say on the topic. Why would they? The lights are just sort of... there. My office has some inoffensive T8 luminaires which throw a bit of light on to the ceiling and distribute the rest around the room without glare. A sprinkling of dead flies adds character. Standard stuff, and it’s a serviced office, so it’s not as if we can change it. To be honest, I don’t think about the lights in our office much – and I think about lights for a living. Does this mean the lighting doesn’t matter? Far from it. There’s mounting evidence to show that the light that we work under has a big effect on our wellbeing and productivity. This is because our stone age brains are designed to tell the time by the sun, and still interpret the colour and intensity of light as signals about what time of day it is. So working under artificial lighting – a fact of life for most of us – really messes with our heads. This fact, combined with abuse of caffeine and Haribo, helps to explain why I enter a kind of zombie state in the mid-afternoon – slumping in my chair, staring vacantly at my computer, wondering what I’m meant to be doing. Twitter @lux_magazine

LinkedIn linkd.in/lightingtalk

If you too come over a bit Neolithic after a big lunch, don’t worry – there is hope. Today’s intelligent LED lighting systems can be controlled and tuned to create dynamic installations that change throughout the day. Energy efficiency may have been the key factor driving the uptake of LED, but now we’re starting to see the benefits for our health and wellbeing too. In this latest special edition of Lux, focusing on lighting for office, healthcare and education applications, we take a look some standout case studies, and the latest lighting and control technologies for offices. Turn to page 14 for our rundown of the 10 key trends in workplace lighting right now. Turn to page 83 to find out how dynamic lighting is creating better schools, hospitals and workplaces. Check out our reviews of the latest generation of LED ceiling panels on page 98. And see how light can even be used to transmit data on page 22. This sector-focused special edition of Lux is the third of six we’re publishing this year – look out for our upcoming specials on lighting technology in May, outdoor, transport and industrial lighting in June, and our LuxLive preview in October. And stay tuned to Luxreview.com, which is where you’ll find our latest breaking news, exclusive analysis, standout case studies, product reviews, practical advice and video reports. Enjoy the issue. YouTube youtube.com/luxmagazineuk

– We’re productive even when the lighting’s bad ROBERT BAIN Editor robert.bain@luxmagazine.co.uk 020 3283 4387 07720 677 538

PETER ROWLEDGE Commercial director peter.rowledge@luxmagazine.co.uk 020 3283 4387 07740 110261

JAMES POUNTNEY Sector marketing specialist (OEM, controls, emergency) james.pountney@luxmagazine.co.uk 020 3283 4387

KATHRINE ANKER Deputy editor k.anker@luxmagazine.co.uk 020 3283 4387

ROBERTA BONTEMPO Sector marketing specialist (retail, hospitality and leisure, residential) roberta.bontempo@luxmagazine.co.uk 020 3283 4387

MIRIAM HIER Events manager miriam.hier@luxmagazine.co.uk 07882 224682

RAY MOLONY Publisher ray.molony@luxmagazine.co.uk 020 3283 4387 07834 990577

ANDREW BOUSFIELD Sector marketing specialist (industrial, outdoor, transport) andrew.bousfield@luxmagazine.co.uk 07713 567290

JUDY KENNY Art editor e: judy.kenny@luxmagazine.co.uk 020 3283 4387

Published by Revo Media Partners 3 More London Riverside London SE1 2RE Printed by The Manson Group St Albans 01727 848440 www.mansongroup.co.uk ISSN 2045-7456 © Revo Media No part of this publication may be reproduced without the written permission of the publishers. The opinions expressed in this publication are not the official views of the LIA. All rights reserved. Lux magazine is a controlled circulation magazine, available to selected executives with interests in lighting, who fall within the publisher’s terms of control. For those outside these terms, annual subscription is £70 including postage in the UK, EUR90 for the EU and US120 RoW. See www.luxmagazine.co.uk for details.

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06 IN THIS ISSUE

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IN THIS ISSUE 07

How Cundall’s Birmingham office hit 4W/m2 for its lighting Page 42 www.luxreview.com


08 IN THIS ISSUE

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IN THIS ISSUE 09

Light that keeps mums calm at this Danish maternity ward Page 83 www.luxreview.com


10 IN THIS ISSUE

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IN THIS ISSUE 11

How lighting made this Britain’s greenest university Page 56 www.luxreview.com


12 CONTENTS

42

37

80 Issue 03 2015 Features

News and views News Your views Gordon Routledge Interview: Alexandra Hammond Interview: Rod Martin Named and shamed Batwing

16 24 28 32 34 94 114

WORKPLACE LIGHTING TRENDS 14 Employers have been slow to adopt new lighting technology, but they’re making up for lost time

WHAT CONTROLS CAN DO FOR YOU

ANALYSIS: NIGHT-TIME LIGHTING BAN 20 France isn’t enforcing its ban on early-hours lighting

CONTROLS IN SCHOOLS

ANALYSIS: LI-FI

22 Wi-Fi? Pah! It’s time for radio waves to make way for light, and the new data technology called Li-Fi

OPINION: MARCUS MARTIN

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6500K LED on a cream wall just doesn’t look right” ROD MARTIN WATERFRONT PLACE, AUSTRALIA

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34

37

Lux earmarks seven places at work where installing controls will pay dividends 40

Installing controls isn’t as tricky as it used to be

PROJECT: CUNDALL, BIRMINGHAM

42

The consultancy’s office looks great, but consumes only 4W/m2. How did they do it?

26 Don’t let installers fit your controls and walk away, make sure they know how they’ll be used

PROJECT: PRIME HOSPITAL, DUBAI 48 A mixture of light sources – including incandescent – give this hospital it’s hotel-like ambience

OPINION: JAMES BERESFORD

PROJECT: MARIA HILF, GERMANY

26

LEDs are a great light source for emergency lighting, and cut energy use substantially

OPINION: JENNY MACDONNELL It isn’t enough to light an office the same way throughout – light for specific activities instead

54

Biodynamic lighting improves patients’ quality of life at this hospital’s geriatric ward 27

PROJECT: MMU, MANCHESTER 56 How Manchester Metropolitan University jumped to the top of the UK’s green universities league


CONTENTS 13

48

56

14 Hands on PROJECT: DECC

64 The Department of Energy and Climate Change takes a dose of its own medicine at its London HQ

PROJECTS ROUNDUP 66 Stuck in a boring meeting? You could at least admire the lights if you worked in these buildings

Design clinic: libraries 76 Design clinic: doctor’s surgeries 78 88 Lighting economist Reviewed: 600 x 600 panels 98

Jargonbuster Lux videos Upcoming events

108 110 112

PROJECT: ESOS

70 Get up to speed on the government’s latest plans to improve energy efficiency in organisations

LIGHTING IN UNIVERSITIES

72

Make a big impact on energy bills with lighting

BIODYNAMIC LIGHTING

80

Can biodynamic lighting really make us healthier, happier and more productive?

Reviewed: 600 x 600 panels

98

MAKING A CASE FOR BETTER LIGHTING 86 How the World Green Building Council can help you make the case for better workplace lighting

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14 TRENDS

10 Workplaces are trailing slightly when it comes to adopting lighting technology, but the impetus for change is irresistible – as these 10 trends demonstrate

1

biggest trends in lighting for workplaces 1

UPGRADES THAT PAY FOR THEMSELVES

Organisations such as the Carbon Trust and Salix, which provide funding for energysaving projects, are being joined by a raft of new businesses offering to take on the upfront cost of a lighting upgrade and let you pay it for it from the savings on bills.

2

CONTROLS

Controls are the big topic of conversation at the moment. Light sources are only half the story because everyone knows the most efficient light source is one that’s turned off. The rise of controls has come hand in hand with the rise of LEDs, which can be dimmed and can send and receive data. Improvements in user interfaces, and the ubiquity of smartphones and tablets, are also helping. And with the rise of wireless controls and power-line communication, it’s no longer such a faff to add controls to an existing building.

3

FROM T5 TO LED

LEDs have conquered pretty much every lighting application – but offices have

2

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3

been slower than others to make the switch, largely because the prevailing technology – T5 – is still highly efficient for diffuse area lighting, and way cheaper than LED. So for many users, the numbers just don’t add up for a big LED upgrade (especially if you already have T5 installed). The tide is turning, though – LEDs are getting more and more efficient by the day and are highly controllable, which unlocks quicker paybacks. As major manufacturers go all LED, it may soon be the only choice...

4

THE END OF THE LOUVRE?

The LG3 guide was written in the 1980s to prevent glare on computer screens. As a result, recessed louvred fittings that create a cave effect became the norm in offices. But screens have changed a lot since the 1980s, as has the way we work. The latest guidance for workplace lighting puts the focus where it belongs: on people. This, together with the design freedom offered by LEDs, means you don’t see as many louvres in today’s offices as you used to. You’re more likely to see some kind of crazy modern design. That or LED panels.

4


TRENDS 15

ADAPTING TO NEW WORKING PATTERNS

5

We don’t work in the same way we used to. Mobile working and hot-desking are much more common, and people may work in different spots throughout the day. This means task lighting is increasingly important to give people control. Some countries have a stronger tradition of task lighting than others (Lux’s home country of the UK is notoriously bad at it), but it’s getting more popular. Partly because you can save energy by lighting only what you need to, and partly because it’s nice to give people some control over their own lighting.

6

POWER TO THE PEOPLE

‘Give people control of their lights’ is the rallying cry from designers. Or at least give them the appearance of control. In some experiments, placebo light switches that supposedly dimmed lights very gradually – but in fact did nothing at all – helped improve staff satisfaction with their lighting. Oh, and don’t let your control system be let down by a clunky user interface. Make the controls easy to use or people will just override them and they won’t be used at all.

WELLBEING AND PRODUCTIVITY

7

Health, wellbeing and productivity are now big considerations for workplace lighting. This usually means intense blue-rich light in the morning or at times when you want people to be alert, and warmer, softer light in the afternoon and evening when things are winding down. This mimics the change in the characteristics of sunlight through the day and makes sure our body clocks keep

5

ticking at the right speed. In settings where people are working, learning, or undergoing medical treatment, this is essential.

8

MONITORING

Controlling your lights is a big step forward. Monitoring the data and doing new things with it is another. By looking at how much lighting energy is used in your estate at different times and under different conditions, you can open the door to even bigger energy savings by spotting patterns and understanding better how your buildings are used.

9

8

THE INTERNET OF THINGS

The ‘internet of things’ describes what will happen when it’s no longer just computers and phones that are connected to the internet, but everyday objects and devices such as fridges, heart monitors and items in shops. Not only does this present great opportunities to do new things with lighting, it also puts the lighting industry in a powerful position – because every building in the world already has lights all over its ceiling – the perfect network

6

7

BEYOND LIGHT

Heard of Li-Fi? It’s like Wi-Fi, but instead of sending data in radio waves, it sends it in light. This is done by modulating the light from LEDs in a way that’s invisible to the human eye, but can be picked up by a receiver attached to a computer. The result is a super-fast wireless connection. Edinburgh-based PureLiFi – recently valued at £14 million ($21 million) – is commercialising the technology (see page 22), while other companies are using similar techniques to create super-accurate indoor positioning systems.

10

to build on. New tech business Gooee is mass producing microchips and sensors so it can build them into LED modules through partnerships with manufacturers including Aurora.

9

10

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16 NEWS

PRODUCTIVITY

OFFICES

Dubai financial district seeks 27,000 low-energy light fittings The financial and business hub of Dubai is looking for suppliers that can replace 27,000 light fittings in streets and offices with energysaving alternatives. The Dubai International Financial Centre (DIFC) is the subject of a project that is being handled by the government-owned energy services organisation Etihad Esco. The project covers offices in 15 buildings in the financial and business district, as well as architectural lighting, outdoor areas and streetlighting. Etihad Esco sought expressions of interest from energy services companies (Escos) and consortiums that could provide ‘design, implementation, savings guarantee, service, measurement and verification of comprehensive lighting energy-efficiency measures’. Those who expressed interest are going through a pre-qualification process. DIFC is a 110-acre area in central Dubai, set up as a free zone with its own civil and commercial laws in 2004, and used as a base in the region by 22 of the world’s top 30 banks, six of the top 10 insurers and seven of the top 10 law firms.

Efficient light needed for Dubai’s business hub

Etihad Esco’s project with DIFC follows a $10 million deal that it signed recently with Dubai’s electricity and water authority to implement energy-saving measures at power stations and office buildings. Most of the money is being spent on LED lights from Philips, with the  aim of reducing energy use for lighting by 68 per cent. Etihad Esco’s CEO Stephane Le Gentil told Lux that the organisation wants to kick-start the market for energy service contracting in the UAE and the rest of the Middle East. ‘The market was really non-existent,’ he said, ‘so we’re creating it.’

CONTROLS

Controls face Canary Wharf trial A system that controls LED luminaires over power lines could be tested at Canary Wharf as part of an innovation competition for smart city technologies. British manufacturer 8point3 LED is developing an ‘intelligent retrofit lighting solution’ for LEDs in commercial and industrial settings, based on powerline communication – which makes it possible to add controls without any new wiring. 8point3 is one of six finalists in the sustainable buildings category of Canary Wharf’s Cognicity Challenge, designed to drive the development of smart city technologies. It’s the only lighting company in the running. The finalists are nearing the end of a threemonth residency at Level 39 – Canary Wharf’s ‘accelerator space’ for tech startups – honing

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their technologies and working out how they can be applied at the Canary Wharf development. They’ll get support from companies including microprocessor maker Intel and innovation charity Nesta. The winner of each category, to be announced later this month, will receive £50,000 and the chance to pilot its technology on the Canary Wharf estate.

Smart lighting ‘closes the age gap in offices’ Philips says ‘personalised lighting’ in the workplace can help employees of all ages see better and be equally productive. The Dutch giant’s statement is part of its efforts to market its ‘connected lighting for offices’, which it introduced a year ago and which it has showcased at The Edge, the environmentally

lauded Amsterdam offices of consulting firm Deloitte. The system lets workers use smartphone to adjust overhead lights. The lights are connected to an Ethernet network, and each light has its own internet address. ‘A 45-year-old worker needs almost double the light needed by a 20-yearold for everyday tasks,’ said Philips. ‘The one-light-for-all principle is outdated at a time when we are living and working longer. Today 30-50 per cent of people in work are over 45 years old. Over the age of 45, people begin to experience a deterioration of their near-sight vision. Research shows a 60-yearold person needs between two and five times as much light as a 20-year-old to see the same visual detail, let alone to concentrate.’


NEWS 17

HEALTHCARE

Guy’s and St Thomas’ wants to give lighting control to its patients A London hospital trust wants to give patients in its hospitals control over the lights around them. Guy’s and St Thomas’ hospitals in central London are about to start tendering for a lighting upgrade that could involve biodynamic lighting, and which could ultimately let individual patients choose light settings that suit their needs. ‘My proudest moment will be giving our patients the control to make sure that, whether they’re in their own room or in a ward, they have the ability to control the lighting and get the best experience possible,’ said Alexandra Hammond, associate director for sustainability at the environmental strategy arm of the NHS foundation trust that runs Guy’s and St Thomas’ hospitals.

Hammond said the trust is considering a number of possibilities, and that it has allocated £1 million to energy-saving lighting. ‘We’ll be looking at everything, including biodynamic lighting. We obviously have to see how we can work within the budget, but the wonderful thing about Guy’s and St Thomas’ is that it’s an organisation that thinks beyond direct paybacks. It understands that if you improve something like lighting in a patient area, it can improve the healing process, and that’s our fundamental objective,’ Hammond said. O Read the full interview with Alexandra Hammond on p32

Lighting by numbers

27,000 NUMBER OF LIGHTS TO BE REPLACED IN DUBAI’S FINANCIAL DISTRICT

£1m FUNDING ALLOCATED TO ENERGY-SAVING AND BIODYNAMIC LIGHTING AT GUY’S AND ST THOMAS’ HOSPITALS

%

US-based healthcare provider Cleveland Clinic has opened a 300-bed hospital in Abu Dhabi with an LED-lit façade. The steel beams that support the glass façade have been lit with 2,362 blue, dimmable LED lights from Designplan that are controlled by a Dali system. The lighting scheme was devised by Fagerhult.

ENVIRONMENT

90

PEOPLE WHO SAY THEY CAN SEE BETTER IF THEY CAN ADJUST THEIR DESK LIGHTS

%

73

WOMEN WHO REPORTED FEELING LESS PAIN GIVING BIRTH UNDER BIODYNAMIC LIGHT IN A DANISH HOSPITAL (see page 80)

Europe seeks mineral independence An EU-backed organisation wants to reduce Europe’s dependence on the Far East by recovering more rare minerals – mined in the Far East – from LED products assembled and recycled in Europe. It hopes that by making luminaires more durable but easier to take apart, more of the

costly minerals they contain can be recovered, helping Europe during future mineral shortages. CycLED, a group of 13 industrial and academic partner organisations, including Philips and Nottingham Trent University, has declared that it aims to ‘play a vital role in reusing rare materials while

creating valuable jobs in Europe’. To demonstrate what’s possible, the organisation will build a streetlight, a commercial light, an industrial light and a decorative light with the help of manufacturers Braun Lighting Solutions, Etap, Ona and Riva Lighting.

4

W/m2

ENERGY USED IN ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY CUNDALL’S BIRMINGHAM OFFICE (see page 44)

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18 NEWS

UNIVERSITIES

SCHOOLS

Does light make pupils brighter? A school in the far north of Sweden thinks it might have a found a way to boost students’ performance in the dead of winter: stimulate them with bright, intense classroom lighting. The Dragonskolan secondary school in Umea has installed ‘full spectrum electric light’ to see whether it will help pupils overcome the sluggishness that plagues them during the dark of winter, when daylight lasts only a few hours. Light stops the production of melatonin, a hormone that makes people sleepy, and kickstarts the circadian rhythm. ‘Without that stimulus the body delays by a few minutes every day the signal that it’s time to wake up,’ says Dr Mariana Figueiro of the Lighting Research Center at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in the US. So far, the pupils like it. ‘The new lights in the

classroom fool you into thinking it’s a sunny day, says 18-year-old Henrik Anrell. ‘I think that shows it’s actually working.’ Douglas Nilsson,18, who routinely falls asleep on his morning bus rides, adds that under the new lights, ‘it feels like I am waking up’.

Nottinghamshire secondary goes LED A large secondary school in Nottinghamshire says it has slashed its energy bills and improved light quality by installing LED panels and downlights. Ashfield School in Kirbyin-Ashfield decided on LEDs because its fluorescent and incandescent bulbs were dull. ‘The school is 50 years old and the classrooms had old,

inefficient lighting,’ said Ashfield School’s business manager Martin Hough. ‘Some of them still had 50W bulbs, making the lighting levels inadequate. This was an especially pressing issue because the school remains open in the evenings.’ The project started several years ago as part of a £3 million classroom refurbishment, said Tamlite, which supplied the

fittings. Lighting represented about 10 per cent of the costs. The school replaced inefficient incandescent downlights and T8 fluorescent tubes with both LEDs and T5 fluorescents. The lighting upgrade, including 300 LED downlights and 197 600 x 600 LED panels, has cut power consumption by 41 per cent, and saved £2,700 a year on the school’s energy bills.

Breaking bad energy habits The university in Albuquerque, New Mexico, home of hit US television series Breaking Bad, has installed LED lighting and occupancy sensors in an office, a classroom and three conference rooms. Also, the University of New Mexico’s Center for High Technology Materials (CHTM) is installing automated heating and ventilation controls for the first time. ‘Since the implementation, CHTM has reduced the total energy consumption by 21 per cent,’ the university said. The university is known for breakthroughs in solar energy materials, nanofibres and other environmentally friendly technologies, but it has for years been the university’s largest consumer of electricity per square metre of floor space. The centre now has plans to extend its heating controls, and it is launching a ‘lights out’ initiative to remind students, staff and faculty to turn off the lights when they leave.

This bold construction is architect Zaha Hadid’s International Youth Culture Centre in Nanjing, China. The façade of the 68-storey building, which houses a five-star hotel and offices, costs less than £85 a day to light. This is because the building uses energy-efficient dynamic colour-changing LED lighting from Philips. The computercontrolled LED installation saves an extra 60 per cent compared with a standard LED installation. The installation comprises 700,000 nodes of Philips iColor Flex MX LED lights, and Vaya Linear LED lights create the vertical lines. The 300m-high structure looks even taller because Vaya Flood LEDs project into the night sky.

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NEWS 19

TECHNOLOGY

Gooee bids to link light engines to the internet of things… Gooee, a company set up by the people behind luminaire maker Aurora, has set out its vision of how lighting will join the internet of things. It’s easy to speculate about the potential of millions of internet-enabled lights, but making it happen is more tricky. How do you connect the devices to the net? How do you make sure they speak the same language?

Jon Couch of Gooee sets out his vision

Gooee’s plan, revealed at Lux’s Smart Lighting Controls Europe conference in London, is to make millions of low-cost microchips and sensors (that measure things such as light levels, occupancy, temperature and energy consumption), and build them into LED light engines for installation in luminaires from various manufacturers. Gooee says it has already made the big investments needed to develop the technology, and rolling it out on a huge scale will keep the cost per unit low. Beginning with Aurora and its retail lighting division Microlights, Gooee aims to get its technology incorporated into as many LED luminaires as it can. It wants to become the ‘operating platform’ on which third parties can build their own smart lighting interfaces and apps.

…as Acuity stakes its own claim Acuity is working with smart lighting networks firm Sensity Systems to add intelligence to outdoor lighting in cities and in office, retail, airport and university applications. California-based Sensity specialises in embedding sensors and internet links into luminaires and tying them into a ‘light sensory network’.

The technology is intended to help boost lighting’s role as the backbone of intelligent information networks. Cities, for example, could use lighting networks to watch traffic and to reroute commuters accordingly. ‘An integrated platform that provides energy-efficient LED lighting with a sensor network to capture and transmit near

real-time data will further enhance the business case for LED luminaire installations,’ said Acuity CEO Vernon Nagel. Atlanta-based Acuity, a $2.4 billion (£1.6 billion) company that markets LED lighting under a variety of brands, said the move would help connect lighting into the ‘industrial internet of things.’

Barcelona is smartest city – for now Barcelona has been named the world’s smartest city – followed by New York, London, Nice and Singapore – in a ranking by market research firm Juniper. But Dubai has got its eyes on the smart city prize. The Smart Dubai initiative, a three-year plan launched by the city’s ruler Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, will develop smart grids, meters and apps to help individuals and businesses cut their energy use. Lighting control will be a key part of this, with ‘connected’ lighting products becoming more

popular for residential, office and public lighting applications. The project will also promote the use of solar power and electric cars. Dubai’s electricity authority and telecoms company Du have announced they are to develop ‘smart solutions’ as part of  the initiative. Osman Sultan, CEO of Du, said: ‘Du’s efforts will help enhance these networks and upgrade them from conventional networks to digital smart networks.’

Here comes the graphene LED lamp In a few months you’ll be able to purchase a light bulb made with miracle material graphene. The lamp, from UK startup Graphene Lighting, ‘is expected to perform significantly better and last longer than traditional LED bulbs’, according to the University of Manchester. ‘It is expected that the graphene light bulbs will be on the shelves in a matter of months, at a competitive cost.’ The university has a financial stake in Graphene Lighting, which is a spin-out from the National Graphene Institute, founded at the university with British and European government funding to advance commercial applications of the material. The University of Manchester is the birthplace of graphene. Scientists Sir Andre Geim and Sir Kostya Novoselov isolated the material there in 2004, and won the 2010 Nobel Prize for Physics. Graphene Lighting will coat its lamp’s LED chips with graphene, improving its heat dissipation, the university told Lux. A BBC News story suggested that the lamp will cut energy consumption by 10 per cent over other LED lamps because it enhances electrical conductivity. The university told Lux that ‘it’s too early to say’, whether the 10 per cent figure is accurate.

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20 NEWS ANALYSIS

Analysis: France has banned businesses from leaving lights on at night. But who’s policing it? The response to France’s ban on night-time lighting has been mixed. Not surprising, since no one seems to be monitoring it

T

he French government is failing to enforce its ban on leaving lights on in unoccupied offices and shops at night, according to the French dark sky association ANPCEN. The association has been keeping tabs on the effect of the night light ban since it came into force in April 2013. In its latest report it says progress has been made in some places, but the picture remains patchy and there is ‘no monitoring’ by central or local government. Lux contacted France’s Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy for comment, but no reply had been received at the time of publication.

AIK-Yann Kersalé

The dark night The night-time ban on interior and exterior lighting in non-residential buildings such as town halls, schools, offices and warehouses stipulates that lights should be off between 1am and 7am. Shop window lighting, too, must be dark between 1am and 7am. If activities in a building go on beyond 1am, the lights should go off one hour after the last person leaves. There are a few exceptions, such as tourist attractions, where lighting will not be banned. An important objective is to reduce light pollution, which can harm health and disturb sleep. Delphine Batho, the former Ecology and Energy minister, said the law would make France a pioneer in Europe in preventing lighting pollution. But the key goal is, of course, significant energy savings. The French government expects the move to save about 2TWh each year, equivalent to the energy consumption of 750,000 homes. This would cut annual CO2 emissions by about 250,000 tonnes. If the energy reductions are achieved, the ban will save €200 million (US$216 million) in energy costs. At the time of the 2013 announcement, the French lighting

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industry was cautiously positive. Domestic lighting supplier Lights 4 Living commented: ‘This is an interesting approach by the French to save energy and tackle the problem of wasteful overnight lighting. ‘The imposing of fines and punishments is a good incentive to think about energy more. This may make others think about their own home lighting and what lights should be left on.’ French lighting consultant Christophe Richon of LuxFit said: ‘What’s interesting is it’s the first real move from the government towards a public statement on energy efficiency.’ However the Syndicat de L’Éclairage, France’s lighting association, challenged the government’s projected savings, declaring 2TWh a year to be too optimistic and predicting that the real savings would more like 0.5TWh. In the two years since the law was introduced, results have been mixed. Over the first 12 months, Progress energy wastage associated with has been made nocturnal light pollution dropped by around nine per cent. in some places, In its study of changes made but the picture is in cities and towns around the patchy, and there country, ANPCEN found that some municipalities are saving is no monitoring tens of thousands of euros a of the law by year on electricity as a result of central or local turning lights off at night. The town of Saumur in the Loire Valley, government” for example, has saved €84,500 (US$90,900). But ANPCEN added that while cities including Paris, Lille, Angers and Saumur had made good progress, Lyon, Chambery, St Junien and many others ‘could do more’.

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Mixed results A recent study of 32 tower blocks noted that a quarter have actually shown an increase in night-time lighting, ranging from over 50 per cent to 130 per cent. Others, however, have reduced night-time illumination significantly, from around a third to two thirds of previous usage patterns. The overall energy savings from office blocks that have reduced lighting are equivalent to more than 6465MWh over


NEWS 21

The city of light isn’t as light at night as it used to be

the course of a year. ANPCEN said that building owners have now had more than enough time since the law was announced to digest it and work out how to comply. Those breaking the law risk fines of up to €750 fine (US$810) – but only if someone’s actually enforcing it.

Wrong target? Some have suggested that in terms of energy savings, the French government may be aiming at the wrong target. Syndicat de L’Éclairage technical director Sébastien Flet Reitz has pointed out that since the vast majority of lighting energy is actually consumed during daylight hours, reducing light use during the day would produce more significant savings. The association has estimated that lighting controls used day and night in non-residential buildings could save as much as 16TWh. It would like to see government support for measures such as presence detection, daylight dimming and energysaving retrofits. Critics of the night-time lighting ban have pointed out that services such as air-conditioning and heating are also energyguzzling, sometimes unnecessarily, and could be more effective targets for government action.

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22 NEWS ANALYSIS

Analysis: Is Li-Fi the next generation of wireless communication? In the office of the future, the luminaires won’t just provide light, they’ll also provide your internet connection, writes Robert Bain

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n the office of the future, the luminaires won’t just provide light, they’ll also provide your internet connection. A new technology called Li-Fi can encode data in the light from normal LED luminaires, turning your office lights into a high-speed data network. It’s done by modulating the light in a way that’s invisible to the human eye, but can be picked up by a receiver plugged into a computer. Li-Fi is faster than Wi-Fi, more energy efficient (since the lights are on anyway) and eliminates interference problems with other electronic devices. And because light doesn’t go through walls, it’s inherently secure. Plus, the main element of the network – the light fittings – already exists in every building. The technology could also solve a growing problem with wireless communication systems: the radio frequency spectrum is overcrowded and we’re running out of space. The visible light spectrum is 10,000 times bigger, so Li-Fi is well placed to become the next generation of wireless communications. One of the companies pioneering the technology is Edinburgh-based PureLiFi, which last year received a £1.5 million ($2.2 million) venture capital investment, valuing the firm at £14 million ($20.7 million). PureLiFi’s co-founder and chief science officer Professor Harald Haas says: ‘Twenty-five years from now, the LED light bulb will serve thousands of applications and will be an integral

This school in Kent is already using Li-Fi in its classrooms

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Professor Harald Haas holding the component that receives light from luminaires and turns it into cat videos

part of the emerging smart cities, smart homes and the internet of things.’ The company has completed the first phase of a groundbreaking Li-Fi trial at the Business Academy Bexley in Kent, which Haas says generated ‘tremendous excitement’ among students. It has now launched a commercial Li-Fi network system, Li-Flame, which it demonstrated recently at a major mobile technology show in Barcelona. To use Li-Flame, you need to attach Li-Fi access points to the luminaires in your ceiling, to encode data into the light. In practice, not all the data is actually carried in visible light – the ‘uplink’ from your computer back to the access point comes Li-Fi could from an infrared transmitter that you plug into a USB port. solve a growing PureLiFi says the system can problem: we’re be used seamlessly with mobile running out of and Wi-Fi systems, so you can wander between them without space on the your session being interrupted. radio frequency This means Li-Fi could spectrum” complement existing networks, rather than users having to choose one or the other. Haas believes the technology will change the face of wireless communications – not to mention changing the face of the lighting market. ‘Li-Fi is the catalyst for the inevitable merger of the lighting and wireless communications industries,’ he says. ‘It’s a communications technology that relies on and encourages bespoke lighting design. We believe there is an impending shift away from lighting products to lighting solutions that are fundamentally a means of addressing the customer’s requirements.’ And as our appetite for sending data back and forth continues to grow with every new technological innovation, it’s looking increasingly likely that technologies like Li-Fi will have to step in to keep us connected.

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24 YOUR VIEWS

Where’s the good human-centric solution? The bummer with fixed (not smart lighting) LEDs is that they are worse for your health than incandescents, which are bad enough. Human-centric lighting offerings that show promise of taking advantage of smart lighting technology are just too tepid, and emit a lot of blue at their lowest CCT settings with only a rare few exceptions. There is nothing on the market today worth installing. Today, the best available human-centric lighting that is smart is incandescent heavily dimmed with funky old school Lutron scene controllers. The dark side of smart lighting is that it’s not here yet in any clean, simple, and healthy configurations. DALE DELL’ARIO Ario Lighting

Dim, but with all the wrong excuses I have just spent a month travelling around the UK to see the extent of poor quality products hitting the market. I saw many LED panels that have gone dim in showrooms, the representatives stating to the clients on more than one occasion: ‘We will need to change the driver.’ With a constant current formation, if it has gone dim it is not the driver but the cheap diodes and poor thermal management. Another great call was from a client wishing to buy purely LED drivers to suit panels because a warranty claim had been voided over the line voltage being 245V. All good LED drivers will generally be 110-277V to accept fluctuations. BARRIE VESTY Auralux/Auraled Lighting

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PICTURES

If we can improve lighting in patient areas, that can only improve the healing process” Alexandra Hammond, associate director of sustainability, Essentia, p32

Reader Sophie Langkjær took this picture on a spring evening in Kent, England. It was the day of the solar eclipse, she tells us, which was invisible thanks to the clouds, which then cleared as soon as the eclipse was over.

How can the best LED products win? Anyone in the industry with a shred of professionalism will be sick and tired of the LED p*ssing competition: mine is bigger, better, smaller, brighter, more colourful than yours. I have invested more than two years of my life and my own money (real savings) to design and develop professional lighting products that are world class and do not copy anyone. I do, and will have to, jump through flaming hoops, tumble four times and land with one foot behind my ear, smiling while whistling my national anthem to gain approval and market traction. The whole time I am doing my

lighting gymnastic floor routine, there is an ever increasing pile of cr*p coming on to the market promoted through a myriad of pop-up lighting companies, and in the stores and press. Not a rant, but there is a big kernel of real truth in my comments. MARK CUNNINGHAM Trinity Lighting UK

Here in Germany we have an independent consumer consulting agency with a representation in all bigger cities. All consumers can call, mail or ask there about all and everything which is in the market for sale. They also monitor the shops and have frequent tests about products offered which are

The principle is about making lighting smarter, making it work more efficiently for you to its maximum capacity, making sure it’s integrated with other systems and making the best use of that” John Hindley, head of environmental strategy, Manchester Metropolitan University, p56

printed in a national magazine. If a product is not correctly marked or described, shops are forced to take it off the shelves. If there is danger, there is an warning in the news and papers. Could this be a principle to be established in other countries? THOMAS ROEDING Insta Lightment

The UK has the Trading Standards. The problem is it deals with every industry so in lighting they are as useful as a chocolate teapot. BARRIE VESTY Auralux/Auraled Lighting

One person’s standard is an opportunity for those with lesser standards to make a quick buck. The people selling cr*p know full well what they are doing, they are and always will work to their own standards, but the resellers are complicit in the promotion of the cr*p. MARK CUNNINGHAM Trinity Lighting UK

LEDs are already better than halogen Any lighting designer worth their salt today should know that many second generation LED products are far superior to halogen in all respects – colour, distribution, lifetime, and especially efficiency. Just because there are still many inferior LEDs on the market


YOUR VIEWS 25

doesn’t mean there won’t be much better products in wide availability soon While preparing a talk on lighting history, I found an old advert for a new gas lamp, circa 1920, that claimed they had ‘surpassed’ electric lamps. Nostalgia, especially for warm beautiful light, is a far more potent force than a lot of LED marketers realise. The nostalgia is there in part because people hate change, but more importantly, people really want – and need – beautiful warm light. They just don’t quite realise yet that you can get it, and more, with the right LEDs today. CLIFTON LEMON Marketing consultant

CORRECTIONS AND CLARIFICATIONS In our reviews articles on LED tape (Lux hospitality special, February 2015), we said the Aurora LED tape required a 12V power supply. In fact, it requires a 24V power supply. The product was tested with the correct 24V power supply. Also, the article was illustrated with a photo of the foyer of London’s Hammersmith Apollo. It has been pointed out to us that LED tape was not used on this project. The product used was Radiant Architectural Lighting’s 3D LED Flex.

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WHAT’S HOT ON TOP TWEETS Jonathan H Ratty @jothebulb @paulnulty @Lux_magazine @inessa_d_a LEDs now lighting equivalent of bacon: there is nothing that cannot be improved by addition of either. EasiLume @EasiLume #Halogens have had their day. The sooner they’re banned the better! bit. ly/1KP8P48 @Lux_magazine design conscious @designconscious Chuckles > “@Lux_magazine: Did you know Fifty Shades of Grey is actually all about lighting? luxreview.com/ news/628/did-y… #fiftyshades” Dale Fisher @dalef1sher Enjoying a nice pint in #allbarone after @Lux_magazine great conference. Looking forward to the next one #luxslc Michael Grubb Studio @mgrubbstudio The future of lighting? Fascinating presentation on the Internet of Things at @Lux_magazine Smart Control conference

WILL SMART LIGHTING SPY ON US? The straight answer is yes, or at least to some extent. But I don’t see this as becoming an issue any more than the other pervasive technologies that a significant portion of the population grasp with enthusiasm. We are all quite happy to share with supermarkets what we buy each week, Google and Apple know where we have been, LinkedIn harvests all our mail addresses without our permission. Willie Donaghy, associate consultant Rather than say ‘spy’ why not welcome interaction with us? Ash Gupta, marketing and PR specialist If we can collect humidity data and ‘optimise’ the working environment, that sounds like a good thing. Once the generation Y-ers cotton on to indoor air quality as the next big wellbeing issue, the market could explode. David Laurence, Adaptive Wireless Solutions Rather than the spy question, think of how you could improve navigation through the city, avoid pollution and so on – all real problems in any city. You are right about interaction – I welcome data to the conversation. Steven Livingstone-Perez, Paramount Ventures

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Yes of course it will spy on us. It will be at the discretion of the systems owner to choose to either ignore, use or abuse the intelligence gathered. But the spying will already have taken place. However, we must live in hope that the information gleaned will predominantly be used for the greater good. Pat Tully, Lidacel

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26 OPINION

Opinion

MARCUS MARTIN CP ELECTRONICS

JAMES BERESFORD MACKWELL

A learning curve for lighting control

The right choices for emergency lighting

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ow that lighting controls have become a standard element in virtually all non-residential lighting projects, it is becoming increasingly important to consider how those controls will be used. It is no longer good enough to just tick the box that says ‘lighting controls installed’. We must be aware of how they will be used and in what circumstances – and to specify them accordingly. Breeam environmental assessments now place greater emphasis on consultation with the client on their operational requirements, and this has particular relevance to controls. The education sector has some overlaps with other lighting control applications, but also has a lot of its own requirements. It is no longer For instance, the Building Regulations are set to encourage good enough wider use of graduated dimming to just tick the in classrooms to ensure that box that says the lit environment supports learning, while minimising energy ‘lighting controls consumption. Such lighting installed’” control strategies also need to enable the teacher to adjust light levels in most of the space when required to draw attention to the front of the classroom. Just as importantly, such controls need to be very easy to use by teachers or caretaking staff. Another characteristic of educational facilities is variable occupancy – classrooms may be in use for most of the school day during term time but in the evenings and during school holidays they will only be used occasionally. Occupancy detection is clearly desirable, and selecting the right solution can deliver significant savings. In a classroom, for instance, a single microwave detector may offer the same level of control as two or more PIR detectors, thereby reducing capital costs as well as cabling requirements. Lighting controls are rising to these challenges through new products that are geared to specific sectors rather than being an off-the-shelf ‘catch-all’. When specifying controls, go for suppliers with the right combination of knowledge, experience, product range and a proven track record.

‘‘

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ith NHS budgets under growing pressure, it is becoming increasingly important to reduce costs in non-clinical areas so that funding can be channelled into patient care. Using LED light sources in emergency lighting will deliver a very significant reduction in the power consumption of the systems. These benefits are probably greater in healthcare applications than other projects because emergency lighting needs to provide higher levels of illuminance in critical areas. In fact, because evacuating a healthcare facility is often more complex than other buildings, there are generally more stringent demands on the emergency lighting. It is essential to carry out a thorough risk assessment when designing the emergency lighting systems for these buildings. Another advantage of LED lighting, of course, is the longer life of the light sources so that the maintenance costs associated with replacing lamps are greatly reduced. In parallel, capital and installation costs can be reduced by integrating emergency lighting into the general luminaires. However, perhaps the biggest saving comes from using centralised monitoring and testing systems for emergency lighting. This avoids the need to have maintenance staff walking around the building making visual checks. Instead, all of the test Using LEDs data relating to any faults can be viewed on a central computer. in emergency Technologies exist to maximise lighting delivers battery life and reduce power big reductions consumption through intelligent charging regimes which apply a in power charge when needed rather than consumption” a continuous charge. Adaptive charge regimes reduce power consumption and extend battery lifetime to reduce long-term operating costs. While it’s vital never to lose sight of the safety-critical role of emergency lighting, it’s also important to apply the right technologies, in the right way, to deliver cost-saving solutions that also address all of the safety criteria.

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OPINION 27 L I G H T I N G

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ood lighting is essential in the workplace and in recent years lighting technology has evolved, with a big shift to LED lighting. Office lighting is now designed to suit specific activities rather than generic coverage of the office space. It is no longer acceptable to light a large expanse of office carpet to 500 lx. In recent years we have also seen a shift away from the traditional office layout of desks and meeting rooms, and good lighting needs to suit the demands of these different areas and tasks. We’ve also seen businesses increasingly use lighting to create a mood: uplighting for beams and soffits can create a more relaxed workplace, for example. Eighteen months ago the British Council of Offices published its Guide to Lighting, which provides a practical interpretation of the requirements of Office lighting existing standards and guidance. is now designed The guide sets out some of the to suit specific most important aspects of lighting in the workspace, and highlights activities rather that the best lighting for any office than coverage of is natural daylight and it should the whole space” be used effectively. Also, the guide advises that organisations must reduce the amount of energy consumed by office lighting, by complying with the latest energy efficiency standards. The guide also addresses the science and principles behind the lighting criteria for visual comfort and performance. The key message is that offices must provide comfortable lighting for the people within the space. The primary goal of office lighting should be to promote good visual communication for occupants, with well-lit vertical surfaces and an interesting degree of contrast. Finally, the guide provides practical advice on how to address the three development stages of an office fitout: shell and core (focusing on lobbies and toilets), category A (coordinating lighting with ceiling systems and mechanical services) and category B (the finished office, which is usually the occupier’s responsibility).

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28 OPINION GORDON ROUTLEDGE

Reality check Can better lighting improve productivity in your business? Gordon Routledge, lighting expert and publisher of Lux

I

started my working life 1992 in a PCB factory was wasted above the ceiling. in the north of England. It was a baptism of This meant that for six days a week during fire: the manufacturer in question had just the winter months, I never got to experience been acquired and was in the process of being daylight. I entered the building when it was dark turned around in what was, and still is, a hugely outside, and left when it was dark outside. It was a competitive electronics industry. strange existence. My boss was a guy called Alan, a man who Despite Alan’s best efforts, the factory rumbled left no cost-reducing stone unturned, even if this on for a few more years, and eventually closed, meant getting rid of a few hundred people or unable to stop the tide of manufacturing drifting to replacing a staffed full-service canteen with a row the Far East – probably to factories with lighting a of vending machines – that’s what had to be done hundred times worse. to save the business. Monty Burns would have The challenge lighting always faces in the admired him. workplace is that it is seen as a pure cost, not as a Alan was a seasoned turnaround productivity tool that can affect your expert, who was proud that, on a mood and your ability to perform previous mission, he knew he was tasks. Lighting is starting to make a difference when I was amazed to hear a seen as a cost, not he drove home one night and presentation at our recent retail as a productivity found that someone had sprayed lighting conference about a lighting in a local bus stop outside the design approach at a women’s tool that can factory: ‘Alan M***** is a bas****.’ clothes shop in Germany that affect your mood So what has this got to do with resulted in a 12 per cent increase in and your ability to lighting? Well, as the cost-cutting sales. If this continues to be the case, juggernaut rolled on, I found then I’m sure retailers will crawl over perform tasks” myself removing half of the broken glass to adopt it. fluorescent tubes in the My thinking is, does this sort of multi-lamp fittings – as an instant energyapproach stack up in the workplace? Can lighting saving measure. drive productivity, improve the It worked. We reduced lighting-related way people feel about their energy use by 40 per cent in a matter of employer or their absence? days, which was a big number in a 24/7 There is a growing body of factory. Nobody really noticed, because they evidence that indicates it does, were more concerned about losing their jobs but not many people have turned this improvement into and bacon sandwiches from the canteen hard cash. than the loss of a few hundred lux on the working plane. Put a proposal on Alan’s The strange thing was, this particular factory desk that says giving people was built in the 1930s and had north-facing access to daylight, and the windows, so was bathed in daylight. However, right type of artificial lighting, in the 1980s it was modernised and someone can improve productivity installed a false ceiling to give a the place a more or reduce errors. Then he modern feel, at the same time blocking out all may change his pennyof the light, which meant the factory needed pinching ways. And reduce constant artificial illumination and the free light local vandalism.

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FOLLOW GORDON ON TWITTER @gordonroutledge AND JOIN US IN THE LIGHTING TALK GROUP ON LINKEDIN AT linkd.in/lightingtalk

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32 WHAT I BELIEVE ALEXANDRA HAMMOND

‘‘

Jack Everitt

We are investing upwards of a million pounds in lighting at Guy’s and St Thomas’”

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WHAT I BELIEVE 33

Alexandra Hammond Associate director of sustainability, Essentia, Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK The hospital cares about its impact on the environment and society I work for Essentia, which is part of Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust. I’ve worked for Guy’s and St Thomas’ for the past six years as head of sustainability. That role continues, and we are also able to offer our expertise to other public sector organisations. I look at everything to do with environmental and social impact for the hospital. And lighting is a big part of our energy strategy. Upgrades are a challenge – but also an opportunity I would say the biggest challenge we face is upgrading in areas that are quite sensitive, for example patient areas. Also making sure that we don’t get in the way. The exciting thing is that there are lots of opportunities, so if we can improve lighting in patient areas, that can only improve the healing process. Our budget can accommodate change We have a pretty comprehensive lighting upgrade programme across our two main acute care sites. We are investing upwards of £1 million ($1.5 million) in lighting at those hospitals. What we’ve done is to have an audit on their current lighting, and identified savings opportunities for a like-for-like change. But when we tender for the work – which we’ll be doing shortly – the idea is that we’ll be looking at everything, including biodynamic lighting. We obviously have to see how we can work within the budget, but the wonderful thing about Guy’s and St Thomas’ is that it’s an organisation that thinks beyond direct paybacks. Interestingly, the lighting project that we’re doing is part of a big energy-saving project that the trust is undertaking, so it’s about a £12 million ($17.8 million) overall investment in energy efficiency, and lighting comprises about a £1 million of that. What we’ve done is present the business case to the trust with a certain level of guaranteed savings. We’re doing an energy performance contract, so we have a partner that underwrites the savings. If it works within that budget and we get the savings back in, then they’re happy. We want our patients to have control I would love to do something creative in our patient areas, particularly on the care wards. We have a lot of patients that are in our wards for a significant amount of time, and lighting can be such an amazing healing factor. Conversely, the wrong lighting can be quite difficult for people, so it’s important that we get it right. It gets exciting and interesting when you start to see how patients interact with light and how they can control it themselves and improve their stay while in hospital.

LEDs are our default choice now We do all our own internal maintenance, and we are very strapped for resources. We have an in-house engineering team and they’ve got lots to do. We’re a quite complex, variously aged estate, so the more that we can remove from them maintaining the basics, the better. If we can put in lighting that’s going to stand the test of time, that’s so helpful for us and gives us resources to do other projects. The guidance we have is: ‘If not LED, justify why not.’ In some areas, we’ve upgraded to T5 so the payback is quite slow. But for the most part, we are moving to LED where we can. We want our patients to be involved My proudest moment will be giving our patients the control to make sure that, whether they’re in their own room or whether they’re in a ward, they have the ability to control lighting to give them the best experience possible. And that it actually works, because if the light switch is on and it’s right above the bed and it’s shining right in their eyes, that’s not going to do anyone any good. The other thing is that we really ought to involve our patients in the process. We want to do some trials and get people to say: ‘I like this, I don’t like this.’ We’ve got the funding, which is the big thing, and we’re tendering for lighting in the next couple of months. My job is to make sure it doesn’t become a like-for-like switch-out, which it could. In some areas it will. That’s the sensible thing to do in some areas, but in others we need to be more creative. One of the things I really am pleased about is that we’ve introduced photocell-controlled lighting almost across the board. We’ve eliminated the areas where we have lights on and bright sunshine at the same time. I’d like to see more transparency and standards One thing that would be really helpful with LEDs is more transparency in the way they’re manufactured and the quality. There’s still an element of having to go to the right supplier, the right manufacturer, the right… and that, I think, adds a premium to the likes of Philips. But I also think that manufacturers could really help standardise. When we build a new ward, there’s a standard set-up for a hospital bed. It’s the number of plugs around the bed. It’s where the table goes, it’s where the lighting goes to a certain extent. It’s where the patient entertainment system is, and it’s a kind of standard thing, so we don’t recreate it every single time we do a new ward. It would be really good if there were a sort of standard set of principles that we could apply to patient areas. That would help us reduce the design costs, and to just get things done.

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34 WHAT I BELIEVE ROD MARTIN

‘‘

Having 6500K LED lights with a creamy wall… it just doesn’t look right”

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WHAT I BELIEVE 35

Rod Martin Senior building manager, Waterfront Place, Brisbane, Australia I run a premium-grade building I’m the senior building manager at the Waterfront Place, one of Brisbane’s most desirable business addresses. There are 36 tenanted floors in the building, 40 floors overall and two basementlevel car parks – that makes 60,000 square metres. It’s classified as a premium-grade building and there are only four buildings in Brisbane CBD that meet that criterion. Waterfront place just turned 24 years old and we’ve been spending close to AU$14 million (US$10.6 million) over the past four years on enhancing the building and keeping it to the level that is expected. That comes through lifts and air conditioning and – the most obvious one to people – lighting. Our new LEDs were too bright We’ve changed our fittings and incorporated LED lighting through the hallways. We chose some big panels but they were too bright, so we ended up putting little dimmer units on them just to bring them down a bit. You were coming from this really bright area into a darker hall, and we wanted more uniformity. We’ve used these panels for over 18 months now and we haven’t had any problems with lumen depreciation – it’s been quite consistent. We’re not just saving energy In the lobby, we used to have 10 42W recessed compact fluorescent lights. We purchased some flat LED panels to replace them like for like, and we found that 10 in that space was too much, so we dropped it down to six. So we’re reducing energy consumption first by using LEDs, and second by reducing the number of fittings. And we get this really good look and feel, so we’re working our way through the building with that. LEDs look better in white We changed the original wall colour that we used in the space to a whiter rather than a creamy colour so you get a better overall effect. Having 6500K LED lights with a creamy wall… it just doesn’t look

Waterfront Place is an office building in Brisbane’s central business district. It is home to some of Australia’s most influential private and government bodies. The management of Waterfront Place has spent nearly $14 million (US$10.6 million) over the past four years on making the building more energy efficient. One of the objectives was to get an

right. So we whitened up the wall colour and it just lifts the whole space and makes it look modern. Energy efficiency sells The Thorn fitting in our tenanted space is now the standard fitting that we offer all our tenants. We’re the first building in Brisbane to offer that. It was a like-for-like swap with the three-tube 14W T5 fittings that had been there before. There is an app on our website that potential tenants can use to look at the energy consumption and the operating cost. The threetube 14W fluorescent fittings that we used to have had replaced a T8 fitting, which was calculated at AUS$28,000 (US$21,000) a year. The T5 was just over AU$15,000 and the LED that we’re now offering is down to AU$9,000 a year, so there is a significant improvement, and that means we’ve got an excellent product that we can sell to potential tenants. They pay for their own electricity, so they get the benefit of that. It’s a great marketing opportunity for us that we use when trying to lease space. A brighter environment is a safer environment In the basement we’ve got 200 lockers, storage for 200 bicycles, 20 showers and various facilities for the tenants to use at the end of their ride. We used to have CFL recessed downlights down there and we’ve replaced those with LED panels. Again it’s reduced energy use and really enhanced the light levels. It’s a brighter, more welcoming area and it gives a feeling of security to the people who are walking through that space – after all, it’s down at basement level and it leads out to the car park. Upgrading pays off I’ve been here for three years and during that time we’ve maintained a 4.5-star Nabers rating for environmental performance. Although we’ve had a few vacancies in the building, we’ve still been able to maintain the rating by conserving energy. It’s been a win-win-win for us.

energy-efficiency rating of ‘excellent’ to obtain a Building Energy Efficiency Certificate (BEEC), which has now been achieved. Light levels have increased from 320 to 372 lx, and energy consumption has been cut by 33 per cent, from around 8.7 to 5.7W/m2. The upgrade is expected to pay for itself in two and a half years.

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CONTROLS 37

SEVEN PLACES controls can help you out 1

MEETING ROOMS How often do the meeting rooms at your office get used? Half the time? Less? And how scrupulous are staff about turning the lights off? This is a key area for lighting controls. You can use occupancy sensors and, if necessary, daylight sensors to make sure there’s only light when we need it. If you want to give your staff a bit more control over the light levels, you can let them override the daylight dimming and switch the lights on – then set them to turn off automatically after the room’s been empty for a few minutes.

Microsoft’s offices in Stockholm use Dali drivers from Harvard to enable control

CORRIDORS

2

3

Men’s loos at the Edinburgh International Conference Centre, with lighting by BDP

TOILETS

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This is another obvious case for controls. Especially because, if a light gets left on in a toilet, no-one’s going to see it from outside to turn it off. A simple PIR sensor will ensure that the lights are only on when there’s someone actually there. But make sure you allow a generous time before turning the lights off, so you don’t plunge people into darkness mid-bowel movement.

Here, daylight and occupancy sensors can be used. One thing to bear in mind when using controls in areas like this is that people don’t tend to like having to step into a darkened area and wait for the lights to come on. So think carefully about where you position your sensors so the lights come on ahead of the person. You’ll make your building’s occupants safer and more comfortable.

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38 CONTROLS

BY THE WINDOWS By zoning your luminaires into groups you can dim just the ones that are near the windows, and leave the people at the other end of the office with full artificial light. Multiple sensors will tell you exactly how much light is in a particular spot, or you can use fewer sensors and alter the dimming patterns of the luminaires according to how far they are from the window.

Daylight design by Arup ensures plenty of light in this building on London’s BSkyB campus

4

THE BOARDROOM

5

The boardroom at Ascot Underwriting in the City of London, with lighting designed by Paul Nulty

7 6 CLUSTERS OF DESKS Take a look at your office and think about which areas people just sit in and work, and which areas are for circulation. Now you can zone your lights so these areas are treated differently. For instance, if you want to leave lights on for the benefit of security at night, or for the last person leaving the building, light the circulation areas and leave the desk clusters off.

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If you’ve got a room that you use for meetings, presentations, or other events, you’ll probably be wanting a choice of ‘scenes’ to make sure the lighting suits what’s going on. If people are scrutinising the accounts, put light on the table. If they’re watching a presentation, dim the lights cinema-style to focus them on the projection. If they’re watching a speaker, dim the lights and light the speaker. If you’re hosting an evening event, perhaps some kind of atmospheric scene with dimmer, warmer lighting would be nice. But don’t overcomplicate things – too many options only increases the risk that the person using the system will pick one that’s not appropriate. Think too about how you describe them in the names of the scenes. Or you can use images or diagrams, like Hoare Lea did at its offices.

BY THE DOOR A ‘last man out’ switch is one way to make sure your lights don’t get left on needlessly when there’s nobody there. Night night.


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40 CONTROLS IN SCHOOLS

Back to

SCHOOL T

here are some things that you never hear. ‘The beer is cheap in London.’ ‘We’re starting this news bulletin with good news.’ ‘Budget airline extras charges are perfectly reasonable.’ You certainly never hear jubilant shouts from school bursars of: ‘We have plenty of excess in our budget, so there’s no need to find new savings.’ Yet it sometimes seems you can almost hear them humming: ‘We don’t need no automation… We don’t need no light control… All in all it’s just another switch on the wall.’

Automatic for the pupils But the education market is ripe for automated energy saving in the lighting realm, and your bursar’s budget-boosting benefits can be achieved in classrooms, corridors, stores, staff rooms and other spaces surprisingly simply. The good news is that many new-build educational facilities are achieving top grades by installing

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Adding lighting control to old buildings doesn’t have to be a drag, says Sam Woodward

automatic controls for their lighting from the start. The report card for existing establishments is less distinguished. One common reason to avoid controls is the perceived amount of time it will take to install them, along with the presumed disruption to the fabric of the building while this is happening. Schools have so many maintenance tasks scheduled for the holidays that the idea of running cables in the corridors can be quite an obstacle. However that need not be the case. Clients that do their homework can discover that retrofit installations of controls can be achieved more quickly than it takes to write ‘I must remember to switch off the lights’ 100 times. Simple wireless technology is on average 70 per cent quicker to install than cabled alternatives, and such controls pay for themselves rapidly in the form of reduced electricity bills. Using elementary wireless wall-switches, simple secondary controls (such as ceiling-mounted light and motion sensors), and best-in-class


CONTROLS IN SCHOOLS 41

load-controllers connected to the light fittings, comprehensive classroom control can be achieved. The control principles for most classrooms are: Separate zones for lighting above the whiteboard and the main body of the classroom, so the front row can be dimmed when an OHP – sorry, interactive whiteboard or data projector – is being used. Daylight harvesting on rows adjacent to windows, so daylight can uniformly replace artificial light when appropriate. Automatic extinguishing of the lighting when the room is vacant, so empty classrooms are not consuming power unnecessarily. Override controls for the teacher to switch lights off when they might otherwise be on, and vice-versa. All of these specification points can be achieved with just three control components. You might say it’s ‘as easy as one, two, three’: Wireless switches, which by virtue of having no bus-wiring or mains connection fully achieve the SELV: safe extra-low-voltage requirements of most specs. Light/motion sensors, also wireless, and also offering a decade of life before the battery will have to be changed. Load controllers that either work digitally, using a protocol such as Dali or EcoSystem to enable the

zoning of fittings, or 0-10V for more conventional dimming. Battery life for keypads can be as long as a decade, so maintenance need not be a nightmare. Sensors, also wireless, can automate the extinguishing of light fittings in empty corridors, vacant classrooms, and unoccupied utility spaces. Once installed, pairing the light switches, sensors and load controllers (the devices that actually switch or dim fittings) can be achieved without complex ‘hubs’, infrared programmers that look more like they have a home in the space shuttle, or any computer-based programming. So, when school’s out for summer, the bursar can buy some new toys and install them without hassle – and without blowing the budget.

The Business Academy Bexley in the UK benefits from Lutron controls

O Sam Woodward leads customer education for Lutron in Europe and Africa

The education market is ripe for automated energy saving in lighting

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42 PROJECT CUNDALL, BIRMINGHAM

Engineering consultancy Cundall has created a beautiful lighting scheme for its new Birmingham office – for just 4W/m2. Robert Bain takes a look

Don’t light for desks and screens,

LIGHT FOR PEOPLE F

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supported by senior lighting designer Luke Artingstall. The team worked with Peter Grant Architects and Overbury Contractors.

Blank canvas When the Cundall team decided it was time to get rid of the old non-dimmable 600x600 ceiling fittings with their 40W PL lamps, they realised that they might as well remove the whole ceiling and design the lighting from a blank canvas. Bissell says: ‘Initially we programmed the lighting for the desks furthest from the windows

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or years, office lighting design guides have encouraged us to light desks and screens, rather than tasks and people. Now that’s all changing. When engineering consultancy Cundall moved to its new office in the centre of Birmingham, the company took the opportunity to design a lighting scheme that focuses on people, and uses a tiny 4W of energy per square metre. Cundall took over a 650m2 floor of the 25-year-old building. Andrew Bissell, director of the firm’s lighting practice CundallLight4, took the lead on the project,


PROJECT 43

Instead of just removing the old light ďŹ ttings, they removed the whole ceiling

Lights only come on when people are around and there isn’t enough natural light

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44 PROJECT CUNDALL, BIRMINGHAM

ENERGY DASHBOARD

6W/m2

4W/m2

INSTALLED LOAD

OPERATIONAL LOAD

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Above: Instead of blanketbombing the reception area with light, it has been put just where it’s needed Right: Lights in meeting rooms are ‘rarely on’ because there’s usually enough natural light when rooms are in use


PROJECT 45

PEOPLE POWER The lighting control throughout the office, provided by Ex-Or, has been kept as simple and automated as possible. PIR sensors make sure the lights only come on when there are people around and there isn’t enough natural light. Each group of desks is paired to the adjacent group so if you’re in the office alone, you don’t feel isolated. A handheld controller lets staff individually control each row of fittings if they need more or less light. Lights in the meeting rooms are ‘rarely on’, Bissell says, thanks to daylight and presence controls, including a ‘manual on, auto off’ system. The controls are designed to provide 300lx on the table when needed.

at 700lx with all the other desks at 400lx on task areas. Following feedback from staff we dropped this to 600lx and 300lx. To complement the task lighting we also illuminated the acoustic panels above each desk. We achieved an average of 160lx on the acoustic panel which is just over 50 per cent on the task plane illuminance.’ The office uses a combination of LED and fluorescent sources. Fluorescent fittings from Fagerhult were found to be most efficient for direct/indirect suspended lighting while LED downlights, spotlights and directional pendants from Concord and ACDC. For the table and freestanding lamps, Cundall eschewed the fancy design houses, and got them from Ikea.

Clean and coordinated

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‘What is very evident as you walk around the space and work within the space is the level of coordination of the different services. With all of the services on display, a lot of time was spent ensuring the ductwork, acoustic panels, lighting, fire alarms and so on, support the overall aesthetic rather than detract from it.’ While the services are very visible, the design feels coordinated and consistent. Off-white paint is used above the implied soffit line to separate the


Photos: Martine Hamilton Knight and Martin Cleveland

46 PROJECT CUNDALL, BIRMINGHAM

office space and the service zone. Functional elements such as ducts were specified in silver to set them apart, while the acoustic panels and recessed lights are white, to create a ‘clean’ soffit. In the reception area, the lighting focuses on the reception desk and the Cundall logo behind it. Elsewhere, a large wall with images of some of Cundall’s projects is illuminated to an average of 200lx.

Light load The total connected load for the lighting in the office is just over 6W/m2. To put that in context, another recently refurbished floor in the same building uses 11W/m2. And controls mean that the load in use at any time is even lower, ranging from below 4W/m2

to just under 5W/m2, depending on the season. Bissell says it’s the lowest operating load he’s seen for office lighting, and it’s one way that Cundall is fulfilling its pledge, as part of the One Planet Living initiative, to use only its fair share of the earth’s resources. The lighting design has won multiple awards, and the refurbishment won a gold Ska rating for sustainability from the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors. It also gets the thumbs up from the most important people: the people who work in it. In staff surveys, the Birmingham office came out top of Cundall’s 20 offices on many measures, beating industry averages. Cundall is looking to introduce similar low-carbon, ‘people-centric’ solutions in the rest of its offices.

Products installed... FAGERHULT – fluorescent fittings for main offices and meeting rooms; CONCORD – LED wall spots for reception area and feature wall; ACDC – LED spotlights for corridors; IKEA – LED table and freestanding lamps; EX-OR – lighting controls; MK – light switches

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48 PROJECT PRIME HOSPITAL, DUBAI

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By using a mixture of light sources and controls, this private hospital has been made to feel like a hotel. Kathrine Anker reports


PROJECT 49

To maintain the hotel aesthetic, some incandescent sources are used in ‘customer-facing’ areas

Patient-friendly

W

Lighting and acoustics consultancy Acoulite, working with interior design practice DWP and specialist healthcare consultant Hosmac, assisted in the development, design and implementation of the lighting throughout the project. ‘Because it’s a private hospital, patient rooms and some of the corridors had to have the feel of a hotel,’ explains Jaspal Bal, senior account manager at Acoulite. That means you do see a few incandescent pendants in the reception area and other customer-

V

hile our understanding of how lighting affects health increases by the day, ironically, hospitals and clinics still aren’t generally known for installing people-friendly lighting. Functional fittings are far more common. But the brand new 100-bed Prime Hospital in Dubai’s Garhoud district has been built with the comfort of patients in mind. The frontof-house spaces have the look and feel of a boutique hotel, which was created using cove lighting, feature pendants and contemporary finishes.

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50 PROJECT PRIME HOSPITAL, DUBAI

facing areas around the hospital, adding a golden glow to help create the ambience the designers were after. ‘We have 51 huge pendants and a similar number of small pendants that are lit with incandescent. It’s inefficient, so we only use it for aesthetic purposes and not as a primary light source,’ says Sreenath Sivadasan, an electrical engineer at consultancy Hosmac. The primary light sources in the hospital are LED and fluorescent. ‘When we began the project, the fixtures were incandescent and fluorescent, combined,’ says Sivadasan. ‘Then we progressed and took out some fluorescent fixtures, such as the strip lighting in the corridors.’

The circular fluorescent fittings have been received well by patients, and consume only 55W

Budget constraints All the cove lighting in the hospital’s corridors is now based on LED sources. Bal recalls: ‘Instead of just putting in an LED strip we put in a profile with a diffuser so it’s easier to clean and stays colour consistent. Plus, it manages the heat.’ Patient rooms, storage rooms and basements are lit with fluorescent light sources. ‘The fittings that look like doughnuts in the ceiling of the patient rooms were received really well. They’re fluorescent but have got a really good output at 55W,’ says Bal. The demanding design requirements presented Acoulite with a challenge. ‘We had a budget to meet but also aesthetic requirements to consider, so there

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were a lot of recalculations involved,’ says Bal. ‘We advised on lux levels to make sure we achieved what was required for a hospital unit without compromising the look and feel of the interiors that DWP came up with.’ Glare was another problem that had to be avoided, and Bal also helped make sure that there was enough space for the cove lighting in the corridors.

Challenging environment The lighting in the hospital has been equipped with controls in places where it’s possible, but as Sivadasan explains, there are specific rules and


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52 PROJECT PRIME HOSPITAL, DUBAI

‘Basements cannot be 100 per cent turned off, they will be lit at least 50 per cent. But from the ground up we can use a system to sense occupancy. Some rooms, such as consultancy rooms, won’t be occupied all the time,’ says Sivadasan.

Controlling corridors

considerations to bear in mind when lighting a healthcare environment. ‘In a hospital you cannot just switch off the light anywhere. A hospital is a place where you might have an activity in the middle of the night. So operating rooms can never have their lights controlled fully; you have to be able to bypass the control system if you have an acute case at night, so we have to provide light switches so you can turn on the light.’ The light in the basement is controlled with a timer so it will be dimmed when nobody is there.

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The principal light sources used throughout the hospital are LED and fluorescent

The corridors are the big money saver: ‘In corridors, you can have control and turn off the lighting when there is no activity, so you can save energy there. Corridors form at least 20 per cent of the entire area, so it’s a huge amount of energy we are saving.’ Although the comfort of the patients and the look and feel has dictated the design of the hospital, energy savings do matter and will matter even more in the near future. ‘The local authority supplies power and water. They have come up with certain criteria for energy conservation, so we have to have some kind of control. Right now we don’t have hard-and-fast rules about which areas have to be controlled, but it’s part of the green programme that utility providers are bringing in.’ That means more energy-efficient lighting is guaranteed to find its way into Dubai’s buildings. ‘Right now we are phasing out fluorescent,’ Sivadasan says, ‘so we’ll be using more LED in future.’


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54 PROJECT MARIA-HILF HOSPITAL, GERMANY

Calmer atmosphere and quicker

RECOVERIES In the geriatric ward at this German hospital, a dynamic lighting scheme is improving patients’ quality of life

P

atients at the new geriatric ward at this hospital in Germany’s Sauerland region are recovering faster and feeling calmer, thanks to a more ‘natural’ lighting scheme, which changes throughout the day. The lights at the Maria-Hilf Hospital automatically replicate the characteristics of sunlight, adjusting in colour and intensity according to the time of the day, following the circadian rhythms (body clocks) of patients and staff. ‘We have had a very positive experience with this,’ says Birgit Hennemann, head nurse on the geriatric ward. German manufacturer Trilux installed the circadian lighting in the patients’ rooms and corridors, and all the LED luminaires are controlled by a central light management system. Not only does the lighting prevent patients’ day/night rhythm from getting out of sync, it’s also designed with the particular needs of elderly people in mind. This means illuminance levels are high – a 75-year-old, for example, needs light that is 20 times brighter than someone in their early 20s. On top of this, a lot of attention is required in the planning stage to avoid reflections or pronounced light/dark contrasts, which can increase the risk of falls and accidents.

Patient wellbeing All this has an immediate impact on the wellbeing of the patients. More light reduces feelings of uncertainty, improves balance, and supports a more relaxed state of mind. Hennemann says that on her ward, ‘the patients feel better faster, and are calmer’. In the development of the circadian lighting solutions, Trilux’s engineers rely on the latest insights from sleep research,showing that the human

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The colour and intensity of artificial light changes throughout the day


PROJECT 55

Interior design and lighting work together to return patients to health

body clock responds to different portions of blue and red in the light. Depending on the composition of the light, the hormones melatonin and cortisol are generated, and they have a significant impact on the wake and sleep phases and thereby control performance and wellbeing.

Holistic hospital Lighting is not the only thing that plays an important role in the new geriatric ward – the overall approach is a holistic one. As head physician Dr Heinrich Kerkhoff says: ‘High-tech medicine

alone rarely brings an older person back to health.’ Individual treatment plans are developed for each patient. Physiotherapists, psychologists, speech therapists, social services, and nutritional consultants work hand in hand. The interior design of the department, by Cologne-based 100% Interior, includes an interplay of colours in the furnishings, rather than the sterile atmosphere people usually expect on a hospital ward. The aim is to get patients moving again a few days after surgery, counteract muscle loss and prevent the need for extra care.

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56 PROJECT MANCHESTER METROPOLITAN UNIVERSITY

TOP OF the green league Thanks to its environmental strategy, Manchester Metropolitan University is now Britain’s greenest university – and LED lighting played a big part. Kathrine Anker reports

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acility managers take note; this is the story of a university that ranked 91st on Britain’s league table of green universities and was catapulted to the top of the league thanks to a forward-thinking environmental strategy. Lighting played a big part in Manchester Metropolitan University’s rise to first place, along with other factors in a comprehensive plan that covered energy, water waste, carbon management, compliance and sustainable travel. But with LED technology improving faster than a document can be signed and stamped, timing was vital to ensure a successful outcome for the strategy. ‘It was about having the right conversations at the right time,’ says John Hindley, head of environmental strategy at MMU. When the university’s new 24,000m2 Birley Fields campus was designed five years ago, the LED lighting on the market was expensive and the technology untested. ‘There was quite a lot of apathy,’ Hindley recalls. So Birley Fields was built with CFL lighting, but Hindley knew that it was possible to do better. ‘I sat down with the designers fairly early in the process and said: “I know you’re designing this now, but we might be lucky enough to support the project by upgrading these CFL systems to LED. It will be much better for us long term, and it’s less maintenance.”’ Hindley got what he wanted, and secured half a million pounds from the Revolving Green Fund. The

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The university was impressed by the ‘spectacular’ output of the LED sources used in the student union


PROJECT 57

MMU has shot from 91st to top of the table of Britain’s greenest universities

team was able to upgrade the CFL lighting in Birley Fields’ halls of residence with LEDs a couple of years later, when confidence in LEDs had grown. ‘That was a big win, because it’s normally quite difficult to get a change approved in any ongoing design and build project,’ Hindley says.

Spectacular light output

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LED luminaires from Luxonic were incorporated into the baffles in the ceiling for better acoustics, an idea that worked so well that the luminaires were also installed in the student union and the nearby All Saints campus. ‘The light output from these fittings is really spectacular, particularly in the student union where the lights are 100 per cent LED,’ says Hindley. ‘It was our first real stab at LED lighting with the support of the university, and one of the key challenges was

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PROJECT MANCHESTER METROPOLITAN UNIVERSITY 59

Thousands of light sources have been, and will be, replaced with LEDs

the pace of technological change that was happening at the same time. It’s been good to come through the process with really good lighting and good design which looks great in both buildings.’

A living laboratory

FUNDING SUSTAINABILITY The LED upgrade at Birley Fields was a capital investment, but for the student union, where a new lighting design was also required, Hindley’s team applied for funding from round three of the Revolving Green Fund and received just under half a million pounds. ‘Now we’ve been successful in round four, getting a similar amount, so we’re going to look at a couple of other buildings where we can install smart lighting in the summer,’ says Hindley. Hindley reassures Lux that it’s no longer a difficult job to convince decision-makers of the benefits of LED technology: ‘I’d say that on this journey there has been a real buy-in, especially over the past couple of years. When people can’t tell the difference, they soon realise that we’re at a stage when it’s time to change to LED. ‘Value engineering is becoming less of a challenge, and one of the key things that I’ve seen across the sector is that LED has not been mentioned as a requirement for further funding because it’s seen as standard. That’s really good.’

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The ambitions of MMU’s environmental strategy team didn’t stop there. At the university’s business school, a high ceiling with 700 luminaires was giving the facilities team a headache. ‘We were spending a heck of a lot of time in the building replacing compact fluorescent lamps. It was becoming an issue because with high-level lights, you wouldn’t just go and replace one. You’d wait until a few were out and then go and replace the whole lot, but even so, getting to them is at a high expense,’ explains Hindley. The solution was found in-house. Hindley spoke to a lecturer in engineering and explained that he had a real problem that he’d like of one of the engineering students to look at. ‘We wanted better light levels, increased energy efficiency and lower maintenance. The light fittings were fit for purpose, we just needed a different arrangement for the lamps,’ says Hindley. The student, Luke Cleary, devised a retrofit for the existing architectural fitting using an LED acrylic rod with a reflector and a Dali driver. ‘The light output

is really good, the engineering team is happy with the fitting and we’re looking to retrofit the building this summer,’ says Hindley. ‘It’s been a good solution and a very good example of how you can still use your expensive, architectural fittings that go with the building and retrofit them with an LED solution.’ The energy used by the building’s 700 luminaires will drop from 32 to 14W. Hindley has yet to work out a cost for the project but he expects it to pay for itself


60 PROJECT MANCHESTER METROPOLITAN UNIVERSITY

‘‘

The project is a good example of collaboration between an environmental strategy team and the academic side” John Hindley, MMU

Any new lighting that is installed at the university will be controlled by a Dali or a KNX system

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PROJECT 61

in less than five years. ‘If you look at it from a facilities or estate management perspective, there are thousands of light fittings across the university. We’re doing our level best now to make sure we’re replacing them with LED solutions that emit very good lux and have excellent colour rendering while decreasing the amount of hours we spend on maintenance. ‘That’s a strong philosophy we’re going forward with now and I’ve got the support of the estate’s electrical engineers. When LED first came out it really wasn’t up to scratch and this journey has been about enhancing everybody’s knowledge about how it’s advancing. It’s totally fit for purpose and the benefits for the engineering teams internally is that there is a lot less maintenance to go with it.’ But it’s not just the bank account and the reputation of the MMU that will benefit from Hindley’s approach: ‘It’s a good example of collaboration between an environmental strategy team and the academic side. The student got a dissertation out of it and hands-on experience of lighting design and prototyping. Our linkages across

GREEN INSIDE AND OUT

MMU’s environmental strategy is applied to outdoor areas too. The most recent addition to the estate is 49 LED streetlights installed in pedestrianised areas and car parks around the university’s Crewe Campus. The lights, from Gewiss, use the original light points to save costs. John Hindley said: ‘This light has superior, highquality components and delivers the energy-efficiency we have committed to as a University. We were also impressed by the stylish design of the units.’

The project has convinced the estate’s electrical engineers of the benefits of LEDs

the university exposed opportunities for the students to use the campus as a living laboratory.’

From green to smart MMU’s green revolution was only the start of what Hindley calls a ‘smartness journey’. From now on, any new lighting that is installed at the premises will be connected to a Dali or a KNX system. Lighting, and other systems in the buildings such as CCTV, fire alarms and burglar alarms are all integrated with a central Skywalker server. ‘You can tell a building to turn all its lights off. It’s about cutting down the extra run time, but then again if the building gets broken into, the lighting will come on.’ As well as giving the facilities team more control, they will be able to glean insights from the data that the system gathers. ‘We’ll be looking at space use and occupancy to improve our energy efficiency and space utilisation strategy,’ says Hindley. ‘There is so much more you can do with an integrated system: self testing, error reporting through the lighting server interface…’ Learning more about the estate using ‘live’ information will also speed up maintenance. Rather than someone reporting a faulty lamp, the system will report it directly to the management team. ‘The principle is about making lighting smarter, making it work more efficiently for you to its maximum capacity, making sure it’s integrated with other systems and making the best use of that,’ says Hindley.

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62 ADVERTISEMENT FEATURE

A feel-good

OFFICE

Law firm Pinsent Masons’ latest branch office is in the newly opened the Soloist building in Belfast. The lighting concept uses a variety of Erco luminaires to meet the complex requirements of a modern office

W

ith a history dating back to 1769, corporate law firm Pinsent Masons now has 2,700 staff in offices around the world. Its latest branch in Northern Ireland is in a striking new building called the Soloist.

A symbolic building The completion of The Soloist was an important symbol of overcoming the economic crisis in Northern Ireland. The building opened in the summer of 2014 after construction activity had stopped as a result of the economic situation. The design was masterminded by Norwegian architect Niels Torp, collaborating with Belfast-based WDR & RT Taggart Architects. AEM was contracted to carry out the electrical installation. The Soloist derives its name from an idea by Torp to represent the new building and other structures around Lanyon Square as players in an imaginary orchestra. The nearby Waterfront Hall was the conductor, and the new building would be the soloist. Torp designed it as a bipartite structure: a full-height glazed atrium connects the two sections, and the interior is open, airy and full of light. Pinsent Masons assigned the interior design of The Soloist to local firm Todd Architects. The lighting was devised by

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Semple McKillop, another Belfast resident, using longlasting, energy-efficient luminaires that provide high illuminance levels and excellent colour consistency. The architects and designers were primarily concerned with ensuring visual comfort at all times of the day for employees. Erco LED luminaires are used throughout the building, from the reception area and the circulation zones to offices, conference rooms, kitchens and bathrooms. Pinsent Masons were particularly impressed by one of Erco’s strong points: compact downlights – an aesthetic and economical alternative to linear and other fluorescent lamps. The lighting concept, which considered each specific room situation, uses luminaires from Erco’s Quintessence, Cylinder, Quadra, Compact and Nadir ranges. A narrow corridor between the kitchenette and a number of workstations, for instance, appears wider thanks to Quintessence lens wallwashers and their uniform washlighting across one of the walls in the corridor. The reception area was to be designed as the firm’s showpiece, indicating its expertise and communicating integrity and reliability. ‘The lighting concept, in our view, is ideal to create a striking appearance that enhances the business culture for both the team and the visitors,’ Pinsent Masons explains. To this end, the designers opted for a warm

Erco’s Compact and Quadra fittings were among the luminaires used


ADVERTISEMENT FEATURE 63

white light colour to produce a welcoming ambience. Quintessence wallwashers set off the delicate grain of the wood-panelled wall, while cylinder surface-mounted downlights break up the expanse of the ceiling. The minimalist design of the lighting tools ensures they recede unobtrusively into the background. The reception connects to a waiting area with columns that are illuminated from below using Nadir recessed floor luminaires, giving the room a more dynamic, three-dimensional appearance.

Concentrated working The workstations are illuminated using neutral white light, which is more pleasant and easier on the eyes when working at computers. The zonal lighting for workstations, shelving and conference tables creates a more diversified and attractive working environment. For concentrated work in the relevant areas, Quadra recessed luminaires provide glare-free ambient lighting. The same luminaire with an oval light distribution provides precise illumination of the

Frieder Blickle, Hamburg, Germany

The lighting scheme provides visual comfort for employees, and a warm ambience in circulation areas

office aisles. Compact downlights produce attractive lighting accents on individual elements in the room, such as columns or bookshelves. The conference and meeting rooms are separated from the office section by glass walls, so a primary concern was to prevent reflection. Quintessence recessed luminaires with oval light distribution were the ideal solution, as they can be precisely adjusted to illuminate the circulation area in front of the rooms. The decision to opt for Erco LED luminaires made it possible to create a productive workplace with a distinguished character.

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64 PROJECT DECC

From T5 to LED at

DECC The Department of Energy and Climate Change has replaced T5 with LEDs and new controls, to show how much energy can be saved

I

f you’ve already got T5 lighting in your office, with occupancy and daylight controls, how much more energy can you save with LED fittings and a better control system? Just over two thirds is the answer, based on the experience at the Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC). The idea was to show what can be done with the very latest office lighting technology, as a way of encouraging other offices to do the same, so the department was willing to accept a longer payback period than most offices would, in order to bring its lighting up to a ‘benchmark’ level for energy efficiency.

Meeting targets It also helps DECC meet the government target of getting energy consumption in its buildings down by 25 per cent this year, compared to five years ago. The project was delivered under the Mayor of London’s Re:Fit scheme by Skanska and Philips Lighting. DECC occupies eight floors of a 1950s building in central London, previously fitted with nearly 1,400 3x14W T5 luminaires and a control system that included PIRs and daylight linking. All in all, a pretty efficient system. The new Philips’ PowerBalance Gen2 LED fittings (modified slightly to fit DECC’s ceiling) use 26W each, so the point-for-point replacement reduced the lighting load by around 40 per cent.

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The new light fittings increase light levels but decrease energy use

Often when you hear about big energy savings from LED schemes, it has been done by compromising on colour temperature or lux levels. Not here – the temperature was specified at 3000K based on feedback from staff on test schemes, and light levels are up from 300 lx to 400-500 lx. Glare is very low, and the fittings include an emergency function. A new control system was installed with a revised sensor layout. Rather than one big centralised system, it’s now carefully zoned to take into account desk clusters, circulation areas and so on. Sensors have shields to make sure they don’t detect the wrong thing, optimised for the position of desks and designed to maximise the daylight harvesting in the two rows of luminaires nearest to the windows. The improved controls increase the energy savings to 67 per cent – a significant proportion given that the old lighting was never that bad in the first place. The absolute amount of energy being saved is fairly low, so DECC will be waiting 11-12 years before the investment in the new lights pays for itself. But it has demonstrated just how low your office energy consumption can go, with the latest technology, cleverly applied.


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66 PROJECTS ROUNDUP

LIGHTING PROJECTS

How it’s done

Arne Jennard

INSURANCE UNDERWRITER

ROBERT AITKEN INSTITUTE FOR CLINICAL RESEARCH, BIRMINGHAM Lighting in laboratories and clinical institutes must be unobtrusive, but deliver the right amount of light on the task area with minimal glare. Low ceiling heights and medical research equipment can interfere with the lighting scheme, and enclosed fittings should be used to protect the environment from dust. For this project, lighting consultant Couch Perry & Wilkes used the Linic LED linear luminaire from Wila, which can be recessed or surface mounted and has opal or micro-prismatic diffusers for glare control.

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HSBC, QUAI DES BERGUES, GENEVA Seam Design’s lighting is intended to bring together the interior and exterior parts of seven 18th century buildings that house HSBC’s Geneva offices. The scheme encompasses a central atrium, office levels, trading floor, staff floor amenities, meeting rooms, dining rooms and executive offices. Lighting is as important as architecture to the scheme, considerately handled and integrated into the material palette of furniture, finishes and architectural detailing, even for service stairs and back-of-house corridors.

20 FENCHURCH STREET, LONDON Lighting designed by MBLD and Integrated is the key to the air of accessibility that permeates the lobby of 20 Fenchurch Street. The designers applied a subtle welcoming carpet of light from an almost invisible source at the front door under the canopy, giving a subtle emphasis on the entrance, after which the reception desk with its backlit onyx front is the focal point. The lift lobbies are the brightest lit area of the lobby, drawing visitors into the building. All light sources are LED.

OFFICE

Guy Archard

Redshift Photography

LABORATORY

BANK John MacLean

ASCOT UNDERWRITING, LONDON Speciality insurance underwriter Ascot thinks of itself as young, agile and fun. To underline its brand identity, the company appointed Paul Nulty Lighting Design to work on the lighting at its offices in the City of London. PNLD made a feature of the absence of daylight in the lift lobby. Visitors are surrounded by black glass on four sides and Ascot’s logo, illuminated by LEDs behind the glass. In the rest of the space, the lighting does not obstruct the view from the 33rd floor.

Tom Brill

OFFICE LOBBY

25 CHURCHILL PLACE, LONDON The latest 23-storey tower in London’s Canary Wharf is one of the most energy efficient. Efficiency and sustainability targets were developed to achieve a Breeam ‘excellent’ rating. PJC Light Studio illuminated the two main entrance lobbies, main lift lobbies, toilets on all floors, four mid-tower atrium spaces, an exterior canopy and exterior areas. PJC worked with architect Kohn Pedersen Fox to develop a series of integrated designs that included ceiling slots to discreetly mount downlights and other services above the ceiling plane to maintain visual integrity.


PROJECTS ROUNDUP 67

Stuck in a boring meeting? Well, if you worked in one of these buildings, you could at least admire the lighting

HEAD OFFICE

CONSERVATION CENTRE

WORLD CONSERVATION + EXHIBITION CENTRE, BRITISH MUSEUM, LONDON This new wing of the museum provides an extra nine floors of office and exhibition space, which Arup had to bring together. Conservation studios needed high illuminance, good colour rendering and directionality. Science labs had a number of spaces with specific requirements for electromagnetic compatibility and the spectral output of lamps. Custom luminaires were developed for the conservation studios and office space.

Frank Walter (Arup)

LIBRARY

LIBRARY AND LEARNING CENTRE, VIENNA The awardwinning Library and Learning Centre in Vienna is the work of architect Zaha Hadid and symbolises a casket that stores a treasure of knowledge. ‘Arup’s goal was to highlight the striking architectural language and illuminate the individual rooms according to their respective requirements,’ says lighting designer Paula Longato. The circulation areas and spaces connected to daylight are lit in a neutral colour (4000K), library spaces and spaces connected to the administrative functions have a warmer light (3000K).

SCHOOL OF ART

REID BUILDING, THE GLASGOW SCHOOL OF ART This new building opposite the renowned Mackintosh building has a series of large double height studios, lecture theatres and workshops. Arup’s lighting team worked with the architect to design the electric lighting, and carried out studies to provide technical support for the daylighting design. Bespoke luminaires were developed for the project, and a daylight-linked lighting control system in the studios helps shrink the building’s carbon footprint.

ONE PANCRAS SQUARE, LONDON This Breeam ‘outstanding’rated building is part of the King’s Cross development. It incorporates 900 of Luxonic Lighting’s chilled beam luminaires over eight floors. Airlux satin lensed small nosecone luminaires have been developed for seamless integration into chilled beam structures, and are supplied as standard with Dali-dimmable control. The lens distributes light asymmetrically up and down to illuminate large open office areas while eliminating glare.

UNIVERSITY

LEE BUILDING, ETH UNIVERSITY, ZURICH The architectural office of Fawad Kazi and the lighting designers at Reflexion worked together on the artificial lighting for this building, which incorporates Tridonic’s TALEXXengine QLE LED modules. Each module can be interconnected with plug connectors and up to six can be powered and controlled from a common driver. One luminaire type, the cuboid Minergie, has been used in all the functional areas of the building. The square QLE modules, with a mounting height of only 5.5mm, enabled the luminaire body to have a low profile.

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Too many light Are you responsible for large numbers of light fittings across different buildings? If it’s proving a maintenance and energy headache, we can help. In this special conference, we’ll give you the answers to the key challenges facing managers of complex lighting estates:

THURSDAY 21 MAY 2015 CAVENDISH CONFERENCE CENTRE, LONDON, UK

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CONFERENCE 2015

ďŹ ttings, too little time? O How do you manage the assets to best advantage? O How can you cut the cost of maintenance? O What’s the best way to monitor and control your installation? O How can you reduce energy while enhancing the lit environment for people? Our speakers will explain the techniques and the technologies and look at a number of best practice locations. This one-day event is suitable for estates managers, facilities managers, property managers, energy managers, consulting engineers, designers and manufacturers.

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Photo: Miller Hare

Lighting Large Estates


70 ENERGY SAVINGS OPPORTUNITY SCHEME

Time to face facts about

The government’s latest energy-efficiency scheme aims to make organisations face up to their energy consumption. Colin Lawson of Tamlite wonders if lighting could be the low-hanging fruit that means businesses embrace – rather than endure – the rules

T

he Energy Savings Opportunity Scheme (Esos) came into force in July 2014, and requires that all large organisations (defined as those with more than 250 employees) face their energy consumption head-on by conducting regular audits and setting out how they could use less. The scheme presents a significant opportunity for businesses to streamline operations, increase their competitiveness and boost the bottom line – although there is no obligation for them to implement any recommendations from the audits.

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We’re now nearly at the halfway point in the rollout of Esos – organisations that registered their eligibility for compliance back in December 2014 are now taking steps to ensure their audits are completed by December of this year. Indeed, the most forward-thinking companies may already have their compliance in the bag. Of course, some organisations still view the procedure as an exercise in tick-box compliance. But the conversation has largely moved on from general awareness of Esos legislation to making the


ENERGY SAVINGS OPPORTUNITY SCHEME 71

‘‘

Compulsory energy audits mean companies have no choice but to acknowledge their energy consumption”

Dispelling myths But while for many in the industry swapping outdated lighting for new low-energy offerings is a nobrainer, it’s important to remember just how swiftly technology in this arena has changed in recent years, and to be mindful of some of the lighting myths that continue to linger in the minds of decision makers. What were once specialist solutions are now mainstream options available to a wider range of organisations at more affordable prices. Customers have greater choice, and will need support in making the right lighting investments for their needs.

Crunching the numbers most of the opportunities it represents. Compulsory energy audits mean companies have no choice but to acknowledge their energy consumption, and it’s likely that once confronted with stark evidence of the potential savings to be had – UK businesses stand to save up to £1.6bn – many companies will at the very least want to explore some of the easier energyefficiency wins. A survey carried out by the Confederation of British Industry (CBI) reveals that, when asked, ‘How much of a priority is energy efficiency for your business?’ 91 per cent of respondents said ‘high’ or ‘quite high’.

Low-hanging fruit Lighting, while not necessarily a big win compared to other energy-saving technologies, represents some of the ripest low-hanging fruit available to organisations wanting to implement Esos recommendations – it’s affordable, quick to implement and offers a strong return-on-investment in the face of rising electricity costs (which have doubled for businesses over the last decade, according to the Carbon Trust). Indeed, with up to 40 per cent of a building’s electricity use accounted for by lighting, it’s little surprise that official Esos guidance lists some standard lighting measures among its energy-saving suggestions. The mention of measures such as LED lighting, occupancy sensors, daylight sensors, maintenance plans and basic employee engagement suggests that the government still believes the potential of energy-efficient lighting remains under-exploited, and that it sees Esos as a chance to push more companies into implementing these fundamental steps. As an industry, we have a responsibility to help communicate the many benefits of energy-efficient lighting to our market, not just for complying with Esos, but as a long-term measure of cost-effective sustainability. And of course, taking energy-saving needs into account provides clients with a better value product, which is good news for customer satisfaction levels and business competitiveness. Everyone stands to benefit.

While once the conversation focused on CFLs, LED lighting has come to the fore, saving around 75 per cent energy use while offering the same, if not brighter, light output as halogen lighting. And, according to the Carbon Trust, new LED fittings (as opposed to retrofit LED lamps) have the potential in the UK to reduce electricity bills by more than £300 million and reduce carbon emissions by more than a million tonnes over the next three years. But, these facts may be unknown to the decision makers responsible for implementing Esos recommendations. The benefits available to those seeking to address their energy consumption through efficient lighting are ample, matched by the many opportunities the lighting industry has in the face of the Esos legislation. The term ‘low-hanging fruit’ is used a great deal these days, but if Esos regulation indicates anything, it’s that there’s still a sizeable market for these energy-saving measures, and the lighting industry is well positioned to benefit from it just as much as the companies undertaking the audits.

DECC wants companies to face up to their energy use

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72 UNIVERSITY LIGHTING

10 1

ways to ensure your university lighting project goes right

MAKE A PLAN AND FOLLOW IT

Research and formulate a strategy for your lighting. If you can come up with standardised approaches, you’ll benefit from economies of scale and keep maintenance simple. Set minimum specs, minimum aesthetic requirements and ensure consistency. Be ready to review your plan openly and honestly, and review your supply chain too – a list of approved manufacturers gets less and less useful with each day after it’s compiled.

2

DON’T FORGET THE PEOPLE

3

LIGHT THE TASK, NOT THE PLANE

Light vertical surfaces as well as the task area. Direct/indirect lighting is good to wash ceilings and walls with light, which makes spaces feel airier and more natural. Look after the occupant, and the space will work.

Aim to create a lighting solution based on the tasks being performed, rather than just trying to light the ‘working plane’ to a certain number of lux. Remember, lighting guides and standards are there to be used and understood, but not blindly followed. Consider task lighting – it’s really

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useful. And make sure you get good vertical and semi-cylindrical illuminance – this is how you’re going to light people’s faces.

4

TURN STUFF OFF

5

CAREFUL WHAT YOU REPLACE THINGS WITH

Make sure you’re using basic controls: absence detection and daylight linking. If you’ve got a campus-wide strategy for integrated controls, then you can do more sophisticated things like failure reporting, remote monitoring of occupancy, and integration with BMS. If you don’t have that luxury, just keep it simple, to make sure everyone can operate it and you don’t encounter any compatibility issues.

LEDs may be the future, but don’t assume that the future is now. Just because it’s LED doesn’t mean it’s the right solution, or even the most efficient one. Be wary of retrofit lamps – ideally it’s best to think the solution through from the ground up, and consider what’s really best for the job, rather than just replacing whatever was already there like-for-like. Take the opportunity to modernise and refurbish.


UNIVERSITY LIGHTING 73

Keep these tips in mind when you’re working on your next lighting project, to achieve great results at the right cost

6

KNOW WHAT YOU’RE GETTING

Proper specification is crucial. Define your key performance criteria and work out what value your products are going to deliver to your client. When buying LED products, check that the product information you’re getting is complete, with data for colour rendering, colour temperature, lumen depreciation and so on. Luminaire lifetime can be defined in a number of ways, so don’t accept a headline figure – ask your manufacturer for the basis of their claim, and whether it includes the driver, which is often the weak link.

7

ENCOURAGE THE SUPPLY CHAIN

Work with your suppliers and push them to come up with solutions that suit you. Make sure you can justify your specification, be wary of ‘value engineering’ and remember that not all ‘equal and approved fittings’ are equal.

8

EMBRACE DAYLIGHT

Natural light is the best kind of light available, and it’s free. It’s not so easy to use in existing buildings as in new ones, but there are still opportunities. Look at daylight linking to dim lights near windows, and think about a shading strategy.

9

ANALYSE, LEARN, FEEDBACK

Let’s talk There’s nothing like getting people around a table and talking. Lux works with companies in the lighting business to develop conferences and forums that connect you with your audience.

Find out how an event can put you in front of the right people. O Forums O Conferences O Sponsorship opportunities

Manufacturers like to tell you that you can ‘fit and forget’. In reality, that’s not a great idea. Keep checking that your lighting and controls are working properly, monitor energy consumption and benchmark the performance against what you expected. This is the only way you’ll be able to do it better the next time.

10

DELIVER QUALITY

Never lose sight of quality, both in terms of the products specified and, crucially, the overall lit effect. Make sure the scheme gives the right impressions, and does what it’s meant to do.

TO DISCUSS OPPORTUNITIES CONTACT PETER ROWLEDGE ON +44 (0) 203 283 4387 PETER.ROWLEDGE@LUXREVIEW.COM

O This article is based on a presentation by Dan Lister, senior lighting designer at Arup

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76 DESIGN CLINIC

1

LIGHT READING

ALAN TULLA TECHNICAL EDITOR

DESIGN

CLINIC Libraries

Libraries aren’t just for reading any more, says Alan Tulla

L

ibraries aren’t what they used to be: my nearby public library is now a ‘resource centre’. This may upset the fogeys, but it does reflect the change inside. You must consider what people will be doing other than just looking for a book. Libraries are now full of computer screens. These are almost certainly positive polarity (that means black lettering on a white background). Some might be of the older negative polarity variety. In either case, you must minimise the viewing intensity (strictly speaking, the luminance in cd/m2) of the luminaires where they might be reflected in the screens. There are recommended limits in BS EN 12464 and the Code for Lighting. People do a lot of reading in libraries. Remember that older people require higher levels of illumination than younger ones. Depending on who uses the library, you will be designing to 300 or 500 lx. Of course, libraries still have plenty of bookshelves and you need to light their vertical surfaces. The recommendation in the SLL Guide Lighting for Education, is 200 lx on the shelving near ground level. The difficulties involved in lighting supermarket aisles are almost exactly the same as those for library shelves. One solution is to fit luminaires to the tops of the displays. Another is to run rows of luminaires parallel to the aisles. This requires quite a specific geometry to the reflectors and mounting height to avoid wasting light. Another is the ‘cross-aisle’ solution which is much more forgiving of layout and geometry. The disadvantage is that you lose light on the tops of the shelving. Our library has a 3.4m ceiling height and the area you can see in the rendering is about 15m wide by 14m to the back wall.

O Head to www.luxreview.com for more of Alan’s Design Clinics

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This scheme is simplicity itself – it just uses one type of ceiling-mounted luminaire. The unit is a twin lamp T5 surface mount with a gull-wing upper reflector. There is no direct view of the lamp and a fair amount of light is directed up to the ceiling. The interesting aspect of this design is that the line of luminaires is at right-angles to the bookshelves. In supermarket terms, this is known as a cross-aisle design. Of course, some light is lost on the top of the shelves but this may not be significant. The solution works best when the shelves are comparatively shallow in relation to the space between them. The lighting is uniform across the space, so the layout of the shelves, tables, computers and so on can be altered easily. For this scheme to work well, you must choose a luminaire with good quality optics – not all matt white reflectors are the same. Similarly, you must ensure that not too much light is lost inside the luminaire – that is, it should have a high light output ratio.

TECH SPEC Luminaires Twin 28W T5 surface-mount Optical control Microprism panel plus matt white reflectors Arrangement In rows, cross-aisle Average horizontal illuminance on desk 301 lx. Average vertical illuminance on bookshelves, 168 lx Electrical load 6.3W/m2 Pros Inexpensive Cons Changing the fluorescent lamps


DESIGN CLINIC 77

2

SUSPENSE STORY

Here, again, we have used twin T5 units. The big difference is that they are suspended direct/indirect units. This obviously directs a lot more light to the ceiling and makes the space more airy. The extra optical efficiency means the installed load is slightly lower. We have positioned the luminaires centrally over the bookshelf aisles. For this to work properly, you have to consider the width of the downward beam. If it is too wide, the upper shelves will be too bright and not enough illumination will reach the book spines closest to the floor. If the beam is too narrow, you might find that the floor is lit brilliantly but the upper half of the shelving is comparatively dark. Done well, this is an efficient way to light shelving from top to bottom. This gives more than twice the vertical illuminance on the shelves than option A. One extra advantage of this scheme is that any reflections in the computer screens will only show the ends of the luminaires and these are comparatively low luminance. The reflections are unlikely to be distracting.

3

LITERARY CIRCLES

This makes more of a visual statement. It’s the kind of thing you would expect to see in a modern library. We have opal pendants, 1m in diameter, containing about 70W of LEDs each. Also, there is local lighting on the central tables and the computer area. Finally, there are some dedicated shelflighting units. These are attached to the top shelf on short outreach arms. A properly designed reflector ensures good, even illumination from top to bottom. This solution ensures the highest illumination on the shelving and task areas but also has the lowest overall electrical load. Obviously, the initial capital cost would be substantially higher than that of the other schemes.

TECH SPEC

TECH SPEC

Luminaires Twin 28W T5 direct/indirect Optical control Clear top cover with small louvres on underside Arrangement As shown Average horizontal illuminance on desk 317 lx. Average vertical illuminance on bookshelves, 430 lx Electrical load 5.4W/m2 Pros Light and airy Cons You need a high ceiling to make this work properly

Luminaires Various Optical control Various Arrangement As shown Average horizontal illuminance on desk 311 lx. Average vertical illuminance on bookshelves, 518 lx Electrical load 4.3W/m2 Pros Bold appearance and lowest running costs Cons Highest capital cost

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78 DESIGN CLINIC

1

DOWNLIGHT DIFFUSING

ALAN TULLA TECHNICAL EDITOR

DESIGN

CLINIC

Doctor’s surgery The doctor will see you now (if the surgery is well lit) says Alan Tulla

A

doctor’s surgery must be well lit. The consequences of a mistake are much more serious than in most other jobs. Also, compared with an office where there are fairly fixed positions for the task area, a GP’s surgery requires bright illumination just about everywhere. Cleanliness is paramount, so there should be no darker areas that could harbour dirt. Obviously, there is a small workspace where the doctor has a computer screen and makes notes. This is almost certainly next to a window and you should think about the orientation of the screen to avoid reflections. The desk is quite often in a corner so you must position the luminaires so the doctor is not working in a shadow. Also, there will also be an examination bed. First, this should have a movable examination light. The larger lighting manufacturers have ranges of medical luminaires so they will almost certainly have something suitable. As in a dentist’s surgery, the patient will spend a long time looking at the ceiling. You should make sure the ceiling luminaires are not glaring. Better still; try to position them so that they are not in direct view. Wall-mounted uplights in this area are often a good solution but make sure they have covers so they can be cleaned. In the surgery, there will also be a washbasin, wall charts, filing cabinets and a drugs cupboard. All need high levels of horizontal and vertical illumination. Before you start your design, it is worthwhile consulting LG2: Hospitals and Health Care Buildings. There is lots of guidance on how to light medical areas and tasks. Our surgery is a nominal 5m x 6m with a 3m ceiling. We have designed it to a maintained illuminance of 500 lx.

O Head to www.luxreview.com for more of Alan’s Design Clinics

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Here is a simple solution that can work quite well if done properly. We have used some fairly low-power, wide-angle LED downlights with a frosted dropped glass. This has two functions. First, the glass reflects some light back on to the ceiling. Second, being frosted, the glass obscures the LED source inside. We have omitted the downlight directly over the pillow of the examination bed to avoid glare to the patient. Note that there is a specialist examination light on the adjacent wall. Beware of using too narrow a downlight beam. You need a wide beam to give sufficient light on the patients’ faces and avoid sombre walls. If you choose the right combination of dropped glass trim and low brightness downlight, you can achieve an effective and attractive scheme at low cost.

TECH SPEC Luminaires LED downlight Optical control Reflector plus frosted glass Arrangement Three by four Average horizontal illuminance on desk 485 lx Electrical load 9.4W/m2 Pros Low cost Cons Keeping the glass covers clean


DESIGN CLINIC 79

2

MEDICAL PANEL

3

UPLIFTING

Not all LED ceiling panels are the same. An IP44 version with a smooth, flat diffuser has the advantage of being easily wiped clean. However, in a GP’s surgery, you would need to be careful about the brightness (luminance) of the panel because patients may have to look directly into them when on the examination bed. Instead, the panel we have used has a blade/louvre arrangement that obscures a direct view of  the LEDs. Lighting calculation software can easily produce a readymade grid of luminaires to suit a particular illumination level. In this case, the software placed a panel directly over the head of the bed, so we have moved that panel away from direct view. Even with just six luminaires, you still need to think about the lighting design and layout.

Uplighters are always worth considering because the patient can never get a direct view of the light source. However, you should make sure that the uplight has a decent optic and doesn’t produce an over-bright patch of light on the ceiling. This can cause distracting reflections in a computer screen. These wall uplights produce plenty of illumination on the desk and examination bed, but we have decided to boost the light in the centre of the surgery using downlights. Don’t forget that you must choose an uplight with a cover lens so it can easily be cleaned and doesn’t trap insects. Although the installed electrical load is heavier than the other options, the ceiling is a lot lighter and the space seems more human.

TECH SPEC

TECH SPEC

Luminaires 600 x 600 ceiling panel Optical control Deflecting blades Arrangement Six, as shown Average horizontal illuminance on desk 513 lx Electrical load 9W/m2 Pros Cheap and easy to install Cons Check the panel luminance isn’t too high

Luminaires 70W metal halide uplight and LED downlights Optical control Shaped reflector and cover lens Arrangement As shown Average horizontal illuminance on desk 520 lx Electrical load 15W/m2 Pros More welcoming Cons Highest electrical load

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80 BIODYNAMIC LIGHTING

The drug we’re still

NOT TAKING Biodynamic lighting can make us healthier, happier and more productive. But is it all talk and no action? Kathrine Anker finds out

T

he idea of lighting that makes us feel better or be more productive has been around for some time now; the science behind it has really shaped up over the past decade, and new lighting solutions for offices, schools and hospitals indicate that the market is catching up with our growing knowledge about the way lighting affects us. There’s just one thing still missing: an abundance of real-life case studies that we can show to our bosses to convince them that our classrooms, patient rooms or desk spaces need the benefits of biodynamic lighting too. While we often hear of workplaces, schools and healthcare facilities investing in LED lighting and controls that will lower their energy bills, there seems to be no particular rush for anyone to invest in the benefits that heightened productivity or quicker recovery times would bring to a company or a public facility. Such benefits are, of course, harder to quantify that concrete energy savings. So while there are plenty of funding schemes for LED upgrades, such as the

THE SCIENCE Over the past decade, scientists have made the key discovery behind biodynamic lighting. We are all, effectively, fitted with a blue-sky detector: special receptors in our eyes react to the blue content in daylight, see it decreasing as the day goes on, and prepare us accordingly for activity or rest. Our daily cycle takes its cues from the rising and setting of the sun, but electric lights don’t usually send the right cues to keep our daily rhythms in check. The results go beyond just feeling a bit out of sorts – poor lighting can contribute to depression, low productivity, weight gain, and can increase the risk of other health problems or exacerbate those we already have. Studies have shown that hospital patients in sunnier rooms experience less stress, use less pain medication and don’t stay as long.

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Revolving Green Fund in the UK or the European Commission for larger, public projects in the EU, getting the green light for an investment in health and productivity is still a difficult task.

Wellbeing in healthcare There are, however, a few purses starting to open up. At Guy’s and St Thomas’ hospital trust in London, the environmental strategy team is looking into biodynamic options for their next lighting upgrade. ‘If we can improve lighting in patient areas, that can only improve the healing process,’ says Alexandra Hammond from the hospital trust’s sustainability arm, Essentia. Hammond has a funding pool of around £1 million for energy-efficient lighting, but wants to reach some human-centric goals with that funding, too. ‘When we tender for the work – the idea is that we’ll be looking at everything, including biodynamic lighting,’ she says. ‘We have to see how we can work within the budget, but the wonderful thing about Guy’s and St Thomas’ is that it’s an organisation that thinks beyond direct paybacks. It understands that if you improve something like lighting in a patient area, it can improve the healing process, and that’s our fundamental objective.’ At the Maria-Hilf Hospital in Germany’s Sauerland, circadian light is helping patients recover more quickly (see page 54). In Hillerød in Denmark, a maternity unit in a hospital has been experimenting with lighting designed to help women in labour relax and breathe more calmly. The delivery suites are equipped with a large, lit canvas – Philips’ ‘luminous textile’ which can display patterns or images projected by colourchanging LEDs behind the canvas – and three lighting and sound settings have been developed by Wavecare Technology to help women settle in, breathe calmly and relax. ‘We have already witnessed that the couples are

Light at this Danish maternity ward can be tuned to keep expectant mothers calm and relaxed


BIODYNAMIC LIGHTING 81

A ‘luminous textile’ displays images and patterns designed to promote relaxation

calmer in these rooms during contractions. The sound and especially the light seems to affect the women positively,’ says midwife Janni Lysgaard Bladt. Tests since the system was installed in 2013 show that 73 per cent of women felt the lighting had a positive impact on their experience of pain during labour. Ninety-four per cent of both women and men have said that it had a positive impact on their feeling of wellbeing and safety. Tunable LED light for patient rooms, mimicking the gradually changing light on a sunny day, have started to appear on the market. A study shows that patients exposed to one such system slept longer, took less time to fall asleep and scored lower on the depression scale than patients exposed to the existing light.

Alertness in classrooms

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V

A secondary school in the far north of Sweden is currently experimenting with bright, intense classroom lighting to see if it can help students overcome the sluggishness that sets in during the dark, Nordic winter. ‘It might not make any difference, but then again it might, so why not give it a shot?’ asks Dragonskolan head teacher Stellan Andersson in a report by UK newspaper The Guardian. The there is plenty of research that suggests that lighting can affect students’


82 BIODYNAMIC LIGHTING

performance. Three Dutch studies have compared the performance of pupils working under 93 foot-candle, 1000 lux 6500K light with pupils working under lower lux levels and warmer colour temperatures. All studies reported fewer errors and improved performance among the pupils in the room with 1,000 lux and cold, white light.

Wide awake Some offices have adopted biodynamic lighting schemes – like the installation at AstraZeneca’s building in Cheshire, England (pictured, left). But most of the work in biodynamic lighting focuses on healthcare and schools. A study by the Fagerhult lighting academy in Denmark showed that the amount of cortisol, the hormone that keeps us awake, increased in students’ blood when they were exposed to high luminance in the morning and early afternoon. The study, undertaken in 2009 using fluorescent lights, showed an average performance increase of one grade in the dark part of the year. The academy has recently repeated the study with LED lights and found the same results. Henrik Clausen, director of Fagerhult academy, said: ‘Actually the pupils’ cortisol levels rose a little bit faster with LEDs than they did with fluorescent. It’s probably because there is an inherent peak of blue light in LEDs, but we don’t know that for sure.’ Headteacher Andersson at Dragonskolan in Sweden was able to launch his biodynamic lighting experiment because the energy company offered to provide the lighting, so he had nothing to lose. But for most schools, investing in expensive, new technology is not an option. Professor Reine Karlsson of Lund University believes that it’s time for public spending to be diverted from outdoor lighting to indoor applications so we can start benefitting from all the

BIODYNAMIC LIGHTING IN THE EU An online information source, Lighting for People, backed by the European Commission and Lighting Europe, has been set up to bring together the latest research about humancentric lighting. It’s building up a body of knowledge about biodynamic lighting and how it could be applied in our offices, schools, cities, homes and hospitals. As well as sharing information, member cities can become part of clusters that work with companies to develop and trial new technology. The Enigma pre-procurement project, for example, allows cities to share the costs and risks associated with procurement of new lighting. For more information, visit lightingforpeople.eu

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FREE!

To network operators and TOCs

Lighting for Rail CONFERENCE 2015

Upgrade without compromise! You can have it both ways: the latest lighting technology and improved safety and reliability. We’ll show you how in this special conference, which includes: O O O O O O

How to de-risk a lighting upgrade The latest in standards and regulations Simple wins to cut energy on the network Suburban and rural stations – making a difference How to improve reliability and maintainability LEDs – How to tell the bad from the good

This special event – taking place on Wednesday 24 June at the Cavendish Conference Centre in London – is aimed at engineers, designers, consultants, specifiers and all those with responsibility for lighting in the rail network. To register for a free place, contact Fergus Lynch on 020 3283 4387 or fergus.lynch@luxmagazine.co.uk WEDNESDAY 24 JUNE 2015 | CAVENDISH CONFERENCE CENTRE, LONDON Organised by

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84 BIODYNAMIC LIGHTING

BIODYNAMIC CHEAT SHEET BIODYNAMIC LIGHTING Lighting that adapts to influence the body – changing in brightness or colour content depending on the application, activity or time of day. CHRONOBIOLOGY The study of time cycles in living things – particularly how we are influenced by solar and lunar cycles. CIRCADIAN RHYTHM The body’s natural daily rhythm. CCT The correlated colour temperature of light – how ‘warm’ or ‘cool’ it appears. Visually, this is one way we can tell what time of day it is, because natural light is cooler at midday and warmer in the morning and evening. However, it’s not the colour temperature itself that influences our bodily rhythms – it’s a particular wavelength of blue contained in the light. An LED and a fluorescent lamp that appear to be the same colour temperature as each other will actually contain different amounts of blue and have different effects on our bodies. 460nm BLUE The approximate wavelength (in nanometres) of blue light that cells in the eye detect, triggering the release of hormones that make us feel awake and influencing our daily cycles. MELATONIN The hormone that regulates our sleepwake cycle. It is suppressed by blue light, so that we feel awake during the day. RETINAL GANGLION CELLS Cells in the retina that detect light. Most of them help us see, but recently it has been discovered that some of them also look out for blue light, using it to determine what time of day it is and regulate our body processes accordingly. SPECTRAL COMPOSITION The range of colours in a light source. Because white light is composed of different combinations of colours, two light sources that look the same may contain a lot or a little of the particular type of blue that affects our bodies. Most white LEDs are actually blue with a yellow phosphor, so they tend to have a high blue spectral composition even if they don’t look blue.

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research and technology now available. Carefully tuned light keeps students more alert in the darker ‘Public spending on lighting development has months, and improve grades primarily been on outdoor lighting, but to achieve better wellbeing, it’s indoor lighting we need to focus on. That’s where the melatonin and dopamine and the circadian cycle is most affected.’

Productivity in the office Offices remain largely unconquered territory for biodynamic lighting, perhaps because most are commercial and it’s hard to prove that it works. Research suggests that exposure to more intense light boosts employees’ feelings of alertness and vigour. At the very least it can counteract feelings of fatigue. Exposure to bright light (93 foot-candles, 1000 lux) helps employees fee alert after a short night’ sleep, while dim light below 0.5 foot-candles and 5 lux increases sleepiness. In fact, research shows that working under intense light during the day may ensure a better night’s sleep. Scientists have not yet agreed on the best intensity to create a wide-awake workplace. The impact of bright lighting on employees’ productivity seems to depend on what they are doing. Some studies have found that exposure to light levels above 185 foot-candles (2,000 lx) may improve people’s capacity for visual scanning, short-term memory and mental arithmetic. But other studies contradict these findings, and more research is needed before bosses will have a full-fledged manual on how to dope their employees with light. We can only hope that, just like LEDs and lighting controls have taken off as their benefits have become more widely known, real-life applications of biodynamic lighting will encourage more establishments to try to make their lighting healthy and pleasant.


5YR

E X T E N D E D

WARRANTY


86 WELLBEING AT WORK

HOW TO PROVE your building needs healthier, more productive lighting The World Green Building Council has developed a toolkit for healthy workplaces. Mark Halper takes a look

T

he quality of office lighting has a huge impact on workers’ wellbeing and productivity, yet companies do little about it – because they lack the evidence to make a case for it. So says the World Green Building Council, which is now offering a strategic weapon for champions of healthy buildings to use in their fight to obtain a budget. It has devised a ‘toolkit’ that collects data from the physical, perceptual and financial realms which when combined could make a hands-down case for overhauling the lighting and all those other things like heating and cooling and architectural design that can dial up or down the attitudes and output of workers. ‘Many organisations are sitting on a treasure trove of information that, with a little sifting, could yield important immediate improvement strategies for their two biggest assets – their people and places, and the relationship between the two,’ says John Alker, director of policy and communications of the UK Green Building Council, the British contingent of the international charity.  In a post on The Guardian’s Sustainable Business blog, he says:

Digging for data ‘Much financial data that businesses are already collecting – absence rates, medical complaints

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and costs, staff turnover and even revenue – could be collected more systematically, and assessed in relation to place. Does this data vary between, or even within, offices? This would be a low-cost and easy way for organisations to begin to analyse quite familiar statistics, but through a new lens. ‘These objective “outcome” metrics should then be accompanied by information about underlying attitudes that can be harder to quantify but important to understand. An effective perception study that tests a range of self-reported attitudes about health, wellbeing and productivity in the workplace can create a more rounded picture. ‘Finally, and crucially, comes information about the building itself, and how it is performing. Some of these are very direct measures (lighting, temperature, air quality) and others will be evaluations or assessments (quality of views, local amenities). Some can be done in house, some require more expert support – although this is changing as technology puts power in the hands of occupiers themselves.’ More and more general studies are demonstrating the link between lighting and health


WELLBEING AT WORK 87

Caption range right 2 deck

Making the working hours a little brighter SIMON BLAZEY TRIDONIC

Offices like this one in London, with lighting designed by Paul Nulty, see the value of investing in lighting design

Our knowledge and understanding of how important light is to our day-to-day functioning is growing all the time. Pulling the curtain back on a bright, spring morning can set our mood for the day, but if we get to work and are sat in a gloomy corner, with shadows and no natural light then that positive mood will soon be lost, along with our motivation. The importance of getting the office lighting right can no longer be ignored. With careful planning, design and the latest luminaire solutions, modern office buildings can provide clearly differentiated areas where the lighting enhances the focus of the activity in any one area, be that the reception area, a large seminar room, individual work stations or the staff canteen. A long-term study conducted by Zumtobel, in cooperation with the Fraunhofer Institute for Industrial Engineering confirmed that the lighting in many offices doesn’t meet the requirements of the users. Lighting that is tailored to the occupants’ needs has been shown to improve their wellbeing and productivity and make workplaces more attractive.

Tailored light and productivity. Recent research at the University of Illinois, for instance, showed that employees who work near windows and natural daylight are better rested and sleep on average 46 minutes longer at night than colleagues who toil under artificial lights.  Likewise, a Cornell University study found that among nurses, those who work near windows laugh more. Throw in the studies showing that exposure to blue light – the type emitted by our omnipresent computer, gadget and TV screens – undermines sleep, and it seems as though ‘lighting’ should be on our health agenda as much as eating vegetables and getting exercise. Speaking at a Copenhagen gathering sponsored by the EU’s Lighting For People last year, professor Reine Karlsson of Lund University urged public funding to alter lighting schemes in offices, schools and hospitals in a manner that would improve individuals’ wellbeing and achievement. Perhaps the Green Building Council’s new toolkit can help make a case-by-case difference.

When asked, more than 50 per cent of all employees would like individually adjustable lighting that they can tailor to their specific needs and to the requirements of changing work situations. New light management solutions should not only allow management by the premises and facilities manager but equally importantly is that they enable the employees to adjust the lighting to suit their own individual needs quickly and easily via a PC or smartphone app. One area of light management that is still to be exploited to the full is tunable white light. This has been around for some time and has been used to either create a certain atmosphere or scene or for medical reasons to simulate daylight through a process called circadian rhythm. Previously achieved by using conventional fluorescent light sources similar effects are now be achieveable with LEDs, which are more efficient, easier to control and come in different formats. In the workplace, where more and more of us spend most of our day in front of a screen, lighting is a key determinant of employee comfort and productivity. Tunable white can be used very effectively when workers are getting tired after lunch or in the early afternoon. By tuning to a cool 6500K, similar to daylight, it will instill energy and improve performance. So if there is a buzz missing from your office, take a moment to really look at the environment your staff are working in. Ask them if they find the light in their work space a problem, invest in some additional lamps. Whatever you do, don’t just ignore what to many may be invisible.

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88 LIGHTING ECONOMIST

WHAT IF

Lux’s lighting economist Dave Tilley considers what would happen if workplaces, doctor’s surgeries and classrooms up and down the UK embraced low-energy lighting

Install lighting controls in all the offices

W

hat if we installed lighting controls in all the UK’s 19 million square metres of office space? A conservative estimate suggests a saving of half a billion kilowatt-hours, with an associated CO2 emission reduction of 277,000 tonnes. The calculations for the savings are based on the average space required by an office worker and the number of 4 x 18W recessed modules needed to achieve an estimated 400 lx average. Let’s consider an area using a dozen 4 x 18W recessed modules. If we were to replace them with an equal number of LED panels, we could save 1,800kWh – about 53 per cent of the energy bill. Add daylight linking, and you’d save a further 480kWh a year,

bringing energy consumption down to just 1,120kWh, just a third of the original figure. The calculations are based on 3,300 operating hours a year – about nine hours a day, seven days a week, or 13 hours a day, five days a week. I have assumed the luminaires will be switched off at night, or they will operate in the evening because of the daylight sensors. If we assume that 70 per cent of the 19 million square metres of office space would have the lighting controlled, then the number of controlled luminaires can be estimated as six million. Introducing lighting controls to existing installations requires careful management because older luminaires and lighting systems will have limited functionality.

NATIONAL SAVING

500 million kWh a year

3,400kWh a year TWELVE 4x18W SWITCH-START LUMINAIRES

1,120kWh a year TWELVE 40W LED PANELS WITH DAYLIGHT LINKING

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7% 67 SAVING FROM LEDs AND DAYLIGHT LINKING


LIGHTING ECONOMIST 89

all the UK’s offices, schools and doctor’s surgeries upgraded their lights? Install LED lighting in all the doctor’s surgeries

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uhat if the UK’s 10,000+ doctor’s surgeries all went LED? The NHS would save 85,011,700kWh together with reductions in associated CO2 emissions of 47,100 tonnes. These figures are based on the below assumptions together with a number of random visits to GP practices. The calculations are based on 3,300 annual operating hours. I have assumed a range of light source, 2D, T8 fluorescent tubes, halogen and incandescent. Visiting a GP is not usually something done out of choice. A pleasant relaxing environment can be of benefit to what can be a difficult experience.

Current annual energy use

Annual energy use with LED lighting

Reception Waiting room Office Doctors’ rooms Toilets Circulation areas

444kWh 1,110kWh 1,710kWh 5,401kWh 1,650kWh 1,426kWh

211kWh 462kWh 634kWh 1,258kWh 231kWh 528kWh

Total

11,741kWh

3,324kWh

SAVING FOR THE NHS

85 million kWh a year

CO2

CARBON EMISSION REDUCTION

47,100 tonnes www.luxreview.com


90 LIGHTING ECONOMIST

Upgrade all the school classrooms to LED

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hat if the UK’s 233,000 school classrooms were upgraded to LED? An estimated saving of 213.9 million kWh together with the associated reduction in CO2 emissions of 118,500 tonnes would be achieved. The estimated number of classrooms has been calculated using the government average class size, 30, and the number of children aged 5 – 16 in the UK. The calculations are based on 2,000 annual operating hours. The quality of light in the education sector, is particularly important as good lighting is critical

to the learning process. The installation of new luminaires will deliver efficiency but it must not be undertaken at any cost. For example, if LED panels are specified the glare ratio must be below 19. In the majority of cases manufacturers, of LED panels, do not publish glare ratio figures, let alone have the test data available. For the purpose of the calculation I have been quite conservative, however the savings are still significant. You have to wonder if the government or government agencies and consultants are reviewing and analysing ‘what if’ scenarios such as the ones here, in respect of lighting.

SAVING FROM GOING LED

% 54%

NATIONAL SAVING

214 million kWh a year 118,500 tonnes

CO2

CARBON EMISSION REDUCTION

4x18W T8 MODULE

40W LED PANEL

1,728kWh a year

800kWh a year

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92 EVENT EMERGENCY LIGHTING CONFERENCE

FREE! to end users

Emergency Lighting CONFERENCE 2015

Emergency lighting: learn how to

STAY SAFE

Are you responsible for emergency lighting? Then don’t miss our upcoming conference dedicated to the topic

WHAT COULD HAPPEN

18

months IN PRISON

New Kimberley Hotel, Blackpool O Exit routes blocked O Smoke alarms not working O No emergency lighting

£23,000 FINE

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Shared residential property, Morecambe O Emergency lighting not maintained O No action on an enforcement notice

E

mergency lighting is what keeps your building’s occupants safe if the power goes off. Getting it right can save lives. Getting it wrong can land the person responsible with a hefty fine or even a prison sentence. Yet a surprising number of buildings lack emergency lighting, or have systems that don’t comply with the law because they’re poorly designed or aren’t tested regularly enough. It’s a dangerous situation to be in. Do you know who’s responsible for the emergency lighting in your building? Do you know what you need to do to stay on the right side of the law? Is your emergency lighting being checked and tested often enough? Can you prove it if you have to? At Lux’s Emergency Lighting Conference, you’ll find out how to comply with the latest legislation and best practice in emergency lighting, while keeping


EVENT 93

DON’T MISS… energy and maintenance costs low – and all without compromising on the look and feel of your spaces.

Learn about…

Alan Daniels of P4 will set out five ways you could be breaking the law – without even realising it

O five ways you could be breaking the law on emergency lighting – without even realising O how to tell good products from dodgy ones, and make sure that early failures don’t leave you with a non-compliant scheme O the pros and cons of central battery and distributed battery systems O the benefits of LEDs in emergency lighting O how to design emergency lighting that doesn’t spoil the look of your interiors

THE GOOD, THE BAD AND THE UGLY David Wright, chairman of the emergency lighting body ICEL , explains how to identify quality products, and tell them from those that barely meet the (not very strict) legal requirements THE TRUTH ABOUT LEDS James Beresford of Mackwell demystifies LED emergency lighting and explains how it can bring benefits to your properties

Don’t miss it The Emergency Lighting Conference is being organised by Lux in association with the Lighting Industry Association (LIA) and the Industry Committee for Emergency Lighting (ICEL). This one-day event is suitable for estates manager, facilities managers, property managers, energy managers, consulting engineers and manufacturers. End users of lighting can register for a FREE place by contacting Fergus Lynch on 020 3283 4387 or fergus.lynch@luxmagazine.co.uk.

THURSDAY 23 APRIL 2015 CAVENDISH CONFERENCE CENTRE, LONDON, UK O www.emergencylightingconference.com

INTEGRATING EMERGENCY AND BMS Independent controls expert Jeremy Turner explains how to integrate building management system with emergency lighting

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94 NAMED & SHAMED

Grass them up at shamed@luxmagazine.co.uk or tweet @Lux_magazine

Bog standard Shit (lighting) happens. Especially in toilets

CALL OF DUTY Mamma mia! Wouldn’t it be easier to install a sensor? The gentleman exiting the cubicle didn’t take too kindly to being met with Lux’s prying lens as he opened the door – hence the blurry picture. The things we do to advance the cause of energy efficiency...

MORE WHO COULD HAVE USED LESS

EXPOSED INNARDS Whatever happened in here must have been so explosive it made the luminaire’s glass crack. Or maybe it’s just a cool Shoreditch office take on ‘industrial chic’

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TWO DOWN, ONE TO GO How many downlights do you need in a tiny bathroom? One that’s working so you can see what you’re doing, two that are not so you have something to ponder while you’re doing it?

BURNING RING OF FIRE A second boo-boo from the same office. Makes you wonder if the lights were ever on at the same time, and what caused those brown marks around the middle light

WHERE THE SUN DOESN’T SHINE

Here’s an alternative way to make up for crappy downlights in the bog. The NightGlow toilet seat uses ‘minimal amounts of light’ to glow in the dark, so you’re saving energy while composting. bit.ly/1G7bMj9


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Join Lighting For People WROHDUQDERXWWKHODWHVWVFLHQWLÀF ÀQGLQJVLQKXPDQFHQWULFOLJKWLQJHQJDJHLQJUHHQEXVLQHVV GHYHORSPHQWDQGSDUWLFLSDWHLQRSHQLQQRYDWLRQVROXWLRQV

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98 REVIEWS 600 x 600mm LED CEILING PANELS

REVIEWED:

600 x 600s Technical editor Alan Tulla squares up to the latest LED replacements for recessed fluorescent fittings

I

f your workspace is still lit using 4 x 18W recessed fluorescent units, you really ought to change them. There is a huge range of more efficient LED ceiling panels available. We have tested 10 panels from the cheapest and most cheerful to quality engineered units with sophisticated optics. We could easily have tested 10 more. We have tested both the thin flat panel (edge-lit) types and the deeper troffer types, which are backlit. Unfortunately, there seems to be a race to the bottom in price. This, coupled with a lack of basic photometric data from some suppliers, has led to quite a few poor lighting installations. I speak to a lot of people who complain about glare, uneven light distribution, dark ceilings and areas in the office that don’t receive much light because the luminaires are arranged inefficiently.

Bright, white and gloomy Obviously, a flush, recessed luminaire cannot project any light on to the ceiling – the ceiling won’t receive any direct light. So the workspace can look dark and gloomy even if the ceiling is white. Incidentally, unless the floor and worktops are quite pale, your installation may not meet the minimum requirements of BS EN 12464-1. It is also unlikely to meet the British Council of Offices guidance, the SLL’s LG7 or the Code for Lighting. And frankly, dark ceilings are best avoided whether or not they comply. Related to this, glare from the panels, seen against a dark ceiling, is exacerbated by the high lumen output (and hence, luminance) of some of these units. Many LED panels emit 50 per cent more light than the 4 x 18W fluorescent units they replace. More light doesn’t necessarily mean better lighting. One solution may be to dim the panels to save more energy. An alternative is to increase the light on the ceiling using extra uplighters. To reduce the risk of glare, you need to ask the supplier for the maximum luminance (cd/m2) of the panel. We often assume that the workspace will have positive polarity screens. Common examples are word processing or spreadsheets where black lettering is seen against a white background. Here, the limit is 3,000cd/m2. However, a lot of CAD and photo-manipulation software displays lines or text against a black or dark grey background and the maximum panel luminance for these areas is 1,500cd/m2. Again, there are various solutions including dimming or using luminaires with good optical control. The guidance documents mentioned above give the luminance limits for various scenarios. The manufacturers of all the luminaires we tested said the panels

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produce installations with a unified glare rating of less than 19. If you have any doubts, ask your supplier for the data to support their claim. Finally, we seem wedded (in the UK at least) to fixing luminaires at 2.4 or 3m centres. How do you know that the panel you choose will not create dark areas across the workspace? It is difficult to tell from the sales and technical literature because, in most cases, the data isn’t provided. Technical information costs money to produce and that’s not the name of the game for many panel suppliers. The solution is to calculate the values across the whole space using proprietary software. But who is going to take time to do that if the only topic under discussion is price? In our tests, we didn’t see much of a correlation between build quality, performance and price. Choose the panel that meets your lighting needs and those of your staff, and then look at the price. The price ranges given are based on approximate end user prices for a quantity of 50 non-dimmable versions without emergency or PIR sensor options. The ranges are: £ <£80, ££ £80-160, £££ £160-240, ££££ >£240. This market is viciously competitive but remember that energy cost savings from dimming the panel or a more efficient optic/light engine may well override any differences in the initial purchase price. The data we give here is based on results from the LIA Laboratories for the samples submitted by the manufacturers. The tests were conducted once the luminaires had stabilised. Thank you to LIA Labs for their help. O www.lialab.org.uk

B-WARE OF FIRE Part B of the Building Regulations is often overlooked when it comes to lighting design and luminaire layout. It refers to the spread of fire in buildings. Of particular relevance is the choice of diffuser material and whether it will burn or drip flaming material on to the occupants. In essence, the Part B document separates materials in to TP(a) and TP(b). The former are generally polycarbonate or ABS and there is no limit to their use in buildings. The TP(b) products include acrylic, PMMA and polystyrene. These products have constraints in terms of luminaire spacing and the amount of diffuser material as a percentage of floor area. Remember that escape routes such as corridors and foyers require luminaires that pass the flame test. Acrylic won’t pass.


REVIEWS 99

Reviewed: 600 x 600mm LED ceiling panels CREE LR22

AURORA VERSITILE

This is one of the most efficient panels we tested. It is side-lit with a remote driver. The rigid white aluminium frame has a satin powder coat finish. The frame appears seamless rather than the bevelled ‘picture frame’ effect seen on other products. The polycarbonate diffuser has a slight texture and the lit appearance is uniform at all viewing angles. It appears quite simple, but a lot of thought has gone into its design. As a result, it performs much better than similar products. This product was well packaged, with most

of the technical data and sales features clearly indicated, the panel well protected and the carton less than half the depth of some.

CCT 3919K CRI (Ra14) 82 OUTPUT 4,009 lm POWER 37W EFFICACY 110lm/Wcct POWER FACTOR 0.98 PRICE £

***** Great value

iGUZZINI iPLAN N266

This edge-lit panel is part of the iPlan family. It is constructed of aluminium and steel and the brushed anodised trim is to a high standard. The panel is less than 40mm deep, including the builtin gear. There are a large number of product varieties under the iPlan umbrella, some of which are considerably more efficient than others. Unfortunately, the only sample we could obtain in time for testing was one of the lower rated ones. The microprism panel has a diffusing film behind it so the unit maintains a UGR less than 19. A minor niggle is that the

The last time we reviewed ceiling panels, we gave the Cree CR22 five stars. This LR22 is slightly different but still great quality. It is a shallow troffer with a 400mm square central luminous panel. Cree uses its own LEDs (CRI >90) and driver, so there is no question about the high efficacy, quality or longevity. Its TrueWhite technology ensures colour consistency of the LEDs through life. Unlike many others, this

panel comes with a full technical specification in the box. CCT 3951K CRI (Ra14) 93 OUTPUT 3,466 lm POWER 33W EFFICACY 104 lm/Wcct POWER FACTOR 0.97 PRICE ££

****

Quality performance

INTEGRAL LED

LEDs are maybe a bit too close to the diffuser around the edge. You can just see a thin line of light (you could call it a halo) next to the aluminium trim, but this may be a counsel of perfection. CCT 2935K CRI (Ra14) 81 OUTPUT 3,840 lm POWER 47W EFFICACY 82 lm/Wcct POWER FACTOR 0.97 PRICE £££

*** Beautifully made

Integral recently celebrated 25 years in business. Earlier this year, science minister Greg Clark MP opened its lighting laboratory and test house. The LIA Labs tests show that this panel emitted over 5,100 lm. In delivered lumens per watt, it is a third more efficient than many of its competitors. The backlit panel is solidly constructed of white, powder-coated lightweight steel and has a polycarbonate diffuser. The panel has clear installation instructions and technical data. There’s even a cone diagram showing the illumination level

at various mounting heights. It may be a bit plain Jane in its appearance but it’s a simple, no-nonsense unit with huge light output at a competitive price. CCT 3963K CRI (Ra14) 83 OUTPUT 5,121 lm POWER 40W EFFICACY 128 lm/Wcct POWER FACTOR 0.96 PRICE £

*****

Low cost, high output and integrity

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100 REVIEWS 600 x 600mm LED CEILING PANELS

Reviewed: 600 x 600mm LED ceiling panels KOSNIC KURVE 2

OPPLE GRILLE

This is a rock solid steel troffer, backlit-type unit with the driver inside the body. The matt white top reflector is a gull wing shape and there are two perforated blades. From certain angles you can see a line of LEDs through the blades which creates an attractive sparkle. To me, the central prismatic panel appears a little bright, but this is a matter of personal taste – the unit has a rated UGR of <19 for just about all

Opple is the largest global lighting company you haven’t heard of. It sells in 50 countries and its LED panels are sold through various UK wholesalers. It has four LED panels. Some look like a traditional fluorescent luminaire. The Grille, that we tested, has 16 deep tetrahedral cells with a bright 50mm square, diffused light engine in each. The body is made of powder-coated steel. The deep cells mean there is a 55-degree cut-off so you can achieve a UGR of <16 in most

configurations. The output and efficacy were the lowest of the panels we tested. CCT 4102K CRI (Ra14) 84 OUTPUT 3,254 lm POWER 44W EFFICACY 74 lm/Wcct POWER FACTOR 0.99 PRICE ££££

***

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CCT 3965K CRI (Ra14) 84 OUTPUT 4,405 lm POWER 38W EFFICACY 114 lm/Wcct POWER FACTOR 0.97 PRICE ££

***

A wide choice of styles

TRILUX BELVISO C1

RIDI ARKTIKME LED

Not all UGR 19 fittings look the same. This one has a dropped PMMA diffuser that spreads light on the ceiling so there is less contrast between the panel and the background. There is a rather funky prismed central strip that sparkles and changes appearance when viewed from different angles. The literature shows that in a typical 2.7m-high office, 3m spacings are possible with >80 per cent uniformity. It has a rigid steel body with back-lit LEDs and

applications. Less attractive, you can see a bright patch of LEDs behind the 50mm diffusing panels.

built-in driver. We tested the 45W version, but there is now a 37W version with the same output. CCT 4079K CRI (Ra14) 84 OUTPUT 4,293 lm POWER 41W EFFICACY 106 lm/Wcct POWER FACTOR 0.97 PRICE ££

*****

A solid, professional unit

It is the optical panel that sets this apart from the rest. The main body of the panel is constructed of microprisms. Also, there is a 6mm wide frosted strip around the edge of the panel. This catches the light and gives a soft glow to the perimeter. The effect of having two borders is to make the fitting less ‘slab-like’ than its competitors. The body is white powder-coated steel with LEDs on the top surface to backlight the prismatic panel.

We measured the efficacy as 118lm/W, even higher than Trilux’s claim of 110lm/W. CCT 4031K CRI (Ra14) 83 OUTPUT 4,216 lm POWER 36W EFFICACY 118 lm/Wcct POWER FACTOR 0.95 PRICE £££

****

The appearance sets it apart


REVIEWS 101

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QVIS BOREAL

Qvis is known principally for its tracking devices – anything from a lost pet to a smartphone, lone worker monitoring to military applications. Its lighting division is fairly new and Boreal is the premium product in a range of flat panels. It is slim, less than 10mm thick, with a quality brand driver on the back. There is a polycarbonate diffuser with a white powder-coated aluminium frame. Visually, the lit panel

is uniformly bright from all viewing angles. CCT 4022K CRI (Ra14) 85 OUTPUT 4,046 lm POWER 40W EFFICACY 101 lm/Wcct POWER FACTOR 0.99 PRICE £

***

Slim, uniform and inexpensive

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VERBATIM

This aluminium panel is less than 14mm thick but has the rigidity of many steel troffer units. Most slim panels have a frosted diffuser giving a rather ‘flat’ appearance when switched on. This unit has small crystal-clear pyramidal prisms to spread the light giving it a much sharper, almost 3D, appearance. Behind the prisms is a Mitsubishi light guide (Verbatim is a Mitsubishi brand). Other panel manufacturers use the guide, so it could be seen as a nod to the real thing. Verbatim says its panel is flicker-free, and that this is a differentiator from competitors’ products –

unfortunately we didn’t measure flicker so we can’t compare to the other products we reviewed. CCT 3886K CRI (Ra14) 82 OUTPUT 4,078 lm POWER 46W EFFICACY 89 lm/Wcct POWER FACTOR 0.96 PRICE £

***

Sparkling appearance

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102 REVIEWED NOVILED ALFA 600X600MM LED CEILING PANEL

REVIEWED:

Noviled Alfa’s 600 x 600 panel Dr Gareth John investigates a new model of LED panel

NOVILED ALFA 600 X 600MM LED CEILING PANEL

F

irst of all, hello to those of you who’ve followed my columns over in their old home of Lighting magazine. Every month I pick a product that’s been tested in our photometric lab in Cheltenham, run my eye over it and explain why it’s interesting, technically innovative and worth having in lighting schemes you might be planning. Over the year and a half that I’ve been doing this, I’ve been writing exclusively about LED-based luminaires, to the extent that I think people have started to think of me as ‘that LED guy’. Really I’m more of an optics and spectroscopy expert rather than an LED expert. The reason I cover so many LED-based luminaires is because that’s what people send me. This is partly because I’ve got a reputation as an LED expert, but it’s mostly a function of where the industry is going. We’ve all been to the trade shows and seen that almost every product on show is an LED luminaire of some sort. But we shouldn’t neglect the continued usefulness of other light sources (and if anyone out there has an induction luminaire that they’d like me to review, do get in touch). This month’s product is the Noviled 600 x 600mm ceiling panel. To explain why I like this luminaire, I’m going to talk a little about discomfort glare, luminance limits and why this is important. Are you sitting uncomfortably? Discomfort glare is a metric that I’m sure most of us are aware of so I won’t take up too much space talking about it. It occurs when the luminance of a light is high enough compared with its surroundings

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The Alfa’s light distribution follows guidance but there are no sharp cut-offs

for the lighting to cause visual discomfort for the people viewing it. This month I’m going to talk about luminance limits, which tend to apply to the specific case of office lighting. One of the problems that confronts lighting designers in office spaces is the reflection of high luminance objects in computer screens. Such reflections can be difficult because they mask the display or distract attention from it. The guidance on this has been around for quite some time. I refer to the Society of Light and Lighting’s Code for Lighting and Lighting Guide 3 (LG3). The values I’m quoting here are also in the European standard EN 12464-1 on lighting for indoor workspaces. LG3 and the standard both say that the luminance should not be greater than 3,000cd/m2 at luminaire distribution angles above 65 degrees. This value is a recommendation, not a hard and fast legal requirement. Unfortunately it is often taken as such, as


REVIEWED 103

Abrupt changes in luminance must be avoided in office lighting schemes

of high efficacy, good colour and high light output. As I’m sure we’ve all seen, this is a common approach where the manufacturer creates a thin, flat metal panel and mounts white LEDs in series around the edges. The panel is then covered with a white diffuser to spread the light out and the driver for the LEDs is mounted externally, so it can be hidden in the ceiling space when the fixture is installed. The NoviLED panel is an exceptional example of this technology.

the guidance document to the health and safety regulations states in its schedule of minimum requirements that people should treat LG3 as the point of reference for lighting. This creates a problem for luminaire designers, because it means that you have to create an office light source that stays below 3,000cd/m2 at all angles above 65 degrees – and this isn’t something you can’t be sure of until you’ve had it photometrically tested. Unintended consequences We’ve all seen the consequences of this. Some designers try to get round it by making office lights with sharp cut-off angles, but this makes for highly directional schemes that make people feel like they’re working in a cave with a hole in the roof. I’ve tested ceiling luminaires where the manufacturer has been making frantic changes during testing (adding baffles, taking parts of the casing off) to try to bring down the luminance values. All of which is against the spirit of the original recommendations, which state that sharp changes in luminance distribution should be avoided. So, it’s a pleasure to see someone create an LED-based 600 x 600mm ceiling luminaire that ticks the boxes of even luminance distribution and luminance limits while satisfying the usual metrics

The Noviled Alfa in numbers The high lumen output and excellent efficacy compare with some of the best I’ve seen, and the high power factor adds to the excellent power efficiency. The colour is excellent, with the CCT of 3038K being perfectly acceptable for office environments. The low UGR of 20 means that this luminaire is well suited to all but the most demanding close-up work. Excellent luminaire design has kept the luminance below 3,000cd/m2, well within the specified guidelines. The diffuser ensures that there are no sharp cut-offs of the light distribution, as we can see in the polar plot (left).

**** Great lumen output, excellent efficacy and high power factor combined with a reflector design that keeps glare under control

O Dr Gareth John is technical director of Photometric Testing, an independent lighting test laboratory that specialises in the photometric assessment of LEDs, luminaires, lamps and displays. www.photometrictesting.co.uk

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PRODUCTS 105

WORK

WONDERS

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BRIGHTER AND SMARTER INDOOR LED SENSOR LIGHT Steinel’s SensorLight RS LED A1 is for indoor applications such as corridors, halls, stairwells and bathrooms. The 11W sensor-switched light has a 360-degree sensor hidden behind the glass, and responds to movement and changes in light levels. Once motion has been detected, it switches the light on, then off again after a pre-selected time.

A selection of the latest LED fittings that will transform your workspace

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SMARTER OFFICE LIGHT FROM ZUMTOBEL Zumtobel’s Sequence luminaire has a modular design that makes it possible for lighting to be personalised and controlled. It’s flexible enough to deal with workplaces that have different lighting requirements at different times. Sequence incorporates direct light from LEDs, and incorporates others behind an opal diffuser. Each linear luminaire contains either 8 or 14 modular sections with optics chosen to put the light where it’s needed. The modules are divided into groups with separate Dali addresses, so different parts of the luminaire can be dimmed independently.

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SLEEK SURFACE FITTING TARGETS MULTIPLE APPLICATIONS Luxonic’s Alterlux LED surface luminaires have a range of outputs. The fitting can integrate with the ceiling because it is only 90mm deep and has a simple design. There are square light fittings in two sizes and a linear option, all with a high transmissive acrylic satin lens. A recessed version is also available to fit in shallow recesses, thanks to the product’s remote driver. Efficacy is up to 109 luminaire lumens per circuit watt.

LINETIK SUPPLIES LIGHT WHERE IT’S NEEDED The slim body of the freestanding Linetik LED luminaire has a cross-section of 24 x 24mm and a compact base. The optical system delivers light where it is needed without glare. The reflector for the direct light output delivers uniform illumination over the workplace. An extrusion lens handles the indirect output, spreading light over a wide ceiling area. Direct and indirect lighting elements can be individually controlled, and a motion sensor turns the luminaire off when workers are absent.

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TAMLITE’S LED BATTEN REPLACES FLUORESCENT TUBES Tamlite Lighting is targeting industrial and retail applications with its Micro LED batten. It has the same glare-free light quality as a fluorescent batten, but with the efficiency advantages of LEDs. The product uses Philips Fortimo LED Line LED modules and efficiency exceeds 90 lm/W. Precise optical control of light distribution minimises glare. Bespoke optics create narrow (35-degree) and wide (80-degree) beams. The product emits a cool-white light (4000K).

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THE GLOBAL LANGUAGE OF LIGHT LIGHTFAIR.COM

NEW YORK, NY USA

Javits Center PRE-CONFERENCE

May 3 – 4, 2015 PHOTO CREDITS (1) WALL ILLUMINATION FANTASY OF PIOLE HIMEJI, HIMEJI-SHI, JAPAN | LIGHTING DESIGN: UCHIHARA CREATIVE LIGHTING DESIGN INC + TAKENAKA CORPORATION | PHOTOGRAPHY © MASAKI KAWAGUCHI (2) BRANZ KOSHIEN, NISHINOMIYA, JAPAN | LIGHTING DESIGN: AKARI+DESIGN ASSOCIATES | PHOTOGRAPHY © HIROYUKI TSUDA

TRADE SHOW & CONFERENCE

May 5 – 7, 2015


PRODUCTS 107

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HIGH-SPEC WAVESTAR FROM MHA MHA Lighting’s WaveStar LED luminaire is for high-specification offices, classrooms and function rooms where glare should be minimal. The WaveStar emits clean, bright light to create bright, uniform illumination for task or teaching area. The 43W fitting provides 76 lm/W and its expected lifetime at L70 is 109,000 hours. The housing is as aesthetically pleasing as any modular recessed louvered luminaire on the market and the LED light engine delivers maximum energy savings and the best lit environment possible.

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VERSATILE STREAMLINER LOOKS GOOD FRONT OR BACK OF HOUSE Kingfisher’s Streamliner linear LED IP65 luminaire is ideal for a range of applications from back of house to car parks and circulation areas. It has a stylish aesthetic that means it can be used front of house too. The lumen package reaches 4,660 lm and power options are 45 and 70W. Light distribution is both comfortable and uniform and the fitting can be wall, ceiling or pendant mounted. With emergency and dimming options and a special glass transport version, the Streamliner is a versatile lighting product.

CHANNEL’S PINTO TRIO Channel has launched a trio of 4000K white LED IP20-rated downlights in 12W (970 lm), 20W (1600 lm) and 30W (2500 lm) versions. They are suited for commercial areas such as hotels and restaurants, galleries and office spaces. Pinto downlights are a direct replacement for CFL 18W and 26W PL downlights, and are an eco-friendly luminaire option. Users benefit from substantial energy savings. Installation is simple with a quick-fit clip system and peace of mind can be further assured with an extended product warranty that can be procured online.

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FORCELED WITH PRISMATIC DIFFUSER AND BUILT-IN CONTROLS ForceLED from Thorn is a tough, waterproof and compact LED luminaire with an option to add controls. The IP66-rated product is dust and moisture proof, and is suitable for indoor car parks, warehouses, dry and cold storage, production areas and workshops. Its prismatic diffuser optimises light distribution from the LED source. ForceLED comes with the option of a built-in presence detector with wireless master and slave function. The single master sensor can control up to 99 slave luminaires.

LED LINEAR PROFILE RANGE FROM SLP (UK) SLP (UK) has developed two new LED linear profiles, the U33 Satine system and Z Modular. The U33 has been designed as a diffuser system for use with discrete LEDs and LED arrays. The U33 Satine profile transmits over 80 per cent of the incident light. The Z Modular is a wall washer designed to sit in an ordinary recessed ceiling fitting. It recycles wasted light to cover the dark zone between wall and ceiling. The U33 and Z Modular are manufactured using a continual extrusion process, and can be supplied in lengths tailored to customers’ requirements.

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108 JARGONBUSTER

LIGHTING

JARGON

People who work in lighting don’t half talk some gobbledygook. Here’s what they mean...

EXPLAINED

kWh

Dali

The kilowatt-hour is a unit of energy equal to 1,000 watt-hours. That’s what a 1,000W device uses in one hour – or what a 1W device uses in 1,000 hours. It’s the unit that your electricity bill is counted in.

The Digital Addressable Lighting Interface is a protocol for lighting controls and dimming agreed by major manufacturers. It is set out in technical standard IEC 62386, and promoted by the Dali working party, part of electrical manufacturers’ association ZVEI. Products that are compliant with Dali carry the Dali logo.

Black body locus The black body locus, or black body curve, is a line on a colour chart that tracks the different colours at which a ‘black body’ (a theoretical object that absorbs all energy) glows when heated. This is the range of colours you get from an incandescent source – from orangey white at lower temperatures to blueish white at higher temperatures. This is where the concept of ‘colour temperature’ (see right) comes from.

PIR Short for passive infrared. PIR sensors are electronic sensors that measure infrared light radiating from objects in their field of view. It can detect heat from objects that is undetectable by humans. PIR is one of the main technologies used for presence and absence detection, to turn lights on and off when people are or aren’t there.

CFL Popularly referred to as energysaving lamps, compact fluorescent lamps have a poor image because of perceived deficiencies in colour, power and the time it takes them to reach full output. But massive improvements have been made in all these areas thanks to substantial investment by the big lamp manufacturers.

CRI Short for colour-rendering index, CRI is the ability of a light source to show the colours of objects properly. Lamps with poor colour rendering will distort some colours, which may mean you end up with brown socks when you wanted green ones. The higher the CRI, on a 0-100 scale, the more accurately the lamp will show colours.

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JARGONBUSTER 109

Pulse-width modulation PWM is a technique used to control the power supplied to electrical devices such as LEDs. The supply voltage (and current) is switched on and off many times per second, and the average power delivered to the load can be varied by changing the proportion of the time the voltage is on. This technique can be used to dim LEDs.

COLOUR TEMPERATURE Colour temperature describes whether a light source appears ‘warm’ or ‘cool’ – indicated by the correlated colour temperature (CCT). Lamps with a warm appearance have a CCT of 2700-3000K, and are considered appropriate for domestic settings; cooler lamps might be 4000K, and are used more often in offices and retail. The higher the colour temperature, the ‘cooler’ the appearance. Don’t ask.

GaN-on-GaN

Esos

GaN-on-GaN refers to LEDs made of gallium nitride (GaN) on a substrate also made of gallium nitride, rather than on the usual sapphire or silicon carbide substrate. Blue LED inventor Shuji Nakamura says GaN-on-GaN is the next generation of LED, offering greater efficiency and better colour.

The Energy Savings Opportunity Scheme (Esos) is the UK government’s latest attempt to encourage energy efficiency among big organisations. It requires them to assess their energy consumption on a regular basis and consider measures to reduce it. But it doesn’t actually force them to do anything about it – that’s up to them.

Breeam rating

Lux

Breeam stands for the Building Research Establishment’s Environmental Assessment Method, and it’s the industry-leading environmental rating system for buildings. More than 200,000 buildings have been awarded Breeam assessment ratings since the scheme was launched in 1990. Breeam uses established benchmarks to evaluate a building’s design, construction and use.

Lux is the international unit of illuminance – a measure of how much luminous flux (in lumens) is spread over a given area (in square metres). In other words, it tells you how much light is arriving at a surface. 1 lm/m2 equals 1 lx. Multiply an illuminance figure in lux by an amount of time in hours and you have a measure of exposure in lux hours – useful if you’re looking after delicate objects or surfaces that can’t be exposed to too much light.

CHECK OUT OUR BRAND NEW WEBSITE FOR ALL THE LATEST ON LIGHTING IN YOUR REGION AND YOUR SECTOR

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110 LUX VIDEOS

The latest

LUX VIDEOS

Lux’s YouTube channel has racked up more than a million views. Here are our latest workplace lighting videos

THE ARTIFICIAL SKYLIGHT YOU WON’T BELIEVE IS REAL More than a million viewers have watched this mind-boggling video about CoeLux’s groundbreaking artificial skylight. See it for yourself and hear what CoeLux’s creator has to say

bit.ly/coelux2014

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WHAT SMART LIGHTING CAN DO FOR YOU Experts discuss how smart lighting can help you save energy and create better, safer spaces to be in bit.ly/smartlights

PROJECT REPORT: CHELSEA AND WESTMINSTER HOSPITAL How one London hospital has slashed costs and brightened its wards with LED lighting bit.ly/chelsea1014

PROJECT REPORT: BATH UNIVERSITY Bath University has installed the most high-tech lighting control system of any estate of its kind bit.ly/bath0413

PROJECT REPORT: WESTERN TRANSIT SHED Hoare Lea’s King’s Cross office has taken the possibilities of lighting controls to another level bit.ly/western0714

HOW CAN WE LIGHT WORKPLACES MORE EFFECTIVELY? Estate managers, lighting designers and manufacturers combine their expertise in office lighting bit.ly/commercial1013

THE UNIQUE CHALLENGES OF LIGHTING FOR HEALTHCARE Lighting technology can play a unique role in healthcare. Industry experts discuss the challenges. bit.ly/healthcarelighting

THE LIGHT THAT EARNS YOU MONEY This UK invention stays on when the power goes off and earns you money from your energy supplier bit.ly/moneylight

LUXLIVE 2015: WHAT VISITORS SAY Find out why LuxLive has become an unmissable event for lighting buyers and specifiers bit.ly/ll2015visitors


REFLECTING YOUR VISION NEW 2015 CATALOGUE NOW AVAILABLE INCLUDES:

TRIUMPH ACTIVATE DIMMABLE FIRE RATED DOWNLIGHT

VEGA IP65 LED OUTDOOR BULKHEADS

VIBE COMMERCIAL LED STRIPLIGHTS

WWW.LEDGROUPROBUS.COM


112 EVENTS

UPCOMING

EVENTS 23 April 2015 Emergency Lighting Conference

DON’T MEET US HERE

MISS

LONDON, UK The UK’s first conference specifically on emergency lighting examines all the important responsibilities that come with managing an Emergency Lighting emergency lighting system. Expert speakers CONFERENCE 2015 will answer questions about high-risk areas, self-testing, remote monitoring and LED systems. Cavendish Conference Centre, London www.emergencylightingconference.com

MEET

3-4 MAY 2015 US HERE Lightfair International For more than 25 years Lightfair International has been the premier US show for lighting design and technology innovations. Taking place this year in New York, Lightfair is the world’s largest annual architectural and commercial lighting trade show. New York City, US www.lightfair.com 21 MAY 2015 MEET Lighting for Large US HERE Lighting Large Estates Conference Estates CONFERENCE 2015 Are you responsible for a large number of fittings across different buildings? If it’s proving a maintenance and energy headache, this special conference will give you the answers to key challenges, such as how to manage the assets to your best advantage, and cutting energy costs. Cavendish Conference Centre, London www.lightingforlargeestates.com MEET 27-29 MAY 2015 US The Sparc International HERE Lighting Event 2015 The Sparc International Lighting Event 2015 offers world class speakers on topic lighting subjects and the latest in lighting technology. Taking place

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at the Sydney Exhibition Centre on the harbour foreshore, and featuring exhibitors from both Australia and overseas, Sparc 2015 is Australia’s premier lighting event. Sydney, Australia www.sparcevent.org 9-12 JUNE 2015 Guangzhou International Lighting Exhibition Guangzhou International Lighting Exhibition will celebrate its 20th anniversary with cuttingedge lighting technologies emphasising quality, sustainability, human-centric lighting, wireless connectivity and much more. Guangzhou, China http://www.light.messefrankfurt.com.cn/ MEET 24 JUNE 2015 US Lighting for Rail HERE Conference Lighting for Rail CONFERENCE 2015 The current wave of investment in the UK’s rail network represents a once-in-ageneration opportunity to upgrade to world-class lighting. In this one-day conference, we’ll help you do just that. London, UK www.raillightingconference.com

UK’S BIGGEST LIGHTING SHOW MEET 18-19 NOVEMBER 2015 US HERE LuxLive 2015 The UK’s biggest and best lighting show is back again. Come and see the latest in low-energy hospitality lighting solutions from hundreds of exhibitors, and hear from experts about how to upgrade your lights while keeping that crucial look and feel. ExCeL London, UK www.luxlive.co.uk


Abhay Wadhwa Alberto Pasetti Aleksandra Stratimirovic Allan Ruberg Dr. Amardeep Dugar Dr. Anadi Martel Andrew Sainsbury Angus Farquhar Anne Bay Anne Bureau Arne Hülsmann Arve Olsen Astrid Poulsen Athanassios Danilof Dr. Aurélien David Björn Meyer Brett Anderson Carlo D’Alesio Dr. Carlo Volf Carolina de Camillis Cehao Yu Cesar Castro Chris Precht Cinzia Ferrara Claire Hamill Prof. Dr. Claude Demers Claudia Paz Dr. Craig Bernecker Deborah Burnett Eik Lykke Nielsen Dr. Elettra Bordonaro Fabio Aramini Gillian Treacy Prof. Dr. Günther Leising Iain Ruxton Ilaria Abbondandolo Inger Erhardtsen Isabel Sanchez Sevillano Isabel Villar James Benya James Duff Johann Gielen Prof. Dr. John Mardaljevic Jonathan Rush Dr. Karolina Zielinska-Dabkowska Katja Schiebler Dr. Katrin Müllner Kerem Ali Asfuroglu Dr. Kevin Houser Klaus Obermaier Lars Oliver Grobe Dr. Linnaea Tillett Dr. Lone Stidsen Mahdis Aliasgari Majid Miri Malcolm Innes Marco Palandella Marina Silkina Marinella Patetta Martin Valentine Maurice Asso Michael Grubb Dr. Michael Royer Nathan Savage Nitika Agrawal Nona Schulte-Römer Oliver Stefani Pablo Martinez-Diez Paul Boken Paul Traynor Pernille Krieger Peter Raynham Piergiovanni Ceregioli Rachael Nicholls Roberto Corradini Roger Narboni Roslyn Leslie Shuyu Chen Dr. Simon Simos Stephanie Denholm Susanna Antico Tapio Rosenius Tomasz Klimek Vellachi Ganesan Veronika Mayerböck Prof. Dr. Werner Osterhaus Ya-Hui Cheng

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Rome Professional Lighting Design Convention www.pld-c.com

28. – 31. October, 2015

- an educated decision 71 paper presentations More than 1500 attendees expected Latest know-how and research findings Exhibition of leading manufacturers Gala dinner and PLD Recognition Award Marketplace for the PLD community Excursions Pre-convention meetings Cities’ Forum Experience rooms Social events The Challenge: Round IV Self-running poster presentations

PLDC is a brand of the


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Contact Batwing at thebelfry@luxmagazine.co.uk

6

OFFICE SPACES THAT MAKE US SCRATCH OUR HEADS THE MEETING ROOM Google’s London office in Old Street is at the forefront of the trendy office movement, but just what did the architect imagine Google executives would be discussing in a tiny, pink cave?

THE ‘WORK’ SPACE This room in The Hub in Westminster is probably called something buzzword-tastic like a ‘talent incubator’. On the plus side, you can grow lovely tomatoes whlie you’re working.

THE ENTRANCE

THE HALLWAY The crème of Google’s workforce must be hiding inside the union jack box behind the fishnet fittings. Watch out – any second a herd of bearded hipsters could emerge, bouncing down the hall on space hoppers.

THE BOARDROOM What is it about ping pong in offices? Guess it beats a budget meeting. Don’t worry, the table was ethically sourced and the balls are free range.

www.luxreview.com

This is the office of a company called Karmarama. Looking for the accounts department? Easy – just head through the psychedelic tunnel with the colour-changing lights, then wiggle past the giant, inflatable Buddha, ignoring the weird growth in his crotch and his invite to play ping pong, and you’re there.

THE… PLAYGROUND? Oh, come on, Google. It’s bad enough that the rest of us have to sit at normal desks and eat our lunch under tungsten tubes with no access to a ping pong table. Can you give us just a tiny sign that your employees are expected to act like grownups at least some of the time they’re in the office? Failing that, have you got any vacancies?


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Das Licht.

Starbrick design by Olafur Eliasson www.starbrick.info

www.zumtobel.com

Lux Special - Office, Healthcare & Education  

The latest news, analysis, case studies and how-to guides on energy-efficient lighting for offices, healthcare and education

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