FEBRUARY 2015 | ISSUE 42 | www.luxmagazine.co.uk | www.luxreview.com
Incandescent lamps are banned. So why are they everywhere? We reveal the energy-efﬁcient alternatives to the classic squirrel cage
A lot of cheap products that enter the market do not meet the required standards”
TRIED & TESTED: LED TAPE
Lux tests out the best LED options for linear and cove lighting
O LIGHTING LESSONS FROM TRIPADVISOR O EMERGENCY LIGHTING: HOW NOT TO GO TO JAIL
This one-day event is suitable for those in the retail, leisure and hospitality industry with job titles including estates managers, facilities managers, property managers, energy managers, consulting engineers and designers.
LO LIRA PAB AN JU
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Create spaces your
THURSDAY 12 MARCH 2015 CAVENDISH CONFERENCE CENTRE, LONDON, UK Organised by
in association with
Register for a FREE place by contacting Fergus Lynch on 020 3283 4387 | firstname.lastname@example.org
FREE! To end users
Lighting for Retail and Hospitality
customers will love! Return custom is crucial for retail, hotel and restaurants – and the right lighting is the easiest way to achieve it. In this special conference, we’ll show you how to use light to enhance brand values, create customer engagement and boost sales. You’ll learn: O Why colour rendering is crucial …and how some high-street names are getting it wrong O How to build a brand How Pizza Express, Holiday Inn and Hollister reinforce their image O What are the easy wins to cut energy The simple changes that can make big savings O How smart lighting can boost sales Recent research shows how to inﬂuence the sale
Register for a FREE place by contacting Fergus Lynch on 020 3283 4387 or email@example.com
For more information, visit www.lightingforretailandhospitality.com
Intense whites and rich colours CrispWhite is a unique concept in retail lighting that makes whites appear whiter than white, yet still gives colours a warm and saturated intensity. A new colour experience that will wow customers with attractive displays and make merchandise impossible to resist. How? By using our latest technology innovation to create exceptional rendering of whites and colours with a single light source. Experience the CrispWhite technology through the new Philips StyliD CrispWhite, ProAir CrispWhite or LuxSpace Accent CrispWhite luminaires, with Fortimo SLM CrispWhite modules and LUXEON CoB LEDs inside, combined with intelligent Xitanium drivers.
Discover how weâ€™re creating the CrispWhite effect using the latest Philips technology www.philips.com/crispwhite
EDITOR’S COMMENT 05
Make yourself at home
ROBERT BAIN EDITOR
KATHRINE ANKE DEPUTY EDITOR
elcome to this special edition of Lux, x looking at lighting for hospitality and leisure. We’ve brought together the latest and greatest hospitality sector case studies including top hotels, restaurants, bars, sports venues and more. We’ve got advice from the experts, and in-depth reviews of the latest exciting products. This sector-focused special edition is part of our new way of doing things here at Lux. x Why? Because our readers tell us that lighting is not just lighting. Lighting a hotel foyer is a completely different challenge to lighting a factory or upgrading a town’s streetlights. Our readers work in all these sectors, and they want information that’s relevant to them. Sending out one monthly print magazine to our diverse audience around the world was no longer the best way to deliver this. The natural home for targeted, timely information is online. So we’ve expanded our website, Luxreview.com, to cover 10 lighting sectors, letting you focus on what matters to you. Luxreview.com is now the main home of Lux: x it’s where you’ll ﬁnd all the latest breaking news, exclusive analysis, standout case studies, product reviews, practical advice and video reports. Whether you work in hospitality, healthcare or industrial lighting, in Doncaster or Dubai, you’ll ﬁnd content that’s relevant to your sector and your part of the world. For those of you in the UK,
ALAN TULLA TECHNICAL EDITOR
MARK HALPER ONLINE NEWS EDITOR
RAY MOLONY PUBLISHER
GORDON ROUTLEDGE CONTRIBUTOR
DAVE TILLEY CONTRIBUTOR
LIZ PECK CONTRIBUTOR
FEBRUARY 2015 | ISSUE 42 | www.luxmagazine.co.uk | www.luxreview.com
Incandescent lamps are banned. So why are they everywhere? We reveal the energy-efﬁcient alternatives to the classic squirrel cage
A lot of cheap products that enter the market do not meet the required standards”
TRIED & TESTED: LED TAPE
Lux tests out the best LED options for linear and cove lighting
O LIGHTING LESSONS FROM TRIPADVISOR O EMERGENCY LIGHTING: HOW NOT TO GO TO JAIL
Cover: Incandescent lamps... they’re everywhere!
Luxmagazine.co.uk is now the UK section of Luxreview.com. Sign up to our sector-focused newsletters to get regular email updates (there’s one speciﬁcally on hospitality and retail, as well as regional ones for the UK, Australia and the Middle East), and use the bar at the top of the homepage to navigate to the sectors and regions you’re interested in. But don’t worry, print’s not dead yet. We’ll be publishing six special editions of Lux throughout 2015 – starting with the one you’re holding now – and covering all sectors of lighting. In this issue, it’s the world of hospitality and leisure lighting. Future issues will put the spotlight on sectors including retail, transport, industrial and workplace lighting,. And for the very latest, don’t forget to visit Luxreview.com regularly, register for our newsletters and check out our YouTube channel, where hundreds of viewers a day are watching our hospitality and leisure lighting videos. Enjoy! Robert Bain Editor
Upcoming Lux specials Retail – March Ofﬁce, healthcare and education – April Lighting technology – May Transport, outdoor and industrial – June LuxLive preview – October
– For us, every year is the international year of light ROBERT BAIN Editor firstname.lastname@example.org 020 3283 4387 07720 677 538
PETER ROWLEDGE Commercial director email@example.com 020 3283 4387 07740 110261
JAMES POUNTNEY Sector marketing specialist (OEM, controls, emergency) firstname.lastname@example.org 020 3283 4387
KATHRINE ANKER Deputy editor email@example.com 020 3283 4387
ROBERTA BONTEMPO Sector marketing specialist (retail, hospitality and leisure, residential) firstname.lastname@example.org 020 3283 4387
MIRIAM HIER Events manager email@example.com 07882 224682
RAY MOLONY Publisher firstname.lastname@example.org 020 3283 4387 07834 990577
ANDREW BOUSFIELD Sector marketing specialist (industrial, outdoor, transport) andrew.bousﬁeld@luxmagazine.co.uk 07713 567290
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Published by Revo Media Partners 3 More London Riverside London SE1 2RE Printed by The Manson Group St Albans 01727 848440 www.mansongroup.co.uk ISSN 2045-7456 © Revo Media No part of this publication may be reproduced without the written permission of the publishers. The opinions expressed in this publication are not the official views of the LIA. All rights reserved. Lux magazine is a controlled circulation magazine, available to selected executives with interests in lighting, who fall within the publisher’s terms of control. For those outside these terms, annual subscription is £70 including postage in the UK, EUR90 for the EU and US120 RoW. See www.luxmagazine.co.uk for details.
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06 IN THIS ISSUE
IN THIS ISSUE 07
This year’s Super Bowl stadium has gone LED. Lux ﬁnds out why Page 78 www.luxreview.com
08 IN THIS ISSUE
IN THIS ISSUE 09
Our verdict on the skylight that looks real, but isnâ€™t Page 95 www.luxreview.com
6 Issue 01 2015 Features
News and views News Your views Opinion Ray Molony Gordon Routledge Interview: Ian Odendaal Interview: Graeme Bright Named and shamed Batwing
14 16 18 22 24 26 28 85 114
LEDs have progressed tremendously since this hotel was designed” IAN ODENDAAL, ROSEWOOD LONDON
HOSPITALITY LIGHTING: 10 BIG TRENDS 12 A look at the big trends affecting the sector
EMERGENCY LIGHTING – HOW TO STAY OUT OF JAIL
HOSPITALITY SECTOR OVERVIEW
You should never neglect your emergency lighting – turn to page 60 to ﬁnd out why
32 We take the pulse of hospitality lighting and look at how it’s changing with the rise of casual dining
CONFERENCE PREVIEW: RETAIL AND HOSPITALITY LIGHTING
Don’t miss our conference in London on 12 March
PROJECT: HAM YARD HOTEL, LONDON 39
LIGHTING LESSONS FROM TRIPADVISOR 66 Punters are giving their views on hospitality lighting online, and it ain’t always pretty
CONTROLS IN HOSPITALITY
PROJECT: PONTE 16 CASINO, MACAU
CONFERENCE PREVIEW: SMART LIGHTING CONTROLS
HOW TO CREATE A WARM WELCOME Ralph Peake explains how to get light right
Are your hotel’s lights keeping your guests awake at night?
The designers at this unique London hotel were clever with light – Luxx learns how
How to avoid infuriating your guests
Luxx gets the facts on the major LED retroﬁt at this lavish Macau casino
BIODYNAMIC LIGHT IN HOTELS
Our conference will demystify lighting controls 53
75 ...all Britain’s hotels went LED? We do the maths
66 Hands on LED LIGHTING FOR STADIUMS
Are LEDs ready for the world’s major stadiums? Luxx asseses the latest technology and projects
Lux’s mysterious Lighting Spy travels the world looking for crimes against lighting
COVER STORY RETRO LAMPS
Reviewed: CoeLux New products Jargonbuster Upcoming events
Reviewed: Soraa lamp
Reviewed: LED tape
95 101 108 112
Introducing the energy-efficient alternatives to trendy incandescent lamps
WHY THE WAY WE RECYCLE LIGHTS IS CHANGING
Liz Peck on rules and regs 82 Design clinic: garden restaurants 56 Design clinic: lift lobbies 58 Reviewed: Soraa lamps 88 Reviewed: LED tape 91
The rules on waste electrical equipment are changing to take account of the LED revolution
110 The latest and most popular hospitality lighting videos on Lux’s YouTube channel
10 big trends in
Hotel and restaurant operators strive to differentiate themselves from their competitors, so it pays to be aware of the trends that are inﬂuencing lighting design in hospitality 1
INEFFICIENCY IS IN
The more the lighting industry forges ahead with new technologies, the more designers fetishise the old stuff. Incandescent lamps may be out of favour with governments and manufacturers, but they’re massively in fashion in swanky bars, cafes and hotels – particularly ‘squirrel cage’ lamps with the zig-zag ﬁlaments. They’re supposed to have been phased out, but in reality you can still get them, supposedly for ‘industrial’ or decorative use. They look nice if you like that sort of thing, but they’re eating up bags of energy. OUTLOOK: See page 97 for how you can get the incandescent look with greener alternatives
ENERGY-SAVING LED RETROFITS
Decorative incandescent may be in, but for a lot of venues, halogen is out. Big hotel chains, pub owners and cafes are replacing their GU10 and MR16 halogen lamps with LEDs as a quick and easy way to save on energy and maintenance. Today’s LED lamps offer good light quality and quick paybacks, often with the reassurance of robust warranties or maintenance contracts, so it’s a fairly safe decision to make. OUTLOOK: Loads of venues have already gone LED but there are plenty left – this trend will continue
LIGHT FOR HEALTH
It is increasingly widely understood that the right light helps us work, rest and play by inﬂuencing our circadian rhythms – our body clocks. And nowhere is this more important than in hospitality settings. But for all the talk about circadian lighting in hotels, there are precious few examples of it really happening. London’s Hotel Rafayel has some suites with dynamic lighting to alleviate jetlag. Or, if you’ve got £50,000 ($76,000) to spare, there’s the CoeLux skylight (see page 95), which simulates the sun. This trend has yet to go mainstream, although the cost barrier to such technologies is coming down. But beware: some systems are more circadian than others. Changing colour temperature doesn’t necessarily mean the light has been properly tuned to provide the right amount of blue that our body clocks look out for. OUTLOOK: Biodynamic lighting is a long way from being the norm. But it will get there
Controls are the next big thing in lighting after LEDs, and the potential to create smart, connected lighting is only just being realised. Not only can you slash your electricity costs by turning lights off
when the sun is shining or there’s nobody there, controls can add atmosphere to your venues, and even add pizzazz to events venues with a splash of colour. But, my goodness, are controls confusing. Manufacturers would have you believe they’re going to make your life incredibly simple, but be prepared to be bombarded with confusing acronyms and clunky interfaces. The light switch is not dead yet. OUTLOOK: Controls is already booming, but to go bigger, they need to get simpler
INTEGRATING LIGHT INTO DESIGN
Lighting designers are desperate for light to be considered at an earlier stage and integrated into architecture and interior design. New technology makes this easier to do – and the effects ever more striking. London’s Ham Yard Hotel (see page 39), shortlisted for a Lux Award in 2014, has interspersed book-shaped lights with the books on its bookshelves. OUTLOOK: Lighting are ﬁnally starting to get their way on this one
COLOUR – APPLY WITH CARE
Coloured lighting has always divided opinion – especially if it actually changes colour. It’s here to stay, but we’re learning to use it in subtler and more sophisticated ways. It’s not so common to light stuff in colour-changing garish hues just because you can, and venue operators are starting to use it better. That’s not to say there aren’t still examples of colour used badly. OUTLOOK: We’ll still be enamoured with colourchangey LEDs for a while. Then we’ll calm down
LIGHTS WHERE THEY NEVER USED TO BE
Ever heard of the Jevons paradox? It’s the idea that, as we learn to use a resource more efﬁciently, we end up using more of
it instead of less. So, because LEDs cost less and less to buy and run, we just ﬁnd new ways of using them. In France, where efforts are underway to cut energy use, dark sky advocates have pointed out that the number of light points in the country, and the amount of light being emitted, continues to grow. Where will we put light next? OUTLOOK: Expect to see lots more lights in unexpected places
BRANDING WITH LIGHT
With stiff competition in the hotel business and the fast-growing casual dining sectors, clients are using branded interiors to make themselves stand out from the crowd. And they’re learning to use light as one of the most effective ways to be unique and recognisable – Pizza Express has been doing it for years with its spotlit tables (more about that on page 22).
the human eye can’t see, but a mobile phone can. This can be used to create indoor positioning systems, tracking your location to within 10cm. Imagine what this could mean for navigating a stadium or trade exhibition, or sending offers to customers based on what they’re looking at in a shop. Philips demonstrated one such system at Light + Building last year, and EldoLED won a Lux Award for its own system, which it is installing at retail sites in the US. OUTLOOK: We’ve yet to see it in a real-life application, but we’re very excited about it
OUTLOOK: This is a trend the lighting business is well placed to cash in on
LED: THE SECOND WAVE
We’ve all seen heartbreaking examples of bad quality LEDs in hospitality. A well-meaning facilities manager has tried to save money on energy and maintenance, but now the space is dim, glarey and everybody looks like a zombie. Those days are coming to an end: the wild west of the LED market is being tamed, and even those buyers who had their ﬁngers burned (literally or ﬁguratively) in the early days are trying again, with a renewed focus on look and feel. OUTLOOK: Some scepticism remains, but LED is winning new friends daily
Now that lights are based on electronic chips, they can do all sorts of clever things. Visible light communication is a way of transmitting data in the light from LEDs. It’s done by modulating light in a way
PRESIDENT’S BRIEFING Better lighting ‘could
At the cutting edge Lighting plays an important role in reducing CO2
t’s ofﬁcial, the UK government recognises that lighting is one of the leading industries in helping execute its strategy of reducing carbon emissions to help meet the UK’s target. The UK is seen as a leader in its commitment to reduce carbon and we in the lighting industry continue to support government in accelerating the upgrading and retroﬁtting of new energy efﬁcient solutions, to reduce customer’s energy bills while driving towards these ambitious goals. This is important as in 2012 35 per cent of the peak electricity demand from the grid was for lighting. We are also leading all other lighting industries across Europe with the introduction of the Lighting Industry Sector Strategy, which is continuing to attract attention from other European lighting associations for all the right reasons. In the document, In 2012 which I would encourage 35% of the everyone to read, you will ﬁnd a host of initiatives peak electricity around innovation, skills, demand from investment, export and the grid was for lighting regulations (details can be found on the LIA lighting.” website). UK lighting is in a strong growth period and the industry has identiﬁed key opportunities to help us continue to lead. We are looking at ways of improving and developing in lighting design, exploring the beneﬁcial health effect of lighting to help conduct new business models and further the applicability of integrating Wi-Fi and Li-Fi. The world energy-efﬁcient lighting market is predicting growth year on year through to 2025. Continuing to develop product and services customers demand, will help drive our growth. This while we remove cost from manufacturing will ensure that UK lighting companies remain competitive.
ALASDAIR McRURY VP AND MD, EUROPEAN OPERATIONS, HOLOPHANE EUROPE AND PRESIDENT, LIGHTING INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION
draw tourists to Tehran’ Better public lighting in the Iranian capital of Tehran could help encourage tourists back to the city, says lighting designer Roger Narboni, an urban lighting specialist who led a workshop on the city’s lighting. ‘It’s a big challenge for many huge cities that are not really appealing and friendly at night, he says. ‘At the moment people just stay in their hotels at night, because there’s nothing to see.
he city needs to create things that can be seen at night. There are huge heritage buildings and palaces to be seen, o they need to make it possible to see these things at night. The bazaar closes at night, but if we could light some part of it, it could stay open later.’ ‘It would totally change the city. It would totally change the way of being in the streets and in the public realm.’
Championships play out in LED-lit stadiums Broadcast requirements no longer appear to be a hindrance for sports venues wanting to upgrade to more energyefﬁcient lighting. This year the Super Bowl will take place under LED light, following a swathe of football stadia upgrading their lighting in time for the World Cup last year.
O Turn to page 78 for a full report on the state of LED stadium lighting
Fujitsu’s invisible QR code A new spotlight from Japanese tech giant Fujitsu allows users to point their phone at an item in an exhibition or shop and immediately get all the data about the object up on their screen. It does this by encoding data in light, which can then be picked up by pointing a smartphone camera at an object that the light is shining on.
It’s the latest application of visible light communication (VLC), which can also be used to provide internet connections through light. The data could provide an invisible alternative to ugly QR codes. Fujitsu suggests that shops, museums, performance events and tourist sites could make use of its new technology.
Erco’s New Year’s resolution: From now on, only LED Architectural luminaire maker Erco, one of the oldest companies in the business and the brand of choice for museums and galleries around the world, has gone 100 per cent LED. As of this year, all Erco’s products – nearly 5,000 of them – will be based on LED light sources. Anyone showing up wanting halogen or T5 will be disappointed. Erco’s managing director for innovation and marketing, Kay Pawlik, told Lux the transition to LED had required the company to ‘reconsider lighting in every possible aspect’. ‘We have now reached a level at which we are able to deliver digital lighting tools that are highly energy-efﬁcient without compromising on the light quality and output,’ said Pawlik. The company says the move comes ‘after eight years of focused development work’. It started developing its ﬁrst LED luminaire in 1999, and in 2006 made the prescient decision to concentrate its R&D work on the new technology. Erco is not the ﬁrst ‘traditional’ manufacturer to
This month in numbers
677,000 tonnes OF CO2 THAT COULD BE SAVED IF ALL HOTELS IN THE UK WENT LED
18 ditch conventional sources, but with 81 years of history and $165 million of annual sales, it is the ﬁrst company of its size and status to set the old technology completely aside. In its new all-LED incarnation, the venerable manufacturer joins hundreds of younger outﬁts that jumped straight into the LED world, including Cree, Lumenpulse and all those dozens of companies with ‘LED’ in their names.
The LED light that changes like the sun
A Los Angeles-based lighting company has generated more than twice the money it expected in Kickstarter to develop an app that commands its and others’ LED smart lamps to mimic the 24-hour light cycle from the sun and moon. Wired magazine reported that Sunn can help combat depression that afﬂicts people in northern climes in the dark of winter, a condition otherwise known as seasonal affective disorder (SAD). Sunn closed a successful 29-day ‘crowdfunding’ campaign on the website Kickstarter in December, easily exceeding its $50,000 goal by landing $117,106. The app works with Philips’ Hue LED bulb and the smart LIFX LED lamp. It also works with wall- or ceiling-mounted plate-shaped lamps from Sunn, but the products are not yet available. Sunn says it has lined up a manufacturer with operations in Europe, southeast Asia and North America.
OLEDs ‘will never overtake LEDs’ While LEDs have established themselves, OLEDs have been a long time coming, as developers have struggled to lower their manufacturing costs and to match the energy efﬁciency of LEDs. OLEDs have also lagged in longevity, falling short of the 20 years and more that LED suppliers claim for lamp lifetimes. That gap will persist for the forseable future, according research from to US-based IHS. The market is a mere $2.7 million at the moment, and although it ‘will grow tenfold’ by 2020, that will winch it up to a mere $26 million, the research predicts.
months YOU CAN SPEND IN PRISON FOR NEGLECTING FIRE SAFETY
800 tonnes OF LUMINAIRES RECYCLED IN THE UK LAST YEAR
1878 YEAR THE FIRST FLOODLIT FOOTBALL MATCH WAS BROADCAST
1.4 million kWh SAVED AT PONTE 16 CASINO, BY SWITCHING TO LED LIGHTS
16 YOUR VIEWS
RECYCLING IS GETTING EASIER Lumicom has welcomed the recent announcement by the Environment Agency, which revises the previous guidance on the classiﬁcation of luminaires with non-removable LED light sources. Rather than being classiﬁed as Category 13, along with hazardous light sources such as ﬂuorescent and HID, these luminaires are now to be classiﬁed with other nonhazardous lighting products in Category 5. Since the proposals were initially publicised, there has been considerable in-depth consultation within the industry and also with the Environment Agency that has proved invaluable in clarifying the classiﬁcation of end-of-life LED luminaires with non-removable sources. In particular, the modiﬁcations to this classiﬁcation now mean that all commercial LED luminaires can be consigned to the same waste stream. As a result, it will now be much easier for people on sites where such LED lighting products are being removed to classify the waste correctly in compliance with the WEEE Directive. It will also greatly reduce the volume of waste being classiﬁed as hazardous, which threatened to greatly increase costs for lighting producers. By simplifying the process for LED lighting products, the Environment Agency has encouraged more establishments to embrace the whole concept of luminaire disposal. For example, Lumicom has recently undertaken projects that, until now, would have been a grey area including two prestigious art galleries. A project to upgrade lighting in the gallery spaces at the
The switch vs controls debate goes on… Bullsh*t Guru @DragonsDung Perhaps the answer is to have a switch on the wall where you can ﬁnd it! #IoT #startup #lighting @Lux_magazine
CONNECTED SERVICES IS THE FUTURE
WILA Lighting @WILA_Lighting And the #afterparty continues #luxawards with @ WILA_Lighting @Lux_magazine
National Portrait Gallery, via our member Erco, has made full use of Lumicom’s luminaire disposal services to ensure that all endof-life ﬁxtures were disposed of responsibly while, again through Erco, the National Gallery has both reduced energy costs and minimised its environmental impact by taking advantage of Lumicom’s luminaire disposal infrastructure. The National Portrait Gallery project involved replacement of 100W tungsten halogen spotlights with low energy Erco LED ﬁxtures ranging in wattage from 12W to 14W, thereby greatly reducing the installed electrical load, associated energy consumption and carbon
emissions. At the National Gallery, ageing 100W tungsten halogen spotlight ﬁttings in the gallery spaces have been replaced with Erco low-energy 12W and 14W LED spotlights. The New Environment Agency Guidelines is proving invaluable in helping companies with a strong commitment to sustainability to achieve their goals.
The lighting industry has spent the last ﬁve years replacing a light source that was inefﬁcient. I think the next ﬁve years are going to be about how we connect all the information out there, together with the data capability and app capability, to do things that the lighting industry is not even thinking of doing with lighting yet.’ TONY HOWELLS Senior policy adviser at the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills
SIMON COOK Lumicom
HAVE YOUR SAY firstname.lastname@example.org
It will now be much easier for people on sites where LED lighting products are being removed to classify the waste correctly in compliance with the WEEE Directive” Simon Cook, Lumicom
SKR Lighting Design @SKRLight #tweetatash @iGuzziniUK #luxawards @Lux_magazine hmmm, #nice #dapper geordie, #alreet B-)
YOUR VIEWS 17
TOLD TO LUX It’s not really a problem with the product itself, it’s more to do with the perception people may have about LEDs” Hadrien Bera, chief engineer at Claridge’s on the challenges of getting upgrades approved
Fire safety is not rocket science – it can’t afford to be if you think about it” John Taylor, Lancashire Fire and rescue Service, about emergency lighting rules
Changing behaviour with respect to energy use is difﬁcult. If we can move to an automated scenario, we take that problem away” Graeme Bright, facilities manager at Theatre Royal
The light bulb surely ranks among the best ideas ever: before light bulbs, people were making light by burning stuff. With actual ﬂames. Everywhere” Lance Stewart, managing director of Creative Lighting
IN RESPONSE TO RAY MOLONY’S COLUMN ON BRANDING WITH LIGHT (p22), FIRST PUBLISHED ONLINE Ramcey Rodriguez Owner of LightStyle Solutions I’d like to see more marketing aimed at ‘this is how great lighting can affect your moods, and family life’. That’s the story that’s not being told, in my humble opinion. Clifton Lemon Marketing consultant We always think if the lighting is done well it’s not noticed, so that doesn’t point to people recognising a lighting signature. I think that’s the perspective of the lighting specialist, not the consumer. Sébastien Flet Reitz Technical director of Syndicat de l’Eclairage Today all car manufacturers are working on the luminous signature of their vehicles, and we are talking about branding. LED light helps to do this, that was not possible that way before.
WHAT’S HOT ON
COVERSATION OF THE MONTH: LED LIGHTNG FOR SWIMMING POOLS Does anyone know of a UK installation of LED lighting installed in a public swimming pool application? Chris McCormick, director at Root3
I have done quite a few projects using induction lighting. I wouldn’t want to install LED in such a warm environment. Paul Reynard, director at PAL Lighting
I would definitely use LED. I would also ensure that the luminaire is not badly placed and also look at the issue of corrosion. If the luminaire is built well enough, LED would be fine. Plus it saves all of that faffing about with lamp changes. Brendon Airey, lighting designer and manufacturer, Lightsense There is a Sports Council guide on reﬂection to ensure that lifeguards can clearly see the bottom of the pool – reﬂection was a signiﬁcant factor when comparing Induction and LED solutions. Dr David Clayton, principal consultant at Low Energy Lighting Our experience has been that many pools we have looked at fall far below the 300 lux guide figure. To achieve the required levels, we chose to aim the lights downwards, so we were careful to comply with the reflectance angle guidance. Alan Thornton, managing director at Earlsmann Lighting Generally LED lights are used as indirect lighting for pool applications, aiming at the wall or ceiling to reﬂect the lights. That will reduce the water surface reﬂection problem. Roger Lee, Suzhou EIC Electronic
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NICK BRANGWIN MACKWELL
MARK SAIT SAVEMONEYCUTCARBON
Don’t ﬁt emergency lighting then forget it
Energy waste and the opportunity for hotels
hile most building owners and operators are aware that their building must have emergency lighting installed – to the appropriate standards – they are not always so aware of the maintenance requirements. The importance of emergency lighting in a ﬁre or power failure cannot be understated. Without light even a familiar environment becomes more dangerous and more frightening, so it is essential not only that the emergency lighting comes on when needed but also stays on for the required duration. Yet one thing that many building operators frequently overlook is the fact that batteries degrade the more frequently they are charged and discharged. As time goes on, they can no longer last as long as they need to. Of course, emergency lighting In some regulations require regular full duration testing, but that’s not cases, fault to say it is always carried out. indicators on For example, where the testing luminaires have is carried out using a manual key switch, does the maintenance been ignored for engineer always wait for the several years” required duration, which can be up to three hours? Also, many buildings use standalone systems built into the luminaires. These will have some form of fault indicator but somebody has to look out for these indicators. In some cases, these indicators have been ignored for several years. Clearly the answer is to make better use of the technologies available. New battery technologies combined with lowenergy LED lighting are one element of mitigating the risk of batteries running down. In parallel, automatic monitoring systems can carry out full duration testing and detect any problems with the lamp, battery or other aspects of circuit. It would also be good to see some link to insurance premiums, with an opportunity for reduced premiums for those buildings that make use of these technologies to reduce the risk to occupants. Whatever happens, we must do something quickly to address this issue, and the lighting industry has a key role to play in this.
or many hotels, energy is the second biggest cost after labour, and in a 24/7 environment, the potential for waste is high. No matter how much you pay for your room, no-one wants to be told to change their behaviour or have low-energy lighting affect their comfort. Government ﬁgures show that big businesses spend £2.8 billion on energy that they don’t have to use every year – the output of nearly ﬁve power stations. Hotels are among the top ﬁve energy consumers in the tertiary building sector, behind food services, healthcare and some ofﬁces. Given that lighting on average represents about 25 per cent of electricity costs in hotels, the ﬁnancial arguments for implementing a full LED retroﬁt are compelling. We have seen the beneﬁts in our work with Park Inn, Radisson Blu in the UK, the Hotel Collection and Ralph Trustees, among others. Energy-efﬁciency projects have saved over £1 million to date. The business case for LED lighting is widely known. Less widely known is how hotels are owned and managed. A hotel will often have an owner, a large fund or a bank, that wants to improve the way it operates, increase proﬁts and sell it for more than it paid. A hotel being sold as a going concern is often valued on a multiple Hotels are of the proﬁt it can generate. These among the multiples can be 10 times or more. top ﬁve energy So for every £100,000 we can add to the bottom line by deploying quality consumers in LED lighting there are two impacts: the tertiary a reduction in energy bills and an building sector” increase in the value of the asset of at least 10x – £1 million. A number of our larger hotel customers have seen this opportunity as a quick way to increase their asset valuation. Lighting is the easiest strand of the hotel energy portfolio to change and manage, but it requires comprehensive and expert planning to ensure lighting quality is maintained or improved with LED. Smart lighting controls that provide effective dimming, allied to optimum use of daylight are an essential adjunct to be considered for any retroﬁt project.
THOMAS PATERSON LUX POPULI
MARK SALT LIA LABORATORIES
I love candles as much as the next guy. But…
Lighting with conﬁdence
like classic cars. And classic 1950s diners. I love art deco architecture. And I love candles. Such wonderful sources of light – soft, ﬂeeting, dynamic, beautiful. I also love vintage lamps. Edison tried so many ﬁlament materials, bulb shapes and gas ﬁlls (and vacuums), not to mention the supports, the pinches, the contacts. It’s hard to do something the ﬁrst time that actually works, but once you’ve done it, the sky’s the limit. Ask the Wright brothers – once they Making proved that powered ﬂight was possible, in a few short years we a little light were ﬂying across ever-greater by producing bodies of water. But when I ﬂy, an enormous I choose to do so in a 737, not in something strung together of amount of spruce and muslin. heat is just silly” Lighting engineers have spent over a century moving us away from incandescent lamps because they know that making a little light by producing an enormous amount of heat is silly. And yet, walk down Borough High Street, Bleecker Street, Alvaro Obregon here in Mexico City – name your chic destination – and you’d think it was a current technology. Vintage lamps have become a crutch for interior designers, product designers, architects and indeed, lighting designers. Surely we should be designing something innovative, something that creates beauty in its own right. I was sitting in a cafe in New York the other day that consumed just 950W for all its lighting, but then, add the handful of pendants with these lamps, doing no lighting work, and suddenly it was consuming another two or three kilowatts. Because the designer was too lazy to design. So come on people: let’s use our imagination, let’s create new luminaires that don’t depend on vintage lamps to look beautiful, let’s create new spaces that make new beauty of efﬁcient technologies. Let’s stop using vintage lamps as crutches.
O Or, if you simply must have that vintage look, try an energy-efficient alternative – see page 97
he lighting industry has seen considerable change in recent years as a result of the rise of LEDs. LED light sources from the leading manufacturers offer the quality and reliability that speciﬁers and end users demand, as do luminaires designed to optimise the performance of LED light sources. But there are a lot of products entering the market that do not meet the required standards – yet achieve a certain level of market penetration because they’re cheap. Speciﬁers without much experience of LED technology can struggle to assess the performance of these products. Until recently most of the information about a particular light source was on its packaging or buried deep in the product’s supporting documentation. There was very little independent veriﬁcation of claims regarding compliance with safety regulations, lumen output or longevity. It was for this reason that the LIA Laboratories launched its LIA Labs Veriﬁed scheme last year to provide a complete testing, veriﬁcation and certiﬁcation service for lamps, LED modules, control gear and luminaires. The scheme provides reassurance that products will deliver the required safety and performance. It means the product in the box does exactly what it says on the box. The LIA Labs LIA Laboratories recently received Veriﬁed scheme accreditation to ISO/IEC 17025, shows that the endorsing our ability to provide accurate, unbiased data and conform product in the with the latest legislation. box does what it The testing process begins by says on the box” verifying basic safety, such as checking for overvoltage and that components are mounted correctly. We then test photometry using our goniophotometer and photometric spheres, and measure lamp life in our specially designed lamp room. Equipment veriﬁed by the scheme gets a certiﬁcate and can carry the LIA Labs Veriﬁed and Energy Saving Trust brand. Veriﬁed products are also published on LIA Labs’ certiﬁcation website with full report details.
Opinion We wish you a sustainable stay The hospitality sector should be a perfect proving ground for ‘sustainable’ lighting products. John Bullock shows how modular equipment design and controls can help
JOHN BULLOCK INDEPENDENT LIGHTING DESIGNER
f the lighting industry wants to get a feel for how well its products are performing, it might like to go out and buy a hotel chain. If ever there was a sector where equipment is pushed to its limit, it’s this one: 24/7 operation with little acceptance of failure or high maintenance demands; and a high expectation that products should work way beyond their quoted lifetimes. There is a strong parallel here with the principal demands of sustainability. One of the main planks of that philosophy is to keep material, in the form of product components, in play for as long as possible, without having recourse to the smelter or landﬁll. Yes, components fail, but that shouldn’t require a wholesale replacement of the luminaire. When my bike has a puncture, I don’t replace the bike or the wheel, I just replace the part with the hole in it. The hospitality environment demonstrates that a 50,000-hour life isn’t much to shout about. I make that ﬁve years and 280-odd days. Maybe it’s just my age, but that feels A 50,000like about the same time it takes to hour life is ﬁve ﬁnd my car keys. I’d like to suggest years and 280we give more care and consideration to the speciﬁcation of light ﬁttings odd days – about before we commit our clients to the same time it reﬁts of entire installations. To do takes me to ﬁnd otherwise just seems careless – and unprofessional. my car keys” I’m not proposing that we stay trapped in the current limbo of retroﬁt LED lamps. There will, inevitably, continue to be decorative elements of the hospitality lighting speciﬁcation that mean exactly that; at least until product designers get to grips with what ‘LED lighting’ might mean in the context of decorative lighting. Can we see product design that fully exploits the essence of LED? But coming back to retroﬁt, the important thing to remember is that LED lighting is different. The landscape has been turned upside down and the old maps don’t work. If that’s the case we must do some things differently: the way we sell light ﬁttings and then forget about them, for example. There is a world of difference between a light ﬁtting that lasts 20 years but needs new lamp every few months and a light ﬁtting that has to be replaced entirely every ﬁve or six years. And I’m not convinced that the
Zhaga option does the job adequately, mainly because I suspect that the heat transfer from LED module to luminaire heatsink is not something that can be dealt with on the basis of an oldfashioned lamp change. As LED chips become more efﬁcient and even smaller, this heat problem will only become more acute. I suspect that module changes will have to become a workbench procedure, dealt with by qualiﬁed people. So I want to see a strategy in which light ﬁttings ﬁtted into a hotel ceiling can be maintained according to an approved strategy, where there is a relationship between maker and user, and that ensures only failed components are replaced. The rest of the luminaire body remains in use, meaning minimal waste of component material. If we’re really clever, we can continue to improve LED performance and still ﬁt the later generations into current module housings. I think it’s called product development. How else can we improve the sustainability of the hospitality sector? I guess there’s one aspect of lighting use that’s staring us in the face: hospitality is a 24/7 operation. The question we have to ask is: does that have to be true? Is there a design solution that responds to this usage demand? We can accept that a hotel’s doors are always open to guests, but does that mean the hotel lobby has to sparkle at 3am in the same way that it sparkles at 6pm? Does the lighting of corridors have to be constant? To what extent can controls adjust illuminance to guest trafﬁc? We’re doing this in ofﬁces, roadways and petrol station forecourts, so perhaps we should be looking for creative ways to do it in hospitality.
SUSTAINABILITY CHECKLIST Here’s a handy sustainability checklist for your next hospitality project: O Given the 24/7 environment, what elements have you introduced into the design to control and reduce energy use without compromising the design aesthetic? O What assurances have you received that the speciﬁed luminaires will meet – and exceed – their stated design performance? O What strategy do you have in place to retain luminaires, reﬁtting only failed luminaire components (LED modules or drivers, for example) at the end of their active lives?
22 OPINION RAY MOLONY
Ray Molony Speak the language of light Ray Molony, publisher, Lux magazine
n the spring of 1965, a 36-year-old English for the exterior of the Apollo Theatre in London (the backpacker arrived in Rome and tasted real home of the green-faced witch of Wicked). Italian pizza for the ﬁrst time. It was such My favourite branding with light is a branch of a transformative experience that when he was McDonald’s where a gable wall – plain red during told the best examples were available in the rural the day – comes alive at night with two golden tavernas, he travelled to the hills to try them. scallops of light from well-aimed spotlights. He discovered that the basic eateries had great But mostly, using light to create a unique pizzas but no electricity, and were lit solely by visual signature is a missed opportunity. Some candles in wine bottles. So when the young Peter organisations can barely ensure their ﬂuorescents Boizot returned to London and opened a restaurant are a consistent colour temperature, let alone do he called PizzaExpress, he proposed to replicate something as sophisticated as ‘brand with light’. this intimate atmosphere. His plan was thwarted by But I don’t see it as difﬁcult; it’s just a question of the local ﬁre ofﬁcer in Soho, who objected to naked being consistent. It could be something as simple as ﬂames and so, with opening night looming, Boizot the corporate colour splashed on the exterior of the replaced each candle with a single ﬂower and building beloved of budget hotels, the scalloping of directed a spotlight at it. the downlights behind the reception The arrangement became the desk or a distinguishing row of PizzaExpress ‘look’ and it survives, Some ﬁrms can pendants over the counters. half a century later, at 376 outlets We connect with brands, the barely ensure their nationwide. It may have been experts tell us, when they provoke a ﬂuorescents are a achieved through serendipity, but mood, a feeling or a reaction. What the narrow-angle beam directed better way to do this than with consistent colour at the centre of tables is a classic light? After all, natural light – in temperature, example of what designers call all its moods – is a proven mood let alone ‘brand branding with light. manipulator. Today, many other leading In fact, scientists and researchers with light’ ” companies have cottoned onto working in this ﬁeld say that such is the fact that they can use its potency to affect our biochemistry distinctive lighting to differentiate themselves; that we should start to think of light as a drug. none more so perhaps than fashion retailer Imagine if retailers could give shoppers a drug Hollister, whose ultra-dark interiors are when they turn up in one of their stores? Well, with punctuated by irregular pools of halogen light. lighting you can. The latter may invite ridicule from lighting If you want to make people feel uplifted, use industry professionals, but would the brand uplighting on the ceiling. If you want them to feel have the same allure for teenagers if it were lit cosy, use 2700K incandescent. If you want them to like Primark? I doubt it. be stimulated and alert, use 6000K ﬂuorescent. The And what about hotels? Imagine you’re tired, on feelings engendered by the lighting can build strong the motorway and need a bed for the night. In the and sophisticated brand associations, ties that are distance, off the next junction, you see a building difﬁcult to create with marketing alone. The architect Richard Rogers talks about a lit in magenta. You’ve more than likely found your berth in the shape of a Premier Inn. ‘language of architecture’ to brand his buildings. If the building were green, it would be a Hilton. You can’t always put your ﬁnger on it, but you know Blue, a Hilton Express. when you’re in a Rogers creation. Similarly, we Fitness First chooses pink lighting to trademark should think of a lighting design as a language to its gyms, Virgin Active goes red and Hoare Lea speak to our customers. was inspired when it harnessed green LEDs What’s your lighting language?
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24 OPINION GORDON ROUTLEDGE
Reality check Why Samsung didn’t crack the hotel lighting market Gordon Routledge, lighting expert and publisher of Lux
had meeting a few years ago with Samsung the guest. Let’s start with the kill switch, the one about their strategy to enter the lighting you have to put your keycard in to have the remotest market, and hotels was one of the entry points chance of anything working. When you enter the they believed they could attack. They had highroom, every single light will turn on, along with the level relationships with hotel owners and operators TV. So the big question on the kill switch is, if you due to the fact that they already supplied them with leave the room will you still be able to charge your TVs, door lock mechanisms and air conditioning laptop and mobile devices? The answer is usually units. Why shouldn’t lighting be added to that list? no, meaning you have to keep the spare key or a Their view of the future was that you would business card in the slot when you leave the room, check in to the hotel with your smartphone, defeating the object. The kill switch is from a time which would then operate the door lock, and before smartphones and laptops existed. upon entering the room would set the lighting, air A few rules from the book on lighting. The room conditioning and TV to a proﬁle it knows you like. must be ﬁtted with an excess of light ﬁttings, which I’m a big technology fan, and the visitor would probably not have I could see this glimpse of the in their own bedroom. The room must future as very compelling, but I am include a bafﬂing array of switches Hotel rooms also a frequent traveller and know near to the bed, and at least one must include a that hotels – and more importantly light must not be able to be operated baffling array of people – don’t work that way. For from bed, making sure the user has instance, what if I have an Apple to search all corners of the room to switches. Under phone, will I not be allowed to use switch it off before going to sleep. For no circumstances key features in the room? What if I maximum confusion the switches should any of need to update my software or app should be distributed at either side to get into the room? If I’ve of the bed, with different functions. them be labelled” been out for the evening Under no circumstances should any and my phone’s battery light switch be labelled. is dead, I’d have to sleep in the corridor. In I realise that lighting hotel rooms can be a theory this techno approach sounds great, challenge, as the room has to function for many but in reality it simply wouldn’t work. different uses: ofﬁce, dining room, TV room, pleasure The other reason it wouldn’t work is dungeon. You would think that in all these years that there is a rule book about hotels, and it someone would have come up with a control states that all hotels shall be the same. The scheme that delivers. I’ve seen attempts to use core product of bed, bathroom and silly card conventional controls, but this defaults to the control industry standard of a panel with eight unlabelled about saving the planet by reusing towels, is buttons, which is badly commissioned. a constant. Spend a bit more money and you get Molton Brown toiletries, a well-stocked mini I stayed in a hotel last week that had an bar and a pair of slippers that don’t ﬁt. Spend a bit emergency light in the room, and with the green less, and you get a bottle of Dove welded to the light from the tiny charge indicator, I could actually shower wall and a vending machine in reception. see my way around the room at night. The internet connection shall be patchy, whether or So there we have it, hotel room controls are not you paid for it. crying out for innovation. Simple, easy-to-use stuff The one grey area of the hotel rule book is that delivers, in all parts of the world for all users. controls. That’s because the aim of controls in One day someone may solve it, but it has passed hotel rooms is to confuse, disorientate and infuriate Samsung by.
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E X T E N D E D
26 WHAT I BELIEVE IAN ODENDAAL
We are very focused on the whole guest experience, and we don’t want to compromise the design”
WHAT I BELIEVE 27
Ian Odendaal Engineering director, Rosewood London My job is to maintain and enhance the hotel’s lighting That includes bedrooms, public areas, restaurants and outlets, and also back of house. The hotel launched in October 2013 as the new Rosewood London property. We’ve involved a lighting designer from Germany, Joern Siebke from Studio Lux Berlin. We’ve also used Lutron controls extensively throughout the property for our lighting scene settings.
automatically control the light and get it right using light sensors interfaced with a panel. The enhanced light settings will predominantly be in the public areas. We’ve got large windows in the restaurant letting in a lot of natural light, so it gives you almost too much light on a bright day. We want to ﬁnd a balance while still maintaining a very consistent look and feel throughout the year. It’s all about the sense of place.
We want lights that respond to changing daylight Right now we’re looking to adjust some of the scene settings and fading times. We’ve taken on board a lot of comments from guests and we’re tweaking the lighting at the moment to enhance the guest experience. The light will go through various scenes throughout the day – morning, afternoon, early evening and late night. We’d like to enhance all the design features but also equally give the guests an inviting environment where they can lounge and relax. But equally, we want to be able to provide suitable settings for our various functions and events. We have an astronomical clock installed that follows daylight hours in the UK throughout the seasons. It’s very difﬁcult in the UK to have the correct scene setting for the time of the day – most days you’ll have a bright, clear day but you can also have dark, overcast days. So we’re playing around with the intensity of the light and the scene settings of the lamps to ﬁnd a happy medium between those two extremes.
LEDs are starting to meet our needs We’ve got a combination of halogens, incandescent and LEDS. LEDs have progressed tremendously since the design of Rosewood London was done back in 2010-11, so I’m working with the lighting designer again to retroﬁt LEDs. We’re keen to enhance efﬁciency and lamp hours as new technology arrives on the market, not least because we want to handle the disruption from lamp failures without too many ugly stepladders in the lobby. Our energy efﬁciency will improve as lighting technology develops. We all know in the lighting industry that technology is developing every year, sometimes even month by month, so will review all of our lighting on an annual basis.
Sensors will enhance the sense of place We don’t want to lose focus of the design elements of the hotel, so it will be subtle changes that we will implement. We’d like the light level to inform the dimming system, so if we have a bright day, the light level will move down a little bit and the opposite for a dark day. It’s all to complement the look and feel of the hotel when guests arrive. With our constantly changing weather it’s a challenge to
O Rosewood London is a luxury hotel with 262 guestrooms and 44 suites, one of which has its own postcode. O Features Odendaal has to light include a Renaissance-style seven-storey grand staircase, furniture ﬁtted with Cuban mahogany and seven types of marble.
Lighting suppliers need to understand our needs The majority of lighting was not off-the-shelf. We’ve used Chelsom and other well-known suppliers, but a lot of the lamps were bespoke, manufactured for the hotel, which makes it really interesting. We are very focused on the whole guest experience and we don’t want to compromise the design element of the hotel. Lighting plays an important part in showcasing the design that was done, which we do not want to lose focus on. I do attend lighting seminars and exhibitions, and for the latter I would really value suppliers and manufacturers to understand what we’re trying to achieve in the hospitality industry. It’s about everything the guests see and feel when they’re with us. We need to meet their expectations and needs and give them a certain experience when they arrive at the hotel.
O The lighting scheme at Rosewood London was devised in collaboration with lighting designer Joern Siebke from Studio Lux Berlin. O Odendaal is now working with Siebke and Lutron to add more settings to the scheme and make the light adjust to natural light levels throughout the day.
28 WHAT I BELIEVE GRAEME BRIGHT
‘‘ Veanne Tsui
I made a decision about three years ago that any replacement would be an LED replacement”
WHAT I BELIEVE 29
Graeme Bright Buildings and facilities manager, Theatre Royal My responsibility is the public lighting in the theatre I’m responsible for all the aspects of the operations of the building, including health and safety, and security, which includes lighting. The public areas come under my remit but the performance space doesn’t. But we’ve got around rehearsal spaces, private hire spaces, ofﬁces, dressing rooms… We have a bar and a restaurant, cellar areas – they are my responsibility. What we’re talking about is the normal lighting in a building, and then emergency lights, that’s my area.
I’m most proud of what we’ve achieved in the ofﬁce corridors The corridors in the ofﬁces were quite a big task over a vast area. There were 128 bulkhead lights that were on 18 hours a day, and we were able to get all of those switched over in a short period of time. The switchover has had quite an impact on our energy usage. We achieved a 40 per cent reduction year on year, and were the leader in energy saving in the theatre consortium group of theatres.
When it comes to lighting the theatre, the biggest challenge is money We’re a charity, so funding is always tight. Our budgets are tightly managed, and we have to try to operate within those parameters. We were redeveloped in 2000, so, like any property these days, trying to change the ﬁttings is a challenge. Designers have a range of different ﬁttings in buildings and there are so many different types of lights for different areas. When we’re looking at replacing those for more energy efﬁcient ones, it’s about ﬁnding the right ones for the affordability and practicalities of the different spaces.
We’ve funded these projects ourselves We’ve looked at various funding options, but we’ve haven’t embarked on any, as yet. In the early stages we got bafﬂed with the processes of going about it, and we felt that we weren’t getting the true information. And I think we didn’t really fully understand the electrical consumption of our building. We’ve embarked on quite a detailed understanding of that over the past year and a half. I’ve allocated and tried to balance my budgets to try to identify an amount of money each year to invest, so we’re not tied up into any lease or ﬁnance scenarios. Moving forward, if we look at the auditorium lights for the public spaces, that would have to be publicly funded, so we would look at various companies. And I know we liaised with Siemens at one point and we’ve talked to Salix at another point, and we’ve also been participating, to a certain degree, in Reﬁt, which is run by the London Mayor Ofﬁce..
It’s difﬁcult to ﬁnd the right products Finding the right product is difﬁcult for many reasons. First, there are so many companies out there now. Second, because of the different spaces, we try to identify and break those spaces down and focus on that one particular light, depending on how many we’ve got, to ﬁnd the right solution. Installation is tricky too, because we’re open seven days a week and the ofﬁces and the rooms are all used during that time. We’ve been doing LED replacements for two to three years now and I made a decision about three years ago that any replacement would be an LED replacement. On top of that we’ve been focusing on bigger projects. So we’ve done 90 per cent of the ofﬁce spaces, all of the corridor spaces, about 40 per cent of the public spaces. This year we’ll be ﬁlling out all those smaller areas that we haven’t done yet. There are lots of T5 tubes, and I don’t think there’s anything comparable at the moment. We’ve got a workshop area, and the auditorium, which is part of a dimming system. There are probably about 200 lights and that is a bit more complicated. It is in the performance area, and the dimming must be smooth. LEDs aren’t quite there yet. I went to LuxLive last year and was extremely impressed with the number of organisations out there. So it was a much better kind of perspective for me to be able to go to these places and actually speak to so many different companies, all in one place.
Installing the latest technology can be hard I think there are many great technologies out there, it’s just the feasibility of getting them installed. There are smart technologies that sense what’s happening in the building and adjust the lighting, heating and other building services. The downside is that you have to have the infrastructure and the capital to put that kind of system in. Lots of charities probably don’t have that kind of capacity without external support. I think one of the problems I’ve found is that changing behaviour with respect to energy use is difﬁcult. If we can move to an automated scenario, we take that problem away, to a certain degree. There is pressure for a charity to be as efﬁcient as possible It’s a requirement of our funding from the Arts Council that we participate in ways to reduce our CO2 emissions and energy use. We now participate in the London Theatre Consortium Initiative, which is connected to Julie’s Bicycle, an organisation set up to deal with the mayor’s and the Arts Council’s objective to try to make theatres more energy efﬁcient.
ter + Partn ng, Fos ers You l e Nig
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32 SECTOR OVERVIEW HOSPITALITY LIGHTING
Eat, drink and
BE COMFY Britons may have stayed out of the shops during the austerity years but they can’t seem to get enough of eating out. Mark Faithfull looks at the opportunities for lighting in the casual dining and hotel markets
visit to pretty much any town centre is enough to tell you that eating establishments are taking over. But let’s put some numbers on it. In the year ending June 2014, the UK’s eating-out market (that’s everything including quick-service restaurants, retail, casual dining, pubs, full-service restaurants, travel and leisure, and workplace and education catering), was worth £50.4 billion ($76.2 billion) according to the NPD Group, up nearly two per cent from £49.4 billion ($74.6 billion) the year before. The most signiﬁcant increases were in the casual dining sector, where sales were up 5.5 per cent from 2013; coffee shops, which experienced growth of 3.7 per cent; and pubs, up by 2.9 per cent. Indeed, the restaurant and casual dining sector has weathered the recession better than many consumerfacing industries and it is now well positioned to beneﬁt from the improving economy, consumer conﬁdence and spending power.
Bright future ‘We believe that the prospects for the restaurant and casual dining sector are bright,’ says Cameron Cartmell, sector leader for hospitality and leisure at Ernst & Young. This is borne out, he says, by the rapid inﬂux of new restaurant brands and concepts into the UK in the past year and ‘a marked increase in transactional activity in the sector’. ‘Managed pub operators have recognised the need to diversify, and food-led estates have dramatically strengthened their offerings. Also, many prevailing market shifts are in the sector’s favour – for example, the rise of online retail and the resulting shift in
This London branch of Nando’s uses LED lamps from several manufacturers
SECTOR OVERVIEW 33
shopping habits have driven an increase in high street retail vacancies. Much of this space should be attractive to restaurateurs and publicans alike.’ With an increase in branded environments, both for the casual dining sector and also the related hotel market, the onus on distinctive and differentiated interiors is on the increase, as are the requirements to run expanding estates cost effectively. Not surprising, then, that use of LEDs in particular has become more widespread for the lit environment. ‘The development of LEDs continues apace,’ says Neil Knowles, founder and director of Elektra Lighting. ‘The main improvement recently is the return of narrow spots to the lighting designer’s toolkit – previous LEDs were very poor at narrow beam spots, and this made accenting and drama difﬁcult. Most of the chain hotels require it. Brands such as Hilton and Hyatt have largely adopted the US Ashrae 90.1 standard, which requires such low energy use per square metre that there is no way to comply apart
CASUAL DINING: BRITAIN’S NEW FAVOURITE INDULGENCE Casual dining drew an extra 47 million visits last year compared with ﬁve years earlier, an increase in annual traffic of 11.6 per cent, according to research analysts NPD Group. In contrast, traffic through full-service restaurants has dropped by 11.4 per cent since year end March 2009. The NPD Group’s data shows that ‘because my kids like it there’ was one of the main reasons for consumers picking their chosen eating out venue in 24 per cent of family visits. Families made 3.18 billion eat-out visits in the year ending October 2014 and branded pub chains appeal most to children (30 per cent of family visits picked by kids), followed by the well-established fast-food outlets (29 per cent), and the family-friendly casual dining outlets (28 per cent). ‘Pester power by children actually plays a huge role in where families choose to eat out,’ says Jack MacIntyre, UK food service account manager at NPD Group. ‘Branded pubs are certainly getting this formula right. It’s paying off in terms of kids telling their parents that’s where they want to eat out.’
34 SECTOR OVERVIEW HOSPITALITY LIGHTING
This Costa Coffee in Essex is saving thousands with LED lamps from LEDtec
from using LEDs.’ Robert Chelsom, managing director of Chelsom, adds: ‘LEDs are really at the forefront of the latest developments in the hospitality industry. Realistically, clients are about halfway down the road of using LEDs. Because LED is the buzzword in the industry at the moment, everyon thinks they can do it all, but they aren’t necessari the answer to every lighting requirement and the cost is still on the high side.’ Although LEDs are a tempting alternative to
HOW FAR ARE HOSPITALITY CLIENTS DOWN THE ROAD OF EMBRACING CONTROLS? Robert Chelsom: ‘How well clients use controls really does depend whether or not they take on a lighting designer for their scheme. If it’s down to the interior designer or end user, then they’re generally not very far down that road because it’s all very technical and requires specialist knowledge – but if they do employ a lighting designer then it will be pretty advanced.’ Neil Knowles: ‘In the hotel sector, most of the big chains have required lighting control for scenesetting for the past 20 years. All public areas are routinely scene-set. What we are seeing now is the extension of controls into guest bedrooms, mainly as the price comes down.’ Mike Thompson: ‘In the pub trade the most sophisticated lighting control is often a dimmer switch, used as the evening gets later. One of the ironies is that with the substantial reduction in energy use from the adoption of LED lighting, the payback for control systems becomes more difficult to justify, particularly where rewiring is required to install the control system. Wireless control systems can play a part here in retroﬁt and we are interested to see if these will gain a substantial foothold. We have not seen it yet.’ O See page 69 for more on controls in hospitality
notoriously inefﬁcient traditional sources such as squirrel cage lamps, Chelsom keen to focus on the application of LEDs for decorative rather than simply energy-saving purposes,. ‘More sophisticated dimming and mood-setting systems e being used to enhance the ambience,’ he says. Not all sectors are at the same stage. The pub de, for example, is split between brewers who still maintain an estate, such as Greene King, Marston’s and St Austell, and pure pub companies such as Spirit and Punch Taverns, which are essentially property and restaurant businesses. Weblight provides managed lighting services to clients like these, and is currently working on a big LED rollout for Spirit. Founder Mike Thompson says that the retroﬁt market is moving more slowly. ‘I have been a little surprised by the reticence on retroﬁt, but it appears that pretty well all new build is now LED, at least in the public areas,’ he says. ‘There is still plenty of scope for further penetration for retroﬁt and I think there are several reasons for this relatively slow adoption of the technology, despite the massive cost savings that it offers through energy and maintenance savings.’ He points to the difference between managed estates and tenanted estates. For managed estates, it’s far easier for companies to introduce blanket policies. ‘The majority of the lighting in pubs is often via domestic type halogen and tungsten ﬁttings that are generally at a low level and easy to access,’ he says. ‘It is quite straightforward for a pub manager to replace any failed lamps and each individual lamp is
SECTOR OVERVIEW 35
The UK’s major managed pub players SPIRIT PUB COMPANY 770 managed pubs, including the Chef & Brewer, Taylor Walker and Fayre & Square brands. Merging with Greene King Food sales £278m ($420m) (year to 17 August 2013)
generally not particularly expensive, so that work can pass “under the radar” of the property management department. ‘The ambience of pubs is extremely important in attracting trade, and pub owners want to ensure that any new light sources will replicate the warm, cosy sensation generated by full-spectrum halogen and tungsten lighting. It is only really in the past two years that light sources of sufﬁcient quality have been available across the lamp types – and with the ability to dim, which is very important in pubs – at a price that makes the reﬁt practical. We have had to ﬁt out pubs for different brand images to prove to the brand managers in the companies that the lit effect is as good as that of the traditional light sources. Once that is proved, the economic argument is compelling.’
The tipping point? Thompson believes the tipping point has now been reached, but Chelsom reﬂects that other sources will continue to maintain their presence. ‘Drama and sparkle will still be created by halogen light sources and high-quality compact ﬂuorescents will still provide long life with economic prices for ambient lighting such as table, wall and ﬂoor lighting,’ he says. ‘The pressure from clients to create unique and memorable interior schemes has never been stronger and lighting plays a huge part in that which in turn means higher levels of design are required across the board, blending cutting-edge styling with the latest LED technological developments.’ Ultimately the traditional challenges remain, says Knowles. ‘It’s the same as always – create a fabulous looking project for a tight budget. It’s just that lighting designers are doing it against a background of constantly changing products, of not being able to use the same downlight we did three years ago. Or even last year.’
GREENE KING 1,000 managed pubs including the Hungry Horse, Old English Inns and Meet & Eat brands Food sales 41% of total, up from 36% ﬁve years ago
Burger King, lit with lights from Lumenpulse AlphaLED (formerly Projection Lighting)
Marston’s 500 managed pubs, including the Two for One, Milestone and Carvery brands Food sales 57%, up from 37% ﬁve years ago, with plans to open 25 pub-restaurants while closing pubs that emphasise drink rather than food
JD WETHERSPOON 900 pubs. On total sales of £1.3bn ($1.9bn) in the year to July 28 2013, like-for-like bar sales grew by 3.8%, compared with food like-for-likes up 10.9%. Intends to open 30-40 pubs this year.
MITCHELLS & BUTLERS 1,700 managed pubs, including Harvester, Toby Carvery and Miller & Carter. Food sales 51%, up from 41% ﬁve years ago
WHITBREAD 400 pub restaurants, including the Beefeater and Brewer’s Fayre brands. In the nine months to 27 November 2014 restaurant sales were up 3.3% year-on-year. It also owns Premier Inn and Costa.
36 EVENT LIGHTING FOR RETAIL AND HOSPITALITY CONFERENCE 2015
FREE! to end users
Lighting for Retail and Hospitality
Learn from the best – and create spaces your
GUESTS WILL LOVE I Our conference dedicated to retail and hospitality lighting will help you balance efﬁciency with look and feel
f you work in hospitality or retail, you know that lighting isn’t something you can afford to get wrong. And in recent years, lighting technology has come on in leaps and bounds, creating brand new opportunities to bolster your brand, differentiate your space and make your displays jump out – and all while slashing those energy and maintenance bills.
Getting it right
Below (l-r) Rick Marshall of Matalan, Gordon Routledge of Luxx and lighting consultant Dave Tilley
But to get it right, you need to navigate the new world of LEDs and controls , understand the technology, pick the right products and come up with the right design. We’ll be looking at the full spectrum of retail and hospitality lighting applications from small stores to large stores to hotels and cafes. Speakers will include energy management expert Richard Felgate, formerly the head of energy at pub chain Mitchell & Butlers, who will set out his do’s
PROGRAMME HIGHLIGHTS DO’S AND DON’TS OF LED LIGHTING ROLLOUTS By rolling out LEDs in hospitality and retail settings you can slash your electricity bill for lighting by up to 90 per cent and wave goodbye to regular lamp changes. But you don’t want to end up with duff products that die early or fail to provide the right quality of light. Richard Felgate, independent energy management expert and former head of energy for pub and bar chain Mitchells & Butlers – the owner of O’Neill’s and All Bar One – shares his do’s and don’ts for a successful, stress-free rollout. CASE STUDY MATALAN The budget fashion retailer’s concept manager John Cummings and M&E manager Rick Marshall present the company’s latest lighting project.
Richard Felgate, above, will share his experience of major LED lighting rollouts
and don’ts for LED rollouts. We’ll also be welcoming John Cummings, concept manager of high-street fashion retailer Matalan, to talk through how the business is taking advantage of the latest lighting technology. And we’ll be taking a glimpse at the future, with a special session looking at the latest cool lighting tech for retail: indoor positioning. Find out how your LED lights could be transformed into a superaccurate positioning system that you can use to help customers navigate your store, or send them targeted offers. Organised by Lux x together with the Lighting Industry Association, the event is suitable for retailers, facility managers, energy managers and lighting designers. To register for your free place, contact Fergus Lynch on 020 3283 4387 or firstname.lastname@example.org
12 MARCH 2015 CAVENDISH CONFERENCE CENTRE, LONDON, UK Owww.lightingforretailandhospitality.com
CASE STUDY BODY SHOP’S LED ROLLOUT The Body Shop has been experimenting with LEDs since the early days. Its current LED rollout has enhanced the lit environment, improved skin tones and cut energy dramatically. It’s being extended to another wave of stores this year. Here, Dave Tilley, lighting consultant to the retailer, tells the story. HOW TO WRITE YOUR OWN WARRANTY The best way to take the risk out of a major investment in LED lighting is to draw up your own warranty which covers what’s important to you and not what’s important to a manufacturer. A good warranty should have a clear and agreed policy on life, replacements, colour consistency and operating hours. A top expert will explain how to do it. HOW LIGHT CAN MAKE YOUR BRAND STAND OUT Anna Sandgren of Paul Nulty Lighting Design explains how hospitality companies and retailers can use lighting to make their shops and properties look and feel luxurious and high quality.
TRACKING YOUR CUSTOMERS LED lighting is being used to create super-accurate indoor positioning systems in stores. By programming luminaires to encode invisible signals in light that can be picked up by smartphones, retailers can create virtual maps of their stores, guide shoppers to the products they want, or send offers based on what they’re looking at. Lux’s very own Gordon Routledge gives an exclusive brieﬁng on this cutting-edge tech.
PROJECT HAM YARD HOTEL, LONDON 39
London’s Ham Yard Hotel proves that great design and energy efﬁciency can go hand in hand. Kathrine Anker ﬁnds out how
40 PROJECT HAM YARD HOTEL, LONDON
Above: Quirky luminaires create a living room feel Right: Ceramic vaseﬁttings adorn the restaurant
t’s hard to believe that the Ham Yard Hotel is the middle of London’s busy Soho. The newly opened £90 million boutique hotel has been designed to feel more like a living room than a commercial space, and the lighting played a big part in creating the right atmosphere. ‘We wanted it to feel like someone’s house with integrated source lighting and statement decorative pieces,’ says Susan Lake, a senior designer at Lighting Design International who devised the scheme. At ﬁrst, the owner envisaged that decorative luminaires would provide most of the lighting, but Lake and her team were concerned that the result might end up looking a bit ﬂat. Instead, they came up with a layered scheme that appears to visitors as if it is mainly based on decorative pieces, but in reality combines integrated lighting, accent lighting and decorative lighting. ‘There are a lot of decorative pieces and visitors might think that all the lighting comes from those, but the hard work is actually done by the architectural lighting,’ Lake says. ‘It’s softly done so you don’t always notice it.’ Although the design and decorative elements of the lighting scheme were vital for the overall result, this hasn’t diminished the green credentials of the Ham Yard. ‘They managed to get a BREEAM “excellent” rating,’ conﬁrms Lake, ‘so it’s an energy-efﬁcient
project despite all the decorative lighting.’ Here are some of the clever ways the Ham Yard Hotels uses lighting.
Booksmart lights The book shelf luminaires have a linear LED lamp at the back and an angled, painted MDF that sends the light back out towards the lighting room, drawing attention to the book shelf and adding a fun element to the unpretentious ambience that Lake’s team sought to create.
Patterns without shadows Probably the most distinctive lighting feature at the Ham Yard, the vases placed in rectangular recesses
on the back wall of the restaurant serve as luminaires and art pieces at the same time. The lighting design team didn’t want the vases to cast shadows on the wall, so they did a number of tests and mock-ups before they were happy. ‘We discovered that the best way of doing it was to put a GLS LED lamp at the bottom of the niche, then the ceramic vases were hollowed out at the base and placed on top of the light, which reduced any harsh cut-offs,’ said Lake.
Quirky candles From a distance, the back of the 1950s bowling alley looks like a brick wall with real candles ﬂickering in niches in the wall. The bricks aren’t actually real, and nor are the ﬂames. Instead, LED candle lamps have been used to get the ﬂickering effect. ‘It’s a very different hotel and we were trying to come up with different ideas to make each space unique,’ said Lake. ‘We wanted it to feel quirky and unpretentious.’
River of light When it comes to installing unusual lights outside on a public thoroughfare, it’s always handy to own all the surrounding buildings. Firmdale Hotels, Ham Yard’s parent company, does, so it was relatively easy to excavate the entire courtyard outside the hotel while it was being built. That allowed the lighting team to
Flickering LED candles add a quirky touch to the 1950s bowling alley
install a ‘winding stream’ of blue LED lights on the ground, demanding the attention of passers-by and leading guests toward the entrance. ‘We wanted the LEDs to reach all the way to the entrance but due to cost we couldn’t do that. So instead, we had them coming through the arcade and we’ve got them again at the main entrance by the front door,’ says Lake. Although going below-ground was easy, the Ham Yard still needed to have the right permissions in place. ‘We had to present to Westminster City Council to get planning permission for the exterior lighting because there is a public walkway through the courtyard,’ says Lake. ‘We couldn’t just do what we wanted, we had to get it all agreed by the council.’
Controlled focus Wall art plays an important part in the look of the Ham Yard, no more so than in the area outside the hotel’s meeting room where a triple-height
Visitors are lured in to the hotel on a magical trail of LEDs
42 PROJECT HAM YARD HOTEL, LONDON
The hotel management can control the ceiling lights remotely to suit new decorations
ceiling and tall, retro ﬁlm posters demand a creative lighting solution. Remote-controlled LED downlights allows the hotel management to change the focus of the lights. ‘As in any hotel they move furniture around and things aren’t always where they used to be, so it’s much easier to be able to angle your lights exactly where you want them with a remote control,’ says Lake who adds: ‘Commissioning is so much easier
when you don’t have to get an electrician to go up on a scaffold. Choosing long-lasting LED downlights over halogen reduces maintenance time and costs, and Lake is happy with the capability of the LED alternative to accurately reproduce the colours of the artwork. ‘These are really good ﬁttings and the colour is really close to the halogen version so we’re really happy.’
Left: Coffer lights have been used to bring out architectural lines Below: Downlights draw attention to the texture of the fabric-covered red columns and wall art
Reclaimed lines Rather than going unnoticed, the ceilings in the meeting room and arcade have been emphasised with light that open up the space, bring out the architectural lines and create more indirect light. ‘In the meeting room we used LED ceiling coffers to provide an upright light along with pendants over the table, to get workable upward and downward light at the same time,’ Lake explains. In the bowling area and bar, coffers underneath the work tops of the tills give a similar effect.
Emphasis on texture The red columns in the bar area and bowling alley are covered in fabric, which you don’t necessarily notice from afar. To bring out this quirky feature, downlights have been placed in the ceiling around the columns with visible beams painting parts of the columns. The ceiling light in the bowling alley has been coloured with a combination of two ﬁlters to match the colours of the fabrics on the wall. At this stage, the lighting team had to adapt their solution to the vibrantly coloured environment. ‘When it came to commissioning the lighting they had already put all the ﬁnishes on the walls and a lot of the walls are covered in vibrantly covered fabric. That suited the light even better than we expected, especially around the columns where small LED downlights bring out the vibrancy and texture of the fabric,’ says Lake.
44 PROJECT PONTE 16 CASINO, MACAU
MINIMUM energy use Extravagant casinos can’t afford to scrimp on look and feel, but with high-quality LED lamps, even colossal chandeliers can be retroﬁtted in an energy-efﬁcient way. Kathrine Anker reports
t’s easy to assume that a palatial scattering of extraordinarily large luminaires will inﬂuence the power bill in an undesirable way, but the glittery crystal and dramatic chandeliers of the Ponte 16 casino in Macau are as energy-efﬁcient as they are opulent. Designed to embrace Macau’s Portuguese and Chinese heritage, the Ponte 16 resort in the historic centre of Macau consists of a ﬁve-star hotel, casino, retail complex and unique Michael Jackson Gallery, with extravagant chandeliers tying together the grandiose look and feel of the place. These lavish chandeliers are some of the most prominent decorative features in the resort, so when the management wanted to install more energyefﬁcient lighting, it was vital that the end result would give the same look and feel as the previous halogen lights had provided.
A holistic approach Matthew Chu, general manager of Megaman in Hong Kong said: ‘From the installation of the chiller system, air conditioning and ventilation through to temperature control and the lighting system, Ponte 16 has always adopted a holistic approach to achieving energy efﬁciency, by using as many eco-friendly appliances as possible.’ Luckily, LED technology has improved massively since the hospitality sector ﬁrst started experimenting with the early generation of cold, blue lamps that came with the promise of energy savings and long
1,000 tonnes CO2
The new LED lamps achieve the same luxurious look and feel as their halogen predecessors
lifecycles but left the punters with sickly green skin. These days, more LED lamps come in warm colour temperatures that suit the ambience of a place like Ponte 16. Better technology also means that it’s possible to ﬁnd LED light sources that can dim all the way down without ﬂickering. The management at Ponte 16 decided it was high time to take advantage of the beneﬁts offered by new LED technology, and went for a complete retroﬁt. In the chandeliers themselves, signiﬁcant energy savings were made by replacing the 40W G9 halogens and 25W incandescent lamps with Megaman light sources using just 5-7W. The management felt that these lamps achieved the sparkle and brightness of halogen over the casino tables. The immense chandelier at the resort’s exterior was ﬁtted with LED versions
46 PROJECT PONTE 16 CASINO, MACAU
1.5 million kWh
Despite the extravaganza of light, Ponte 16 is saving nearly $170,000 a year with its LED retroﬁt
f traditional bulb lamps and AR38 reﬂectors lamps. n the VIP Hall, hundreds of 4W eds of LED MR16 reﬂector lamps have been used to replace 20W halogens.
Dimming and saving Being able to dim the lights was a particularly important criteria for the management when it came to choosing light sources for the casino’s energy-efﬁcient retroﬁt. As well as using dimmable LED candle lamps, the MR16s, PAR38s and classic bulbs were all dimmable. As well as allowing the management team to set and adjust the mood in the resort with a variety of lighting scenes, the dimmable lamps help the resort save energy and money during off-peak periods when not many guests are in. Opting for LEDs paid off. After installing over 5,000 LED lamps, the Ponte 16 resort now achieves savings of just under 1,446,000 kWh and 1,000 tonnes of CO2
The candle lamps in the hallway chandeliers are dimmable
Let’s talk There’s nothing like getting people around a table and talking. Lux works with companies in the lighting business to develop conferences and forums that connect you with your audience.
Find out how a Lux event can put you in front of the right people. per year. This equates to an electricity bill saving of just under US$170,000 annually. ‘The resort has signiﬁcantly beneﬁted in terms of energy reduction, electricity bill savings and CO2 emissions,’ said Chu. ‘Most importantly, all this has been achieved with no negative impact on the overall look and feel of the resort.’
O Forums O Conferences O Sponsorship opportunities
Down from 1.8m kWh
Down from 1,200 tonnes
TO DISCUSS OPPORTUNITIES CONTACT ROBERTA BONTEMPO ON +44 (0)20 3283 4387 ROBERTA.BONTEMPO@LUXREVIEW.COM
48 PROJECTS ROUNDUP
HOSPITALITY & LEISURE
How it’s done ART GALLERY
QATAR HANDBALL ASSOCIATION COMPLEX, DOHA At this year’s World Handball Championship, the competing teams will be able to settle who’s best in a stadium lit with the latest and most efficient LED lights. The Qatar Handball Association Complex in Doha, which was built for the championship, has had its façade and outdoor areas equipped with LED ﬂoodlights, wallwashers, strip lights and tape. The ﬁttings, provided by Grupo MCI, are controlled with a DMX system with presence control.
FOUR SEASONS RESORT, JUMEIRAH BEACH, DUBAI The Four Seasons Resort at Dubai’s Jumeirah Beach opened last year. The ﬁve-star venue, owned by H&H Hospitality, is a glamorous new resort featuring lighting designed by Craig Roberts Associates in its interiors, outdoor areas and façade. Luminaires from Lucent, GE, ACDC, Ecosense and KKDC were used, supplied by local company Huda Lighting. The scheme features textured walls lit vertically from above to bring out the patterns.
C/O BERLIN GALLERY After years of changing locations, the C/O Berlin Gallery has found a permanent home in the Amerika Haus, a former US cultural centre. The gallery had used Erco products in its previous exhibition spaces, and has continued to use the track design, but with new Erco LED luminaires which are more compact and efficient. Interchangeable lenses allow luminaires to be adjusted to suit each exhibition – be it accent lighting or uniform wall illumination.
AQUARIUM Kwesi Budu-Arthur
TRINITY HALL, UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE Hoare Lea Lighting designed and implemented the lighting of the dining hall at Trinity Hall, Cambridge. The traditional medieval dining hall dates back to the 14th century. The Hall is used daily as a cafeteria as well as for formal dining twice a week,and for events such as conferences and weddings. Hoare Lea Lighting created a contemporary lighting layout, suitable for various functions, while remaining faithful to the original architecture and ﬁnishes.
NEW ENGLAND AQUARIUM , BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS The New England Aquarium in Boston recently underwent a $17.8 million renovation that included the installation of Acolyte static blue RibbonLyte in the new ‘shark wall’. Life-size shark displays are backlit with Acolyte’s blue LEDs. The blue RibbonLyte accentuates the silvery-grey shark graphics that adorn the aquarium wall, adding depth and vibrancy to the display. The architect and exhibit designer was C7A.
A selection of the latest and greatest hospitality and leisure lighting projects from around the world
INTU LAKESIDE FOOD HALL, ESSEX, ENGLAND The food hall at the Intu Lakeside shopping centre features a scheme designed by Lighting Design International, using products from ACDC. The scheme minimises visible light ﬁttings by using linear LED concealed in various details. These provide even illumination while creating visually interesting and bright soffits. This lighting base is punctuated with pendants, and a few downlights. Large bespoke pendants draw shoppers up the escalators.
THE DARYL ROTH THEATRE, NEW YORK The Daryl Roth Theatre, a former bank and a New York City landmark, now has a striking new lighting scheme on its 1840s façade. The entrance is framed by four spectacular Corinthian columns. Once night falls, 150 custom LED ﬁxtures from Acolyte project up and down the walls of the theatre creating the perfect lighting effect from top to bottom. Wide custom optics from the tandem ﬁxtures emphasise the bold and classical façade of this majestic building.
PLAZA PREMIUM LOUNGE, HEATHROW AIRPORT Aurora Projects designed and developed a complete, dimmable LED lighting solution for the Plaza Premium Lounge at Heathrow Airport’s new Terminal 2, which opened last year. This striking, HOTEL 600m2 business class lounge was designed by celebrated Hong BEDROOM/ Kong interior designer Kinney Chan of KCA. The design of the ARTWORK lighting helps to separate this calm and relaxing space from the rest of the busy airport terminal.
BEAUMONT HOTEL, LONDON IlluminationWorks designed lighting for a room specially designed by artist Antony Gormley at London’s Beaumont Hotel. Described as an experiential work of art, it looks from outside like a huge robotic ﬁgure kneeling on the roof. Inside, it’s a bedroom, with linear lighting integrated into the furniture and two LED projectors lighting the bed, without spilling light on the dark ﬂoor. At ﬁrst, the LED linear lights wouldn’t dim as low as Gormley wanted, so special ﬁlters were used.
HYNDBURN LEISURE CENTRE Hyndburn Borough Council has upgraded the lighting at Hyndburn Leisure Centre with the help of funding from Sport England. The council chose MHA Lighting’s LED technology offering high uniformity, good colour rendering and low glare. MHA designed a bespoke solution for the sports hall, installing 40 LED luminaires into the existing high bay infrastructure. Overall lighting energy consumption was reduced by 64 per cent, and light levels on the ﬂoor were raised to 500 lx.
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LIGHTING TIPS 53
Make your guests comfortable and they’ll spend more money
7 ways light can create a
WARM WELCOME The right light can help hospitality venues create great spaces where guests spend money. Lux Award-winning lighting designer Ralph Peake explains how to get it right
1 COLOUR TEMPERATURE The colour of lighting has a big inﬂuence on our feelings and actions. Very warm tones of white, ﬁrelight or tungsten lamps, have a colour temperature of between 2200 and 2700K, which has a calming, restful inﬂuence on us. As colour temperature rises towards 4000K the white light has a cooler appearance and we become more alert. This white is favoured in northern European ofﬁces. Daylight varies throughout the seasons and is affected by sun or cloud presence and orientation, with colour temperatures from 6500K, and from 9000K for north light. There is a connection between colour temperature and illumination levels (lux) in
ow does the leisure and hospitality industry encourage customers to spend their hard-earned cash in a particular pub, club or restaurant? A huge amount of time and money is invested in creating just the right ambience and it goes without saying that lighting has a major role to play. And yet lighting is often neglected or added as an afterthought when it should be central to the design. The fact is, a good-looking room can be turned into a great looking room – and reduce energy consumption and maintenance. Here are seven important points to follow to make sure your public rooms attract customers and keep them coming back.
54 LIGHTING TIPS
Lighting is often neglected or added as an after-thought when it should be central to the design
4 ILLUMINATION OF VERTICAL SURFACES As we walk around, our initial observations tend to be at eye level, so our ﬁrst impression of a space is often the treatment of the vertical surface. A space can be made to appear welcoming and interesting by illumination of the perimeter walls or by highlighting a textured surface.
5 LIGHTING SCENES Providing alternative lighting scenes inﬂuences the way we feel about the space we are in. Considering what the room will be used for will help you determine the most suitable illumination level, the architectural and decorative features will suggest lighting effects, and layers of light can be used to build a lighting scene relevant to the time of day or activity. A number of different scenes allows ﬂexible use of the space and maximises potential revenue.
Vertical illumination makes a space more welcoming
the Kruithof curve. This scientiﬁc research has established a band of values of colour temperature, illumination and lux levels that are comfortable and pleasing. Many installations are now being ﬁtted with LED light sources with a colour temperature of about 5000K, resulting in low illumination and a bluish, cold lighting effect.
2 COLOUR RENDERING Colour rendering is the quality of light and the way in which colours are represented to our eye. It is measured as colour-rendering index (CRI), with daylight producing perfect colour presentation and a CRI of 100.Excellent colour rendering for good colour matching is 90, and good colour rendering for ofﬁce and retail spaces is 80 or above. Below these values, colours can look washed out or unnatural. Cheap and poor quality LEDs can have a CRI as low as 60. At these levels the human face can appear sickly – not good at all in a hospitality setting.
3 LOW-GLARE BAFFLES Bafﬂes conceal the illumination source. If the light source is visible, this will cause glare when you are trying to illuminate a space. By concealing the light source behind a reﬂector or recessing it in the body above a bafﬂe, a room can be effectively illuminated without uncomfortable glare.
Recalling the best lighting scene for a space at a pre-determined time ensures the room looks its best, and you don’t have to worry about staff forgetting to make changes (or remembering to make changes, when you don’t want them to). Lighting can easily be automated to fade from one scene to another over a period of minutes, achieving a subtle and calming change. At the other extreme, colourchanging sequences can be programmed to create a vibrant dynamic scene. Manual overrides can also be accommodated for extraordinary events or the reassurance of being able to turn off all the lights at closing time with the touch of one button.
7 ENERGY EFFICIENCY There has been huge interest in efﬁciency over recent years in a bid to reduce our environmental impact. The cost of energy is a signiﬁcant item in the proﬁt and loss accounts. Simple, base retroﬁt solutions can quickly reduce energy consumption. But make sure you get good quality products – cheap LEDs are tempting, but if they don’t perform, you may face unscheduled replacements further down the line, or worse: the decline in light quality may prompt your customers tomove on to more comfortable and pleasing establishments – even if they can’t describe why they were better. Giant energy reductions can be achieved without compromising colour temperature, colour rendering, glare control and dimming. Lighting designers have a passion for the creative process and delight in delivering enhanced architectural spaces. The beneﬁts are there to be enjoyed and to create wealth for the leisure and hospitality industry. ORalph Peake is managing director of Professional Lighting Design, based on the Isle of Man. The team won a Lux Award last year for the lighting of Jubilee Buildings in Douglas
Le MĂŠridien Hotel (Reno.), Abu Dhabi
Four Seasons Resort, Dubai
Hilton Hotel, Mecca
56 DESIGN CLINIC
ALAN TULLA TECHNICAL EDITOR
Restaurant gardens In association with
Forget the freezing weather, it won’t be long before we’re all eating al fresco again. Alan Tulla weighs up the lighting options
ne of the pleasures of living in the UK is that we have seasons, See the luminaires and spring and summer offer the featured in this article at opportunity to eat and drink outside. www.kingﬁsherlighting.com Traditionally, pubs and restaurants had chairs and tables outdoors. It is now quite common for stately homes and National Trust properties to have them. Strangely, many garden centres have cafes indoors. The ﬁrst priority in any public space is safety. You don’t want people falling down stairs or tripping over paving. You will need some illumination on the paths and steps. Good vertical illumination is essential – it’s hard to be sociable if you can’t see people’s faces. I’m hoping you don’t have to use vandal-resistant luminaires, but weather resistance is a must. That may sound obvious, but plenty of ‘indoor grade’ luminaires are used outside. As a rule, any luminaire recessed in the ground should be rated IP68 because, unless there is good drainage, puddles can form and your uplight can get submerged. Fixing uplights in paving can be a problem. Using a soft mastic or sealant means the uplight can be removed easily for rewiring or if it fails. An epoxy resin sealant is much more secure but can mean that you have to break the stone or paving to remove the uplight. Computer renderings of outdoor installations have a tendency to look more harsh and contrasty than in reality because there are no inter-reﬂections from the ‘ceiling’ and ‘walls’ to soften the shadows. In cities and towns, there is always some light from the sky to add to the night-time scene. I’ll leave the skyglow to your imagination. O Watch out for more Design Clinics at www.luxreview.com
An easy way to achieve good vertical illumination and an even spread of light is to use columns. The crucial thing is to make sure they aren’t too tall. These columns are 3.5m high and the bollards are 1m. A standard 6m streetlighting column would look out of place. An interesting aspect of this design is that both Kingﬁsher Lighting’s Quadrio luminaires are made from the same size square section aluminium extrusion so the appearance is consistent. The light source is a vertical compact ﬂuorescent lamp behind an opal polycarbonate diffuser. The big advantage of this type of lighting is the all-round uniform illumination. No matter where you were, you could easily read the menu. This option provides a comfortable, relaxing, well-lit space.
TECH SPEC Luminaires Quadrio column and bollard Optical control Opal polycarbonate Arrangement As shown Electrical load 540W Pros Plenty of light everywhere Cons Highest electrical load
DESIGN CLINIC 57
cosy feel and the central area seems more private. There are soft pools of light from Kingﬁsher Lighting’s Krio LED strips under the benches. Although cool light sources are often used outdoors, this might beneﬁt from something warmer, say 3,000K. These units can also have colour change, but that decision is for you and your client. Candles on the occupied tables would be an attractive touch. Stone ‘landing light’ paver units graze light across the pathways. These provide visual guidance rather than even illumination across the whole width and length of the path. Place them at the edge of the path for safety. There are wall-mounted narrow beam units in the alcoves that simply highlight the table and chairs. The uplighting of the trees blends in much more with this style of lighting and the whole space is seen as pools of light rather than a uniformly lit area.
This, again, has a more dynamic feel than the ﬁrst option. Most of the illumination is supplied by downlights on the pergola supports. A narrow beam would be more dramatic but the wide angle used here is much more functional and ensures there is light on the tabletops. If there were foliage on the pergolas, you could use the up/down version of this unit. It also comes in a range of colours including brown so its appearance could be fairly discreet. The alcoves are illuminated using Kingﬁsher Lighting’s Inground 55 paver units. Light reﬂects off the walls and works best with pale materials such as yellow brick, concrete or limestone. Depending on the ambient light levels, you might want to add some tabletop lighting.
Luminaires Up/down wall-light plus Stone in-ground lateral beam units and Krio strips Optical control Various Arrangement As shown Electrical load 430W, of which half is the seating Pros Vibrant Cons May be too contrasty for some
Luminaires Downlights and Inground 55 uplights Optical control Reﬂector Arrangement As shown Electrical load 288W Pros Lowest energy consumption Cons You may need extra light in the alcoves
58 DESIGN CLINIC
ALAN TULLA TECHNICAL EDITOR
CLINIC Lift lobbies
Alan Tulla says waiting for a lift need not be a gloomy experience says
ift lobbies are one of the key public areas in hotels, and it’s worth making a good impression. You are unlikely to have to light a lift lobby as a standalone project but, in any case, it should be considered in relation to the adjacent areas. In the hospitality sector this most probably means the reception area and nearby restaurant and bar. The hotel’s interior design will, to a large extent, determine the type of lighting you put in the lift lobby. From an illuminating engineering standpoint, you’ve got a fairly free hand. There’s no real ‘task’ to perform and glare is unlikely to be an problem because guests are only in the space for a short time. However, many large hotel chains have their own style guides. This can restrict what you can do and limit creativity. In the absence of any other guidance, you could consider the lobby as a workplace. Here, the recommended illumination levels are 200-300 lx horizontal, ensuring good vertical illumination on people’s faces (and ensuring that the lift buttons are visible). The amount of illumination should be similar to that in the spaces at either end of the lobby. Don’t forget that lift lobbies don’t usually receive much daylight. There are liftshafts on either side and often an internal corridor on another. The lighting will be on most or all of the time so efﬁcient sources will save you a lot of money. One particular bugbear of mine is a lift lobby that is difﬁcult to ﬁnd, so one of the suggested options here is designed to help overcome that problem. The lobby in our example here is about 3m wide, 3m high and 9m long with a corridor at the end. O Watch out for more Design Clinics at www.luxreview.com
Direct/indirect units are common in spaces with a high ceiling, although the one in this example is only 3m high. The appearance of the luminaire is crucial to the effect you want to achieve. I have used a modern-looking unit. In technical terms, you could most probably achieve similar horizontal and vertical illumination using a large pendant lampshade, but few suppliers offer photometric data for those, so it’s trickier to give an example. The advantage of this option is that you can make a big statement with it. These ‘commercial’ pendants and lampshades are often more than a metre across. For the same reason, it’s easy to get it wrong. If you’re not careful your lobby can be poor taste writ large.
TECH SPEC Luminaires Direct/indirect pendant using ceramic metal halide lamps Optical control Matt white reﬂectors Arrangement Two as shown Average horizontal illuminance 190 lx, Electrical load 6W/m2 Pros Easy to install Cons Getting the right style of luminaire is crucial
DESIGN CLINIC 59
Here, the only lighting for the lobby is around the door frame at the entrance to the lift. The effect is quite dramatic – especially if the walls and ﬂoor have dark ﬁnishes such as black marble or leather. During my research, I came across a lobby for a merchant bank where the ﬂoor was made of dark wood and the walls were equally sombre. I was doubtful about the amount of light that would enter the lobby area but the calculations show that we achieve an average of 200 lx on the horizontal plane although, unsurprisingly, it’s quite a bit darker at the mid-point between the doors. Don’t be tempted to wind up the output from the T5s or LEDs to boost the illumination level. If you are not careful, the strips will become too bright and glaring. This solution works best with narrow lobbies; ones that are, say, less than 3m wide. Depending on the size of the space and the surface ﬁnishes, you should consider whether any extra lighting is necessary to supplement the central area.
LIFTS YOUR SPIRITS
This will give the guests something to talk about. If you are happy using colour, this option is great for attracting attention and opens up a world of possibilities. If you are using only white light, then T5 would be an alternative to LEDs. But this option works best with coloured LEDs. An obvious solution is to use the corporate colours of the establishment. If there aren’t any, employ someone who understands how to use colour. Be wary of frequent colour changing – how many times have you seen it done well? This option must be carefully integrated into the architecture. Don’t assume there is space in the walls and ceiling for the recessed strips.
TECH SPEC Luminaires Custom-made T5 or LED strip in lift door frame Optical control Opal diffuser Arrangement Around three sides of lift entrance Average horizontal illuminance 205 lx Electrical load 13W/m2 Pros Dramatic, works well in a small lobby Cons You must make sure the surrounds aren’t too bright
Luminaires Recessed LED Optical control Prismatic lens Arrangement A funky zig zag pattern Average horizontal illuminance >500 lx on white setting Electrical load 15W/m2 Pros You can’t miss it Cons Try to avoid chromatic overkill
60 EMERGENCY LIGHTING
Here’s someone who wishes they’d looked after their
Not maintaining your emergency lights could land you with a jail sentence or a hefty ﬁne. Yet a surprising number of facility managers don’t test their systems as often as they should. Kathrine Anker reports
eter Metcalf probably regrets not making sure the emergency lighting system at the New Kimberley Hotel in Blackpool, England was up to scratch. Too late now: he’s serving an 18-month prison sentence for breaching the Fire Safety Order. Metcalf’s hotel on Blackpool’s Promenade, now boarded up, would have been a particularly bad place to get caught in a ﬁre. Exit routes were blocked. Smoke alarms were disabled. And there was no proper emergency lighting. If a ﬁre had broken out (as a result of the faulty wiring, for instance), guests would have had to fumble around in the dark, not knowing where to ﬁnd the ﬁre exits – some of which were chained shut anyway. Council ofﬁcials called it a ‘death trap’. Dave Russel, assistant chief ﬁre ofﬁcer for Lancashire Fire and Rescue, told the Blackpool Gazettee at the time: ‘The property had a number of breaches of ﬁre safety and extremely poor ﬁre safety management. It presented a serious risk to life.’ Metcalf’s long list of ﬁre safety breaches earned him the nickname Basil Fawlty, but it can take a lot less than his 15 counts of neglect to land a hotel
facility manager in trouble. A faulty emergency lighting system on its own could, in the worst case scenario, land the person responsible in prison. ‘Because life depends on it, there surely can be custodial sentences for the most ﬂagrant breach of the order that leads to a death or severe injury,’ says John Taylor from Lancashire Fire and Rescue Service. ‘Ultimately it depends on the contribution it has to the outcome,’ continues Taylor. ‘The breach of the emergency lighting regulation within the Regulatory Reform Order can be a contributory factor, but usually it’s the overall picture and usually a breach of that one regulation is in the context of other breaches that lead to gross negligence. If someone is killed in the ﬁre then it certainly can lead to jail.’
Who’s responsible? According to ﬁre safety rules, the owner, landlord or occupier of a business has to carry out regular checks to make sure their emergency lighting is working. But in some cases, other people with responsibility, such as facility managers, could end up being held responsible. ‘The law is drafted to ultimately place the
EMERGENCY LIGHTING 61
The owner of the New Kimberley Hotel in Blackpool is now accommodated at Her Majesty’s pleasure
responsibility squarely with the owner of the property, but it also names in the act a “responsible person” who the owner of the property can appoint and delegate that responsibility to,’ explains Taylor. ‘Generally speaking the requirement is on the responsible person, whether it be the owner or
HOW TO STAY OUT OF JAIL O Carry out a ﬁre risk assessment of your property in accordance with European standard EN 5266. O Have a ﬁre safety plan in place which ensures proper evacuation with ﬁre doors, exits and identiﬁable routes and alternative routes that allow people to get out in case of ﬁre. That includes an emergency lighting system. O Have your emergency lighting system tested once a year by a certiﬁed electrician, and test it in-house once a month, according to Section 5266 part 8 of the Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order. O Make sure to sign all in-house tests and keep this record as documentation. Also be prepared to document that the person carrying out the tests is qualiﬁed to do so.
someone they delegated it to, to make whatever provision necessary, including doing a risk assessment and having a proper ﬁre safety schedule mapped out. If the owner delegates their ﬁre safety responsibilities to someone else, they’re responsible for making sure that person has been properly trained and shown all the equipment. ‘Your ﬁre safety policy, which is required by the Fire Safety Order, should make it very clear who’s responsible for what,’ says Paul Turnbull of Turnbull Fire Consultancy. ‘If it’s not clear, and the training hasn’t been given properly, responsibility still lies with the employer.’ There is no standard form or procedure for this type of training, so the ultimate decision on who ends up in the dock depends on the evidence. ‘It would be down to the prosecutor to start disseminating that and to look at what the training actually consisted of. If there were a case brought against the company, they would investigate the training. Who delivered it, what were their competencies, how was the training received, how was it assessed?’ Consultancies, such as Turnbull’s, provide
62 EMERGENCY LIGHTING
training and ﬁre risk assessments, but responsibility still ﬁrmly lies with the person whose job it is to maintain the ﬁre safety equipment, be it an owner or facility manager.
to life, the ﬁre authority can issue a notice preventing the premises being used for certain things, such as sleeping. The consequences for a hotel could be crippling.
If you’re caught
Assess your risk
Even if nobody gets hurt, it can cost a business dearly if the ﬁre authorities get wind of an emergency lighting system that doesn’t work. In November last year, Eli Zohar, a landlord from Morecambe, had to part with £23,000 ($35,000) after ﬁre and rescue ofﬁcers visited a rented house he owned (pictured, right) and found he had failed to properly maintain his emergency lighting. He also failed to act on an enforcement notice. Although the house was a residential property, it was classed as a house in multiple occupation, making it subject to the same rules as commercial premises. In another recent case, Travelodge was ﬁned £13,000 ($20,000) for breaching ﬁre safety rules (although not lighting speciﬁcally) at its Gatwick Airport hotel. Fire authorities look into complaints about ﬁre safety in public buildings, as well as carrying out targeted inspections, and investigating after ﬁres take place. Tony Crook, group manager of Lancashire Fire and Rescue Service, said at the time of Zohar’s trial: ‘In our constant drive to make Lancashire safer, our ﬁre safety enforcement teams are actively seeking out such premises.’ If they ﬁnd a problem, the authorities will ﬁrst give advice to the person responsible, or a formal warning. But if they conclude that there is a very serious risk
Taylor from Lancashire Fire and Rescue Service reassures that owners and facility managers who comply with the Fire Safety Order, do a risk assessment, have a proper ﬁre safety schedule mapped out and test their emergency lighting system frequently should be well equipped for a ﬁre and safe from legal complications. ‘To be honest, if people follow the advice that’s freely available from sources like ourselves, then there isn’t a lot of complexity to it. It’s not rocket science – it can’t afford to be if you think about it, if the standards were so complex that the people responsible found it impossible to maintain them, there’d be a lot of unsafe premises about. And that isn’t the case, thankfully.’ Unfortunately, some facility owners and managers don’t keep up with their monthly tests as they’re supposed to. Section 5266 part 8 of the Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order states that the person responsible for an emergency lighting system needs to make sure it is inspected once a year by a qualiﬁed electrician who is capable and competent of signing to the British standards, and then tested once a month by the person responsible for the system to see if it turns on. ‘The monthly test consists of either switching off the sub-circuit that feeds the lights or, if one has been provided, operating a test switch,’ explains Turnbull. ‘The test switch does the same thing, disconnects the sub-circuits feeding the lights. The lights then realise they have to go into emergency mode and switch on.’ A seemingly simple task, yet not everyone does it. ‘There are, believe it or not, premises where emergency lighting is still completely disregarded and even if installed, routine testing to ensure its correct operation is carried out only on an occasional basis,’ says Alan Daniels, technical director of UKbased emergency lighting manufacturer P4, says. ‘I have to say, it’s frequently missed,’ Turnbull agrees. ‘A lot of people are doing their annual test but missing their monthly one.’ While there is always a risk that your system might fail before it’s due for its next monthly test, proving that you’ve fulﬁlled and signed off your monthly testing duty should stop you getting prosecuted. ‘At the end of the day, you can’t test your lights every minute. There comes a point where reasonability kicks in,’ Turnbull says. ‘The British standards have reasoned that a monthly test is reasonable for emergency lighting. If you’re complying with that, you’re doing everything reasonable.’
Failing to look after emergency lighting at this building cost landlord Eli Zohar £23,000
EMERGENCY LIGHTING CHOICES There are several types of emergency lighting systems available. Central battery systems are often used in buildings that are operated on a term basis, such as hospitals and schools, but more common, in the UK at least, are emergency ﬁttings with built-in batteries or standard luminaires with an inbuilt emergency function. P4’s BiLED emergency light ﬁtting is According to David Wright from ELP, discreet and available with a range of emergency lighting incorporated into existing light distributions ﬁttings is getting increasingly popular. ‘Architects and speciﬁers see emergency lighting as a necessary evil and if they can get it built into the mainstream lighting, that takes one of their worries away.’ Alan Daniels of P4 says: ‘Emergency lighting can be speciﬁed as either a complete system, which tests itself automatically, then reports and records the outcomes, or a system of ‘stand alone’ luminaires that require manual testing and observational reporting. Alternatively it can be existing ﬁttings which are converted to work when required in an emergency mode. ‘Self evidently, for a product that is designed to provide valuable escape route illumination during an evacuation, the emphasis must be placed on quality and ﬁtness for purpose.’
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Dave Thrower/Red s h ift Ph ot
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O What exactly are my responsibilities? O How can the latest technologies help me? O What are the issues with self-testing, remote monitoring and LED systems? O How can I reduce costs and maintenance while complying? This one-day event is suitable for estates managers, facilities managers, property managers, energy managers, consulting engineers, designers and manufacturers. THURSDAY 23 APRIL 2015 | CAVENDISH CONFERENCE CENTRE, LONDON Organised by
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64 BIODYNAMIC LIGHTING
Are your lights keeping your
GUESTS AWAKE? If you ﬁnd it impossible to get a good night’s sleep in a hotel, the lighting in your room may be to blame. Nicky Trevett taps her foot to the circadian rhythm
he primary function of a hotel is to ensure a good night’s sleep for its guests. Ideally, that means room lighting that does not keep its occupants awake. Soft, muted lighting in attractive warm tones will get the job done. Right? Not necessarily. Now that we have begun to understand the biological effects of light, it appears that a lot of human wakefulness is self-inﬂicted. Our biological clocks tell us when to wake up, when to become tired, and when to fall asleep. These responses are controlled by the colour and brightness of the light around us. Speciﬁcally, high-intensity light that contains a lot of blue makes us feel awake and alert, while its absence helps us to sleep.
Natural vs artiﬁcial We’re meant to start feeling drowsy as the sun sets, when light drains from the sky and cool blue gives way to warm red. This triggers the release of the sleep hormone melatonin and it’s heads down for a good night’s kip. But what we actually do is confuse our biological clock by switching on artiﬁcial lights, letting us remain active long after darkness falls. Research shows that any lighting in the evening or at night shuts down melatonin production. Luc Schlangen, senior scientist at Philips Lighting, explains: ‘The photoreceptors in our eyes, even with eyes the shut, only need to detect a few pulses of light for the body to suppress melatonin production and promote wakefulness.’ The brighter the light, the more extreme the effect – and it’s worse if the light has a strong blue component (which most LED lights do). It means the body doesn’t get the sleep memo until much later. And night lights are an absolute no-no. ‘Melatonin is only produced when you sleep in complete darkness,’ says Schlangen.
Room lighting that is too bright or too blue is not the only problem. Research suggests that the blue spectrum light emitted by TV, computer and smartphone screens and other gadgets also suppresses melatonin. To test this, researchers from Harvard Medical School locked a group of people in a sleep lab for two weeks, some with a paper book for company, others with an iPad. The participants with the iPads produced less melatonin than those with paper books and took longer to get to sleep. Clearly no hotel is going to remove TVs from rooms, conﬁscate phones and advise guests to go to bed with a good book. Nor is it going to hand out oil lamps and candles. So what can be done to make bedroom lighting more biologically friendly? To answer this question, Osram joined forces with the Bergisch University of Wuppertal in Germany to ﬁnd out if the use of special chronobiological lighting (lighting adapted to biological rhythms) would help hotel guests feel more awake and active in the day and sleep better at night. The study was carried
BIODYNAMIC LIGHTING 65
Bright light with high levels of blue is counterproductive in the evening and at night” Andreas Wojtysiak, Osram Andreas Wojtysiak, senior light and health scientist at Osram, explains: ‘Bright light with high levels of blue light is counterproductive in the evening and at night, disturbing the circadian system and reducing sleep quality. But warm white light at low illuminance levels is not appropriate for the morning and day because it does not stimulate the body clock and circadian system to toggle between recovery (night) mode and activated (day) mode.’
Day and night
out in the Jammertal Golf and Spa Resort hotel in Datteln, Germany. One group of 40 people was exposed to standard hotel lighting conditions, and a second group spent two days in lighting conditions designed to simulate the natural sky. The response of the two groups was tested using long-term ECGs, motion sensors, and measurement of cortisol and melatonin levels. The results showed that the chronobiologically adapted lighting reduced symptoms of stress, fatigue and discomfort in the test group during the study period. The quality of sleep was increased and nighttime restlessness reduced due to a rapid reduction of melatonin level in the morning and a rapid rise in the evening. The test group also reported feeling less tired during the day. The study highlighted the fact that a healthy circadian sleep cycle is not just about dropping off to sleep. It’s also about waking feeling alert and refreshed. And that requires a dose of bright cold light (‘activating’ light) during the early part of the day.
Can’t sleep? Dim the lights and put your bloody phone away
In other words, to ensure a smooth transition from wakeful to sleepy and back again, our hotel guest requires a nice warm glow in the evening and highintensity cool light during the day. Luminaires exist that address speciﬁc stages of the circadian rhythm; Philips’ LED-based Wake-Up Light, for example, gradually increases light levels over 30 minutes to ensure a gentle, natural waking process. But we could be waiting some time for a smart lighting system capable of managing individual sleep cycles around the clock, catering for both night owls and morning larks. ‘We do not recommend an optimum sleep cycle because what is right for one person may not be right for another,’ says Philips’ Luc Schlangen. ‘Our research shows that it is near impossible to recommend an ideal sleep-wake cycle for anyone because we do not all have the same natural circadian rhythm. While we know that most people have a longer circadian rhythm than our 24-hour artiﬁcial clock, within this group the variation is vast.’ Realistically, then, what is the best approach for the hotel operator keen to do right by its guests? ‘A general room light that is dimmable and can provide warm white colours, plus ideally an orientation light, yellow to red, that is controlled by a sensor or switchable, to avoid falls when being up in the night,’ suggests Andreas Wojtysiak. ‘A spot-like luminaire would give warm white light for reading. ‘For the morning, a light that slowly dims up before you are awake to ease the wake-up process. During the day, a cool white light with high light levels – if signiﬁcant time is to be spent there during the day.’ Sorted.
Lighting lessons from Forget lighting designers – it’s guests whose opinions about your hotel lighting really matter. They’re making their views known online, and it ain’t always pretty. Here’s how to avoid getting a bad write-up MAINTAIN YOUR LAMPS ‘I reported the broken light bulbs in the afternoon. I returned a few hours later to ﬁnd the matter unresolved, I then reported again. Around an hour later it was still unresolved and it was now dark. In the end I had to hastily change rooms, as they did not to have staff available for the task of changing a light bulb.’ A Knowles from Blackburn never quite found out how many members of staff it takes to change a light bulb at the Mercure Hotel in Sheffield, England ‘How many Holiday Inn people team it takes to change a light bulb and still fail? Seven. Staying here for two weeks and they haven’t ﬁgured out how to replace a light bulb.’ NomadicGuru from Washington suspects the Holiday Inn Townsville in Queensland, Australia is relying on its good location to make up for its poor service ‘How many maintenance requests does it take to change a light bulb? At the Emerald Lake, the answer is three. This is a splendid property. It needs an upgrade in management and service.’ Martin E from California was expecting better when he visited the Emerald Lake Lodge in British Columbia, Canada
‘We spent two out of three nights with no bedside light – on one side the bulb was blown and on the other side there was no plug socket, until on our last night they fetched an extension lead.’ Catllar from France was left in the dark at the Golden Rice Hotel in Hanoi, Vietnam ‘I stayed there two nights, stairs were dirty and never vacuumed. Light bulb missing from stairwell light. Dirty, dark and dangerous.’ Sounds like Jeff G from Montana won’t be rushing back to the Super 8 in Gillette, Wyoming
DON’T LEAVE GUESTS IN THE DARK JUST BECAUSE IT’S AN EVENING/WEEKEND ‘Premier Inn feel it necessary to ﬁt special bulbs to stop you nicking them, for which special knowledge is required in order for one to be changed. 10pm is a time when the bedside light would be most handy, so if a bulb fails at this time it would be useful if a spare and the suitably trained person were available. But no.’ Adrian M was unimpressed by the out-of-hours service at the Premier Inn in Newcastle, England ‘Electric jug and one bedside light didn’t work, so reported both to office staff. Given new jug but informed light bulbs not allowed to be held in stock. Assistant made phone call, but no answer. We had to purchase new bulb from local supermarket in order to read in bed… No maintenance support over weekend? Not good enough!’ The fact that it’s Saturday is no excuse for the lack of maintenance at the Port Lincoln Tourist Park in South Australia, says 272jfw45
TRIPADVISOR IF BULBS START EXPLODING, MAYBE TAKE A LOOK ‘Watch out for exploding light bulbs! While in the room, the light bulb outside the bathroom exploded right above me when I turned the light on. Apart from the almighty bang, there was glass everywhere, and smoke following a ﬂash of light. We immediately rang reception who totally did not understand the severity of what had just occurred. The cleaning lady came to the rescue, but not once did reception seek to ﬁnd out if I was hurt.’ Janine2511’s holiday at the Edelweiss Hotel in Ulan Bator, Mongolia started with a bang
DON’T OVERCOMPLICATE THINGS ‘One quirk: the lighting “slot” in the room I ﬁrst stayed in was eight feet from the room door – fun in the dark! I struggled to ﬁnd the main light switch to turn the lights off to sleep. The ﬁrst time I ended up pulling the card out of the slot. On the second occasion I googled it (really!) and found it was on the back of one of the legs on the desk. Bonkers. At least put a sign up!’ Sleepysand2014 from Exeter was frustrated by the lighting at the Copthorne Hotel in Sheffield, England
‘Good night’s sleep with spacious room. However, for the size of the room… the lighting is too dim.’ VictorNgWH from England was underwhelmed by the lighting at the Mercure in Bratislava, Slovakia ‘The rooms, though lovely, are very dark. Very romantic and a good ambience, some may say. But when trying to do hair and make-up – hopeless. To make matters worse, desk light not working. Tried to get bulb replaced, but nothing. Therefore had to move lamps around, and ended up going out looking like a clown!’ ashover98 failed to live up to her usual grooming standards – and she blames the Doubletree in Lincoln, England
DON’T FORGET TO LEAVE SPACE FOR YOUR GUESTS IN BETWEEN YOUR FANCY LIGHT FITTINGS ‘The worst feature is a four-light bulb ﬁxture on top of the headboard and in the middle of the bed. The bulbs stick out about a foot from the wall and about a foot and a half from your head so if you are not careful, you could hit them and hurt yourself… I have never seen anything like that!’ iim1dcn wasn’t convinced by the lighting design at the Cozy Cove Beach Front Resort Inn in Lincoln City, Oregon
‘The light switches in the room are annoyingly difficult to ﬁgure out. There is even a light switch to turn on the electrical outlets – and it’s unlabelled. One desk light we never found the switch for. We would’ve turned off the main kill switch at night, but then our phones would not have recharged. We had to unscrew the light bulb. Really???’ MamaGuida from Florida lost patience with the Sheraton München Westpark Hotel in Munich, Germany
DON’T MISTAKE DARKNESS FOR ATMOSPHERE ‘The retro-modern design was a good idea, but it’s poorly implemented. Insufficient, gloomy lighting’ Christoph Stieg’s verdict on the Regina Hotel in Bad Gastein, Austria
Photo: Redshift Photography
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CONTROLS HOSPITALITY 69
Controlling a bedside light in a hotel room can be fraught with danger
It’s not just about
Lighting controls have the potential to take charge of other systems in hotel rooms, says Sam Woodward Engravings are great, but not so clear in the dark
I recently stayed in a splendid Regency-period hotel, replete with lovely brass light switches, each thoughtfully engraved with its zone of control, which provided more clues to their operation than many hotel bedside light switches. (although I am still puzzling over why there were two ‘bed’ switches when there was just one bed in the room.) However, in the dark, these were useless to me because I couldn’t see the words, and much nocturnal bedside fumbling was necessary to get the lights on. In fact, I only discovered the engraving the next morning when I threw open the curtains.
Backlit buttons Softly illuminated backlit button engraving – that’s the answer. Thinking further, the backlighting should not be blue (which regular readers of Lux x will
uch! We’ve all done it… that sudden sensation of stubbing a toe in a dark hotel room. Painfully pulled from our state of semi-sleep by stumbling over a piece of furniture we haven’t got because we’re in a room that’s not our own. If only the lights were easy to operate, if only the switches were easy to ﬁnd, and then… if only it could be simple to choose the lighting state that we want: perhaps dim light so I could leave my spouse snoozing while shufﬂing off for a midnight bathroom trip. For the guest’s convenience, lighting in any part of the room should be controllable from the bed. There should be no need to get out of bed to extinguish the entrance lighting. And while we’re on the subject of control from bed, let’s ensure that the curtains can be closed from bed too.
70 CONTROLS HOSPITALITY
Lighting, heating and curtains could all work under the same control system
Careful consideration of lighting controls in a hotel room can signiﬁcantly enhance the guest experience”
know is not conducive to deep sleep), but instead something more soothing; a dim green glow is ideal. Careful consideration when designing lighting controls in a hotel room, particularly with regard to the user interface, can therefore signiﬁcantly enhance the guest experience, saving stubbed toes around the world.
Dramatic improvements Yet there’s so much more that a control system, even one primarily installed to operate the lighting, can do to enhance a hotel guestroom; quite apart from helping to avoid the nightmare of painful experiences in the dark. A control system can make dramatic improvements for both the guests, in terms of convenience and comfort, and also for the hotel operators, in terms of energy saving. The two are not mutually exclusive. Lighting controls are positioned in the right space to perform other useful functions – in this application, determining whether a guest is in the room. A control system can determine when a guest is using the space using a combination of occupancy detection (sensors, which of course must be silent), logging of guest interactions with the system (such as lights being switched on with the helpfully engraved backlit buttons on keypads being pressed), dooropening switches, feedback from the door keycard reader, and even information supplied directly from the hotel’s room-management software. Once it has been established whether anyone’s in the room, a host of energy-saving measures can be deployed. Every guest has a different preferred
set-point temperature for the heating, but most of us use the ‘whack it up to full’ technique to make adjustments. However, the temperature does not have to be maintained precisely once the room is vacant. For example, if the control system determines that a room is empty, then not only can the temperature set-point in the room be set back slightly, but the range of allowable temperature can be widened. This is because it’s not only the temperature that matters, but the permitted drift from that point. A wider temperature range means less cycling of the heating system, saving energy.
Kill the keycard hack Finally let’s address the ‘keycard hack’. Entering a room, often carrying baggage, searching for the keycard slot to activate lighting is an annoyance, an inconvenience, and also unnecessary if the room is equipped with the kind of guest-presence logic outlined above. Guests often resent the rather crude method of energy saving that the keycard represents, often opting to ‘hack’ it by leaving a business card or spare keycard in the slot-switch anyway, negating any savings. Also, if the room’s thermostat is ‘switched off’ during periods of absence, as is often the case with card systems, then the total energy required to reheat the room to the guest’s desired temperature on their return is actually higher than if an intelligent control system were simply to use a set-back temperature when vacancy is detected. The days of single-function controls for hotel rooms are over; a system that controls both lighting, heating and curtains can enhance the guest experience in several ways, both subtle and signiﬁcant, and can make a key contribution to a hotel’s energy-saving targets at the same time. O Sam Woodward is education leader for Europe and Africa at Lutron
Rune Marki, Managing Director, Osram UK
At Osram, we are conﬁdent that as a member of Recolight we fully comply with the spirit of the WEEE regulations. Our Customers know that through Recolight they have a one stop shop service for the recycling of our lighting equipment. Recolight removes the burden of WEEE compliance allowing us to focus on our core business.
We joined Recolight because we felt it very important to provide a national free lamp recycling service for our customers, and something they could access with ease. Recolight's dedicated lamp-focused service is completely in line with our needs to meet compliance requirements for business and residential customers.
Clive Riddell, Technical Manager, Venture Lighting
As a Recolight member we know that not only are we meeting our obligations under the WEEE Regulations but we are also part of a scheme which is actively trying to increase awareness and raise recycling rates - so it demonstrates to our customers that we are taking our environmental responsibilities seriously.
Havells-Sylvania are committed to providing our customers with the best possible solutions – and that includes a comprehensive recycling service. That’s why our membership of the Recolight scheme is important to us. The Recolight network has over 2300 collection points covering the whole of the UK. That means our customers, wherever they are, can all access a free recycling service.
... ustry d n i lighting Join the WEEE compliance scheme that sets the standard for the
0845 601 7749 www.recolight.co.uk
Saima Shaﬁ Sales & Marketing Director, LED Eco Lights
John Storey SBU Director,Havells-Sylvanie
72 EVENT SMART LIGHTING CONTROLS EUROPE 2015
FREE! To end users
Smart Lighting Controls Europe 2015
Bafﬂed by lighting controls?
HELP IS AT HAND Our conference on smart lighting controls will help you make sense of it all. Robert Bain reports
echnology has a habit of making things more complicated when it’s supposed to be making them easier. Lighting controls are no exception. But if you’re not using controls, you’re missing out on potentially huge energy savings with quick paybacks – not to mention the chance to make your spaces smarter, safer and more welcoming. You don’t have to be an expert to get the best out of lighting controls – but you do need to be able to tell your Dali from your DMX, and have some clue of what the manufacturer is on about when he turns up trying to sell you an all-singing, all-dancing system.
The controls revolution
Our expert panels will debate the hottest issues in the world of lighting control
The good news is, there’s been a revolution in lighting controls technology. From internet addressing to wireless control, the latest technology lets you put light in the right place at the right time. Facilities managers and energy managers in the education, industrial, commercial and retail sectors are seeing the potential in controls and reaping the beneﬁts for their organisations. To help you do the same, Lux x is bringing together the leading experts in controls for the second Smart Lighting Controls Europe conference, to cut through the jargon and show you what controls can do for you. This unmissable one-day conference is aimed at anyone who wants to understand what controls can do for them. And for end users, it’s completely free. Our expert speakers will demystify the basics of lighting control, telling you everything you need to know about the key concepts, acronyms and
PROGRAMME HIGHLIGHTS LIGHTING CONTROL FOR DUMMIES Controls are supposed to make your life simple. So why are they so complicated? Controls guru Sam Woodward of Lutron answers all the stupid questions you were too afraid to ask. RETROFIT CONTROLS IN AN AGEING ESTATE How do you get new controls on old buildings? Can you make big savings on dated lighting stock? Do the numbers stack up? Is wireless an option? Andy Davies of Harvard Engineering explains.
John Hindley of Manchester Metropolitan University shares his experience of major lighting control projects
technologies, so you can decide what you need and what you don’t. We’ll look at exemplar projects such as Manchester Metropolitan University – the problems encountered, how they were overcome and what was achieved. And our panels will debate the hot topics in the world of controls right now, including the future of Dali, and the internet of things. We’ll get a glimpse into the future with exclusive brieﬁngs on the very latest controls technologies, including Li-Fi, indoor positioning and where lighting ﬁts into the ‘internet of things’. Taking place at the Cavendish Conference Centre in central London on 26 February, the event is organised by Lux x together with the Lighting Industry Association. To register for a free place, contact Fergus Lynch on email@example.com or 020 3283 4387. Head to www.smartlightingconference.com to ﬁnd out more about the event. 26 FEBRUARY 2015 CAVENDISH CONFERENCE CENTRE, LONDON, UK Owww.smartlightingconference.com
CONTROLS FOR ALL BUDGETS The choice doesn’t have to be between a sophisticated all-singing all-dancing system and a humble light switch. In between, there’s a whole range of control options to suit all budgets. Jeremy Turner of Fab Controls gives his independent view. CASE STUDY MANCHESTER METROPOLITAN UNIVERSITY John Hindley of Manchester Metropolitan University explains how lighting controls ﬁt into the university’s environmental strategy. Drawing on his experience managing the newly built Birley Fields Campus and various retroﬁt projects, John will show the beneﬁts that lighting controls can bring to a large, complex estate.
PANEL DISCUSSION IS DALI DEAD? Dali, the digital lighting control protocol, may ﬁnd itself surplus to requirements amid the ongoing revolution in internet and wireless control. Is Dali still a viable standard? Our panel argues it out. PANEL DISCUSSION THE INTERNET OF THINGS Is the ‘internet of things’ just marketingspeak, or a real opportunity to create a smarter, more connected world? What role will lighting play? Our expert panel separate hype from reality.
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LIGHTING ECONOMIST 75
WHAT IF... all the UK’s hotels went LED? Lux’s lighting economist, Dave Tilley, considers the implications of a wholesale conversion to LED light sources in the UK’s hotels
hat would happen if all the ﬁttings in Britain’s hotel bedrooms were replaced with LEDs? I’ve estimated the potential savings using hotel industry information and 2015 projections.
First, I considered changing eight incandescent and halogen lamps to LED in every one of the UK’s 615,000 hotel bedrooms – and then a complete changeover including common areas in 31,000 hotels. Let’s see what happens.
IF WE REPLACED ALL THE LAMPS IN THE BEDROOMS... Room occupancy in 473,200 regional hotel rooms
% 76% Room occupancy in London’s 142,200 hotel rooms
These ﬁgures are based on an estimate of 31,000 hotels in the UK. I have assumed there are 473,200 regional rooms with 76 per cent occupancy and 142,200 London rooms with 84 per cent occupancy. At present, each room is equipped with two 60W GLS sources, a pair of 25W candle lamps, and four 50W halogens. These operate for two, two and four hours a day, respectively. They would be replaced with 11W classic LED lamps, 7W LED candles and 7W GU10 LED sources. Those are pretty conservative estimates of the operating hours and number of lamps, I think. The result is a saving £5.5 million ($8.3 million) plus £324,000 ($492,000) in CRC charges to the government for the carbon emissions.
Two 60W GLS lamps replaced by 11W classic LED lamps
Two 25W candle lamps replaced by 7W LED candles
Four 50W halogens replaced by 7W GU10 LEDs
tonnes of CO2 saved
£5.8 million in energy and CO2 charges g saved
76 LIGHTING ECONOMIST
IF WE REPLACED THE LAMPS IN CORRIDORS AND TOILETS...
There are 31,000 hotels in the UK
tonnes of CO2 saved
£125 million in energy and CO2 charges saved
50W GU10 halogen lamps replaced by 7W GU10 LED lamps
MY CONCLUSIONS The results are staggering: £131 million ($199 million) and 677,000 tonnes of CO2 could be saved if Britain’s hotels changed their bedroom, corridor and toilet lights to LED. But for many businesses, the capital investment needed to do this is still considered a barrier, even when it might pay for itself in a year or less. The scale of the potential savings – and their contribution to CO2 reduction targets – should capture the imagination of the hotel industry. But government should also be more involved in encouraging better lighting, if it is serious about lowering the country’s energy consumption.
H OT EL How about some even more impressive energy, carbon dioxide and ﬁnancial savings? Bedroom lighting tends to operate for short periods each day, and is also inﬂuenced by the number of guests staying at the hotel. In contrast, corridor and toilet lights are generally on 24/7. I have assumed that a typical installation consists of 100 50W halogen lamps, and that they would be replaced by 7W GU10 LED lamps operating 24 hours a day. The savings would be £125 million ($190 million), including nearly £117 million ($178 million) in energy costs and just under £8 million ($12 million) in CRC charges.
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78 PROJECTS STADIUMS
Stadiums the world over are turning to LEDs for ﬂoodlighting. But, asks Tobias Gourlay, should they wait for the next generation of LED lights?
t used to be that if a sports stadium was equipped for outside broadcasts at all, it had one static main camera and a standalone ﬂoodlight tower in each of its four corners. In recent years, sports broadcasting has evolved rapidly and its advances have had a double impact on the ﬂoodlighting requirements of elite sports clubs. First, the development of slow motion replays – and now high-deﬁnition super-slow motion – has increased video’s speed from about 70 to 300 frames per second. Broadcasters’ demands for natural, ﬂicker-free lighting have thus become much harder to meet. The London Olympics of 2012 marked the point when ﬂicker started to be speciﬁed at the design stage of stadium lighting projects. Today there are two ways a stadium can go:
LEDs: ready for
KICK-OFF? conventional metal halide ﬂoodlights with electronic control gear, or LED.
Growing market In August 2014 Chelsea, one of England’s leading football clubs, played – and won – the ﬁrst English football match under LED lights: a pre-season friendly against Spain’s Real Sociedad. The new lighting at Chelsea’s Stamford Bridge stadium was supplied by Philips. Although the energy savings from LED are relatively small, the new lights should be brighter than the ones they replace, last 10 years instead of just three, and are much more controllable. Southampton was the next English club to introduce LED lighting at its St Mary’s stadium, supplied by local company Vision Accendo. In the midwestern US state of Iowa, Musco is a sports lighting specialist of 40 years standing. It
provided LED-based ﬂoodlights for about 60 sporting facilities last year – an impressive ﬁgure, but still only a small share of the market when you consider that Musco is expecting to work on a total of 2,000 projects (using LEDs as well as other technologies) this year. Its LED projects include the NRG Stadium (home of the Houston Texans American football team), the training ground of the Denver Broncos and Twickenham Rugby Stadium in London. According to Mike Simpson, technical and design director of Philips UK, ‘ﬂoodlighting is one of the last areas in which LED is taking over’. Before the 2014 football World Cup, the Dutch technology giant installed pitch lighting at ﬁve stadiums around Brazil. All ﬁve used the ﬁrm’s ArenaVision metal halide system, which is optimised for HDTV, 3D and for super-slow motion ﬁlming. However, those metal
Steve Bardens / Getty Images
Above: Chelsea’s Diego Costa celebrates the ﬁrst Premier League goal under LED lights Below: The Philips lights that light the stadium
superior in nearly every way measurable,’ says Mike Lorenz, Ephesus’ president. The stadium’s owner anticipates a 75 per cent drop in its lighting bills as a result, but there are other reasons for the upgrade. Two years ago, the 2013 Super Bowl was interrupted by a power outage that plunged New Orleans’ Superdome into darkness for just over half an hour. Later that same year, an American League Championship Series baseball game at Comerica Park in Detroit was delayed almost 20 minutes. A couple of years earlier, another televised NFL American football game at San Francisco’s Candlestick Park was twice delayed by power failures – for more than 15 minutes each time. Part of the problem in cases like this is that, if metal halide ﬂoodlights go off, you usually have to wait 10 minutes or more for them to cool down before you can switch them back on. No one wants to be
halides have now been ‘squeezed as much as they can be’. Jeff Rogers, vice president of development sales at Musco, agrees: ‘Metal halide technology has reached its zenith, while the energy efﬁciency and quality of LED lighting is still rising – and will continue to do so as luminaire manufacturers spend more time working with it.’ It’s hard to ﬁnd anyone who believes the LED takeover can be stopped and will not be total. Already, top venues and events are making the switch. This year’s Super Bowl – America’s most watched TV broadcast and one of the most watched sports events in the world – took place under LED lights. New York state-based Ephesus Lighting replaced 780 metal halide ﬁttings with 312 LED units at the University of Phoenix Stadium in Glendale, Arizona which hosted the event in early February. ‘LED is
80 PROJECTS STADIUMS
Ephesus’ LED lights at this year’s Super Bowl venue
owners must respond and Collard believes they should exploit the versatility of LED for lighting entertainment shows as much as for lighting sports. Philips’ Simpson suggests that about a third of the budget of a regular concert is splashed on audience lighting. ‘Being able to plug LED ﬂoodlights into an entertainment system, and program them from there, seriously reduces those lighting costs.’ In the case of Chelsea Football Club, where Philips recently installed LED lights, it means the advantages go beyond just lighting for matches.
blamed for tarnishing a city’s chance to shine and, in the event of a power failure, the ability of LEDs to turn on instantly could reduce serious ﬁnger-tapping delays to mere blips.
Light entertainment One of LED’s other advantages was showcased at the Super Bowl’s half-time show, starring Katy Perry. As Ephesus’ Lorenz explains: ‘Its on/off capability allows LED to be programmed for entertaining light shows, helping organisers to save on the cost and energy required for a separate entertainment lighting system.’ Around the world, the days of using mechanical shutters to effect a creative blackout are coming to an end. This is the second impact of the broadcasting improvements we started with: sports fans are so happy with the quality of their living room experiences they no longer feel the need to watch quite so many matches live in stadiums. The owners of these facilities have therefore sought alternative sources of income, and a popular option has been music concerts. Schréder supplied all the lighting for Belo Horizonte’s Mineirão Stadium, which was used in last year’s football World Cup and will be deployed again for the 2016 Olympics in Rio de Janeiro. Its sports market segment manager, Cédric Collard, recognises there are ‘so many more reasons why it’s now better to be on the couch than at the ground’. Stadium
‘It allows the club to include orchestrated lighting displays in prematch entertainment,’ says Simpson. ‘The only limit with LED is people’s imaginations. We’re not necessarily advocating this, but you could, for example, spotlight the individual players involved in a penalty shootout at the end of a game.’ As well as allowing event organisers to trip the light fantastic, LED has some more mundane – but no less useful – applications. It is fully dimmable so, for example, once a match (or concert) is ﬁnished lighting levels can be reduced to, say, 10 per cent to help the groundsmen (or cleaning staff) ﬁnish their jobs. Then, of course, there are the universal betterments of LED. As well as using less energy themselves, LED ﬁttings emit less heat than metal halide luminaires, which can mean reduced air-conditioning costs for indoor arenas. Solid-state lighting also has some very local environmental advantages: optic controls can be applied to greatly reduce spill and glare, and thus light pollution. But, to achieve the sustainability double win of long-term ﬁnancial and environmental savings, there is always the hurdle of high upfront costs. For the moment, this remains an insurmountable barrier for some stadium owners, particularly those who might run a smaller facility that does not need to be HDTV-ready. Osram currently recommends LED ﬁttings only for indoor applications, where distances are shorter and – crucially – usage times are greater. Its sports
lighting application manager, Torsten Onasch, estimates annual operating times of 2,000-3,000 hours for multifunctional indoor arenas and energy savings of 30-50 per cent for those who switch to LED from a conventional system – as well as the usual maintenance beneﬁts that surround LED’s longer lifespan. Those maintenance beneﬁts can be considerable because, as Schréder’s Collard points out, many stadiums carry out preventative relamping of all ﬁttings – even the working ones – to minimise the risk of failure during a game. Moving outdoors, Onasch says operating hours can be as low as 300 hours in big stadiums that do not usually host more than one professional match a week. Bearing in mind the efﬁciency of, say, a 2,000W metal halide lamp in a ﬂoodlight like Osram’s Siteco R3 Maxi (around 95 lm/W compared with an LED equivalent with 80-85 lm/W), the energy savings are not enough to justify the considerable upfront costs. With such low usage, LED’s maintenance advantage is lost too. ‘A 2000W lamp would only need to be changed required after seven to 10 years. In that time every luminaire has to be cleaned – LED and conventional ﬁxtures alike.’ So the LED takeover might not yet be allencompassing, but it is imminent. The speciﬁcations we mentioned are from a current Osram project: the stadium in Baku, Azerbaijan that will host the inaugural European Games in June this year and must meet Olympic standards, including no ﬂicker. ‘But sooner or later, LED will prevail for pitch lighting,’ Onasch conﬁrms. Even a year ago LED technology was not ready for large stadiums, says Lorenz, but Ephesus has recently contacted ‘nearly every’ new sports facility that is under construction or planning to break ground, and says ‘all of them are seriously considering LED’. Simpson recognises that LED pitch lighting is only in its ﬁrst generation. ‘The second generation is in the pipeline and it will deliver better quality with fewer ﬂoodlights.’ There will also be new-build stadium
MILESTONES IN STADIUM LIGHTING FOR TV 1878 First football match under ﬂoodlights: Bramall Lane, Sheffield, England, attracted 20,000 people 1937 First football match broadcast live on TV: Arsenal v Arsenal Reserves 1990 Italian TV makes the ﬁrst live HDTV broadcast of a football match as the country hosts the World Cup 2010 First 3D live TV broadcast of a football match: Arsenal v Manchester United 2012 First ﬂicker-free super-slow motion TV broadcast at the Olympic Games in London 2014 Chelsea Football Club becomes the ﬁrst Premier League club to use LED ﬂoodlights
projects – not just refurbishments – which will bring opportunities to integrate LEDs into the architecture. ‘You might see bands of lights instead of clusters,’ says Simpson. ‘Designing for older stands is hard, but the complete ﬂexibility of LED is exciting for architects.’ When that second generation arrives – and while the pace of change remains fast – there will be just one question for owners of world-class stadiums: should they switch to LED now and congratulate themselves for being among the ﬁrst, or wait just a little bit longer so that they are future-proofed for years to come?
Above: How the LED-lit National Stadium in Baku, Azerbaijan will look Right: Houston’s NRG Stadium, lit by LED lights from Musco
82 RULES AND REGS
Lighting consultant and SLL president-elect Liz Peck takes us through the rules and regs you need to know about for hospitality venues
LIZ PECK LIGHTING CONSULTANT
Hospitality lighting: everything you
NEED TO KNOW Legalities The principal legislative requirements for hospitality and leisure facilities in the UK lie in the relevant Building Regulations. These are now separated out between England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland, and while there are some core elements, each has its own nuances so make sure you have the right guidance document for where your building is. For lighting, the main crux is the part dealing with conservation of fuel and power. In a nutshell, it’s energy efﬁciency. Hospitality has always been a bit of a grey area where the building regulations are concerned as it includes ‘general areas’ as well as ‘display lighting’, which has much less stringent efﬁcacy demands. The third section is for ‘ofﬁce, industrial and storage’ where luminaire performance instead of lamp efﬁcacy, is the driver, with additional facility to bring in lighting controls. If you’re feeling lazy, it would be easy to convince yourself that all hospitality lighting is display lighting, but the guidance is quite clear that display lighting should be on separate controls to facilitate it being switched off when ‘people are not inspecting exhibits, merchandise or being entertained’. This effectively precludes the widespread use of inefﬁcient sources, even in restaurants as more efﬁcient lighting must be provided during cleaning, setting-up times etc. It is also worth noting that any task which is predominantly desk-based falls into the ofﬁce category so reception areas will almost inevitably fall into this category.
The legislation governing the quantity of light is pretty much restricted to that published by the Health and Safety Executive, and its guide on lighting at work. As might be expected, it really only deals with the health and safety aspects of lighting for people in the workplace, rather than the creation of pleasant or appropriate lighting environments. It says it’s important that lighting in the workplace: Oallows people to notice hazards and assess risks; O is suitable for the environment and the type of work (for example, it is not located against surfaces or materials that may be ﬂammable); O provides sufﬁcient light (illuminance on the task); O allows people to see properly and discriminate between colours, to promote safety; O does not cause glare, ﬂicker or stroboscopic effects; O avoids the effects of veiling reﬂections; O does not result in excessive differences in illuminance within an area or between adjacent areas; O is suitable to meet the special needs of individuals; O does not pose a health and safety risk itself; O is suitably positioned so that it may be properly maintained or replaced, and disposed of to ensure safety; O includes, when necessary, suitable and safe emergency lighting. The guide also gives recommended illuminance levels, although these are only split into ﬁve categories dependent on risk and level of detail with average illuminances ranging from 20 lx for circulation
RULES AND REGS 83
to 500 lx in drawing ofﬁces. It also gives minimum levels deemed acceptable. Given the limited scope of the categories, it is b obtain more detailed guidance. Guidance The Society of Light and Lighting (SLL) publishes a raft of lighting guidance which reﬂects the relevant European standards. This covers not just the recommended illuminance levels for the tasks involved, but also applicatio guidance. The SLL’s Guide to the Lighting of Licensed Premises differs from many of their technical guidance as it is aimed primarily at the manager of the premises – a non-expert. B contrast, the ‘Code for Lighting’ is highly technical and pro more suited to larger chains of premises with lighting spec or facilities managers within the staff. Having said that, the licensed premises guide does tackle design considerations such as distinguishing the bar back from drinking or eating areas as well as detailed guidance on surface colours as well as key factors such as colour rendering and selection of suitable lamp types for different areas within the building and the principles in the guide can be applied in many different types of hospitality and leisure facilities. Many people will have experienced poor lighting in restaurants and bars and the key remains to consider the users of the space. Creating a moody, subdued lit environment is not much help if you can’t read a menu. The SLL guidance always puts the users at the heart of its design guidance and the licensed premises guide is a useful starting point. Esos Much of the regulation and guidance for hospitality and leisure facilities covers the individual buildings. But companies comprising a large number of facilities, such as hotel or restaurant chains, must also comply with the new Energy Savings Opportunity Scheme, or Esos. Esos will require large companies to conduct a full energy audit by the end of 2015 – and repeat it every four years. The deﬁnition of a large undertaking is a company or organisation with 250 employees or with a turnover in excess of €50m (£38m, $57m); this includes all organisations – including not-for-proﬁt ones – that are part of a corporate group that includes a large undertaking. If a company qualiﬁes for Esos and is not fully covered by ISO 50001 they will need to carry out an Esos assessment. Esos itself goes much further than purely the building premises; industrial processes and transport are also part of the assessment so companies with ﬂeets of company cars or transportation lorries are going to have to assess each vehicle. The deadline for submission of the Esos assessment is 5 December 2015. Emergency lighting To comply with the Fire Safety Order, you need to have emergency lighting and look after it properly. Facility managers or owners are required by law to test their emergency lighting once a month. The ﬁnes can be in the thousands for people who can’t provide a monthly test record, and the responsible person can end up with a hefty ﬁne or even a prison sentence if someone ends up getting hurt as a result. Turn to page 60 for more on how to stay out of trouble on this one.
The Building Regs, the HSE’s guide to lighting at work and the Esos regulations. Pay attention, we’ll be asking questions later
Foibles When is industrial not industrial? Well, in pretty much every chic hip eatery or drinkery in every major city in the UK. The prevalence of squirrel cage-style ﬁlament lamp dominates the interior design scene of just about anywhere that sells pulled pork these days. Now, these ﬁlament lamps clearly don’t meet any of the requirements of the Building Regulations and fall into the inefﬁcient sources that were banned years ago. So how have they survived the cull? Simply because they are sold as non-domestic, ‘rough service’ lamps for use in industrial areas such as factories and building sites where they might get knocked about. Retro-style exposed ﬁlament lamps and luminaires are big business. But it’s a ﬁne line as to whether you could actually specify them if you reconsider the Building Regulations. Urban chic is all well and good, but there’s more choice than the ubiquitous squirrel – see page 97 if you don’t believe me.
DOCUMENTS YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT Building Regulations Approved Document Part L2A (2013,England only) Building Regulations Approved Document Part L2B (2013, England only) Non-domestic Building Services Compliance Guide (2013, England only) Scottish Building Standards Technical Handbook - Non-Domestic (2013, Scotland only) Building Regulations Approved Document Part L2A (2013, Wales only) Building Regulations Approved Document Part L2B (2013, Wales only) Technical Booklet F2 (2012, Northern Ireland only) HSG38: Lighting at Work (1997) SLL Code for Lighting (2012) SLL Lighting Guide 6: The outdoor environment (1992) SLL Lighting Guide 10: Daylighting - a guide for designers (2014) SLL Lighting Guide 11: Surface reﬂectance and colour (2001) SLL Lighting Guide 12: Emergency Lighting Design Guide (2004) SLL Guide to the Lighting of licensed premises (2011) SLL Guide to Limiting Obtrusive Light (2012)
NAMED & SHAMED 85
Grass them up at firstname.lastname@example.org or tweet @Lux_magazine
Red and yellow and pink and green Hospitality venues love splashing colour on their facades. Not always with the greatest results
TOO KEEN ON GREEN There’s a hint of ﬁre escape route about the ambience outside this pub. Or is it the Halloween look they’re going for?
MORE QUESTIONABLE USES OF COLOUR
BIODYNAMIC BLUES If the guests in this Crowne Plaza struggle to fall asleep at night, they can’t blame it on the LED streetlights. Especially on the upper ﬂoors – look at that blue.
GHOULISH GREEN Holiday Inn has a habit of lighting up its buildings in its signature green. This one reminds us of some pointy, poisongreen fangs. Each to their own.
CACOPHONY OF COLOUR Ripley’s Believe It Or Not! in London has used every colour available. But then it is on Piccadilly Circus, so the bar for gaudiness was already set high.
MORE BLUE This half-timbered London building has also gone for the blue look. Why don’t they graze their interior walls in green and give their antique furniture a coat of pink paint while they’re at it?
86 LIGHTING SPY
Lux’s mysterious Lighting Spy travels the world on a secret mission to root out wasteful lighting schemes
The case of the
HOTEL Investigator’s notes
4 CASE No.1
tion Subject loca l Airport, ear Schipo NH Hotel, n s Netherland nuary 2015 Date 20 Ja nditions Weather co y Cold, cloud 80s Argos 9 Interior 1 ours 24/7 Opening H
New year, same old headaches. My old boss Molony has taken off to run some fancy schmancy lighting rag where he says they just don’t care about energy. The new guy Bain – tricky one – says it’s time I started taking my investigations beyond whatever grimy bar I’ve regained consciousness in that afternoon, or else he’ll ﬁnd himself a new sleuth. He’s put me on a new assignment to get some intel on the hotel trade. Now, in the UK all the hotels are slamming in LEDs as if they’re going out of fashion (which they ain’t by the way). So I says to myself, let’s get on a plane to Amsterdam. And whaddya know, I barely had to leave the airport to sniff out an energy crime, at the NH Hotel. Hotels near airports are always busy. My bed was still warm from the last guest. Almost as warm
Look at all that halogen. Just look at it
CASE DATA OInstalled load for 120 x 50W MR16 6,000W OEnergy cost per kWh £0.10 ($0.15) OOperating hours per year 8,760 ORunning cost per year £5,256 ($7,948)
ORetroﬁt installed load 120 x 18W = 2,160W ONew running cost per year £1,982 ($2,992) OSavings per year £3,274 ($5,622) OEquipment cost, 120 x £50 £6,000 ($9,044)
Lumenpulse AlphaLED’s Imp 70 Series
LIGHTING SPY 87
was the reception area, which is fully lit 24/7 with halogen downlights. Just take a look at the scorch marks on the ceiling. I’ve seen guys emerge from burning buildings with less burns.
Agent action OK, we got lots of options here, from retroﬁt lamps to replacement ﬁxtures. But I gotta be careful – the MR16s are the main light source in the room, so I can’t be messing around with no peak candela measurements instead of real lumens. We’re gonna need something like 680 lumens per ﬁxture – and that’s tough to ﬁnd in a plug-and-play retroﬁt. So let’s go for a whole new ﬁxture. I’m placing my bet on a known performer with a cast-iron guarantee: the Imp 70 Series from my old buddies Lumenpulse AlphaLED. Job done.
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People worry that LED will ruin their ‘look and feel’ – here it could improve it
88 REVIEWS SORAA LED MR16
Soraa’s LED MR16 Photometry expert Dr Gareth John tests the latest innovation from blue LED inventor Shuji Nakamura: an MR16 with excellent colour rendering An affordable GaN-on-GaN lamp with exceptional light quality
SORAA VIVID LED MR16 3000K
n October the team that invented the blue LED – Isamu Akasaki, Hiroshi Amano and Shuji Nakamura – won the Nobel physics prize for their work. The prize is usually won by quantum physicists or cosmologists, so people in the lighting industry are understandably feeling rather chipper – because for once, some of our lot are getting a share of the glory. So now is the perfect time to look at how white LEDs work, and examine a whole new direction for the technology. Basically, a blue LED works by applying an electric ﬁeld to a gallium nitride (GaN) crystal. When this happens, an electron breaks free from the atom, and then recombines, releasing a photon of blue light every time. Cover the blue LED with a phosphor and some of this blue light is converted to white. GaN crystals are made by ‘growing’ them in a ﬁlm on top of another crystalline material, so that the crystal lattices match up. But when Nakamura and his team were developing this blue LEDs back in the 1990s, growing GaN crystals from scratch was very difﬁcult, involving very high temperatures and pressures. It was easier and more economical to grow the crystals on sapphire substrates, but the downside of this approach is that the crystal lattices don’t align so well, which means less light output and shorter lifetimes. Over the past couple of years I’ve heard about new LEDs based on GaN crystals grown on GaN substrates. Having learned a thing or two about crystal growth when I worked in device physics, I was sceptical, given the difﬁculties involved and the cost of production. Well, I’m happy to say that Soraa, founded by Shuji Nakamura, has proved me wrong. I don’t know how they’ve done it (which I suppose is why it’s Nakamura that got the Nobel Prize and not me) but they’ve
created a GaN-on-GaN LED that is affordable and competes on quality of light and beam control with the best units on the market. Advantage, GaN-on-GaN The product we’ll look at is Soraa’s constant-current MR16 LED 3000K unit. One of the advantages of using GaN-on-GaN crystals is the high current density, so you can use much smaller LED chips. This, combined with Soraa’s point source optics, means you can have tighter control of the beam angle. In the example I tested, we saw a beam angle of 10 degrees and a peak luminous intensity of 7,670Cd. Until recently I’d always been slightly sceptical of peak luminous intensity as a selling point – some unscrupulous people have marketed ‘peak candela’ to cover the fact that in other respects, such as total output, their luminaires don’t perform so well. Narrowing the beam and increasing the lumens per solid angle doesn’t
COLOUR-RENDERING INDICES R1
Ra (mean of R1-R8)
REVIEWS 89 L I G H T I N G
Nobel prize-winning Shu Nakamura’s company is behind the breakthrough
5 YEAR GUARANTEE Emcogroup Ltd Emco House, Units 8-10 Marshgate Drive, Hertford, Herts, SG13 7JY, United Kingdom www.emcogroup.co.uk / email@example.com / TEL: 01992 582033 / FAX: 01992 582044
The Motion Sensor Bulkhead Company DAL VAN STANT I RES IK10
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O Dr Gareth John is technical director of Photometric Testing, an independent lighting test laboratory that specialises in the photometric assessment of LEDs, luminaires, lamps and displays www.photometrictesting.co.uk
L E D
PHOTOMETRIC DATA AVAILABLE TO DOWNLOAD
Soraa has created a game-changing piece of technology that could prove just as signiﬁcant for lighting as the original blue LED
‘Rio’ Range of Commercial Lighting
necessarily make a good luminaire. However, when we’re talking about a display lighting unit like this 10-degree MR16 replacement, lighti designers like to have a b ‘sparkle’ and tight beam gives them that. Soraa als snap-on magnetic optical accessories for the lamp, such as beam shapers and colour ﬁlters. I was impressed by the measured high CRI value of 93 (Soraa claims 95 for CRI and R9, which puts our results well within experimental tolerances), but what especially interested me was how Soraa achieved this. One of the consequences of using GaN crystals is that the blue peak shifts from 440nm to about 410nm. This, combined with the mix of three phosphors on the LED, gives us a marvellous broadband spectrum, with high colour-rendering indices right across the board (see table, below left). Whiter than white This peak shift also creates a higher perception of ‘whiteness’. Many white materials contain optical brightening agents (OBAs) that compensate for the yellowing of the material over time. OBAs absorb light at short wavelengths and radiate light at longer wavelengths. This increases the perceived brilliance and whiteness of a material through a combination of luminescence and its resultant chromatic shift towards blue. The combination of the 410nm GaN emission and Soraa’s triphosphor technology exploits this effect, with positive consequences for the brightness of the material that is being illuminated. The high power factor of 0.937 and low input power of 11W also contribute to the success of this MR16 replacement. Soraa engineers achieved this by using an externally mounted Truelux driver that has been specially developed for Soraa luminaires. This ensures a linear output over the full voltage range with effective, ﬂicker-free dimming. The lamp squeezes out a lot more light than the version Lux x ﬁrst tested back in 2013, for less power. A total luminous ﬂux output of 510 lumens gives us an efﬁcacy of 46.4 lm/W. I’ve seen some LED-based MR16 replacements with higher efﬁcacy than this, but not with such high CRI and power factor.
S O L U T I O N S
Dynaluxx UK Ltd Unit 6 Marshgate Drive, Hertford, Herts, SG13 7JY, United Kingdom www.dynaluxx.co.uk / firstname.lastname@example.org / TEL: 01992 535455
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REVIEWS LED TAPE 91
LED TAPE Technical editor Alan Tulla gets stuck on the LED technology that comes on a roll and solves a multitude of lighting problems
The tests We sent four 500mm-long samples to the Lighting Industry
MEASURED TEST RESULTS MANUFACTURER
OUTPUT (lm/lin m)
Cove lighting, like in the Hammersmith Apollo’s newly lit foyer, is the number one application for LED tape
Association Laboratories and tested the tape for colour temperature, colour rendering, lumen output, wattage and power factor. When you look at the results, it’s worth remembering that most suppliers have a range of tapes with different electrical and lighting characteristics. The data below is only for the tape tested. Always follow the manufacturers’ recommendations for installation and ﬁxing. All the samples used double sided tape. High power (watts per linear metre) tapes might have to be ﬁxed to an aluminium extrusion to dissipate the heat. The power consumption and POWER EFFICACY POWER power factor shown are based (W/lin m) (lm/W) FACTOR on the power supply sent to us by the manufacturer or supplier. 14.4 57 0.72 If you have a large amount of 13 56 0.46 tape to install, you might want 9.2 67 0.42 to consider using a better power supply with a higher power factor. 25.9 56 0.46 O Turn over for our verdicts
ED tape has lots of uses. Perhaps the most common is cove lighting where you want to provide a glow of light around a room. You will also ﬁnd them under stair nosings, kickboards and the bottom of kitchen cabinets. Backlighting signs and artiﬁcial skylights are other common applications. Colour temperature is important. If you are backlighting a sign or trying to imitate daylight, then 6000K may be acceptable. You also get more lumens per watt with cool LEDs. The disadvantage is that at low levels of illumination, the light from cool LEDs can look dull and grey. Warmer colour temperatures like 2700K or 3000K work better for residential and low illumination locations. There are a lot of suppliers offering LED tape, although not all were keen to send us samples for these reviews – some have new products coming out very soon and didn’t want us to review something that will soon be superseded, while a couple of quite large suppliers just didn’t want their products compared to their competitors. So hats off to those who were willing to have their products tested and scrutinised independently for the beneﬁt of Lux readers. If you are considering using tape, ask for independently veriﬁed test data. Also, get to see a working sample. Preferably, do a small trial in the actual application. One ﬁnal point, choose the correct power supply for the tape. Some of those sent with the LED tape samples had low power factor or were ‘lossy’.
92 REVIEWS LED TAPE
Reviewed: Flexible indoor LED tape AURORA We tested Auroraâ€™s ST224W, which is its bestselling strip. A useful feature is that the LEDs are only 8mm apart and you can cut the tape every 50mm, so it is ideal for signs and displays. The tape itself is 8mm wide and requires a 12V DC supply.
MJ LIGHTING This is similar to the Aurora in terms of spacing, luminous efficacy, voltage and width. It is slightly cooler in appearance and has a slightly better colourrendering index. The power supply is a combined three-pin plug and transformer, which may account for the lower power factor.
OSRAM This tape is available in 2700, 3000, 4000, 5000 and 6500K versions, so you have a much wider choice than with other suppliers. It also had the highest efficacy of those tested. The tape is usually supplied on a reel, although our sample was ďŹ xed in a compact aluminium extrusion. As ever, the quality of Osramâ€™s technical data is superb. Our only quibble is that the Osram power supply had a power factor of 0.46.
TRYKA This tape runs at higher power than the others and you get more light output per metre, but not per watt. The LIA Labs measured this tape at almost 26W/m using the power supply that was supplied with it, although Tryka claims it can achieve 14.4W/m with a different power supply. The tape has an excellent colour-rendering index of 94. At 4230K, this would be ideal for coving where you also want to provide a low level of good quality background lighting.
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REVIEWS COELUX 95
COELUX SKYLIGHT Want sunlight in your hotel basement or underground gym? The CoeLux skylight could be a game changer for high-end hospitality venues
he photos to the right may appear to show a sunlit sky – but they don’t. What they show is a brand new type of artiﬁcial skylight called CoeLux that, for the ﬁrst time, reproduces the physical phenomenon that makes the sky appear blue. CoeLux won the prestigious Light Source Innovation of the Year trophy at the Lux Awards in November, and was the standout attraction at LuxLive, drawing queues of visitors to a low-ceilinged stand in the middle of a windowless exhibition hall, where they could look up to see… the sky. CoeLux’s ‘sky’ is a convincing azure, and the ‘sun’ looks a lot like the real thing – even giving the impression of being distant. The overall effect is that of sunlight pouring into, and bringing life to, a small room. If you spent more than ﬁve minutes on the CoeLux stand, you’d begin to hear the same questions over and over: What void space do you need? Does the ‘sun’ move? What’s the energy consumption? In essence: what’s the catch? It’s human nature when faced with technology this impressive. The secret is a clear polymer layer containing titanium dioxide nanoparticles that produce Rayleigh scattering – the same process that occurs in the atmosphere, splitting up different wavelengths of light to make the sky appear blue. CoeLux also creates an illusion of depth to make the light source appear far away, rather than just a metre or so above you – but the makers are tight-lipped about exactly how that’s done. ‘It’s not a lamp. It’s not a luminaire. It’s something else’, says CoeLux’s inventor, Italian scientist Dr Paolo Di Trapani. Di Trapani delivered an impassioned presentation at LuxLive about sunlight and colour, pointing out subtle gradations of blacks in a Mark Rothko abstract, or speciﬁc brushstrokes in a Van Gogh self-portrait. He barely even mentioned his product, but that didn’t seem to bother attendees, who broke into spontaneous applause as his presentation reached its crescendo. ‘I haven’t stopped talking all day,’ said Kevin Andrews of Ideaworks, the company that is commercialising CoeLux in the UK. Not only was there a steady stream of people to the stand, but once people got there, they were in no hurry to leave. Ideaworks, which specialises in technology for high-end
LuxLive visitors queued to get a glimpse of CoeLux
interiors in the hospitality and residential markets, is hoping to bring (artiﬁcial) sunlight to underground spaces that until now have lacked daylight – gyms, for instance, and in London, the new breed of ‘iceberg homes’ with cavernous basements. Andrews makes no bones that this is ‘version one’, and the technology has further to go. No, the light source doesn’t move… yet. No, the colour temperature isn’t dynamic… yet. The skylight consumes 340W, but that will come down as LEDs improve. CoeLux is at the beginning of its commercial journey, and if you want to install one, you’ll have to dig deep – in every sense. It requires a one-metre ceiling recess, and will set you back £40,000 ($60,700) from the factory gate, and another £3,000 to £5,000 ($4,500 to $7,500) for shipping and specialist installation. Still, if the interest at LuxLive is anything to go by, the future of CoeLux is very bright. And very blue.
It’s a much overused word, but CoeLux really is awesome. Still, we’re withholding that ﬁfth star to see what they do with version 2.0...
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Want the look and feel of incandescent without the guilt? Here are some lovely energy-saving alternatives
Incandescent lamps are everywhere these days. Which is surprising, considering that (in Europe, at least) they’re banned. Well, they’re banned-ish. The rules are that you can’t buy an incandescent, unless it’s for industrial use. But buyers seem to be interpreting ‘industrial use’ pretty broadly, so the lighting solution of choice in trendy bars is a technology that the European Union has just phased out. Go ﬁgure. Here at Lux, we like a bit of retro industrial chic as much as the next guy, but we also like energy efﬁciency and sustainability. And there are lots of lovely ways to light a cafe without resorting to obsolete technologies that haemorrhage electricity. If you want the incandescent look, here are a few alternatives that are more environmentally friendly and cheaper to run.
SYLVANIA RECREATES INCANDESCENT IN LED This LED lamp from Sylvania gives you the squirrel cage effect with none of the energy wastage. Sylvania has been producing lamps of all kinds for more than 90 years, and now it’s putting its expertise into recreating the look and feel of incandescent and halogen, using LEDs. This lamp is part of its new Toledo Retro range which also includes GLS, globe and candle lamps, all with a warm colour temperature of 2700K. The 4W lamps will replace a 40W incandescent, saving 90 per cent on energy costs.
THE CFL FILAMENT LAMP Yes, it looks like a ﬁlament lamp, but it’s actually a super-narrow ﬂuorescent tube, in a bulb. The technology behind the Factorylux Eco-Filament bulb was developed by Dutch lighting company NDF. In the UK, Urban Cottage Industries has been selling the original pearshaped version since last year, and now sells more of them than real ﬁlament lamps. The new globe-shaped version was launched in January. Urban Cottage Industries says any reduction in light quality and dimming functionality is ‘barely noticeable’. The lamp has a warm colour temperature of 2300K and should last for 25,000 hours with 50,000 switching cycles. The Eco-Filament has already featured in high proﬁle projects including the Christmas window displays at Liberty of London.
FILAMENT LED LAMPS FROM GERMANY The Germans call it Gemütlichkeit – cosiness. That’s what the Altes Handelhaus restaurant in Plauen, Germany (pictured, above), has achieved thanks to LED lamps from local company Vosla. They look like incandescent, but use just a tenth of the energy. Vosla’s managing director, a regular at the restaurant, had been trying to persuade the owner for years to switch to LED, but he was never impressed by the ‘cold light’ and ‘futuristic heatsinks’ of LED lamps. But when they saw Vosla’s latest product, they decided to make the switch. Candle and GLS lamps (like the one pictured, right) are available.
DIM-TO-WARM LAMPS FROM MEGAMAN Megaman’s new LED lamps don’t just look like incandescent, they behave like it. Dim them down below 100 per cent, and instead of keeping the same colour temperature, as most LEDs do, they become warmer in colour, just like incandescent. The colour temperature shifts from an already warm 2800K to a very cosy 1800K. The ‘Dim to Warm’ products include candles, GLS lamps, MR16s, AR111s and integrated LED downlights.
UKLED’S LED FILAMENT LAMPS UKLED was one of the ﬁrst companies making LED candles that look like this, with the old-fashioned ‘ﬁlament’ style appearance. The lamps have a warm colour temperature of 2750K and use just one to three watts of power. Lux was very impressed with them when we reviewed a sample last year.
LED FILAMENT LAMPS WITH VINTAGE APPEAL LED Eco Lights has launched an innovative range of ﬁlament-style retroﬁt LED lamps. Designed to offer a vintage feel, the new Bright Goods range includes globes, candles, pear-shaped and traditional GLS bulbs. All lamps in the Bright Goods range are dimmable and provide a lifespan of 30,000 hours. Interior designers, architects and energy managers will welcome the versatility, ﬂexibility and energy efficiency of the Bright Goods range across a broad spectrum of commercial, hospitality and domestic environments.
RAMSELAAR’S FILAMENT LAMPS Ramselaar’s range of clear LED lamps, includes candles and globes with the same dimensions as conventional incandescent bulbs. All are dimmable and with a very warm colour temperature of 2200K. They’ve been used in venues including the Netherlands Institute for War Documentation (pictured), housed in a 19th century Amsterdam canal house, and the Van Loon Museum, another canal house conserved in the style of the 18th century.
NEW CANDLE LAMP FROM INTEGRAL Integral LED’s retroﬁt candles deliver warm light and brightness similar to a 25W ﬁlament bulb. The candle is designed for decorative lighting in the hospitality industry or living areas such as bedrooms, dining rooms, sitting rooms, and to be used with classic or modern wall mounted lighting ﬁxtures and chandeliers. Available in a clear or frosted bulb ﬁnish, Integral’s lamps can replace existing incandescent E14 and B22 lamps with ease.
DIMMABLE RETROFIT LAMPS FROM PHILIPS With a warm colour temperature of 2700K, Philips’ dimmable Master LED candle lamps are ideal for general and decorative lighting in the hospitality industry. Drawing on input from chandelier makers and designed to enhance the aesthetic appeal of the chandelier or luminaire, not only when lit but also when not, these lamps come in a classical slender shape with a unique, eye-catching lens design.
UNIQUE OPTICS FROM OSRAM Unique optics in the new Osram LED classic portfolio radiate at angles of up to 300°. The optical design is consistent across all lamp types, giving uniform appearance, and lower costs. Lamps from the Parathom Classic A40 range are particularly suitable for upgrading standard light bulbs to energy efficient and durable LED technology, because their size is identical to the traditional incandescent lamp. The Parathom CL A40 Advanced Clear Sparkling LED lamp was even awarded the Red Dot Design Award.
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CLEAR CANDLE LAMPS FROM TCP TCP’s clear 5W LED candle can replace a 30W incandescent. It has a colour temperature of 3000K and a life of 25,000 hours. This lamp will sit beautifully anywhere around the home and is perfect for chandeliers and decorative ﬁttings, TCP says.
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VERBATIM’S LIFE-LIKE CANDLE LAMPS Verbatim’s candle lamps offer exceptional colour quality, thanks to the VxRGB technology developed by parent company Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation. This is based on a violet LED and a special mix of phosphors, which produce a fuller colour spectrum than your average LED lamp. Alongside the standard version, there’s one with an extra-warm colour temperature of 1650K, one that ﬂickers like a real candle, and one that warms as it dims, from 2400K to 1900K. There are lots of LED candle lamps that you might mistake for incandescent, but Verbatim’s are probably the only ones you might mistake for an actual candle.
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AWARD-WINNING DESIGN FROM TOSHIBA Toshiba won a Lux Award back in 2012 for its candle lamp, which judges described as having ‘the soul of an incandescent’. It features ‘faceted crystal optics’ to mimic the sparkly glow of a ﬁlament lamp, and it’s dimmable. Just the thing for chandeliers, decorative luminaires and table lamps.
Lux takes a look at a selection of the best new kit for hospitality and leisure lighting applications
UNIQUE EXTERIOR LED SENSOR LIGHTS DEMONSTRATE INTELLIGENCE AND EFFICIENCY Steinel has introduced the L825 LED iHF range of sensor-switched outdoor lights. Designed for building frontages and entrances, the range ownlighters uses microwave sensor technology. At the heart of the iHF range, and integrated completely out of view, is the intelligent high-frequency (iHF) sensor. This provides a coverage angle of 160° and a detection range of 1–7m that triggers the activation and deactivation of warm-white light without any delay. www.steinel.co.uk
NEW WALLWASH LENS FOR WE-EF LUMINAIRES We-Ef has introduced a new wallwash lens designed to be used with its in-ground LED luminaires, downlights and projectors. The IO-20 LED lens is installed and sealed in the luminaire at the factory, and provides broad, uniform, corner-to-corner lighting coverage. The lens is available with We-Ef’s TC300 LED in-ground luminaires, architectural DOC200 LED downlights and FLC/ FLD100 series LED projectors. www.weef.de
BIGGER, BRIGHTER OLEDS Could OLED be ﬁnally about to take off? LG Chem has begun manufacturing a 320 x 320 mm OLED light panel, which it says is the largest in the world (it’s pictured left with some smaller ones for comparison). The new panel is 0.88mm thick and has an efficacy of 60lm/W, a CRI of 90+, and light output levels of up to 1,200lm. This, LG Chem says, is a big step towards making OLEDs viable for general usage lighting. But you’re still paying a big premium for OLED light: the panels will cost $680 (or less for bulk orders). LG Chem has also completed development of bendable plastic-based OLED light panels. Previous bendable OLEDs were made using special glass, which limited their ﬂexibility. www.lgoledlight.com
BJB LINEAR FLAT LED MODULE BJB has designed a socketed linear LED module for safe and easy installation by OEMs and end users. By pushing the linear ﬂat module into compatible BJB holders, LED ﬁttings can easily be upgraded and serviced in the ﬁeld with no need for tools, electrostatic discharge-protected workspaces, thermal materials or skilled labour. The module is available in two nominal lengths (600 and 1,200mm), with outputs from 1,200 to 4,100 lm. www.bjb.com
ULTRA LED DOWNLIGHT FROM TAMLITE The Ultra LED recessed downlight uses a Philips Fortimo LED module and driver. This circular LED downlight is available in two sizes and six different light levels, with an average efficacy of 87lm/W. Producing comfortable, white light, the Ultra LED is available in either neutral white (4000K) or warm white (3000K). There are also options for dimming and Dali compatibility. www.tamlite.co.uk
OPAL POLYCARBONATE LED PANEL FROM SLP Polycarbonate Arrowlite is an opalised diffuser from SLP’s LED range. Designed speciﬁcally for LED ﬁttings, the Opal Arrowlite provides good LED ‘spot’ diffusion, reduced glare and has an excellent light transmission of 81 per cent. Opal Arrowlite is an extruded product, and can be vacuum formed into moulded applications. The polycarbonate resin used to produce Arrowlite is very strong, which creates a robust diffuser. It has an added pigment in the resin to enhance the whiteness of the opal. These attributes produce a diffuser with excellent light transmission, high capabilities to withhold stress and an aesthetically pleasing appearance. www.slpuk.com
THE CAMBER LED EMERGENCY EXIT SIGN Camber is a range of compact and contemporary LED emergency exit signs. The range comprises a hanging, surface and wall mounted ﬁtting and has the added beneﬁt of being available with self-test options. Camber ﬁttings come as a complete package with a set of fully compliant pictograms and the modular design of the ﬁttings allow for a quick and easy installation. These LED signs typically provide a 50 per cent energy saving compared to conventional ﬂuorescent counterparts. www.channelsafety.co.uk
BRITISH-MADE LED BATTEN IS ENERGY-SAVING ALTERNATIVE TO FLUORESCENT Tamlite Lighting’s new Micro LED batten is designed for retail and industrial environments, providing the same glare-free light quality as a ﬂuorescent batten, but with the beneﬁts of LED. Designed and made in the UK, the Micro LED boasts a lifespan of 50,000 hours. As part of Tamlite’s new 2020 portfolio of products, designed especially for the projects and speciﬁcation market, the Micro LED has been developed with the demanding requirements of designers, architects and installers in mind. www.tamlite.co.uk
FORCELED WITH PRISMATIC DIFFUSER AND BUILT-IN CONTROLS ForceLED from Thorn is a tough, waterproof and compact LED luminaire with an option to add controls. The IP66-rated product is dust and moisture proof, and is suitable for indoor car parks, warehouses, dry and cold storage, production areas and workshops. Its prismatic diffuser optimises light distribution from the LED source. ForceLED comes with the option of a builtin presence detector with wireless master and slave function. The single master sensor can control up to 99 slave luminaires. www.thornlighting.co.uk
BJB SPOT/DOWNLIGHT LED SYSTEM GH36D BJB has created a socketed and encapsulated spot/downlight LED module for safe and easy installation by OEMs and end users. By twisting the LED module into the compatible BJB holder, ﬁttings can easily be upgraded and serviced in the ﬁeld without the need for tools, electrostatic discharge-protected workspaces, thermal materials or skilled labour. Output is 3,000 lm and more versions are planned. www.bjb.com
BRITISH-DESIGNED LED BULKHEAD FOR CORRIDORS Tamlite’s Lunar LED bulkhead, part of its 2020 range, has been developed with the demanding requirements of designers, architects and installers in mind. It beneﬁts from a British-designed LED board that delivers crisp, natural-feeling light, as well as savings on energy and maintenance cost. Corridors represent a signiﬁcant opportunity for reaping energy savings from lighting, through a combination of LED technology and intelligent sensors. Yet they also require a clarity of light that has, in the past, been lacking in LED products. The Lunar LED bulkhead proves that LEDs can now deliver on both efficiency and light quality. www.tamlite.co.uk
More than a WEEE bit of
PROGRESS New rules on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) make it easier to recycle LEDs. The next challenge? Behaviour change. Kathrine Anker reports from Lux’s WEEE forum
LUX’S WEEE DIRECTIVE FORUM WAS HELD IN ASSOCIATION WITH
otels and restaurants have been quick to adopt LED technology, enthusiastically embracing the energy and maintenance savings. But with the arrival of new lighting technology comes the responsibility to ensure that LED lamps and luminaires – and their discarded predecessors – don’t end up in landﬁll unnecessarily, and that scarce or hazardous materials are recovered. In Europe, manufacturers are required by law to make sure their products are properly recycled at the end of their lives, which they do by signing up to recycling schemes. The combination of guidance and recycling schemes that help companies comply in return for a fee has had remarkably positive results. The recycling rate of lamps in the UK has risen from 23 to nearly 53 per cent since 2007, when the European Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) directive came into force. Luminaires are lagging behind, but Recolight, a UK WEEE compliance scheme that specialises in recycling lighting products, dealt with 800 tonnes of luminaires in 2014 and says it has high hopes that the overall UK recycling rate for luminaires will pick up this year. It’s not a simple task, though. To get recycling rates closer to the ideal 100 per cent, the system must become easier to use. To explore the possibilities for a greener footprint in the lighting industry, Lux x and Recolight brought together a group of recycling experts including the head of recycling at Osram, a recycling policy adviser from the Department of Business and Skills and the bos of the UK’s largest WEEE compliance scheme, Rep
More collection points doesn’t necessarily mean more recycling, says Phil Morton of Repic
To everyone’s satisfaction, some of the creases in the system have been ironed out already. Previously, some compliance schemes could collect more electrical waste than they needed to, and sell the excess to other schemes that hadn’t recycled enough, charging almost any price they wanted. Now, schemes have the option of paying a fee to the government as an alternative way to meet their obligations, so they can no longer be forced by other schemes to pay inﬂated prices. As some participants in Lux’s x forum rather delicately phrased it, this means that ‘some compliance schemes have had to revisit their business odels’. Phil Morton of Repic said this change has een a ‘tremendous beneﬁt’.
Making it easy If we’re to stop lamps and luminaires ending up in landﬁll, it’s crucial to get facility managers on board. As Nigel Harvey puts it: ‘No matter how easy you make it to recycle, there is a tendency for people to say: “That’s only one light bulb, it won’t ake a difference if I just put it in the bin.” And it
Flaws in the WEEE system are being ironed out, participants agreed
Graeme Vickery, a government policy adviser on WEEE, wants to see recycling rates rise
Getting the right recycling messages through to buyers of lighting is key, says Osram’s Fiona Elliott
around 30 per cent that gets recycled through ofﬁcial channels. In some countries there is a €5 charge when paying for a washing machine which goes to the recycling, but there is no evidence that the washing machines are more likely to be recycled,’ said Morton. A consistent message might go some way to mproving recycling rates. ‘Back in the 1960s, we had he Keep Britain Tidy campaign. It was on the telly all the time telling you, ‘you don’t do this’ and [as a result] I genuinely cannot do those things, I’ve been conditioned,’ said John Bullock. ‘Behavioural change is possible but the message has to be repeated for it to occur.’ Getting the message right can be difﬁcult, though. As Fiona Elliott, communications manager at Osram, said: ‘The public is interested in negative information. But if we publish a press release saying, mercury from unrecycled lamps can get into your water, it will get attention, but not in the right way. We don’t want another horsemeat scandal.’ Even with raised awareness and good intentions, the sheer inconvenience of recycling is part of the reason too much electrical equipment ends up in landﬁll. ‘Some people end up storing recyclable items in their shed for a long time because they do want to recycle it but don’t get around to it,’ said Russell Hirst, managing director of Wiser, another WEEE scheme. Dexreco, lighting manufacturer Dextra’s own V
might not seem like those individual instances matter, but collectively they do.’ Even with 3,000 collection points around the country, far too much electrical waste escapes the recycling bins with hazardous substances entering the environment as a result. And ﬁlling the country with even more collection points doe not seem to be the answer. Harvey said: ‘You get a point where the law of diminishing returns app Putting in more infrastructure might just divert users from the existing infrastructure and make the system more complicated.’ Morton has had similar experience with battery recycling. ‘We’ve tried setting up WEEE collection points but they only diverted people from where they would otherwise have gone,’ he said. If collection points alone don’t make people recycle, it seems it’s not just a simple question of raising awareness. What we need is behavioural change, but how do you create that? Some schemes in other European countries offer money in exchange for returning products for recycling. ‘It could be made the responsibility of the retailer to recycle if there was a ﬁnancial incentive for customers to bring back old light bulbs,’ said lighting designer John Bullock. Harvey pointed out that this is already happening with batteries. Unfortunately, statistics don’t point to guaranteed success, should the UK start such a scheme. ‘It tends to always be
Increasing recycling rates means changing people’s behaviour, says Recolight’s Nigel Harvey
Recycling needs to be as easy as possible, says Wiser’s Russell Hirst
recycling business, found a way to make this inconvenience work for them. ‘Dexreco initially set up its recycling arm as a sales tool – we offer the service of picking up waste and bringing it back to our premises where we take it apart and recycle it,’ said Marc Doble, Dexreco’s assistant manager. ‘Some clients just really aren’t bothered about recycling unless there is a ﬁnancial incentive for them. But others are starting to come around.’ At manufacturer level, a recent rule change from the Environment Agency that makes it easier to recycle correctly and harder to end up paying too much, might prompt better recycling practice. Under the WEEE directive, producers of lighting equipment have to report the weight of all the
John Bullock says the lighting world needs to prepare for the ‘circular economy’
HOW LED RECYCLING HAS GOT EASIER Changes to the rules on recycling are set to make it easier to recycle LED luminaires properly, and protect manufacturers from being overcharged. New guidelines from the Environment Agency, published in December, state that all LED luminaires now belong in the ‘lighting equipment’ recycling category. Previously, they were lumped in with ‘lamps and light sources’, a category that includes hazardous gas discharge lamps. This means it will be easier for facility managers to dispose of their waste correctly. With fewer items in the category for hazardous waste, there is also less scope for confusion and overpayment. Previously, the complicated categorisation system caused manufacturers and even some compliance schemes to lump LED luminaires in with hazardous waste, incurring higher bills than necessary as hazardous waste is more expensive to get rid of. Now, the only luminaires that don’t go straight into the category for lighting equipment are those with user-replaceable LED modules. The weight of the LED light source has to be reported in the lamps and light sources category, while the weight of luminaire itself goes into the lighting equipment category. Nigel Harvey said: ‘This approach makes sense, and applies to LED luminaires the same logic used where luminaires are supplied containing ﬂuorescent lamps. The weight of the ﬂuorescent lamps and luminaire are reported separately.’ The new WEEE categorisation guidelines cover all commercial luminaires. Household luminaires are still exempt from WEEE recycling requirements, except for ﬁttings with userreplaceable light sources that have to be reported in category 13. Components for LED luminaires are also exempt, including LED parts supplied to OEMs. Luminaires that can be used by both businesses and households could face new recycling demands in the near future. Nigel Harvey said: ‘There will likely be changes when “dual use” guidance is available in 2015.’
products they place on the market, and specify the category it belongs in. The ‘hazardous waste’ category attracts a higher fee, and although LED luminaires were not considered hazardous, they were until recently dealt with as art of the category that also includes hazardous aste. Manufacturers anxious to comply with the rules would sometimes lump all the weight of LED luminaires and genuinely hazardous waste into the same category, and there are stories of compliance schemes doing the same, charging manufacturers as if all their waste in that category were hazardous instead of helping their client sort their recyclable waste correctly. This all changed at the end of last year, when new rules from the Environment Agency clariﬁed that LED luminaires belong in a different category with no risk of hazardous associations. The only exception is luminaires with a replaceable light source, in which case only the light source goes into the category with hazardous waste.
Making sense ‘This approach makes sense,’ said Nigel Harvey. ‘It applies to LED luminaires the same logic used where luminaires are supplied containing ﬂuorescent
Marc Doble of Dextra’s recycling arm Dexreco, works to make recycling easy for customers
Managing recycling in a time of technological change is tricky, says Osram’s Andreas Adam
HOW LIGHT MAKERS CAN WIN CUSTOMERS BY RECYCLING A large rollout of integrated LED luminaires will produce at least two distinct waste streams: waste ﬂuorescent lamps, and waste traditional luminaires. The Corporate Social Responsibility policies of many of the larger companies in the hospitality and leisure sector mean that much more attention is now being paid to the waste that an LED upgrade produces. ‘As a result, there is a growing move to require the ﬁttings supplier to take full responsibility not just for supply and installation, but also for the collection and recycling of the waste that arises,’ says Nigel Harvey. ‘That means suppliers need to be able to manage the waste, in a professional and environmentally sound manner. Those that can, have distinct competitive advantage in the sector.’
lamps. The weight of the ﬂuorescent lamps and luminaires are reported separately.’ Andreas Adam, who is in charge of recycling at Osram, pointed out that clarity at both ends of the recycling chain is vital: ‘It’s important to have clear deﬁnitions of waste but still make it simple for consumers,’ he said. ‘If we don’t create a good syste now, we’ll have a big problem in 10 years when the bulk of the ﬂuorescent lamps have to be recycled.’ With a ﬂood of old luminaires coming up for recycling, compliance schemes are worried about a potential shortage of ﬁnance. The way the WEEE system works, a levy on new products pays for the recycling of old ones in the same category. So if sales dry up, or if the types of products being sold change, there may not be enough money to recycle old products as they reach the ends of their lives. ‘Having LEDs in the same categories as gas discharge lamps has prevented that problem – at least it will until 2018,’ said Nigel Harvey. ‘It’s really important that ﬁnancing is secured,’ agreed Adam. ‘We’re in the middle of a technological change, we are trying to realign current product development with recycling requirements. That includes discussions on a national and European scale – sometimes it feels like an easy task, other times you’re surrounded by lawyers.’ The rapid change in the lighting market makes this a pressing concern for lighting manufacturers. ‘We have a real need for replacement products when halogen gets banned,’ Adam said. ‘For retroﬁt products we have recycling in place, but it would be good to have ideas about how to make them more recyclable.’ If the overall system is difﬁcult to simplify, perhaps it’s time to pay attention to recycling requirements at the design stage. As John Bullock said: ‘We get told that we live in a throwaway society, but part of the reason we get told that is that products are designed that way.’ The silver lining, if you can call it that, is that
Manufacturers and recyclers need to keep an eye on future developments in technology and legislation, says Nigel Harvey
the lighting industry is insigniﬁcant compared with other industries when it comes to letting hazardous waste get away. ‘We’re a tiny little cog in the microelectronics recycling stream,’ as John Bullock phrased it, and there are other, glier industries out there. ‘The lighting industry has en very active in identifying that it isn’t us. If our mpliance rate had been ﬁve per cent rather than 50, they would have been asking us different questions,’ said Harvey. Some claim that despite global warming, polar meltdown, huge CO2 emissions and international disputes over what to do about it, the sheer speed at which new technology is developed could provide a solution to our environmental crisis before it’s too late. ‘Some postulate that the price of materials will become stable because everything will be recycled around, suggested Morton from Repic. ‘If we can get the model right, lighting might become a leased service where the producer places the luminaires and supplies the light.’ ‘The material scarcity of the future is a real hazard to commerce, so we need a design philosophy that supports reuse of products so there is no waste, only recovery,’ said John Bullock. Some hazardous products are only hazardous when they get processed, so if you keep reusing them you’ve solved the hazard problem in a different way.’ As for the WEEE compliance schemes, there might come a time when their current services are no longer needed. ‘We might evolve to become facilitators of the supply of materials as part of a circular economy,’ Nigel Harvey said.
w TO WATCH THE VIDEO FROM OUR WEEE DIRECTIVE FORUM, VISIT
People who work in lighting don’t half talk some gobbledygook. Here’s what they mean...
The kilowatt-hour is a unit of energy equal to 1,000 watt-hours. That’s what a 1,000W device uses in one hour – or what a 1W device uses in 1,000 hours. It’s the unit that your electricity bill is counted in.
The Digital Addressable Lighting Interface is a protocol for lighting controls and dimming agreed by major manufacturers. It is set out in technical standard IEC 62386, and promoted by the Dali working party, part of electrical manufacturers’ association ZVEI. Products that are compliant with Dali carry the Dali logo.
Black body locus The black body locus, or black body curve, is a line on a colour chart which tracks the different colours at which a ‘black body’ (a theoretical object that absorbs all energy) glows when heated. This is the range of colours you get from an incandescent source – from orangey white at lower temperatures to blueish white at higher temperatures. This is where the concept of ‘colour temperature’ (see right) comes from.
PIR Short for passive infrared. PIR sensors are electronic sensors that measure infrared light radiating from objects in their ﬁeld of view. It can detect heat from objects that is undetectable by humans. PIR are one of the main technologies used for presence and absence detection, to turn lights on and off when people are or aren’t there.
CFL Popularly referred to as energysaving lamps, compact ﬂuorescent lamps have a poor image because of perceived deﬁciencies in colour, power and the time it takes them to reach full output. But massive improvements have been made in all these areas thanks to substantial investment by the big lamp manufacturers.
CRI Short for colour-rendering index, CRI is the ability of a light source to show the colours of objects properly. Lamps with poor colour rendering will distort some colours, which may mean you end up with brown socks when you wanted green ones. The higher the CRI, on a 0-100 scale, the more accurately the lamp will show colours.
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Pulse-width modulation PWM is a technique used to control the power supplied to electrical devices such as LEDs. The supply voltage (and current) is switched on and off many times per second, and the average power delivered to the load can be varied by changing the proportion of the time the voltage is on. This technique can be used to dim LEDs.
COLOUR TEMPERATURE Colour temperature describes whether a light source appears ‘warm’ or ‘cool’ – indicated by the correlated colour temperature (CCT). Lamps with a warm appearance have a CCT of 2700-3000K, and are considered appropriate for domestic settings; cooler lamps might be 4000K, and are used more often in ofﬁces and retail. The higher the colour temperature, the ‘cooler’ the appearance. Don’t ask.
GaN-on-GaN refers to LEDs made of gallium nitride (GaN) on a substrate also made of gallium nitride, rather than on the usual sapphire or silicon carbide substrate. Blue LED inventor Shuji Nakamura says GaN-on-GaN is the next generation of LED, offering greater efﬁciency and better colour.
The Energy Savings Opportunity Scheme (Esos) is the UK government’s latest attempt to encourage energy efficiency among big organisations. It requires them to assess their energy consumption on a regular basis and consider measures to reduce it. But it doesn’t actually force them to do anything about it – that’s up to them.
Lumens per watt
Breeam stands for the Building Research Establishment’s Environmental Assessment Method, and it’s the industry-leading environmental rating system for buildings. More than 200,000 buildings have been awarded Breeam assessment ratings since the scheme was launched in 1990. Breeam uses established benchmarks to evaluate a building’s design, construction and use.
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110 LUX VIDEOS
Lux’s YouTube channel is packed with videos on hospitality and leisure lighting – here are the latest ones
THE SISTINE CHAPEL IN A WHOLE NEW LIGHT Luxx visits the Vatican to see what difference 7,000 LEDs make to Michelangelo’s paintings. bit.ly/sistine1114
IS THIS THE REAL SKY? No, it’s not. It’s the most advanced artiﬁcial skylight the world has seen, explained by its maker. bit.ly/coelux1014
PROJECT REPORT: PARK INN HEATHROW HOTEL One of the biggest hotels in the UK is switching to LED lighting. Lux speaks to the people in charge. bit.ly/parkinn0814
PROJECT REPORT: THE GROVE HOTEL This luxury hotel in Hertfordshire is saving thousands on maintenance thanks to an LED retroﬁt. bit.ly/grove0914
PROJECT REPORT: COSTA COFFEE , GIDEA PARK Luxx checks out the LED lighting installed by LEDtec at this Essex branch of Costa Coffee. bit.ly/costa0914
PROJECT REPORT: OXFORD UNIVERSITY How lighting has made the university’s neo-gothic Museum of Natural History a sought-after events venue. bit.ly/oxford1114
HOW LIGHTING IS CHANGING THE WORLD Highlights from some of last year’s greatest lighting projects and achievements. bit.ly/light0115
THE LUX AWARDS 2014: THE WINNERS The winners of the lighting industry’s most prestigious awards – straight from the stage at the Lux Awards 2014. bit.ly/luxwinners14
LUXLIVE 2015: WHAT VISITORS SAY Find out why LuxLive has become an unmissable event for lighting buyers and speciﬁers. bit.ly/ll2015visitors
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