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Decarbonising our cities GreenFleet York took place on 12 October. Read the review on page 43


AUTUMN LEAF The start of three months with Nissan’s popular electric vehicle




ra horse-d : s 0 0 18 oach mail c

2000s : Partne Peugeot r van


CLEANER CARGO A look back at Royal Mail’s 500 years of delivering the mail






CO 2


£29,690 - £34,060

32% - 16%

176 - 99g/km






Official fuel consumption figures in mpg (l/100km) for the Ford Mondeo Vignale range: urban 27.2-100.9 (10.4-2.8), extra urban 47.9-68.9 (5.9-4.1), combined 37.2-67.3 (7.6-4.2). Official CO 2 emissions 176-99g/km. The mpg figures quoted are sourced from official EU-regulated test results (EU Directive and Regulation 692/2008), are provided for comparability purposes and may not reflect your actual driving experience.

( Main and inset front cover images courtesy of Royal Mail)



Decarbonising our cities GreenFleet York took place on 12 October. Read the review on page 43


AUTUMN LEAF The start of three months with Nissan’s popular electric vehicle



horse-d 1800s: ch mail coa

2000s: Partner Peugeot van


CLEANER CARGO A look back at Royal Mail’s 500 years of delivering the mail


Visit nflee video e e r g e v ti a rm for info tent on t con tal flee nmen enviro agement man



Follow and interact with us on Twitter: @GreenFleetNews

More convenient recharging The Department for Transport has put out a series of measures to be consulted on that will make electric vehicle charge points more accessible and convenient. For me, the most important proposal put forward is to make sure EV drivers can access all charge points without the need for multiple memberships from individual providers. The fact that currently the public charging network is not fully integrated, for me fuels the range anxiety issue, as not only do drivers have to make sure there is somewhere they can recharge, but that they are also members of that specific charge point scheme.

GreenFleet York took place on 12 October. Read the review on p43

Other proposals are to make information about the location of public charging stations more accessible to the public, to set common standards for all public charge point, and to make consumer pricing information for electricity and hydrogen fuels consistent and transparent. Providing electric charge points and hydrogen refuelling points at large fuel retailers and motorway service areas is also proposed, as is encouraging the roll-out of hydrogen refuelling stations through franchising. These measures will be consulted on for inclusion in the Modern Transport Bill, which is due to be laid before Parliament next year. Angela Pisanu, editor

P ONLINE P IN PRINT P MOBILE P FACE-TO-FACE If you would like to receive 10 issues of GreenFleet magazine for £200 a year, please contact Public Sector Information Limited, 226 High Road, Loughton, Essex IG10 1ET. Tel: 020 8532 0055 GreenFleet® would like to thank the following organisations for their support:


226 High Rd, Loughton, Essex IG10 1ET. Tel: 020 8532 0055 Fax: 020 8532 0066 Web: EDITOR Angela Pisanu FEATURES AND ROAD TEST EDITOR Richard Gooding ASSISTANT EDITOR Tommy Newell PRODUCTION CONTROL Sofie Owen PRODUCTION DESIGN Jacqueline Lawford, Jo Golding WEB PRODUCTION Victoria Leftwich PUBLISHER George Petrou ACCOUNT MANAGER Kylie Glover ADMINISTRATION Vickie Hopkins REPRODUCTION & PRINT Argent Media

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Contents GreenFleet 98 09 News


Government plans to make EV charge points more accessible; GreenFleet Awards 2016 shortlist announced; fleet sector unites to oppose tax rise that will effect ULEV company car drivers

16 Fleet focus: Royal Mail

2016 marks Royal Mail’s 500th year of postal services. GreenFleet looks back over the firm’s transport methods, including its present day fleet and low-carbon initiatives

20 Expert panel: Telematics Our telematics expert panelists share their thoughts on how technology has helped drive down road emissions, how telematics grows the appeal of electric vehicles, and how future fleets can benefit from autonomous vehicles

24 Telematics


Technology is continuously changing the automotive industry. Gerry Keaney, BVRLA chief executive, explains the three-pronged technical revolution which is leading to greener fleets

27 Expert panel: EVs

GreenFleet taps into the minds of its expert panel to assess the place of electric vehicles in company car fleets and what the major barriers to adoption will be


34 Commercial vehicles: IAA 2016

GreenFleet puts the spotlight on a few of the more notable light commercials on display at the 66th edition of the Hannover International Motor Show


36 Fuel cards

We ask our fuel card experts what a fuel management strategy should include, as well as whether the fuel card industry will offer alternative energy, such as electricity or hydrogen, in the future

40 Paris motor show

The 2016 edition of the biennial Paris motor show was all about electric mobility. GreenFleet takes a stroll around the halls of the Paris Expo Porte de Versailles and examines the chic electric and plug-in hybrid concept and production models that adorned the show floor

43 GreenFleet York

GreenFleet York on 12 October allowed fleet managers to hear the latest updates in the electric vehicle and infrastructure market, with keynotes from the Office of Low Emission Vehicles and City of York Council, as well as test drive opportunities

44 Arrive ‘N’ Drive 2016 Rockingham welcomed back GreenFleet Arrive ’n’ Drive for a 10th year, giving fleet managers the chance to get behind the wheel of the latest low and zero‑emission vehicles

46 GreenFleet Awards 2016

The green-minded fleet community will gather at Edgbaston Stadium, Birmingham, on 17 November for the GreenFleet Awards 2016

48 Road test: Jaguar XE R-Sport 2.0

Richard Gooding finds out that Jaguar’s compact executive car for the modern era resets the company’s template for its fleet‑minded offerings

50 First drive: 2016 Peugeot Expert

Peugeot’s popular light commercial has been relaunched. GreenFleet has a first look at the range which now comes in a trio of sizes

52 EV diary: month one

In a nicely-timed piece of synchronicity, just as the trees start to reveal their bare branches, GreenFleet has taken delivery of a Nissan Leaf for three months



GreenFleet magazine Volume 98 | GREENFLEET MAGAZINE


THE NEW ALFA GIULIETTA TECNICA. GEARED TOWARDS BUSINESS. The New Alfa Giulietta Tecnica has plenty to catch the eye. Its evolved, sporty exterior includes free metallic paint and privacy glass, while the new stylish interior is now even more refined. The long list of standard features include dual zone climate control, front and rear parking sensors and the new Uconnect LIVE service that keeps you connected to your world with real-time traffic reports, music, news and the latest social network feeds. TM

CO2 from 99g/km

BIK from 19%

MPG up to 74.3

P11D from £19,445

For more information, call our Business Centre free on 0808 168 7152 or email

Model shown is the Alfa Giulietta 1.6 JTDM-2 120 hp Tecnica at £19,250 OTR including Alfa White Paint. Range of official fuel consumption figures for the Giulietta Tecnica range: Urban 55.4 – 60.1 mpg (5.1 – 4.7 I/100km); Extra Urban 74.3 – 88.3 mpg (3.8 – 3.2 I/100km); Combined 65.7 – 74.3 mpg (4.3 – 3.8 I/100km). CO2 emissions 113 – 99 g/km. Fuel consumption and CO2 figures are obtained for comparative purposes in accordance with EC directives/regulations and may not be representative of real-life driving conditions. Factors such as driving style, weather and road conditions may also have a significant effect on fuel consumption.




All new Teslas to feature fully autonomous hardware

Government plans to make EV charge points more accessible and convenient The Department for Transport is consulting on a series of measures that will make charge points more accessible, making it easier for drivers to recharge. The measures, due to be included in the Modern Transport Bill, include ensuring drivers can access charge points without the need for multiple memberships from individual providers. The proposals also aim to make information about the location of public charging stations more accessible to the public, potentially via an online database and through mobile phone apps. The measures also call for more powers to set common standards for all public chargepoints to ensure electric car owners can recharge anywhere, anytime, as well as making consumer pricing information for electricity and hydrogen fuels consistent and transparent. Supporting ‘smart’ electric vehicle charging that is flexible to grid demands is also proposed, as well as providing electric chargepoints and hydrogen refuelling points at large fuel retailers

and motorway service areas. Lastly there are plans to encourage the roll-out of hydrogen refuelling stations through franchising. The Modern Transport Bill, first announced in the Queen’s Speech in May, will outline the role technology and innovation will play in delivering the safe, efficient and user focused transport systems of the future. The bill is due to be laid before Parliament next year. The Department for Transport is also consulting separately on the proposed transposition of the Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Directive; Europe‑wide legislation that will further promote the roll-out of charging facilities for vehicles that run on electricity, hydrogen and other clean fuels. The Modern Transport Bill consultation on measures for low emission vehicle infrastructure will last four weeks, closing on 23 November. READ MORE


Nissan starts a used-car campaign for the Leaf Offers include a used Leaf Acenta for £175 a month and a £1,000 dealer deposit contribution. Nissan says that since launching in 2011, the model has become the best-selling electric car and triggered an increased uptake in EV ownership. As a result the number of examples entering the used car market has been increasing recently, making it more accessible than ever before. As an example offer, a used Nissan LEAF 24kWh Acenta is currently available on a 3-year PCP finance deal for just £175 customer deposit, £1,000 dealer deposit

contribution and monthly payments of just £175 with 3.9 per cent representative APR. Buyers also benefit from a minimum 12 month warranty, free Home Charging Unit (worth £390), and Nissan’s Electric Vehicle Customer Promise which includes a Battery Quality Guarantee, free Rapid Charging, EV Roadside Assistance and use of a petrol or diesel car, free of charge, for up to 14 days during the first three years of ownership. READ MORE

Tesla has announced that all new vehicles produced in its factory will now have the hardware needed for fully autonomous driving. The electric car manufacturer believes that self-driving vehicles will play a ‘crucial role’ in improving transportation safety and accelerating the world’s transition to a sustainable future. All vehicles will now come equipped with eight surround cameras, providing 360 degree visibility around the car at up to 250 metres of range. Twelve updated ultrasonic sensors complement this vision, allowing for detection of both hard and soft objects, and a forward-facing radar with enhanced processing provides additional data about the world on a redundant wavelength, capable of seeing through heavy rain, fog, dust and even the car ahead. A new on-board computer with more than 40 times the computing power of the previous generation will then make sense of this data, providing a view of every direction simultaneously and on wavelengths that go far beyond the human senses. Tesla has said that it will further calibrate the system before activating the features enabled by the new hardware, using millions of miles of real-world driving to ensure significant improvements to safety and convenience.



366 mile range for the Honda Clarity Fuel Cell The Honda Clarity Fuel Cell has received the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) driving range rating of 366 miles (589km) and fuel economy rating of 68 miles per gallon (109km/l) of gasoline-equivalent combined. The rating gives the Clarity the best range rating of any electric vehicle in the US without a combustion engine, including fuel cell and battery electric vehicles. The Clarity stands as the first fuel cell car to house the entire drivetrain under the bonnet and is expected to launch by in the end of 2016. READ MORE






Daimler starts construction of new EV battery plant

GreenFleet Awards 2016 shortlist announced The official shortlist for the GreenFleet Awards 2016 has now been confirmed, recognising the best fleet operators, suppliers and manufacturers that are making great progress in minimising the environmental impacts of their vehicles. The Awards returns to Edgbaston Cricket Stadium on 17 November, where the winners of each category will be announced at the glittering ceremony presented by comedian Dominic Holland. A new category for 2016 is ‘Car Club of the Year’, recognising the growing relevance of car clubs across the UK and their role in helping to increase efficiency and reduce road emissions. City Car Club, Co-Wheels, E-Car Club and Zip Car have all been recognised and will be in

with a chance of claiming the Award. ‘Electric Vehicle of the Year’ is likely to be hotly contested, with BMW, Nissan, Mahindra, Kia and Renault all producing innovative electro-mobility solutions to fulfil a broad range of driver needs. The past year has also seen an increased demand for efficient light commercial vehicles (LCVs) and Mitsubishi, Peugeot, Fiat Professional, Nissan and Renault are all in the running to take the title of ‘LCV Manufacturer of the Year’. For a full breakdown of this year’s shortlist head over to page 46. READ MORE


GeniePoint and Source London partner for more fast chargers in London More rapid chargers will form part of the Source London network thanks to a partnership between companies ChargePoint Services and BluepointLondon. The companies’ respective networks – GeniePoint and Source London – will also offer full inter-operability to their respective members. For commercial EV operators who want to re-charge their vehicles in minutes not hours, the rapid chargers will enable them to recharge in 20-40 minutes to keep their vehicles moving throughout the working day and night. Alex Bamberg, managing director, ChargePoint Services, said. “For the first phase, we aim to have around 30 new Rapid Chargers on line by the summer, helping London improve air quality and reduce emissions with the increased use of both commercial & passenger electric vehicles.” Christophe Arnaud, managing director of BluepointLondon, said: “We are continuously looking at ways to improve

Source London for the benefit of our growing community of members and we are very proud to announce our collaboration with ChargePoint Services. Adding rapid chargers to our network is essential for some of our members but this is also our very first inter-operability agreement, together Source London and GeniePoint reach 13,000 EV users across the country.”

Daimler subsidiary Accumotive has started construction of a new electric vehicle battery plant in Kamenz. The plant will be the second at the site in Kamenz and will be located in immediate proximity of the existing compound, bringing the total production and logistics area to around 80,000 square meters. Daimler has pledged to invest up to €500 million to develop Kamenz into one of the biggest and most modern battery factories in Europe, as part of an overall investment of more than €1 billion in global battery production. The new production facility is scheduled to start operations in the middle of 2018 and Daimler plans for the new plant to be constructed as a ‘CO2-neutral factory’. The manufacturer has said that production facilities will be powered by a cogeneration unit and a photovoltaic system combined with stationary energy storage systems. Solar panels on the roof are expected to cover the surface area of two football fields, which will equal a capacity of two megawatts. The lithium-ion batteries produced at the new facility are expected to be used in all electrified vehicles of Mercedes‑Benz and smart – including plug-in hybrids as well as fully electric vehicles. Additionally, it will also produce batteries for stationary Mercedes-Benz energy storage units as well as 48-volt-systems. Prof. Dr. Thomas Weber, member of the board of management of Daimler AG, group research and Mercedes-Benz Cars development, said: “By 2025, our passenger car product portfolio will contain more than ten fully electric vehicles. At the same time, we are continuously pushing our plug-in-hybrid offensive and the introduction of 48-volt-systems. Highly efficient battery systems are an important aspect of our strategy. They are an integral part of the vehicle architecture and not a ready-made product. The development, production and integration of those complex systems into our vehicles is one of our core competences.” Markus Schäfer, member of the divisional board of Mercedes-Benz Cars, production and supply chain management, added: “We are building a global production compound for lithium-ion batteries. Kamenz will become the competence centre of this compound. With the new battery factory, the flexible and efficient production network of Mercedes-Benz Cars deepens crucial know-how for the production of promising future technologies. This also strengthens our global competitiveness and puts us in a very good position concerning future mobility.”





We deliver, so you deliver


The complete fleet package from the AA When it comes to business, you’ll want a service you can rely on. Cue the AA. From lost keys to accident management, whatever the problem, we can handle it. As Britain’s largest breakdown provider* we can get your business back on the road fast. So you can keep delivering a top-notch service to your customers.

For AA Business Breakdown Cover call 0800 294 2994 quoting 0747 or visit

AA Business Breakdown Cover 0800 294 2994 quoting 0747

AA Tyres 0800 810 0980

Fleet Risk Management from AA DriveTech e:

AA Fuel Assist e: 0800 072 6870

AA Key Assist e:

AA Accident Management e: AAAccidentManagement

*Source: Mintel – UK vehicle recovery report, September 2015. Automobile Association Insurance Services Limited is an insurance intermediary authorised and regulated by the Financial Conduct Authority. Registered Office: Fanum House, Basing View, Basingstoke, Hampshire RG21 4EA. Registered in England and Wales number 2414212.



Fleet sector unites to oppose tax rise that will effect ULEV company car drivers The BVRLA and has joined forces with ACFO and fleet employers to share their concerns about proposed tax changes on company cars. The HM Revenue & Customs wants to change the way employee benefits are taxed. It has put forward plans that could affect up to 650,000 people who have taken a salary sacrifice car or receive a vehicle as part of a ‘cash or car’ benefit scheme. HMRC’s proposals suggest that the higher of the taxable benefit and the salary sacrifice/ cash allowance sum is used as the taxable value. This would affect drivers of low emission cars the most, because they have the greatest difference between their taxable benefit‑in‑kind and their salary sacrifice amount or car allowance. The BVRLA has responded to the HMRC consultation, calling on the government to exempt employer-provided cars from the changes, explaining that unlike other employee benefits which remain untaxed, company cars are already subject to an effective and progressive tax scheme. The present tax system works for businesses, is fair for employees and has proven very successful in helping the government meet its policy goal of increasing the uptake of low emission vehicles, the BVRLA says. Company cars are the dominant source of Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle registrations

in the UK, partly because the government incentivises employees to select the greenest car by reducing their tax bill. Under the proposals the government will end up punishing drivers of the greenest cars, leaving them hundreds of pounds a year worse-off. ULEV registrations are likely to fall as drivers choose cheaper, higher‑emission company cars, use their cash allowances to fund second-hand cars or opt-out of their employer’s benefit scheme. In the case of salary sacrifice schemes, the BVRLA argues that the government would end up punishing drivers who would otherwise struggle to afford a new, low-emission car. Three-quarters of recipients are basic-rate taxpayers, many of whom work for the public sector in areas poorly served by public transport. “Our analysis suggests that HMRC’s proposals could have a negligible impact on tax revenues as some drivers give up their company cars and stop paying benefit-in-kind tax entirely,” said BVRLA chief executive, Gerry Keaney. “At the same time, the government risks stifling the uptake of ultra-low emission cars and piling more misery on cash‑strapped public sector employers.” READ MORE


Mitsubishi launches approved used car programme for Outlander PHEV Mitsubishi has revealed details of its new approved used car programme, which will include the Outlander PHEV from £199 a month on PCP. The programme will offer a minimum two-year vehicle warranty with no mileage limitations, as well as two years’ 24 hour roadside assistance across the UK and mainland Europe. The scheme will include an independent vehicle history check, a Mitsubishi multi-point inspection and seven-day drive-away insurance. Buyers

will also benefit from free vehicle health checks for life, MOT protection cover, a 30-day vehicle exchange plan and a guaranteed service history. The Outlander PHEV, the UK’s best selling plug-in, will be available as part of the programme, with a pre-owned 2015 model starting from £199 a month and a used 2016 model starting from £299. READ MORE

LowCVP’s Andy Eastlake

New Government but same strong ULEV support The news earlier this month that there are now two million electric vehicles registered around the world – with around a quarter of those in the EU – came as a welcome fillip to all of us involved in the drive to low carbon and low emission vehicles. While EVs are only one of a number of routes to cutting emissions, they do now represent a significant share of new vehicle registrations and most projections point to rapid further growth all over. Of course following the seismic reverberations following the UK’s vote for ‘Brexit’ in the early summer, everyone involved has been on the look-out for signals of the new government’s intentions in this – as well as many other – areas. There were positive early signs after the vote with the Government quickly re-stating its commitment to the Fifth Carbon Budget, representing as it does a staging post on the route to near complete decarbonisation by 2050, as the UK has committed to in the 2008 Climate Act. The creation of the new Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy signalled the arrival of a new long-term and strategy-led approach to the challenges posed by energy and climate change. Understandably but unfortunately, there have been delays in the progression of a number of specific programmes to support the adoption and uptake of ultra-low emission vehicles (ULEVs) and low carbon fuels as new ministers, and the new government as a whole, gets to grips with the revised outlook and new challenges we all face. We expect a number of announcements soon and will be listening attentively to the autumn statement next month. So it was great news and reassurance this week when the Office for Low Emission Vehicles announced a £35m funding package of measures that will see thousands more electric vehicle chargepoints installed on streets and importantly at workplaces across the UK. The money will go towards a £20m competition to help councils roll‑out chargepoints for ultra-low emission taxis and a £10m funding scheme for charge points outside workplaces and homes where there is no off-street parking. We also saw the launch of a £3.75m scheme to encourage the uptake of zero-emission motorcycles and scooters, further broadening the range of vehicles getting specific support; plus £2m backing for public and private sector organisations to begin deploying hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. The new minister responsible for this area, John Hayes, commented that the number of ULEVs on our roads are at record levels and new registrations have risen by 250 per cent in just over two years. The funding represents a further tranche of the Government’s earlier commitment to invest £600m in ULEVs by 2020 and provides further confidence – if any were needed – that the government sees the low emission automotive sector both from a manufacturing and a market view, as critical to both the UK’s industrial future and to the achievement of long-standing emissions targets. The LowCVP and its members will of course continue to drive and support this historic transition in the UK’s automotive arena. FURTHER INFORMATION For more information on the Low Carbon Vehicle Partnership, visit:



Commercial Vehicle News

Plethora of telematics solutions creates confusion in marketplace Fleet managers looking for ways to improve the safety and efficiency of their fleets with telematics now face such a bewildering array of solutions that it is causing confusion in the marketplace. Indeed the choice is so wide and diverse that it is only too easy to miss the ideal solution in the torrent of information and competing messages that managers have to wade through. The risk is that you will end up investing in a myriad of different pieces of equipment that, taken together, do not meet your requirements as effectively as another alternative solution available in the market. Taking telematics as an example, how do you avoid this pitfall? The key is to keep sight of your end objective. If that’s driver safety then it is important to remember that the root cause of up to 90 per cent of traffic accidents is poor decision-making by drivers. You can select a tracking system and combine it with all the mirrors, cameras and monitors you like, but you won’t maximise your chances of success unless you address driver behaviour. Driver behaviour is the key to fleet safety – and it is vital to get drivers on-board with your safety strategy. After all, they are your ambassadors, the people on whom your business and customers rely. Many modern telematics systems do more than simply track a vehicle. Sophisticated systems can detect risky driving behaviour and, when linked to cameras, record and extract vital footage of events before and after safety incidents. What very few systems do, however, is feedback to drivers in real time when they stray from a safe, smooth driving style – and this is vital if you want to achieve longterm, sustainable, positive change in driver behaviour. By empowering drivers to take charge of their own improvement with a ‘coach in the cab’ system that alerts them to poor driving decisions as these arise, telematics can engage drivers and ingrain good driving habits on a daily basis. Even good drivers can be encouraged to improve and the result across a fleet is lower accident-related costs, reduced insurance premiums, less wear and tear on vehicles and improve fuel economy because safe, smooth driving is more fuel-efficient. All of which adds up to considerable savings on top of improved safety. FURTHER INFORMATION Tel: 0113 3570090




£4 million to extend the plug-in van grant to larger electric vehicles Electric trucks above 3.5 tonnes will now be eligible for grants of up to £20,000 thanks to the additional £4 million government funding. The plug-in van grant has been available to small commercial vehicles of up to 3.5 tonnes since 2012, but sales of new electric vans have remained limited. The additional funding to the scheme will allow all vans and trucks meeting the necessary requirements to be eligible. The Office for Low Emission Vehicles (OLEV), a joint unit of the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy and the Department for Transport, believes extending the scheme will stimulate demand for more electric vans and trucks, and consequently encourage new entrants into the electric van market. Business and Energy Secretary

Greg Clark said: “The electric car revolution is well underway with consumers and this funding will encourage more businesses to consider switching to cleaner vans and trucks. “Our automotive sector is thriving with the world’s most popular electric car already made in the UK and we are forging ahead to deploy new engine technology to make lowcarbon vehicles mainstream, and leading the way in driverless car technology. “The government and industry continue to work together to support the UK’s world class automotive industry to ensure we continue to be the number one place in the world to develop and manufacture cars.” READ MORE


Improved economy for new Volkswagen Transporter A new BlueMotion version of the sixth-generation Transporter is now available from Volkswagen, offering improved economy and lower emissions. The BlueMotion model is capable of returning 51.4mpg on the combined cycle and CO2 emissions from as low as 145g/km. This represents a significant reduction on the most frugal option previously available, the short wheelbase T26 2.0‑litre TDI 100bhp five‑speed manual, which returned a fuel economy of 47.9 mpg and CO2 emissions of 153g/km. To achieve these improvements, Volkswagen has added aerodynamically improved wheel spoilers, lowered suspension, modified gear ratios and added low friction tyres. Additionally, the BlueMotion model features cruise control and a speed limiter (to 62mph),

as well as the standard Blue Motion technology which come as standard on all T6 models, including Stop/Start and battery regeneration systems. Starting from £19,670 (ex. VAT), the Transporter BlueMotion has a gross vehicle weight of 2.7 tonnes and boasts a payload of 839 kg, which is up to 121kg more than that of the short wheelbase T26 2.0-litre TDI 100bhp five-speed manual.


Commercial Vehicle News



Nissan turns the e-NV200 into the worlds first all-electric mobile office Nissan has collaborated with UK-based design workshop Studio Hardie to convert the e-NV200 into the world’s first all-electric mobile office. The ‘e-NV200 WORKSPACe’ has been designed to showcase of Nissan’s intelligent mobility vision and the changing relationship between vehicles and people, offering a cost‑effective desk space solution to reflect the growing flexible working trend. The one-off concept houses a large range of features, including: an integrated fold-out desk, touchscreen computer, wireless internet, smartphone-controlled LED lights, wireless phone charging, Bluetooth® audio system, mini fridge and

barista‑quality coffee machine. Gareth Dunsmore, director of electric vehicles, Nissan Europe said: “The Nissan e-NV200 is already a smart, sustainable transport solution for forward‑thinking businesses, making it the ideal vehicle to be used as the basis for a mobile work place. The e-NV200 WORKSPACe takes the ingenuity of our 100 per cent electric van a step further and by enlisting the design expertise of Studio Hardie – renowned for its creative eco approach – the e-NV200 has been reimagined as an innovative, zero-emission working environment.” READ MORE


New Horizon Logistics lowers emissions with the Fuso Canter Eco Hybrid Warwickshire based New Horizon Logistics has purchased a Fuso Canter Eco Hybrid to slash its fuel bills and emissions, as the hybrid truck offers returns of up to 24mpg – double those typically achieved by conventionally powered alternatives. The Canter Eco Hybrid is powered by a 110 kW (150hp) diesel engine, which works in parallel with a 40kW electric motor. From a stationary position the truck utilises pure electric power, with a combination of diesel and electric operation

kicking in one a speed of around 6mph is reached. Despite the additional weight of its compact electric motor and lithium ion batteries, Fuso has worked to keep the weight increase to a minimum, with the Canter Eco Hybrid tipping the scales at 160kg more than the standard diesel-powered model, resulting in a 5.0-tonne body and payload allowance. Both the electric motor and batteries are also covered by a 10-year, unlimited mileage warranty, fully supported by FUSO.

London Mayor’s plans to bring forward ULEZ Under proposals released by Rachael Dillon, London Mayor Sadiq Khan climate last month, the upcoming change Ultra Low Emission Zone policy manager, (ULEZ) is expected to be FTA introduced as early as 2019 presenting a huge headache for operators delivering essential goods and services into the capital. Original plans proposed by the former Mayor would have seen the ULEZ introduced in 2020. It will require all vehicles to be Euro VI/6 when operating in central London (within the existing Congestion Charging Zone) or face a daily charge. Whilst industry recognises the need to improve local air quality for Londoners, the Mayor needs to work with businesses to ensure that they have the sufficient time and money to make the switch. There is the real possibility that smaller operators could be forced out of business because the timescales are so impractical. FTA is particularly concerned there will only be two-and-a-half to three years’ worth of compliant vans in the fleet. Typically, operators who rely on second-hand vehicles buy at four years old so it will place significant cost burdens on them. FTA estimates that to comply with these proposals will cost the average small operator with five vans more than £100,000 extra up front – more than 150 per cent of the company’s annual turnover. Therefore, this regulation could lock some small businesses out of the London market altogether. For HGVs, operators are beginning to purchase Euro VI but ULEZ will threaten the second-hand market too. The Mayor’s Clean Air consultation’s key proposals include: implementing a £10 emissions surcharge (dubbed the ‘T-charge’) on the most polluting vehicles entering central London from 2017. The charge would apply to all vehicles not meeting the emission standards and will cost an extra £10 per day on top of the existing Congestion Charge; introducing the central London ULEZ one year earlier in 2019; extending the ULEZ beyond central London, possibly in 2019: for motorcycles, cars and vans, to the North and South Circular; and for lorries, buses and coaches Greater London‑wide; and developing a detailed proposal for a national diesel scrappage scheme for Government to implement. Meanwhile, the Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) has issued a consultation on Clean Air Zones (CAZs). Defra has reiterated the intention to restrict access for older vehicles to five English cities due to local pollution concerns. Nottingham, Derby and Southampton would have restrictions on HGVs, buses, and taxis, Leeds and Birmingham would see restrictions on those vehicles plus vans. We all understand the need to continue to reduce the impact on human health of emissions, but as the proposals stand there is a real chance many small businesses will be disproportionately affected and locked out of their current work. FTA is looking for more flexibility for businesses that will have the most trouble complying, and support from both the Mayor and government for them to reach these standards. FURTHER INFORMATION For further details on how to the join the LCRS or to download a copy of the report see: or contact Rachael Dillon at



Fleet Focus

500 years of delivering the mail 2016 marks Royal Mail’s 500th year of postal services. GreenFleet looks back over the firm’s transport methods, including horse‑drawn carriage, plane, hovercraft, and even rocket – as well as its present day fleet and low-carbon initiatives During its 500 years of postal services, Royal Mail has constantly embraced new ways of working in its drive to deliver mail faster and more efficiently, often resulting in broader benefits to society at large. As the postal service became a key channel for communication, deliveries were required to be as quick and efficient as possible. This led to a number of innovations from horse-drawn carriages in the late 1700s, steam-driven packet ships in the early 1800s, trains in 1911 and planes with the first overseas airmail flight taking place in 1918. These advances in technology helped open communications with the Commonwealth and drove social advances such as improvements in literacy skills.

Worcester, Holyhead and Carlisle. A service to Edinburgh was added a year later. The introduction of mail coaches assisted with the development of one, uniform time across the UK rather than having times which varied by region. In the 1780s, local time varied from place to place, and could not be accurately maintained. The postal service played a huge role in bringing about the change as collections were governed by a uniform time regardless of where they took place. A standardised time system (GMT) was first introduced on the railways on December 11, 1847 and the vast majority of Great Britain’s public clocks were standardised to GMT by 1855.

Horse power Under the postal system which was set up five hundred years ago, each town had to have three horses available to transport packets of royal letters and bring back news to the Royal court. In 1512, the King appointed Brian Tuke, the first Master of the Posts to run the system. He ensured that busy towns had to keep a special stable, known as a post (leading to the modern day term for delivering mail), ready to carry mail at a moment’s notice. Four years later, Brian Tuke was knighted – the catalyst for the creation of the Royal Mail we know today.

Setting sail In the 17th century, international trade was exclusively carried out by sea. Packet ships were used for this trade and proved essential for delivering mail to and from the colonies. While officially the captains of packet ships were forbidden to engage larger ships in battle, in 1793, the packet ship Antelope successfully fired on the French Privateer ‘Atlanta’ until she surrendered. A privateer was a vessel authorised by a government to attack foreign vessels during wartime. Prior to this attack, the Antelope had been captured twice before, by the French, and ransomed back to the English. The crew successfully defended the mail and the packets on board and were hailed as heroes when they arrived back in England. In 1821, steam-driven packet ships were introduced to deliver mail across the British Empire and the Commonwealth. This led to the founding of Royal Mail Ships (RMS) in 1840.

As tal the poscame be service ntry’s key the couunication comm , pressure l channe d to deliver mounteers more lett quickly

Moving to wheels As the postal service became the country’s key communication channel, pressure mounted to deliver letters more quickly. In 1784, horse drawn coaches featuring the Royal Mail livery were deployed for the first time to transport the mail. The rollout followed a trial run between Bristol and London. The coaches averaged 7 to 8 miles per hour in summer and 5 miles per hour in winter with fresh horses supplied every 10 to 15 miles. The speed of the coaches meant that the 400 mile journey from London to Edinburgh was completed in about 60 hours compared to 96 hours by a horse. The trial proved to be a success and in 1785 it led to the launch of new routes from London to Norwich, Liverpool, Leeds, Dover, Portsmouth, Poole, Exeter, Gloucester,


Rail mail The General Post Office and the Liverpool and Manchester Railway reached an agreement that saw the start of mail being carried by train in 1830. The first route was between Liverpool and Manchester. This led to the passing of the Railways (Conveyance of Mails) Act in 1838 which required railway companies to carry mail by ordinary or special Travelling Post Office (TPO) trains.


By 1963, there were 49 mail trains in operation, with one to five TPOs carriages attached to passenger trains. Complete TPO trains ran between London, Aberdeen and Penzance. The use of railways for transporting mail declined towards the end of the 20th century and the last TPO service ran on 9 January 2004. With rail operating above ground, the 1860s saw the start of explorations of underground rails taking place. The Pneumatic Dispatch Company built an underground tube that linked Eversholt Street with Euston Station in London. It was later extended to the Royal Mail Headquarters building at St. Martin’s Le Grand. Acting on the peashooter principle, railcars were sucked or blown through the sealed tube at speeds up to 35 mph. A pre‑cursor to Mail Rail, the pneumatic railway, the project was doomed to fail and the Pneumatic Dispatch Company wound up in 1876. Taking to the skies Experiments with air travel took off in the early twentieth century with the first powered air flight taking place on 17 December 1903. Almost eight years later, the first scheduled airmail service flew from Hendon to Windsor. The historic flight was part of the celebrations for the Coronation of King George V. Seven years later in 1918, the UK’s first overseas airmail service began. It was a joint venture between the Royal Air Force and the British Army Post Office (BAPO). The route operated between Folkestone and Cologne. Additional routes quickly developed and within thirty years, Britain was the world’s largest carrier of airmail. From 10 million airmail letters per year in 1935, numbers doubled annually, reaching over 91 million in 1938. Motorised mail The first motor vehicle entered service at Royal Mail in 1907. It was a two and a half tonne lorry called the Maudslay Stores Number 1. It was in operation for 18 years during which it covered over 300,000 miles. Since the launch of the first motor vehicle, Royal Mail’s vans and lorries have become a familiar sight on Britain’s streets over the years, changing their make and shape in line with prevailing trends. Many of these historic vehicles are now stored at Royal Mail’s archive in Debden, Essex and include the famous Morris Minor vans and the iconic Land Rover Defender. Unusual methods of delivery In the 19th century, a River Postman received and delivered mail to the moored ships in the Pool of London, the stretch of the River Thames from London Bridge to below Limehouse. The position continued until 1952. Legend has it that between 1830 and 1850, mail was conveyed between Chichester and Arundel, Sussex, in a cart drawn by four large dogs, and that this cart was once the victim of an attempted robbery by highwaymen. In the hope of speeding up postal deliveries in 1930, central London almost had its very own monorail. Railplane, the

Fleet Focus All pictures courtesy of Royal Mail

Horse-drawn mail coaches carried post from 1784 to the 1850s

brainchild of George Benn, was designed to run above the trainline between Croydon and the Holborn Viaduct, cutting journey times from one hour to ten minutes. Although a test line was set up in Glasgow it was never progressed. German businessman Gerhard Zucker tried to convince the General Post Office that postal delivery by rocket was viable and carried out several experiments in 1934. Although initials tests were a success, rockets on longer flights exploded before reaching their intended destinations. Pigeon post became a vital means of communication during the First World War and by the end of the war there were 22,000 pigeons in service. In 1943, the PDSA Dickin Medal was instituted to honour the work of animals in the war and 16 pigeons were awarded the medal during the Second World War. The first ever Hovercraft mail service in the world travelled from Rhyl on the north coast of Wales to Wallasey on 20 July 1962. However, due to strong winds and continued engine failure, this service was stopped. The Royal Mail fleet today Today, the Royal Mail’s environment strategy focuses on three areas: optimising its transport networks to use fuel more efficiently, trialling new vehicles that are more fuel efficient or use alternative fuels, and changing driver behaviour. Royal Mail now delivers to more than 29 million addresses across the country, six days a week as part of the Universal Service Obligation (USO). The company aims to become a more efficient and competitive business, while minimising its environmental impact. It does this through routing, where the company utilises a balance of road, rail and air transport. Core network reviews have reduced the overall number of miles from around 162,000 per day in 2010-11 to approximately 145,000 per day in 2015-16.

Reducing the use of air transport continues to be a key focus for Royal Mail. It has been able to replace air transport with road services on routes to and from Bournemouth, Cardiff, East Midlands, Edinburgh and Stansted. This has reduced associated CO2 emissions by approximately a third. Royal Mail uses airmail only to meet First Class, Special Delivery and priority traffic obligations and also increasingly flies mail through airline partners, taking advantage of existing flights. The vehicle fleet Today, Royal Mail’s fleet of around 47,000 vehicles is the largest fleet of road vehicles in the UK. The vehicles use stop-start technology and other features to reduce environmental impacts. Well maintained vehicles help the fleet operate more efficiently and the company’s fleet excellence programme places greater focus on maintaining all of its vehicles to a high standard. What’s more, vehicle service centres have been restructured to improve vehicle utilisation, which has helped maintain 97 per cent availability. Royal Mail has worked with its trailer manufacturer to select a new single-deck trailer specification which uses lightweight materials and an aerodynamic design to reduce fuel consumption. It also rolled out 300 Cartwright Cheetah Fastback Trailers across its fleet in December 2015, which will deliver an expected saving in fuel consumption of up to eight per cent. Royal Mail’s fleet now includes 320 vehicles that comply with the Euro 6 standard on commercial vehicle emissions. The standard aims to lower levels of harmful exhaust emissions such as nitrogen oxide (NOx) and other pollutants. The company continues to trial two Peugeot Partner electric vehicles operating out of its West London delivery office. Driver feedback from the electric vehicle trial has been positive and the trial has successfully demonstrated how far vehicles could travel; they are now used on the office’s longest delivery routes.

Royal Mail also tested a dual fuel motive unit at its National Distribution Centre in London. Preliminary data shows an average CO2e savings of 15 per cent. On this basis, the trial has been extended to include a second motive unit. Driver behaviour Changes in driver behaviour can also improve fuel efficiency and reduce CO2e emissions. Royal Mail’s telemetry system tracks drivers and gives visible and audible warnings when moderate or harsh driving occurs, or strong acceleration. The system has been rolled out across 38 per cent of Royal Mail’s fleet, including approximately 1,800 of its 7.5 tonne vehicles (91 per cent of our 7.5-tonne HGV fleet) and approximately 13,000 small vans. This data is used to direct training programmes, which promote driving behaviour that is both safer and more fuel-efficient. During 2015-16, Royal Mail rolled out driver training to over 4,000 of its HGV drivers. The firm’s aim is to use these systems and associated driver training to cut fuel usage for HGVs by five per cent, for the 7.5-tonne fleet by six per cent, and for small vans by 10 per cent. In March 2016, Royal Mail joined the UK’s Logistics Carbon Reduction Scheme (LCRS) to further demonstrate our commitment to reducing carbon from road freight. Paul Gatti, Royal Mail’s fleet director, said: “The scale and scope of our operations means that increasing the efficiency of our fleet can positively impact the environment as well as help our business performance. We are currently developing a new fleet environment strategy to help us address these challenges and are committed to ensuring that any changes we make in response to these new practises are the right ones.“ L FURTHER INFORMATION














To book a test drive call our Business Centre free on 0808 168 5440 or email us at

OFFICIAL FUEL CONSUMPTION FIGURES FOR JEEP RENEGADE RANGE MPG (L/100KM): EXTRA URBAN 47.9 (5.9) – 70.6 (4.0), URBAN 32.5 (8.7) – 55.4 (5.1), COMBINED 40.9 (6.9) – 64.2 (4.4), CO 2 EMISSIONS: 160 – 115 G/KM. Fuel consumption and CO2 figures are obtained for comparative purposes in accordance with EC directives/regulations and may not be representative of real-life driving conditions. Factors such as driving style, weather and road conditions may also have a significant effect on fuel consumption. Model shown is a Jeep Renegade Limited. Jeep ® is a registered trademark of FCA US LLC.

Industry Comment ADVERTORIAL

Expert opinion: trends in optimisation Optimisation is a rapidly developing sector, offering increasingly effective solutions to the challenges of modern fleet management. Colin Ferguson, CEO of Route Monkey, takes us through the latest innovations Optimisation is all about getting the best out of your fleet – whether that means doing more with existing assets, or cutting mileage, costs and emissions. Like most technology-driven solutions, fleet optimisation is rapidly evolving. However, the good news is that these changes are designed to make fleet management easier, rather than more complex. One of the biggest trends is integration, with a strong focus on the vehicle connectivity provided by telematics. Combining the two creates a compelling solution that becomes much more than the sum of its parts. With this in mind, Route Monkey recently became part of the Trakm8 Group, which provides a full suite of telematics, driver behaviour and dash cam solutions. When combined with Route Monkey, Trakm8’s solution offers a quantum leap forward for fleets, in terms of cutting costs and carbon emissions while boosting productivity. It enables users to pull jobs from the back office system, schedule them in the most efficient manner and push them out to a PDA or mobile app for drivers. Fleets also benefit from full tracking of planned versus actual performance, driver behavior systems, PDA data capture, fleet efficiency tools and risk mitigation – all from one very easy, intuitive interface. Trakm8 is currently beta-testing a fully integrated solution containing all of these fuel and cost-saving products, with a view to launching it in early 2017. The attractions of a single source solution are obvious for fleet managers who currently have to deal with several suppliers: the days of having to remember multiple log‑ins and passwords could soon be over. However, if you already have telematics – or indeed any of these other solutions – a good optimisation provider can integrate with your existing systems. Route Monkey has built a reputation for integration expertise and is adept at creating middleware that links it to a range of telematics and other

fleet management products. In fact, if the middleware does its job properly, you should never even know that it’s there. Greener Fleets One change that is impacting almost all fleet managers is the inexorable rise of alternative-fuelled vehicles. The era of the fleet that is completely powered by combustion engines is fading fast. These days, most fleets already contain at least some low carbon vehicles – and that trend is only going to go one way. Route Monkey has not only stayed ahead of this curve, but is actively helping fleets to make the switch to greener cars, vans and trucks. The company’s award-winning EVOS software is currently the only available solution that can optimise mixed fleets, getting the best out of every single vehicle, regardless of its power train. It can also analyse an existing fleet to identify which vehicles and routes could be switched to low or ultra-low carbon vehicles. EVOS is designed to accurately predict an electric vehicle’s range, taking into account a range of battery-draining factors such as payload, route topography and even weather conditions. Critically, it can also re-route EVs in response to an unexpected drop in energy storage – and plan in top-up charges. This real-time capability from Route Monkey extends to all types of vehicle, not just EVs. It is another emerging trend in optimisation – and one that delivers major productivity benefits. Essentially it means that the algorithms don’t merely plan tomorrow’s fleet activities, but can also adapt today’s schedule to react to unexpected events. For example, real-time optimisation enables fleet managers to respond a last-minute order from a valued customer, or a road closure due to a traffic accident. The algorithms can re-optimise the fleet to deal with these real time requests, without compromising on efficiency.

Colin Ferguson

Colin Ferguson is CEO of Route Monkey, a leading provider of fleet optimisation solutions. A former transport operator, Colin founded Route Monkey to create algorithms that drive significant savings for fleets. It developed the world’s first electric vehicle optimisation software and remains an acknowledged global leader in this field. On Demand The rapid development of Cloud-based solutions means that the way we buy and use technology is also changing. Software as a Service (SaaS), also referred to as on‑demand software, is already a widely-used purchasing model for back office applications such as ERP solutions and accounting. Route Monkey believes that optimisation would be much more attractive for smaller fleets if it was available as on‑demand, pay-as-you-go software. With this in mind, the company is developing a Mobility as a Service offering that has the potential to bring the benefits of optimisation to all fleets, large or small. Optimisation has come a long way in a very short space of time – and there is much, much more to come from this technology. L FURTHER INFORMATION For further details on how Route Monkey can help optimise your fleet contact 0845 643 5731 or visit



Expert Panel: Telematics

EXPERT PANEL TELEMATICS In this issue of GreenFleet, our telematics expert panelists share their thoughts on how technology has helped drive down road emissions, how telematics grows the appeal of electric vehicles, and how autonomous vehicles could benefit fleets in the future

Yon Copitch, managing director, Traffilog

Nick Walker, managing director, RAC Telematics

Martin Kadhim, director, Lightfoot Partnership

Lucas Ainscough, head of research, TU-Automotive

Yon brings a wealth of relevant market experience to the Traffilog team. Having joined Traffilog in 2007 with knowledge from within the telematics industry, Yon assisted in the creation of hugely successful distribution partners in the Nordic and Russian regions, before progressing to become managing director

Nick joined the RAC Telematics team at the start of 2015. His role as managing director has helped take the business into a period of rapid growth in sales and customer focused solutions, and has seen the company achieve a top-tier market position with over 400 per cent growth in year-on-year unit sales

Martin has extensive knowledge in IT, advertising and is passionate about the use of technology and psychology to improve driver behaviour, lower costs and reduce harmful emissions. He has been a pioneer in the sector since 2006, playing a key role in the development, evolution and commercial growth of Lightfoot

Lucas started at TU‑Automotive in the North American market, researching and developing events for the innovation focused areas of the West Coast and Toronto before moving to focus on their European business. He now heads up the European research function and has responsibility for the TU‑Automotive Europe event

Road transport contributes about one-fifth of the EU’s total emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), the main greenhouse gas. With fleets and freight making up a significant portion of road users, organisations operating fleets have become mindful of their contribution to climate change and are taking action to minimise it. The Energy Saving Trust believes it takes three strategies to lower fleet emissions: drive cleaner vehicles; drive them more economically; and drive them less. In order to do this, fleet operators need insight into how their drivers behave behind the wheel, and what types of journeys they do. Telematics gives fleet managers exactly that – data on driving style and routes so they can identify where changes can be made. There are countless cleaner vehicles on the market these days, but if they are


driven inefficiently, by harsh braking, idling or speeding – they will still burn unnecessary fuel and let out more emissions. Identifying drivers that perform that way via telematics means a company can introduce eco driver training, and possibly offer incentives for those that drive the most economically. What’s more, tracking technology will show which routes are unnecessarily long or too congested, so that better route planning can be implemented. Martin Kadhim from Lightfoot believes that no matter how efficient the vehicle is, the driver is still the most important factor in reducing emissions: “Several years ago our company developed an innovative hybrid system for vans and although it was totally proven under the strictest laboratory conditions, in the real world some


customers failed to achieve the promised benefits because of the way the vehicles were being driven. No matter how good the technology, if a vehicle is driven aggressively and inefficiently it will burn unnecessary fuel and give out unnecessary emissions. Nick Walker from RAC Telematics agrees, saying that: “A significant contributor to emissions is the way in which we drive our vehicles. By improving driving behaviour (encouraging drivers to drive less aggressively), fuel usage is reduced and as a consequence emissions are also reduced. Telematics has been proved to play a key role in making this happen. Telematics can also be used to monitor driver behaviour and give feedback to drivers on their driving style and, where appropriate, suggest improvements.

Powertrain technology Engine and drivetrain technology has also advanced greatly to offer a good range of low or zero-emission vehicles, such as electric, hydrogen or hybrid. Whilst adoption of these vehicles is relatively slow, there are around 90,000 plug-in vehicles and vans on the UK roads. And so far 2016 has been a record year for electric vehicles sold. That said, vehicle range and a limited charging infrastructure is still a barrier for some when it comes to buying an electric vehicle. Yon Copitch from Traffilog says: “Currently, the main barriers to uptake are cost (notably, battery cost), limited range between recharges, long recharge times and a lack of recharging infrastructure. A combination of industry regulation, pilot projects and consumer incentives is being used to encourage uptake in the UK.” Technology is also greatly helping to put concerns over range and charging infrastructure at ease. Most electric vehicles are connected, using the internet to connect themselves to the outside world. This allows the vehicle to let drivers know where nearby charging points are and keep them updated on battery life. Telematics in electric vehicles can also help with journey planning should the range not be enough to reach the final destination. For example, the system could suggest driving to a train station with a car park with charge points, doing the remainder of the journey on train, and then returning to a fully charged vehicle. All with real‑time information on how trains are running and whether there is traffic on route. This connectivity to the outside world can play a significant role in reassuring those unsure of buying an electric vehicle because of concerns over range and limited charging infrastructure. Nick Walker from RAC Telematics said: “Electric vehicles continue to grow in popularity due to zero emissions and fuel economy but their appeal remains limited where longer range journeys are required, at the moment. The RAC understands this aspect of electric vehicles and many of our patrols now carry charging equipment. But technology is helping to get the most out of electric vehicles. One example is smart routing – being able to avoid heavy traffic and also to choose journeys where charging facilities are available. Another is improved battery monitoring which gives advanced warning of low battery state or faulty systems.”

Martin Kadhim from Lightfoot says: “Without doubt, the biggest single challenge for electric vehicles and their appeal is their range; how far they travel before they run out of charge. Vehicle range can be considerably improved by making better use of the energy that’s available in the first place. For example, with Lightfoot’s real‑time in-cab feedback and coaching, vehicle range is improved by 10 to 15 per cent.” Lucas Ainscough from TU Automotive said: “Battery and charging technology has come on leaps and bounds in the last three to five years and it is this rather than the more obvious consumer facing infotainment tech that will do more to grow the appeal of EVs.” Taking cars of the road Taking more cars off the road is arguably the best way to reduce emissions, and new mobility trends are allowing people to re-think traditional car ownership, which, according to research, sit idle 90 per cent of the time. In cities where congestion zones and parking restrictions are a problem, some people are using mobility as a service – using car sharing or short term rental cars, as and when needed. These are often facilitated by apps connecting up to the cars to find their

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location and do the bookings online. Viewing mobility as a service also means taking into account the big picture of a journey – so rather than using a vehicle to get from A to B, using an efficient mix of public and private transport. Again, technology is enabling this. Lucas Ainscough from Tu Automotive says: “The trend of using cleaner vehicles, combined with the growth of car sharing and ride sharing service which enable a reduction in total vehicles on the roads, mean that we are moving towards a greener future. “Taking car club DriveNow as a study, they have rolled out their i3 on the platform so not only have they contributed to a reduction of privately owned cars, they are being replaced by electric alternatives.”

Expert Panel: Telematics

“At the RAC, we have seen results as high as 15 per cent in terms of fuel and emission reductions in our own, and in our customers’, fleets.” Yon Copitch also cites having the technology to identify vehicle faults in advance as making a “marked difference”, as vehicles performing in their peak condition can keep emissions at bay.

Self-driving cars Taking the conversation towards the new global push for autonomous cars, our expert panelists give their views on this trend that is enabled by highly sophisticated technology. Although fully automated cars are not expected to be in use in the UK for about 10 years, the government is keen to ensure that Britain is at the forefront of developing driverless technology. Earlier this year the government announced a £20 million funding boost for research and development into autonomous vehicles in the UK, with projects ranging from new simulation trials E



Expert Panel: Telematics

Many vehicle rers ctu manufa aking are m ress in rog rapid p ping and develo ecting perf ving self-dri es vehicl

 for autonomous pods to developing autonomous shuttles to carry visually‑impaired passengers. In Milton Keynes, the first driverless car has been tested for the first time on UK streets. The trial saw a two-seater LUTZ Pathfinder travel 1.25 miles (2km) through pedestrianised areas of Milton Keynes, reaching speeds of up to 15mph while having to cope with walkers and cyclists for the first time. The cars used virtual maps of the town to navigate the area around the train station and business district. A driver was on board to take over in case of emergency, but otherwise the vehicle drove itself. Meanwhile, the House of Lords Science and Technology Committee has launched a new inquiry into the future uses of driverless vehicles in the UK, inviting contributions on the potential uses and benefits in contexts such as road transport, farming and even space exploration. Many major vehicle manufacturers are making rapid progress to developing and perfecting self-driving cars, with Volvo recently announcing the UK’s biggest autonomous driving trial, set to begin in 2017. ‘Drive Me London’ will use real families driving autonomous vehicles on public roads.


In addition, Ford has begun trials of its autonomous vehicles technology at night, to test its capability in complete darkness, and Mercedes-Benz has premiered an efficient and futuristic autonomous driving bus. Yon Copitch from Traffilog reflects back on the early days of autonomous vehicles: “Back in 1995 the goals for self-driving cars were more modest than they are today. They weren’t called autonomous, but self‑driving. And there was no plan to have cars drive themselves on city streets, just on freeways and highways – on the Interstate. The plan was to bury cables in the pavement over which all the cars would drive and communicate with each other and with the road itself. The goal was to fill the road with cars driving at the speed limit, spaced precisely one meter apart. Ironically that simple system, which we could implement cheaply today, would achieve most of the economic and societal goals being pointed to today to support autonomous cars.” Autonomous fleets So will organisations running fleets benefit from self-driving cars? Nick Walker from RAC believes so: “Autonomous vehicles can improve fleet and driver productivity


enormously. For car drivers, the work-time lost due to journeys is significant, so the use of autonomous vehicles will make the journey time more productive. For service fleets, time is lost breaking up longer journeys so autonomous vehicles will address that as well. Additionally, self-driving vehicles will reduce risk in the fleet by lowering accident rates. So vehicle downtime will also be reduced. In short, the benefits will be quite enormous.” Martin Kadhim from Lightfoot believes that in time self driving vehicles will benefit fleets, but that the business case will need to be looked at carefully. He says: “The self driving vehicle adds most value if the person who would have been the driver can do other useful things instead. Those who have emails to answer, documents to write or even calls to make could, in principle, become much more productive. Where this is not the case the benefits are less clear but in time there could still become a strong duty of care argument, especially if self-driving vehicles are shown to have fewer accidents.” Those that spend a lot of time behind the wheel doing monotonous types of journeys, could seriously benefit from a vehicle that can drive itself, according to Lucas Ainscough from TU Automotive. He said: “If we look at road haulage or the taxi/minicab worlds we see people spending hours and hours

behind the wheel doing the most monotonous types of driving, either city driving or endless motorway miles and being able to automate these two functions will relieve a huge burden. With motorway/highway driving being one of the more simple tasks to automate, we can massively reduce the cognitive load placed on truck drivers and thereby reduce accidents; seeing as more than half (52 per cent) of fatal accidents on motorways involve HGVs, despite HGVs only making up 10 per cent of the traffic on motorways, this would be a huge benefit.” Overcoming hurdles Whilst the industry is making rapid progress in making autonomous vehicles a viable reality, there are still major barriers to overcome – in perfecting the vehicles and technology themselves, and also in changing people’s mindsets so that they trust the vehicle to drive itself. Nick Walker from RAC Telematics says it will take a “leap of faith” for anyone to not want to control the car they are in.

sorts of tricky manoeuvres (and negotiations) are required when cars meet each other head on. I can only imagine how an algorithm would cope with some of these situations.” Insurance Earlier this year, ministers launched a consultation on changes to motor insurance rules and the highway code to take into consideration self-driving cars. The proposed plan is for insurance law to change so that motorists who drive ‘self-driving’ cars can be insured properly. The ‘Highway code’ and regulations will be changed to support the safe use of remote control parking and motorway assist features. Speaking about the issue of insurance, Martin Kadhim from Lightfoot says: “Insurance is another practical issue that is likely to cause difficulties, with stories already emerging of Tesla drivers having to agree far higher excesses if they want to use the autopilot functionality. Again, it is not that this is necessarily less safe, but the lack of data makes insurers very nervous.”

Taking more cars off the road is arguably the best way to reduce emissions, and new mobility trends are allowing people to re-think traditional car ownership Pointing out the “glitches” in technology, Lucas Ainscough from TU Automotive said: “We have, particularly since the start of the smartphone era in 2008, become ever more dependent on technology but this comes with a caveat. None of our devices work all the time, they all have glitches, they all crash and some, not naming any names, spontaneously catch fire; this is obviously an issue and inconvenience when it’s a phone, tablet or computer, but when it is a large 1-2 ton lump of metal and plastic moving at 70 mph we need to be convinced that it won’t kill us.” Pointing to some challenges facing the technology, Yon Copitch from Traffilog says: “The main problems are that every street, pavement and driveway that will be used by a self-driving car will need to be mapped. Weather is also a problem as cameras and lasers will have a hard time dealing with challenging weather conditions such as thick fog, heavy rain and snow. Then there is the issue of the vehicles responding to the emergency services – even the most advanced prototypes have a hard time interpreting emergency sirens. If they are ever to be allowed onto real streets, autonomous cars will need to be able to respond appropriately if a police officer waves them down, or an ambulance tries to pass.” Lucas Ainscough from Lightfoot ponders how the technology will interpret certain winding roads and tricky manoeuvres. He said: “I wonder how well the idea of driverless cars – pioneered on large multi‑lane US highways – will work in some of our more challenging European environments. Lightfoot, for example, is based in Devon and we have miles of tight, windy single lane country roads where all

Robot vs Human The panel agrees that there might be issues with comparing a machine’s decision-making abilities, with that of a human. Nick Walker from RAC Telematics says: “While we can program technology to make decisions in much shorter time frames than humans can, and while technology does not get tired and lose concentration, some decisions are much more emotional than fact-based. Imagine being in a situation where to avoid a head-on collision the vehicle needs to swerve right or left. On the left is a bus queue, and on the right is a young mother pushing a baby in a pram. Tough enough for a human to make the call but what would a machine do?” Lucas Ainscough from TU Automotive agrees, saying that even if accidents were less damaging in an autonomous car than a human-driven one, “it is human nature to be more forgiving of other humans than we are of machines.” And then there’s the consideration of how autonomous cars will interact with others driven by a human. Martin Kadhim from Lightfoot said: “A computer will drive differently to a person, perhaps better, but certainly differently. We can only guess as to the impact this type of automated driving behaviour will have on all other road users as they have to interact with cars being driven so differently. From our perspective, we suspect it will further promote the safer, more efficient driving style we see from Lightfoot drivers.”L FURTHER INFORMATION

Nick Walker While we can program technology to make decisions in much shorter time frames than humans can, and while technology does not get tired and lose concentration, some decisions are much more emotional than fact‑based. Imagine being in a situation where to avoid a head-on collision the autonomous vehicle needs to swerve right or left. On the left is a bus queue, and on the right is a mother pushing a baby in a pram. Tough enough for a human to decide but what would a machine do?

Expert Panel: Telematics

Expert final thoughts

Yon Copitch The main problem of autonomous vehicles are that every street, pavement and driveway that will be used will need to be mapped. Weather is also a problem, as cameras and lasers will have a hard time dealing with challenging weather conditions such as thick fog, heavy rain and snow. Then there is the emergency services, with even the most advanced prototypes having a hard time interpreting emergency sirens. Autonomous cars will need to be able to respond appropriately if a police officer waves them down, or an ambulance tries to pass. Martin Kadhim We have just kicked off a project to drive the growth of the next generation of telematics technology in electric and autonomous vehicles. The project will look at the use of technology to further link vehicles with the world around them. This will include things like GPS location‑based speed limiting, and automatic remote early-stage fault detection and diagnosis. The objective is to push the boundaries of these benefits to advance the car’s range, safety and environmental impact. Lucas Ainscough If we look at the current crop of ADAS systems and autonomous cars we can see that they are capable of functioning perfectly well 95 per cent of situations, but it is finessing that final five per cent that is proving to be the most challenging; being able to be sure that the car will behave sensibly in even the most rare and unusual of circumstances. It is this thought that is at the back of a lot of people’s minds when they consider handing over the wheel.




How technology is enabling greener fleets

Written by Gerry Keaney, BVRLA chief executive

Technology is continuously changing the automotive industry, from the way vehicles are powered, to the way they are managed and used. Gerry Keaney, BVRLA chief executive, explains this three-pronged technical revolution which is leading to greener fleets The British Vehicle Rental and Leasing Association (BVRLA) recently released its Fleet Technology White Paper, which highlighted how there are radical changes in the way vehicles are powered, managed and used. The reliance on petrol and diesel fuelled vehicles is in decline as a new family of electric vehicles finally delivers the range, mpg and cost of ownership required to make them serious contenders for rational fleet buyers. After more than a decade when diesel has been the obvious choice for most fleet customers, the fleet industry is facing increasingly complex powertrain decisions. The main challenge to diesel’s dominant position is from technological developments that have enabled petrol engines to catch up in terms of cost and efficiency. Improved boosting-technologies, such as superchargers and turbochargers are behind much of this revival. Their main impact has been to make small engines feel larger than they actually are, enabling carmakers to reduce

engine sizes without sacrificing performance. Diesel engines have also benefitted from improved boosting technologies, but not to the same extent. Consequently, the gap between the two fuels has narrowed in terms of cost, emissions and fuel economy. Electric vehicle sales continue to accelerate, with new plug-in registrations up by 45 per cent in the first six months of 2016. Fleets continue to lead the way, registering three out of four new plug-ins registered. Meanwhile, a number of mainstream manufacturers that make pure EVs are set to compete with Tesla over the next few years by introducing new models with larger battery packs and ranges of more than 300 miles. In support of such developments, the UK government announced £40m of funding that will see cities across the country roll out hundreds of the new public fast and rapid charge points that will be needed by drivers of vehicles with larger batteries. The same grant is being used to fund a range of innovative

EV user incentives, including free parking and access to bus and carpool lanes. Battery advancements There should also be some exciting developments in the role electric batteries play in enhancing the performance and fuel efficiency of conventional internal combustion engine vehicles, as a result of an anticipated shift from the current standard of 12 volt batteries towards cars fitted with 48 volt batteries. In the medium term, perhaps as early as 2020, 48v powertrain systems, where the batteries are recharged by the internal combustion engine and from energy captured during braking, are expected to be ubiquitous. It is claimed that 48v systems will be able to deliver 60-70 per cent of the fuel economy and emissions benefits of the high voltage mild hybrid systems used in today’s plug-in hybrids at just 30 per cent of the cost, because they avoid the need for

Connected cars The powertrain is not the only element of a car that will undergo a technological change. Many new vehicles are already connected, but it’s estimated that 100 per cent of new cars will have an embedded modem by 2020.

These connected cars will enable fleets to have pre‑installed telematics devices ready to go. This connectivity facilitates the collection of enormous volumes of data about driver behaviour, user preferences and the vehicles themselves. Connected vehicles send diagnostics, location information and other vehicle data, while drivers may request information about the nearest garage or ask for a music track to be streamed to their car. Some manufacturers have engineered apps which enable drivers to unlock their car from their smartphone. Fleet managers can use the data from

Changing the way you work These technological developments require a fleet management revolution. For the last couple of decades, leasing companies have been offering a one-stop-shop that delivers accident management, downtime management, short-term rental, service E


expensive safety features and large battery packs. A wide variety of innovative system engineering – whether electrification, boosting or other technologies – are set to further improve the efficiency of internal combustion engines, cutting CO2 emission averages by 10-20 per cent in the next decade or so.

connected vehicles enable better journey planning, identify unnecessary journeys and address poor driving styles. Yet while these technological developments allow rental and leasing companies to provide more added-value services to customers, they can also throw up plenty of headaches for fleet managers and vehicle manufacturers. There are still questions which need to be answered about who owns the data from a connected vehicle, and the fleet industry is keen to ensure there is a single standard for vehicle information, so that the data from a BMW can be compared to that from a Kia, for example. Meanwhile, vehicle manufacturers are utilising these connected vehicles to send service or breakdown alerts to drivers. If, however, the car redirects the driver to the OEM’s preferred garage, rather than the leasing company’s approved maintenance provider, the vehicle manufacturer is effectively positioning itself as a competitor to a vehicle supplier. Elsewhere, Tesla is offering ‘over the air’ upgrades, where drivers can download a software update that improves their vehicle’s EV range. Whatever progress is made, cars will always need servicing and mandatory interventions.


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 maintenance, glass repair, and indeed management of anything that touches the vehicle. This sole supplier model is now under greater pressure than ever before thanks to the prevalence of connected cars, as well as the detail available from an increasingly digitised supply chain. It is becoming easier than ever for fleets to shop around and demonstrate the savings that are being made – both environmental and financial. Whatever the organisational model, whether in-house or outsourced, digitisation will be an increasing trend, with data analysis, smartphone apps and digital payments replacing call centres, static websites and traditional banking methods. Many of those working within the fleet industry will find themselves outside their comfort zone, having to deal with new risks, recruit and manage new skillsets, and develop relationships with a complex array of new suppliers. Most importantly, they will have to deal with new customer expectations. The car use revolution We are also experiencing a fundamental shift in the way individuals and businesses use road transport. Traditional models of car use are being eroded in many urban areas, where the growing problems of congestion and air quality are forcing policymakers to introduce measures that are increasingly anti-car, including reduced road space and higher parking charges. Elsewhere, a new group of motorists made up largely of a younger generation


owning or taking individual responsibility for them. This same generation is also comfortable with a digital, smartphone-enabled approach to buying and using mobility services. Those in this age category are more than happy to reduce their emissions, and take a sustainable attitude to their travel plans. At the same time, technology is blurring the traditional boundaries between car clubs, vehicle rental and leasing. Rental and leasing companies have seized this opportunity and are rapidly developing their own digital platforms. This enables them to provide more flexible access to leased and rented vehicles, as well as to offer car sharing, parking services and tickets for public transport. This explosion in mobility business models has led to the concept of Mobility as a Service (MaaS) being embraced by both local and national transport policymakers. MaaS is about providing users, both travellers and freight, with seamless, on‑demand access to a range of transport modes tailored to their individual needs. Instead of viewing transport as a series of separate journeys, it will be delivered as an integrated, reactive, mobility system driven by technology and a desire for personalised services. In its simplest form, this brings every kind of transport together in a single, intuitive mobile app that combines transport options from different providers, handling everything from


travel planning to payments and expenses. This end-goal is particularly appealing to urban transport planners who want to tackle the congestion, safety and air quality challenges in their ever-expanding cities by reducing private vehicle ownership and use. Instead of viewing transport as a series of separate journeys, with MaaS it is integrated. Every kind of transport can be brought together in a single, intuitive mobile app that combines options from different providers. Rental and leasing companies continue to play a key role in this world of mobility services, whether they are delivering a bespoke solution or something that has been bought off the shelf. Conclusion These three revolutions will benefit society but create new challenges for fleet operators. However, they should be seen as an opportunity. They are an opportunity to reduce carbon emissions. An opportunity to optimise business journeys. And an opportunity to operate a more efficient fleet. There will be more of these challenges and opportunities going forward, with more technological developments. Fortunately, the fleet industry has years of experience of delivering innovative services to their customers, and BVRLA members should be the first point of call for any company seeking fleet management advice. L FURTHER INFORMATION


Expert Panel: Electric Vehicles

EXPERT PANEL GreenFleet taps into the minds of its expert panel to assess the place of electric vehicles in company car fleets and what the major barriers to adoption will be moving forward

Mark Bonnor-Moris, director of business development, Chargemaster Plc Previous to his current role Mark was head of electric vehicle infrastructure (EVI) for UK and Ireland for Siemens. Mark has now joined the senior management at Chargemaster with a remit to strengthen its market leading position. Mark is well respected within the EVI industry and sits on a number of industry groups and committees

Gary Stirling, operations support manager, Everwarm

Poppy Welch, head of the Go Ultra Low campaign

Gary has grown Everwarm’s electric vehicle charge point sector from strength to strength. He has worked with charge point manufacturers and with various schemes and has been key in developing the current EVCP infrastructure. He has managed installations at high-profile locations including the House of Commons

Poppy started her career in communications at top advertising agency J Walter Thompson, working on the global Vodafone business. After a number of different roles in advertising, she went client side at Vodafone UK. After leave to have children, she returned to head up the Go Ultra Low campaign at SMMT in July 2015

Despite still occupying a relatively small proportion of total cars on British Roads, electric vehicles (EVs) are steadily improving sales and occupying an increasingly prominent share of the UK automotive market. 9,657 ULEVs were registered in the UK from April to June 2016, which represents an increase of 49 per cent compared to the same period last year and 253 per cent compared to 2014. This trend will have to continue, and likely improve, if the government is to reach its target of almost all cars and vans to be zero‑emission by 2050, and the government had pledged £600 million worth of funding across this parliament in order to achieve this. Transport Minister John Hayes announced a major £35 million package to boost the uptake of ultra-low emission vehicles across the UK on 13 October 2016, which includes £20 million to help councils roll out charge points for

ultra-low emission taxis; up to £10 million for charge points outside workplaces and homes where there is no off-street parking; £2 million for public and private sector organisations to deploy hydrogen fuel cell vehicles; and a £3.75 million scheme to encourage the uptake of zero emission motorcycles and scooters. Thus far, fleets have played an important role as early adopters of low emission technology, as fleet managers look to improve average fleet emissions, increase efficiency and save money. Europcar recently placed the largest‑ever order for the Renault Zoe and now has 55 of the EVs as part of its hire and support fleets, strengthening its commitment to make five per cent of its fleet all‑electric by the end of the decade. Vehicles like the Nissan e-NV200 have also proved popular, with Jersey Post recently purchasing 15 of the all-electric vans to

Sander van der Veen, country manager UK, the New Motion Sander has a strong belief that it is this generation that needs to solve climate change, which is what gets him out of bed every day. Trained as an engineer, his previous experiences include strategy consulting as well as launching a startup in South East Asia. Sander is UK country manager at EV charging company the New Motion

make up part of its 110 strong van fleet following a successful 18 month trial. The public sector is also taking a leading role in showing how low emission vehicles can be effectively incorporated into fleets, with Leeds City Council deploying 42 new EVs in 2016, which will travel a combined 45,000 miles a year and offer fuel savings of up to £24,600. Moving into the future we are likely to see fleets take even more decisive steps to lower emissions, especially those that operate within cities with high pollution levels. A government consultation was launched in October 2016 to evaluate how best to introduce Clean Air Zones in key cities across the UK. There are plans in place to launch these new Clean Air Zones in Birmingham, Leeds, Nottingham, Derby and Southampton by 2020 to deliver on the government’s commitment to reduce emissions. Although the exact details of how these E Volume 98 | GREENFLEET MAGAZINE


Expert Panel: Electric Vehicles

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 Zones will operate is not yet clear, it is likely that targeted areas with the worst air quality could limit the use of older more polluting vehicles and introduce measures to encourage new low emissions vehicles. These kind of plans are already being put forward for London, as Mayor Sadiq Khan has announced his intention to introduce the ultra low emission zone (ULEZ) by 2019, a year ahead of the original schedule. The ULEZ will look to take ‘bold action’ to tackle to growing issue of air pollution in the capital and includes a proposed emissions surcharge that would mean drivers of older more polluting vehicles would be made to pay an additional amount on top of the congestion charge.

Electric fleets EVs will likely become an even more attractive option for fleet managers amid these increasing charges and restrictions. Discussing why EVs are particularly suitable for company cars, Chargemaster’s Mark Bonnor-Moris highlighted the fact that they excel in cities with poor air quality and are much more efficient for stop-start journeys. Mark believes that Pure EVs ‘have an important role to play where journey distances are more local’ and gives the examples of pool cars, multi-drop courier journeys in cities/urban areas and maintenance teams who visit multi‑sites within a determined


geographical area. He acknowledged that pure EVs may not be suitable for all company car needs and thinks that plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) can also play an important role in a company’s fleet mix. Mark believes that PHEVs are becoming increasingly popular as they ‘enable longer motorway distances whilst ensuing zero emission driving for shorter distances and improving air quality in urban/city environments’. In Gary Stirling’s mind, EVs make ‘perfect sense for company cars and fleet.’ He said: “The savings that can be made by fleet managers on fuel costs compared to the cost of charging an electric vehicle are incredible and that’s before you take into account the zero‑rated car tax and zero rated fuel tax.” The New Motion’s Sander van der Veen echoed Stirling’s sentiment and noted that ‘the largest immediate impact of EVs to a fleet is the sharp reduction in fuel costs’, with the cost per mile being a third to half that of a petrol car at current price levels. Poppy Welch, head of the Go Ultra Low campaign, said that EVs ‘deliver on both counts making sound financial and environmental sense’ and she thinks that the wide variety of EVs now available on the market means there is a plug-in model to ‘suit the needs of every fleet and company car driver’. She explained: “For example, comparing a


zero‑emission BMW i3 (£30,980 on the road) with an almost identically priced 104g/km Volvo V60 D4 SE Nav (£31,045), reveals the tax benefits for lower (20 per cent) and higher (40 per cent) rate drivers and the Class 1A NIC savings for employers over four years. Over the four-years to 2019/20, company car drivers will pay a total of £2,981 less in BIK tax on the BMW i3 if a lower rate taxpayer and £5,963 if a higher rate taxpayer. Employers over the four-year period will save themselves a total of £2,056 in Class 1A NIC by choosing the BMW i3. On a fleet of just 10 models that equates to a saving of more than £20,000.” In addition to the large longer term tax savings, Sander highlighted the ’significantly reduced’ maintenance costs of EVs, which can be up to 20 per cent less that traditionally fuelled vehicles as there are much less turning parts that could break. He also noted that moving to a ‘real green fleet’ has an instant positive impact on a company’s Corporate Social Responsibility performance. Key considerations Gary Stirling stressed that ’it is of vital importance that organisations do their homework before committing to EVs’. He believes that is ‘essential’ that companies ensure they get the right specification for their needs and suggested that a PHEV can be a ‘good stepping stone’, giving drivers the benefits of an EV with the back up of a combustion engine.

Expert Panel: Electric Vehicles

Although he believes EVs are the future, Gary also cautioned that they ‘may not meet every organisations needs right at this very moment’. Poppy Welch has a slightly different opinion and believes there is an ‘electric vehicle for every job’, but shares Gary’s opinion that fleet operators must do their homework to ensure they ‘select an appropriate vehicle for their needs’.

this is not the case. In most cases a small number of charges installed in the right location will be more than sufficient. “And finally there’s driver education. Drivers generate bad habits, which mean less efficient driving, which is more noticeable in a pure EV. Smooth acceleration, smooth breaking, predicting the road ahead so drivers benefit from regenerative breaking will significantly

Range anxiety was highlighted as one of the main concerns and major barrier to adoption, but Poppy Welch thinks that this fear ‘quickly fades as the capabilities of plug-in cars are understood’ For Mark Bonnor-Moris there are three major considerations for fleet operators when selecting an EV: journey cycle, charging and driver education. He explains: “Many fleet operators wrongly assume mileages travelled daily are higher than they are in reality. Data from the UK government shows that more than 99 per cent of UK daily car journeys are shorter than 100 miles. Where a vehicle travels less than 70 miles every day, these are perfect for switching to a pure EV vehicle. “Charging is another consideration, there is a misconception that charging infrastructure will involve significant investment however

increase mileages achieved in pure EVs and most manufactures can help here at no cost.” Poppy also stressed the importance of driver training and advised that companies can ‘help employees choose the right vehicle by providing guidance and education on company cars to help them understand the tax implications’. This includes ensuring employees understand how to run EVs as efficiently as possible and understanding the government support available - such as the Electric Vehicle Homecharge Scheme which provides up to £500 off the cost of installing a home charger. Sander shares Gary’s view that a PHEV could can often be the ‘best option’

instead of a pure EV, but cautions that it is of ‘crucial importance to monitor and maximise the electric miles’, otherwise the expected fuel savings will not materialise. He recommends that the best way to achieve this is ‘for a fleet manager is to install smart, cloud-connected charge points that allow monitoring, driver identification and billing and settlement via a back-office system’. Overcoming concerns All of our experts acknowledged that both fleet operators and private drivers have concerns over switching to an EV, but they believe many of these are overblown and can be easily overcome. Range anxiety was highlighted as one of the main concerns and major barrier to adoption, but Poppy Welch thinks that this fear ‘quickly fades as the capabilities of plug-in cars are understood’. She explained: “The average UK commute is less than 10 miles and the majority of plug-in car and van drivers are able to charge their vehicles entirely at home or work, only occasionally using public charge points as a back-up or additional top-up for longer journeys. As well as only commuting short distances, more than a third of UK motorists never travel more than 80 miles in a single trip, within the range of most pure EVs.” Poppy also suggested that boosting opportunities to charge by installing workplace charging can help to counter any potential issues within an electric fleet. E Volume 98 | GREENFLEET MAGAZINE


Expert Panel: Electric Vehicles

Expert final thoughts  Mark Bonnor-Moris also believes that range anxiety can be ‘very simple to address and overcome’. He advises: “By reviewing fleet journey cycles to identify to which vehicles can easily be substituted for a pure EV, you will make the transition successfully, achieve cost and CO2 reductions and not restrict existing journey cycles. Combine this with driver education and you will see the benefits of increased vehicle range through more appropriate driving style.” While he also acknowledges range anxiety as the main concern for drivers, Gary Stirling believes that developments in charging infrastructure, paired with the ’ever developing battery technology’ which car manufacturers are applying to their vehicles, means that it ‘will only be a matter of time until range anxiety is a thing of the past’. He uses the Tesla Model S P100D as an example of the capability of EVs, as the premium all-electric sedan has the ability to travel 381 miles on a single charge, which Gary rightly points out ’is the equivalent of travelling from Glasgow to Milton Keynes’. Sander van der Veen also brings up the issue of high purchasing costs, which he thinks prevent some drivers and fleet managers from choosing an EV. According to Sander, this concern can be ‘easily overcome by generating more awareness about how electric vehicles are better for business’. He claims that knowledge about subsidies offered in the UK is the ‘biggest step’, which must be complemented by increased ‘understanding of the total cost of ownership savings electric fleets can deliver in the short term’. A look to the future According to Sander, there are four key developments that we will continue to track for the evolution of electric cars: improved battery technology; load balancing on the grid; V2G and wireless; and fully automated and connected cars. Sander explains that even more choice will be available to drivers in the near

future, with a dozen new EVs set to be released in Q1 2017. In his words, ‘the race is on to improve battery technology’, as he thinks this will be the next big step in improving the performance if EVs. He says: “We will see increasing battery energy density (kWh/kg), thereby reducing weight and volume requirements as well as decreases in cost (£/kWh). This may continue to come from incremental improvements to lithium-ion technology in the short term, but likely also from the use of different materials in the mid to long term.” Sander also thinks the movement towards connected and fully autonomous cars will play an increasingly significant role in the future of mobility. For Mark Bonnor-Moris, there are two key factors changing the market: batteries are becoming more powerful, so range is increasing, and production is scaling up, so cost will start decreasing. Mark explains that this will ‘result in a larger addressable market and lower cost of ownership’, which he thinks will make the EV fleet mix higher. Poppy Welch has a positive outlook for the future of electric fleets, as EV technology is ‘constantly evolving and improving, making the plug-in experience increasingly convenient for motorists’. She singles out the new Renault Zoe, which will have a range if 250 miles by the end of 2016, as a good example of the kind of practical options that will become even more readily available to fleet managers in the near future. Gary Stirling shares this positive attitude and believes it is an ‘exciting time to be involved with electric vehicles’. Examples such as the Tesla Model 3, where over 400,000 have already been pre-ordered, make Gary believe that it is ‘only a matter of time until the majority of vehicles on the UK roads are electric’. L FURTHER INFORMATION

Mark Bonnor-Moris In a recent piece by Bloomberg New Energy Finance, they forecast electric cars to be cheapest across the board within a decade and predict 35 per cent of new cars sold could be electric by 2040. This is happening now with the Nissan LEAF promoting 155 miles range and many more EVs planned for launch in 2017 with a 200 mile range – the truth is EVs are moving from the niche or second car market to a vehicle for the masses. It’s an exciting time to be part of this market development. Gary Stirling It’s an exciting time to be involved with electric vehicles; with the market still in its infancy there are so many possibilities of where we could end up next. While we see vehicle manufacturers producing cars which are faster, with bigger batteries and longer ranges we also see real development on the charging aspect with wireless charging gaining a lot of interest. When you look at the numbers Tesla have released on the Model 3 where over 400,000 vehicles have been pre‑ordered ahead of its release next year I believe it is only a matter of time until the majority of vehicles on the UK roads are electric. Poppy Welch Electric vehicle technology is constantly evolving and improving, making the plug-in experience increasingly convenient for motorists. Manufacturers are developing plug-in cars with longer range, such as the new pure electric Renault Zoe which will have a range of 250 miles by the end of 2016, enabling motorists to travel further on a single charge, while enhancements to infrastructure are also being made. Sander van der Veen Electric vehicles will become an integral component to our society’s electricity system, dynamically charging and discharging on the grid when required. With the increasing share of intermittent renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energy, electric vehicles will play a crucial role to balance the system. Already today there are early stage pilots with electric vehicles charging wirelessly, reducing the inconvenience of carrying a charge cable. It is likely that this technology will replace slow and fast chargers in the mid-term, while rapid charging most likely will be needing a lead due to the high powers involved.



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Leading 800 WORD by example EDIT HEADLINE on electric HERE vehicles AS TIGHT AS POSS

First-hand experience of the benefits of running electric vehicles has helped UK leasing companies promote fleet uptake of the technology pivotal role through education on wholelife costs and employee benefits. Many now recognise the importance in offering consultancy services to ensure that if a fleet is interested in taking on electric vehicles, it is fully educated about the technologies so can make well-informed decisions.” Lex Autolease, the UK’s largest vehicle leasing and fleet management company, has seen the number of plug-in electric vehicles on its fleet more than double, from 2,000 in 2015 to around 4,400 now. This is partly down to greater awareness and understanding of the technologies, as well as a greater choice of plug-in vehicles, said Chris Chandler, principal consultant at Lex Autolease. “Our key responsibility is to provide customers with the best advice to ensure vehicles fit their exact requirements,” he added. “With CO2-based taxation and fuel costs as they are, more and more clients are asking us about electric vehicles. As we closely evaluate their needs, it’s becoming increasingly clear that electric vehicles are proving to be the best-fit for their business, so we promote them as the ultimate solution.” L

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Rental and leasing companies are responsible uptake of ultralow and zero emission vehicles. Udae icidisquid quam elisimincim facepro et,all sed for morenonsend than four million vehicles in the “Reducing CO emissionset from 2 quodi blaborum ut molorem nosiseumque laboribus UK, and British Vehicle Rental and Leasing aut ationse vehicle usage important and Ogilvie Association (BVRLA) figures show 4.2 Fleet is leading by example, while also et quoditiat dolo qui dethatvolecab orerisqui nitibusdae nullacianti per cent of its members’ vehicles are electric, encouraging our customers to be similarly rest, sitiatis ut idem quodi consequat facimagnime pernatemquae while 3.7 per cent of their new registrations in pro-active if electric models are proven nimus earibus, temoripsaest moluptatium espurpose net etfor business as well Q2 2016 were pure electric plug-in hybrids. to be fit for “This is well ahead of the market penetration as employees’ lifestyle requirements.” xoxoxoxoacross all new registrations,” said achieved He added: “Historically, diesel Gerry Keaney, chief executive of the BVRLA. power has for many years dominated FURTHER According to Society of Motor our own company car fleet. INFORMATION Manufacturers & Traders (SMMT) data, “The move away from pure diesel xxx businesses were responsible for 72 per is being driven by a combination of cent of EV registrations in the first half of factors, but the most important is the 2016, and Keaney added: “Our industry is benefit-in-kind tax cost per month. determined to reduce carbon emissions.” “Our staff have all the information at their Two leasing companies – Ogilvie Fleet disposal and are using their knowledge and Fleetdrive – have demonstrated and experience to make their car choices. their commitment to EVs by gaining “Like most company car drivers our Go Ultra Low Company status. employees want to pay the lowest This is awarded to public and private amount of benefit-in-kind tax possible, organisations that already use electric while ensuring their chosen car meets vehicles, or offer them to employees their lifestyle requirements.” as company cars, provided there is a commitment for them to make up five Go Ultra Low per cent of their vehicle fleet by 2020. Poppy Welch, head of Go Ultra Low, said: “We’ve been encouraged by Fleetdrive the growing number of fleets realising the Fleetdrive has already passed this multiple advantages of electric vehicles. threshold for both its own company Businesses need to be bold - opening their car fleet and its risk fleet. thinking to incorporate electric vehicles Michael Potter, managing director of and the cost savings they bring. Fleetdrive, said: “We are at 95 per cent “Leasing companies continue to play a for our own fleet and 26 per cent for our leasing fleet at the moment, and it looks like we will be delivering our 1,000th EV within the next month. “We find that running our own EVs helps us understand the technology which enables us to explain it better to our customers. “The price of leasing EVs has also come down quite a bit in the past 18 months while there are savings for fuel as well: for every £100 you spend on petrol or diesel, you are probably going to spend around £15 on electricity. It’s a dramatic difference.” Potter said maintenance costs are also much lower for EVs. “We are well under half the cost mile-for-mile for maintenance compared to a petrol or diesel vehicle.”

FURTHER INFORMATION To learn more about EVs and how you can join the Go Ultra Low Companies initiative, visit

Ogilvie Fleet Ogilvie Fleet has 35 vehicles on its own company car fleet, of which 17 per cent are electric. The business is forecasting this proportion will grow to 25 per cent by 2020. Nick Hardy, sales and marketing director at Ogilvie Fleet, said: “It is great that we have qualified with our own company car fleet to support Go Ultra Low’s drive to encourage



IAA 2016

Commercial vehicles exhibit their cleaner side The 66th edition of the Hannover International Motor Show took place from 22-29 September. GreenFleet takes a look at the biggest European exhibition of commercial and industrial vehicles, and puts the spotlight on a few of the more notable light commercials on show Fiat Professional At the biggest European exhibition of commercial and industrial vehicles, Fiat Professional showed its revitalised full line-up in Hannover. With its offerings covering a massive 97 per cent of the market, the Italian brand displayed everything from its new Fiorino city van to the Euro 6-equipped Ducato. The company’s largest offering was also celebrating its 35th anniversary in Germany, and over those three-and-a-half decades, the Ducato has found over 2.9 million customers who like its blend of qualities. In-between its smallest largest LCV models, Fiat


Professional proudly presented its new Fullback pick-up (GreenFleet 97), its new medium-sized Talento as well as a refreshed Doblò Cargo. With a van to suit most needs, all of the 2016 Fiat Professional range is now Euro 6-compliant, with alternative fuels such as CNG also featuring heavily. Volkswagen e-Crafter As with Fiat Professional, Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles exhibited a completely new range of vehicles at IAA 2016 for the first time. From the small city car-based Load Up to the new Crafter, the German giant displayed a range of ‘lightweight commercial vehicles fit for daily service and mobile everyday life,’ according to Dr Eckhard Scholz, chairman of the board of management. The new Crafter was the star of the stand, and with a maximum permitted weight of 5.5 metric tonnes, a larger maximum cargo volume of 18.4m3 and a range of drivetrains, there was a lot to shout about. The ‘International Van of the Year’ jury also agreed, as the latest version of VW’s largest commercial received the 2017 prize. However, the new electric e-Crafter concept also made an appearance at the 66th running of the IAA show. Although a concept Volkswagen says that the e-Crafter will “already be in customers’ hands by 2017.”


While it has an electric drive system, its cargo area is unimpaired by the powertrain, and there are no changes to the overall dimensions. With a permitted total weight of 4.2 tonnes, the roadworthy concept uses a 100kW electric motor to power it up to the maximum permitted speed of 50mph. A 312-cell, 43kWh battery pack sits under the load floor, and depending on configuration, gives a range of 125 miles. Subject to sufficient charging current capacity, the batteries can also be charged back up to 80 per cent in 45 minutes. VW also says that the e-Crafter’s design already takes into account future battery developments, which – depending on customer requirements and specification – can be freely configured to enable ranges as large as 250 miles. Mercedes-Benz Vision Van study Mercedes-Benz revealed its all-electric Vision van study in Hannover. The Vision van has been developed as part of its adVANce initiative, which will see Mercedes-Benz Vans invest approximately €500 million over the next five years for digitalisation, automation and robotics in vans. The Vision Van combines various innovative solutions for last-mile delivery in urban and suburban environments and is the first van to fully digitally connect all people and processes involved, from the distribution centre to the consignee. The Vision Van is equipped with a 75kW electric drive and has a range of up to 167 miles (270km). It also features a fully automated cargo space and integrated delivery drones, which will enable delivery of multiple packages to nearby consignees autonomously by air.

Threat to LCVs increases as vehicle theft rises for the first time in 20 years

The Mercedes-Benz Vision Van study features innovative solutions for last-minute deliveries, and is fully digitally connected

Fiat Professional displayed its revitalised Euro 6 range at IAA 2016

The adVANce initiative will look to adapt the Mercedes-Benz Vans offering to meet the needs of its customers’ changing requirements, with a focus on delivering innovative mobility solutions through increased digitalisation and automation. Hyundai H350 Fuel Cell Concept Hyundai Motors unveiled a new fuel cell concept in Germany which demonstrated a light commercial vehicle (LCV) application for hydrogen technology. The H350 Fuel Cell Concept has a range of 262 miles (422km): its 175-litre hydrogen tanks takes just under four minutes to fill. It is powered by a 100kW electric motor and 24kWh lithium-ion battery. The H350 has been designed to so that the powertrain does not impact the load areas, meaning it provides 10.5m³ or 12.9m³ of space, depending on wheelbase, or room for a 14-seat passenger compartment. The H350 Fuel Cell concept follows on from Hyundai’s pioneering work on the ix35 Fuel Cell and continues the company’s commitment to hydrogen technology and sustainable transport solutions. L

IAA 2016

The new Crafter was the star of the Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles, with the new all-electric e-Crafter revealed (inset)

In 2014, vehicle theft reached it’s lowest point in half a century. But now criminals are hitting back, exploiting new techniques to overcome manufacturers security systems to illicitly access and steal vehicles and their contents. The trends are now in regression, with vehicle theft up for the first time in 20 years. Of even greater concern for fleet operators and van owners is that panel vans are topping the list of targeted vehicles, with the Ford Transit and Mercedes Sprinter leading the way as the most stolen vehicle on the road. Much of the recent surge in LCV crime can be attributed to new keyless theft techniques. Initially the crime appeared to be isolated to high end cars, which were in all likelihood being stolen to order, but increasingly LCV’s are falling victim. The majority of modern vehicles are supplied with an accessible On-Board-Diagnostics port (OBD Port). It is designed to allow vehicle technicians access to the status of the various vehicle subsystems, whilst also providing access to real-time data and diagnostic codes. The same port can also be used by garages and locksmiths to produce replacement keys. Unfortunately this same method is being used by criminals to simply programme a new or replacement key – it takes but a few seconds before the ‘perfect’ crime is complete. It is a problem that can be combatted with the addition of a simple, cost effective protection device in the form of an OBD Port Protector, which is available from Maple. A secure housing that encases the OBD access point, it blocks unauthorised access and use of the port. The unit is supplied with a uniquely coded key for when access to the OBD Port is required. Criminals are quick to identify any weakness or vulnerability in specific designs, when that vehicle also happens to be one of the most commonly used on the road, the problem intensifies – as is the case right now across the UK. One such vulnerability found on some panel vans (including the Ford Transit) is the drivers door cylinder, which can easily be picked or even manipulated by physically gripping and turning the cylinder until it unlocks. Typically these attacks are completed within just a few seconds, providing immediate access to the perpetrator and further scope to unlock other doors or illicitly drive the vehicle away. A cost effective solution is to replace the existing cylinder with a bespoke, anti-pick alternative, such as the Maple RepLock. Coupled with an outer protection bezel, it blocks and deters this increasingly common method of attack. Contact Maple Fleet Services to find out more about how you can protect your vehicles against these emerging trends. FURTHER INFORMATION Tel: 0161 429 1580

FURTHER INFORMATION 2016/en/ Hyundai H350 Fuel Cell Concept has a range of 262 miles from its 175-litre hydrogen tanks



Fuel Cards


FUEL CARDS With fuel representing a major cost for fleets, we ask our fuel card experts what a fuel management strategy should include, as well as whether the fuel card industry will offer alternative energy, such as electricity or hydrogen, in the future Whilst the world is still dependent on oil, we will be at the mercy of fluctuating fuel costs. For organisations operating a fleet of vehicles, the cost of fuel is one of their biggest expenditures, but even having a simple fuel management strategy in place can make significant savings. “Fuel can account for up to 40 per cent of a fleets business spend,” says Andrew Goodwin from Certas Energy. “So a fuel management strategy is crucial. An effective fuel management strategy can have a greater impact than just pence per litre; it can help to reduce costs and improve efficiency.” Road haulage fleets operating internationally have specific considerations to bear in mind, as Gertjan Breij from DKV Euro Service Benelux explains: “Hauliers operating internationally face a complex purchasing situation: diesel net prices, VAT and fuel excise duty rates as well as the level of refundable international tax payments vary throughout Europe. However, if you ensure that purchasing processes and fuel management strategies take this into consideration, you can definitely save money.” So what should a fuel strategy look like? Areas such as tyre pressure, vehicle maintenance, driver training, vehicle type, fuel type, route optimisation and fuel card usage, should all be included. Driver behaviour No matter how efficient the vehicle is, if it is driven badly – by braking harshly, speeding and idling – it will use unnecessary fuel. Cedric Vigneau from AS24 says the driver must have a “light right foot,” as research suggest that driving in an economical fashion can lead to up to 15 per cent savings on fuel consumption. There is also the added environmental benefit of saving emissions too. Using telematics or reports from fuel cards to identify which employees are driving in an inefficient style allows fleet managers to put in place eco driver training, and offer incentives and rewards for those that drive the most economically. Andrew Goodwin from Certas Energy said: “A fleet company can work with their drivers to look at their behaviour when out on the road. Assessing driver speeds, revving and times sat idle gives details of things that can be changed quickly


Andrew Goodwin, sales and operations manager, Certas Energy Andrew has worked for Certas Energy since April 2008 in a variety of roles all around the development of fuel cards. He is now responsible for the growth and development of the Certas Energy bunker site network and has extensive knowledge of the fuel card industry Gertjan Breij, director, DKV Euro Service Benelux Gertjan Breij was appointed director of DKV Euro Service Benelux B.V. in 2011. Gertjan is responsible for general management and to grow the company. Gertjan is charged with the business operations covering the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxemburg, England and Ireland Bryan Glazier, UK sales manager, WEX Europe Services Bryan has worked in the fuel card industry since the mid‑1990s in key roles for Esso Petroleum Company, Limited and WEX Europe Services. Bryan has experience of most western European fuel card markets, and worked with fleets in the capacity of a fuel card supplier Cédric Vigneau, managing director for UK & Ireland, AS24 After working for TOTAL for 12 years, and after roles in marketing, Cédric has been the managing director for AS24 in UK & Ireland for the last four years. Cédric is French but lives in the UK. AS24 UK & Ireland has operated for 30 years as a haulage fuel card expert

if needed to reduce costs and become more effective. At Certas Energy, we have achieved a two per cent improvement in driver efficiency which, with a fleet of over 1,000 tankers can add up considerably.” Using telematics data to analyse the types of routes that drivers take can also lead to fuel savings, as shorter and less congested routes can be implemented. Bryan Glazier from Wex said: “The simplest and the most effective way to reduce fuel and fleet spend is to drive less miles, therefore where possible fleets should look to optimise their logistics and fleet utilisation.” 


Tyres and vehicle maintenance A vehicle’s performance can be negatively impacted when not kept in top shape. Getting vehicles serviced regularly, and using diagnostics data to identify faults earlier can result in vehicles performing at their peak condition and not burning unnecessary fuel. Tyres play an important part in a fuel strategy. Andrew Goodwin from Certas Energy explains: “Research shows that tyre pressure affects miles per gallon, for example, under inflated tyres gives increased rolling resistance with the road which means reduced fuel efficiency and increased CO2 emissions.”

Fuel Cards

A crucial uel af part of ement manag is having y strateg lower fuel o t access , as well as prices visibility of better spend fuel allow managers to do this.

Vehicle choice is a significant part of keeping fuel costs down. These days, vehicle manufacturers have a range of cleaner diesel and petrol vehicles, as well as a selection of electric, hybrid and hydrogen offerings. Fleet buyers need to make sure they choose the most fuel-efficient vehicle that can do the job, as well as get rid of surplus vehicles. Fuel Cards Having access to lower fuel prices, as well as having better visibility and control over drivers’ fuel spend is a crucial part of a fuel management strategy. Fuel cards

A fuel card allows drivers to charge the cost of fuel to an account settled by their employer. During the transaction, the vehicle registration number and mileage are recorded. The invoice details where, when and what time fuel was purchased, as well as what type of fuel and how much it cost. This information allows fleet managers to cut down on administrative tasks as they no longer have to collect receipts and expense forms from employees, or worry that staff are rounding up mileage and being overpaid. The captured information on fuel costs, forecourt location and mileage can be extremely

valuable to fleet managers, as it gives them insight into a drivers fuelling behaviour and allows them to put in place corrective action. For example, driver training can be implemented for those identified as having an aggressive driving style. And route optimisation can be put in place for those doing unnecessary miles. Bryan Glazier from Wex says: “The management information available through a fuel card programme can be interrogated to highlight unnecessary transactions, and provide fuel consumption analysis at an individual vehicle level.”  DKV’s Gertjan Breij adds: “By making use of digital reporting from the fuel cards, E Volume 98 | GREENFLEET MAGAZINE


 hauliers get access to unambiguous data based on vehicle, fuel card or cost item. Such a reporting system provides immediate insights in costs and applicable VAT refunds/ fuel excise duty refunds. This makes it much easier to calculate the net fuel costs incurred for the entire fleet, resulting in full cost control and reduced fuel spend.” Limiting usage Many fuel cards allow organisations to set limits on usage, for example, to get drivers to fill up at supermarkets with lower-cost fuel, rather than motorway service stations. Cedric Vigneau from AS24 says: “Using fuel cards can help a fleet manager control who fills when, where, how many times, and with what. A fleet manager can detect the non‑expected fillings, at days and hours where it is not required. It also allows them to control prices. For example, there is no sense to fill-up in the UK before crossing to France or Belgium, as the UK is much more expensive.” Gertjan Breij from DKV agrees, highlighting that some other countries vary their fuel prices according to the time of day. He says: “In Germany, fuel prices vary hourly,

alternative fuels. Shell has revealed its UK service stations could offer electric vehicle charging next year. And in America, Mark Oil, which distributes fuel for BP, is going to work with Nissan to offer free DC fast-charging in 10 fuel stations in North Carolina. So will fuel card providers include the option of buying alternative fuels in the future? Gertjan Breij says DKV already is: “We have developed the DKV Card +Charge for hybrid trucks. This card was first introduced in Germany, with now over 4,000 charging stations being connected. Other European countries are expected to be included in the network in the near future. These examples show that the infrastructure for respective alternative fuels is developing more and more.” Bryan Glazier from Wex believes that fuel card providers and EV charging network providers could work together in the future. He also believes that hydrogen could be easily incorporated into a fuel card system should the fuel take off. He said: “There are a very small number of hydrogen refuelling sites in the UK and whilst a fuel card could be configured to purchase this product relatively

For organisations operating a fleet of vehicles, the cost of fuel is one of their biggest expenditures. But even having a simple fuel management strategy in place can make significant savings usually dropping in the evening. When comparing Belgian fuel prices with prices in Luxembourg, fuelling in Luxembourg appears cheaper. However, when subtracting discounts, VAT and diesel duty refunds refuelling in Belgium is actually the better option. It is therefore important to account for all factors when it comes down to choosing the cheapest fuelling location.” What’s more, Gertjan Breij says that attention should be paid to whether the tank is topped up every day or only when empty. He says: “If a 600-litre tank is topped up daily with only half this volume used each day, the unnecessary fuel costs due to increased weight amount to €2,500 per vehicle per year. This implies that there is a considerable saving to be achieved if a policy is put in place that sets up for fuelling only when necessary.” Alternative fuels On the 20 July 2016, the European Commission published its strategy for low emission mobility. It detailed plans to speed up the deployment of low emission alternative energy for transport, such as electricity, hydrogen, advanced biofuels and renewable synthetic fuels, as well as removing obstacles to the electrification of transport. It also outlined plans for Europe to accelerate the transition towards low and zero-emission vehicles. While the world still depends greatly on oil, recent news has shown that even the oil giants are beginning to think about

easily, it is ultimately demand led. The number of Hydrogen refuelling sites is unlikely to rise unless the numbers of Hydrogen vehicles increases and vice versa. The same was noticeable 20+ years ago in regards LPG.” For AS24, gas is the greener fuel they are embracing. He said: “We think gas could be an alternative to diesel in the middle term. That’s why we are investing in this technology and we are about to open our first CNG station.” Meanwhile, Andrew Goodwin from Certas Energy said: “We have been investigating alternative fuels for our fleet and those of our customers. The most promising of which is a paraffinic fuel which will be implemented in the coming months. The cleaner transport fuel can lower local emissions by up to 38 per cent including particulate matter, NOx, hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. We are constantly reviewing products available and are looking at opportunities to introduce hydrogen products in the future.” Many fuel card operators have a carbon offset scheme, so members will be contributing to certified carbon protection projects. Gertjan Breij from DKV says: “It needs to be noted that complete elimination of CO2 emissions cannot be achieved yet through the use of alternative fuels or hybrid trucks. DKV believes that hauliers should therefore be given the opportunity to compensate CO2 emissions in an efficient way. To allow for this, DKV has introduced the climate neutral DKV Card Climate.” L

Andrew Goodwin Certas Energy has been investigating alternative fuels for our fleet and those of our customers. The most promising of which is a paraffinic fuel which will be implemented in the coming months. The cleaner transport fuel can lower local emissions by up to 38 per cent including particulate matter, NOx, hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. As a forward thinking and innovative business, and with ongoing legislation in the industry, we are constantly reviewing products available and are looking at opportunities to introduce hydrogen products in the future.

Fuel Cards

Expert final thoughts

Gertjan Breij DKV supports the use of alternative fuels with its DKV Card and has in addition developed the DKV Card +Charge for hybrid trucks. This card was first introduced in Germany, and now has over 4,000 charging stations connected. It needs to be noted that complete elimination of CO2 emissions cannot be achieved yet through the use of alternative fuels or hybrid trucks. DKV believes that hauliers should be given the opportunity to compensate CO2 emissions in an efficient way. To do this, DKV has introduced the climate neutral DKV Card Climate. Bryan Glazier The number of electric car charging points in the UK is increasing and whilst many operate on a philanthropic basis, an increasing number of private providers levy a charge to their users. I can see fuel card providers partnering with electric charging networks in the future. There are a very small number of Hydrogen refuelling sites in the UK and whilst a fuel card could be configured to purchase this product relatively easily, it is ultimately demand led. The number of Hydrogen refuelling sites is unlikely to rise unless the numbers of hydrogen vehicles increases, and vice versa. The same was noticeable over 20 years ago with LPG. Cédric Vigneau Fleets can reduce fuel use by implementing driver training. The driver is the one who uses the truck and he has to have a light right foot. Truck maintenance is another way to improve the miles per gallon. With regards to alternative fuels, at AS24, we think gas could be an alternative to diesel, in the middle term. That’s the reason we are investing in this technology and we are about to open our first CNG station.



Paris Motor Show

Évangélistes électriques! The 2016 edition of the biennial Paris motor show was all about electric mobility. GreenFleet takes a stroll around the halls of the Paris Expo Porte de Versailles and examines the chic electric and plug-in hybrid concept and production models that adorned the show floor ELECTRIC VEHICLES Volkswagen I.D. One of the most-hyped electric car unveilings in Paris was the Volkswagen I.D. concept car which is said to preview the first bespoke production EV from the German car manufacturer. Teased ahead of its reveal, the car is being marketed as ‘an electric car for a new era’ and was presented at the show as a ‘fascinating outlook on the mobility of tomorrow’. The striking concept is the size of a Golf yet boasts as much interior space as a Passat. It takes styling cues from both VW’s legendary hatchback, as well as the Up city car. The I.D. is the first VW to use the company’s new Modular Electric Drive Kit (MEB) which will underpin a whole range of zero‑emission vehicles, following

Opel Am pera-e

the ‘Dieselgate’ emissions issue which has engulfed Volkswagen over the past year. A 125kW electric motor powers the I.D. which Volkswagen states should give a range of around 250-372 miles (400-600km) on a single charge. Automated driving functions also feature highly in VW’s future plans, and the I.D. incorporates these, with a fully autonomous ‘I.D. Pilot mode available from 2025. The production version of the I.D. is scheduled to appear in 2020, priced around the same as a diesel-engined Golf. Volkswagen also announced an update to the current e-Golf, which will see it updated with a range of 186 miles. (300km). Mercedes-Benz Generation EQ VW’s German compatriot Mercedes-Benz also focused its spotlight on e-mobility at Porte

de Versailles. The Generation EQ concept blended SUV and coupé looks to give a preview of ‘a new generation of vehicles with battery‑electric drives’, according to the company. A pair of electric motors form the main motive part of the powertrain, with a system output of up to 300kW thanks to scalable battery components. Range is stated to be up to 310 miles (500km). Permanent all-wheel drive also features on the Generation EQ to ‘deliver the guarantee of dynamic high-level performance’, while comfort, connectivity, functionality, and safety are also high on the concept’s agenda. Mercedes also states that its neon-grilled concept ‘meets every demand in terms of contemporary, sustainable mobility’, and says that the car’s name points to a new e-mobility sub-brand. EQ stands for ‘Electric Intelligence’ and is said to be derived from the company’s brand values of ‘Emotion and Intelligence’. rfour Smart FoDrive Electric

h Zoe 41kW Renault Renault Trezor



Paris Motor Show

Bee-Bee XS

Volkswagen I.D. concept

i GT-PHEV Mitsubish concept

Citroën CXperien ce concep t

Opel Ampera-e The latest all-electric car from Opel had its world premiere in France. The Ampera-e replaces the previous Ampera, which was a plug-in hybrid range-extender and was sold in the UK as both a Vauxhall and the Chevrolet Volt. The new 150kW Ampera-e is a supermini-sized pure EV and also has a US sister, the Chevrolet Bolt. With a theoretical range of 310 miles (500km, 236 miles in real-world scenarios), the Ampera-e is set to shake up the electric vehicle sector in Europe: sadly there are no plans to engineer right-hand driver versions for the UK market, although Opel’s UK arm Vauxhall states that the car ‘will be evaluated in the UK with the possibility of right-hand-drive models being produced in a future generation’. Renault Zoe and Trezor concept One of the surprise reveals in the French capital was a larger-capacity Renault Zoe, which will be capable of a 250-mile (400km) range. Renault’s popular all-electric supermini was arguable the most relevant real-world EV launch at the show, and will now boast a 41kWh ‘Z.E. 40’ battery, expected to return a real-world range of around 186 miles. The existing 22kWh battery has a real-world range of 106 miles, so is a significant upgrade. The new battery was developed in close partnership with LG Chem.

Mitsubi Outlandshi announced m er PHEV updates inor in Paris

Sharing space with the longer-range Zoe was the Trezor all-electric Grand Tourer (GT) concept. Designed to provide a connection with the company’s innovations in the Formula E racing series, the Trezor and its high output electric powertrain is derived from the Renault e.dams, two-time winner of the Formula E teams’ world title. Maximum power of 260kW (360bhp) and peak torque of 280lb ft (380Nm) sees the Trezor accelerate from 0-62mph in under four seconds. Autonomous driving also features highly in the daringly-styled Trezor. Smart Fortwo and Forfour Electric Drive Smart revealed its new electric-drive line-up in Paris, which unlike previously, now also includes the five-door Forfour. Arriving in the US at the end of the year and Europe in early 2017, both the Fortwo and Forfour have over 100 miles (160km) of range. The 60kW electric cars have an official electricity consumption of 13.1-12.9kWh/100km. HYBRID VEHICLES Citroën CXperience concept French car maker Citroën revealed its CXperience plug-in concept at its home event. Reinventing its iconic large car CX badge for 2016, the new concept is 4.85m long and is powered by a plug-in petrol hybrid engine. The 150-200bhp petrol engine

Porsche a E-Hybrid Panamer

is boosted by an 80kW electric motor. A 3kWh battery provides up to 37 miles (60km) of zero‑emission range and can be charged in 4.5 hours. Mitsubishi GT-PHEV concept Japanese company Mitsubishi announced its ‘grand tourer’ plug-in SUV concept in Paris. A high-end next generation SUV, the GT-PHEV concept featured an advanced triple‑motor PHEV system, comprised of a next-generation high-capacity drive battery package, three high-output and high-efficiency motors and an engine designed especially for the PHEV system featuring improved electricity generation performance and motive performance. An all-electric range of up to 74 miles (120km) and a combined hybrid cruising range of over 745 miles (1,200km) is promised. Porsche Panamera E-Hybrid Sports car manufacturer Porsche pulled the covers off its plug-in hybrid version of the new Panamera super-saloon at Porte de Versailles. System power of the Panamera E-Hybrid is 340kW (462bhp), while fuel consumption is quoted as 2.5l/100km (112mpg). CO2 emissions are 56g/km. The 14.1kWh lithium-ion battery offers an all‑electric range of up to 31 miles (50km), while the 100kW electric motor gives high performance: 0-62mph takes just 4.6 seconds. L Volume 98 | GREENFLEET MAGAZINE


Automotive Leasing Leading the way

Green Economics Finding new ways to reduce costs without putting longer term goals at risk is a real challenge. Many organisations find that whilst there may be a desire to create a sustainable low carbon fleet, delivering savings in the short and medium term becomes a higher priority. So, do you have to choose between environmental goals and budgetary demands? Not when you talk to the right people. As environmental fleet management award winners, we can help you create and implement a green fleet policy that does far more than care for the environment. It protects your drivers, minimises risk and reduces the overall cost of running your fleet. To find out more, just call: 0344 493 5840 Email:

GreenFleet went to the ‘Go Ultra Low’ City of York on 12 October, bringing with it experts in green-motoring to share their knowledge with fleet managers, as well as electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles to test drive The city of York was awarded ‘Go Ultra Low’ status by the Office of Low Emission Vehicles (OLEV) earlier this year, becoming one of eight UK cities chosen as exemplars for the uptake of ultra-low emission vehicles, and the only city in Yorkshire to receive the scheme’s funding. The Council was awarded £816,000, to invest in an ultra‑low emission programme, including a city wide network of rapid charging hubs. These will provide state‑of‑the‑art, ultra-fast, reliable and convenient rapid charging for key vehicle groups such as taxis, private motorists and business users. In partnership with the City of York Council, on 12 October, GreenFleet hosted an event in York, where fleet managers were able to learn from green-motoring experts and test drive the latest zero and ultra low emission vehicles. Sponsored by Leaseplan and Automotive Leasing, the event was kicked off by an opening address from motoring journalist and TV presenter Quentin Wilson, who owns an electric vehicle. Delegates then listened to presentations from OLEV, City of York Council, Leaseplan, amongst others. Feedback from delegates has been extremely positive, with many sharing how they had an informative event that will help them green their fleets in the future. Presentations OLEV’s Steve Ives gave an update on the government’s push for decarbonising transport, including its aim for all new cars to be zero-emission from 2040 and all cars by 2050. He recapped on the incentives that are available for electric vehicles, and the current state of the UK’s charging infrastructure, which has over 10,000 publicly available charge points. Ives wrapped up the presentation with an update on the £40m Go Ultra Low City Scheme, and what each area is doing to lower emissions.

GreenFleet York

GreenFleet York hailed a success

vans had big fleet customers in its hey day, such as Royal Mail and the national grid. BMW were on hand to discuss its i electric brand and allow delegates to drive the futuristic-looking i3. The pure electric version has a range of 125 miles, while the range extender version has a small petrol engine that drives a generator to maintain the level of the battery, and extend the range. JCT600 dealer group showcased a selection of its ultra-low emission vehicles from Mercedes, Audi, and Volkswagen. Delegates were able to drive the VW Golf GTE, which combines GTI dynamics with e-Golf sustainability. This plug-in hybrid drives up to 31 miles when fully charged in all-electric mode, and up to 580 miles when petrol and electric are combined. Also present was the Passat GTE, a plug-in hybrid that can be driven up to 31 miles on electric power alone, and 660 miles in total before refuelling. The Mercedes-Benz B-Class Electric was also available to test drive, which offers zero tailpipe emissions, a range of up to 124 miles, and can be fully charged in as little as three hours. Mercedes-Benz’s C350 Plug-in hybrid was also showcased. It can do 19.3 miles in electric mode on a fully charged battery, with a combined consumption of 134.5mpg and CO2 emissions of 48g/km. Delegates also got to drive the Audi A3 e-tron, a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle. It has a purely electric range of up to 29 miles, but the combination of electric motor and petrol engine offers a range of approximately 536 miles.

The City of Counci York awarde l was d to inves£816,000 ultra-lo t in an we programmission me

Derek McCreadie from City of York Council presented on what the city is doing with the scheme’s funding to cut carbon, including developing ‘hyper hubs’ – a network of ultra low carbon transport refuelling hubs powered by solar energy (via solar car ports or canopies). Chris Pepper from fleet management firm LeasePlan painted a picture of where the UK is in terms of alternative fuels, and how concerns over EV range, infrastructure and affordability are all continuing to improve. After the morning’s presentations, delegates broke into groups for informal sessions with the exhibitors to learn about electric and hybrid vehicles and associated products. Quentin Wilson hosted a round table discussion with each of the groups, which allowed them to ask questions and raise concerns about the practicalities of living with an electric vehicle. Kate Armitage from Route Monkey lead one of the workshops, talking about how its technology is helping fleets with route optimisation and fleet scheduling solutions, as well as the work it is doing in the electric vehicle market. Also available on the day to share their electric recharging knowledge were: the Phoenix Works, Schneider Electric, Elm EV, and Charged EV. York based car and van hire company Autohorn was also present, along with Speedy Hire who brought with them a van-version of the BMW i3. The vehicles The once British-owned LDV showcased its 215-mile range, electric van, the EV80, which is said to be able to be recharged in two hours. Now Chinese-owned, LDV

Low and ultra-low Another hybrid that was available on the day was the Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV. The Outlander PHEV is currently the UK’s best selling plug-in, with total registrations topping 25,000 this October. 11,681 registered in 2015, meaning that the Outlander PHEV accounted for 61 per cent of the entire plug-in hybrid segment, and it has enjoyed continued success in 2016, with 7,800 registered in the first three quarters of the year. Another pure EV in attendance was the electric van, the Nissan e-NV200, which combines the technology of Nissan’s Leaf with the practicality of the NV200 van. Powered by a 24kWh rechargeable lithium-ion battery pack, the electric LCV boasts a 4.2m3 cargo capacity and is capable of holding a 703kg payload, with a serviceable range of up to 106 miles. Nissan also brought its new 30kWh Leaf, which now has a claimed range of 155 miles – an increase of 25 per cent compared to the previous model. L FURTHER INFORMATION



Arrive ’n’ Drive 2016

Behind the wheel of the latest green technology Rockingham welcomed back GreenFleet Arrive ’n’ Drive for a 10th year, giving fleet managers the chance to get behind the wheel of the latest low and zero‑emission vehicles 2016 marked the 10th year that Arrive ’n’ Drive took over Rockingham Motor Speedway, which played host to the latest low and zero emission vehicles and offered fleet managers the chance to learn more about how to de-carbonise their fleets. From the original Toyota Prius back in 2007, to the Nissan e-NV200 in 2015, to the Tesla Model X at this year’s show, Arrive ’n’ Drive has always positioned itself at the forefront of emerging low‑emission technologies. The theme of this year’s event was ‘Going Ultra Low’, with a focus on how standard, blue-light and commercial fleets can keep up with the increasingly strict emissions regulations, as well as ensuring that fleet managers are aware of the incentives available for low emission vehicles. The government is planning for widespread adoption of low-emission vehicles,

including battery electric, hybrid and fuel cell, with the aim of almost all cars and vans to be zero-emission by 2050. In order to meet this target, a number of incentives have been launched to reduce the initial cost of plug-in vehicles, namely the Plug-in Car Grant (PiCG) and the Plug-in Van Grant (PiVG). These offer up to £4,500 and £8,000 respectively off the purchase price of a low emission car or van and are complemented by subsidies for home charging units of up to £500, as well as lower tax for less polluting cars. As part of the Go Ultra Low campaign, private and public organisations can also receive ‘Go Ultra Low Company’ status, which recognises companies that have embraced electric vehicles (EVs) and have committed to make ensure EVs make up at least five per cent of their fleet by 2020.

The of theme event r’s this yea ing Ultra o was ‘G h a focus on it Low’, w ts can keep up e how fle e increasingly h with t t emissions stric ations regul



Arrive ’n’ Drive gave the fleet managers in attendance the opportunity to see first hand how low emission vehicles could fit into their fleet and offer a practical, reliable and efficient option for drivers. Getting behind the wheel Models from BMW, Peugeot, Citroen, Ford, Fiat Chrysler, Jaguar Land Rover, Mitsubishi, Nissan, Mini, smart, Mercedes-Benz, Tesla and Toyota filled the track throughout the day. This gave delegates the chance to get hands on experience with the different low emission vehicles on offer, ranging from the latest most efficient combustion engines, to plug-in hybrids to pure EVs and even a hydrogen fuel cell. The centrepiece of Toyota’s display was the hydrogen-powered Mirai. The Mirai’s name derives from the Japanese for ‘future’ and, despite Toyota’s status as a pioneer of the hybrid car, thanks to the huge success of the Prius, the Japanese manufacturer sees hydrogen power as the real long‑term solution to low emissions mobility. The first mass produced fuel cell vehicle readily available in Europe, the Mirai was the recipient of the 2016 World Green Car award and represents a major step for Toyota. Thus far the Mirai has been rolled out in limited numbers across the UK, meaning Arrive ’n’ Drive gave delegates a rare chance to test drive the new technology. While the drive is comparable to that of EV, the hydrogen fuel tank offers a range of up to 342 miles, which is far superior to the majority of its pure EV rivals. Priced at £66,000 on-the-road (not including PiCG subsidies) the Mirai is very much at the high end of low emission vehicle market, but as the technology becomes more wide spread, as Toyota envisions it will, this price will likely start to fall. EVs of the future Tesla’s stand attracted a huge amount of attention throughout the day, which

was largely due to the appearance of the Model X. The event marked the first time a Model X appeared at fleet event, and delegates had the opportunity to be driven around the track in the futuristic all-electric SUV before it hits UK roads later this year. The Model X was first unveiled in September 2015 and is the second production offering from the electric manufacturer. It is available in 60, 75, 90 and 100kWh options, with ranges from 220 miles for the 60D model up to 336 miles for the highest spec P100D, which also boasts a top speed of 155mph with acceleration from 0-60mpg in just 2.9 seconds. Starting from £64,100 before incentives, it is again placed at the higher end of the market, but with options for five, six or seven seats, it boasts functionally that few other EVs can compare to. Another pure EV on display was the Nissan e-NV200, which combines the technology of Nissan’s award-winning Leaf with the practicality of the NV200 van. Powered by a 24kWh rechargeable lithium-ion battery pack, the electric LCV boasts a 4.2m3 cargo capacity and is capable of holding a 703kg payload, with a serviceable range of up to 106 miles. In addition to the e-NV200, Nissan also brought its new 30kWh Leaf, which now has a claimed range of 155 miles – an increase of 25 per cent compared to the previous model. Mercedes-Benz also showcased its B-Class Electric Drive. The 28kWh lithium-ion battery is stored under the raised floor, which means the EV is effectively as spacious as the combustion engine versions, with a 500 litre boot and generous leg room. Priced from £26,950, the B-Class Electric Drive has a range of up to 124 miles is capable of accelerating 0-62mph

in 7.9 seconds, with a top speed of 99mph and, of course, zero tailpipe emissions. Hybrid power BMW proved extremely popular with delegates on the day and there was rarely a moment when its i3 couldn’t be seen whizzing around the Rockingham track. However, the big head turner was the BMW i8 plug-in hybrid, which looks to compare the performance of a sports car with the consumption and emission values of a compact car. The i8’s 1.5-litre three-cylinder electric-gasoline hybrid is a two time ‘International Engine of the Year’ winner and is capable of accelerating from 0-62mph in 4.4 seconds, with fuel consumption of 134.5mpg and CO2 emission of 49g/km. Another hybrid that proved popular on the day was the Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV. The Outlander PHEV is currently the UK’s best selling plug-in, with total registrations topping 25,000 this October. 11,681 registered in 2015, meaning that the Outlander PHEV accounted for 61 per cent of the entire plug-in hybrid segment, and it has enjoyed continued success in 2016, with 7,800 registered in the first three quarters of the year. Bristol Street Motors brought with them a fleet of Peugeots, including the Partner electric van with zero emissions and a potential range of 105 miles between charges. Beat the Sprig Delegates were able to test their eco-driving skills by taking part in the annual Beat the Sprig competition, sponsored by Trackm8. Driving training partner r3Rockingham took participants out in a Mini Clubman One D on a set route, giving them tips on

Arrive ’n’ Drive 2016

how to drive in a fuel-efficient manner. The participant with the best overall score, calculated using Trackm8’s software and taking into consideration mpg, acceleration, and braking, won the competition. GreenFleet eco‑driving pro the Sprig set the score to beat. Workshops The indoor exhibition allowed fleet managers to find out more about the products and services that support the fleet industry, from telematics to EV charging providers and leasing companies. The companies that made up the indoor exhibition were Leaseplan, Chevin Fleet Solutions, Co‑Wheels Car Club, Everwarm, Fleetdrive Electric, Green Motion, Rolec Services, Route Monkey, Trakm8 and Vortex. What’s more, delegates were able to take a break from test drives and attend the informative seminar sessions. The first workshop of the day was entitled ‘helping fleets to go ultra Low’ and aimed to increase awareness of electric and plug-in vehicles by helping fleet managers to understand the benefits, cost savings and capabilities of the wide range of vehicles on the market. It featured a keynote from the Energy Saving Trust’s Kearcy Watts and Mike Potter, managing director of ultra-low leasing specialist Fleetdrive. Additionally, Will Smith, performance manager at Britvic, explained the steps the company has taken to become an approved ‘Go Ultra Low Company’. Second on the agenda was ‘Go ultra low in the blue light sector’, sponsored by Vortex, which had a specialist focus on the use if low emission vehicles in the emergency services. Presented by The National Association of Police Fleet Managers (NAPFM), this workshop covered solutions for the police, ambulance and fire and rescue sectors. Representatives from each emergency service presented case studies about how their fleets have incorporated low emission technologies and strategies. Speakers included: Alexis Keech, environmental and sustainability manager, Yorkshire Ambulance Service NHS; Arend Mouton, vehicle fleet manager, City Of London Police; and Nicole Fletcher, head of sustainable development, London Fire Brigade. The third and final workshop of the day was ‘Go ultra low with commercial vehicles’ and was presented by the Fleet Operator Recognition Scheme (FORS). It had a focus on the future operating environment in the context of emissions, implications for commercial vehicle operators and merits of technology options available, which included looking ‘beyond Euro VI’ for conventionally powered HGVs to ascertain how hauliers can mitigate their emissions. FORS’s own Dan Bowden, performance manager, and Paul Wilkes, business services manager, presented, along with Darryll Finch, O2 smart vehicle proposition manager, who offered further industry insight on the topic of vehicle and engine diagnostics. L FURTHER INFORMATION



GreenFleet Awards

The shortlists for the GreenFeet Awards has been announced and the winners will be revealed at the glittering Awards ceremony, which will be kicked off by a champagne reception, sponsored by van manufacturers LDV, followed by a four course dinner.

Making a mark on the green fleet industry The green-minded fleet community will gather at Edgbaston Stadium, Birmingham, on 17 November for the GreenFleet Awards 2016. Now in its 19th year, the Awards will recognise exceptional achievement in environmental fleet management, efficiency and low-carbon motoring The government has a zero-emission transport future in its sights, with an aim for every new car to be electric by 2040, and all cars by 2050. What’s more a £35 million package to boost the uptake of ultra‑low emission vehicles across the UK has been announced. This includes £20 million to help councils roll out charge points for electric taxis; up to £10 million for charge points outside workplaces and homes where there is no off-street parking; £2 million for public and private sector organisations to deploy hydrogen fuel cell vehicles; and £3.75 million to encourage the uptake of


zero‑emission motorcycles and scooters. The automotive and fleet industry is making rapid progress towards this zero-emission future, with more and more electric and plug-in hybrids entering the market, as well as examples of innovation from fleet operators, and leasing and rental companies. The GreenFleet Awards, now in its 19th year, aim to recognise and award such dedication to the sustainability agenda. Taking place on 17 November at Edgbaston Cricket Stadium, this year’s awards will be presented by comedian, author, and broadcaster, Dominic Holland.


Vehicle manufacturers Fleet Car Manufacturer of the Year, sponsored by Rockingham, will be presented to the manufacturer that has improved CO2 ratings of its standard fleet offerings and expanded the range of lower CO2 models and alternatively‑fuelled options available to fleet customers. The nominations for this year’s award are BMW, Volvo, Toyota, Kia, and Nissan. The PHEV Manufacturer of the Year recognises the manufacturer of either a commercial or consumer plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) that has demonstrated the best performance and best suitability for purpose in its class. This year, BMW, Volvo, Kia, Mitsubishi, Volkswagen, and Hyundai are up for the award. Electric Vehicle (EV) Manufacturer of the Year Award celebrates the manufacturer of either a commercial or consumer EV that has demonstrated the best performance and best suitability for purpose in its class. Nominations for this year’s title are BMW, Nissan, Mahindra, Kia, and Renault. City Car Manufacturer of the Year, sponsored by Green Motion, goes to the OEM that has addressed urban air pollution by developing an efficient small vehicle with tailpipe CO2 emissions of less than 120g/km. This year’s award will be presented to either Mini, Smart, Hyundai, Fiat, or Skoda. LCV Manufacturer of the Year recognises the efforts made by manufacturers to reduce CO2 and increase fuel economy in the Light Commercial Vehicle sector. The nominations for this category are Mitsubishi, Peugeot, Fiat Professional, Nissan, and Renault. LGV Manufacturer of the Year (previously HGV Manufacturer of the Year) recognises advancements in the Large Goods Vehicle Sector (Over 7.5 Tonnes). This year’s nominations are Volvo Trucks, DAF, Scania, Iveco, and Isuzu. Celebrating innovation The Industry Innovation Award will recognise the organisation that has introduced a new technology, practice or method that reduces fuel consumption and emissions and demonstrates innovation in its design and/or implementation. Up for the award this year are Everwarm, LowCVP, Elm EV, Perpetual V2G, BMW, Fleetdrive Electric, and Alphabet. A new category for 2016 is Car Club of the Year, recognising the growing relevance of car clubs across the UK and their role in helping to increase efficiency and reduce road emissions. The nominations are City Car Club, Co-Wheels, E-Car Club, and Zip Car. Leasing Company of the Year is awarded to the leasing company that has made the biggest strides towards environmental considerations in its leasing policies. Alphabet Fleetdrive Electric, and Leaseplan/Automotive Leasing are up for an award this year.

innovation in lowering carbon emissions. This year the following are nominated: Fife Council, South East Coast Ambulance, London Fire Brigade, Gateshead Council, Essex & Kent Police, and Leeds City Council. The Public Sector Fleet Manager of the Year, sponsored by Everwarm, will go to a pioneering individual that has gone the extra mile to tackle carbon emissions. The shortlist for this category will be revealed shortly.

The Outstan Achieve ding men Award recogn t ises an ind companividual or shown y that has ou progres tstanding s in industr the y

Public sector achievements The 2016 small to medium Public Sector Fleet of the Year title is awarded to an organisation with a fleet of less than 250 vehicles that has shown innovation in reducing emissions. The nominations are the University of Birmingham, Oxford City Council, University of Cambridge, and Walton Hospital (Chesterfield). Public Sector Fleet of the Year (Medium to Large), sponsored by Automotive Leasing, goes to organisations operating vehicles over 250 that have demonstrated success and

Private sector fleets The GreenFleet Awards will recognise private sector fleet management through a number of awards, the first being the Private Sector Fleet Manager of the Year. This award celebrates an individual currently working as a fleet manager in a private sector company that has demonstrated a commitment to making carbon reduction a priority in their day to day duties, and has promoted green fleet practices to other parts of their organisation. The shortlist for this category will be released shortly. Private Sector Fleet of the year is split into two sections, small to medium fleet and medium to large fleet. The medium to large Private Sector of the Year Award, sponsored by Alphabet, is presented to the UK private sector

organisation with a fleet of more than 250 vehicles that can demonstrate a reduction in CO2 and other pollutants through fuel efficiency programmes, green fleet management and driver awareness training. This year’s shortlist comprises Microsoft, Speedy Hire, Britvic, Gnewt Cargo, and Galliford Try. The small to medium-sized Private Sector Fleet of the Year Award, sponsored by Route Monkey, is limited to companies with less than 250 vehicles, The nominations for this award are E-Connect Cars, Vitali Energy, Jersey Post, Powerstar, and Wego Couriers. Rental Company of the Year recognises the efforts of the car rental sector to offer lower CO2 models and incorporate a robust environmental policy into its present and future operations. This year the award will go to either Green Motion, Europcar, or Electric Blue. The Outstanding Achievement Award recognises an individual or company that has shown outstanding progress in the industry and can demonstrate an increase in performance. The winner of this category will be announced on the night. With so much good work being done by individuals championing alternative fuels and low emission motoring, five EV Champions will also be named on the night. L

GreenFleet Awards

The IT Innovation Award examines the latest advancements in fleet technology, including fleet management software, telematics, route tracking and other IT related transport technology. The nominations for this award are Chevin Fleet, Geotab, Emissions Analytics, Route Monkey, and Rolec EV. The Private Hire/Taxi Company of the Year celebrates the efforts of the private hire and taxi sector and is awarded to the company that demonstrates a commitment to reducing CO2 emissions within the fleet, and has incorporated a robust environmental policy into its present and future operations. The nominations for 2016 are Addison Lee, Green Tomato, E-Connect Cars, and Streamline Cars (York).


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Road Test Written by Richard Gooding

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Clean and compact cat The Jaguar XE ushers in new technology and a new series of cleaner engines. Richard Gooding finds out that Jaguar’s compact executive car for the modern era resets the company’s template for its fleet-minded offerings What is it? Launched in 2014, the XE is the first modern-era compact executive from the now Indian-owned Jaguar, and follows on the heels of the larger and successful XF and XJ which brought advanced aluminium body and platform architecture. The pair also heralded the re-birth of the once proudly British manufacturer, and the XE is also the first compact sports saloon since the backwards-looking X-Type of the early 2000s. However, unlike that car, it is thoroughly contemporary in both its styling and make-up. It’s also one of the first Jaguar cars to offer a sub-100g/km CO2 rating – the car tested here is rated at 99g/km. How does it drive? Step into the Jaguar XE R-Sport and the first impression is one of premium quality. The cabin is very nicely finished, the centre console borrowing 1930s Art Deco styling flourishes, while the wraparound dashboard, high transmission tunnel centre console and dark headlining makes the driver feel cocooned, helped by the low seating position. Leather trim on the dashboard and hooded


instrument binnacle as well as chrome accents add to the upmarket and sporty feel. The new 161bhp ‘Ingenium’ diesel engine has 280lb ft/380Nm of torque and offers really muscular performance: 0-60mph comes up in just 7.9 seconds. The pace feels effortless, and the engine is strong though the mid-range. The steering features Jaguar’s first electrically-assisted system but there’s little complaint: nicely weighted, it doesn’t feel artificially electric. The sports suspension ensures the baby Jaguar corners flatly with very little body roll, and changes in direction can be done quickly and sure‑footedly with very little fuss. It’s comparatively comfortable, too, for one so sporting, so delivers the best of both worlds. On the move, the Jaguar XE is refined – the engine spinning at just 1,600rpm at 70mph – although a fair bit of road noise is transmitted into the cabin, even with fatter side-walled 205/55 R 17 Continental ContiEcoContact


tyres to keep those emissions down. Wind noise takes a back seat, though, and although rear legroom is more on the limited side, most average height bodies should be comfortable on shorter journeys. Separate air conditioning and heated seat controls along with twin 12V power sockets give rear seat passengers something to play with. The electrically‑opening 455-litre boot is nicely square-shaped, but features a higher ‘platform’ at the back with a slope down towards the 2 front of the car. Four driving modes also help get the most out of the XE, depending on the situation and conditions. ‘Dynamic’, ‘Normal’, and ‘Winter’ deliver more involving, every day performance, and added stability and grip driving experiences respectively, while an ‘Eco’ mode adjusts the car’s systems to exploit economy and therefore give more favourable fuel returns.

The XE’s Jaguar ight lightwe ium alumin educes re r structu sumption fuel conll as CO as we sions emis

Road Test

A stylish body kit and 17-inch 10-spoke alloy wheels mark out R-Sport versions of the XE

Comfortable and sumptuous interior has high quality materials and feels premium

The XE has four driving modes, including one for more economical driving

How economical is it? While its predecessors weren’t the last word in parsimony, the XE is rather more economical. Jaguar quotes an optimistic 75.0mpg – over the course of our 500‑mile test, the R-Sport 2.0 returned a still respectable 52.1mpg in the real world. We suspect the engine would have given us more, too, but the brisk performance on offer means that the car isn’t necessarily always driven the most economical manner: the pace is there to be exploited. A wealth of economical data on the infotainment system helps inform of power used and the effect that power has on the car’s fuel consumption. The XE is also the most aerodynamic Jaguar, too, which also helps buoy the impressive fuel consumption. Additionally, the company claims that the electric power steering system fitted to the XE is both responsive yet efficient and delivers CO2 savings of up to three per cent.

Jaguar’s new family of ‘Ingenium’ engines deliver lower emissions and improved economy

towards the top of the XE ladder, there’s a good amount of standard kit. Strikingly handsome from the outside, the R-Sport body kit is the most obvious differentiator from other XEs, although even finished in optional £635 Ammonite Grey paint, our test car was understated in appearance. Chrome trim which appears on other XEs is notable by its absence, while the 17‑inch 10-spoke lightweight alloy wheels look good, if a little small, but that’s part of the price paid for lower emissions. For those less worried about economy, other R-Sport variants have 18-inch rims. Also helping with environmental sensibilities is a stop-start system and cruise control with automatic speed limiter. Other driving aids include a torque vectoring braking system, speed-sensitive power steering, stability and traction control systems, autonomous emergency braking, and a tyre pressure monitoring system. Inside, the sumptuously comfortable cabin are theatrical powered air vents, a brilliantly useful ‘InControl’ eight-inch capacitive touchscreen system (one of the best we’ve used on any car) with DAB digital radio, auto lights and wipers, and an auto-dimming rear view mirror. Nice-to-have options on our test car included heated and cooled front seats/ heated rear seats (£820), a £920 ‘Power Convenience Pack’, a heated steering wheel (£190), £310‑worth of interior mood lighting, as well as a £515 Meridian sound upgrade. If you desire advanced assistance with parking, that’s a further £1,020, while 40:20:40 split-fold rear seats are £410 extra. The ‘Jet’ leather on OW15 MLZ was a no-cost option and helped the interior of the small Jaguar look the part. If, however, the R-Sport seems a little indulgent, a cheaper SE version of the XE is aimed at the fleet market. In 99g/km form, it costs from £29,775. How much does it cost to tax? Being the smallest and lightest Jaguar saloon, and fitted with the high-efficiency ‘Ingenium’ diesel engine, expectations that the XE won’t be too heavy on the pocket when it comes to tax are met. The compact low

emission Jaguar won’t tap you for VED costs as it sits in Band A (£0) and is competitive when it comes to Benefit in Kind rates, too, the more economical engine helping the car achieve a rate of 19 per cent. Why does my fleet need one? Handsome yet understated looks, muscular performance, solid build and a sumptuous interior are just four reasons why the Jaguar XE undoubtedly deserves a place on any compact executive car shopping list. Add in good economy from the newly-developed four-cylinder diesel engine and competitive running costs, and the compact ‘cat’ has all the ingredients which make for a successful recipe. Sports-orientated handling and a good level of standard equipment also impress. A very credible alternative to the Audi A4, BMW 3 Series and Mercedes-Benz C Class, the XE is both a first-class effort and a thoroughly modern Jaguar. Overall, it provides a little more of a left-field answer to the low emission compact executive choice conundrum and comes highly recommended. L FURTHER INFORMATION

Jaguar XE R-Sport 2.0 ENGINE:

1,999c, four-cylinder diesel





MPG (combined):


GF MPG (combined):



Band A, £0




£32,325 (inc VAT, £38,130 as tested) Over 75 per cent of the Jaguar XE’s body is made from aluminium

What does it cost? In its standard specification, the Jaguar XE R-Sport 2.0 costs £32,325. As expected with a trim


First Drive Written by Richard Gooding

ad the Downlo app at leet GreenF en e r app.g es and re imag for mo t n te n co


Peugeot Expert What is it? Peugeot has a long and rich history when it comes to light commercial vehicles (LCVs). The first light commercial from the French company, the Type 13, arrived in 1895. French light commercial stars such as the D4A of 1955, the J7 of 1965 and the J9 of 1980 followed and laid the foundations for the popular J5/Talbot Express of 1981 as well as the well-known Partner and Boxer nameplates which still play a part in the company’s LCV range today. The first-generation Expert arrived in 1995 as part of a joint PSA Peugeot Citroën and Fiat collaboration, which produced the Expert/ Dispatch and Scudo models respectively. The latest Expert is launched alongside and has been developed with the Citroën Dispatch (GreenFleet, issue 96), and this is the first time the two French firms have launched a product both jointly and internationally. The new Peugeot Expert and Citroën Dispatch had their world debuts at the 2016 Commercial Vehicle Show in the UK (GreenFleet, issue 94: earlier in the year. This time around, the third project partner is Toyota, whose Proace is built in the same factory as the French pair. Just as with the new Citroën Dispatch, a total of nine body configurations are available, including panel and crew vans, as well as


platform cab versions. Lengths start with the new 4.6m ‘Compact’ model and rise through ‘Standard’ 4.95m variants to the longest 5.3m ‘Long’ version. The Compact model offers maximum load capacities of 1,000-1,400kg and aims to uniquely capture business users who don’t quite find enough room in smaller vans such as the Partner. Standard and Long models enjoy load capacities of 5.8m3 and 6.6m3 respectively, while the new Compact Expert manages 4.6m3. The smallest version in the new Expert range can carry two Euro pallets, while the pair of larger models swallow one more. All versions have a standard height of 1.9m to enable them to enjoy maximum manoeuvrability through often height‑restricted urban environments. Maximum load capacity is 1,400kg for all three models, while a passenger-carrying, MPV-style version – the Traveller – is also available. As with the Dispatch, the new Expert is a long way removed in terms of looks from its predecessors, and takes styling flourishes from Peugeot’s rejuvenated 2008 and


3008 models. Distinctive features include an upright grille with prominent ‘lion’ badge as well as ‘claw’‑shaped headlights. Neat surfacing, pronounced wheel arches and items such as LED daytime running lights lift the visual appeal and make for even more car-related comparisons. How practical is it? The length of the loading area on the Peugeot Expert ranges from 2,162mm on Compact models to 2862mm on Long versions. Add in PSA Peugeot Citroën’s ‘Moduwork’ load‑through bulkhead system and this increases to 3,324mm 2 (Compact), 3,674mm (Standard) and 4,024mm (Long). The width of the side door aperture is 745mm on Compact models and 935mm on Standard and Long versions, with a height of around 1,200mm. The standard 50/50 rear doors swing out to 250 degrees, while a tailgate is optional. Floor and/or side loading area coverings can be specified in either durable non‑slip coated or wood finishes, and crew vans offer both folding or fixed partitions. For

The t cleanes the of version ugeot new Pe its just em Expert m of CO 133g/k claimed with a mpg 55.3




4.6-6.6m3 1,560cc, 1,997cc four-cylinder diesels



MPG (combined):


VED: New Peugeot Expert is practical with side door apertures of 745mm on Compact models and 935mm on Standard and Long versions

Three models of Expert have load volumes of 4.6-6.6m3

maximum versatility, the second and third row of seats on crew vans can be removed entirely for an optimum balance between passenger carrying and capability and loadspace. Taking technology from the car sector, the electrically‑sliding side door can be activated by either gesturing your foot under the rear bumper corner, or by a button on the dashboard. How clean is it? Based on the new EMP2 platform which underpins models such as the Peugeot 2008/3008, the new Expert features many car-derived technologies. While the rear end of the new French commercial is bespoke LCV, the front of the new subframe is developed from the group’s passenger cars. One bonus this brings is the use of the latest range of Euro 6 BlueHDi engines. Both 1.6‑litre and 2.0-litre units are offered, with outputs ranging from 95bhp to 180bhp. The cleanest version, the BlueHDi 115 S&S 6-speed manual, emits just 133g/km, economy is claimed to be up to 55.3mpg. Six-speed manual and automated gearboxes can be chosen, while Peugeot quotes an average across-the-board 52.3mpg and 140g/km CO2 emissions for the new Expert range. When compared to its Euro 5 predecessors, the Expert’s up-to-date engines offer reductions of up to 14g/km, and CO2 emissions are cut still further thanks to a new electro-hydraulic power steering system. Weight reductions of between 100 and 150kg depending on individual model also play their part. An Adblue and Selective Catalyst Reduction (SCR) system is standard and Peugeot claims it reduces up to 90 per cent of NOx emissions. CO2 emissions are also cut by up four per cent, and with a tank capacity of 22.4 litres, business users should be able to drive around 9,300 miles before topping up. A particulate filter eliminates 99.9 per cent of particulates, while stop/start systems on selected models also help the Expert’s environmental case. Servicing intervals are 25,000 miles or



New Peugeot Expert’s interior features car-like equipment and connectivitiy

two years, or 18,600 miles in the case of the automatic BlueHDi 180 S&S EAT6. How does it drive? The third-generation Expert is far removed from its light commercial ancestors. On the road, the new Expert draws more similarities with modern cars. Refined when cruising, distant engine noise can be heard under acceleration, but there’s rarely a boisterous-sounding commercial vehicle soundtrack as with vans from the past. The power-assisted steering doesn’t offer much in the way of feedback, but we suspect fleet drivers will admire the well-weighted and positive feel which will exploit the 11.3-12.4m turning circle. We tested a pair of BlueHDi 115 S&S 6-speed manual and BlueHDi 150 versions, and both were brisk enough for urban and motorway use. However, rather obviously, the higher‑powered variant was keener to accelerate, thanks to its 370Nm/272lb ft of torque (300Nm/221lb ft for the 115), making it more easily suited for life out-of-town. The six-speed manual gearbox on the versions we tested was pleasant to use, with positive shifts. Car-like MacPherson-derived front suspension system equals more enjoyable but safe handling. The Expert is fitted with variable stiffness springs and shock absorbers at the rear to guarantee maximum ride comfort whether it is loaded or unloaded, and both versions we drove in France were comfortable. PSA Peugeot Citroën claims best-in-class acoustic comfort levels, no doubt helped by the regulatory all-steel full bulkhead. Another benefit of the strong partition is that there is no ‘echo’ sound from the rear load area when the van is unladen. In the cabin, there’s a less van-like ambience, too. The three-seat interior has plenty of space for legs and heads, but the central passenger loses out those in the outer perches. There are 49 (van) and 121 (crew van) litres of storage space, too, and technology includes a standard USB socket. Building on this, a new capacitive seven‑inch

First Drive

2016 Peugeot Expert


colour touchscreen with 3D connected and voice-controlled navigation system is standard on higher-specification models and includes free lifetime updates. An instrument display with heads-up option is another tech highlight, while car influences also stretch to the softer-feeling plastics. The useful 3D connected navigation system has updates provided by TomTom Traffic, as well as both Mirror Link and Apple CarPlay functionality. A plethora of driving aid systems will prove useful to business users including driving time, driver alert, blind spot monitoring, speed limit recommendation, lane departure warning, as well as parking assistance set-ups. A grip control traction system which enhances road-holding on low-grip surfaces is optional. For additional practicality, all versions of the new Expert can tow up to 2.5 tonnes. What does it cost? The 2016 Peugeot Expert range starts at £17,915 excluding VAT. ’S’ models kick the range off and feature electronic stability control, electric windows, DAB radio, cruise control with speed limiter, central locking as well as Bluetooth connectivity. The £19,265 ‘Professional’ is the next step up the Expert ladder and equipment includes the Moduwork configurable load-through bulkhead, rear parking sensors, heated door mirrors, Connect 7-inch touchscreen radio system with Bluetooth and Mirror Link, and air conditioning. The range-topping ‘Professional Plus’ Experts start at £22,065 and offer 17‑inch alloy wheels, LED daytime running lights, front fog lights and body-coloured bumpers. Platform cab versions are priced from £17,845, while crew van Experts begin at £23,885. Why does my fleet need one? PSA Peugeot Citroën has high hopes for both the new Peugeot Expert and Citroën Dispatch. The French vehicle group hopes that sales of the new duo will increase its 10 per cent market share by a further six per cent. And there’s no reason why they shouldn’t. Usability – a key consideration for fleet drivers – benefits from the car-derived technology, while gains in efficiency and refinement are offered by the new range of engines. With further advances in practicality, functionality and interior quality, the appeal of the Peugeot’s mid-range LCV has been heightened. Business fleets will find that the 2016 Peugeot Expert undoubtedly has lots of new skills to like. L FURTHER INFORMATION



EV Diary


Nissan Leaf Tekna 30kWh

Written by Richard Gooding

In a nicely-timed piece of synchronicity, just as the trees start to reveal their bare branches, GreenFleet has – not ironically – taken delivery of a Nissan Leaf for three months Very few GreenFleet readers will need an introduction to the Nissan Leaf. The world’s best-selling electric car, the medium-sized hatchback EV was first introduced in December 2010 and has been a global hit ever since. Over 15,000 Leafs have been sold in the UK since its launch, resulting in a massive 57 per cent share of the electric car market. With the introduction of a longer range 30kWh battery (GreenFleet issue 91 – and mildly refreshed version earlier this year, we wanted to see just how much practicality that larger capacity battery gives.

automatic (LED) headlights and wipers, chrome door handles, cruise control with speed limiter, front fog lights, heated front and rear seats, a heated steering wheel, keyless entry, seven-speaker BOSE audio system with Bluetooth/AUX and USB connectivity, steering wheel audio controls, and a very nice set of 17-inch polished and gunmetal‑finished alloy wheels. The on the road (OTR) price of our car including VAT after the deduction of the £4,500 government Plug in Car Grant (PiCG) is £27,380. Of course, if you want to buy into Leaf ownership, the cheaper 24kWh model is still available, with the entry-level Visia car priced at £21,680 OTR post-PiCG. That price comes down to £16,680 and starts the range of Leaf ‘Flex’ models, which have a battery leasing option – as opposed to cars which ‘own’ the battery and are therefore priced higher. It’s up to you how you ‘fuel’ the car: pay for the battery outright on the initial purchase, or lease it from as little as £70 per month, on a 7,500 miles per annum contract, compete with battery warranty. Our car ‘owns’ its battery, hence its £5,000 higher price than its Tekna ‘Flex’ sister. 

Honed and developed The standard 24kWh model delivers a claimed 124 miles on the NEDC cycle, while the newer, larger-capacity car is said to be capable of another 31 on top of that. Until the advent of the revised BMW i3 94 Ah (195 miles) and the new Hyundai Ioniq (174 miles), the Leaf was one of – if not the – longest range electric cars available. While the current car’s range is no longer class-leading, the second‑generation Leaf is set to receive a 60kWh battery pack, which forecasters predict will give it a range The of at least 200 miles. Leaf Nissan orld’s Effective However, right here and regenerative now, the first‑generation the w electric s i braking system and current car has g n i ll constantly been honed best-se enjoyable to Regardless of how the battery is ‘owned’, Leaf and developed during car: it’sthanks to its drivers still get the – now its six-year life, and we e is d driv n increasingly familiar – were keen to find out just a e r benefits and joy of a pure what it is like to live with. EV natuto use electric powertrain. As with Following our six months easy all electric cars, the Leaf is silent with the UK’s best-selling plug-in on the move, and although road hybrid, the Mitsubishi Outlander noise can be heard, it’s not intrusive. With PHEV, we are spending three months with no other noise from mechanical components the UK’s best-selling electric car. OY65 HTN is such as an engine, it’s just more omnipresent, a range-topping Tekna model, with the new that’s all. The Leaf also enjoys an ‘elastic’ EV 30kWh battery option. It’s a smart-looking car, powertrain, in such that it does that things and although I’ve never been completely sold all EVs do and accelerates and slows down on the sometimes curious way the Leaf looks, quickly. The quoted 0-62mph time is 11.5 the new ‘Bronze’ paint colour suits the car seconds, but the Leaf feels much faster than well, and is one of the new-for-2016 options.  that, its 187lb ft/254Nm of torque pushing the car along. It’s equally fast at shrugging Very well-equipped the speed off thanks to its very useful Tekna models are very well-equipped and and effective regenerative braking system.  specification highlights include an alarm, 80kW AC synchronous electric motor produces 254Nm of torque The Outlander PHEV has been exposed as having a Wi-Fi/app security flaw which leaves it open to hacking

Range-topping Tekna specification includes both heated leather front and rear seats



Acenta models and above gain a ‘B’ setting on the single-speed reduction automatic ‘gearbox’, which gives harsher regenerative braking forces. Never unpleasant, but extremely useful, the system in the Leaf really does work and you can time the car to stop at a junction with little effort. Unlike the system used in the Outlander PHEV, there is only one real level of regen, but that just makes the whole process simpler. Should that be too severe, though, just pop the ball‑shaped shifter back into ‘D’ and make us of the car’s ‘normal’ level of regeneration. I’ve always driven the car in the ‘B’ mode, though, and have actually seen the available range increase, so good is the system. Range – quite often the elephant in the room when it comes to electric cars. Nissan quotes 155 miles for the Leaf 30kWh in the laboratories’ test conditions, but budget for 125-130 miles in real-world conditions. While with us, OY65 HTN hasn’t displayed an available range of more than 126 miles, which is theoretically enough for two days

6.6kW on-board charger Our car has the optional 6.6kW on-board charger (as opposed to the standard 3.3kW version), which takes that time down to between four and five hours, but as it’s rarely empty when I do plug it in, its usually complete in three to four hours. Thoughtful

design has gone into the charging lamps, too, the trio of bright blue tell-tale warning lights flashing in sequence to denote when the car is one third, two thirds, and completely full. Sited on top of the dashboard also means I can see them from our first floor home office window, so I know exactly when the car is full. The new Nissan Connect ‘EV telematics system’ that comes with Acenta and Tekna 2016 Leafs shows all sorts of information on the central colour touchscreen such as places that can be driven to with the available range distance, charge point locations as well as energy usage. The matching smartphone app is very handy, too, and is just as equally thorough. The car can be pre-heated at the tap of a screen on damp and cold mornings, therefore saving precious energy once on the move. It’s all very smartly thought out and is another example of the Leaf and its technologies working well. So far then, the Leaf is off to a good start. More enjoyable to drive than the Outlander PHEV due to its pure EV nature and easy to use, over the next two months we’ll find out if that ease of use improves. We’ve already had some range issues which weren’t down to the car – find out more next issue. If you’re a Nissan Leaf (24 or 30kWh) owner or driver I’d like to hear from you, so please do get in touch. Email richard.gooding@ or ping me a message on Twitter at @richgoodingcom. L

EV Diary

of my 50-mile round trip commute. I say ‘theoretically enough’ because of course, that doesn’t take in varying weather conditions. When the car first arrived in mid-September, the weather was warmer and therefore the range was longer, with the car consuming less energy. So sparingly was the use of energy, I was charging the Leaf every other night, unlike the nightly routine I soon get settled in when running the Outlander PHEV. However, now that it’s cooler and darker, I’m invariably charging the car every night. That’s partly because I can, thanks to our POD Point 7kW home charging unit, but also as because I still suffer from a little ‘range anxiety’ and don’t want to get caught out on the way to or from the office. The Leaf is useful in that displays an approximate charging time in the driver instrument display. For a standard domestic supply using a three-pin plug, Nissan states 12-15 hours, while a 32A home charger will refill a 30kWh Leaf from empty in around nine hours. Public 50kW rapid chargers refill the car to 80 per cent capacity in 30 minutes.

Logbook: month one 2016 Nissan Leaf Tekna 30kWh ENGINE:

80kW AC synchronous electric motor, 30kWh lithium-ion battery




155 miles £27,380 (inc VAT, after government PiCG)


September 2016




150 Wh/mile


4.1 miles/kWh





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The Discovery Sport now includes Land Rover’s new generation Ingenium engines. Designed to raise performance and lower costs, the new powertrains weigh 20kg less than the last model. Choose a 150hp or 180hp engine, with 4 Wheel Drive and a 6-speed manual or 9-speed automatic transmission. This Discovery Sport works harder than ever. With service intervals up to 21,000 miles or two years, it takes less time off too.

Avoid unexpected adventures with three years’ European Roadside Assistance and a three-year unlimited mileage warranty. Company tax costs are impressive too – from just £258 a month* at 40%. See our range of Business Contract Hire offers at

Official fuel consumption figures for the Discovery Sport range in mpg (l/100km): Urban 44.1 (6.4) – 50.4 (5.6), Extra Urban 60.1 (4.7) – 62.8 (4.5), Combined 53.3 (5.3) – 57.7 (4.9). CO2 emissions 139 – 129g/km. Official EU Test Figures. For comparison purposes only. Real world figures may differ. *Figures based on a Land Rover Discovery Sport 2.0 litre diesel TD4 150hp manual (4WD).



INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY Wherever you take Discovery Sport, a suite of forwardthinking tech will assist you. InControl Touch keeps drivers seamlessly connected with the vehicle and the world on an 8” touchscreen. The Intelligent Park Assist option makes the process of parking a pleasure. Then, for easy access, a powered gesture tailgate opens with a wave of the foot under the rear bumper.

VERSATILITY AND CAPABILITY FOR YOUR NEXT ADVENTURE 5+2 seating means your drivers are always ready to load up – with friends or camping gear. 1,698 litres of load space is available when all rear seats are folded flat. The option of Wade Sensing allows weekend adventures to be pushed further, with confidence. Land Rover Business Centre 0845 600 2214.

Official fuel consumption figures for the Discovery Sport range in mpg (l/100km): Urban 44.1 (6.4) – 50.4 (5.6), Extra Urban 60.1 (4.7) – 62.8 (4.5), Combined 53.3 (5.3) – 57.7 (4.9). CO2 emissions 139 – 129g/km. Official EU Test Figures. For comparison purposes only. Real world figures may differ.


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Official fuel consumption figures for the Discovery Sport range in mpg (l/100km): Urban 44.1 (6.4) – 50.4 (5.6), Extra Urban 60.1 (4.7) – 62.8 (4.5), Combined 53.3 (5.3) – 57.7 (4.9). CO2 emissions 139 – 129g/km. Official EU Test Figures. For comparison purposes only. Real world figures may differ.

GreenFleet 98  

The only fleet publication dedicated to promoting a cleaner environment

GreenFleet 98  

The only fleet publication dedicated to promoting a cleaner environment