Page 1

Projector The

Semester 2 2017

The Ditch Fixing Redeemer’s ‘Creek’

The Blitz Another Hitler Blunder

Invasion Day

Torture

Rethinking Australia Day

H2Low

Then and Now

Conserving our Water

Plus The Vikings Greek Gods Aqueducts Koala Habitat 1


Water like glass by Paul Gorbould; Licensed under CC-BY-NC-ND 2.0

Contents Features 01 Blunder blitz

The air attacks on Britain were one of Hitler’s serious mistakes.

The

05 Confess, or suffer

Projector

Sadly, torture is a practice not yet consigned to history.

08 Fix the ditch

is a selection of independent projects by students of Years 7-10 History and Geography at Redeemer Lutheran College.

Redeemer’s water ditch could be so much more.

13 Ungodly gods The gods of the ancient Greeks were more human than godly.

18 Bridging past and present The awesome aqueducts built by ancient Romans.

33 Evicted

How land clearing affects koalas.

37 Invasion Day For indigenous people, many aspects of white settlement are nothing to celebrate.

42 H Low 2

We need to keep finding ways to be more water wise.

47 Bad rap

Vikings may not deserve their bad reputation.

Regulars 23 Every Project 25 Snippets

0 Front Cover: Waterboarding by Richard Wilkinson; Licensed under CC-BY-NC-SA 2.0


Blunder Blitz The decision to bomb Britain during WWII backfired on Hitler, writes Grace Farmer (Year 8). The Blitz by the Germans on Britain was one of the most significant events in World War II, but was it actually a mistake? Aspects of this question to consider include: why the Germans ordered the Blitz, why the Blitz didn’t result in Britain being defeated, how Britain withstood the Blitz and how the failure to defeat Britain affected the course of the war. The evidence suggests that the Blitz was a German tactical mistake. The Blitz was the frequent bombing raids by the Nazi Germans directed at British cities during World War II. This occurred in Britain and started with large raids on London in September of 1940 as the Battle of Britain was beginning to draw to a close. These raids occurred predominately at night and were conducted by the Luftwaffe, the German air force. The Blitz ended in May 1941 when the main focus of the Germans turned to Russia. Many believe that the Blitz was just directed at London, but it was also directed at industrial cities and ports like Birmingham, Coventry, Liverpool, Hull and many others (BBC, 2014). Why the Germans Ordered the Blitz: The ordering of the Blitz was caused by an array of factors including: a) A theory that constant bombing would pressure Britain into surrendering. The Blitz was an attempt to bomb the British cities into submission. The Germans believed

(created by the author)

1


that the civilians of Britain would be in such a constant fear of death, they would force the British government to surrender. Even if the government refused to submit, the people would disagree with this and riot, overthrowing the government.

The British banded together to face a common enemy. Encouraged by Churchill’s radio speeches and public visits, they became determined not to give in. “Business as usual” was written on boarded-up shop windows, signifying how the British wouldn’t let the Germans win and had adapted to this new way of life (History Place, 1998). Denis, a London citizen, was 13 when the Blitz began. He later said, “Everyone was looking out for their neighbours. The friendship and camaraderie during the Blitz were wonderful to behold. Adversity brings out the best in people” (Find My Past, 2015).

b) A sense of revenge for Hitler. The Blitz came about because some Luftwaffe flew off course and accidentally dropped bombs on London, killing civilians. Winston Churchill, believing this was purposeful, ordered a retaliatory attack on Berlin. This outraged Hitler. Two more attacks occurred, and Hitler had to have revenge and placate the angry people of Berlin, whom he had previously assured that Berlin would not be touched. Hitler’s own words show just how much he wanted to retaliate. On September 4th, 1940 he said, “when the British Air Force drops two or three or four thousand kilograms of bombs, then we will in one night drop 150-, 230-, 400 thousand kilograms. When they declare they will increase their attacks on our city, we will raze their cities to the ground, we will stop the handiwork of these night pirates, so help us God” (History Place, 1998).

“Adversity brings out the best in people.”  London citizen The community shelters actually helped to cultivate the ‘Blitz spirit’. Many who were tired of going to and from the shelters or underground almost lived there. According to an eyewitness account, “by 4.00pm, all the platforms and passages space of the underground are staked out, chiefly with blankets folded in long strips against the wall… A woman or child guards places for about six people. When evening comes, the rest of the family crowds in” (History Learning Site, 2016).

“…we will raze their cities to the ground…”  Adolf Hitler, 1940 c) Hitler wanted to damage the British economy and industries. During November 1940, the focus shifted to other cities as well. The Luftwaffe attempted to destroy factories, docks and ports to interrupt industry. According to Keegan (n.d.), they also wanted to destroy ways of communication and supply, damaging the economy of Britain. In short, the Germans ordered the Blitz because of the mistaken belief that civilians would pressure the government to surrender, they wanted revenge for the bombing raids on their city and they wanted to damage the British economy and industry. How Britain Withstood the Blitz: Britain withstood the Blitz by developing a ‘Blitz spirit’. The bombing actually had the opposite effect to that which the Germans had intended.

Sign for Blitz shelter (‘Public Shelter 5x7’ by zizzybaloobah; Licensed by CC-BY-NC 2.0)

2


Sheltering inside the underground for hours on end couldn’t have been comfortable, but it helped people to see that they could cope, together. This helped the community spirit.

airfields and support installations. They had almost completely ruined the defence system, but switching to attacks on cities gave the RAF the opportunity to reconstruct their airfields, train new pilots and mend aircraft. Winston Churchill later wrote, “it was therefore with a sense of relief that fighter command felt the German attack turn on London” (The History Place, 1998).

Britain withstood the Blitz because of the ‘Blitz spirit’ of solidarity, community, friendship and camaraderie and because they were determined not to give up and to continue “business as usual”.

“It was therefore with a sense of relief that fighter command felt the German attack turn on London.”

Why the Blitz did not Result in Britain Being Defeated: There were many reasons that the Blitz didn’t result in Britain being defeated. Many of the aims that the Blitz was intended to achieve were not met. The Blitz was intended to destroy the British morale, so they would surrender, however the Blitz failed to do this and the British were able to develop a ‘Blitz spirit’ and a sense of community. Since they kept morale up and the citizens didn’t despair and force the government to surrender, the Germans were not able to defeat Britain that way.

 Winston Churchill Overall, the Blitz didn’t result in Britain being defeated because the British morale was considerably more resilient than had been anticipated, it didn’t damage the British economy and industry enough, the Luftwaffe were not really suited for a campaign such as the Blitz and the Blitz gave the RAF a chance to recover from the bombing that had previously been directed at them.

The Blitz was also intended to damage British economy and industries. This succeeded in part but not to a large enough extent. Despite all the bombing of ports, factories and other industries that occurred, it was not enough to bring Britain to its knees. The bombers weren’t suited to strategic bombing campaigns. They were able to hit some specific targets but since this was due more to sheer volume rather than accuracy they didn’t hit all the targets. The Luftwaffe aircraft had a relatively short range and lacked the capacity to deliver a heavy enough bombing (History Learning Site, 2016).

How the failure of the Blitz Affected the Course of the War: When the Blitz was not resulting in the intended outcomes, the Germans switched their attention to Operation Barbossa, the invasion of the Soviet Union. Operation Barbossa then failed because the Germans underestimated their opponent and had completely inadequate logistical preparations and because they hadn’t yet started any industrial preparations for a sustained war. Operation Barbossa was the turning point of WWII because the failure of Operation Barbossa meant the Nazi’s had to fight the war on two fronts against an alliance that had superior resources (History Learning Site, n.d.). This was the beginning of the end for Hitler.

Denis, a London citizen, was 13 when the Blitz began. He later said, “the bombing of London caused widespread damage, but it wasn’t enough to achieve Goering’s goal of destroying British morale, or bringing England to her knees. Residents of London adapted to a new lifestyle” (Find My Past, 2015).

“Residents of London adapted to a new lifestyle.”  London citizen In actual fact, it would have been better for the Germans if they had continued to target the RAF 3

The Blitz affected the course of the war because the Germans were wasting time on the Blitz instead of preparing for Operation Barbossa. The Blitz also affected the course of the war because it showed other countries around the world that it was possible to resist Hitler and the Nazis. It gave the rest of the world hope because the British were able to hold out against a seemingly endless onslaught from the Germans.


‘Air Raid Damage in Britain during the Second World War’ (in the public domain @ commons.wikimedia.org) two/the-blitz-introduction [Accessed 11 October 2017]. Barrow, M., 2013. Britain Since the 1930s: The Blitz. [Online] Available at: www.primaryhomeworkhelp.co.uk/war/blitz.htm [Accessed 31 August 2017]. BBC, 2014. World War 2: Air raids - the Blitz. [Online] Available at: www.bbc.co.uk/schools/primaryhistory/world_war2/air_rai ds/ [Accessed 23 August 2017]. BBC, n.d. History - The Blitz. [Online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/events/the_blitz [Accessed 23 August 2017]. Britannica Editors, 2011. Operation Barbarossa: The Beginning of the End for Hitler. [Online] Available at: http://blogs.britannica.com/2011/06/operationbarbarossa-beginning-hitler/ [Accessed 13 September 2017]. Find My Past, 2015. The Blitz; A first-hand account. [Online] Available at: https://blog.findmypast.com.au/the-blitz-a-firsthand-account-1406534983.html [Accessed 13 September 2017]. History Learning Site, 2016. The Blitz and World War Two. [Online] Available at: http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/worldwar-two/world-war-two-in-western-europe/britains-homefront-in-world-war-two/the-blitz-and-world-war-two/ [Accessed 30 August 2017].

After inspecting the evidence, it is clear that the Blitz was a German tactical mistake. Firstly, they underestimated the British morale. Secondly, their planes were not suited to this type of campaign. Thirdly, their time would have been far better spent preparing for the sustained war, as this would have been far more useful in terms of the rest of the war. Fourthly, if they had instead put more time and resources toward Operation Barbossa, they may have been able to avoid fighting a two front war against people with far better resources and preparations. Last but not least, switching to a bombing of the cities gave the RAF time to rebuild airfields and support installations and train new pilots. In conclusion, the Blitz was a tactical mistake on the part of the Germans. Sources 3D History, n.d. The Blitz - Introduction. [Online] Available at: http://3dhistory.co.uk/article/world-war-

4


To confess under duress Heirene Kim (Year 9) explains that torture continues, even in the modern age. Torture

errors and accuse other heretics whom they know…” as well as “those who have lodged them and defended them” (cited in Documenta Catholica Omnia, 2006). Mutilation was forbidden but Pope Alexander IV had issued another bull in 1256, so that any sinful wrongdoings carried out to get a confession may be cleared by another inquisitor:

Did you know people are being brutally assaulted and viciously punished around our world today? Throughout history, torture has been a method used for different purposes. Torture and the reason behind it will be explored through the Spanish Inquisition and Guantanamo Bay. This will shed light on the torture methods back then in comparison to more recent times because torture is not only from the past but happens now as well.

“In order to expedite the work of faith that you carry out, we authorize you by this permission that if you incur in any cases the sentence of excommunication or irregularity, whether it should occur from human weakness or if you should incur it later on because you are not able to have recourse to your superiors at the moment, you may absolve each other of these things according to the proper form of the Church and by this authority you are enabled to dispense each other, just as this power has been conceded to your superiors by apostolic authority. (cited in Lea, 1887)

The Spanish Inquisition There were multiple inquisitions that took place between the 12th and 19th centuries, one of which was the Spanish Inquisition. This inquisition is widely remembered because of its Catholic intolerance, repression and punishment. In 1231, Pope Gregory IX announced a decree that gave authority to a tribunal court system and allowed the trial and punishment of heretics. Heretics were those who firmly believed in what the Catholic Church thought of as a false interpretation of the Bible. Heretics proclaimed their beliefs to others and had to have done so with no influence from the evil spirits.

In the 16th century, the Spanish Inquisitors took advantage of this bull. There were many different methods of torture that were utilised to extract a confession from a heretic. Some inquisitors did not like slow processes such as starvation, or the use of large quantities of burning coals or fluids such as water (Freeman, 2017). Strappado and the rack were two commonly utilized methods of torture as they were much speedier options. Strappado occurred when:

Religious diversity in Spain caused a majority of the prominent citizens to generate an intolerance towards non-Catholics. Many Jews, Muslims and Protestants were brutally assaulted due to the want of religious unity. There were also many converts to Catholicism who were then accused of discreet continuation of their religious practices.

“the hands of the accused were tied behind his back and the rope looped over a brace in the ceiling of the chamber or attached to a pulley. Then the subject was raised until he was hanging from his arms. This might cause the shoulders to pull out of their sockets. Sometimes, the torturers added a series of drops, jerking the subject up and down. Weights could be added to the ankles and feet to make the hanging even more painful”. (Freeman, 2017)

In order to get confessions, Pope Innocent IV made public decrees known as bulls to offer guidance and instruction. Innocent’s Bulla “Ad Extirpanda” instructed rulers that they must “force all the heretics … without killing them or breaking their arms or legs … to confess their 5


Use of the rack occurred when:

established by George W. Bush during the War on Terror, the global military campaign sparked by the terrorist September 11 attack, and was fought against terrorist groups and their supporting governments. In 2002, Guantanamo Bay was used for Muslim militants and suspected terrorists who were captured by the U.S. forces, especially those operating in Afghanistan (Wallner, 2011). This facility was brought to light because of alleged breaches of legal rights, such as torture and abusive treatment, of detainees by U.S. authorities (Murphy, n.d.). Over 700 inmates were captured from foreign soil without the right to a fair trial or the rights of prisoners of war under the Geneva Conventions (Wallner, 2011). The Geneva Conventions are the standards that are referred to concerning humanitarian treatment related to warfare which was negotiated in the aftermath of WWII (Sampaolo, 2013).

“the subject had his hands and feet tied or chained to rollers at one or both ends of a wooden or metal frame. The torturer turned the rollers with a handle, which pulled the chains or ropes in increments and stretched the subject's joints, often until they dislocated. If the torturer continued turning the rollers, the accused's arms and legs could be torn off”. (Freeman, 2017) This method was so gruesome that heretics watching another being tortured often produced a confession. Burning, pinching and mutilation of body parts such as hands and feet were actions carried out while the victim was already suffering from the strappado or rack. Inquisitors felt it was their responsibility to bring the accused back to their faith, therefore they needed to get a confession. Penances such as being sent out on pilgrimages or wearing heavy crosses were given to the accused once they were declared forgiven. However, those who repeated their acts of heresy were ‘abandoned to the secular arm’. The meaning behind this is that inquisitors were unable to execute the accused, however they orchestrated other people to do it.

Murat Jurnaz, a Turkish man, was accused of being part of the September 11 incident and for supposed connections to al-Qaeda. Murat was interrogated in Pakistan, then handed over to the U.S. for four years in the Gitmo camp and claims that the way he was treated during all this time was tortuous (Wallner, 2011). Murat firmly told his interrogators in Pakistan that, “[He] is not a terrorist and that is why [he] would not sign the document declaring [he] was a member of the alQaeda and the Taliban” (Wallner, 2011).

Those of the Spanish inquisition were openly discriminatory about one’s belief system and religion. Inquisitors would have been extremely headstrong about their own ideals and morals to inflict punishment on those with what they believed a twisted version of the truth. Torture, condemnation and force were used to make an accused confess and have faith in something they themselves did not personally believe.

Murat’s declarations were not appreciated and led to his handcuffs being chained to the ceiling and pulled up so that his full body weight was completely off the ground. Another man had been hung close by, but his skin had turned blue and he was dying. This method of torture is extremely similar to strappado, the method used in the Inquisition. Murat was then moved into Guantanamo Bay Detention Centre where he was put into a cage, similar to a dog cage only smaller in size (Wallner, 2011). There were no toilets, and everything was out in the open. Bright lights and generators with loud noises were left on every day and throughout the night. Murat says that “no one could ever sleep and if you did it was more like fainting from exhaustion.” Interrogators would ask questions that would challenge the accused’s ego, and love for their country and family. They would use solitary confinement and sleep deprivation to extract a response or confession (Wallner, 2011).

Ideally there would have been a total prohibition and discontinuation of torture. Through the exploration of more recent torture events, an observation can be made of whether there has been improvement. Guantanamo Bay Guantanamo Bay Detention Camp, also called Gitmo, is located in Cuba as part of the Guantanamo Bay Naval Base. It is a US military prison that is known for the extreme breaching of human rights due to severe torture of detainees without trial. Guantanamo Bay was first

6


Torture through the ages

Sources

Brutal methods similar to those used long ago during the Spanish Inquisition are being carried out today. Governments, including the US, allow detention camps that hold large numbers of accused and utilise torture in order to get a confession. If most countries violate international law, the country is called out for their wrongdoing as a violator and the international human rights standards remain intact. When a super power violates the international human rights law the standards themselves become degraded.

Documenta Catholica Omnia (2006) 1243-1254 – SS Innocentius IV – Bulla ‘Ad_Extirpanda’ [AD 1252-05-15]. Retrieved from http://www.documentacatholicaomnia.eu/01p/1252-0515,_SS_Innocentius_IV,_Bulla_%27Ad_Extirpanda%27,_EN.pdf Donovan, D. (2011, May 23). David Hicks gives graphic account of torture at Guantanamo. Retrieved from Independent Australia: https://independentaustralia.net/article-display/david-hicksgives-graphic-account-of-torture-at-guantanamo,3424 Freeman, S. (2017). How the Spanish Inquisition Worked. Retrieved from History HowStuffWorks: https://history.howstuffworks.com/historicalfigures/spanish-inquisition3.htm ICRC (2014, January 01). The Geneva Conventions of 1949 and their Additional Protocols. Retrieved from International Committee of the Red Cross: https://www.icrc.org/en/document/geneva-conventions1949-additional-protocols Lea, H. C. (1887). A History of the Inquisition of Middle Ages Vol. 1. New York: Harper & Brothers. Retrieved from Project Gutenberg: http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/39451 Merriam-Webster-Dictionary. (2017). Torture. Retrieved from: https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/torture Murphy, R. A. (n.d.). Naval Station Guantanamo Bay - History. Retrieved from Commander, Navy Installations Command: https://www.cnic.navy.mil/regions/cnrse/installations/ns_g uantanamo_bay/about/history.html Nolen, J. L. (2009, January 22). Guantanamo Day dentention camp. Retrieved from Encyclopaedia Britannica: https://www.britannica.com/topic/Guantanamo-Baydetention-camp Ray, M. (2015, May 28). Spanish Inquisition. Retrieved from Encyclopaedia Britannicca: https://www.britannica.com/topic/Spanish-Inquisition Sampaolo, M. (2013, January 14). Geneva Conventions. Retrieved from Britannica: https://www.britannica.com/event/GenevaConventions Wallner, T. (Director). (2011). The Guantanamo Trap [Motion Picture]. Wikipedia (2017) Geneva Conventions. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geneva_Conventions Wikipedia (2017) Guantanamo Bay detention camp. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guantanamo_Bay_detention_c amp Wikipedia (2017). Spanish Inquisition. (2017, November 7). Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spanish_Inquisition

Kenneth Roth of Human Rights Watch met with the Prime Minister of Egypt complaining to him about the Egyptian Government’s use of torture against certain terrorist subjects. The Prime Minister pointed out that these actions are justifiable due to similar actions carried out by the United States Government (Wallner, 2011). Who would have thought that it was necessary to debate the merits of torture? International law prohibits torture absolutely. Yet following the September 11 incident the Bush administration took advantage of the fear of the nation to breach the most basic prohibitions in international law. Torture is uncontrollable. Interrogators have no way of knowing they are torturing the right person. Even after the confession is made, there is no fixed certainty that whatever is said is the truth or a lie to satisfy the interrogator. As David Hicks, a convicted former Guantanamo detainee, claimed: “They broke you and destroyed you and made you as desperate as possible, so you would sign anything and say anything to get out of there” (Donovan, 2011). Torture can never be thought of as appropriate. Whether the victims are guilty or innocent is irrelevant when justifying torture. Torture can never be an ideal or equitable punishment. Torture will only cause an increase in violence and is an irresponsible and immoral way to find a solution.

7


Fix the Ditch

Paris Koppens and Monaita Cheng (Year 9) think our ditch could be more like a creek.

The ‘ditch’ – Redeemer Lutheran College

8


The Problem – Paris Koppens

The Importance of Catchments The quality of water in a catchment can easily be affected by what happens in one area of the catchment. Small creeks like the one at Redeemer can be used to drain stormwater from the school and surrounding residential blocks. This however, can have effects on the water quality of the catchment.

Small creeks, such as the one at Redeemer, are often overlooked. There is little awareness of how the actions around the creek are having an effect on the water quality as the condition of the creek is not seen as very important. But what if the quality of the water in one creek actually affected the quality of water for the entire catchment? The Redeemer ‘Creek’, or ‘ditch’, is currently full of weeds and the water may be contaminated from fertilisers used on adjacent ovals. The weeds that are currently occupying the ditch do little to filter any run-off coming into it. This could be damaging the water quality in the catchment.

The Redeemer ‘Creek’ is located in Brisbane Water Catchment 45 (Figure 1). Even though it is towards the outskirts of the catchment, effects on this ditch can still have a large effect on the entire catchment. Stormwater is run-off carried from roofs, paths, roads and driveways. All the stormwater from the school is drained out through the ditch. This stormwater however, is unfiltered and so wastes such as litter, oil, heavy metals, pesticides and weeds can be swept into the creek and then distributed throughout the catchment waterways. This has a negative effect on the aquatic life, vegetation quality and even on the people who live in the catchment. It’s surprising how much the whole catchment can be negatively affected by what one small creek has contributed to the water network.

The solution to this degraded creek system is to increase riparian vegetation in and around it. This will improve the quality of water in the creek as well as the quality of native fauna habitat. By creating buffer zones full of riparian vegetation, the run-off of fertilisers from the ovals will be decreased and not distributed throughout the catchment, potentially causing environmental damage.

Catchments in Brisbane = Catchment

Redeemer ‘Creek’

Figure 1 – Redeemer ‘Creek’ catchment location (Source: created by Evelynne Lee (Year 9) using data from Brisbane City Council, 2017

9


eutrophication which would be a problem for any surviving native plants and animals in the creek. Eutrophication is the growth of algae in waterways that are polluted by too many nutrients. These algae can harm plants and animals that rely on oxygen in the water (Dixon, 2017). The creek banks also have signs of erosion (Figure 5).

Figure 2 - Ditch location

Legend Glover Fields The ‘creek’ Scurr Oval

(Source: created by Monaita Cheng using Google Earth)

Current Vegetation The current vegetation in the ditch is very poor. Essentially the whole creek is filled with weeds. The main species of vegetation currently occupying the creek are Yellow Burrhead (Figure 3) and Blue Billygoat Weed (Figure 4). These weeds are both introduced species and are serious threats to the native fauna in the area. Weeds such as these are competing with and smothering native growth and destroying the native habitat in the creek. Weeds also reduce the water quality in creeks and choke adjoining waterways (Dixon, 2017).

Figure 4 – Blue Billygoat Weed (Ageratum houstonianum) (Source: Paris Koppens)

Figure 5 – Creek condition (Source: Paris Koppens)

Pollution in the creek could be mainly due to storm water as the creek is the main drainage of water for the school. The ovals, during heavy rain events, get flooded which means that the creek is the pathway for the water to drain away from this area. This means that litter, oil, pesticides and other pollutants can be swept into the creek from all over the school. Erosion of the banks of the creek has also affected the quality of the water through sedimentation. Any polluted water in the creek would be a problem not only for the school but also for the catchment.

Figure 3 - Yellow Burrhead (Limnocharis flava) (Source: Paris Koppens)

Current Water Quality The quality of water in the ditch is probably poor. The water is shallow and does not flow steadily. It is murky and shows signs of litter and material pollution (Figure 5). There are also signs of algae in the water and along the banks. This algae growth could potentially come from 10


place that people visit often for educational purposes or for fun. A better-looking creek can draw positive attention and would improve the potential parent tours as they can see that our school values a healthy environment.

A Proposal – Monaita Cheng The ditch could become a creek by planting native species and introducing a population of frogs. Environmental Impacts If the ditch was fixed, many different species would move into that general area, causing a increase in the wildlife populations. The type of frog species may include the Common Green Treefrog, Eastern Dwarf Frog, Little Red Frogs, Northern Dwarf Treefrog, Javelin Frog and the Ornate Burrowing Frog (Queensland Mueseum, 2000). Also, Whirligig Beetles (small beetles that swim in big groups on the surface of still water) may also be attracted to the creek (Queensland Mueseum, 2000).

Figure 6 – Noisy Miner (Source: ‘Noisy Miner’ by magdalena_b; in the public domain)

Benefits of increasing the frog population would include a cleaner waterway, less disease vectors and a balanced food chain. Research from Dr. Kerry Kriger (2017) found that tadpoles clean the waterway by feeding on the algae. Frogs also decrease the populations of disease vectors such as mosquitoes.

It could also be used as an outdoor classroom for geography and biology classes, especially for the Junior School. Research has proven that good outdoor environments are important for “improving the physical, educational and mental wellbeing of children and young people” (Government of South Australia, 2016). 68% percent of students want us to look after the creek (author survey). By focusing on this as an active service to the community, it is hoped that students will be willing to lend a hand and contribute to improving that area.

A balanced food chain is maintained when the ecosystem has a diverse frog population because frogs are a good food source to a number of different birds. The number of Noisy Miner and Plover species have been increasing over the years while the other parrot species have been declining. The Noisy Miner (Figure 6) is known to be aggressive in defending their territory from other native birds and wildlife species. Also, this aggressive behaviour causes a decrease in small insect-eating birds which then causes dieback in eucalyptus trees which is associated with an increase in insect numbers and a decrease in seed dispersal (Brisbane City Council, 2016). This may lead to a slow decline in bird species. However, having a frog habitable creek can increase the variety of bird species such as the Regent Parrot, Yellow-tailed Black Cockatoo and the Yellow Roselle.

The new creek would need to be maintained by cleaning the weeds often. It would also need to be made sure that students don’t treat the creek as a place for litter again. Another thing to keep in mind is that no sport equipment falls into the creek, because it will cause damage to the new plants and wildlife. When the creek is finished and transformed into a newer, healthier ecosystem, there will also be safety issues for students and staff to be aware of. These include being careful around the creek when it is not barricaded.

Social Impacts

Less fertiliser and pesticide should be used because it could run in to the creek.

Students and staff at Redeemer go to either the Scurr Oval or Glover Fields, at least once a week (author survey). This shows that the oval is a

11


https://www.brisbane.qld.gov.au/environmentwaste/natural-environment/protecting-wildlifebrisbane/living-wildlife/noisy-miner Frog Safe. (2001 - 2017). Raising Tadpoles in Containers and Ponds. Retrieved from How You Can Help: https://www.frogsafe.org.au/ponds/raising_tadpoles.shtml Dixon, E. (2017) author interviews Josh’s Frogs (2017). Terrarium Plants 101. Retrieved from Josh's Frogs How-To Guide: http://www.joshsfrogs.com/catalog/blog/2012/01/terrarium -plants-101/ Georges River. (2017). Impacts and Problems. Retrieved from Georges River: http://www.georgesriver.org.au/Impacts-andProblems.html Government of South Australia. (2016). Outdoor learning environments. Retrieved from Department for Education and Child Development: https://www.decd.sa.gov.au/usability Hooper, J. (2016). Frog Friendly Garden. Retrieved from Queensland Frog Society Inc.: http://www.qldfrogs.asn.au/frog-friendly-gardens/ Kriger, K. (2017, May 16). Why We Must Save the Frogs. Retrieved from Save The Frogs: https://www.savethefrogs.com/why-frogs/ Oates, J. (2000, January). The values of the riparian zone. Retrieved from Water Notes: https://www.water.wa.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/ 3113/11441.pdf Queensland Government. (2016, February 16). Catchment care. Retrieved from Queensland Government Department of Environment and Heritage Protection: http://www.ehp.qld.gov.au/water/catchment_care.html Wyee Nursery. (2017). Wyee Nursery. Retrieved from Create a frog friendly habitat with beautiful water plants: https://www.wyeenursery.com.au/create-a-frog-friendlyhabitat-with-beautiful-water-plants/

Economic Impacts Buying new plants for the creek would be one cost of making it frog habitable. The approximate cost for plants would be from $300-$600 in total. If grounds keepers were required to do the planting, there would be a cost involved in their wages. Students doing it as a learning activity would cost far less. Once the creek is improved, that amount of money will not need to be spent again and it is cheap to maintain the creek because all that is needed is regular gardening. The creek is our responsibility, and therefore we need to take more leadership in looking after it. Doing this would benefit our school in many different ways. It would make the ecosystem in our school better and it would provide social and environmental benefits to the school. Sources

(Source: Design Flow – Windaroo Creek Waterways Asessment @ www.designflow.net.au)

ABC. (2014). Fact Sheet: Backyard Frog Ponds. Retrieved from Gardening Australia: http://www.abc.net.au/gardening/stories/s2246709.htm Brisbane City Council. (2016). Noisy miner. Retrieved from Brisbane City Council:

12


More human than godly Ella Wenke (Year 10) thinks the Greek pantheon was lacking in godliness.

Greek myth was first transmitted aurally, and later through their plays and poetry (Wasson, 2014). Because of this, we still know and learn from many Greek myths today. Two Greek poets, Homer and Hesiod, are credited with the first recording of Greek religious myth. The first written account of the creation story was reported by Hesiod, who was thought to be active between 750-650BC, in his ‘Theogony’. In it, he gives a detailed explanation on their version of the ‘beginning of things’ (Wasson, 2014). To the modern reader, they don’t present the gods as being very godly.

The Greek civilisation was one of the most influential of all time. Its architecture, poetry, art and religion are still studied and dissected today. Not only that, but the Greek gods constituted arguably the most well-known polytheistic religion. Like many civilisations, the Greeks had gods to guide them and give meaning to things they couldn’t comprehend, but were their gods really that heavenly? Or were they really just humans with super-human abilities?

Themes of Hesiod’s Theogony Recurring themes in Greek myth as recorded by Hesiod include the concept of fate. There were many characters who went to great lengths in order to prevent a prophecy. In response to a prophecy that he would be overthrown by one of his sons, Cronos devoured his own children: “These great Cronos swallowed as each came forth from the womb to his mother's knees with this intent, that no other of the proud sons of Heaven should hold the kingly office amongst the deathless gods” (Hesiod, ‘The Theogony’). But Greeks believed that there was no way to change fate. This stemmed from believing in the Fates: “Clotho, who spins the thread of life; Lachesis, who assigns each person’s destiny; and Atropos, who carries the scissors to snip the thread of life at its end” (Hamilton, 2017). This fear of what was to come caused heroes and gods to do immoral and highly questionable things, such as eating their own children. One would hope the gods would be more just and lawful than humans, but it seems that, more often than not, they were just as bad, if not worse, than we are.

The Greek gods were anthropomorphic – ethereal beings with human characteristics and behaviour. They exhibited human emotions, the commendable and the ugly. They loved, they hated, they were compassionate, they were revengeful; and all of this can be seen in the stories and myths that the Greeks passed down for centuries. Myth The purpose of a myth is to provide an understanding of things that we can’t explain scientifically or logically. As poet and scholar Robert Graves wrote, “Myth has two main functions. The first is to answer the sort of awkward questions that children ask, such as ‘Who made the world? How will it end? Who was the first man? Where do souls go after death?’... The second function of myth is to justify an existing social system and account for traditional rites and customs” (History.com, 2017).

“… fear of what was to come caused heroes and gods to do immoral and highly questionable things, such as eating their own children.”

For the Greeks, myths were a very important aspect of their life; they taught them everything, from religious rituals to the weather. Myths almost always included a sort of moral code that helped differentiate right from wrong. They dealt largely with important issues, and focused on the relationship between humans and the gods; this differentiated myth from fairy tales and folktales. 13


“Being tricked into eating a bit of fat doesn’t seem like a good enough reason to torture someone for all eternity.”

Revenge was also a big concern for the Greeks, and that is evident in their myths. The gods were easily angered, and would go to great lengths to get back at those who had hurt them. This goes against the concept of an all forgiving and loving god, and instead sounds much like the way humans act under certain circumstances. This can be seen in the creation stories when Gaea plots against Uranus, and again when Zeus plots against Cronus. The gods and other divine beings were arrogant and thought themselves to be above everyone, including each other. Their egos started wars, and violence ended them. Sound familiar?

Because the gods expressed human qualities in the myths, the Greeks were able to relate and understand both the values demonstrated in them and their relationship with the gods and the rest of the world. There was a contest in which the mortal Arachne dared to compete against Athena in the skill of weaving. Arachne was indeed talented, but was also arrogant. “Let Athena try her skill with mine, if beaten I will pay the penalty”. This displeased Athena, and she went to confront her. “I have much experience, and I hope you will not despise my counsel. Challenge your fellow-mortals as you will, but do not compete with a Goddess” (Perseus Digital Library, 2017). Arachne was unfazed and they each began their web. Although Arachne’s web left Athena in awe, it also deeply offended her, as it exhibited the errors of the gods. In a fit of anger Athena turned Arachne into a spider and hung her in the remains of her destroyed tapestry as a warning to others, declaring: “Live, guilty woman! And that you may preserve the memory of this lesson, continue to hand, both you and your descendants, to all future times” (Perseus Digital Library, 2017; George, 2001).

Another common theme in Greek mythology was that bad deeds result in punishment. While dining on Mt Olympus with the gods, Prometheus tricked Zeus into eating bones and fat instead of good meat. Enraged, Zeus took away man’s valuable gift of fire. Prometheus felt bad for mankind, and raided Hephaestus’ and Athena’s workshop to steal their fire. This angered Zeus further (Raddato, 2015). According to Hesiod, he bound Prometheus “with inextricable bonds, cruel chains, and drove a shaft through his middle, and set on him a longwinged eagle, which used to eat his immortal liver; but by night the liver grew as much again everyway as the long-winged bird devoured in the whole day” (‘The Theogony’). Not only this, but the gods were highly hypocritical with their punishments. Zeus punished Prometheus for tricking him, but Zeus himself tricked his own father, Cronos, into throwing up the brothers and sisters he’d eaten. The gods were poor moral judges, as they harboured the very traits they were punishing innocent humans for (Hamilton, 2017). The Greeks incorporated their ethical codes into their myths. They demonstrated firstly and most importantly what would please and anger the gods, and therefore demonstrated what they should and shouldn’t do. This concept is undoubtedly human: instead of all forgiving gods that accept the sinful nature of humans, they were unforgiving and revenge-hungry, often for vain and petty reasons, if angered. Being tricked into eating a bit of fat doesn’t seem like a good enough reason to torture someone for all eternity.

Prometheus with Atlas – 6th century BC (Photo by Karl-Ludwig Poggemann; Licensed under CC-BY 2.0)

14


The story of Arachne displays the danger of pride and arrogance, and once again the quick tempers of the gods. The gods loathed mortals who thought themselves on the same level as them and when mortals had this train of thought it often ended in very sticky situations. In Greek, this is referred as hubris: having excessive pride or self-confidence.

Relationships The Greek religion was polytheistic – they worshipped and believed in multiple deities. The ideas of marriage and family are rather human concepts, and the fact that a godly being should want or need a significant other or family is quite strange. For example, the Christian God is unbiased, and doesn’t love one person over another, unlike the Greek gods, who constantly picked and chose who they loved and who they hated. The gods marrying and having a family suggests that they felt human emotions such as love or lust and felt the need to procreate. It is also evident from Greek myth that the gods were often not loyal to one another, had dysfunctional relationships, forced marriages and were generally rather cruel to each other.

Really, the only thing that separated the gods from the mortals was the fact that they thought themselves far more worthy. They scrutinised and bullied mortals for doing the things they also did. If the gods were punished for their actions the way they punished mortals, perhaps they would have been less proud (George, 2001).

Hera and Zeus – The king and queen of the gods. You’d think that the goddess of marriage would be able to keep a functional one for herself, but unfortunately that wasn’t the case. Zeus frequently cheated on Hera with mortal women, causing Hera to become jealous and spiteful. She often punished the poor, unsuspecting girls that Zeus had fallen for. Despite this, they had several children together: Ares, the god of war, Hebe, the goddess of youth, Eileithyia, the goddess of childbirth and Hephaestus, the god of crafts and blacksmithing. The story of Hephaestus is particularly shocking. When he was born Hera was so affronted by his ugly appearance that she threw him off the top of Mt. Olympus, causing him to become lame (Tales Beyond Belief, 2017). Hera was an incredibly loyal wife, but she was certainly no angel mother. She was better than Zeus, however, who seemed to be severely lacking in both departments. The act of not loving your child and/or partner is truly flawed and human.

“You’d think the goddess of marriage would be able to keep a functional one for herself …” Hephaestus, Aphrodite & Ares – Hephaestus and Aphrodite were married, though not by choice. Zeus was concerned that Aphrodite’s beauty would cause war amongst the gods, as many of them longed to be with her, and thought it better if she was married. Hephaestus was the obvious choice, as he was considered undesirable, and therefore he would not become adulterous. The same could not be said about Aphrodite, however, as she had a sustained affair with Ares. They even had a child together, Eros, the god of love. Hephaestus, on the most part, seemed to accept this, though there is a myth where Hephaestus takes revenge on the lovers by capturing them in a net while they were in bed together. Through this, we can again see the adulterous and revengeful nature of the gods (Aquileana, 2014). Athena and Poseidon – Though not a romantic one, this relationship is also problematic. Their rivalry began while they were both competing for control of Athens. Both presented gifts to the city; Poseidon created horses, Athena presented an olive tree. Athena was claimed the victor, and this angered Poseidon. He struck his trident into a nearby stone, close to where the olive tree grew. Both since had a bitter disposition to each other. Once again, the gods demonstrate the lack of trust and forgiveness they possess, instead demonstrating their pride and ego; because apparently planting an olive tree causes a rivalry that lasts for centuries (Oxford University Press, 2017).

“Apparently planting an olive tree causes a rivalry that lasts for centuries”. 15


Physical appearance and emotions The Greek gods were corporeal, meaning they had a physical body. They were personified in a human form, which can be seen in paintings and pottery work of them. All but Hephaestus were depicted as incredibly beautiful, and each god and goddess had certain symbols that were related to them. These symbols were often worn on the god/goddess themselves, or sent as signs or warnings in myths so mortals could recognise them. For example, Athena is often associated with an owl, as it represents a higher wisdom (Networks, 2017). From the myths, it also becomes clear that the gods had basic human anatomy. They were capable of bleeding and being injured. The gods also had the range of emotions that humans have, and demonstrated both the good and bad. They fell in love, and demonstrated this the way humans would. They gave their partners gifts (e.g. Hades created Persephone a garden in the underworld, filled with fruits and jewels), married them and even started families. However, they were also lustful and adulterous, often struggling to keep said relationships. Zeus was particularly cruel towards his wife, Hera, cheating on her many times with nymphs, mortals and other goddesses. The gods were angered when betrayed (e.g. Hera punished the mortals Zeus slept with), and rewarding to those who pleased them (e.g. Hermes gave his winged shoes to heroes on quests) (Glass, 2015). They looked and acted human, and had earthly emotions; really, there isn’t much separating us and them at all.

Athena with an owl – 5th century BC (Attributed to the Brygos Painter; Licensed under CC-BY 2.5)

who lay down laws for mankind should themselves act lawlessly? ... If Apollo, and Poseidon, and Zeus, the lord of heaven, were to pay the penalty for the wives they have ravished, soon would their temples be emptied of all treasure.” He also had something to say on Zeus’ adulterous ways: “Even I, though but a mortal, surpass thee in virtue … As for thee, thou knewest how to steal in secret the bed of another’s wife, but to save thy friends thou knowest not. A feeble god, or treacherous, art thou” (cited in Press, 2017). Through this Euripides is demonstrating that he is not afraid of the gods or the punishment that would supposedly be bestowed upon him if he said these things, which suggests that perhaps he didn’t believe in the gods at all.

Greeks’ attitude to their gods To us now, the whole Greek god business sounds pretty ridiculous: eating five of your children to avoid fate? But did the Greeks truly believe these myths either? There is evidence that suggests some didn’t. Euripides was a Greek stage writer, who took a more pessimistic outlook on life and mankind. In his plays he often described how tainted mankind was, which wasn’t particularly unusual for plays at the time. However, he took it a step further, and started accusing the gods of being immoral and corrupt. He thought some of the myths to be ‘ridiculous’ and criticised them in his art. In his play ‘Ion’, he states: “Is it just that gods

Euripides also had a thorough dislike for oracles, prophecies and soothsayers. In his play ‘Helena’ he says: “False and worthless are the utterances of soothsayers, nor is wisdom to be found in flames of fire, or voices of the feathered tribe. ‘Tis folly to hope birds can bring benefit to mortal men. Let us rather, at our sacrifices, beseech the gods to send us blessings, and let us pay no heed 16


to oracles … Wisdom and prudence are the wisest soothsayers” (cited in Press, 2017). Euripides: ruining the prophecy business since 412 B.C.

Sources Ancient Facts. (2015). Greek Mythology Facts: Gods and Godesses of Ancient Greece: http://www.ancientfacts.net/greekmythology-facts-gods-and-goddesses-of-ancient-greece/ Aquileana. (2014). Greek Mythology: “Aphrodite, Hephaestus, Ares and her Other Lovers”. Retrieved from La Audacia de Aquiles: https://aquileana.wordpress.com/2014/10/02/greekmythology-aphrodite-hephaestus-ares-and-her-other-lovers/ Athena: A Voyage with the Gods. (2017). Athena and Poseidon's contest for Athens: http://151.12.58.141/virtualexhibition/contest.html BBC. (2014). Ancient Greeks: gods and heroes: http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/primaryhistory/ancient_greek s/gods_and_heroes/ George, R. (2001). Athena and Arachne . Retrieved from The Encyclopedia of the Goddess Athena: http://www.goddessathena.org/Encyclopedia/Athena/Arachne.htm Glass, A. (2015). How Greek Gods Have Human Emotions. Retrieved from Figment: http://figment.com/books/16716How-Greek-Gods-have-Human-Emotions Hesiod. The Theogony; translated by H.G. Evelyn-White (1914). Retrieved from Internet Sacred Texts Archive: http://www.sacred-texts.com/cla/hesiod/theogony.htm Sehr H. (2006). Zeus and Hera Compare/Contrast Essay. Retrieved from Myths and Legends: http://myths.e2bn.org/mythsandlegends/userstory20403zeus-and-hera-comparecontrast-essay.html Hamilton, E. (2017). Themes, Motifs & Symbols. Retrieved from Sparknotes: http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/mythology/themes.html History.com (2017). Greek Mythology: http://www.history.com/topics/ancient-history/greekmythology Hunt, J. (2017). Creation of the World. Retrieved from DESY: http://www.desy.de/gna/interpedia/greek_myth/creation.ht ml Myths and Legends. (2006) Pandora's Box. http://myths.e2bn.org/mythsandlegends/textonly562pandoras-box.html Oxford University Press. (2017). Myth Summary: Chapter 8 Athena: http://global.oup.com/us/companion.websites/978019539770 3/student/materials/chapter8/summary/ Parada, C. (1997). Prometheus. Retrieved from Greek Mythology Link: http://www.maicar.com/GML/Prometheus1.html Perseus Digital Library (2017). Greek and Roman Materials: http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/collection%3Fcollectio n%3DPerseus:collection:Greco-Roman Press, A. H. (2017). Euripides. Retrieved from Theatre Database: http://www.theatredatabase.com/ancient/euripides_017.html Raddato, C. (2015, February 4th ). Prometheus. Retrieved from Ancient History Encyclopedia : https://www.ancient.eu/Prometheus/ Tales Beyond Belief. (2017). Hera and Zeus: http://www.talesbeyondbelief.com/greek-gods/hera-andzeus.htm Wasson, D. L. (2014). Ancient History Encyclopedia. Retrieved from Roman Mythology: https://www.ancient.eu/Roman_Mythology/ Wikipedia. (2017) Arachne. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arachne Wikipedia. (2017). Euripides. Retrieved from Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euripides Wikia. (2017). Ouranus. Retrieved from Greek Mythology Wiki: http://greekmythology.wikia.com/wiki/Ouranos Xanthopoulos, E. (2017). Atlas. Retrieved from La Audacia De Aquiles: https://aquileana.wordpress.com/2015/08/27/greekmythology-atlas-poem-atlas-%E2%99%81-by-evaxanthopoulos/

Perhaps he did believe in the gods but thought that they weren’t meeting the godly requirements. On the one hand, in plays such as ‘Hippolytus’ and ‘Bacchae’ he describes the gods as wise, and justifies the evil of pride and the ‘ordinary convictions against man’, and therefore can’t be considered an enemy of the religion. On the other hand, Euripides understands and even critiques the gods’ behaviour, calling it ungodly and unjust. The fact that he was not persecuted by fellow Greeks by going against their religion suggests that perhaps they agreed with him, but were too afraid of the gods to say or do anything. It is possible that the Greeks only prayed to, worshipped and held sacrifices for the gods out of fear of them; perhaps we would too if we heard stories about young girls being transformed into spiders. Euripides’ thoughts also prove that the belief of the gods being uncharacteristically human is not a modern one alone, but rather one that has been around for centuries. Conclusions The Greeks worshipped these gods, but more often than not they struggled to do anything godly; clearly, they weren’t prime role models. Because their behaviour was so similar to that of humans, the humans in turn had nothing to look up to, no rules, laws or testimonies to follow. Really, it wouldn’t have made much difference if they had looked to each other for values and morals. So why did the Greeks create and worship the gods? Greek gods were made in man’s image, created to explain the unexplainable. Because of their anthropomorphism, the Greeks were able to understand and relate to the gods. In the end, it is most likely that the Greeks created the gods to come to a conclusion about how the earth was made, how it works and why humans are the way they are. They worshipped them for their power and wisdom, but as suggested by Euripides, not necessarily for their ‘sinful’ nature. Strip away their powers, and the gods were no less human than you or me.

17


Bridging Past and Present

Pont du Gard, Southern France (‘Pont du Gard’ by Dimitris Kilymis; Licensed under CC-BY-NC-SA 2.0)

Forget the Colosseum, Jayden Wood (Year 8) says it’s the aqueduct that deserves our praise. For thousands of years, the aqueducts of Rome have inspired and changed the way we look at water supply and usage. The Romans used their engineering and building skills to improve the standard of life of the people of Rome, revolutionising water collection and usage. It may even be asked whether aqueducts were better built than today’s bridges.

it possible to run water down a gradual slant to a destination. The pipes used in aqueducts were mostly made of concrete, lead or bronze (see Figure 1) with the bridge like structures that supported them made of stone. The Roman aqueducts were instrumental in channelling great amounts of water from mountains and springs to where it was needed (Romae Vitam, 2017).

The word ‘aqueduct’ is Latin and comes from ‘aqua’ and ‘ducere’, meaning ‘to lead water’. The Roman aqueducts were a network of channels and pipes built above and below ground with a purpose to carry water across expanses of land (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2017). The concept of the Roman aqueducts is simple in theory as water seeks the lowest level of a slope – making

The aqueduct system was complex, with design and development taking place over many hundreds of years. The aqueducts were mostly built 0.5–1 m below the surface, with bridge-like structures used to carry water across valley and city areas. Carrying 1 million cubic metres of water a day, the aqueducts were vital to Rome’s 18


the time (Rome: Engineering an Empire, 2006). Private access to water was also common, but with a cost to pipe water to houses and buildings. Sometimes water was tapped unknowingly, or pipes were unlawfully connected to the aqueducts or illegally widened. Some privatelyoperated aqueducts were also used and pumped water directly to buildings. Figure 2 shows a pipe used to carry water to a Roman building.

Fig. 1 Aqueduct pipe (Source: Dembskey, n.d.)

water supply as they provided water for Rome’s fountains, baths and restrooms (Romae Vitam, 2017). As Rome had a vast population of over 1 million people, the aqueducts were essential in making sure that every household had access to running water by the 1st / 2nd century AD. Scott Schlimgen from the American Institute of Roman Culture reported that “Rome’s system of water distribution was a quantum leap to anything which had come before it” (Rome: Engineering an Empire, 2006). In the Rome area alone, eleven aqueducts were built over a period of around 500 years, providing a network of waterways, as far as 92 km away from Rome.

Fig. 2 Smaller pipe for connection (Source: Romae Vitam, 2017)

The aqueducts are mostly identified today by the large bridge-like structures that carried the water across valleys and into cities, however, the arches were only a small section of the aqueduct system as most of the aqueducts ran underground (Nardo, 2002). One of the hardest challenges of building an aqueduct was that the slope of the channel had to be consistent for an even flow of water to occur. Roman engineers ensured the aqueducts had an even gradient by using a tool called a groma (Figure 3) to measure straight lines. A chorobate (Figure 4) that measured the horizontal slope of the aqueducts was also used. This allowed the aqueducts to be dug in perfectly angled channels, with an incline of only 60-90 cm every 1.5 km. These techniques are similar to those used by engineers and designers today.

Large chambers were built at intervals along an aqueduct’s path which regulated the supply of water that the aqueducts carried. According to historian Don Nardo (2002), access points were also built along the path of an aqueduct to regulate the water supply and clear debris. As the aqueducts approached Rome, the water was emptied into three holding tanks called castella. Each holding tank pumped water for a specific purpose such as for public baths, drinking fountains or piping water to the rich. None of the water that the aqueducts used was wasted as the left-over water was used to flush out sewerage systems, power machinery and for agricultural purposes. The senator Sextus Julius Frontinus from the 1st century AD explained the different uses of the water supplied by the aqueducts: “The supply which suffices not only for public and private uses and purposes but also for the satisfaction of luxury”. The use of water for many different purposes was unique at the time and ensured that little was wasted. Every Roman by the 2nd century AD had free access to public baths and running water, which greatly improved Rome’s standard of living at

Fig. 3 Groma (Source: Ram’s Horn Educational, 2013)

19


Fig. 4 Chorobate (Source: cited @ Quora, 2016)

Fig. 6 True and corbel arches

When the pipelines crossed a valley and needed to be raised, stone walls were built to carry the water over the valley. When taller walls were needed to be built, the Romans added strength and used less building materials by adding arches. Instead of building with ‘corbelled’ arches, the Romans used ‘true’ arches which were stronger and used a keystone. A true arch was built using a wooden frame which supported the structure of the arch. The keystone was then positioned in the centre of the arch and the wooden frame was able to be removed. The keystone of each arch was important as it distributed weight down the sides of the arch, (Figure 5) meaning that additional arches or stonework could be placed on top (WardPerkins, 1992). Figure 6 shows the difference between a true and corbelled arch. Sextus Julius Frontinus was clearly impressed by the design of the aqueducts as he wrote: “With such an array of indispensable structures carrying so much water, compare if you will, the idle Pyramids or the useless, though famous works of the Greeks”. These concepts are essential for an aqueduct’s strength and explain why the aqueducts are still standing today.

(Source: Essential Humanities, 2011)

product. This type of concrete was used in large scale construction projects and in many ways was stronger than today’s concrete (Wayman, 2011). After conducting research of Roman concrete, geologist Marie Jackson stated that "the Romans created a rock-like concrete that thrives in open chemical exchange with seawater" (Dean, 2017). When Roman concrete is subjected to seawater, chemicals are formed inside the concrete and create interlocking crystals that hold the concrete together. This is the opposite to concrete today as it erodes and the metal reinforcements rust – leaving buildings lasting for short periods of time. Eventually the Roman recipe for concrete was lost in time before modern concrete was created in 1849. Today, bridges are typically built to last only 60 years with some major structures lasting up to 100 years (Gish, 2009). This seems minuscule compared to the Roman aqueducts as many aqueducts are still in use today including the Aqua Virgo, which was in use for over 2000 years. However, the aqueduct system has continued to be improved over the years. Steam pumps were invented during the Renaissance and eventually aqueduct systems were designed that ran completely underground. In 1977, The Hetch Hetchy Californian aqueduct was opened, which supplies water for over 2.5 million people today. Figure 7 compares the Roman aqueducts to modern aqueducts used today. By examining this evidence, it is hard not to believe that the aqueducts were better built than many bridges and structures today and were built using methods that were well ahead of their time. These methods would influence and inspire buildings and bridges for centuries and shine a light on water transport and distribution. The design of the arch has remained unchanged since it was used in Roman buildings and is used in

Fig. 5 Keystone weight distribution (Source: TES Teach, 2011)

According to Erin Wayman, the concrete used in the Roman aqueducts also played a role in the strength of the channels. Concrete was made by using volcanic ash to make a strong and durable 20


Fig. 7 Roman and modern aqueducts (Source: Encyclopedia Britannica, 2006; cited at Crystalinks, n.d.)

architecture today. The chorobate tool that the Romans used is similar to a modern spirit level. Roman concrete in many ways is better than modern concrete and the simple concept of running water down a slope to a destination is still in use today. This proves that many of the techniques and materials used in the design of the aqueducts were well ahead of their time and have inspired buildings and architecture today, making the aqueducts better built than today’s bridges.

distances traversed by the water before it arrives, the raising of the arches, the tunnelling of mountains and the building of level routes across deep valleys, we shall readily admit that there has never been anything more remarkable in the whole world”. None of Rome’s feats and conquests would be possible without water and the Roman aqueducts ensured a reliable source of water for Rome. The aqueducts were and still are an amazing example of how a simple thought or concept can bridge the past and present and change history, one century at a time.

In the 1st Century AD, Pliny the Elder knew of the aqueducts’ significance: “If we consider the

Aqua Claudia, Rome

(Aqua Claudia, Parco degli Acquedotti (Aqueduct Park), Rome by Andy Montgomery; Licensed under CC-BY-SA 2.0)

21


Dean, S., 2017. Why 2,000 Year-Old Roman Concrete Is So Much Better Than What We Produce Today. @ https://www.sciencealert.com/why-2-000-year-old-romanconcrete-is-so-much-better-than-what-we-produce-today [18 Oct. 2017]. Encyclopedia Britannica, 2017. Aqueduct - Engineering. @ https://www.britannica.com/technology/aqueduct-engineering [19 Oct. 2017]. Essential Humanities, (2011), Corbelling. @ http://www.essentialhumanities.net/art-supplementary/corbelling/ [22 Nov. 2017]. Frontinus, S. J., 1st Century AD. Sextus Julius Frontinus: The Aqueducts of Rome (1st century AD book). [Copy Accessed Online] @ http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/e/roman/texts/frontinus /de_aquis/text*.html [Oct. 2017]. Gish, J., 2009. Freeways after People. @ http://www.dot.ca.gov/dist07/Publications/Inside7/story.php?i d=309 [17 Oct. 2017]. Houghton, L. B. T., 2014. Aqueducts. 1st ed. Lewes: The Ivy Press. Keeping ancient Romans clean and healthy. 2012. [Film] Directed by ABC Splash. Australia: Australian Christian Multimedia. Luigi Vaccarella, (2015), Pont du Gard Aqueduct. @ https://www.nationalgeographic.com/archaeology-andhistory/magazine/2016/11-12/roman-aqueducts-engineeringinnovation/#/aqueducts-opener-sq.jpg [22 Nov. 2017]. McEwin, R., 2009. Aqueducts. In: P. A. Kobasa, ed. Inventions and Discoveries: Architecture and Engineering. Canada: World Book Publications, pp. 14-15. Passchier, C. W., 2017. Roman Aqueducts. @ http://www.romanaqueducts.info/index.html [19 Oct. 2017]. Pearson Scott Foresman, (2007), Aqueduct. @ https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Aqueduct_(PSF).png [22 Nov. 2017]. Ram's Horn Educational, (2013), Groma. @ http://www.vgwacademy.com/groma/groma.htm [22 Nov.2017] Rodà, I., 2017. Aqueducts: Quenching Rome’s Thirst. @ http://www.nationalgeographic.com/archaeology-andhistory/magazine/2016/11-12/roman-aqueducts-engineeringinnovation/ [19 Oct. 2017]. Romae Vitam, 2017. Ancient Roman aqueducts. @ http://www.romae-vitam.com/ancient-roman-aqueducts.html [19 Oct. 2017]. Rome: Engineering an Empire. 2006. [Film] Directed by Christopher Cassel. Australia/New Zealand: History Channel. Moziru, 2017. Aqueduct Clipart.@ http://moziru.com/explore/Aqueduct%20clipart%20black%20an d%20white/# [22 Nov. 2017]. Nardo, Don. "Aqueducts." The Greenhaven Encyclopedia of Ancient Rome, Greenhaven Press, 2002, pp. 206-208. World History in Context, link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/CX3028100612/WHIC?u= uq_redeemer&xid=ba596b15. [19 Oct. 2017]. Open Clipart, (2015), Aqueduct Clipart. @ https://openclipart.org/detail/231247/archway [22 Nov. 2017]. Quora, (2016), Roman Surveying. Available at: https://wikivisually.com/lang-it/wiki/Chorobates [[22 Nov. 2017]. TES Teach, (2011), Forces acting on an Arch. @ https://www.tes.com/lessons/zRIzcS46yetlIQ/testing-materialsand-designs-introduction [22 Nov. 2017]. United Nations of Roma Victrix, 2003-2017. Roman Aqueducts. @ https://www.unrv.com/culture/roman-aqueducts.php [19 Oct. 2017]. Ward-Perkins, J., 1992. Roman architecture. @ https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/ancient-artcivilizations/roman/beginners-guide-rome/a/roman-architecture [19 Oct. 2017]. Wayman, E., 2011. The Secrets of Ancient Rome’s Buildings. @ https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/the-secrets-ofancient-romes-buildings-234992/ [Accessed 19 Oct. 2017]. Wikivisually, 2008. Chorobates. @ https://wikivisually.com/langit/wiki/Chorobates[Accessed 22 Nov. 2017].

(Created by the author from (Ancient History Encyclopedia, 2009-2017) and (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2017); Images from (Pearson Scott Foresman, 2007), (TES Teach, 2011), (Moziru, 2017), (Open Clipart, 2015) and (Luigi Vaccarella, 2015).

Sources Ancient History Encyclopedia, 2009-2017. Aqueduct Timeline. @ https://www.ancient.eu/timeline/aqueduct/ [19 Oct. 2017]. Crystalinks, (n.d), Ancient Roman Aqueducts. @ http://www.crystalinks.com/romeaqueducts.html [22 Nov. 2017]

22


Renewable Energy

Mikaela Clark (Year 10)

SNIPPETS

MOST ENERGY RENEWABLE COUNTRIES

N

All figures created by the author using own surveys and data from the Climate Council, 2016.

23

POPULARITY OF RENEWABLE ENERGIES


EVERY Air pollution - China (Rebekah Atkins Y7)

Y9); consumption & climate change (Maddie Vela Y7); energy crisis (Alex Nguyen Y10) Elephant Man – character (Isabella Pedrosa Y8) Eureka Stockade – significance (Nicole Kuo Y7); justification (Andy Xin Y7) Everest, Mount – tourism (Jinho Jung-Cotton Y10) Every, Henry – Gunsway Heist (Ashton Froes Y7) Exercise – routes (Joseph Yeh Y9)

Alchemy – credibility (Viahn Pulikottil Y8) Amin, Idi – v Pol Pot (Michael Garbutt Y9) Anaesthetic – global access (Nikhil Kumar Y9) Apollo space program – justification (Thomas Ryland Y7); myths (Lucy Boulus Y10; Sean Cosijn Y10) Aqueducts, Roman – achievements (Jayden Wood Y8) Architecture - sustainability (Jasmine Cox Y7; Mackenzie Cuthbert Y7) Arctic – global warming (Jonah Horichi Y7) Armstrong, Neil – suitability (Olivia Lizana Y8) Atlantic slave trade – impacts (Bhavraj Thind Y9) Australian identity - & immigration (Keziah Mojica Y9)

Fashion – social influence (Tiarna Georghiou Y9) Food – transport (Besa Adzanela Y9); origins (James Jeon Y9); waste & recycling (Ranveer Gill Y7; Jackson Leadbetter Y7; Madison Andress Y7Andy Ly Y10); fruit markets v supermarkets (Elizaveta Leach Y9) Foxes, introduced – impacts (Grace Gannon Y7) Frank, Anne – importance (Sarah Lee Y9); representativeness (Elizabeth Ducke Y7)

Ballet – development (Ellena Ericksson Y7) Basketball, NBA – salary cap spatial distribution (Tom Lancaster Y10) Battle of Bannockburn – Scottish independence (Piper McKay Y7) Battle of Britain – failures (Andrew Kenny Y8) Bedlam asylum – misguided beliefs (Piper Gates Y10) Bees – pollination decline (Mia White Y7; Maggie Xie Y10) Beethoven - v Mozart (Sarah Mayne Y9) Berlin Olympics – political purposes (Sofie Kilah Y9) Big Cats - Africa (Erin Bradshaw Y7) Bird attacks – magpies & plovers (Elena Horichi Y10) Black Death – effects (Jessica Aitken Y8); positive effects (Emma Ward Y7); causes (Timothy Ja Y10) Blitz, The – tactical mistake (Grace Farmer Y8) Bradman, Donald – effects on Australia (Tim Myatt Y8) Bushfires – Australia (Nicholas Boon Y7)

Galilei, Galileo – character (Harry Sun Y9) Gallipoli campaign – success or failure? (Connor Reid Y8) Genghis Khan – character (Aubriana Jeffery Y9) Glacial flooding - Himalayas (Jess Lin Y7) Gladiators, Roman – influence (Georgia Dunster Y9) Gold rush, Australia – causes (Will Draper Y7); v Canadian (Monika Svarc Y7) Great Wall of China – effectiveness (Debenjamin Chou Y9; Jonathon Foo Y7) Greece, ancient mythology – legacy (Isabelle Bunker Y9; Emma Chen Y8) Greece, ancient deities – anthropomorphism (Ella Wenke Y10) Greece – ancient innovation (Alex Craze Y9)

Charity – levels in Australia (Julie Jee Y10)

Halloween – evolution (Taylor Pashen Y10)

Child labour – changes (Mellie Pedrosa Y8) Cleopatra – character (Katrina Lee Y7) Clothing – ethical aspects (Carol Wong Y9; Izzy Black Y9) Coal mining – & electricity use (Liam Green Y7) Coffee - waste (Rhys Thurstun Y7) Cold War – idealism (Erin Gec Y10) Colosseum – purpose (Jack Sendall Y7) Computers – impacts (Sonal Chand Y7); Mac v Microsoft, impacts (Bayleigh Head Y10) Coral bleaching - Great Barrier Reef (Mykaelah Ludcke Y7; Emma Kelly Y10) Cycling tracks - Copenhagen v SE Queensland (Jake Stower Y7)

Hiroshima & Nagasaki – justification (Jack Thurston Y10) Hitler, Adolf – positive achievements (Klemen Pong Ying Y9); antisemitism (Flyn Wain Y9; Madison Shepherd Y9) Hungary, uprising – aftermath (Olivia Kemp-Howlett Y8) Hussein, Saddam – removal (Cade Linde Y7)

Incas – advancements (Tiffany Wells Y8) Industrial Revolution – impacts (Kane Broderick Y7); & socialism (Alex Childs Y10) ‘Invasion’ of Australia (Kiaan Gordon, Y9; Sophee Monsour Y9; Jemimah Ventnor Y9; Tamsyn Karppinen Y9; Taylor Drake Y7)

Da Vinci, Leonardo – impacts (Cooper Karppinen Y8)

Jadotville – reality (Blake McKenzie Y8)

Dead zones - ocean (Rebecca Reid Y7) Deforestation – Redeemer & Underwood (Daniel Blest Y9) Diana, Princess – charity (Isabella Daley Y8) Diets, plant v meat – impacts (Kareen Haddad Y10)

Japan, annexation of Korea – consequences (Ryan Park Y9) Jobs – medieval v modern (Nicholas Strong Y8) Jobs, Steve – influence (Ryan Feroz Y8) Jonestown Massacre – inevitability (Simone Coetzee Y8); (William Eivers Y10) Julius Caesar, assassination – self-orchestration (Albert Chen Y8)

Earhart, Amelia – disappearance (Ava Connors Y7) Edison, Thomas – evaluation (Kush Solanki Y8) Eggs – caged v free range (Navraj Nijjar Y9) Egypt, ancient architecture – advancements (Nicholas Korenromp (Y10) Egypt, ancient death penalties – effectiveness (Emma Routledge Y7) Egypt, ancient pantheon – secrets (Maximus Cuthbert Y8) Einstein, Albert – reinvention of science (Prashil Damodar Y8); status (Rikki Jones Y8) Electricity – conservation (Jordan Gross Y9; Jamieson Zillman Y7); consumption (Jack Harris Y7; Namreetha Arulprakash Y7; Liam Slade

Kelly, Ned – heroism (Bailey Karppinen Y8); character (Pacey Mazzer Y9; Vanessa Wong Y7) Kenya - tourism (Sophie Garbutt Y7) King, Martin Luther – effects (Annabelle Cheon Y8); achievements (Rebecca Santana Y8) Knights, medieval – character (Cam Suter Y7) Koalas – protection (Leila Koppens Y7; Josiah Laurens Y9)

24


PROJECT Korean War – impact on people (Ethan Cho Y9) Kosovo – independence (Nina Cincovic Y9)

Road kill - local (Griffin Howlett Y7) Rochedale – development (Hannah Jung-Cotton Y9) Rock ‘n’ roll – impacts (Kosta Voloukos Y9) Russian Revolution – idealism v reality (Lucy Wilding Y10)

Left handers – treatment of (Sariah Suter Y9) Light – pollution (Nancy Shi Y9) Lincoln, Abraham – suitability for President (Blake Bloomer Y8) Litter, Redeemer – solutions (William Lee Y9; Sean Chiang Y9; Christian Kemp-Howlett Y9) Long Tan, Battle of – significance to Australia (Dan Reid Y9) Lovelace, Augusta – computer pioneer (Rachel Chiong Y9)

Salem witch trials – misogyny & fundamentalism (Jasmine Chen Y10); church & state (Nicola Puttock Y10) Sasaki, Sadaki – Thousand Paper Cranes (Shae Godfrey Y8) Sea levels – Pacific Islands (Sean White Y7) Silk Route – impacts (Joshua Cheng Y8) Sino-Japanese War – causes (Darren Lin Y10; Angela Gong Y7) Soccer – global spread (Sienna Vardy Y8); changes (James Atkins Y8) Solar power – benefits (Sohini Kundu Y9; Byron Speldewinde Y9; Jesse Fluerty Y9) St Helena Island – suitability (Charlie Harris Y7); v modern prisons (Catherine Ju Y7) Stalin, Josef – mixed record (Dmitry Scothern Y8); v Hitler (Nathan Wong Y9) Stolen Generation – circumstances (Lucy Serafini Y8); effects (Irene Drake Y10) Suburbs, comparison – Sunnybank v Rochedale (Sunny Du Y9); Forestdale v Algester v Eight Mile Plains (Imogen Wernick Y9); Daisy Hill v Calamvale (Sharolyn Wong Y9) Suffragettes – suffering (Ainsley Rudwick Y8); scope (Claire Kenny)

Machu Picchu – Incan retreat (Jude Kolomilskov Y7); demise (Isaac Georghiou Y7) Malaria – prevention (Ryan Famularo Y10) Mao Zedong – Cultural Revolution (Samantha Wong Y9) Mawson, Douglas – significance (Tavish Geary Y8) Mongolian Empire – army quality (Joshua Drake Y9) Mountain biking – impacts (Mitchell Laurens Y7)

Nero – evaluation (Nathan Chang Y8) Nuclear energy – v alternatives (Emily Korenromp Y10) Nuremberg Trials – precedent (Abi-Kay Herbert Y9) Nursery rhymes – medieval society (Emma Bures Y9)

Tadakatsu, Honda – significance (Katherine Williams Y8)

Olympic Games – symbolic moments (Joshua Parkes Y8); ancient v

Taj Mahal, second – secrets (Simarleen Kaur Y7) Tiananmen Square – aftermath (Alfred Tan Y7) Tiny houses – design (Josie Bartlett Y7); communal areas (Petek Hartmann Y7) Titanic - causes of sinking (Zander Shepherd Y7; Brianna Galletly Y10; Emersyn Morris Y7) Torture – The Inquisition & Guantanamo Bay (Heirene Kim Y9; Lachlan Wormwell Y9) Tournaments, medieval – significance (Olivia Pedrosa Y7) Traffic management - CBD (Naureen Soofi Y9); Brisbane southside (Francyse Hsu Y7); Redeemer (Yechan Choi Y9); Rochedale Road (Kade Dupere Y9) Trojan War – truth (Timothy Hughes Y7) Turtles – Green, threats (Lucy Dunster Y7); Moreton Bay (Johanna Kaye Y7) Tutankhamen – tomb significance (Peta Paschali Y8; Yaqi Zheng Y7; Ashley McDonald Y8) Tyres – inventions (Rudy Czerner Y7)

modern (Jackson Clarke Y8) One Child Policy, China – effects (Bethany Liu Y9) Orangutans – habitat (Ryan Brown Y7)

Parks, local – availability (Grace Raven Y9); exercise (Michaela Meyer Y7); redesign (Jordana Wenke Y7); for dogs (Chelsea Andress Y9) Parks, Rosa – influence (Saraya Lagana Y8) Parthenon – significance (Anastasia Baveas Y9) Pearce, Alexander – justification of cannibalism (Ava Walker Y8) Permaculture – suitability (Max Sendall Y9) Pirates – reality (Daniel Yuan Y7) Plastic – pollution (Hunter Hasegawa Y9; Divya Khatri Y9; Gabriel Silva Y7) Poaching – Botswana (Rylee Richardson Y7) Pompeii – archaeological value (Jade Rowland Y10; Jacinta Wilmot Y7) Ponds – health (Annalise Buddle Y10) Poverty - & crime (Bethany Thiele Y10) Presley, Elvis – significance (Abbey Endres Y7)

Upcycling – benefits (Hannah Rowland Y7) Urban sprawl – Logan (Georgia Draper Y9)

Qin Shi Huang – influence (Annabelle Henderson Y8); & Sun Yat Sen (Charmaine Chan Y8); significance (Angel Wang Y7)

Vikings – mythology (Ajai Lai Y8); legacy (Alex Hunt Y9) Vlad the Impaler – reality (Clare Neill Y7)

Rabbits - Australia (Jaimyn Seeto Y7; Georgia Adams Y7); Queensland (Macey Wong Yr7) Ransom Software – interconnections (Robert Taylor Y10) Recycling – Redeemer (Joshua Spyropolous Y10) Redeemer, carpark - congestion (Jazmyn Davidson Y9) Redeemer, chapel green – design (Josh Ludcke Y9) Redeemer, ditch – restoration (Monaita Cheng Y9; Paris Koppens Y9) Redeemer, locker rooms – congestion (Sam Tobin Y9) Renewable energy – Queensland (Mikaela Clark Y10) River locks – Murray Darling (Bailey Aslander Y10)

Water – conservation (Vivien Lu Y9; Teresa Poon Y10; Hannah Seeto Y10); waste (Evelynne Lee Y9) Winter War – crimes (Karl Ropelin Y10); impact on Stalin (Isabella Suominen Y10) Witchcraft – fear of (Rylan Malcolm Y9) World War I – aeroplanes (James Laboo Y10) World War II – technological advances (William Fung Y9)

25


SNIPPETS

Right is Right, Right? In medieval times the Catholic Church oppressed any use of the left hand. To use your left hand meant that you were a witch, and were communing with the devil. The left-handed person = witch issue was so bad, women could be persecuted, and ultimately sent to their deaths because of their handedness.

The Indigenous Australians’ land was being stolen from them, new diseases and animals were being introduced, fences were being put up and they were being denied access to water. Other than being murdered, the main reason the Indigenous Australian population decreased was the introduction of diseases. These included smallpox, measles and influenza. British males would often mistreat Aborigines with sexual abuse and exploitation of Indigenous girls. This introduced a whole range of venereal diseases. Edward Wilson, English Journalist wrote in 1856:

In the 18th and 19th centuries, anti-left handedness became an everyday part of institutional ways, ingrained in the lives of the folk of the time. Even the free and liberal societies of America and England heavily suppressed as much use of the left hand as possible to the point where it was brutal. Being a child writing with your left hand meant that you faced punishments such as having your left hand tied behind your back. Handbooks were made to aid teachers and parents with the ‘affliction’. This meant that the child would be forced to write with their right hand whether they were comfortable with it or not. Up until the discovery of brain lateralisation, many researchers came up with conclusions such as that left handedness was considered a symptom of savagery and primitive instinct.

"In less than twenty years we have nearly swept them off the face of the earth. We have shot them down like dogs. In the guise of friendship, we have issued corrosive sublimate in their damper and consigned whole tribes to the agonies of an excruciating death. We have made them drunkards, and infected them with diseases which have rotted the bones of their adults, and made such few children as are born amongst them a sorrow and a torture from the very instant of their birth. We have made them outcasts on their own land, and are rapidly consigning them to entire annihilation."

(Kiaan Gordon, Year 9) The conspirators thought they were saving Rome by assassinating Caesar. However, the plot to kill Caesar didn’t achieve the result that the assassins had wanted. Instead, the Republic that they were trying to defend made way for an empire led by Caesar’s heir, Octavian.

(Sariah Suter, Year 9)

While it is clear that the conspirators stabbed Caesar to death, did Caesar play a part in his own assassination with the aim of thwarting their grand plan? Would Caesar, who knew these men very well and was well informed not know of their ambition? It is quite likely that Caesar set up his opponents to fail rather than allow himself to be taken by surprise… …It is highly credible that Julius Caesar orchestrated his own death because of his failing health and his inability to rise any further in power. He amended his will and made Octavian his heir shortly before his assassination and chose to ignore the danger signs. By going to the forum and allowing the conspirators to carry out their plan, Caesar ensured that he would become immortal, a god. (Albert Chen, Year 8)

Manual for correcting left handedness (Source: JF Ptak Science Books @ http://longstreet.typepad.com/thesciencebookstore)

26


SNIPPETS

The Silk Route is argued to have been one of the largest trade routes spanning Asia, the Mediterranean and Europe. The Silk Route even included sea routes and reached islands such as Japan and Java. Not all things that travelled along the Silk Route were good or beneficial. In fact, one of the largest human decimations in history (the bubonic plague/Black Death) was believed to have been caused because of this worldwide interconnectedness… …Merchants who used these networks of roads arguably had a wider influence and changed the world more than any other group or religious leaders around that time. Not only did they provide rich people exotic things to purchase, they helped expand trade. Through this, merchants also became wealthy. Trade did not begin with the Silk Road, but the route drastically and thoroughly expanded the scope of trade. (Joshua Cheung, Year 8) In 1925 two men were born who, by the end of the 20th century, would go on to change the courses of their countries’ history forever. The repercussions of their rules are still felt throughout the modern world and may never subside. Idi Amin and Pol Pot ruled over Uganda and Cambodia respectively during the 1970’s and committed two of the worst genocides the world has seen. Although millions of people died under Pol Pot’s regime he initially had noble intentions of removing economic inequalities and removing the divide between the poor and rich of Cambodia, however even before he was the leader of Cambodia the communist ideology had poisoned his intentions and removed any chance of a successful implementation of his ideas. On the other hand, Idi Amin had no noble intentions and only ever intended to cause pain and suffering among his people. Although the death toll was a quarter of the death toll of Pol Pot’s, he subjected the people under his rule to crimes against humanity so horrific that it is difficult to comprehend. With this in mind it can be seen that although the effects of Pol Pot’s genocide were worse in the long run, Idi Amin was a far worse person and showed his true colours in his time a leader of Uganda.

Created by:

Evelynne Lee, Year 9

Michael Garbutt (Year 9)

27


SNIPPETS

Created by:

Robert Taylor (Year 10)

28


SNIPPETS

Litter at Redeemer

Data collected and results presented by:

Christian KempHowlett (Year 9) [maps] and Sean Chiang (Year 9) [graph]

Solutions for Litter Use homegroup time for cleaning up… Using part of break time dedicated… Punishments/Rewards Create campaigns More variety of bins for different… Add more bins 0%

20%

40%

60%

80%

29

100%


SNIPPETS

Surveys showed that students knew the impacts of litter. Despite this, they still did it, which may mean that they may not understand the impacts of litter. Litter may seem harmless at first or just unsightly, but it may be shifted to areas such as waterways and pipes, potentially blocking them. Situations like this would lead to additional costs for not only repair but maintenance. High amounts of litter could also be the cause of illness due to the unhygienic environment. Litter also heavily affects the social side of matters. California State University psychologist Wesley Schultz stated that “if you’re in a place that’s already highly littered, you’re much more likely to litter than if you’re in a place that’s clean or free of litter.” This is so as if an individual littered in a clean area, it would stand out and seem unethical. However, if the area was littered, dropping one or two more pieces of rubbish would not make a difference. This also applies to the college. Currently, the school is not in a bad condition but there is certainly room for improvement. The later the issue is dealt with, the harder it is to solve economically, socially and environmentally. If the college makes the effort to solve this issue, many benefits will come. The APPA (Australian Primary Principals Association) conducted an experiment that attempted to find the relationship between the cleanliness of a school community and students’ academic achievements. Studies concluded that unclean facilities had a negative impact on a student’s classroom performance whereas students are able to achieve and maintain higher academic achievements in clean educational environments. The reasons for the results were put down to two main reasons: the impact of the school’s cleanliness on the students’ attitudes and the teachers’ attitudes. A cleaner learning environment allows students to focus better due to the reduction of litter, which was considered a distraction by 88% of 1481 students polled by the APPA. Giving the teachers a cleaner teaching environment encourages a stronger sense of duty to fulfil their roles as the educator. This is so as the standards of a school are often perceived through appearance. This is then put on the community to uphold. Sean Chiang (Year 9)

30


SNIPPETS As consumers, we need to step off the ‘trendmill’, make sustainable decisions and look towards slow fashion. By reducing the amount of clothing items you buy, wearing clothes more often and for a longer period of time before disposing of them and using old clothes for another purpose you can reduce textile waste. Recycling waste means that we will have better quality air and a less polluted global environment. It will also save you a lot of money that could otherwise be spent on bills, mortgages, groceries and other supplies. Using clothes for another purpose such as pyjamas or cleaning rags saves money and the environment. Every little bit of money saved up from not buying fast fashion clothing could go towards a holiday or something else to treat yourself with. You can also swap your old clothes with your family and friends. That way, you could discover new styles which don’t cost you a single cent.

Medusa wallpaper (Source: Ali Express @ fr.aliexpress.com; artist unknown)

In modern times, Greek mythology still holds an influence over art of many kinds. The first artwork above shows a new re-styled version of Medusa, proving she hasn’t fallen from memory. Another artwork creates comedy out of the horrific story of Cronus, who ate his own children to ensure none of them could complete a prophecy that they would overthrow him. The Greek myths are still remembered and are still giving inspiration over two-thousand years later.

Donating and buying clothes from op-shops can also be seen as a solution to the growing problem of fast fashion. However, the clothing items donated to the op-shops need to be of a certain standard or else it costs the op-shop itself to dump the items in landfill.

(Isabelle Bunker, Year 9)

(Izzy Black, Year 9)

Cronos cartoon

(Lucy Dunster, Year 9)

(Source: ‘Family Dinner’ by Graham Annable; Cited at The Pinsta @ http://www.thepinsta.com)

31


SNIPPETS

Qin Shi Huang and Sun Yat Sen were both significant figures in China’s history. They both changed the Chinese political system which affected his generation and the generation to come. However, Qin Shi Huang was possibly greater than Sun Yat Sen. Through Sun Yat Sen’s efforts, China’s political system was drastically changed. He established the People’s Republic of China and was the first president of China. Undoubtedly, it was a significant step in China’s political history. He played a key role in the development of China's constitutional government, and had a significant impact on China's diplomacy and China's border defence situation. Sun also established the “Three Principles of the People”, that changed China from a country with a governing monarchy to a democratic country. With this, people finally got freedom. However, he had to deal with many political enemies and faced invasions by different foreign countries during 1911 – 1925. He was unable to rule the new government effectively. So, economically, he could not make China become a prosperous country. He could not facilitate the development of the Chinese culture. Under his rule, the country was still in a mess and many things required change. The people were still living with war and internal disorder.

Opinions about most congested sections of the locker room (% of students surveyed)

Yr 9 Locker Room: Intensity of Congestion 7 6

6 4

0

5

4

3 1

Qin Shi Huang, on the other hand, did change China in many ways. Politically, he unified China which was an important move. On becoming an emperor, he stimulated Chinese society and the economy. He strengthened China’s defence capacity by extending the Great Wall to protect China from the northern enemies. He standardised the script which changed Chinese writing. The standardisation of the currency strengthened the economy by strengthening the economic ties between various regions in China. Without this unification, China would not be the country it is today

5

4 2

4

2

2 2 2 1 1

Intensity Rating

Intensity Description

1

Empty

2

Low

3

Medium/Low

4

Medium

5

Medium/High

6

High

Data collection and results presented by:

(Charmaine Chan, Year 8)

Sam Tobin (Year 9)

32

4

3

Time

Although Sun Yat Sen had a great impact on modern China’s political system, Qin Shi Huang’s achievements had a greater impact, not only on the country at the time but also on the generations to come. Therefore, Qin Shi Huang was greater than Sun Yat Sen.

6

8:00 8:20 9:00 10:00 10:50 – BELL FOR FIRST… 10:55 11:00 11:45 – END OF FIRST BREAK 12:00 1:00 1:45 – BELL FOR SECOND… 1:50 2:00 2:10 – END OF SECOND… 3:15 3:20

Intensity

5

6


(‘Koala’ by Scott James Remnant; Licensed under CC-BY-NC-ND 2.0)

Evicted 33

Leila Koppens (Year 7) reports on the effects of land clearing on koalas.


similarity is that the places where Queensland’s population is most dense are in similar places to where koala numbers are decreasing (Figures 1 and 2).

Land clearing is a process of removing trees, stumps, brush stones and other obstacles from an area to increase its amount of useable space. In 2012, land clearing restrictions were abandoned by the Queensland Government causing land clearing rates to triple. CSIRO estimated 50 million mammals, birds and reptiles are killed each year in Queensland and New South Wales due to land clearing. Koalas have become vulnerable in South East Queensland due to habitat loss caused by land clearing.

Survey results show that not many Redeemer students/families own bushland (Figure 3), but a lot of them have a little or a lot of bushland around their house. As a result, over half of the people surveyed have seen koalas in their area. This is great to know that koalas have been staying in bushland around suburban areas, we just need to work to protect them and encourage them further to live in this bushland.

There are many things Queenslanders can do to help the koalas. From simply planting more trees to stopping land clearing, we can all work together to save our koalas.

Figure 4 shows that the majority of people surveyed have dogs and cats that are kept inside at night or don’t have dogs and cats at all. This is good for koalas as they don’t have to worry about being injured by dogs and cats. On the other hand, the percentage of Redeemer students/families that are willing to plant gum trees on their land is low (Figure 5). Only half of the people surveyed want gum trees on their personal property.

Koala Habitat and Distribution Koala habitat is mainly eucalyptus trees and other native Australian trees. Over the past 200 years the population of koalas has decreased immensely. Figure 1 shows the natural distribution of koalas in Queensland. Koalas are very selective and will only live in the perfect habitat for them.

The Land Clearing Issue Last year 395 000 hectares of bushland were cleared, mainly for beef production. That means every 3 minutes an area the size of the Gabba is cleared somewhere in Queensland. Since the land clearing laws were weakened in 2012, 1.25 million hectares of bushland have been cleared. But the human population of South East

The distribution of koalas looks very similar to the distribution of Queensland’s population density (Figures 1 and 2). This means people are living in similar places to koalas. This doesn’t help the koala’s position because people will need to clear their habitat to make room for more housing, shops, etc. Another interesting

Figure 1 Queensland Koala Habitat and Decline

Figure 2 Queensland Population Density (Sources: Fig. 1 created by the author using data from Qld Dept of Environment & Heritage Protection 2012-2017 and WWF Australia, 2017. Fig. 2 from Population Labs, 2011)

34


A lot of the native vegetation along the Queensland coast has been cleared. The areas cleared are similar to the distribution of koalas’ natural habitat. This tells us that where the koalas are trying to live is being cleared. It is good to see that over half of Queensland is still native vegetation, however more of this native vegetation could be protected as there is only a small amount of protected areas. Also, this native vegetation could be possible places of relocation and sanctuaries for suffering and vulnerable koalas.

Queensland is increasing by over 1000 people a week. This makes a need for more houses which is putting pressure on the limited remaining bushland/koala habitat. The Australian Government agreed to strengthen land clearing laws to ensure the protection of species of national environmental significance such as the koalas. The Government is paying money to people to stop them from clearing land, but this is clearly not working. Land clearing is the biggest threat to koalas and more needs to be done about land clearing.

Current Koala Situation Koala numbers are decreasing at a rapid rate. They are already listed as vulnerable state wide under the Queensland Nature Conservation Act 1992. They are a protected species, but their habitat is not protected. Nearly 180 koalas died due to land clearing in South East Queensland just in 2013-2015. As shown in Figure 6, the main threats to koalas are malnutrition and sickness/infection. These two threats are associated with land clearing. This shows us that land clearing is still a huge threat to koala’s health and welfare.

Figure 3 Bushland ownership

Solutions Queenslanders can work together to help koalas in a number of ways: 1. Plant more eucalyptus trees in parks, on personal property, etc. These trees can be protected with the help of the Queensland Government, therefore they could be safe from land clearing. This will create safer habitat not only for koalas, but for other native animals as

(Source; all figures created by the author from author surveys)

Figure 4 Pet owner behaviours

Figure 6 Causes of koala deaths

Figure 5 Willingness to plant trees 35


well. This is an affordable option as it only costs $50 to plant a grove of trees and $1000 to plant a whole forest. However, only half of the people surveyed are willing to plant gum trees on their land (Figure 5). This can be improved by raising more awareness about how planting these trees will help out our koalas.

Sources Australian Koala Foundation, 2017. Koala Diet and Habitat. [Online] Available at: https://www.savethekoala.com/aboutkoalas/diet-habitat [Accessed 20 October 2017]. Australian Koala Foundation, 2017. Koala Habitat. [Online] Available at: https://www.savethekoala.com/aboutkoalas/koala-habitat [Accessed 17 October 2017]. News Limited, 2017. Massive land clearing in Queensland bad news for future of wildlife, environment and industry. [Online] Available at: http://www.couriermail.com.au/news/opinion/opinionmassive-land-clearing-in-queensland-bad-news-for-future-ofwildlife-environment-and-industry/newsstory/72b28966714f7d76fe1da61dbe658ddd [Accessed 20 October 2017]. Population Labs, 2011. Australia Population Map. [Online] Available at: http://www.populationlabs.com/Australia_Population.asp Queensland Government Department of Environment and Heritage Protection, 2012 -2017. Koala Threats. [Online] Available at: https://www.ehp.qld.gov.au/wildlife/koalas/koalathreats.html [Accessed 10 October 2017]. Queensland Government Department of Environment and Heritage Protection, 2012 -2017. Koala Ecology. [Online] Available at: https://www.ehp.qld.gov.au/wildlife/koalas/koalaecology.html#habitat_and_distribution [Accessed 20 October 2017]. Raymond Island Koala & Wildlife Shelter, 2016 - 2017. Raymond Island News. [Online] Available at: http://koalashelter.org/thenews/annual-report1st-march-2016-28th-february-2017/ [Accessed 20 October 2017]. Savetz Publishing Inc., 2009 - 2017. Koala Habitat Map for Kids. [Online] Available at: https://www.printableworldmap.net/preview/Koala_Habitat _Map_For_Kids [Accessed 10 October 2017]. Symons-Brown, B., 2017. Koalas could soon be wiped out in areas of Qld, NSW due to land clearing. [Online] Available at: http://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-0519/koalas-could-soon-be-wiped-in-areas-of-qld-nsw-wwfaustralia/8540174 [Accessed 8 September 2017]. WWF Australia, 2016. Nowhere to Go. [Online] Available at: http://www.wwf.org.au/get-involved/savekoalas?gclid=EAIaIQobChMIsIiGz5Kr1QIVWQQqCh0TBAOK EAAYASAAEgIDf_D_BwE#!#gs.2jbn3wM [Accessed 8 September 2017]. WWF Australia, 2017. Fears 179 koalas lost to bulldozers. [Online] Available at: http://www.wwf.org.au/news/news/2017/fears-179-koalaslost-to-bulldozers#gs.KZ8KTcs [Accessed 10 October 2017]. WWF Australia, 2017. Koalas. [Online] Available at: http://www.wwf.org.au/what-wedo/species/koala#gs.oLnDKmc [Accessed 8 September 2017].

2. Raise awareness of the koalas’ situation. This way many organisations that are working to help the koalas will have more support to keep doing what they’re doing. 3. Create sanctuaries to relocate koalas. These places could also serve as somewhere koalas can be taken to be looked after. These places can be open to the public eye so that Queensland can make some money out of tourism. Many people come from all corners of the world to see our iconic koalas. This can also help raise awareness and sympathy for the koala’s situation. These places can be very beneficial to the koalas’ health and wellbeing as they can be a safer replica of their habitat where they don’t have to worry about land clearing, dogs, urbanisation, cars, diseases etc. 4. Reduce land clearing. These koalas are only in need of new habitat because of land clearing destroying their homes. We could help stop the threat of land clearing by raising funds and supporting organisations that are already doing so much. Many Queenslanders are already working together to protect the koala habitats and restore areas affected by land clearing. Land owners, farmers, community groups, conservation organisations with support from governments and corporate partners are working together to protect koala habitats and restore cleared areas to provide future habitat for koalas. This is great work that these people are doing but they could use more funds and support. Another way we can reduce land clearing is to propose reasonable land clearing restrictions to the Queensland Government. Restrictions can help thousands of native animals all over Queensland without affecting many jobs created by land clearing.

36


Australia Day is a day designed to bring all Australians together but instead, due to differing perspectives, it divides the nation (Convict Creations, n.d.). In recent years, the celebration of Australia Day has become very contentious. The controversy arises because the 26th of January 1788, is generally viewed as a day of celebration while for some it represents a day of mourning; the beginning of settlement or the day Australia was invaded.

Invasion Day Australia Day would be better celebrated on another date, argues Sophee Monsour (Year 9).

Australia Day is the anniversary of the First Fleet arriving in Sydney Cove. It consisted of 11 ships and 1450 free settlers and convicts (Australian Government, 2015). Was this the beginning of a settlement or invasion? Australia Day sees a divide in opinion over the event that began on this day in 1788. These opinions lead people to celebrate or mourn this

‘The Founding of Australia’ – painting by Algernon Talmage, 1937 (Source: in the public domain; cited @ Wikimedia Commons)

37


Australia Day Celebrations (Source: ‘Australia Day’ by Alejandro Aguayo; Licensed under CC-BY-ND 2.0)

Day is a time for mourning, not celebration', she says (The Guardian 2014, cited in Korff, 2017).

day in different ways. In modern times, according to the National Australia Day Council (n.d.), Australia Day is a day where:

They believe it is insensitive and offensive. They believe it is a day celebrating suffering, destruction, racism, rape, and massacres (Buzz Feed Yellow, 2016). According to Michael Manson, it celebrates ‘the coming of one race at the expense of another’ (Korff, 2017). It provokes sadness, hurt and heartache. They want a day that everyone can celebrate together. For this to happen they want Australia Day moved to a different date (Buzz Feed Yellow, 2016).

"We come together as a nation to celebrate what's great about Australia and being Australian. It's a day to reflect on what we have achieved and what we can be proud of in our great nation. It's the day for us to re-commit to making Australia an even better place for the future".

Australians celebrate this day by either gathering with family and friends or attending organised community events. However, not all Australians celebrate Australia Day. Many people, mainly Indigenous and Torres Strait Islanders, see this day as a day of sorrow and mourning (National Australia Day Council, n.d.). For these people, according to ‘Australians Together' (n.d.), they see:

For these reasons, they choose to spend this day in other ways. They also refer to this day by other names such as Survival Day, Invasion Day and Day of Mourning. They spend this day either protesting, marching, reflecting on the violence that took place during this event and/or commemorating the survival of their people and culture (Australians Together, n.d.). The debate about whether the event that began on this day was a settlement or invasion, causes a divide in not only opinion but the way people celebrate this day.

"…January 26th as a date signifying the beginning of dispossession, disease epidemics, frontier violence, destruction of culture, exploitation, abuse, separation of families and subjection to policies of extreme social control".

Today, people who believe Australia Day was an invasion do not celebrate Australia Day. ‘I refuse to celebrate, and every Australia Day my heart is broken as I am reminded that in the eyes of many, I am not welcome on my own land,’ says Nakkiah Lui, an Aboriginal woman. 'Australia

During the settlement of Australia by the Europeans, many occurrences took place that could potentially define this day as an invasion. The seizure of land, loss of food supply, disease 38


They believed the kangaroos were competing with the grazing herds for food and water. This large reduction in food sources made it extremely difficult for the Indigenous to find food. The Europeans introduced their farming methods to guarantee their food supply, however this was at the expense of the Indigenous and their food sources (Poud, West, & Miller, 1990).

and conflict were some of the tragedies faced by the Indigenous population at the time. The seizure of the land by the Europeans was one of the first misfortunes faced by the Indigenous people. The Indigenous and European had vastly different ideas regarding the ownership of land, making conflict inevitable. Europeans believed in the individual ownership of land that was supported by legal documents and the government. Europeans passed on the ownership of the land by selling it to other people. However, the Indigenous had very different ideas about who owned the land. They did not own land individually and did not pass on their land by selling it. Large areas of land were shared by a tribe and were not documented. The older men of the tribe kept the geographical details in their head. The survival of these tribes relied on their knowledge of areas of food and water on their land. Their religion and customs were shaped around the area where they lived because they had occupied those areas for an extremely long time. They did not want to move, and if they did they would be overwhelmed by the European diseases and guns (Poud, West & Miller, 1990). The Europeans took no notice of these wishes and took their land anyway (Yamin, n.d.).

Another way in which the Indigenous and the Europeans used the land differently, was that the Indigenous people purposely lit large fires. These fires were lit to assist in hunting, growing new green grass that would attract more animals and clear pathways through the difficult bush. The Europeans most likely had never seen this done before and were alarmed (Poud, West, & Miller, 1990). They saw this as a threat. J. Langdon Parsons reported from the Northern Territory in 1885: ‘Nor can they, as of old, when they desired a repast of snakes, iguanas or other reptiles, set fire to the first piece of well-grassed country they encounter. The stockholder uses the billabongs for cattle and very vigorously lets the blackfellows understand that it is at their peril they put a firestick to it’. (Cited in Poud, West, & Miller, 1990).

The Indigenous also began hunting the Europeans’ cattle and the sheep like they would kangaroos and emus (Yamin, n.d.). The Journal of an Expedition into the Interior of Tropical Australia (1848) described the problem:

The Indigenous and the Europeans also used the land in different ways. The Indigenous had a hunter-gatherer economy. This means they hunted and gathered most of their food from the wild. The Europeans however, obtained their food from agriculture by maintaining crops and herds of animals. The Europeans required space for these herds to graze and grow crops and therefore cleared land. The Indigenous relied heavily on naturally growing plants. When the Europeans cleared this land, there was a reduction in the food supply that the Indigenous relied upon for food. Kangaroo meat was also an important source of food for them. Unfortunately, the Europeans killed large numbers of kangaroos (Poud, West, & Miller, 1990). According to Eric Rolls:

‘It would be but natural… that they [Aborigines] should feel disposed, when urged by hunger, to help themselves to some of the cattle or sheep that had fattened on the green pastures kept clear for kangaroos from time immemorial by the fires of the natives and their forefathers’. (Cited in Poud, West, & Miller, 1990)

They would enter the Europeans’ land and take whatever they could find. The Indigenous may not have realised that what they were doing was considered wrong, and probably thought the Europeans would do the same (Yamin, n.d.).

‘In the island of Tasmania, where there were no dingoes, the magnificent forester kangaroos were plentiful but they were hunted so eagerly for both flesh and skins that by 1846 they were almost exterminated’.

In addition to the loss of their land and food sources, the Indigenous people also had to deal with the introduction of new infectious diseases. The Europeans accidentally exposed the Indigenous population to diseases such as

(Cited in Poud, West, & Miller, 1990)

39


smallpox, the common cold, whooping cough and tuberculosis. These diseases were a major problem for the previously healthy Indigenous people as they had little resistance to them. Smallpox wiped out half of the Indigenous population in Sydney within only two years (Yamin, n.d.).

There are two sides to the Australia Day story; the invasion and the settlement. The invasion side of the story is mainly told from the perspective of the Indigenous. The dictionary defines an invasion as "an unwelcome intrusion into another's domain" that "demonstrates force, a lack of negotiation and indigenous experience and resistance" (Collins Dictionary, n.d.). The Europeans forced the Indigenous people out of their own land. There was a lack of negotiation between the Europeans and Indigenous, with the Indigenous not agreeing to most of the events that occurred during this period. They also resisted the Europeans; they fought back against them in many instances. Captain Cook described Australia as no man's land and empty, although

There were two different cultures living in one area, each culture not understanding the other’s way of life. This lack of understanding resulted in a lack of respect and was the unintentional and intentional cause of conflict (Convict Creations, n.d.). These events that took place at the time of settlement could arguably define Australia Day as a day of invasion (Kilroy, n.d.).

Australia Day Protest, Brisbane, 2014

(Source: ‘Invasion Day’ by Christy Gallois; in the public domain)

40


time in history. It is a day that brings pain to many and rather than bring Australians together, it divides us. The violence shown towards the Indigenous should not be forgotten and should be learnt from and reflected upon.

they were aware it was not. Captain Cook's diary clearly illustrates that they were a state wanting to take charge of part or all of a continent (Kilroy, n.d.). The settlement side of the story is usually told from the European perspective. The dictionary defines settlement as "the establishment of a new region; colonisation" or "a place where people have come to live and have built new homes" (Collins Dictionary, n.d.). The Europeans did, based on this dictionary term, settle in Australia. However, according to the dictionary, they have also invaded Australia.

Sources Australian Government (2015). European discovery and the colonisation of Australia. Retrieved October 29, 2017, from australia.gov.au: http://www.australia.gov.au/aboutaustralia/australian-story/european-discovery-andcolonisation Australians Together (n.d.). Understanding Australia Day. Retrieved October 28, 2017, from Australians Together: http://www.australianstogether.org.au/stories/detail/unders tanding-australia-day Buzz Feed Yellow (2016). Aboriginal People Respond To “Australia Day”. [video] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=166&v=G8c zHlPYXew [Accessed 24 Oct. 2017]. Collins Dictionary (n.d.). Definition of 'settlement'. Retrieved October 28, 2017, from Collins: https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/settle ment Convict Creations (n.d.). Australia Day. Retrieved October 26, 2017, from convictcreations.com: http://www.convictcreations.com/culture/traditions.htm Donnelly, K. (2017, January 24). January 26 is Australia Day. Stop trying to change it . Retrieved October 28, 2017, from The Daily Telegraph: http://www.dailytelegraph.com.au/rendezview/january-26is-australia-day-stop-trying-to-change-it/newsstory/af8392591fa8610e13263f5bf73a3d0e Kilroy, P. (n.d.). Discovery, settlement or invasion? The power of language in Australia’s historical narrative. Retrieved October 29, 2017, from The Conversation: https://theconversation.com/discovery-settlement-orinvasion-the-power-of-language-in-australias-historicalnarrative-57097 Korff, J. (2017, September 14). Australia Day - Invasion Day. Retrieved Novemeber 10, 2017, from Creative Spirits: https://www.creativespirits.info/aboriginalculture/history/a ustralia-day-invasion-day National Australia Day Council (n.d.). About Our National Day. Retrieved October 29, 2017, from Australia Day: https://www.australiaday.org.au/australia-day/about-ournational-day/ News Limited (2017, January 26). Change the date: When should Australia Day be held? Retrieved November 11, 2017, from news.com.au: http://www.news.com.au/lifestyle/reallife/change-the-date-when-should-australia-day-beheld/news-story/7866593c0c61a1d09010dc138afb8ae1 Poud, D., West, A., & Miller, R. (1990). An Australian History. Heinemann Education Australia. Yamin, A. (n.d.). Was Australia Settled Or Invaded By The Europeans? Retrieved October 28, 2017, from Marked by Teachers: http://www.markedbyteachers.com/gcse/history/wasaustralia-settled-or-invaded-by-the-europeans.html

The Europeans have both settled and invaded Australia, meaning both sides of the argument are correct in their own way. Interpretations of history are based on and can change depending on the perspective of the interpreter. Therefore, depending what perspective someone views the invasion/settlement of Australia from, their interpretation will vary based on this. The Indigenous people today have a right to be upset about the events that occurred during this period. The Europeans treated the Indigenous people very poorly during the settlement/invasion of Australia. Although history cannot be changed, the violence and cruelty shown by the Europeans should not be forgotten. Australia Day will continue to be celebrated as the anniversary of the arrival of the First Fleet, but it will also mark the day that represents great pain for the Indigenous. Australia is a great country with many amazing achievements and it should be celebrated by everyone, but this is not possible on the day it is currently celebrated. To a growing number of people, this day represents great suffering and loss; a loss of identity and culture. Therefore, the date of Australia Day should be changed. The most popular day suggested is 1st January. 1st January 1901 is the day Australia became an independent nation; the Commonwealth of Australia (News Limited, 2017). The 26th January 1788 can be considered either a settlement or invasion. This view is dependent upon the perspective of the interpreter. Changing the date of Australia Day should be considered out of respect to the Indigenous and to recognise that as Australians we understand the pain and suffering they endured during this 41


H2Low

Teresa Poon (Year 10) explains why water conservation needs to stay on our radar. (‘Water’ by avocadogirlfriend; Licensed under CC-BY 2.0)

Water – it is a molecule composed of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. It covers over seventy percent of the Earth’s surface and is essential to the survival of all living things. People use water in many aspects of their lives, for drinking and cooking, cleaning, irrigation, transport, recreation, industrial processes, power generation… the list goes on. Although there are roughly 1.4 billion cubic kilometres of water on Earth, only three percent of that volume is fresh water (of which more than two-thirds is frozen in glaciers and icecaps) (Keinath, 2000). With such a limited amount of water to sustain the 7.6 billion people on the planet, it would be expected that people would be more aware of how they are using the precious resource. Unfortunately, the distribution of fresh water across the globe is not equal, and it is often the countries with readilyaccessible water supplies that are not using their water wisely. With an ever-increasing population in a drought-prone country like Australia, it is even more important to ensure that water supplies and consumption are managed wisely.

Lack of sufficient water supply affects a region in many ways. Economically, drought can impact agriculture, tourism, employment and livelihoods. Between 2002 and 2003, Australia’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) reduced by 1 percent due to decreases in agricultural production (Steffen, 2015), which is quite a significant decrease for national GDP. Drought also affects the environment and ecosystems. Forest fires are more common during droughts and cause air pollution. There is often decreased availability of suitable habitats for animals in aquatic ecosystems, which leads to declining populations of many fish and invertebrate species, even causing local extinctions in some cases. Additionally, planted forests are at risk during droughts. During the Millennium Drought, over 57 000 hectares of planted forest were lost (Steffen, 2015). Water shortages also affect society and the health of people living in the region. Failed crops due to insufficient water can lead to decreased nutrition, and lack of water can contribute to increases in mortality rates, infectious diseases and mental health problems such as post-traumatic stress and suicidal behaviour. It was found during a recent study in New South Wales that an increase in the severity of drought can increase the relative risk of suicide for rural males aged 30-49 by up to 15 percent (Steffen, 2015). Evidently, the impacts of water shortages and drought are quite devastating, further emphasising the importance of being prepared for such events.

What is water shortage and drought? What does it have to do with South East Queensland? Water shortage is the lack of adequate available water supply to meet the demand for water in an area. Drought, defined by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (2017) is “a prolonged, abnormally dry period when the amount of available water is insufficient to meet our normal use”, and is often related to (or one of the causes of) water shortage. Australia has been strongly affected by drought throughout its history, including significant droughts such as the Federation Drought (1895-1903), the World War II Drought (1939-1945) and the Millennium Drought (1996-2010), which “went down in history as one of the worst droughts on record for Australia” (Steffen, 2015, p. 2).

The Millennium Drought was the longest and most severe drought experienced in South East Queensland (SEQ). The region’s water supplies experienced enormous pressure during the drought due to the severity of the drought, high water consumption rates and a rapidly increasing population. Water security in SEQ during the Millennium Drought decreased – 42


SEQ’s major water storages were only half-full in 2005 and levels fell to about 20 percent by mid2007 (Seqwater, 2015). In response, infrastructure such as the SEQ Water Grid was constructed and communities were urged to reduce water consumption. The SEQ Water Grid connected water supplies, including the Grid Twelve (Figure 1), and allowed water to be transported more easily around the region to supply specific areas when necessary. Following the effects of the Millennium Drought, it was understood that planning for water supply was required well in advance in order to prevent crises from developing, so Seqwater (a government authority that manages water supply in SEQ) developed water security programs that are updated and reviewed frequently.

What is water usage like in South East Queensland? Before the Millennium Drought, the average daily water consumption per person was a staggering 300L. During the drought, this statistic reduced to 140L per day. Although it was expected that consumption after the drought would soon return to its initial rate of 300L per day, residents maintained a drought-like daily consumption of 160-180L per person (Seqwater, 2017). Figure 2 shows the average daily consumption of entire households, which tends to increase during the warmer months and decrease during the cooler months. There has been a general increase in household consumption in Brisbane

43


and the Stretton area since December 2011 (Figure 2).

Drought, consumption rates have slowly but steadily begun rising again.

The dry summer and winter experienced this year has seen a significant increase in average daily water usage per person. In the past twelve months, the overall average in SEQ has increased from 156 litres per day to 185 litres per day. Gold Coast and Sunshine Coast averages have increased drastically, with Gold Coast residents consuming on average 206 litres a day per person and those on the Sunshine Coast consuming 221 litres per day (a 71L increase from twelve months ago) as of August this year (Moore, 2017).

What can be done to reduce water usage rates in South East Queensland?

Lack of rainfall during summer and winter this year caused SEQ water supplies to drop to 71.2 percent of full capacity in October, the lowest levels recorded since the end of the Millennium Drought in 2010 (Honnery, 2017). A warning was released by Seqwater stating that “dams could be at 50 percent by the end of next year” (Honnery, 2017), at which point the organisation would consider implementing region-wide mandatory water restrictions. Although residents and businesses have contributed to water conservation efforts by reducing their average daily usage since the Millennium

There are many ways to save water that can easily be implemented in one’s household without too much difficulty. Figure 3 shows some examples of how water is used around the house, and how various appliances might affect the amount of water used around the home. The amount of water used by appliances such as toilets and washing machines varies (Figure 3), but can be measured or compared with WELS ratings – the more stars, the more water is saved. It’s a good idea to check the actual water usage of appliances around the home either by using an audit tool (which can be found online) to see

It is important for communities and businesses to play their part in conserving water supplies, therefore it is suggested a campaign is launched that will promote awareness of current and past water statistics, and encourage people in the region to participate in conservation efforts by informing them of ways in which they can reduce their water consumption.

44


important benefit for households is that reducing the amount of water used in the household will reduce the amount that needs to be paid on water bills. Reducing consumption will also benefit the economy: less money will be spent treating the water and transporting water around as the demand has decreased, so the amount of water that needs to be treated or transported will also decrease, as well as the amount of energy required to treat or transport the water. Additionally, if water is used conservatively, supplies can last a longer time through droughts even when rainfall is reduced. This could mean that more water could be directed to irrigating crops rather than for residential use during water shortages, and agricultural productivity could be maintained at a similar level to that during normal rainfall, and therefore the economy would not contract as much during droughts. Environmentally, reduced consumption would mean that less water is being diverted from natural sources such as rivers for human consumption, and the ecosystem would not experience as much interference from human sources. Having greater water supplies during droughts could also mean that extra water might be used to maintain the natural quality of ecosystems even through the drought in order to

which part of the house is using the most water or by checking the water meter. So how does this change anything? There are many benefits to reducing the amount of water that one consumes each day. An

Figure 3. Water usage around the home Source: Poon, 2017; calculations from combining author survey data and data cited at Seqwater, 2017; House image source: Kugler, 2010

45


(‘Breakaway’ by Images by John ‘K’; Licensed under CC-BY-NC-ND 2.0)

construction projects are necessary. Costs would mostly be from advertising and broadcasting the information online or on posters. There should be minimal environmental impact from the actual advertising of the campaign except that it is likely to make use of paper materials in posters and the like. The social impact of this campaign should be quite big in that it will influence the attitudes of the community towards water and how they use it. Ideally, this proposal would be effective throughout the years, as the issue of conserving water will remain just as important in the future, if not more so as the climate changes. Sources Bureau of Meteorology, 2017. Drought. [Online] Available at: http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/drought/#tabs=Aboutdrought [Accessed 2017]. Coleridge, S. T., 1834. The Rime of the Ancient Mariner (text of 1834). [Online] Available at: https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poems/43997/the-rimeof-the-ancient-mariner-text-of-1834 [Accessed 2017]. Honnery, C., 2017. Brisbane weather: Southeast Queensland on brink of drought. [Online] Available at: http://www.couriermail.com.au/news/queensland/brisbaneweather-southeast-queensland-on-brink-of-drought/newsstory/db22176fa3b5eba4c00a3bd30832f4e9 [Accessed 2017]. Keinath, T. M., 2000. Water. In: World Book Encyclopaedia. Chicago: World Book,Inc, pp. 116-132. Kugler, T., 2010. House cutaway diagram for textbook. [Online] Available at: http://flickriver.com/photos/tinakugler/4295310311/ [Accessed 2017]. Moore, T., 2017. Restrictions closer as south-east Queensland water use skyrockets. [Online] Available at: https://www.brisbanetimes.com.au/national/queensland/wa ter-restrictions-closer-as-southeast-queensland-water-useskyrockets-20170904-p4yvq1.html [Accessed 2017]. Seqwater, 2015. [Online] Available at: http://www.seqwater.com.au/sites/default/files/PDF%20Do cuments/Water%20for%20life_Water%20Security%20Program. pdf [Accessed 2017]. Seqwater, 2016. Water Wise. [Online] Available at: http://www.seqwater.com.au/watersupply/water-wise [Accessed 2017]. Seqwater, 2017. Dam Levels. [Online] Available at: http://www.seqwater.com.au/watersupply/dam-levels [Accessed 2017]. Seqwater, 2017. Revised Drought Plan for SEQ. [Online] Available at: http://www.seqwater.com.au/revised-droughtplan-seq [Accessed 2017]. Steffen, W., 2015. Thirsty Country: Climate change and drought in Australia, s.l.: Climate Council of Australia Limited.

combat the reductions in animal populations that were observed in previous droughts. Social impacts of saving water include better health for people. Using water wisely allows more of the water to remain stored in the dam, and having a secure supply during drought is likely to reduce the amount of stress or suicidal behaviour experienced by people during extreme drought situations. A secure supply will also reduce the mortality rate of people dying from dehydration or other water-deprived reasons during droughts. These results of an effective campaign to raise awareness and encourage conservative water usage will be extremely beneficial to the economy, environment and to society. The proposal should be quite effective, however it may be difficult to maintain long term, and residents may need occasional reminders to be water-wise. As shown during the Millennium Drought, the community was able to reduce their water consumption drastically when necessary and managed to maintain the drought-like consumption for quite a few years, but they slowly began increasing their consumption again afterwards. The campaign should not be very expensive to put into effect as no large-scale

46


Vikings: a bad rap The Vikings weren’t all that bad, writes Alex Hunt (Year 9). The Viking invasion of Britain was a significant historical event with both negative and positive outcomes for Britain and the world, which led to a legacy for centuries to come influencing language and culture. The first recorded Viking invasion of Britain occurred in the late 8th century, when Vikings attacked and destroyed an abbey in Lindisfarne (A.D. 793). These raids continued throughout the following centuries until the early 11th century and included raids on the Island of Thanet (A.D. 850) and on the Isle of Sheppey (A.D. 854) (Wikipedia, 2017). The raids on monasteries were motivated by a desire for precious items located in the churches. The geographical source of the Vikings raiders were Viking communities in Scandinavia, modern day Norway, Sweden and Denmark (Historical Association, 2017). The Vikings were known to be skilled craftsmen and boat makers, they were adventurous and wideranging traders and were also ‘fast-moving sailors who used the water as their highway to take them across the northern Atlantic, around the coasts of Europe and up its rivers to trade, raid or settle’ (Historical Association, 2017). However, the Vikings were also regarded as brutal raiders. The leaders of the Viking invasions throughout this period of history included: Halfdan Ragnarsson, Ivar the Boneless and Ubba, Guthrum, Bagsecg and his Five Earls, Eric Bloodaxe, the Danish King, Sweyn Forkbeard, Cnut the Great, Harold Harefoot and Eystein II of Norway (Wikipedia, 2017).

Viking routes to Britain (Source: BBC, 2014)

surprise to arrive ‘seemingly out of nowhere close to the target and storm ashore ready to attack (The Viking Network, 2004) to be able to pull off a well-executed raid. An exploration of primary and secondary historical sources clearly reveals that these well-planned Viking invasions of Britain had both negative and positive effects on culture and language. Negative outcomes of the Vikings invasions of Britain were significant. During the late 8th century and the early 11th century, many monasteries were destroyed, many monks were murdered and multiple British leaders were killed, including Ælla, King of Northumbria in 867 A.D. and Edmund, King of the East Angles in 869 A.D. (James, 2011). At one point early in the 11th century, the king of Denmark also became recognised as the king of England. The Vikings burned buildings, stole treasures, murdered monks and terrified everyone (BBC, 2014). ‘Monks were killed…, thrown into the sea to drown, or carried away as slaves along with the church treasures’ (Svenson. L. et al, 2008-2017). These vicious and violent attributes of the Viking raiders have been confirmed in a recent British museum exhibit which has depicted the Vikings as ‘pillagers, raiders and aggressive colonisers’, a race of people who were both cruel and blood

The Vikings used long boats to travel from Scandinavia to invade Britain. Evidence that the Viking used longboats to facilitate their invasions has been documented in the Bayeux Tapestry. The multiple Viking invasions that occurred in Britain were carefully planned out in advance. The invaders used their extensive knowledge of the English coast together with the element of 47


The Bayeux Tapestry (Source: BBC, 2014)

thirsty (McDonagh, 2013). Examples of destructive raids include the burning of the Iona Abbey on the Isle of Iona off the West Coast of Scotland in 802 AD, and then again in 806 AD when 68 monks were killed. Any remaining monks from these raids fled to Kells, Ireland. Evidence of the Viking invasions and the subsequent violence has been carefully documented in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, a primary historical source. An example of the ferocity of the Vikings raids is illustrated by the following quote:

certainly revealed over time. The Vikings were very skilled in ship building and navigation and this knowledge and experience had significant impacts on nautical and ship building industries in Britain. ‘Their signature longboats—sleek wooden vessels with shallow hulls and rows of oars along the side—were faster, lighter, more flexible and more easily manoeuvrable than other ships of the time’ (Pruitt, 2016). The Vikings developed sun compasses which facilitated locating the sun’s position even at sunset and on cloudy days. This navigational tool provided them with an advantage in the exploration of new regions. As skilled explorers, they ‘opened up a host of new trade routes’ which had significant positive outcomes for all of Europe, including Britain (Lamoureux, 2009). One of these positive outcomes included the development of a commercial market economy that utilised minted currency over a goods exchange system. ‘This led to the creation of international markets and trading across the "known world" of the time’ (Lamoureux, 2009).

‘A.D. 793. This year came dreadful fore-warnings over the land of the Northumbrians, terrifying the people most woefully: these were immense sheets of light rushing through the air, and whirlwinds, and fiery dragons flying across the firmament. These tremendous tokens were soon followed by a great famine: and not long after, on the sixth day before the ides of January in the same year, the harrowing inroads of heathen men made lamentable havoc in the church of God in Holyisland, by rapine and slaughter.’ (Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, A.D. 750 – 919; cited at The Online Medieval and Classical Library, n.d.).

Another positive but very different aspect of Viking influence was evident in the area of personal hygiene. In addition to inventing the western use of the comb, the Vikings set up regular bathing habits. ‘Tweezers, razors and ear spoons (for scooping out wax) are among the other grooming objects turned up in excavations of Viking burial sites, proving that even longhaired, bearded Viking warriors took their

While these raids were brutal and often violent, the Viking invasions of Britain did assist the development of improvements in nautical travel and exploration. The positive effects of the Viking invasion on British culture, whilst not immediate, were 48


personal grooming very seriously’ (Pruitt, 2016). This evidence clearly supports the many positives that the Viking invasion of Britain had significant and positive impacts to culture and society both then and now.

would have seemed to be quite negative events for the people, the positive outcomes in terms of culture and language have left a lasting legacy for subsequent generations. ‘The story of the Vikings is one of conquest, expulsion, extortion and reconquest. Their lasting legacy was the formation of the independent kingdoms of England and Scotland’ (James, 2011).

Another positive aspect of the Viking invasions was the impact on language. Viking language became incorporated into the English language. Examples include the days of the week, fog and law (Historical Association, 2017). This ‘interaction between the Viking settlers and their English neighbours ... helped to create the melting pot of two languages’ (Treharne, 2004). The Vikings also named numerous significant geographical places in England. Some of these include, ‘Grimsby’ (‘Grim's homestead') and ‘Thurnby’ (either 'homestead near a thorn-bush' or 'Thyrne's village’) (Treharne, 2004). These names have survived the centuries since the initial Viking invasion. For example, Grimsby is still a town orientated around trade and fishing industries. Other examples of place names influenced by Viking language include those ending in ‘thorpe’ (meaning 'a new village'), as in Scunthorpe (meaning 'Skuma's village'), or ‘thwaite’ (meaning 'a meadow', 'a piece of land'), as in Lothwaite ('clearing on a hill') (Treharne, 2004). The Viking language also influenced the English language with regards to legal terms and proceedings. Examples of legal terms include husting, wrong and the word 'law' itself (Old Norse lagu, Old English æ)” (Treharne, 2004).

Sources BBC. (2014). Vikings. Retrieved from BBC Bitesize: https://www.bbc.co.uk/education/topics/ztyr9j6 Geni. (2017). Harold I Harefoot, King of England. Retrieved from Geni: https://www.geni.com/people/Harold-I-HarefootKing-of-England/6000000002322328040 Girap, S. (2017). Eric Bloodaxe. Retrieved from Alchetron: https://alchetron.com/Eric-Bloodaxe-942097-W Historical Association. (2017, January 27). Vikings: a brief history. Retrieved from Historical Association: https://www.history.org.uk/primary/resource/3867/vikingsa-brief-history James, P. E. (2011, March 29). Overview: The Vikings, 800 to 1066. Retrieved from BBC: http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/vikings/overview_vi kings_01.shtml Joshi, T. (2017). Bagsecg. Retrieved from Alechetron: https://alchetron.com/Bagsecg-938088-W Kane, N. (2016, Novemver 14). Ivar the Boneless and the Great Heathen Army. Retrieved from Spangenhelm: http://spangenhelm.com/ivar-the-boneless/ Lamoureux, M. G. (2009, April). The influence of Vikings on European culture . Retrieved from Sourcing Innovation: http://sourcinginnovation.com/ Lubin, G & O’Connor, L. (2013, July 31). The 10 Greatest British Monarchs In History. Retrieved from Business Insider Australia: https://www.businessinsider.com.au/the-10-greatest-britishmonarchs-in-history-2013-7?r=US&IR=T McDonagh, M. (2013, August 10). Sorry – the Vikings really were that bad. Retrieved from The Spectator: https://www.spectator.co.uk/2013/08/sorry-the-vikingsreally-were-that-bad/ Pruitt, S. (2016, Febuary 16). 6 Things We Owe to the Vikings. Retrieved from Histroy: http://www.history.com/news/history-lists/6-things-weowe-to-the-vikings Svenson, L. et al (2008-2017). Scandinavian Nobility. Rretrieved from https://www.wikitree.com/wiki/Space:Scandinavian _Nobility The Online Medieval and Classical Library. (n.d.). The AngloSaxon Chronicle Part 2 – AD 750-919. Retrieved from The Online Medieval and Classical Library: http://omacl.org/Anglo/part2.html The Viking Network. (2004, August 14). The Vikings. Retrieved from The Viking Network: http://www.viking.no/ Treharne, E. (2004, November 17). Legacy of the Vikings. Retrieved from BBC: http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/trail/conquest/after_viking/l egacy_vikings_05.shtml Wikipedia. (2017, May 24). Eric II of Norway. Retrieved from Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eric_II_of_Norway Wikipedia. (2017, October 4). Viking Age. Retrieved from Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viking_Age Wikipedia. (n.d.). Sweyn_Forkbeard. Retrieved from Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sweyn_Forkbeard#/media

Elements of the structural and procedural systems of the modern legal system have been directly derived from the Viking legal system, particularly the notion of trial before a jury of 12 people in a legislative assembly and court. ‘A jury of 12 … decided the question of guilt. The “law-sayer” told the jury what the law said about the crime committed and the accused was either convicted or declared innocent by the jury’ (The Viking Network, 2004). These examples illustrate the significant impact that Viking invasion and subsequent settlement had in the establishment of legal systems in Britain. The Viking invasion of Britain was a significant historical event with both positive and negative outcomes. Whilst for the settlements being invaded at the time, these invasions 49


50

The Projector Magazine - Semester 2, 2017  

The Projector Magazine - Semester 2, 2017

The Projector Magazine - Semester 2, 2017  

The Projector Magazine - Semester 2, 2017

Advertisement