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JUNE 2015 | ISSUE 46 |

Lighting gets tough We show you how to pick the right lights for heavy-duty applications


I need to know that if I have issues with a product, I can get answers right away”



We test out five luminaires to see how tough they really are


2015 18-19 November 2015 | ExCeL London


THE BIGGEST AND BEST LIGHTING EVENT… LuxLive 2015 | ExCeL London | 18-19 November 2015 Contact: +44 (0)1905 724734

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Everyone’s got an opinion




f you’re thinking about changing the lighting for public spaces such as roads, parks or railway stations, you can expect to hear from Joe Public about it. He won’t write you a letter of thanks for slashing electricity bills or carbon emissions, but he’ll sure as hell get in touch if any light spills into his bedroom. In Croydon a couple of years ago, residents threw their arms around their heritage lampposts in a vain attempt to stop them being taken away. In Trafford, local man Simon Nicholas got so annoyed about what he saw as bad quality, bad value LED streetlighting that he began hassling not only his local council, but others whose LED plans he disapproved of, including Wigan and Cardiff. Most recently he has mounted a legal challenge to Trafford’s claim that its latest streetlighting spec has to stay secret because the job is being handled by a private contractor. Those who manage lighting estates are acutely aware of the power of public opinion, but they also know about the potential to improve light quality and reduce costs. One way to cope with this is to sneak upgrades through on the sly. In a recent LED rollout on a big transport network, the client feared that careless travellers would blame the new lights for trips and falls, claiming they were too dim or too glary (regardless of whether they actually were). So to avoid frivolous lawsuits and tabloid scare stories,








JUNE 2015 | ISSUE 46 |

Lighting gets tough We show you how to pick the right lights for heavy-duty applications


I need to know that if I have issues with a product, I can get answers right away”



We test out five luminaires to see how tough they really are


Cover: High-mast lighting from Ewo at the port of Venice Photo: Ewo

Twitter @lux_magazine


the changeover was made discreetly, with new lights that looked as much like the old ones as possible. Another strategy is simply to defy public opinion. Nottinghamshire County Council, which is bringing in LED streetlighting after residents reacted badly to a switchoff programme, has a wonderfully blunt frequently asked questions section on its website, in which it addresses the question, ‘Why wasn’t I consulted?’ Its answer is: ‘Everyone has a view on streetlighting, some like them off, some like them on, some like the orange lights and some like the white lights… It’s therefore a no-win situation to please everyone, if we were to consult and take all residents’ personal preference into consideration then we would never get anything done.’ Tough talk from an elected body to its taxpayers. The council goes on to explain that its team of lighting experts try to be sympathetic to individual residents, but have to look at the big picture. In this special issue of Lux x focusing on outdoor, transport and industrial lighting, we’ll try to help you see that big picture, while keeping the public happy too. Enjoy the issue.

Upcoming Lux specials LuxLive preview – October


– For us, every year is the international year of light ROBERT BAIN Editor 020 3283 4387 07720 677 538

PETER ROWLEDGE Commercial director 020 3283 4387 07740 110261

JAMES POUNTNEY Sector marketing specialist (OEM, controls, emergency) 020 3283 4387

KATHRINE ANKER Deputy editor 020 3283 4387

ROBERTA BONTEMPO Sector marketing specialist (retail, hospitality and leisure, residential) 020 3283 4387

MIRIAM HIER Events manager 07882 224682

RAY MOLONY Publisher 020 3283 4387 07834 990577

ANDREW BOUSFIELD Sector marketing specialist (industrial, outdoor, transport) 07713 567290

JUDY KENNY Art editor e: 020 3283 4387


Published by Revo Media Partners 3 More London Riverside London SE1 2RE Printed by The Manson Group St Albans 01727 848440 ISSN 2045-7456 © Revo Media No part of this publication may be reproduced without the written permission of the publishers. The opinions expressed in this publication are not the official views of the LIA. All rights reserved. Lux magazine is a controlled circulation magazine, available to selected executives with interests in lighting, who fall within the publisher’s terms of control. For those outside these terms, annual subscription is £70 including postage in the UK, EUR90 for the EU and US120 RoW. See for details.


The Lighting Industry Association Stafford Park 7 Telford, Shropshire TF3 3BQ 01952 290905 STEVE DAVIES Chief executive officer JO JACKSON Marketing communications manager

For LIA training courses please visit



Lighting a port terminal made of recycled chipping containers Page 59



How this Chinese airport blends artiďŹ cial light and daylight Page 51



This German logistics company is saving a packet on energy thanks to new lighting Page 41




7 Issue 05 2015 Features

News and views News Analysis Your letters Opinion Gordon Routledge Ray Molony Interview: George Angelis Interview: Euan Hilton Named and shamed Batwing

14 18 22 24 28 30 32 34 98 114






The builder’s merchants giant new Warrington warehouse is glare-free and energy efficient

55 New LED signs have made it easier to navigate around the airport, and dimmers keep costs down


59 Old containers double as skylights in this unique terminal building made of waste


PROJECT: RAINHILL STATION, UK 62 A rare example of a rail operator embracing lighting controls and reaping the benefits of LED

Running costs have plummeted since this firm secured financing for LEDs and controls


PROJECT: SHENZHEN AIRPORT, CHINA 51 Natural light features heavily in the lighting scheme at Shenzhen airport’s terminal 3

The most beautiful village in Europe has been transformed with precisely targeted LED lights


PROJECT: HOBBYCRAFT WAREHOUSE 48 With new controls, energy use is just a fifth of what it would be at this retailer’s warehouse

Tony Howells of BIS explains how lighting professionals can benefit from the UK’s lighting sector strategy, published a year ago




A major flood in Brisbane cleared the way for a disastrous park lighting scheme

Lighting is an essential part of the customer’s experience ” NORTHERN RAIL



66 The pick of the latest industrial lighting projects






70 Technology is transforming how we use airports


72 Large areas are difficult to light. Here’s everything you need to consider to get it right



Design clinic: Footbridges Design clinic: Park footpaths Design clinic: Road tunnels Lighting economist

86 88 90 94

The latest high bays Jargonbuster Videos Upcoming events

106 108 110 112

A string of cities are starting to tap into the vast potential of streetlights with data sensors


79 Groundbreaking technology is making solar lighting possible, even in darker parts of the world

Reviewed: Impact-resistant luminaires




Local authorities can pay for streetlighting updates with savings on their electricity bills


96 Lux’s second annual conference on lighting for rail will show you how to upgrade your lighting




Angry Londoners fight to save their heritage streetlights Residents of Dennett’s Road in Peckham, South London are upset because their street is due to have its heritage lanterns replaced with ‘ugly, modern ones’ while nearby streets are getting new lights in the old style. Lux x has spoken to several residents who feel they are just as deserving of the old-fashioned streetlights as the streets around them – all the streets are part of the Telegraph Hill conservation area. ‘The council has done an assessment of the various streets within the conservation area and decided that Dennett’s Road doesn’t warrant the extra cost of the heritage lighting,’ resident Paul Aston said. He added: ‘I’m particularly aggrieved by this because recent home improvement projects have cost us a lot in planning permission fees, due to the road being in the conservation area.’ JC Trinder, another resident of Dennett’s Road, said: ‘Other streets around here will get new lights that are designed to look

more like the old ones, but the council says it doesn’t fit this street and that there isn’t enough money. I don’t know if it’s because there are so many council estates on this street. It’s a shame.’ Several residents on the street have put up posters in their front windows bearing the words ‘Save our streetlamps’. They were distributed by Alison Irwin, another resident on the road. Irwin says the council’s decision doesn’t make sense. ‘Adjacent roads in the same conservation area, that currently have regular lamps, are having


theirs replaced with heritagestyle lamps – so it doesn’t appear fair,’ she said. The unhappy residents have complained directly to ewisham Council and started nline petition on Lewisham Council has responded individually to the residents’ complaints. In an email seen by Lux, x a council official explains to a resident that it is too late to stop the impending upgrade: the council signed a 25-year contract with streetlight provider Skanska-Laing in 2011 that requires most streetlights are replaced before July 2015. The council can’t afford to install new heritage-style lamps everywhere, the official explains, so all the streets in the conservation area have been evaluated, and Dennett’s Road scored lower on a list of townscape and conservation criteria than other streets.


UK council considers LEDs Massachusetts cities opt More than 24,000 street lanterns in Walsall, England could be replaced with LED lighting if plans go ahead. The move could help the local authority save up to £600,000 ($920,000) a year in energy costs and maintenance bills. £14 million ($21 million) could be available for the upgrade from a borough-wide ‘invest to save’ scheme. Similar schemes have been introduced in Bloxwich, Brownhills, Caldmore and Leamore. At its last meeting, the Walsall Council cabinet gave the goahead for a detailed project proposal. ‘This approval requires that the business base is developed, refined and submitted to cabinet in approximately September,’ said Elizabeth Thomas, public lighting manager at Walsall Council. Energy consumption under the proposed scheme will be monitored with a control system. Steve Pretty, head of engineering and transportation at Walsall Council, said: ‘With LED you can safely see vehicles, shapes, colours and people. It represents a huge investment but we’re confident that it will pay for itself over the planned 25-year life of the new assets.’ To date, Amey LG has replaced about 2,300 sodium lanterns with LEDs luminaires.

for light as a service

Fitchburg and Randolph, both in Massachusetts in the US, have become the latest towns that will not pay for their lights outright. Instead, they will pay for the light they use under deals they have signed with ‘lighting as a service’ provider Silver Spring Networks. ‘Silver Spring, in partnership with LightSmart, will deploy, manage and operate intelligent streetlight networks for the cities, allowing each to reduce upfront capital costs and operational expenditures,’ Silver Spring said. The California company uses a wireless ‘mesh’

network to intelligently control streetlights, turning them on and off and changing their brightness according to need. It also aims to use the same network to support other city services, not just lighting. It is currently deploying intelligent controls for streetlights in Paris. Fitchburg and Randolph are considerably smaller, with populations of 40,000 and 32,000 respectively. Both are former industrial towns. Fitchburg is a former paper mill centre in north central Massachusetts. Randolph, a Boston suburb, used to be full of shoe factories.



Milan halves streetlight energy use More than 140,000 LED luminaires have been installed throughout Milan in what is said to be the largest LED streetlighting upgrade in Italy. The new lighting consumes less than half the power of the previous installation. According to supplier AEC Illuminazione, the upgrade will cut costs associated with streetlighting by 31 per cent – Milan’s city hall will save €10 million (£7.3 million) on energy in the first year alone. With the new streetlighting, Milan will be responsible for 23,650 fewer tonnes of CO2 emissions a year. The upgrade will also reduce the burden of lamp recycling, with an estimated 60,000 fewer lamps hitting the market, AEC Illuminazione said. ‘The advantages of LEDs confirm that they are simply the right choice in order to get better public lighting,’ said Alessandro Cini, AEC’s chief executive. Most of the fittings are Italo lanterns installed

€10m (£7.3 MILLION) HOW MUCH THE CITY OF MILAN WILL SAVE THIS YEAR WITH ITS NEW LED ROAD LIGHTS Milan’s streetlights will cut energy use and light pollution

by AEC Illuminazione, which won the tender from regional energy supplier A2A. The LEDs concentrate the light emission towards streets and pavements without any upward emission in accordance with regulations on light pollution. The luminaires have Osram drivers.

Is playground light key to children’s health? The Swedish city of Uppsala has fo a way to improve children’s mental and physical health during the dark dreary winter months: light up the playground so they go outdoors. The east coast city installed an adjustable outdoor LED lighting system from Philips at its Tegnérparken playground. Over tw weeks earlier this year it found that five and six-year-old children played outdoors 37 per

t longer than they did previously, or 9 minutes a day versus what had been 72 minutes. Parents reported an improvement in their offspring’s moods, sleeping patterns and appetites. As Philips pointed out, proper leep has wide health implications, uding lowering the risk of obesity and depression, and abetting learning, memory and brain development.


Sheffield Star

UK government’s procurement plan for lights The UK government is working on a single procurement framework for exterior and streetlighting that is set to drive down prices in the sector, Lux can reveal. The Crown Commercial Service – which uses the buying power of the public sector to save money for the taxpayer – is working with the Department of Energy and Climate Change (Decc) on a plan to make lighting

Lighting by numbers

products more affordable. It is co-ordinating government departments including the Ministry of Defence, the Ministry of Justice, the NHS, health

authorities and even universities, to ensure luminaires, controls and lighting services can be ‘purchased effectively’. Decc also hopes the plan will increase the adoption of LED lighting. ‘This plan will create a multibillion pound market which will drive down both cost of procurement for companies involved and make savings to those participating,’ a government source told Lux. x













Container terminal saves £400k North America’s busiest single-terminal container facility is saving more than $US600,000 (£400,000) a year thanks to customised lighting from Musco in Iowa. The Garden City Terminal operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week by the Georgia Ports Authority (GPA), on a 1,200-acre (500-hectare) next to the Savannah river in the south-eastern US state of Georgia. The facility’s previous lighting system had a number of problems: it consumed a lot of energy, produced a lot of spill and glare, and maintenance was difficult. Its replacement, Musco’s Green Generation Lighting, is more cost effective and more environmentally friendly. Designed specifically for the port with its constant operations, the system has reduced energy consumption for lighting by 65 per cent – including a knock-on drop in CO2 emissions of 3,569 tonnes a year – and eliminated maintenance costs for a decade. The GPA expects to save a total of US$6.37 million (£4.17 million).

Energy use for lighting has been cut by 65 per cent

‘The new system has delivered outstanding performance while helping continue our efforts in energy reduction,’ said Olli Himbert, capital projects manager and facilities engineer at the GPA. Musco’s system includes the firm’s Control Link and monitoring technology, which together let users respond quickly and flexibly to changes in the port’s lighting requirements using web-based software and a 24/7 call centre.


Søren Aagaard, Grontmij

Ships damaged by creatures attracted to harbour lights

Novo Nordisk’s new headquarters in Bagsværd, Denmark has won the 2014 Danish Lighting Award. The project was designed by Henning Larsen Architects in collaboration with the lighting team at Grontmij.

A study has revealed that keel worms attracted by harbour and marina lights are attaching themselves to ships, encrusting the keel and the rest of the hull like mussels or barnacles on a rock. They can slow a ship down, or even damage it. Lights essentially guide them to the ships, according a study published in the Royal Society journal Biology Letters The good ne is that the ligh also drive awa some species. The colonial sea squirt, for example, prefers darkness, the study found.

A team of scientists from the University of Exeter and Bangor University concluded that modern LED lighting is largely to blame for altering communities of ‘epifaunal’ animals – creatures that attach themselves to hard surfaces and live in seabeds and riverbeds. ‘Our results indicate that ecological light pollution from coastal development, ng and offshore astructure could e changing the composition of marine epifaunal communities,’ the biologists oted in Biology ters.

Rail experts re-examine standards Rail experts will gather in London this month for a conferenc on lighting that will pose the question: are antiquated standards holding back innovation? Concerns have been raised that standards and guidelines, some of them based on Victorian practices, are not fit for purpose in the LED age. Coupled with a risk-averse culture, this is helping foster a lighting estate that doesn’t match global best practice. The conference will also focus on key topics such as procurement, asset management and the new design principles for London Underground. Leon Smith of Transport for London will outline the organisation’s new procurement process, and LUL electrical engineer Ivan Perre (pictured ( abovee) will unveil the lighting plan of the Tube station design guide. Other topics to be covered at the event, at the Cavendish Conference Centre in central London on Wednesday 24 June, include emergency lighting, lighting heritage and Victorian environments, and exemplar projects in the rail sector. O For further information, and to book a place, visit

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Analysis: When’s the smartest time to upgrade? As smart technology marches on, will early adopters of LED streetlighting live to regret it?


hen it comes to upgrading streetlightin all about money. We already knew this, and a recent survey by GE Lighting and the Carbon Trust confirms the importance of upfront cost in holding local authorities back from adopting new technology. Two-thirds of the UK public sector procurement professionals surveyed said lack of funds was still the biggest barrier to implementing smart technology. However, there’s a cost to waiting as well. That may sound like the kind of thing that salespeople say to try to get you to sign on the dotted line, but there’s undeniably some truth in it. Sticking with older, less efficient technology means missing out on savings. But jumping too soon can have its costs too, because you miss out on the even better technology available tomorrow. This is the dilemma facing streetlighting managers. And with the rapid rise of ‘smart’ streetlighting technology that harnesses the connectivity of LEDs as well as their energy-saving potential, there’s a compelling reason at the moment to hold out for the new technology – if it fulfils its promise, that is.

Perfect timing? Graham Colclough of smart cities advisory firm Urban DNA is a fan of LED streetlighting, but reckons early adopters may live to regret embracing it so soon. He’s currently leading a panEuropean project to kickstart a market for smart streetlighting, with the support of outdoor lighting giants Philips and Schréder. Colclough believes cities that have recently upgraded to LED, without taking the chance to introduce intelligence, may have missed a trick. ‘I look at lots of cities that have just gone LED and I think, “what a shame”,’ he says. ‘Upgrading lighting to LED offers real tangible rewards, financially and in terms of CO2 reductions. But if we only do lighting, then we’re missing a massive opportunity. You can add Wi-Fi, air quality monitoring, parking, traffic sensing… That’s the upside that you can add on while you’re tackling the lighting, that’s the smart part.’ The latest streetlighting products incorporate ever-more sophisticated control and communications technology. This not only helps lighting work more cleverly and efficiently, but also supports other services that can be built on the foundation of the smart lighting infrastructure.

rn’s Iain Macrae says councils are rightly wary newfangled smart city technologies One of the star products at last year’s Lux Awards was the Philips Iridium Gen3 streetlight, which was named Exterior Luminaire of the Year. It doesn’t look that unusual from the outside, but on the inside it ncludes GSM connectivity, harnessing mobile phone tworks for communication. with these advances in what streetlights can do, is now the time to buy?

An exciting phase Iain Macrae of UK lighting manufacturer Thorn says local authorities are ‘rightly nervous’ about smart city technology, because it’s still young and there’s little standardisation. They’re looking for ways to ready themselves for the future, without having to jump right in now, and without tying themselves to particular manufacturers. ‘We’re at the start of an exciting phase,’ Macrae says. ‘Municipalities can see the power these technologies can offer, they’re just aware that it’s very early days. Most of them see something coming down the I look at cities tracks, they understand some that have gone benefits from it, but they can’t LED and I think, justify spending money on it yet – they’re not confident that they’d ‘what a shame’… get the benefits. The next two to if we only do three years will be key.’ lighting, we’re Macrae says smart city lighting is at the same stage today that missing a massive LED technology was five or 10 opportunity” years ago, ‘when it was the new kid on the block and everything was going to be perfect, before we hit all the problems with colour consistency and lifetime’. ‘We have a lot of lighting people who would love to sell you a luminaire and call it smart,’ says Macrae, ‘and we have a good range of smart technologies. But we’re not really at a point where the infrastructures of cities are talking together in one language. I can provide you smart city lighting, but at the moment, it’s not




Cities simply don’t know how to use the data yet… they wouldn’t be in a position to extract much value” really part of a smart city. It’s a platform that can take sensors, nodes and communications hubs.’ A further problem is that cities simply don’t know how to use the data yet, so even if the systems work, they wouldn’t be in a position to extract much value from them. It’s a choice that many lighting managers are going to face very soon. According to the survey by GE Lighting and the Carbon Trust, nearly three-quarters of UK sustainability professionals are planning to invest in lighting systems in the next five years. Of course, when technology is advancing this rapidly, it’s impossible to know when’s the right time to buy. But buyers must keep in mind the extra benefits that might be just around the corner.

SMART STREETLIGHTS – WHERE WE’RE AT PARIS announced this year that it is introducing intelligence to the city’s streetlights, although it’s not upgrading them with LED sources. The new controls will let the city monitor light performance and outages, provide proactive maintenance, and reduce energy use by more precisely managing the lighting schedule. The more advanced adaptive lighting and dimming schemes that LEDs can offer may come later. LOS ANGELES, which is undertaking one of the world’s largest conversions to LED streetlighting, is introducing a web-based system that controls and monitors each streetlight remotely. The city is outfitting its 110,000 LED luminaires with individual mobile SIM chips that tie in to a Philips management system. In the future, the system could let LA make streetlights flash to show fire, police and ambulance crews the way to emergencies. For now, it’s a way to monitor and control lights and link into other ‘smart city’ systems. SAN JOSE, the capital of Silicon Valley, recently embarked on the second phase of a project to replace 62,000 sodium streetlights with LEDs, controlled using Schréder’s Owlet system. The system helps the luminaires maintain constant light output throughout their lives, by gradually increasing the power supplied as LED output declines. The project is cutting the city’s electricity bill for lighting in half. MADRID is replacing 225,000 streetlights with LED and HID-based alternatives, in what supplier Philips calls the world’s largest streetlighting upgrade. The city’s new lighting system benefits from a command panel capable of regulating the intensity and duration of lighting across the city according to where it is most needed. Philips said the benefits of the upgrade will go ‘beyond illumination’.

Philips Iridium Gen3 streetlight uses the mobile phone network to communicate

COPENHAGEN is replacing its old luminaires with LED fittings from UK manufacturer Thorn. It has deliberately chosen fittings that are ‘smart city’ enabled – with space and connections designed into the fittings for connectivity, and smart city components such as sensors and Wi-Fi antennas.


Analysis: Can blue lights make Britain safer? Minimise Energy has developed a blue light version of its standard LED floodlight after the bespoke version appears to have reduced suicides and antisocial behaviour at railway stations


he company behind the blue floodlig have been installed on railway stati platforms in London to reduce the numbers of suicides and antisocial behavio is now selling the product as a variant of it standard LED floodlight. UK company Minimise Energy custommade the blue lights for the station at London’s Gatwick Airport after the worst year for suicides on railway lines in the south of England. As well as the human tragedy of deaths on the railway, suicides cause huge disrup delay and cost, which station operators ar desperate to avoid. Station staff are trained to try to spot the signs and help people, but unfortunately it’s difficult to predict when or where these incidents will take place. Terry Denyer, senior asset engineer for Network Rail, says early indications are good. ‘Thus far we have had no reported suiciderelated incidents at the station since the lights were turned on and we have received anecdotal evidence only from station management that secondary effects such as vandalism, littering and staff abuse may well have fallen.’ The organisation plans to install the lights at four more stations in Sussex, and is is looking at ways of measuring the effects of the lights. But with so many different factors influencing how people behave, it’s very difficult to pinpoint how much difference the lights themselves have really made. Minimise Energy is now offering blue versions as a variant of its T-Flood product, saying it ‘can positively affect mood and help

Available off the shelf – Minimise’s T-Flood variant with blue LEDs

ues such as self-harm, violence, vandalism raffiti’. The idea of using blue lights came from apan, where they have been fitted in a bid to reduce the number of suicides on Tokyo’s Yamanote Line. Incidents have fallen there since a peak in 2009 when the installation started. However it’s still not clear whyy blue lights should have such an effect – some scientists oint to a calming effect, but that’s just one many theories. Even so, station operators in K and Japan are convinced enough to invest. scription of the product, Minimise Energy says: ‘Research has shown that blue light can induce calm, and as a colour often associated with authority, particularly the police, blue light in public places is different enough from the norm to We have encourage people to rethink before committing unwanted behaviour.’ had no reported As well as train stations, the suicide-related fittings are suitable for car parks, incidents at the stairwells and building exteriors Andrew Shortis, managing station since director of Minimise Energy, says: the lights were ‘Our T-Flood luminaires are ideal turned on” for exterior and architectural lighting and can have a positive effect on lowering antisocial behaviour rates.’ Because Minimise’s fittings use blue LEDs, they’re more efficient than products with a blue filter placed over a white LED, which results in loss of light output.



Terry Denyer, senior asset manager at Network Rail, explains the thinking behind the new blue lights at Gatwick Airport’s train platforms

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We need a circular economy The best way to explain what a circular economy is, is to compare it to our current economy. In our current linear economic system, we extract resources from our planet at an ever-increasing pace, and turn them into a product that we mostly dispose of after use. From the perspective of an individual, that seems efficient, but on a global level it’s unsustainable. We need an economic system that operates within our planetary boundaries. By feeding products, components, untapped resources and materials back into the appropriate value chains, we can create a healthy economy that is inspired by and in balance with nature. TONY HOWELLS UK Department for Business, Innovation and Skills

Lighting professionals need to adapt The future in lighting lies in understanding and focusing on light quality, human-centric lighting, colour tuning and controls. Hopefully in a few years all solid-state lighting will improve in quality. And as lighting professionals, it behooves us to make the paradigm shift in thinking required to migrate from traditional sources to solid state solutions. This is not rocket science, but requires education, the ability to ask the right questions before design completion, and an investment


You may not be aware of the average age of engineers in the UK: it’s 57. We need to find a way of developing the next generation” Tony Howells, Department for Business, Innovation and Skills

Lux’s HotList party celebrating the ten hottest lighting companies in Australia and New Zealand coincided with the Vivid festival of light, which made for a stunningly lit venue at Hudson House in Sydney. Photographed by Kiren Chang

in the tools necessary to validate project effectiveness. Hopefully too, standards organizations will move from lumens/watt and watts/square foot to all embracing parameters where light quality is matched to the indoor/outdoor environment. LES KACEV Principal at LEDMetric

DEAR LUX TEAM, I want to thank you for a great night last week at the Top 10 Australia and New Zealand lighting company HotList party in Sydney. Looking at the professionalism that the Lux team exhibits certainly convinces me that you are establishing a great brand globally and here in Australia and New Zealand. Thank you for the invitations, much appreciated. ADAM CAREY managing director, Citelum Australia and NZ

We’ve lost the relationship between lighting professionals As a lighting design contractor, one who actually performs the installation work, I’ve watched my trade deteriorate over the past several years with regards to the professionalism and respected relationships that used to be in effect between the manufacturer, distributor, and contractor. There used to be a symbiotic type relationship, where we all worked together. This has changed and I personally believe it’s been due to ‘greed’. The sale over the relationship, at any cost. We are over-saturated with products which is part of the problem. This competition has created a cut-throat environment and a frenzy for being the ‘low-priced

leader’. All of this is bad because it’s causing a devaluation of the profession. More and more are providing lesser quality and/ or cutting corners in order to win the job or to make ends meet. The encouragement by manufacturers to purchase direct or online or through ‘back-room deals’ is another huge problem. All this is doing is hurting the contractor. This is where the severing of relationships is occurring. The contractor is the direct link between the customer and the manufacturer. How can the contractor make a decent living when they have little control over what the manufacturer is doing to them? What I see coming is a major separation between the ‘professional’, whoever is really left, and the ‘practitioner or handyman’ – a big segregation of proven abilities. For me, this will be both good and bad; good because it will help to isolate so that respect, authority, and pay can be properly obtained. Bad, because it will limit those who can and should properly educate


and provide hope for the future generations to come. However, the reality is likely that most of these remaining professionals won’t pass along or prepare for this transition of knowledge – things will simple end with them. This means that the industry will likely take steps backwards.

WHAT’S HOT ON TOP TWEETS enLighten Australia @enLightenLED Thanks to @Lux_ magazine for the Top 10 HotList 2015 recognition and a great #lighting event

How will the lighting industry die when it’s on a planet half of which is in darkness at any one time, and all of which will be in darkness on average half of the time? John Lewis Principal architect of John Lewis and Associates

MARC CARLSON landscape lighting designer and consultant

The small players will inherit the lighting industry Just because the lighting industry is no longer attractive for the global capital, doesn’t mean it will die. However, the big players who pushed so much for a share of the lighting industry may relinquish themselves from the lighting industry. Siemens already did it, and Philips is on the verge of making a similar decision. In the meantime, the shift from incandescent to LED causes fragmentation of the market, which is less and less under the control of the ‘big players’. It’s possible that the figures produced by the lighting industry are no longer attractive for ‘the big guys,’ and that the pace of innovation can no longer sustain the product. However, the lighting industry is still



VERY attractive for smaller players (I could mention Opple here, for instance), who have learnt a lot from the recent past and already experienced plentifully that ‘It’s not the big that eats the small, but the fast that eats the slow.’ Well, then... The lighting industry is dying... Long live the lighting industry! MARIUS HONDREA director of K&K Electronics Romania

CORRECTION In the recent Lux Technology special edition, our review of Designplan’s QuadEvo fitting stated that it could resist impact of 140 joules. The correct figure is 125 joules. Our verdict on the product stands!

The future belongs to the agile. Death is a direct result of wrong or slow adaptation. The market is a cruel but fair judge. Travis Jones Pesident and CEO of CRS Electronics Yes. This is a world where the fast fish eats the slow – no longer the big ones controlling the small. Michael Ng, Board director, Global Lighting Associaton / Middle East Lighting Association It is not the lighting industry that is dying, just the part of it that is backward-minded. There will be fewer but more technically connected businesses in the future. We will see more new and different ways of lighting. Thomas Roeding Export manager of Insta Lightment

Twitter @lux_magazine and @luxreview

The downside of the giants leaving the lighting market is that they had enormous capacity to invest in R&D. But at a certain point they calculated that all this investment is not paying back and decided to quit. It may mean that evolution of SSL will slow down. Of course, there are companies that may disrupt the market again, but it is not very good news for the market. Simas R, Project manager and lighting designer at Gaudre


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A new approach to retrofit resistance

Remove the stumbling block to LED adoption



odern LED light fittings can cut costs for all kinds of businesses – but that doesn’t mean there isn’t still plenty of resistance to retrofit installations. Greenlite decided to gauge the interest of several hundred companies in the possibility of replacing old, primarily fluorescent lighting fittings with new, efficient LED ones. The emphasis was on retrofit installations that were quick, easy and undemanding to install and operate. We worked out that one firm could halve its £520,000 annual energy bill by replacing fluorescent fittings with LED equivalents. Some could immediately see the value of this transition, but a significant number were more resistant. But in many cases, the practical long-term disadvantages Making a of not converting to LED lighting case for retrofit technology are likely to be far greater than the short-term around energy inconvenience of the transition. bill reduction is But can the more resistant not necessarily respondents really afford the downtime that will result from a effective” lighting system failure? It seems that making a case for retrofit around energy bill reduction is not necessarily effective. Indeed, a surprising number of companies were unable to even provide an estimate of their energy bills. Another challenge is tackling the possible indifference of some in-house electrical and engineering personnel, who may feel threatened by the intervention of an outside company. Critical to our case, therefore, is an explanation that not only are we not there to undermine their positions, we have been enlisted to make their working lives easier. In the longer run, regulatory impulses such as the UK’s legally binding requirement to reduce its carbon emissions by 80 per cent by 2050 will surely be a spur to action by businesses across the board. But in the shorter term, highlighting the potential costs of production downtime as a result of lighting failures can pay a significant part in disrupting the ‘circle of inertia’ on energy efficiency.


ith the emergence of LED lighting, the number of options for lighting designers and architects has greatly increased. Luminaires can be designed in many different form factors. One thing that has not changed however, is the way in which the power needed to drive the LED luminaires is distributed. Designers are continually having to work around the bulky power ‘block’ that hinders luminaire design. A low-voltage direct current (LVDC) infrastructure, or distributed power, could be the key to eliminating the final stumbling block to more widespread LED adoption. Distributed power is widely used in other industries. For example, the heavy laptop computers of just a few years ago have been replaced by notebooks less than an inch thick thanks to distributed power and an intermediate LVDC step in the power convertor inside the laptop’s power adapter. If we apply this same idea to lighting, it’s possible to create a light fitting that no longer needs a bulky external power supply, but instead can use one central power supply for multiple light sources and a small DC/DC converter inside the luminaire. This enables manufacturers to design luminaires around the required functionality or interior design ideas, not around technological constraints. It’s possible The benefits of distributed to create a light power are not just in design, but fitting that no in installation. Lighting becomes ‘plug and play’. For example, a longer needs a shop owner could change their bulky external lighting at a fraction of the cost of power supply” changing mains-powered lighting. In commercial applications, the need to use cable conduits disappears as well, even in a ceiling structure or inside walls. For manufactures and lighting designers, using a distributed power approach and LVDC pluggable lighting will not only bring the benefits of more widespread adoption of LED lighting, but also unlock the potential to design beautiful spaces with LED lighting.



Opinion Who cares? It’s just lighting One of the lesser-known casualties of the Brisbane floods of 2011 was the lighting at a local park. But only lighting professionals can explain what’s wrong with the replacement scheme



et the lighting right and, sadly, it often goes unnoticed: positive comments are made instead about the architecture, the decor or something intangible such as the atmosphere. But get the lighting wrong and everyone seems to have something to say about it. Take, for instance, a park just up the river from my home. The park was smashed by the 2011 floods in Brisbane, during which water levels were 26 metres above their normal height in our area. ‘Major’ does not seem an adequate adjective to describe a flood that killed 35 people, destroyed homes and infrastructure to the tune of a billion dollars and made me really handy with a chainsaw. I remember watching bits of the park’s infrastructure bobbing along just past my back door and out to sea. And finding other bits of the park that the flood left behind so I would have something useful to do with my leisure time for the next year or so. The park (and to a lesser extent my backyard) was eventually fixed. For AUS$10 million (£5 million) they could even afford to add lighting to the list of things that I might one day find littering my backyard after the next major flood. Gee, I can’t wait. Now, I have heard the park’s new lighting described by members of the public as a ‘forest of poles’, ‘too bright’, ‘ugly’, ‘highly distracting for motorists’ and ‘too much glare’. Apparently the new lighting has been a hot topic among locals ever since it was switched on. An experienced lighting professional might add to the conversation by questioning the choice of a high colour temperature for the light sources throughout. Then there’s the aiming, the lack of cut-off shielding to the luminaires, the predominance of pole-top luminaires and the inadequate contrast between the illuminance of the designated paths and the open spaces. In fact, to my mind, the park looks to be lit like a sports field. Except, of course, that there are no sports. Or fields. But apart from the lack of sports, fields or spectators, you would have to say that it sure is lit. Like a sports field. I imagine that greenies would be rightly upset too, by the unnecessary energy consumption. There does not appear to be

any intelligent control of the lighting. It is on, and at high intensity, even when only a small part of the park is occupied. And an astronomer would no doubt lament the upward component of the light that adds to light pollution in the form of city skyglow, making stargazing more difficult. My handy tip for the day is that you should always hide the light sources unless the light is the thing that you want to direct people to look at. If your client has some terrific-looking lights they would like to use as part of the decor, fine. Unless the lights happen to be one of that rare breed that are both aesthetically attractive and great illuminators, put the lowest intensity sources you can find into them instead, so they appear to be the source of light but aren’t, and leave the real work to those (presumably ugly) lights that you have carefully hidden. As for this particular park with its preponderance of pole-top glare emitters, the solution seems blindingly obvious: retrofit cut-off shields to the lights or replace them My tip for the if shielding is not an option. Add day is always hide intelligent control with dimming the light sources and presence detection so lights in vacant areas dim, lights in occupied unless the light areas are on, and lights in adjacent is the thing that areas, amenities – installed for you want to direct aesthetic reasons – are dimmed to save energy. people to look at” Although this does nothing to address the uniformly high colour temperature, it would at least be a vast improvement on the current visual composition, and would also be more sensitive to the environment and less distracting for motorists. It could even, perhaps, turn a zero into a hero. Does it meet code? It probably does, but don’t ask me, I was dumbly staring into lights, not looking at a lux meter. As to who let this happen and what, if anything, will now be done about it… who knows? Perhaps more importantly, who, apart from me, cares? After all, it’s just lighting, isn’t it?







Middle East follows Europe’s lead on light

All the world’s a stage, but the lighting stinks



t is impossible to miss the spectacular array of lights as you come in to land at either Dubai or Abu Dhabi airport. These are exciting cities, developing at a phenomenal pace, and in a financial position to benefit from the best technology available. A combination of government initiatives, the advent of Expo 2020, technology, cost, volume, enterprise and innovation, is making the Middle East one of the most exciting and dynamic regions for the lighting industry. In Europe, an estimated 120 million streetlights are responsible for at least 20 million tonnes of CO2 emissions every year. In 2006, Oslo took steps to halve its energy use by implementing intelligent outdoor lighting. London followed in 2011, announcing that more than 14,000 Major bodies streetlights in the borough of in European Westminster will be upgraded with light sources that can be markets have dimmed at quieter times. In Los commited Angeles, the world’s largest LED themselves streetlighting retrofit is under way. And now the UAE has set out to LEDs” its long-term ‘Green Economy for Sustainable Development’ initiative, which seeks to create a sustainable environment for economic growth. Although the cost of energy is not necessarily the driving force in the Middle East, there is certainly a greater awareness of environmental and maintenance issues. Currently the capital expenditure required for LED technology is greater than the outlay for fluorescent, but the rules of supply and demand say fluorescent components will multiply in cost as demand dwindles. Another factor is the demand from the architectural and design communities to use LEDs in their schemes. A huge bonus for our clients in the Middle Eastern market is that major organisations in the European markets, in London in particular, have committed themselves to LEDs, which reduces any perceived risks. The market will therefore benefit from the mistakes we have already made and overcome.


have just returned from a lighting conference in New York where I presented an inspirational speech about the rebuilding of Christchurch in New Zealand after numerous earthquakes. At the conference, I attended several presentations on the use of tunable white across many lighting disciplines. Tunable white gives me a tool to control not only the colour temperature but also the intensity of the light. Just think of what that can do for our public spaces. We now live in a world that has light pollution, and as lighting designers we have a responsibility to our planet and now we have the opportunity to get it right. Another possibility is security. If you were the owner of an evening entertainment venue and you had tunable white light available from a streetlighting column, you could change the area light from warm to bright white light if there was a disturbance. When we go from low warm light to cold white light suddenly we tend to pause the activity. The possibilities are endless and are already being used. One of the doubts expressed about tunable light is the cost. To me lighting design excellence has always been about the value not the cost. Costeffective lighting is not necessarily the cheapest. The lighting that has We must the greatest economic benefit for light for people, us is the lighting that makes people not just to meet want to stay around, sit at outdoor restaurants, browse the shops and standards and promenade along walkways. We compliance must light for people, not just to meet criteria” standards and compliance criteria. Coming from a background in theatrical lighting design, where we were always adjusting and tuning the fittings to create perfect scenes, this to me has to be the answer for our public spaces. As a great man once said: ‘All the world’s a stage.’ I would want better lighting on that stage. Now, with tunable white and excellent design it is finally sustainable, cost-effective and, most importantly, there for people to enjoy.


ERCO has reconsidered office lighting. The Skim downlight oval flood with LED replaces two conventional luminaires. With its elongated light distribution, the oval flood lens system enables energyefficient and better lighting of circulation zones and workplaces in the office. Perfect light efficiently calculated.



Gordon Routledge What happens when lighting meets CCTV? Gordon Routledge, lighting expert and publisher of Lux Review, tackles another lighting myth


en years ago if you said you were a regular every entrance, ticket barrier and nook or cranny. loiterer around the King’s Cross area of They are inside highly visible black domes, so you London, you would no doubt be under the can’t tell which area they cover. close watch of the police. Back then King’s Cross I’d suggest there are more CCTV cameras than wasn’t the most salubrious of neighbourhoods, with lighting points, and I’m sure the amount of design its massage parlours, fast food joints and a broad work for the CCTV system equals or exceeds that selection of tramps and down-and-outs. which went in to the lighting. I’m also sure the The most redeeming feature of the area was CCTV system is well maintained, and that the that you could hop on a mainline train and escape specification was pretty rigid and not subject to any London. But the station back then was awful: it value engineering. I’m sure the dialogue between was dark, the concourse was cramped and when the various design teams was minimal, sure the your train was late you had very few options but camera people will have a view on the amount of to look at the well-thumbed magazines in WH light, and where they need it. The architect probably Smith or grab a greasy burger. does not approve of the acne on the These days the station and ceiling that the lights and black dome surrounding areas are a triumph cameras represent. King’s of urban regeneration, with public What if these two worlds – Cross station spaces and light and airy stations. lights and cameras –were brought is full of lights Trains still run late, but these together? This could streamline the days when you’re delayed, you design process, reduce installation and cameras. can choose to gorge yourself on costs, eliminate miles of cabling and What if the two anything from Japanese Bento or reduce clutter in public spaces. This were brought Mexican burritos, to pulled pork does present challenges of course. sandwiches and cocktails. Not The design process would be more together?” hungry? Do some shopping complex, designers would have to in Waitrose or M&S, buy add another string to their bows a book or have your photograph taken at – lighting manufacturers would have to become platform 93/4 of Harry Potter fame. camera people, or vice versa. It’s already starting to happen. One of the King’s Cross station has also had its share of tragedy. In 1987, 31 people died in a fire in standout products I saw at Lightfair in New York was what we now know as the ‘angry light’. It the underground station. In 1973 the station combines camera, lighting and sensor technology to was the scene of an IRA bombing, which create a light that can monitor and react to what is explains why, along with most other UK going on around it. The implementation we saw was stations, there are no litter bins. King’s Cross targeted at car dealer forecourts. The light can set was also a staging post for the 7/7 terrorist up a ‘geofence’ around a protected area, then once bombings in 2005 – one culprit was captured crossed at the wrong time of day, the light will react on CCTV popping into WH Smith to buy a 9V by either voicing a warning, flashing the lights and at battery to use in the bomb. the same time start to record activity. Which brings me on to the point of this The camera people reading this will scoff because month’s ramblings. While loitering around King’s this technology has been around for years, but Cross a few weeks ago I noticed just how many perhaps now lighting people are starting to wake CCTV cameras the redeveloped station now has. up to the high-spec, critical market of CCTV and the It must run in to a good few hundred – they are sales opportunities it brings. everywhere, 20 covering the taxi rank, loads at




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Ray Molony Connected lighting needs a killer app Ray Molony, publisher, Lux magazine


ight artists think it’s a great wheeze to link about all this stuff. But there’s one small problem: the illumination of a sculpture or building no-one knows what to do with the technology. Fred with something separate but related. For can do anything but we can’t tell him what we want. instance, the UK Pavilion at the Expo in Milan this There’s no obvious problem looking for a solution. month (you should know about this – you’re paying No killer app. for it) is themed around bees so the 1,000 LEDs Last month at LightFair, the lighting industry’s big increase and decrease in intensity in reponse to the US shindig held annually in New York, everyone was activites of bees in a beehive in Nottingham. talking about connected lighting (what we used to Similarly, light sculptures have variously changed call ‘smart lighting’ or ‘intelligent lighting’). But nocolour according to air pressure, traffic congestion, one was able to do very much intelligent with it. tidal movements and footfall in an architecture Still it didn’t stop people trying. US manufacturer school. The thing is, the people writing the cheques Terralux, for instance, unveiled what is believed to – such as UK Trade and Investment or your local be the world’s first light that can both detect and authority – love these backstories. deal with farts. I kid you not. The LEDSense range You could, in theory, link changes in the lighting has an built-in gas sensor that can tell if a bathroom to anything: the number of flat is left ‘stinky’, to use the company’s white coffees consumed by word. The system then turns on an bearded lumbersexuals in an East extractor fan. At LightFair, End hipster bar, the migration of Hubbell made a better stab at Terralux unveiled wildebeest crossing the Serengeti, it. It unveiled the ‘angry light’, the what is believed to Cimarron CL1-ITSP, an exterior fitting the number of times Sepp Blatter is re-elected by his sycophantic be the world’s first designed as a deterrent to criminals. freeloading cronies at Fifa. light that can both Cross an invisible line – known as It’s all technically possible. As a ‘geofence’ – and the light gets detect and deal my bluff Geordie builder Fred says mad: it flashes, gives stern recordedto me: ‘Ray, we can do anything. voice warnings and announces it’s with farts” Just tell us what you want…’ switching on its video camera. Knowing what you want is Sensity Systems, the original often the difficult bit. ‘spy light’ maker, was showing its military-style The lighting industry is the same as Fred. luminaires that bristle with sensors. The fittings can It has the technology to do pretty much do lots of tricks beyond lighting: they can count anything within reason. You can certainly cars and people, recognise number plates, detect link the brightness of the luminaires to almost pollution and ‘report on suspicious activity’. anything. For example, the clever lighting OK, I get that security surveillance and lighting team at Manchester Airport have managed can converge. That’s logical and probably the most to connect the fluorescent luminaires in the promising early app for smart lights. piers and baggage reclaim area to their aircraft But an idea for the mainstream application of monitoring system. If a flight lands from Berlin, the intelligent technology remains elusive. But hey, I’m light ramps up from 10 per cent to full brightness confident it will eventually emerge. Why? Because it always does. That’s the way it is with technology. to accept the arriving passengers. As well as receiving data, lights can also Believe it or not, telecoms engineers didn’t generate the stuff. You can put a whole host think anyone had a use for SMS messaging in the of sensors, cameras and detectors inside a early days of mobile phones. Now 140 billion text luminaire. After all, lights, being ubiquitous, messages are sent annually in the UK alone. are the perfect network. The killer app probably won’t be invented by The lighting industry is getting very excited lighting people, but that’s OK. Come it will.





One of the biggest challenges is getting people to accept that new technology is available”


George Angelis Manager of city infrastructure and traffic operations, City of Sydney I have many responsibilities I have over 25 years of experience in local government, working in all aspects of civil engineering for urban councils. The job encompasses many areas and I am responsible for key sustainable projects – including the rollout of LED lighting in the City of Sydney. People have to be encouraged to accept new technology One of the biggest challenges is getting people to accept that new technology is available – and finding that technology in Australia. I’m always encouraging people to seek the technology out. With LED being digital, I believe the technology will be able to provide more than light, it can be used for everything that needs data. LED technology and smart LED technology, which can control the intensity of the light, is being recognised in Australia, but it’s not covered in Australian standards. We’ve trialled some smart lights in George Street, and from an asset management point of view they are advantageous. Generally, LEDs don’t fail, but it’s good to know when the lights are out and need replacing or repairing. We’ve also trialled dimming lights and they are impressive – even at 50 per cent output the light on the ground is still there. At the time of the city’s LED rollout, smart controls were just too expensive for the benefits they give. We are learning all the time We look at just about everything – the risk, design, effectiveness and efficiency, life span and warranty. As well as LEDs we’ve considered solar-powered lighting and have done some retrofits using solar power. The upgrade to Sydney’s central business district streets, plazas and parks was by far the biggest project, and the City of Sydney will replace close to 6,500 conventional lights with LEDs. Aesthetics are important Appearance is important in Sydney because of the number of visitors we receive. We want them to have a good experience. The energy provider generally owns the poles, but we’ve also installed smart poles with luminaires in many areas. These poles allow multiple pole-mounted accessories such as CCTV cameras and

Sydney was the first city in Australia to install LED streetlights in a AUS$7 million (£3.4 million), three-year project under which 6,500 conventional streetlights were replaced with LED in a project that finished two years ago. Six manufacturers were invited to install luminaires for the first phase of the trial which

banners. The visitor experience is enhanced because the ‘clutter’ that typically accumulates in any busy and growing city is reduced. The project is part of the new central business district and South East Light Rail that will extend from Circular Quay along George Street to Central Station and on to Moore Park, then to Kingsford via Anzac Parade and Randwick via Alison Road and High Street. The NSW Government expects light rail to be operating in 2019. Although the major infrastructure project is being delivered by the NSW government, the City of Sydney is contributing AUS$220 million (£112 million) towards it, which includes funding for the transformation of George Street and the improvement of surrounding laneways. Innovative visual effects We have also installed other streetlighting systems that enhance the visitor experience. The catenary system of lights in Pitt Street is a ladder-like series of lights supported by a Ronstan high-tension stainless steel cable framework. The system illuminates the pedestrian areas below and the façades of the buildings without large self-standing poles or heavy-looking supports. The 16m-high tensile cable web is almost invisible, with bowstring support cables anchored every 20m into the façades of the buildings along the mall. The catenary lights themselves comprise long tubes, combining downward illumination and a sequence of LEDs along the vertical length that can be programmed to emit different colours depending on seasonal requirements – reflecting specific mood s and occasions. Warranties are important when assessing light sources Quality and the lifespan of the light are generally the first things I look at, but choosing warranties is also important – we have achieved good parts, labour and materials warranties on many products. When it comes to new products, there is a lot of information coming from North America and Europe however this can be slow to get to Australia. We’ve found you need to be part of a network to find out about emerging products, so the city joined the Climate Group to share information with other big cities.

was run in Alexandria Park, Circular Quay, George Street, Kings Cross and Martin Place in 2011. These were Lightsense, Sylvania, Lighting Science, Ruud, Osram and GE. For the second phase, Philips, We-Ef and iGuzzini installed luminaires with smart controls in a section of George Street.

The city ran a public feedback survey in early 2011 at two of the trial locations. The results revealed that more than 90 per cent of those surveyed found the new lighting appealing and three-quarters said it improved visibility. So the project was put out to tender, and became a joint venture with GE and UGL.



Craig Fleming

In unstaffed stations, lighting represents 90 per cent of our energy use, so implementing ways to save energy is a priority”


Euan Hilton Utilities manager at Northern Rail We must keep it simple I look after utilities supply for Northern Rail, which is responsible for 2,500 local and regional train services, every weekday. As the largest train operating company in the UK, our big focus is to improve the station environment, and lighting is an essential part of the customer’s experience. As a result, our approach is to keep it simple, get the basics right and work as one team. These factors allow us to provide new lighting solutions that reduce costs but, more importantly, deliver a service that we can be proud of. We’ve reduced energy use at most of our sites In our unstaffed stations, lighting represents 90 per cent of our energy consumption, so implementing ways to save energy is a priority. We’ve reduced consumption to a minimum at the majority of sites by replacing analogue timers with digital units coupled with photocells. When sited in the right locations these systems contribute to great energy savings. We are also trialling some initiatives involving solar power. We have implemented standalone units that power some of our customer information screens in rural areas. However, our biggest investment has been in utilising the best of LED technology. Maintenance first Northern Rail contracts maintenance to a facilities management provider and so lamps are replaced on a reactive basis. The challenge is, at busy stations with high columns, it could take two engineers to replace fixtures. With safety implications to consider – for staff and customers – some maintenance cannot be completed with trains running. As a result, we have to apply for possession of a station to carry out work, which is expensive. When we were starting to look at implementing LED systems, energy saving and maintenance were two key areas of consideration. Fitting in with history We have a number of historic locations and listed buildings throughout our network and we had to have lighting fixtures that suit their vernacular. To retrofit more efficient lighting systems in these heritage locations, we don’t redesign, we re-lamp. By keeping the original heritage fittings and replacing the internal components, we can upgrade systems without changing the aesthetics. Project success is down to staff engagement One of the most successful projects for incorporating new lighting technology into a historical location was at Rainhill train station, which is one of the oldest in the world. We knew the benefits of LED and how it could improve the business and Rainhill proved

an ideal site for a trial, using fittings from Dexeco. We carried out lux level testing throughout the station to ensure the new system could match, and in most instances exceed, regulation levels. We also engaged the staff at the station during every step of the project to get valuable feedback. The result is a proven energy saving of 57 per cent in consumption since the scheme was implemented. Moreover, it improved the clarity of CCTV footage, the customers’ overall experience, and staff awareness of LED projects. Future collaborations At the moment, we’re working alongside facilities managers on a few projects to implement lighting alongside platform white lining. The idea is that by installing LED systems at the same time as safety fixtures – such as white lines along the edges of platforms – we can optimise both elements. In the future we hope to install upgrades alongside CCTV cameras to reduce shadows and increase the clarity and colour rendering of video images. By doing this at the same time, is also provides an opportunity to reduce costs and gain better outcomes for a multitude of services. Customer service is a key priority While quality is very important, I believe customer service from suppliers is often a higher priority because I need to know that if I have an issue with a product, I can get answers straight away. Also, innovation from suppliers and the ability and willingness to interact with the customer is essential because it enables us – the end user – to explain what we need from a product. The result is often improved aesthetics and usability of lighting products that are easier to specify and install. How to stay ahead of the curve While improvements in the LED market are happening at a rate of knots, some suppliers are very slow to bring products to market. We’re the people that are going to be using these products, so we need to be more easily informed about advances, but also new products have to be more readily available. We’re in a unique industry that has standards and guidelines that can appear to be restrictive or prohibitive. However, we need the lighting suppliers to engage with us; not tell us what we want, but find out what we need. Looking to the future I’m currently doing some research and hoping to find out more about graphene lighting and how that is going to change the industry. As much as I like LEDs, I want our lighting designs to optimise Northern Rail environments and products must provide a light source that looks good but also delivers something extra.


UK Lighting Sector Strategy A plan we can all get behind Tony Howells sets out what has been achieved since the UK Lighting Sector Strategy was published last year, and how it benefits lighting professionals



year ago, the Lighting Industry Association and the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS) launched the UK Lighting Sector Strategy. Here is an overview of some of things we have achieved since then, and how it benefits lighting professionals as well as the lighting industry as a whole.

We’re attracting talent You may not be aware of the average age of engineers in the UK: it’s 57. We need to find a way to develop the next generation. We are aiming high. The LIA has successfully attracted £1.3 million from BIS to add to a further £1.7 million from industry to develop the UK Lighting Skills Academy – a learning place and platform where all interested parties come together to develop skills from school level to apprenticeships and postgraduate. Over the next 12 months we’re hoping to work with the Lighting Education Trust (LIT) to develop The average bursary and disability support for age of engineers those who wish to take up the in the UK is 57. opportunities the UK lighting industry has to offer. We need to We are challenging the whole of find a way to UK lighting to fund the LIT, to give develop the next opportunities to those who want them. If all companies were to support the generation” LIT with a little as £1,000 a year, we would have an annual fund of £0.5 million to pay for and expand programmes.


We’re partnering with government and agencies You can’t help but notice the awareness stream running through all the lighting associations supporting companies and individuals. That’s not by chance; we are growing and developing partnerships right across central and local government. The Lighting Liaison Group (all UK lighting trade associations), has expanded to include BIS and the Local Government Association, already with an offer to include Department for Communities and Local Government, Department for Transport and Department of Energy and Climate Change (Decc).

We’re growing a sustainable sector It is often said that the public sector can lead the way in stimulating an innovative industrial sector. We have recognised that it’s a difficult job for local authorities to make a choice when investiing in public realm lighting. To this end, we have joined forces with the Institute of Engineering and Technology, Decc, BIS and industry to develop a sound technical case. It is supported by Decc and will help local authorities make the right choices while ensuring they have a good case to access funds from Salix, Department for Transport and Green Investment Bank funding. Together with industry, BIS and the LIA have prepared the paper UK lighting, innovation for our future. It explains to public body funders what the industry will need over the next three to five years, and was timed to coincide with both EPSRC and Innovate UK funding rounds. The industry is engaged with Transport for London’s £100 million-plus fund for energy-efficient lighting over the next five years, and the LIA has again won ATO status and will be providing trade missions for UK lighting companies on behalf of UKTI.

We’re reducing carbon emissions We are seeing the switch from inefficient to efficient technologies at an increasing pace. The next big saving will be in service delivery through the change to energy-efficient light sources combined with sensors and communications. The challenge to customers is describing to the lighting industry what products and services it needs for the next 20 years. The challenge to the lighting industry is to work with communications, sensors and data mining to provide lighting as a service.




A develo pment plan for a compet itiv and sus e tainable lighting industry

To get a copy, contact the LIA at, or download it from

In associati

on with




by The

Rt Hon

Michae l Fallon


MP Min ister of State for Busines s and Ene rgy


Outdoor light with unrivalled


past winner of the title of most beautiful village in Europe, Lech is a picturepostcard ski resort perched at a height of 1,400m in Austria’s Arlberg mountain range. And with 1,500 inhabitants and 8,300 hotel rooms, it thrives on tourism. Now a new outdoor lighting system from Zumtobel has transformed Lech’s appearance at night. ‘The existing streetlighting system with its obsolete technology was simply not up to contemporary requirements any more,’ says Karlheinz Egger of the Lech building authority. Still, it took a lot of persuading to win over political decision-makers,


Precisely targeted modular LED lighting has transformed the night-time appearance of this Austrian ski resort. Robert Bain reports administrators and the local hotelkeepers when it came to specifying a new LED lighting scheme. Lighting designer Dieter Bartenbach worked with local manufacturer Zumtobel to come up with a new way to illuminate the town and its river. Bartenbach described the situation he found at Lech as a ‘lighting mess’, with diffuse, untargeted general light drowned out by bright light from shop windows and advertising.

Precise control

The custom lighting system that Zumtobel developed for Lech has become the basis for its new Supersystem Outdoor product. This is an extension to the Supersystem range of high-precision accent lighting for galleries, museums and shops, based on miniature spotlights with diameters of 25, 45 and 65mm, combined with a range of lenses, reflectors and filters. Supersystem Outdoor brings the same idea to exterior lighting, with luminaires containing several small, adjustable LED points that can be carefully targeted, creating a modular, flexible system for highly targeted and sophisticated schemes.

The new lighting scheme is designed to highlight particular features and define spaces. The luminaire that Zumtobel developed for the project uses a number of separate LED points, so light is much more precisely controlled, and glare is minimised. The modular design makes the system similar to a set of building blocks: the luminaires can be configured with between six and 34 LED points, each using about 2W. For the columns, too, Zumtobel has developed various different versions of the luminaire, depending on the location. The new system made much more linear lighting – of the main street, house façades and the river Lech – possible. The custom lighting

Streetlighting and building façade luminaires are dimmed or switched off at different times


Town planners were keen to light the river at light

system developed for Lech has become the basis of Zumtobel’s new Supersystem outdoor product (see box, left). The planners were particularly keen to illuminate the river at night, to try to bring the river back into the town. The river’s banks and walls are reflected along the watercourse and make for a dynamic image captivating the viewer through the movement of the current, and creating a three-dimensional effect.

Winning over the hoteliers Luminaire heads are now installed on the hotel façades instead of on columns, giving better illumination of the façades, which helped to win over the hotel owners who financed the changes. The luminaires each contain a radio sensor so they can be controlled wirelessly using a specially developed web-based system. From dusk until 10pm, all areas are lit, then at 10pm the façade lights are switched off. At midnight, streetlighting is dimmed to a low ambient level. Not only does the new lighting make the town look better, the improved light distribution means the new luminaires also waste less energy and disturb wildlife less than the ones they replaced.



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Luminaires with different light distribution patterns are used in different areas

Light for

LOGISTICS T his logistics firm in western Germany is using LED technology and a light management system in its storage halls to reduce energy use, and thus running costs. Based near Wuppertal in North Rhein-Westphalia, Taskin Logistics acquired four storage halls in Sprockhövel last year. Once it became clear that a lighting refurbishment could reduce energy costs, it decided to upgrade before the halls entered service. Established in 2012, Taskin’s medium-sized, fullservice logistics business encompasses transport and forwarding, warehousing and IT services. Taskin brought in a local renewables and energy efficiency specialist, AVU Serviceplus, which also showed it how an improved lighting system could optimise work processes in the facilities and help the firm gain a competitive advantage. The AVU Group, is an energy and water services specialist that has been based in the area for more than a century.

Better light

and badly lit racking in storage spaces were safety problems and sources of mistakes. Indeed, the old lighting often did not allow workers to clearly read delivery notes and order lists. ‘The safety of our workers was one of our primary aspects,’ said management executive member Selcuk Taskin, who also pointed out that the total time period for the project – eight weeks – was ‘very tight’. Lighting manufacturer Trilux, which is also based in the area, was called in to plan and install an LED system for a total area of 4,800m2 across the four halls, a delivery zone and an integral office. First, however, Trilux put together a financial package that helped Taskin make full use of public subsidies and agree a bespoke leasing plan with a


Before the renovation, poorly illuminated aisles

LED lighting has helped this German logistics business to reduce its energy bills by two thirds, and not have to worry about maintenance. Tobias Gourlay reports


finance partner. The upshot is that Taskin’s monthly payments for financing and energy are now smaller than the amounts it used to pay for energy and maintenance of the old lighting system. After photometric analysis of spaces that are defined by 7m-high ceilings and high-bay racking, Trilux plumped for E-Line LED continuous lines with 4,000, 8,000 and 13,000 lumens, together with a light management system.

Efficient light On top of its energy efficiency, the E-Line’s simple mounting was a crucial factor: light sources and the optical system are pre-integrated in the gear trays; only the trunking and associated fixing hardware are required for luminaire installation. Narrow and narrow-wide distribution luminaires


The installation team installing the new LEDs

help workers in low-daylight sections of the halls, making the small print on order forms much easier to read. Moreover, the luminaires have a flat, sealed surface that reduces the continuous line’s sensitivity to soiling and thus lengthens its performance. Trilux customised the light management system to meet Taskin’s needs and reach the highest level of efficiency. Between the rows of high-bay racking, aisles have presence detectors that only illuminate them fully when a worker approaches. Similarly, main entrances to the halls are lit up when a forklift truck arrives and presence detectors can then track it into the aisles, only lighting them when necessary. Areas that are dormant are left dark.


We no longer need to think about the lighting over the next five to 10 years”

The results of the installation, which was completed in just two weeks – ‘quickly and without problems,’ according to Taskin – are as expected: power consumption has shrunk by 64 per cent, with an associated benefit to the environment, and working conditions have improved. With energy use dropping from 242,174 kWh a year to 87,533 kWh, the latest projection is that the initial investment cost of the LED system will be offset by operational savings in two and a half years. ‘We’re certainly more than satisfied with our upgrade to the new technology,’ said Taskin. ‘The system is very much more efficient and we no longer need to think about the lighting over the next five to 10 years.’





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Energy efficiency and cost savings were paramount for Travis Perkins when choosing lighting equipment



t the start of the year, timber and builders merchant Travis Perkins opened its largest distribution centre in the UK. The giant warehouse, in the Omega North industrial estate near Warrington, occupies 55,800m2 and handles the company’s storage and supply needs for the region. Choosing the lighting for such a cavernous space presented a number of challenges. Energy efficiency and cost savings were high on the list of priorities, along with the need to avoid glare for workers and prevent light spill into the surrounding area.

Put to the test

[we] thought that their LED lighting system would be suitable for our new sites.’ Unlike many warehouse schemes, where old HID fittings are being upgraded, luminaires can be installed anywhere at a new site. For the main interior open area, Holophane’s I-Beam LED fitting was chosen, mounted at a height of 14m and spaced on an 8 x 12m grid. In the racking area, Holophane DCR LED-based luminaires are mounted at 14m with a spacing of 6m down each of the aisles. The Holophane luminaires were the lightest and easiest to handle of all the trial fittings, says Whatton, so installation was a one-man job – and


The Travis Perkins project design team tested a number of products at another location before making their final choice. Des Whatton, facilities manager, was a member of the steering group that made the decision. ‘We looked at various aspects of the warehouse – what we wished to put in and all the facilities associated with it,’ he says. ‘Holophane’s products have been known to me for many years and

Travis Perkins’ giant new warehouse outside Warrington needed lighting that would not dazzle workers, pollute the surroundings or distract drivers on the nearby motorway


fast. ‘It’s one of those fittings that you can fit and forget,’ he says. Sensors have been fitted to the luminaires to make the most of the daylight entering through the skylights. They measure lux levels and dim the light fittings as required. Built-in PIR motion detectors ensure that the lighting comes on only when workers are present. Travis Perkins expects the system to be much cheaper to run than traditional HID lighting.

Opaque diffusers Visual comfort was an important consideration. ‘The fittings arrived as requested with opaque diffusers to reduce the glare for anybody looking up at the light – which was a problem we had with one or two other fittings,’ says Whatton. Lighting for the canopy has an efficient control system and starts instantly

Outside, the lighting for the canopy required efficient control with instant start-up. The team chose the Haloprism LED luminaire with the IP65 option, mounted at a height of 7m at 10m intervals. Haloprism has a prismatic glass enclosure that ensures the light is guided down to the floor as efficiently as possible, at the same time cutting glare to a minimum. The car park lighting was another challenge because the site is close to the M62 motorway with its associated stringent planning constraints.

Holophane DSX luminaires, mounted at 8m and spaced on a 40 x 48m grid, were chosen for the quality of their light distribution and efficient light control to the ground. The fittings also incorporate presence detection and daylight dimming technology. ‘The Holophane luminaires in the car park are darksky compliant – the light cut-off is tightly controlled, which was a crucial concern at the planning stage,’ says Whatton. ‘We had to avoid any glare or light spill on to the motorway at all costs, and the Holophane solution provided the ideal answer to this problem.’


Spacings for the light ďŹ ttings had to be determined for the new-build project

The Haloprism LED luminaire was installed under the canopy

The DSX car park luminaires are dark-sky compliant

DCR LED- based ďŹ ttings (left)were chosen for the warehouse interior

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the hobby shop hub The distribution centre for the UK’s largest chain of art and crafts shops is equipped with efficient lighting based on T5 fluorescent tubes and controls



obbycraft, with 81 stores, is the UK’s largest arts and crafts retailer. This year it’s opening more stores, and a new distribution centre in Burton-on-Trent has a vital role in supporting the expansion. The site is keeping energy consumption low with T5 fluorescent fittings and controls from Dexeco. It estimates that energy use is a fifth of what it would be with HID (high-intensity discharge) lighting. More than 300 high-level fittings and 1,000 batten fittings have been installed at the warehouse, all controlled by signals from daylight and presence sensors so they’re on only when they’re needed. Dexeco’s Verteco high-level T5 fitting is designed as an energy-saving alternative to traditional HID luminaires for open-plan spaces including warehouses, workshops, distribution facilities and high-ceilinged retail spaces. With a light output ratio of more than 93 per cent, and a longer lamp life than HID, the fittings keep energy and maintenance costs low. And controls push the energy bill down even further. The Verteco has a number of sensor options to

More than 300 high-level fittings and 1,000 batten fittings are installed at the warehouse that serves many of Hobbycraft’s stores

provide the right lighting for open areas or for racking aisles of different heights. Meanwhile, Dexretail, Dexeco’s sister company in the Dextra Group, has provided lighting for many of Hobbycraft’s 81 UK shops, most recently in Bedford. Hobbycraft’s store development team approached Dexretail in 2011. Today, after successful trials in Newton Abbot and Hereford, the luminaires are approved for use and have been written into Hobbycraft’s electrical specification. The design also means fewer fittings are needed – the Hi-Light recessed luminaire, in under-mezzanine areas, is designed to light the vertical plane of the displays below, removing the need for wallwashers. Overall, this means a saving of 39 per cent, cutting bills by £3,250 ($5,100) a year. In full-height sales areas, the T5 Sky-Light luminaire fitted – at a height of six metres. In stores that have roof lights, the Sky-Lights are controlled by built-in daylight sensors to regulate the light level. In back-of-house storage areas, Hobbycraft has installed 49W Ecopak T5 battens, with built-in presence sensors and bi-level dimming. The fittings operate at 100 per cent when presence is detected and then dim to 10 per cent when no-one is around. By dimming rather than switching off, lamp life is extended and there is enough light to keep the area safe and support CCTV.






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Lighting is designed to aid navigation around the terminal

Lighter than


This Chinese airport blends artificial and natural light to create an airy and easy-tonavigate space. Tobias Gourlay reports



henzhen Airport’s Terminal 3 showcases a lighting system that enhances the passage of users from arrival to departure while complementing the building’s unusual design. The facility is in constant operation, so its lighting design needed to balance natural and artificial inputs across a 24-hour cycle. Designed by Italy’s Studio Fuksas to cope with burgeoning demand for air travel to and from the city in China’s Guangdong Province, the 1.5km-long new terminal building is wrapped in an undulating double-skin roof punctuated by thousands of hexagonal skylights, which together


create a honeycomb motif. Daylight streams into the terminal via the skylights, creating a moving play of light and shadow that animates interior surfaces. The honeycomb motif is repeated internally, where a predominantly white and reflective stainless steel palette enhances the natural lighting effect. The aim with Terminal 3’s artificial interior lighting system was to make the overall user experience – which typically includes moments of both movement and pause – as successful and enjoyable as possible. Minimal walking distances and clear orientation were

identified as crucial factors in attaining this goal. The system was also designed to echo the play of daylight and, through variable light levels, to smooth the transition from day into night. Breakup light shines from fixtures concealed in the roof void and in line with its undulations. As well as functioning as a home for the lighting fixtures, the void between the roof’s two skins has been made a feature itself: it is internally lit to create a ‘paper lantern’ effect that both lifts and frames the space at night. Beneath the roof, different light intensities are used


The lighting design was informed by studies of how people use the space Light enters the terminal through skylights in the roof

to mark out important orientation features such as gates, furniture and signage. Because they are clearly defined, passengers should be able to move more quickly through the space, which can thus accommodate more of them and at a greater level of comfort.

Studying travellers After conducting a number of studies into how terminal users would perceive the light and the impact of possible light distraction and uniformity, Studio Fuksas decided to taper the lighting close to windows and glass walls in order to preserve outward views. On the other side of those windows and glass walls,

there is external lighting designed to give Terminal 3 a strong after-dark identity. The building sits on reclaimed land so, at apron level and below, Studio Fuksas has used a saturated wash of pale cyan light to create the illusion that the terminal is floating on a lagoon. A cyan wash on the air bridges that take passengers from the terminal to their planes means there is a visual link between the two. Headed by Massimiliano and Doriana Fuksas, Studio Fuksas is an architectural practice with 170 employees and offices in Rome, Paris and Shenzhen. It has realised projects around the world and is currently working on Canberra’s Australia Forum, the CBD Cultural Centre in Beijing and the Moscow Polytechnic Museum and Education Centre.











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The brightness of the signs changes in response to ambient light

Signs of



easy to read. About 1,000 new flight information display panels and direction signs from SEV Enseignes – a French company that specialises in the design, manufacture and installation of illuminated signs – were installed throughout the building complex. These are backlit by some 62,000 Tridonic LED modules controlled by LNU dimmers. The dimmers are equipped with light sensors that fade the connected LEDs up or down according to ambient brightness to ensure the signage remains readable. Signs are being used in spots which receive a lot of daylight and dimming can be set to operate automatically or programmed to suit specific customer requirements. Lionel Cartron, one of two managers who heads SEV Enseignes, points out that there were about 700 lit and 300 unlit ‘faces’. The lights were all LED modules P540 or P550 from Tridonic, he says – chosen to ensure the visibility of the new signage both in bright areas near windows and in less well illuminated areas of the airport. ‘We installed about 80 light controllers to adapt the brightness of signage


igns and display panels incorporating LED lighting and dimming technology have improved navigation throughout Lyon St Exupéry airport, the fourth largest in France. The airport authorities also hoped the new LED signage – which replaced fluorescent tubes that were no longer fit for purpose, according to the airport’s technical director, Christophe Langlet – would increase energy efficiency at all times of the day and night, thanks to LED modules and LNU dimmers supplied by Tridonic. The signs had to work well, even in areas with plenty of sunlight – a large amount of daylight floods parts of the building because of the amount of glass in its structure. The brightness of the new light sources is adjusted in response to the amount of ambient light. Tridonic says this cuts energy consumption by about 40 per cent compared with a standard LED system. Thanks to the upgrade, up to 34,000 passengers a day now find it easier to navigate the airport because the information panels are instantly identifiable and

Some of the stress has been taken out of travelling at Lyon St Exupéry airport, where LED technology has improved navigation and reduced energy consumption. Lucy Fisher reports


in areas open to the public and to ameliorate the visibility and the reading of the information on the signage,’ he says.

Key challenges According to Cartron, the key challenge was swapping the old signage for the new with minimal disruption during the installation. ‘We used adhesive films to mask the new signage. We took off these adhesives during a single night so the next day the passengers discovered the new signage,’ he points out. Tridonic has stated that it is now focusing its attention on LEDs as the technology of the future, with an emphasis on LED systems comprising light sources and converters. For this project, Classic and Select versions of its TalexxChain Crystal LED modules were chosen. The ‘Select’ version has good contrast in areas flooded by light and with high luminous fluxes, the company says. Tridonic adds that its modules provide uniform illumination for the display panels and signs. In preparing their feasibility study, the decisionmakers at Lyon airport took a number of factors into consideration. ‘For us, a good price/performance ratio also includes technical support,’ says Langlet, who adds that feedback has been very positive. Many tests were carried out with the new products, he adds, to see the impact of illuminating the signage at various times of day. Testament to the success of the application, perhaps, is the fact that SEV Enseignes, based in Nantes, is now working at other airports in France.

Precise figures for energy consumption are not yet available, in part because the install was quite recent, and also because the new LED sources are totally different from the old fluorescent tubes. An exact comparison with the old arrangement, in terms of energy consumption, is not really possible given that the signs were not illuminated in this way previously. ‘Visibility was the key aim – not cost reduction,’

Passengers can now find their way around the airport more easily

says Axel Kerep, area sales manager for Tridonic Signage. ‘It was about helping the airport improve orientation. In an airport, energy reduction is not the main criterion. People need to read the signs. Also this airport is very bright, with big windows letting in a lot of sunlight.’ Kerep says that he expects that no maintenance will be required for at least six or seven years, adding that this is a key advantage over fluorescent tubes. The whole project took one year for the studies and tests and a further year for the installation. And the cost was not insignificant, about €2.5 million ($2.8 million). It was the successful results of the tests, says Langlet, which led to the airport management accepting the cost. The price of the LED system, however, was not the greatest part of the overall outlay, he adds, given the need to change panels, screens and furniture in the building. Yet the result, he says, has certainly been worth the effort. Bon voyage!

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The skylights


The need for a flexible terminal building fostered an ingenious skylight idea at the Port of Seville. Kathrine Anker reports containers could have turned the terminal structure into an oven, so Hombre de Piedra Architects increased the ceiling height by placing containers next to each other on top of a base container, with the upper containers acting as skylights.

Built for the elements

The terminal, built from used shipping containers, maximises daylight

The windows all face north, which means they only receive indirect light reflected from the surfaces of the other containers. The warmest air rises to the top part by stratification. Inside, the light and shadow produced by the structural steel plate buttresses bring out the juxtaposed spaces of the containers reminiscent of traditional port warehouses. To the east and west of the skylights, opening


uring an economic crisis, you could say that the quality of good architecture and lighting should be judged on its ability to solve a problem well at a reasonable cost. The new cruise terminal at the Port of Seville cost just €443 (£290) per square metre. The components of the terminal are some of the most abundant materials available on the planet: the sky and our own waste. The idea to create a cruise terminal using recycled shipping containers was a result of the uncertain nature of tourism and other port business. It’s difficult to forecast the number of passengers, so the management wanted an environment that could easily be extended, transformed and moved to adapt to new activity in the valuable urban port area of the Muelle de las Delicias in Seville. The Port Authority proposed solving the problem using sea containers. But because the cruise terminal was close to the old town of Seville, it couldn’t look too scruffy. As a compromise, reused containers were adapted to the environment and the climate. The heat of the sun in Seville hitting the steel plate surface of the


The terminals windows all face north to make best use of daylight

windows have been installed so the prevailing winds penetrate easily and remove the heat from the upper part. The exterior white paint reflects up to 90 per cent of solar radiation and its special composition of ceramic microspheres prevents the containers from overheating. The ground floor is at a lower level than the elevation of the city, so both banks of the river can be observed through the skylights. The artificial lighting inside the terminal is also designed with environmental and economic sustainability in mind, using low-energy fluorescent luminaires from Spanish manufacturer Lamp. White-painted extruded aluminium luminaires have been installed in the passenger walkways and by the

emergency exits. The double-height areas are lit with suspended downlights made of grey lacquered die-cast aluminium. An industrial projector has been fitted in the passenger entrance doors and has also been used for exterior lighting.

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THE RAILS The vandalised lighting at the station where Stephenson’s Rocket was tested in 1829 has been replaced with LEDs and controls









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n LED lighting system at Rainhill trai station in Lancashire ha reduced energy use by m than half and attracted p feedback from employees and customers. The station, managed by Northern Rail, is on the line where Robert Stephenson’s pioneering Rocket successfully completed the first locomotive trials in 1829, so a key consideration for the lighting project was the appeal and structural integrity of the historic site. More recently, the station’s old lighting system had been vandalised and was no longer providing enough illumination in some areas. ‘We wanted to install LED lighting at Rainhill to show that new technology could be fitted in a building of historic interest, running new beside old without detriment to the structure itself,’ said Euan Hilton, utilities, contracts and data manager at the station’s operator, Northern Rail. The chosen supplier for the new lights, together with a control system using motion sensors, was UK manufacturer Dexeco


Rail companies are typically nervous about lighting controls – but they’re working at Rainhill

Solutions, part of the Dextra Group (which was named Manufacturer of the Year at the 2014 Lux Awards). The installation is a rare example of a rail operator embracing lighting controls and reaping the benefits. In many cases the complexity of controls, combined with fears about safety, has held the industry back from making the most of possible energy savings. Dexeco used a different product in each of the station’s four areas: Impervia LED columns with infrared motion sensors on platform columns; vandalresistant Eco Impervia LEDs with the same sensors on the canopy above the platform; MOD LEDs in waiting rooms and offices; and motion-sensing Amenity Plus LEDs in the toilets. Installation costs were kept down by matching the new LED fittings to existing fittings. Integral sensors in those new fittings meant the light could be controlled without having to install bus wiring or building management system (BMS) controls. Lights in toilets will turn off when nobody is there, and fittings can also respond to daylight and turn off if they’re not needed. A local company, Picow, was responsible for the installation. Northern Rail has reported a 56 per cent drop in

Rainhill’s overall energy since it activated the sensors, which ensure the station’s lights only operate at full output when passengers or trains are present. With unoccupied areas lit to minimum safety and security levels, the new system also reduces light pollution. Hilton said: ‘Customers have already remarked how the station looks and feels so much brighter and that the waiting room is more pleasant to sit in. Our people have also noticed a big change and were surprised how something such as lighting could change their working environment for the better.’


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INDUSTRIAL Warehouses and factories have potential for industrial-scale savings




Our readers work in every sector and every region, and they want content that’s relevant to them” Robert Bain, editor


HEALTHCARE New LED technology will improve our lives in ways we don’t even understand yet 65

TRANSPORT TRANSPORT The transport industry is reinventing themselves, and LEDs are playing a big part

Lighting is not just lighting; retrofitting a warehouse is a completely different challenge to that of lighting a retail space or fitting a street with intelligent lamps. That’s why we’ve expanded our website to cover 10 lighting sectors with breaking news, analyses, lighting projects and video reports from the frontline of the lighting realm. So whether you work in hospitality, healthcare, industrial lighting or something completely different, you’ll find content that is relevant to you. And because lighting is part of a connected world, our website covers your sector everywhere. Simply select your desired region and lighting sector, and the Lux x website will bring you the best lighting stories, no matter where you are and what you do.


OUTDOOR OUTDOOR The Internet of Things is changing the way we see lighting – and how the public pays for it


RETAIL If you can increase footfall or even sales, there is a very obvious business case for LEDS




How it’s done LIGHT ARTWORK


RAINBOW STATION, AMSTERDAM CENTRAL STATION, THE NETHERLANDS Artist Daan Roosegaarde has created a light artwork at Amsterdam Central Station to mark the renovation of the historic station and Unesco’s International Year of Light. Working with astronomers from the University of Leiden, Roosegaarde developed a lens projector that splits light into a spectrum that fits the 45m-wide station roof. The artwork is supported by the Amsterdam fund for the arts, NS, ProRail, Stichting Doen and Studio Roosegaarde.


PIONEER FORD, GEORGIA, US Galleon LED area luminaires from Eaton’s Cooper Lighting division are improving the lighting performance and energy efficiency at the Pioneer Ford car dealership in Bremen, Georgia. Energy consumption for lighting has been cut by 61 per cent and maintenance problems have been reduced. Sixtytwo pole-mounted 1,000W metal halide fittings were replaced with 421W Galleon luminaires. The fittings’ AccuLED optics have 16 optical distributions, chosen to highlight the cars’ distinctive features, details and colours – key factors in the buying process.


COMMONWEALTH PARK, GIBRALTAR This park was once a car park, and is illuminated by a scheme developed by David Atkinson Lighting Design. The curved King’s Bastion Wall to the north end is uplit by buried fixtures with tilting medium and narrow beam optics. A 4000K LED light source enhances the grey stone. The angular City Wall is lit by surface-mounted narrow optic spots that graze the wall with shafts of light. Two internally lit handrails light the link tunnel between the upper terrace above the city wall and the park.

AMTEK ALUMINIUM CASTING, KIDDERMINSTER, UK Amtek has specified EasiLume LED lighting for its 12,000m2 foundry in Kidderminster. More than 600 Nuvola high bay LEDs have been installed at various heights from 12-15m. The fittings are expected to cut the foundry’s electricity bills by about £100,000 ($153,000), but the cost of maintenance must also be considered for high bay projects where the lamps are installed at a height of 15m. So the life of the LED, and its reliability throughout that life, is equally important.


NORTH EAST BUSINESS AND INNOVATION CENTRE, SUNDERLAND, UK Washington company Glowled has completed a £46,000 ($70,000) project to design and install an energyefficient floodlighting scheme for this business centre. The centre worked with one of its tenants, Enviro UK, and chose Glowled’s LED floodlights. The annual energy consumption for floodlighting has fallen from 97,232 to 6,642kWh, and should save about £10,000 ($15,000) a year. All the centre’s external light fittings were replaced with more than 80 modular LED floodlights.


This selection of transport and industrial application stories runs the gamut from the purely artistic to the practical


BOLTE BRIDGE, MELBOURNE, AUSTRALIA The new LED lights on Melbourne’s Bolte Bridge need just a tenth of the energy of their predecessors. Contractor Transurban approached the ULA Group to design and supply lighting for the bridge’s towers. After several on-site tests, the 42 metal halide luminaires were replaced with 36 LED fittings from Griven. The fittings were installed on newly erected platforms at the base of each column, using a combination of spot and medium optics to achieve even coverage.


PLAYMOBIL, HERRIEDEN, GERMANY Toy maker Playmobil’s new warehouse is the size of a dozen football fields and is lit by 5,200 continuous linear LED fittings from Trilux. E-Line fittings have an efficacy of 134 lm/W, a 50,000-hour life, and can be dimmed or turned off automatically when they’re not needed. Luminaires with different optics, colour temperatures and lumen packages ensure the right light for narrow aisles between racks, or in the packaging and dispatch areas. Daylight and presence sensors dim or turn off the light when there’s enough daylight, or when no-one is around.



MENZIES DISTRIBUTION, WEYBRIDGE, UK SaveMoneyCutCarbon has surveyed, planned and installed energysaving LED lighting and controls across three warehouses and offices operated by Menzies Distribution in Weybridge, Surrey – replacing fluorescent tubes, panels, 2D lamps and floodlights. As a result, 50 tonnes of CO2 emissions a year have been prevented. The LED retrofit will save more than £12,000 a year and return on investment should be achieved in less than three years.

THE GIBRALTAR BUS COMPANY Electrical contractor Techtrolec and Zeta Specialist Lighting have devised a solar shelter lighting kit for 56 bus stops across the rock, improving passenger comfort and safety. A vandal-resistant solar panel is attached to the roof of the shelter and harnesses the sun’s energy, charging the built-in batteries that power high-intensity LEDs and illuminate the shelters from dusk till dawn. The system maintains a low level of illumination until a passenger triggers the passive infra-red sensors.


PARKER HANNIFIN, SUSSEX, UK SON lamps at the Littlehampton site of Parker Hannifin have been replaced with LEDs. The project covered the factory, car park and warehouse. All 130 fittings were supplied by Energys. Facilities manager Tony Woodward expects the fittings to pay for themselves in less than six months. Spending on energy for lighting is expected to fall by £36,423 ($56,000) a year, but Energys believes this is a conservative estimate. Unlike the previous SON lamps, LED sources can be turned on immediately after a power surge or blackout, improving shop floor safety.


5 1

lighting innovations that are transforming airports If you want to see the latest in lighting technology, maybe you should take a flight… Schiphol Airport pays for the light it uses, but not for the actual lights


Instead of paying for light fittings, Schiphol Airport in Amsterdam is just paying for the light Last year, Amsterdam’s Schiphol Airport embarked on an ambitious renovation of one of its main departure lounges, including custom-designed LED lighting. But it’s not just the lights that’s unique, it’s the way they’re being supplied. Schiphol won’t be paying for its new lighting system – it will just pay for the light it emits. The airport has opted for ‘light as a service’ through a deal with Philips and energy services company Cofely. Philips leases the fittings to the airport, which pays for the light it uses. Cofely, which has a 24-hour presence at the airport, maintains the lighting on the basis of agreed performance indicators. The deal overcomes the upfront cost barrier to going LED, and the airport – Europe’s fourth busiest – expects to cut its lighting energy bill in half. Philips worked with architect Kossmann. dejong to develop custom fittings that are expected to last 75 per cent longer than conventional ones because they are easier to service, and components can be replaced. This isn’t Philips’ first foray into pay-as-you-go lighting. The Washington Metro in the US signed a similar 10-year contract in November last year, and in 2013 the UK’s National Union of Students installed a pay-as-you-go lighting scheme at its London headquarters. Philips hopes that more companies will now embrace these kinds of business models. As Frank van der Vloed, Philips Lighting’s general manager for the Benelux region, puts it: ‘I drink water but I don’t have a reservoir in my basement.’



The artificial lighting at China’s Shenzhen Airport blends with daylight The new, mile-long terminal at China’s Shenzhen Airport has been built to cope with growing demand for air travel to and from the city. It operates constantly, so its lighting design had to balance natural and artificial illumination over a 24-hour cycle. The building is wrapped in an undulating double-skin roof punctuated by thousands of hexagonal skylights. Daylight streams in, creating a moving play of light and shadow inside. The lighting system is designed to echo the play of daylight and smooth the transition from day into night, using fittings concealed in the roof void. As well as serving as a home for the light fittings, the void between the roof’s two skins is internally lit to create a ‘paper lantern’ effect that both lifts and frames the space at night. Light levels are gradually lowered near to windows and glass walls, to preserve views of the outside.



The lighting in Newark Airport’s car park already tracks your movements, and might soon be able to order your coffee The car park lighting at Newark Airport in New Jersey is the smartest in the world. It monitors traffic, provides updates on the availability of parking spaces and even tracks suspicious activity, such as people stopping at a number of different cars. In future it might be able to underpin more sophisticated services – like recognising travellers when they arrive and having their coffee order ready when they arrive at the Starbucks in the terminal. Developed by Sensity Systems, the lighting is part of a wireless data collection network. The system currently consists of 174 retrofitted LED fittings connected to various sensors and cameras installed around the parking area of the airport terminal. Each luminaire has a networking module with Wi-Fi, and sensors to monitor temperature, motion, ambient light and power. A few of the fittings also have cameras, and two of them can recognise licence plates.


Heathrow Airport’s new Terminal 2 incorporates daylight while minimising glare



Colour-changing lighting at Muscat Airport in Oman will be seen by passengers on the ground and in the air Muscat Airport is the largest development project undertaken in Oman. Air travel to the city has outgrown the existing airport, designed back in 1973, so a new airport has been designed. The new terminal, under construction now, will handle 12 million passengers a year, with further expansion plans in the pipeline. UK manufacturer ACDC won a £5 million ($8 million) contract to supply the airpot with 8,000 LED downlights, several thousand RGB floods, and over 31,000 metres of linear LED products that will change the colour of glass ceiling panels in the terminal building, visible the air as planes come in to land. ACDC is working with lighting designer LDPI on lighting for the exterior façade and landscape of the newly built airport’s surrounding site and vehicular approaches, and interior public areas. The airport will be using ACDC’s Integrex linear LED wallwash luminaire, and its Fino linea LED luminaire, which is rated IP68, to provide ev continuous and powerful light output.


Newark Airport, where the lights are watching you...


Heathrow Airport’s new terminal uses a special material to diffuse daylight The brand new £2.5 billion Terminal 2 at London’s Heathrow Airport features a bold, undulating roof. The design team wanted to use as much daylight as possible, but at the same time wanted to avoid strong contrasts from direct sunlight, which can make areas in shadow seem very dark. The roof is designed with north-facing windows, so that daylight gets in, but direct sunlight is minimised. Lighting designers from Hoare Lea worked with architects Foster + Partners and Luis Vidal to develop a material that could be stretched over the soffit and diffuse the light as it came in. Luminaires were also incorporated into the soffits so that the same effect could be achieved at nighttime, and in areas where daylight doesn’t reach. Jonathan Rush of Hoare Lea said: ‘The concept was that the soffit would be a continued element with unobstructed views as much as possible. The patterns of daylight would be mimicked with artificial light. We internally illuminated this soffit material we developed to create this internal brightness that would mimic that of the daylight impression.’ The material had to be perforated to achieve the ht acoustics, so the team added a secondary fuser underneath the luminaire, to prevent bright pots being visible. ‘This quality of detailing was really vital,’ said Rush. By carefully considering the perceived levels of brightness – which are affected by contrast evels as well as by the amount of light – the team managed to create the right effect and keep energy e low – the lighting has an electrical load of just W/m2 at night, falling to 4.5W/m2 during the day.


High-mast lighting: how to get it


Large area lighting using high masts isn’t always easy. But LED technology is helping. Here’s what you need to know to get it right GET THE LIGHT IN THE RIGHT PLACE The key thing for large area lighting isn’t just how much light you get, but where it goes. There’s no point having a big lumen package if half the light goes into the sky. Lukas Dusini, who heads up sales and project design at Italian manufacturer Ewo, says LEDs offer big advantages when it comes to light distribution. ‘Before, when the light sources were quite big, we were forced to use reflectors. Now with LEDs, we are able to use lenses.’ LEDs can also minimise glare. With traditional setups, you might have to tilt your high-mast fitting to get the light where it was needed. Problem is, this increased the amount of glare from the light source. The latest LED light sources and optics offer a way around this problem. LEDs are already more than capable of providing the light output needed for large area applications such as car parks and industrial sites, and they’re even beginning to rival traditional sources for sports lighting, which requires high lux levels and very low flicker for the benefit of TV cameras. Holophane’s new HMAO high-mast product (pictured) uses the PrismaLED technology developed for the company’s Lux Award-winning Haloprism high bay luminaire, with placed behind prismatic glass lens Product manager Aroon Varma say ‘One of the key benefits is you’ve g zero uplight, and you get that prism glow effect instead of being able to see individual LEDs.’ ‘If you’re using it in a port environment with large vehicles, fork lifts, trucks, you don’t want the

light to be glary, and if there are residential buildings nearby, you want to make sure you’re not bothering residents.’ Colour is another important consideration – traditional SON and SOX lamps give you an orangey glow, making it harder to recognise the colours of cars, containers and so on. White light from HID or LED sources feels more natural.

DO AS LITTLE MAINTENANCE AS POSSIBLE Nobody wants to change lamps if they don’t have to, especially if their mounted on a high mast in the middle of a port or airport. Dusini of Ewo reckons that maintenance accounts for about two thirds of the savings his customers get from switching high-mast lighting at airports to LED, compared to conventional systems where the lamps need to be changed more often. ‘We try to keep it maintenance free,’ says Dusini. ‘The only maintenance is when you have to clean a cover. You can count on 50,000 hours life – and that doesn’t mean it breaks after 50,000 hours, it means after 50,000 hours the lumen output has fallen by 20 per cent.’ Holophane’s product uses glass optics and air ventilation to create a ‘self cleaning’ system to minimise maintenance and keep the light as high as possible. ‘These things mounted at up to 35 metres high, if ou have to bring them down every year to wash them, then that costs, whereas if it’s self-cleaning then that cleaning cycles don’t have to be as frequent,’ says Holophane’s Aroon Varma. They also feature surge protection to protect against mage from lightning strikes.

Holophane’s new HMAO luminaire uses prismatic lenses to direct light from LEDs


Ewo’s high-mast luminaires light the port of Venice

GET THINGS UNDER CONTROL Amid all the fuss about LED lighting, sometimes we forget how much energy you can save just by turning lights off when they’re not needed. Or dimming them. With LEDs, this is way easier than it used to be, particularly for the kind of high-powered lights you need for large areas. Gone are the days of floodlights that take 15 minutes to warm up and should the power fail (heaven forbid) you have to wait for them to cool down again before you can even switch them back on. LEDs are happy with being switched on and off whenever you like, and you can dim them too. Ewo’s high-mast lights can be placed between two aircraft aprons, with the light on each side controlled separately. So you can save energy by only lighting the one that’s being used at any one time. Holophane’s products are also Dali-enabled as standard, and feature photocells and sensors so they can be dimmed to 10 per cent. The other key thing on the optics is, a lot of people

when they’re lighting LEDs, they focus on the light on the plane on the floor. But in high mast apps you also have to look at horizontal light. If you’ve got a port or somewhere where you’ve got things stacked up high, you want that horizontal light.

RETROFIT AND SAVE ENERGY If you already have high-mast lighting installed and you want to upgrade it, LED luminaires can easily be retrofitted to existing poles. Ewo’s luminaires weigh slightly more than the conventional ones they replace, but their wind load is significantly lower because of their flat shape. Holophane’s Aroon Varma says one of the advantages of LED optics is that you can spread the weight of luminaires evenly on a mast, while relying on lenses to send the light in a particular direction. In the past this would have meant mounting luminaires on the side where the light needed to go – creating an uneven load.


STREETLIGHTS and the new Enlightenment With the advent of LEDs, streetlighting is not just about illumination anymore, as Mark Halper discovers


emember when streetlights were for illuminating roadways and walkways? How quaint. Those were the days when a light was a light, and an electronic chip was an electronic chip. But no more. Lighting has gone digital with the advent of LEDs, and with that, streetlights are starting to double up not only as light sources, but also as information technology do-it-alls that will help cities monitor and control everything from traffic to air quality to crowds and noise. This data will help local authorities decide when to grit roads, locate parking spaces for stressedout motorists, reroute cars and trucks as necessary, and much, much more. The possibilities are as endless as the imagination. One city even wants to use them to monitor the bird population. The idea is simple: embed sensors in the same luminaires or on the lighting columns that house them. Program those sensors to do whatever it is you want – detect traffic congestion or available parking spaces, for instance – and then send that information through digital networks to public and private parties who would benefit from it. All the while, the same networks would serve as the conduit for remotely controlling LED lights to turn on and off, to brighten, flash, dim or even change colours, allowing cities to make the most of the low-energy lighting benefits of its LED streetlights.

Early days It’s an idea that’s in its early stages, but one that cities around the world are eyeing up. Metropolises from China to the West including Los Angeles, Buenos Aires, Milan, Copenhagen, Paris, San Diego and Bristol, England share a vision of using existing or new lighting infrastructure as the backbone of vital urban information networks. ‘Lights are these veins of connectivity flowing through the city, and every city has to have them,’ notes Paul Wilson, managing director for Bristol is

Lights provide a network that city managers can use for all sorts of useful things

Open, an ambitious, fledgling ‘internet of things’ programme intended to connect sensors on lighting columns and other objects into a network of data accessible to not only the city but also to businesses and schools. That resonates with Jacob Lundgaard, director of living labs for Gate 21, a public-private partnership that is spearheading an intelligent streetlighting initiative in eight cities of the Danish-Swedish Oresund region including Copenhagen and Albertslund in Denmark, and Malmo and Lund in Sweden. ‘The lighting infrastructure really could be seen as a possible spine in the digital city, because the light poles are everywhere, they are connected with electricity, and it’s very easy to also put fibre in now when you’re putting up the poles,’ says Lundgaard. ‘So with the lighting infrastructure you have a


Paris is in the process of introducing controls to thousands of streetlights

physical structure in the city that you can connect a whole lot of smart city applications to.’

More than light

Streaming data Silver Spring, the same wireless networking company that is building the Bristol network, has also installed sensors on columns in Glasgow that are streaming information about air quality and noise from a bike path along the River Clyde and from outside Glasgow Central railway station. It’s all part of £24 million UK-government funded Future Cities Demonstrator initiative in that city. But it is indeed early days in all these places, like in Denmark and Sweden. ‘The problem is that all these new technologies that you can attach to lighting technologies are quite new and there are a lot more questions than answers right now as to what you can actually do by putting sensors on light poles,’ says Lundgaard at Gate 21, which is applying for €7 million (£5 million) in European funding to help find the answers in its eight-city Oresund trial. In turn, that poses funding and business challenges to the entire value chain. ‘Everybody is talking about smart lighting, smart cities, smartification, searching for business models and partners,’ says Joerg Kupferschlaeger, street and tunnel lighting technical marketing manager at lighting vendor Osram. ‘It will happen, but what


Sounds good. But while few people doubt the usefulness of intelligent lighting from a pure lighting perspective – using smart networks to control lights remotely, to watch for individual lamp outages, and even to measure the energy performance of individual lamps as Los Angeles has started to do with a webbased system from Philips – no-one has yet proven the value of gathering data from outside the lighting realm. But that’s not stopping Bristol from kicking the tyres. It hopes to eventually connect some 35,000 lampposts into an open, smart wireless network provided by Silicon Valley firm Silver Spring Networks, and it has started by outfitting 1,500 lighting columns with sensors that will measure things like light, heat, vibration, air quality and other physical variables. One specific application will be to measure the winter temperature of road surfaces, calling out gritting crews when the mercury drops to 3ºC at specific cold locations, but sparing the city the costs at locations that remain above that mandatory gritting level. Currently, trucks will blanket the entire city when the general forecast indicates chilliness. ‘There’s actually all sorts of people coming up with many ideas next, like smart parking,’ says Wilson. ‘Or even Shazaming the birds so you can know what the bird population is.’ (Shazam is the popular app that people use to identify songs they hear randomly.

Wilson says the same technology could help monitor which bird species are present and thus help inform bird protection and green space policy making. At the the moment, he emphasises,‘it’s just a concept’.)


The Polish city of Szczecin has installed connected LED lighting from Philips

exactly, nobody really knows. Will we really have every luminaire measuring noise levels? I don’t know.’

implementations are focused specifically on lighting control. Like the GE installation in Buenos Aires. Like Osram’s project to control 140,000 LED lamps – mostly from AEC Illuminazione in Milan. And like Philips’ CityTouch web system in Los Angeles, which ties into more than 100,000 LED lamps supplied by other vendors. (In one future application, Los Angeles is considering flashing streetlights to guide fire and police crews to scenes). Philips is as immersed as any supplier in exploring the non-lighting applications, but the idea is currently ‘at the rising edge of the hype curve,’ according to Martin Oerder, Philips’ head of product management for lighting systems. ‘I’m convinced it will come, but it still will take time .The experiments that are ongoing are also necessary to find the value of these applications. We as an industry and the cities still have to find out what is realistic.’

Privacy concerns Parking priority Kupferschlaeger sees parking as a possible winner because ‘there a lot of business cases’. In one scenario, for instance, local shops could collectively support an app that alerts motorists to available parking, and then offers discounts to come in. He’s hardly alone in viewing parking as one of the potential winners. It’s one that Bristol will test. And it’s one of the first functions that the Danish Outdoor Lighting Laboratory (Doll) is preparing to examine as it moves into what it calls the ‘smart urban services’ phase of the expansive testbed it opened in Albertslund last September, which has already attracted scrutiny and visits from scores of major cities around the world. Until now, its five miles of LED lighting has been used to study the future of lighting controls rather than non-lighting functions. Soon, Doll will start experimenting with systems developed by Thorn Lighting and technology firms Sensity Systems and Cisco that test a number of different parking schemes, including flashing or changing colours to show available street parking spaces, says Doll consultant Teddy Sibben Larsen. And when GE Lighting announced earlier this year that it was providing smart streetlighting to San Diego, California and Jacksonville, Florida, it singled out parking as one of the potential uses. GE noted at the time that with networked LED streetlights using sensors and transceivers in its Intelligent Environment for Cities technology (previously called Intelligent Cities) ‘drivers can be directed to available spaces’. It also noted other potential uses including traffic control. But for now, most urban smart streetlighting

One of the aspects that cities will have to work out is assuring privacy of data. And underlying everything is the technological question of which networking technology to use. A number are under consideration, from wired to wireless including GSM mobile phone technology, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and others. Bristol has chosen to use a type of ‘mesh’ wireless internet network from Silver Spring known as IPv6, which Wilson says will be the key to truly opening the network to wide input and access. ‘Before you get to what the light can do, you kind of need to re-engineer the way the network works,’ says Bristol’s Wilson. ‘The networks in the past were not really built to do this. They were built for phones, or they were built for maybe emails. They weren’t really built for this kind of, “let’s connect everything to everything, and the internet of things”.’ Once it’s all in place it provides ‘a bedrock of data’, on which to make more informed and democratic decisions about how to run a city, notes Bristol’s Wilson. ‘You change the nature of city governance from one of “have a go, guessing and politics” to a much more scientific approach to doing things, to more democratisation. That’s the adventure of doing all of this.’ It seems that streetlights are certainly not simply for illuminating roadways anymore. They are also for making brighter collective minds that will make cities much smarter places. Welcome, it seems, to the second Age of Enlightenment.

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Solar gets some


rom the surface of the Earth, solar is an intermittent power source – but that doesn’t stop it being used to supply streetlights. Photovoltaic panels can harvest energy from the sun’s rays during the day and batteries can store that energy for use by streetlights at night. Modern solar streetlighting also needs controls that monitor input to and output from the batteries, adjusts those flows according to the season and ensures streetlights do not go out in winter months. The system can be on grid or off grid. Obviously off-grid systems are best suited to regions such as southern Europe, the Middle East and Africa where there is no power grid or where hooking the streetlights up to it could be expensive. According to Adrian Dennis, managing director of Zeta Specialist Lighting: ‘An off-grid system should pay for itself in the savings on installation alone.’ After that, the savings continue. The system uses zero power and, with the right components, should not have any maintenance costs until the batteries have to be replaced after about seven years.

Solar-powered streetlighting has a part to play in remote communities far from the electricity grid, and in the gloomy cities of northern Europe. Tobias Gourlay reports There is a third way: hybrid systems use batteries like the first option but, like the second, they can feed excess energy into the grid during times of plenty. They are used where there is a grid, but it is unstable. Interest in solar LED streetlighting is on the rise. Philips’ global business manager for solar lighting is China-based Steven Kang and he’s noticed a ‘significant drop’ in the price of photovoltaic panels over the past few years. ‘It’s still going down and so the adoption of solar will definitely accelerate.’ Information, however, is still at a premium. ‘People are either not very aware of the benefits that solar could bring to them, or are just afraid of the new technology and its complexity. A user-friendly system design is crucial to its adoption: it must be simple to use and include plug-and-play features.’

Going on grid

Photovoltaic projects

Solar lighting is becoming more widespread as prices come down

In the past few months alone, Lux x has reported on three solar streetlighting projects. Egypt started installing solar LED streetlights in Cairo in 2013 in an attempt to ease demand on its electricity network and reduce the number of power outages. This


In northern Europe, on-grid systems are more popular. There are well-developed power networks that are easily and cheaply accessed (with only small exceptions such as in the national parks in the UK). On-grid solar streetlighting systems feed energy into the grid during the day, then take back what they need at night.


year minister of electricity Mohamed Shaker signed a US$157 million (£103 million) contract with the state-owned Arab Organisation for Industrialisation to replace almost 40 per cent of the country’s streetlights with solar LEDs. On the basis that a new 150W LED lamp will save US$7.50 (£4.90) a month over a 400W incumbent – and a 100W lamp is US$4.85 (£3.20) cheaper than the old 200W standard – the government believes the investment will pay for itself in 17 months. Then there is Roper Gulf Regional Council in Australia’s remote Northern Territory. It thinks 40 standalone solar LED streetlights in nine of its remotest communities will help curb anti-social behaviour. Flat-packed solar panels from Green Frog Systems were much easier to deliver and install than anything running from mains power. Third, working with contractor Techtrolec, Zeta Specialist Lighting recently delivered an off-grid solar LED solution to the state-owned Gibraltar Bus Company, which was looking for a cost-efficient, lowcarbon upgrade to its bus shelter lighting. A panel on the roof of each shelter collects the sun’s energy throughout the day, storing it in batteries that power high-intensity LEDs from dusk to dawn. Passive infrared technology raises the light level from a low base whenever a passenger enters a shelter.

Where the sun don’t shine Zeta’s managing director Adrian Dennis is confident that solar systems are becoming viable in places where bright sunshine is much rarer. ‘Systems without intelligent control technology will not work in the UK during the winter months.’ However, 2015 will be a year of ‘groundbreaking solutions that should see the uptake of solar lighting solutions grow significantly’. Specifically, there will be control systems that can regulate – and optimise – lighting from dusk until dawn.

Solar has a reputation for not working well in northern climes with less sunshine – but that’s all changing

Previously, says Dennis, there were ‘a significant number of unreliable systems imported into the UK that simply would not work in a northern European climate; this hit customer confidence’. Technological advances will soon drive up adoption, says Gorm Teichert, chief executive of Scotia from Denmark, which has been designing and supplying grid-tied and standalone systems since 2008. The firm has recently completed projects in Saudi Arabia and the UAE, where its vertically integrated solar panels ‘turn a passive structure [a streetlight] into an energy-producing structure without disturbing anything’. ‘The conversion doesn’t require any extra real estate and that can make solar more appealing than, say, wind power.’ Zeta’s Monopole technology could have much wider applications. ‘The usual horizontal panels you see on solar farms in the Middle East need a lot of cleaning. On vertically mounted panels, the sand just falls off,’ says Dennis. Around the world, dust, bird droppings and snow can all accumulate on horizontal panels in the same way, but not on vertical ones. This is another running-cost advantage of the latest solar streetlighting technology, but it might soon gain a significant social advantage too. Scotia is about to start a pilot project in a part of Africa where there is neither electricity nor streetlighting. By combining solar-gathering LED streetlights into a mini grid, they could supply the energy to run not just lamps but also, for example, electric stoves – which would replace dangerous kerosene-fuelled stoves.

A different dimension ‘This would really add a different dimension to solar streetlighting,’ says Teichert, who also suggests that government subsidies to lift the price paid for electricity returned to national grids would increase the appeal of grid-tiered systems. As Philips’ Kang points out, there is wide scope for solar LED lighting to improve lives around the world. ‘Currently 1.3 billion people suffer from light poverty and a further billion are connected to unstable grids and suffer regular power outages. As transformation efficiency (over the entire spectrum of the sunlight) improves continuously, solar power should become the most easy to access, clean and cheap energy.’ On top of ever-greater financial advantages and the environmental perks, such a vast social benefit would make solar LEDs truly sustainable for streetlighting. It would also make them impossible to ignore.

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Why wait to install efficient streetlighting when you can fit it now and pay for it out of the savings?

Pay as you


Kingsbury. ‘Making the switch saves councils money, increases community safety and dramatically reduces the UK’s carbon footprint.’ The GIB Green Loan is essentially a corporate n that covers the setup, capital investment and tallation costs of lighting upgrades to LED, with payments being made from forecast savings. The first recipient of a ‘green loan’ was Glasgow City Council, which is in the process of converting its 70,000 streetlights to low-energy LEDs. A £6.3 million load will finance the replacement of 10,000 lanterns along Glasgow’s arterial roads. The new lights are expected to use at least 50 per nt less energy than the incumbent versions and l cut the council’s greenhouse gas emissions by re than 18,000 tonnes over the next 18 years.


very year, across the UK, about seven million streetlights clock up a cumulative electricity bill of more than £300 million. Fewer than a million of those lamps have low-energy light sources. However, help is at hand from funders such as the UK Green Investment Bank (GIB) and Salix Finance, both of which provide low, fixed-rate loans over a period of up to 20 years. GIB has £3.8 billion of funds from the UK government to help the UK’s econo become greener and, in the case of LED streetlig the premise is simple – the funders provide the capital to cover the initial outlay for equipment installation, and the loan and interest are paid o through the subsequent savings on energy bills According to the GIB, more than 100 councils have expressed interest in LEDs. ‘Bad lighting does not come cheap, it carries an electricity bill which can be cut by up to 80 p cent with a move to low-energy LED lighting,’ s UK Green Investment Bank chief executive Shau

A number of UK councils are paying for their LED streetlighting programmes through ‘green funding’, which lets them pay back the capital through savings on their energy bills. Mark Faithfull talks to some of the early adopters


A further 60,000 streetlamps and their columns will be replaced in the next phase of Glasgow’s LED lighting project, which is complementary to the city centre Future Cities Demonstrator project. This incorporates intelligent lighting and focuses on the city centre.

Blaenau Gwent has switched to RetroLED fittings from Harvard. Street lighting manager Ken Weeks says the change will cut energy bills by £60-80,000 a year

Immediate savings ‘Councils that make the switch to LEDs could make financial savings immediately, with their streetlighting electricity bills up to 80 per cent lower and overall energy consumption down by about 20 per cent. This would make significant contributions to financial budgets and carbon-reduction targets,’ says Gregor Paterson-Jones, managing director of energy efficiency at the GIB. ‘Uptake of LED streetlighting has been slow so far, but we have spoken to more than 100 local authorities across the UK over the past year and believe one of the barriers is the impact the up-front cost of replacing bulbs with LEDs, columns and intelligent management systems would have on budgets.’ But Glasgow is not the only location that has capitalised on low-cost, green-focused funding. Salix – which provides interest-free funding to the public sector – is working with Bournemouth Borough Council on a £4.3 million streetlighting project with the objective of achieving financial savings of £17 million over the life of the project. Salix is partfunding a wider project totalling £7.8 million and work is under way to replace all of Bournemouth’s 16,500 streetlights to make the system more efficient. The replacement of the lamps with new LED units is expected to prevent the emission of 71,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide over the life of the Project. Councillor Michael Filer admits the town’s lighting network was aged and in ‘need of modernising’, adding: ‘This is a huge programme of improvement works that will benefit the whole town.’ Also, Blaenau Gwent embarked on a Salix-backed project last year under which it was agreed that the local authority would purchase LED light engines from Harvard Engineering. The scheme comprises the replacement of gear trays on 2,534 lanterns (35 or 55W SOX) and 1,498 lanterns (250W SON).





Streetlighting refurbishment and replacement with LEDs

Green Investment Bank


Streetlighting refurbishment and replacement with LEDs

Salix Finance


College LED replacement programme

Salix Finance

Blaenau Gwent

Streetlighting refurbishment and replacement with LEDs

Salix Finance

Wakefield College has recently completed a lighting upgrade project throughout a number of campus buildings which is set to save over £2.25 million and 6,000 tonnes of carbon over the life of the project. As part of an energy use review, LED lighting was identified as a critical factor in helping the college achieve its target of reducing its carbon footprint by 30 per cent by 2015. Before the upgrade, Wakefield College had a mix of T12 and T8 lamps that were expensive to maintain, emitted different amounts of light and were consuming over 1.4 million kilowatt-hours each year, resulting in very high running costs. With a £360,000 Salix loan, the college replaced all its lamps with LED lighting. After the upgrade, energy consumption fell by nearly a third – projected savings are over £85,000 a year. The college is the first in Yorkshire to be awarded the Carbon Trust Standard and Shane O’Donnell, Wakefield College’s energy officer, says: ‘It shows we have taken real action on climate change by reducing our carbon emissions ourselves, rather than just paying others to offset our carbon emissions.’ For local authorities hoping to emulate such projects, GIB has produced a route-map to help local authorities and public bodies make a business case for transitioning to low-energy streetlighting. GIB has also developed a financial model to accompany the business case and shape the loan so interest and repayments are only made from forecast savings, and standardised loan documentation, developed with Glasgow, that should save other local authorities time and money in agreeing a finance package to convert their streetlighting estates.




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CLINIC Footbridges

Pedestrians prefer bridges to tunnels, and they’re cheaper to build. Alan Tulla considers bridge lighting


s our cities are putting more emphasis on walking and cycling, they are building more footbridges. I am told bridges are often a lot cheaper to build than tunnels. Also, I would have thought people feel See the luminaires safer crossing an open bridge than featured in this article at entering a long subway. River crossings can be beautiful at night and some of Britain’s most famous landmarks are bridges. As such, they need special attention when designing the lighting – and here are three ways to do it. All have their pros and cons, and they depend on other factors such as the way the bridge is built, its dimensions and its location. Most lighting recommendations are expressed as horizontal illuminance on the pavement/deck but, as in a pedestrian shopping precinct, the vertical illumination is equally important. People must to be able to see and recognise others from a distance. As a starting point, you should refer to BS 5489 and then use your professional judgement as to whether to deviate from the recommendations. Unless there is a good reason otherwise, you should use white light with good colour rendering. BS 5489 requires a CRI greater than 60, but most LEDs in these applications will have CRIs that exceed 80. Be wary of using coloured light if your bridge passes over a railway or navigable river. You do not want to your lighting to be confused with any signalling. Our footbridge is 4m wide and 40m long. The handrail is 1.2m high.

In association with

O Head to for more of Alan’s Design Clinics

DW Windsor has a long pedigree in making good quality streetlighting and the Kirium Mini has been specifically designed for applications such as residential roads, paths and cycleways. Streetlighting engineers refer to these areas as P Class. Local authority schemes often use 5 or 6m columns on footpaths, but here, the luminaires are mounted on 4m columns to keep them in scale with the bridge. The big advantage of this type of scheme is that it is easy to achieve good vertical illumination and there are far fewer lighting positions than the other options. Using columns means the luminaires are kept out of harm’s way. Another advantage of this solution is that it has the lowest energy consumption per length of footbridge. The reason that not all footbridges are lit this way is that using columns is not always possible. This can be because there are structural and mounting problems or simply a matter of aesthetics and scale.

TECH SPEC Luminaires Kirium Mini Optical control Lenses Arrangement Single sided on 4m column Average horizontal illuminance 30 lx Electrical load 2.7W per linear metre Pros Good vertical illumination at height Cons Columns can detract from appearance of bridge




Garda is a complete stainless steel handrail with a line of LEDs inside. It is so good it won a Lux Award in 2011. DW Windsor offers a symmetrical light distribution for situations in which there is a central handrail. Alternatively, there is an asymmetric distribution and the handrails are mounted on the sides. For this particular application, I have mounted the LEDs on both sides but it would work almost as well with a singlesided arrangement. There is plenty of horizontal illumination and the LEDs are hidden from view. Any obstacles on the path are clearly seen. There is plenty of illumination on the deck, so light is reflected upwards to light people’s faces. It’s neat, unobtrusive and vandal resistant – what’s not to like?



Lighting a public open space with uplights recessed in the ground is quite common. One reason is that, by day, the luminaires are almost invisible and at night you just see lines of light. It gives a very clean appearance. Another reason is that cabling is relatively simple. The cables and fixings are out of sight and you don’t have to worry about the bend radius as the cable enters a narrow column or handrail post. The line of luminaires matches that of the handrail sections and produces a pleasing pattern at night. One possible disadvantage of this method is that no light shines directly on the deck or pavement. We have overcome this by directing the light from the Malo LED strip on to the underside of the handrail. This reflects light down on the deck. Using a wide beam means the upward-facing light also illuminates the pedestrians full height.

TECH SPEC Luminaires Garda handrail Optical control Lenses Arrangement Both sides Average horizontal illuminance 50 lx Electrical load 6.8W per linear metre (equivalent to 4W per linear metre at 30 lx) Pros Uniform lighting and inconspicuous Cons Works best with pale decking

Luminaires Malo LED strip recessed in deck Optical control Lenses Arrangement Recessed in deck Average horizontal illuminance N/A, but some reflected from handrail Electrical load 14W per linear metre Pros Good visual guidance Cons Works best with solid sides to footbridge






CLINIC Park footpaths In association with

Alan Tulla takes a stroll to mull over park footpath lighting


arks have footpaths, and if the park is open at night they have to be illuminated. Safety always comes first, so the path must See the luminaires be clearly delineated; any changes of featured in this article at level or direction must be visible and other pedestrians should be easy to recognise from a distance. It is also advisable to light the path’s immediate surroundings. People won’t feel secure if they think someone could be hiding in the darkness just a few metres away. Here, we have also illuminated the water feature where people congregate by night and day. There is plenty of guidance about the illumination that is necessary. For a public footpath, you should refer to BS 5489: 2013. As ever, there is a wealth of information from the SLL and ILP. Never forget that vertical illumination on people’s faces is as important as horizontal illumination at ground level. Maintenance is always a problem. There is no point in fitting longlife lamps or LEDs if the luminaires are easily vandalised and have to be replaced. Finally, always think about how the path will look by day as well as at night. Most people will see the path by day. You decide whether it will look attractive or unattractive – there’s usually little difference in cost. The path is 2.5m wide with a gravel finish. For the purposes of this Design Clinic, I have designed the lighting to achieve an average of about 30 lx on the path. This is quite high but lower illumination levels such as 10 lx would mean far fewer luminaires in view and the result wouldn’t show the light distribution so well in the renderings. O Head to for more of Alan’s Design Clinics

The Kingfisher Viva-City (well done to whoever thought of the clever name) can be post-top mounted or side-entry, but has an asymmetric optic giving a ‘streetlighting-type’ distribution. It means you can space them widely apart relative to their mounting height. There is quite a bit of forward throw across the path and just a little rearward. The lantern can be further tilted up to 15 degrees to increase the forward throw. This type of optical distribution is designed both for roads and amenity, so the lantern works best with long footpaths where you want just a little light on the neighbouring verges and surroundings. A useful design feature of the Viva-City is that the LEDs are mounted on boards so the same lantern is available with 1, 2, 3, 5 or 7 modules, giving a range of light outputs.

TECH SPEC Luminaires Kingfisher Viva-City Optical control Lenses Arrangement Single-sided Average horizontal illuminance on path in foreground 35 lx Electrical load 3W per linear metre for this level of illuminance Pros Allows for wide spacings Cons Limited spill light rearwards




Unlike the fitting in our first option, the Tauri is a post-top lantern with a symmetrical distribution. In plan-view, the isolux lines would be concentric circles. This means that you can’t space the lanterns as far apart but much more light is spread all around. There is less shadowing around the columns and the grass receives more light. This type of optical distribution works well with large open spaces such as piazzas and shopping precincts. The Kingfisher Tauri is available for a whole range of HID lamps (from 45-150W) but we have used a 40W LED module because of the longer life. Interestingly, the LEDs are mounted in the top and shine downwards so the polycarbonate bowl appears totally clear. Unfortunately, photometric files don’t always reproduce the shape of the lantern correctly.



For large private gardens and public areas where there is little vandalism, bollards can be a good solution. Kingfisher has a huge range of bollards and the Quadrio is one I particularly like. Bollards are more human in scale and seem less ‘functional’ than some other types of lighting. Mind you, this is a pretty tough unit that is IK10 impact resistant. Over two-thirds of the height of the 1m-tall bollard is luminous and emits a soft glow through the opal polycarbonate diffuser. Light comes from a 55Q twin-limb compact fluorescent lamp. The Quadrio, unsurprisingly, is square in section and made of die-cast aluminium with a polyester powder coat finish. As mentioned above, to try and make the schemes comparable, I have designed them to the same illuminance level of 30 lx. In this case, it has meant more bollards than one would normally use.



Luminaires Kingfisher Tauri Optical control Lenses Arrangement Single-sided Average horizontal illuminance on path in foreground 30 lx. Electrical load 3W per linear metre for this level of illuminance Pros Suitable for any open space Cons Less efficient for long, narrow paths

Luminaires Kingfisher Quadrio Optical control Opal diffuser Arrangement single sided Average horizontal illuminance on path in foreground 32 lx Electrical load 7.3W per linear metre for this level of illuminance Pros Human scale Cons You need more luminaires per length of path






CLINIC Road tunnels In association with

Alan Tulla sees light at either end of the tunnel, and in the middle


not something you see every day, although the Bell Common and See the luminaires Holmesdale tunnels on the M25 near featured in this article at Waltham Cross carry tens of thousands of commuter drivers. They were Britain’s first illuminated motorway tunnels and were built in the 1980s. Tunnel lighting has always been considered a bit of a black art, but it just requires different techniques. One of the main ideas is that of transition zones. It would be prohibitively expensive and energy hungry to provide an illumination level throughout the tunnel that was equal to the daylight outside. Daylight can easily exceed 10,000 lx and 20,000 lx is not unknown, even in the UK. (Most traffic tunnels are designed using luminance, cd/m2, as the criterion. For simplicity, I am using illumination level, lx, because it is more readily understood.) To avoid excessive lighting levels/energy consumption and to prevent drivers entering a ‘black hole’, the entrance to the tunnel is lit to a high level and reduced in stages. The length of each zone depends on the speed of the traffic – the zones can be 50-100m long. As the exit to the tunnel is approached, the illumination increases. This can be done over a shorter distance because the eye adapts more quickly to high levels of illumination than from high to low. Luminaires in tunnels are also subject to vibration and grime. Gusts of air from high-sided vehicles can severely buffet the luminaires, and the concentration of diesel fumes and oily exhausts means dirt can accumulate rapidly. Directly related to this is maintenance, and the longer life of LEDs offers a distinct advantage over HID or fluorescent sources. The luminaires also have to be resistant to the detergents used in pressure jets for cleaning. O Head to for more of Alan’s Design Clinics

A single line of luminaires running down the centre is common for narrow tunnels or where you don’t need high levels of illumination. One advantage of Holophane’s T·Max is the huge range of light outputs available. The lowest is just 6,000 lm so it can be used for quite small tunnels or even subways. At the higher end, the 40,000 lm version means that instead of having multiple rows of luminaires in the entrance zone, you can continue with a single row. Similarly, the intermediate transition zones can use the same luminaire with differing light output. This option shows the 12,000 lm version in the entrance zone and 6,000 lm in the running zone. Tunnels are rarely the same shape or size and the combination of luminaire orientations, fixings and cable routes can be daunting. Holophane has a range of standard mounting options. For example, in this overhead arrangement, the control gear can be remotely mounted in the flanks of the tunnel where it would be easily accessible. The luminaire itself is less than 75mm deep so you can use it in quite confined spaces or recesses.

TECH SPEC Luminaires Holophane T·Max Optical control Symmetric lenses Arrangement Overhead typically 8m spacing Average horizontal illuminance 365 lx entrance, 130 lx running. Pros Clear visual guidance for the driver Cons A single line may not be sufficient for wide tunnels




preferable. This option uses LED lenses with an asymmetric distribution. There is enough to light the walls and pavement but most of the output is directed on to the road surfaces. The Holophane T·Max is designed to be used with single-sided or twin-sided layouts – it has three beam options. Again, instead of having multiple rows in the entrance zones, you simply use a higher wattage luminaire. Unlike most luminaires, the T·Max has been designed to exploit the movement of air inside the tunnel. The rear face has enclosed fins and air movement convects heat away from the LEDs. This is accentuated by the Bernoulli effect – the air speed increases where the flow is constricted by the fins. Tunnels can get hot, especially with slow-moving traffic; even more so in summer. Holophane deserves credit for not only designing a luminaire suitable for an ambient temperature of 60°C but also publishing critical data such as life, lumen output and wattage in its general brochure. I wish more manufacturers would do the same.



There are still a lot of tunnels illuminated like this using high-pressure sodium sources. Until a few years ago, the advantage of HPS over other light sources was the high lumen output. Entrance zones to tunnels require bright illumination and the 30-35,000 delivered lumens from a single HPS luminaire was far greater than that of other sources. Even so, there were inevitable early lamp failures. You can see that one has failed in the entrance zone. Banks of luminaires were often used to boost the illumination. HPS lamps, especially the larger wattage ones with a long arc tube, can suffer early failure as a result of vibration. And tunnel luminaires get a lot of wind buffeting. These failures meant that a lot of maintenance was required. With an overhead system, the tunnel would often have to be closed Of course, at the time, HPS was the most efficient light source available, but now it has been overtaken by the better quality LED luminaire manufacturers in terms of overall efficiency and installed load.

TECH SPEC Luminaires Holophane T·Max Optical control Asymmetric lenses Arrangement Lateral, typically 8m spacing Average horizontal illuminance 400 lx entrance, 125 lx running Pros Better for wide tunnels, easy access Cons A bigger tunnel means more units and higher installation costs

Luminaires 250/400W HPS Optical control Aluminium reflector Arrangement Overhead, with multiple at entrance and 6m elsewhere Average horizontal illuminance 286 lx entrance, 83 lx running Pros None nowadays Cons Lamp replacement and maintenance


Up to speed on roadway


Technical editor Alan Tulla casts his eyes over a new edition of the bible for streetlighting designers, updated to reflect the latest technological advances


f you are going to design streetlighting, you must read this book.’ That’s what my tutor said to me about the first edition of Wout van Bommel’s Road Lighting g in 1980, and it’s still true today. At that time, it was thee textbook on the theory and standards underpinning streetlighting design. Now, the author has updated his original text to deal with the changes in streetlighting design over the past 35 years, addressing modern light sources (especially LED) and technology, energy and environmental considerations, completely new research on vision, and changes in car technology. The book outlines the principles on which modern road lighting is based. The book gives the reader knowledge of how these principles should be applied in practice. It describes European and North American practice, with reference to the CIE, CEN and IESNA standards. About three quarters of the book is devoted to road lighting – it also covers underpass and tunnel lighting, and has a section on light pollution. The book begins by explaining that, at the relatively low lighting levels common in road lighting, colour vision is poor and visual detection is made possible more by the difference in luminance between an object and its background (the luminance contrast) than by differences in colour. There is a long section on visual performance for motorists dealing with topics such as contrast, glare, vertical illuminance and target visibility. A discussion of visual comfort for motorists follows, and finally there is a section on visual performance, comfort and pleasantness for other road users such as pedestrians, cyclists and residents. There is a comparatively short section on mesopic vision and photometry. The author emphasises that mesopic vision only becomes important where peripheral vision is significant – because the fovea has no rods, which are more sensitive than cones

Van Bommel’s book is one of the key textbooks on streetlighting design

to movement and low light levels. The lumen is a photopic unit, so he discusses S/P ratios and how they may be applied. In the chapters devoted to equipment, there is a large section about road surfaces. There may not be much the lighting designer can do about the choice of surface, but van Bommel points out the huge impact it can have on drivers’ visual performance and the energy consumption required for lighting. The section on design aspects not only includes different column arrangements, including catenary, which is popular in mainland Europe, but also design for wet, snowy and foggy weather. Although light pollution was a consideration in 1980, there was not much general awareness of it. Van Bommel emphasises how important it is to restrict light pollution. He says: ‘Sky glow is a visible sign of unprofessional lighting that wastes energy and contributes to CO2 emissions and the associated climate change.’ Would anyone like to disagree?

Summary There is a widespread view that streetlighting design is simply a matter of punching the numbers into a software package. As well as giving a solid foundation to all the numerically quantifiable factors involved, this book also emphasises the importance of visual comfort for motorists and pleasantness for pedestrians. For that reason alone I would recommend it. This is a solid, comprehensive textbook written by an acknowledged expert in the field – if you have a query about any aspect of streetlighting design, you will find the answer here.

ROAD LIGHTING: FUNDAMENTALS, TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATION, BY WOUT VAN BOMMEL Published by Springer, 334pp, 193 Illustrations (59 in colour), ISBN 978-3-319-11465-1


WHAT IF Lighting economist Dave Tilley mulls over the implications of equipping all the streetlights in the UK with LED sources


hat if the UK’s 5.5 million streetlights were converted to LED? I reckon local authorities, government bodies and the Highways Agency would save about 770,000,000kW a year and prevent the emission of 430,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide. That calculation is based on conservative assumptions – after all, there is a huge range of LED wattages and associated lumen outputs. There are essentially two reasons for this: LEDs could be fitted as retrofit LED lamps or integrated LED lanterns, and many different types of streetlights are used

throughout the UK. To simplify the calculation I have assumed an rating of 100W for a typical UK streetlight. Taking into account summer and winter hours, I have assumed 4,000 annual operating hours. To calculate efficiency I have compared a number of LED replacement options. For example, the Light Efficient Design 35W LED luminaire will replace a 55W SOX and represents a 36 per cent saving. Some manufacturers claim higher savings, but I have assumed a saving of 35 per cent. This does not allow for gear losses, but even without this percentage the

4,000 hours a year = 400 kWh




% 35% 3


all the UK’s streetlights were upgraded with LEDs? scale of the estimated energy saving is significant. One 100W streetlight operating for 4,000 hours a year, replaced with LED sources, saves 140kWh a year, assuming a saving of 35 per cent. Now imagine 5.5 million streetlights each saving 140kWh a year. For local authorities, government bodies and the Highways Agency this is the tip of the iceberg. The financial savings generated from reduced maintenance are the key to achieving ROI, although many organisations find it difficult to assess maintenance costs accurately. There is a trend towards turning streetlighting off from midnight, a practice that affects both motorist and pedestrian safety. The introduction of LED technology not only improves energy efficiency but also enables dimming. I am not suggesting that

streetlights are dimmed to 10 per cent, the contrasts may be too great, but dimming to 30 per cent will save energy while leaving the area illuminated. There are a number of Wi-Fi systems that will enable lighting control from a central base. Perhaps something streetlighting managers should consider. A word of warning. I have, on my travels around the country, seen a large number of LED lanterns that are either not operating at all or left on 24/7. If an LED is operating 24/7 you are throwing away most of the energy efficiency benefits. Also, there are lanterns that have turned through 90 degrees because of the lantern design. The introduction of LED streetlighting does not mean zero maintenance, some organisations have clearly not read the small print. Perhaps this is another message for the government.



% 35% 3 770 million kWh ENERGY SAVED



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Lighting for Rail CONFERENCE 2015

DON’T MISS LED LIGHTING TECHNOLOGY – WHAT’S NEXT? Rail expert Dave Burton explains how LEDs are changing the face of the railways, and looks at what the future holds for this revolutionary technology. GETTING THE RIGHT KIT FOR THE RIGHT PRICE Leon Smith of Transport for London explains how the organisation has teamed up with a group of European city authorities and transport bodies to pool resources on lighting procurement. LIGHTING AND THE CUSTOMER EXPERIENCE Railway stations aren’t just railway stations anymore – they’re hubs for hospitality, dining and retail. Jeff Shaw of Arup shares his experience on how to make the experience as positive as possible for travellers and customers. EMERGENCY LIGHTING ON THE RAIL NETWORK Functioning emergency lighting is a crucial safety measure in the rail industry. How can you make sure that your lighting scheme complies with the rules? And how can you take the hard work out of maintaining emergency lighting? Our expert speaker will explain all. IMPROVING STATION DESIGN London Underground’s electrical engineer Ivan Perre talks us through the new station design guide, which includes advice on lighting developed with the help of top designer Paul Nulty. RAILWAY PARKING: ENHANCING THE EXPERIENCE Andrew Cronin of Nualight on how good design and the right technology can make station car parks so much better to use. STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS: HELP OR HINDRANCE? The rail industry is famously risk averse. Our expert panel will debate whether standards and regulations have become a help or a hindrance to great lighting design, and what can be done to improve things.

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TRACK Lux’s second annual conference on lighting for rail will show you how to upgrade your lighting – without compromise


he UK’s rail network is one of the largest and most diverse portfolios of lighting in the country – and it’s in the process of reinventing itself. Big investment projects are underway across the country, including HS2 and London’s Crossrail project. Meanwhile major stations are becoming destinations in themselves, as they incorporate retail and hospitality offers. If you’re responsible for lighting in rail, you need to ensure safety and reliability, but you also want to take advantage of the latest energy-saving technology, and create spaces with a great look and feel. In this special conference, we’ll show you how to achieve all those things, and upgrade your lights without compromise.

Learn O How the latest technology has been successfully applied O How to get the right kit for the right price O How to design great stations that comply with the regs


There’s big change on Britain’s railways, and lighting is part of it

O How to use lighting controls in rail stations This special event – taking place on Wednesday 24 June at the Cavendish Conference Centre in London – is aimed at engineers, designers, consultants, specifiers and all those with responsibility for lighting in the rail network. To register for a free place, contact Fergus Lynch on 020 3283 4387 or


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DAVE BURTON Seasoned rail expert Dave Burton will explain how LEDs are changing the face of the railways IVAN PERRE Ivan Perre of London Underground explains how lighting fits into the organisation’s station design vision

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LEON SMITH Leon Smith of Transport for London explains how to take the pain out of procurement JEFF SHAW Jeff Shaw of Arup examins how lighting can help improve the customer experience at rail stations



Grass them up at or tweet @Lux_magazine

Readers’ pictures This month in Named and Shamed, we share some of the photos you’ve sent us of wasteful, dodgy and just plain weird lighting

REPEAT OFFENDER Yiran Feng from CU Phosco first sent us this offender near Leicester Square station a year ago. Guess what? It’s still lit up 24/7! If you don’t believe us, you can see it for yourself on Google Street View: 51.512043, -0.128509.


CRICKET CLUB The exit sign in this cricket club somewhere in the north east is a printed A4 sheet taped to a wooden board, lit by a light, pointing to a padlocked door behind a dark curtain. What a corker!

ST GEORGE’S HOSPITAL Dear National Health Service. We have a good idea for how you can save some money for medicine and nurses. Turn your lights off when there’s no need for them to be on. You’re welcome.

CRIEFF, PERTHSHIRE Why we need connected cities, reason No. 657: so this poor streetlight can call and ask someone at the council why it’s lighting a hedge in the middle of the day.

TRAIN PLATFORM Sure, Croydon is dull. But brightening up the place with green hearts and constantly power-consuming LEDs is not the way forward.

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IMPACT-RESISTANT LUMINAIRES Light fittings destined to be installed in less than salubrious areas have to be tougher than average. Alan Tulla looks at five LED luminaires designed to take a good hiding


ometimes, you need a tough luminaire. One that will resist heavy knocks or attack by vandals. Steel or aluminium are common for the bodies but sometimes polycarbonate is used. Of course, for the lens, you need a highly transmissive material and all the products here use polycarbonate. Although acrylic has better light transmittance and UV resistance, it isn’t nearly so tough as polycarbonate. Acrylic also burns more freely. Rating system We are all familiar with the two-digit IP rating system against the ingress of water, solid objects or dust. Sometimes a third digit was added to denote impact resistance, but this was not universally applied nor fully understood. As a result, the IEC agreed on the IK rating system and the third IP digit rating is now obsolete. The standard for electrical equipment enclosures, including luminaires, is EN 62262. This classifies the equipment’s resistance to external mechanical shocks. Impact energy is measured in joules.

For small impacts, the test is usually done with a spring-loaded hammer. Higher impacts are tested with a pendulum or free-falling hammer. Low IK ratings need not concern us. For any kind of serious resistance, you need at least IK 08. However, even IK10 isn’t that severe – equivalent to dropping 5kg from 400mm. Hammer tests As a result, some manufacturers use IK ratings based on EN 60068-2-75, which covers hammer tests. These test figures can be extrapolated to give higher IK ratings. When you are comparing luminaires, it is always worth checking that the lumen output quoted is for the light actually emitted. Some manufacturers publish what they call ‘source’ or ‘gear tray’ lumens without taking into account the losses inside the luminaire or the transmittance through the diffuser. This makes a significant difference: even a good quality diffuser will lose 20 per cent, and in some older style ones only half of the LED/lamp lumens emitted will emerge.



















































This prison in Scotland is lit by fittings from Coughtrie

The lit appearance isn’t normally a problem with this kind of luminaire, but some are decidedly better than others. We have priced for 50 units that are the closest equivalent to a 1.2m unit, approx. 30-40W. The ranges are: £ <£100, ££ < £200, £££ <£300. The luminaires vary greatly in output, so price comparisons are harder than usual. First decide what you want, then look at the price range. You can see that the samples we received varied widely in light output and power consumption, so check the data for the actual luminaire you require. O Turn over for our verdict on impact-resistant luminaires

Coughtrie is a long-established UK company, founded over 70 years ago and based in Glasgow. For all that time, its product range has concentrated on arduous environments. This is one of the company’s latest and is made from extruded aluminium with a white polyester powder coat finish. The cover can be clear or frosted polycarbonate with internal ribs. These ribs break up the direct view of the LEDs and give the

appearance of a sparkling array of small points. Access to the gear tray and terminal block is through one of the end caps. It is a finely engineered product with neat finishes and joints. Its appearance would suit an office or hospital as much as a tough industrial environment. It is available in one length, 990mm. PRICE £££




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Reviewed: impact-resistant luminaires HOLOPHANE HF LED


This is what you would expect from a solid, traditionally built, impact-resistant luminaire. It is constructed of 1.2mm Zintec steel with a thick, textured, weatherproof paint finish, and weighs almost 9kg. The rounded opal polycarbonate diffuser is 2mm thick. There are 10 vandalresistant screws clamping the cover tight. It’s got what one of my colleagues used to call ‘heft’. Inside, there is a white steel gear tray with a single row of LEDs. It

is held in place by a couple of wing nuts. At the rear is a large terminal block with screw terminals. The diffuser would work better with fluorescent lamps. It doesn’t quite diffuse the LEDs so the appearance is of a broad line of light rather than an overall glow. It is available in nominal 1.2 and 1.5m lengths. PRICE £££


Solidly built

end caps and this has the additional advantage that the gasket length is much shorter than conventional luminaires where the gasket runs the whole length of the perimeter. The clear diffuser has large, internal linear prisms running the length of the luminaire. The diffuser wraps around so light is emitted around 180 degrees. PRICE £££


As tough as the rest



At first sight, this looks like a conventional twin lamp, 1.5m, T5 luminaire. The cover is clear polycarbonate with internal longitudinal prisms and you can see what appear to be the fluorescent lamps. In fact, they are hemispherical opal covers over a line of LEDs. To misquote the TV ad: ‘I can’t believe it’s not fluorescent.’ The cover is clamped to the polycarbonate body with a row of 316 grade stainless steel over-centre clips. These have

Although designed as a replacement for traditional waterproof luminaires, the HF LED is IK10, so it’s as tough as the others in this review. It is unusual in that it is made from two sections of extruded polycarbonate and is almost triangular in section. Cable access is through one of the clear polycarbonate end caps. Removing the end cap reveals the gear tray with two runs of LEDs. The only access is through the

the useful facility of screw fixings so you can lock them in place. The diffuser flexes quite easily, but once it is in place and sealed, it seems solid enough. Inside, the gear tray is made of finely finished anodised aluminium and is easily removable to access the terminal block. It is available in nominal 1.2 and 1.5m lengths. PRICE ££


Clever appearance

The Nextrema is the only luminaire that looks as if it has been specifically designed for LEDs. For one thing, it is totally sealed. You cannot remove the prismed lens nor is there access to a mains terminal block. Instead, it is fitted with a Wieland weatherproof connector. It’s really quick to wire up. The body is die-cast aluminium with a gun metal grey paint finish. The rear has deep, heavy heatsink fins and the whole appearance is very

robust. The internally prismed lens is just 20mm deep and the LEDs can be seen from all directions although the main cut-off is at 6065 degrees. The impact resistance is a bit lower than the others but this is compensated for by good engineering in all other respects. It is available in one length, 1.05m. A smart unit at a really good price. PRICE £


Wide range of applications



Harvard Engineering’s RetroSON6 gear tray Dr Gareth John of Photometric and Optical Testing looks at an LED retrofit streetlight head HARVARD ENGINEERING’S RETROSON6 GEAR TRAY


e see quite a few streetlight heads here in the lab. The expansion of LED technology and the need for councils to meet their carbon reduction targets has meant that we see a profusion of different luminaire designs as lighting companies get to grips with the challenge of creating the next generation of streetlights. We’ve seen all sorts here, from a LED-based Windsor street lantern so big and heavy it took an entire bag of a hundred cable ties to keep it on the gonio, to a brand new design that had special modifications to stop pigeons sitting on it. Thankfully they tested the pigeon proofing aspect of the housing after it had been sent to our lab for the photometric tests. Not all customers are so considerate. I was once asked to conduct gonioradiometric measurements on a set of flytraps (the client

Harvard has managed to keep the colour temperature to a not-too-cool 3851K

wanted to know the UV output as a function of angle). They sent them to me used and full of dead flies. Not fun. Most the new lighting schemes installed by councils are planned on the assumption of one-for-one replacement, with LED-based streetlight heads replacing high and low-pressure sodium heads. The reasons are fairly obvious: councils want save money by not replacing lighting columns as well as the luminaires. So for existing lighting schemes it’s best to offer a retrofit option. Fit and forget Which brings me to this month’s product, Harvard Engineering’s RetroSON6 gear trays. This is a fit-and-forget solution and can be clipped into a lantern in place of a traditional high-pressure sodium (SON) lamp. The advantages of this are obvious: it lets councils use the existing stock of lanterns and lighting columns and doesn’t alter the look of the street. The cost considerations are crucial here because councils justify the cost of installing the new schemes by offsetting the initial capital outlay against the expected savings of the efficient replacement

The spectral distribution of the light source – with the blue peak that’s characteristic of LED, but plenty of warm tones too


The retrofit gear tray is easy to install

luminaires. If the lanterns stay the same, the initial cost outlay is less and the risk for the initial investment is lower. This has a clear plus in the payback period, with Harvard expecting significant improvements in this metric. I can vouch for this because, for example, the power consumption of the 2,600 lm package is 19W, only 27 per cent of the rating of the 70W SON it’s designed to replace. Great selling point The ease of replacement of the gear tray makes for a great selling point too. I’ve swapped around these gear trays in the lab so I can attest to the ease of removal, it’s just a matter of a twist of an Allen key and a couple of screws. I’ve more than once skinned my knuckles while trying to swap lamps in a luminaire so the speed and simplicity of this system is welcome. Recently we tested three of the RetroSON gear trays, all with different lumen packages. This month, we’ll look at the 2,600 lm option, designed to replace 70W SON lamps. The table shows the results of our measurements. The first


VITAL STATISTICS Total luminous flux (lm)


Input power (W)


Power factor

Harvard have done a great job on this easy-to-install, high-performance retrofit product


Efficacy (lm/W)


Correlated colour temperature (K)


Colour-rendering index (%)


S/P Ratio

thing that struck me was how most of the measured values exceeded the manufacturer’s expectations. The luminous flux is slightly above Harvard’s stated value, leading to a slight improvement in the efficacy. Harvard was also expecting the CRI to be 70 per cent, whereas in fact it’s reached 75 per cent. Sometimes I get into discussions with manufacturers because the results are below expectations, so it’s nice to report for once that a manufacturer’s estimates of performance line up very well with reality. They’ve also managed to tune the trade-off between CCT and S/P ratio. In this case the CCT stays well below 4500K – a tolerable, not-too-blue light – while keeping the ratio high enough to pay dividends. Of course, given Harvard’s experience with driver design, the power factor is excellent. Finally, the manufacturers says the product will operate at 90 per cent of peak light output at a temperature of 65°C for at least 50,000 hours. It pleases me that Harvard has stated a life for the luminaire at an estimated operating temperature. Too many manufacturers arrive at their lifetime estimates by simply taking the life of the LED from the datasheet, which is based on 25°C data.


O Dr Gareth John is technical director of Photometric Testing, an independent lighting test laboratory that specialises in the photometric assessment of LEDs, luminaires, lamps and displays



THORN LED HIGH BAY WITH PRECISE CONTROL HiPak Pro LED is an LED high bay luminaire to reduce energy consumption and maintenance costs that is up to 45 per cent more efficient than traditional HID sources. Dedicated individual LED optics provide precise light control for highlevel mounting applications, including racking and open areas. HiPak Pro LED is Dali dimmable or available with an integral passive infrared sensor to maximise energy savings.


FLARE X IS A FLEXIBLE HIGH BAY 1st LED Lighting is an offshoot of 1st Millennium Electronics, which has specialised in electronics, circuit boards and optics for many years. Flare X is an IP65-rated LED high bay light, even though there are huge slots on the top. Inside is an IP65 driver with sealed leads and connections to the four LED modules. A variety of optics are available from 30-120 degrees plus an aisle light distribution on higher wattage versions.

MHA FITTING HARNESSES INTERNAL REFLECTION MHA Lighting’s BrightStar 209 uses total internal reflection to transmit and direct the light into the workspace. Powerful chip on-board LED modules illuminate acrylic tubes from each end, hiding the LEDs, reducing glare and creating even light distribution similar to that of an array of T8 tubes. This technology, says the company, ensures exceptional light quality, optical distribution and energy efficiency to heights of 20m. The product is supplied with a 75,000-hour/10-year warranty.



LED HIGH BAY KEEPS A LID ON GLARE SH Lighting’s E-Core LED High Bay 12000 is a robust and efficient high bay light. It has a luminous flux of 11,000 lm, light quality is good and unified glare rating is 20 or 26, depending on beam angle. This durable luminaire is best suited for illuminating different industrial areas. The fitting is designed to be a suspended fitting and has a long life and few maintenance requirements.


KINGFISHER HIGH BAY WITH HIGH OUTPUT Kingfisher’s LED High Bay gives excellent light output for a variety of industrial and commercial lighting applications, with high performance, efficiency and visual comfort. The LED array includes single-die LEDs, each equipped with its own precision lens, ensuring low glare. The lumen package includes 10,000 lm with 100W, 17,500 lm lumens with 175W and 25,000 lm lumens with 250W.


High bay luminaires are essential in any factory or warehouse. Lux takes a look at some of the latest, all powered, inevitably, by LED solid-state light sources


IMPROVED LITEX LED LUMINAIRE The Litex LED is a versatile industrial LED luminaire for high bay and low bay industrial and warehouse applications that can be mounted at heights of 2.5 to 14m or more. Efficient LED multi-die arrays and thermal management ensure a life of over 50,000 hours at L70. The latest generation improves on the performance of the existing Litex LED ranges, reaching over 16,000 lm from the four-LED IP65 variant, and 28,780 lm from the six LED IP20 version.


DISTINCTIVE DOUGHNUT FROM HOLOPHANE Holophane’s distinctive doughnut-shaped Haloprism combines the latest in efficient multi-junction LEDs with Holophane’s durable prismatic glass optics. The high bay luminaire has a high LED lumen package, long system life and low maintenance. It’s available in six lumen packages from 20,000 to 38,000 lm.


ADVANCED BACKS BAY LUMINAIRE WITH 20-YEAR WARRANTY Advanced LEDs’ latest Bay product has efficacy of up to 190 lm/W with an output that is 90 per cent of its initial value after 100,000 hours. The company backs the product with a luminaire warranty of up to 20 years. Multiple lens options ensure that the IP66-rated fitting is suitable for a variety of industrial, utility and leisure applications.


INTELLIGENT LIGHTING FOR WAREHOUSES AND PRODUCTION Effective lighting is vital for safety and productivity. After successful trials, one of Earlsmann’s clients, a plastic moulding manufacturer in Doncaster, ordered Brighton LED high/low bay lights for its warehouse and production area. The company has cut its energy and maintenance bills by 90 per cent while achieving illuminance of 150 lx.

EASY INSTALLATION AND EFFICIENCY The Verteco LED is efficient and easy to install. It is supplied with a built-in sensor for presence detection and daylight regulation ensuring that luminaires are only operating when needed. These factors combine to minimise energy consumption and installation costs. The Verteco LED typically provides a return on investment of less than three years and has been used by blue chip clients across the UK and Europe.





People who work in lighting don’t half talk some gobbledygook. Here’s what they mean...


kWh The kilowatt-hour is a unit of energy equal to 1,000 watt-hours. That’s what a 1,000W device uses in one hour – or what a 1W device uses in 1,000 hours. It’s the unit that your electricity bill is counted in.

SON High-pressure sodium lamps (or SON lamps) are gas discharge lamps that use sodium in an excited state to produce light, and are often used for streetlighting. They produce a yellow light and have poor colour rendering. But they are efficient, often reaching about 100 lm/W. Higher-powered 600W versions can reach 150 lm/W.

IP RATING An IP (index of protection) rating tells you the amount of protection a luminaire or other piece of equipment has against things getting in – including dust, dirt and water as well as hands and fingers. For example, a fitting rated IP22 will prevent the insertion of fingers and will not be damaged if exposed to dripping water.

PIR Short for passive infrared. PIR sensors are electronic sensors that measure infrared light radiating from objects in their field of view. It can detect heat from objects that is undetectable by humans. PIR is one of the main technologies used for presence and absence detection, to turn lights on and off when people are or aren’t there.

CFL Popularly referred to as energysaving lamps, compact fluorescent lamps have a poor image because of perceived deficiencies in colour, power and the time it takes them to reach full output. But massive improvements have been made in all these areas thanks to substantial investment by the big lamp manufacturers.

CRI Short for colour-rendering index, CRI is the ability of a light source to show the colours of objects properly. Lamps with poor colour rendering will distort some colours, which may mean you end up with brown socks when you wanted green ones. The higher the CRI, on a 0-100 scale, the more accurately the lamp will show colours.

The home of the lighting industry online


Pulse-width modulation PWM is a technique used to control the power supplied to electrical devices such as LEDs. The supply voltage (and current) is switched on and off many times per second, and the average power delivered to the load can be varied by changing the proportion of the time the voltage is on. This technique can be used to dim LEDs.

COLOUR TEMPERATURE Colour temperature describes whether a light source appears ‘warm’ or ‘cool’ – indicated by the correlated colour temperature (CCT). Lamps with a warm appearance have a CCT of 2700-3000K, and are considered appropriate for domestic settings; cooler lamps might be 4000K, and are used more often in offices and retail. The higher the colour temperature, the ‘cooler’ the appearance. Don’t ask.



GaN-on-GaN refers to LEDs made of gallium nitride (GaN) on a substrate also made of gallium nitride, rather than on the usual sapphire or silicon carbide substrate. Blue LED inventor Shuji Nakamura says GaN-on-GaN is the next generation of LED, offering greater efficiency and better colour.

The Energy Savings Opportunity Scheme (Esos) is the UK government’s latest attempt to encourage energy efficiency among big organisations. It requires that they assess their energy consumption on a regular basis and consider measures to reduce it. But it doesn’t actually force them to do anything about it – that’s up to them.

HID lamps


Short for high-intensity discharge, HID lamps are a type of electrical gas discharge lamp which produces light by means of an electric arc between tungsten electrodes inside a seethrough tube. HID lamps include mercury-vapour, quartz metalhalide, ceramic metal halide, sodium-vapour and xenon short-arc lamps.

Lux is the international unit of illuminance – a measure of how much luminous flux (in lumens) is spread over a given area (in square metres). In other words, it tells you how much light is arriving at a surface. 1 lm/m2 equals 1 lx. Multiply an illuminance figure in lux by an amount of time in hours and you have a measure of exposure in lux hours – useful if you’re looking after delicate objects or surfaces that can’t be exposed to too much light.



Watch and


Lux’s YouTube channel has racked up over a million views. Here are the latest outdoor, industrial and transport mustsee videos EMERGENCY LIGHTING: HOW TO STAY OUT OF TROUBLE Did you know you could be sent to prison if your emergency lighting doesn’t comply with the law? Find our more in Lux’s exclusive video.

CAN BLUE LIGHTS MAKE BRITAIN’S RAILWAYS SAFER? Gatwick Airport’s railway station platforms have been equipped with blue lights to prevent crime, anti-social behaviour and even suicides.

STREETLIGHT SWITCH-OFFS: A FAILED EXPERIMENT? Clare Murden of Nottinghamshire County Council tells Lux why the council turned its lights off… then turned them back on again.

WHY RAIL OPERATORS ARE SLOW TO ADOPT NEW LIGHTING TECHNOLOGY Leading specifiers and suppliers of lighting for Britain’s rail network tells Lux why change takes so long

HOW WILL LIGHTING FIT INTO THE INTERNET OF THINGS? Lux’s panel explores how we can prepare for the technological revolution of connected lighting

DENMARK’S ‘LIVING LAB’ FOR SMART STREETLIGHTING Lux visits the Danish Outdoor Lighting Lab, a life-sized testing ground for the smart streetlights of the future.

THE LIGHT THAT EARNS YOU MONEY This UK invention stays on when the power goes off and earns you money from your energy supplier.

AN END TO CONFUSION IN THE LED LIGHTING INDUSTRY? LIA Laboratories’ new ‘Verified’ scheme ensures lighting products do what they say on the tin.

WHY YOU CAN’T MISS LUXLIVE 2015 Hear from big spenders at McDonalds, Rolls-Royce, Sainsbury’s and more on why LuxLive is a key date in the diary.

Co-located with:

17 –19 November 2015 | ExCeL | London | U.K.




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EVENTS 24 June 2015 Lighting for Rail Conference

Lighting for Rail CONFERENCE 2015



The current wave of investment in the UK’s rail network represents a once-ina-generation opportunity to upgrade to world-class lighting. In this one-day conference, we’ll help you do just that. London, UK

25 JUNE 2015 Smart City Lighting Event 2015 To make their streetlighting more affordable, cities from all around the world have begun investigating the benefits of switching to smart energy-efficient technology. The Smart City Lighting Event is a chance for stakeholders in councils, municipalities and the smart lighting industry to come together to hear and share the latest news about urban lighting from cities all over the world. Eindhoven 25 JUNE Last Thursday Construction Club A free, informal lighting industry networking event that gives you the chance to chat with people from other sections of the lighting industry including lamp and luminaire manufacturers, electrical contractors, wholesalers, public lighting engineers, lighting designers and architects. Davy’s at Woolgate Bar and Brasserie, London 7 JULY Lighting and energy efficiency course This Cibse course on energy-efficient lighting in buildings covers how to measure energy efficiency, how to calculate energy use, the technology and systems available, and the regulations you have to observe. Cibse, 222 Balham High Road, London


29 JULY Compliance course Designed for planners, engineers, facilities managers, designers and architects, this course covers how to set and enforce requirements to meet the National Planning Policy Framework and to resolve obtrusive light complaints. Participants will get a better understanding of how to meet planning requirements and avoid costly delays to planning approval, while collecting credits for Breeam assessments. BRE, Bucknalls Lane, Watford MEET 17-19 NOVEMBER 2015 US Strategies in Light Europe 2015 HERE For the first time this year, Strategies in Light Europe is taking in place in London alongside LuxLive, the UK’s biggest lighting show. Strategies in Light Europe brings together the top companies from all levels of the global lighting and LED supply chain, from components to luminaires. And the Strategies in Light Europe conference will address the hot topics in the LED industry right now, with market knowledge and analysis from Strategies Unlimited, the world leader in LED and lighting market research, renowned for its coverage of the business for more than 20 years. The conference covers two tracks, focusing on markets and technology. There will also be an investor forum and workshops. From components to systems, from engineering to lighting design; no other

European LED lighting conference offers such a wide range of activities. ExCeL London, UK

UK’S BIGGEST LIGHTING SHOW MEET 18-19 NOVEMBER 2015 US HERE LuxLive 2015 The UK’s biggest and best lighting show is back again. Come and see the latest in low-energy hospitality lighting solutions from hundreds of exhibitors, and hear from experts about how to upgrade your lights while keeping that crucial look and feel. ExCeL London, UK







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HER ROYAL LIGHTNESS What better way to celebrate the birth of the ninth in line to the throne than with an LED filament lamp. Dressed in gold with a frosty appearance, the ‘Charlotte’ is dimmable and energy efficient. Long may she reign – 30,000 hours, to be exact.

FROM LUMINO TO LUMINO We bet some of the staff at lighting company Lumino in Essex wish their company was called Clacton-on-Sea. Lumino is celebrating its 30-year anniversary by making its employees cycle from the Lumino office to its namesake, Lumino – in Switzerland. The 1,200km trek will raise funds for sustainable lighting in some of the poorest regions in the world, so Lumino’s employees will need a really good excuse not to get on their bikes. Sponsor them at teams/luminotolumino



Don’t let your dog pee on this lamp post; the Cimarron CL1ITSP from Hubbell is designed to deter criminals. Cross an invisible line – known as a ‘geofence’ – and the light gets mad: it flashes, gives stern recorded-voice warnings and announces it’s switching on its video camera. Applications include car parks and industrial sites.

REALLY? 10 what?? Fuc… ah, flickering lights. That’s all right, then, who wouldn’t want some flickering lights? Alternatively, try dimming the cheap LEDs you ordered from China – you should get a similar result.

Had enough of the fluorescent lighting and cramped space in your office? So have the hipsters of Hackney’s tech cluster. They’ll soon be moving in to a ‘tree office’ that the council is building around a tree trunk in Hackney’s Tech City. Career limiting, you’d think – you’ll always be working in a branch office.

THE FART LIGHT At Lightfair in New York in May, Terralux unveiled what it says is the world’s first light that can both detect and deal with farts. We’re not making this up. The LEDSense range has a built-in gas sensor that can detect if a bathroom is left ‘stinky’, to use the company’s word. The intelligent system then turns on an extractor fan. Clearly, this is the killer application the smart lighting industry’s been waiting for.


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Designed to last


Over the last ďŹ ve decades, our robust luminaires have been used in some of the most demanding situations. By combining deep application experience with the latest technologies, we offer a comprehensive range of lighting solutions to provide low cost of ownership and peace of mind!


Social Housing


Secure Healthcare

Urban Exterior

020 8254 2020

16 Kimpton Park Way, Sutton, Surrey, SM3 9QS

Lux Special - Outdoor, Transport & Industrial  

The latest news, analysis, case studies and how-to guides on energy-efficient lighting for outdoor, transport and industrial applications

Lux Special - Outdoor, Transport & Industrial  

The latest news, analysis, case studies and how-to guides on energy-efficient lighting for outdoor, transport and industrial applications