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FINANCE & LEASING

THE SPEED LIMIT DEBATE

www.greenfleet.net

IN S EW THE N

car ys Zip ntial u b s i Av EVs’ pote ACEA: o be realised t needs an cuts US s Nis F prices LEA

ROAD TEST FIAT 500

ISSUE 60

FLEET MANAGEMENT

MANAGING YOUR GREY FLEET

Improve health & safety, reduce costs and lower emissions ALTERNATIVE FUELS

HYDROGEN

EU makes big strides towards a hydrogen future

ROAD TEST

PEUGEOT 5O8 RXH The diesel-electric hybrid with four‑wheel drive

LEGISLATION

TYRES New tyre rules make for greener and safer driving

ROAD TESTS TOYOTA PRIUS PLUG-IN AND PRIUS+ n VOLVO V40 D2


VOTED NO.1, AND IT DOESN’T NEED 2 PARKING SPACES

THE NEW FIAT PANDA 4x4, TOP GEAR AWARDS’ S.U.V OF THE YEAR Blue&Me™ Multimedia System • 4 Wheel Drive with ‘Mud and Snow’ tyres 15” Alloy Wheels • Air-Conditioning • ESP with Hill Holder • Start&Stop With up to 60.1 mpg and CO2 from only 114 g/km. Great offers for business users available across the range. For more info contact our business centre on 01753 519 442.

fiat.co.uk Fiat, the car brand with the lowest average CO2 emissions in Europe†. Fuel consumption figures for the Fiat Panda 4x4 range in mpg (l/100km): Urban 47.9 (5.9) – 56.5 (5.0); Extra Urban 61.4 (4.6) – 65.7 (4.3); Combined 57.6 (4.9) – 60.1 (4.7). CO2 emissions 125 – 114 g/km. Source: JATO Dynamics. Based on volume-weighted average CO2 emissions (g/km) of the best selling brands in Europe, 1st half year 2012.


GREENFLEET® MAGAZINE

Comment

DEDICATED TO PROMOTING A CLEANER ENVIRONMENT – www.greenfleet.net

LEAF price cut good news for EV market? Nissan has announced at the North American International Auto Show (NAIAS) that the LEAF’s price tag will be cut by 18 per cent for the US market, down to $28,000 (£18,000). The manufacturer has also confirmed that the European version of the LEAF, which will be built in the UK, will be cheaper, but it is unlikely the price drop will be as significant as in America. This is good news for the electric vehicle market. Even with the £5,000 government grant, one of the major barriers to the mass adoption of electric vehicles is their hefty price tag. The fleet market and especially the adoption of low emission vehicles has gone through unprecedented change in recent years. Perhaps this is reflected by our increase in frequency to ten issues per year. To help us make sure the information in the magazine is relevant and informative as possible, we are asking the fleet industry to compete a short survey. Completing the survey will allow us to continue to provide you with a courtesy copy of the magazine (normally £200), and you will be entered into a prize draw, with a top prize being an iPad. Please go to www.greenfleet.net/survey We always welcome the opinions of the industry so if you have issue you would like the magazine to address please email me: editorial@greenfleet.net

Angela Pisanu, Editor

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226 High Rd, Loughton, Essex IG10 1ET. Tel: 020 8532 0055 Fax: 020 8532 0066 Web: www.psi-media.co.uk EDITOR Angela Pisanu EDITORIAL DIRECTOR Danny Wright PRODUCTION EDITOR Karl O’Sullivan DESIGNER Richard Gooding PRODUCTION CONTROLLER Jacqueline Lawford WEB PRODUCTION Reiss Malone PUBLISHER Martin Freedman KEY ACCOUNT MANAGER Michael Kennedy ADMINISTRATION Victoria Leftwich, Lucy Carter GROUP PUBLISHER Barry Doyle REPRODUCTION & PRINT Argent Media

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Contents

DEDICATED TO PROMOTING A CLEANER ENVIRONMENT – www.greenfleet.net

CONTENTS GREENFLEET 60 06 GREENFLEET NEWS

06

ACEA calls for improved conditions to show EVs’ full potential; LEAF prices cut in the US; Avis Budget buys Zipcar

14 EVENTS

A round up of the upcoming green motoring and fleet management events

17 FINANCE & LEASING 17

The BVRLA’s chief executive John Lewis makes some predictions about the vehicle rental and leasing industry for 2013

20 FLEET MANAGEMENT 

If you let employees drive their own cars for work related trips, are you aware of your ‘duty of care’ responsibilities? Roddy Graham, chairman of the Institute of Car Fleet Management explains

22

22 ALTERNATIVE FUELS

Is hydrogen the ‘hot’ new alternative fuel? Ian Williamson, President of European Hydrogen Association, discusses European developments to make hydrogen a viable alternative fuel

24 TYRES 

TyreSafe explains two major new pieces of tyre legislation which came into effect in late 2012

28 ROAD SAFETY 

The speed limit of England’s motorways is set to rise to 80 mph in the new year, but is this a good thing? Motoring law specialist Hannah Sampson investigates

33 ROAD TEST: TOYOTA PRIUS PLUG-IN/PRIUS+

The Prius Plug-in, Toyota’s first rechargeable full hybrid, and the Prius+, the world’s first seven seater hybrid, are taken for a test drive

35 ROAD TEST: FIAT 500 COLOUR THERAPY TWINAIR The iconic Fiat 500 gets a boost with a new range of quirky colours. But how does it perform? Ian Bond reports

36 ROAD TEST: VOLVO V40 Will the Volvo V40 be a hit with the fleet market? Roland Rendell finds out

37 ROAD TEST: PEUGEOT 508 RXH

Roland Rendell gets behind the wheel of a Peugeot 508 RXH, a diesel-electric hybrid, and finds plenty to roar about

38 PRODUCT FINDER Directory of fleet products and services

33 24 36

GreenFleet magazine

www.greenfleet.net Volume 60 | GREENFLEET® MAGAZINE

5


News

DEDICATED TO PROMOTING A CLEANER ENVIRONMENT – www.greenfleet.net

NEWS IN BRIEF One in three prepared to pay more for cleaner cars According to a Ford survey, one in three Europeans would spend more to buy an environmentally friendly car, even though 71 per cent have reduced spending as a result of the recession. Of the 6,000 polled, 71 per cent say fuel‑efficiency is a major factor in choosing a car; 60 per cent prefer to choose models from car makers that have targeted a reduction in CO2; and 68 per cent consider fuel-efficiency when READ THE REPORT: they are tinyurl.com/a4y945z driving.

Oak-framed solar EV charging launches

ELECTRIC VEHICLES

E-mobility needs the right framework to succees, says ACEA The European Automobile Manufacturers’ Association (ACEA) has cautioned that under the current conditions, E-mobility is unlikely to reach its full potential. This, according to the ACEA, is partly due to the current economic situation with declining sales of vehicles, along with the fragmentation of internal market as a result uncoordinated approach to market incentives, a lack of dedicated support for R&D, and no clear and unified vision on infrastructure. “E-mobility can be part of a long-term solution to our mobility challenges. However, we need to have the right framework conditions if it is to really take off,” stated Ivan Hodac, ACEA secretary general. “It will only be possible to book real progress if there is full cooperation between utility providers, infrastructure companies, the energy sector, standardisation bodies and the automotive industry – with the full support of national governments and the European institutions.” Standardising the connection between the electricity grid and electrically-chargeable

vehicles is one of the prerequisites to help e-mobility gain a viable market share, says the ACEA, as it provides predictability to investors, enables economies of scale, reduces costs for all stakeholders and is essential in increasing user acceptance. The industry has stressed the need for a single harmonised plug system on both the vehicle and the infrastructure sides, and already agreed on a joint proposal for an EU-wide charging system last year. However, the Association says it is very concerned by the lack of progress in creating the framework to meet these goals. This was one of the key incentives for ACEA members to revise their position on electrically-chargeable vehicles and to lower their expectations for the future market share of these vehicles, which ACEA now forecasts to be in the range of 2 to 8 per cent for the next decade. DOWNLOAD THE REPORT

tinyurl.com/ag4ax29

BIOFUELS

My Solar Port will be launched across the UK in 2013. The solar panel sheltered port under which your electric vehicle can be parked and sustainably recharged, features oak frames and has a traditional style and integrated modern electric vehicle charger. All the electricity is generated using the solar panels fitted to the roof, and excess electricity can also be used to power READ MORE: household www.mysolarport.co.uk appliances.

Big fall in UK filling stations The number of petrol stations has fallen dramatically since 1970 according to a government study. Fuel reserves have also dropped by a fifth over the last 10 years. The number of petrol forecourts has fallen from 37,500 in 1970 to 9,000 in 2011. Both diesel and petrol reserves have dropped to six-to-eight days, down by two days compared with 10 years ago. The Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) report, concluded that UK retail sector had ‘more than enough capacity to meet fuel supply shocks until contingency measures READ THE REPORT: can be put tinyurl.com/a9hojv5 in place’.

6

GREENFLEET® MAGAZINE | Volume 60

Environmental Groups offer up Alternative EU biofuel plan Europe could replace oil with renewable energy sources in transport without using biofuels, according to a new report by by Dutch research institute CE Delft. Commissioned by environmental groups, the Sustainable Alternatives for land-based biofuels in the European Union report explores how a shift in EU policy could ensure that biofuels used in Europe offer a real environment advantage. The EU currently has a target to source 10 per cent of all European transport fuel from renewable sources by 2020. Most EU governments intend to meet this requirement through the use of biofuel sourced from agricultural crops, which has the potential for wide environmental and social impact including the displacement of food production to new land and resulting carbon emissions. According to a Commission study, most biofuels currently marketed in Europe offer no or limited carbon emission savings compared to conventional fuels when emissions from this indirect land use change (ILUC) are taken into account. The CE Delft report, commissioned by Greenpeace, BirdLife Europe, the European Environmental Bureau and Transport and Environment, suggests that if adopted, the Commission’s proposal would mean that at least half of the 10 per cent fuel transport target would still be met using destructive biofuels in 2020 and their overall consumption would be allowed to grow. Greenpeace EU forest policy director Sebastien Risso said: “This report shows

just how wrongheaded current EU policy is and how transport can become cleaner without using harmful biofuels. The easiest and most secure way to minimise the climate impacts of road and rail transport is to reduce energy use and accelerate the electrification of our transport system.” The environmental groups are urging EU governments to focus on the solutions offered in the report’s alternative scenario, which if successful would cut CO2 by 205 million tonnes, compared to just over 60 million tonnes under the recent proposal from the European Commission.

DOWNLOAD THE REPORT

tinyurl.com/a46jvrz


A Daimler Brand

The new C- Class Executive SE Saloon. Just 109g /km*.

Official government fuel consumption figures in mpg (litres per 100km) for the C-Class Saloon range: urban 15.5 (18.2) – 54.3 (5.2), extra urban 33.6 (8.4) – 80.7 (3.5), combined 23.5 (12.0) – 68.9 (4.1). CO2 emissions: 280-109g/km. *Based on C 220 CDI BlueEFFICIENCY Executive SE Saloon.

Model featured is a C 220 CDI BlueEFFICIENCY Executive SE Saloon at £29,305.00 including optional metallic paint at £645.00 on-the-road (on-the-road price includes VAT, delivery, 12 months’ Road Fund Licence, number plates, first registration fee and fuel). Some combinations of features/options may not be available. Please contact your Mercedes-Benz Retailer for availability. Price correct at time of going to print.


News

DEDICATED TO PROMOTING A CLEANER ENVIRONMENT – www.greenfleet.net

EV CHARGING

Chargemaster looks to acquire Elektromotive Elektromotive, the first company to introduce public EV charging stations in the UK nearly 10 years ago, is to be taken over by competing provider Chargemaster. Providing Chargemaster completes the acquisition, at a reported cost of £8.5 million, the firm will be able to compete successfully against major international players such as Schneider in France and Siemens and RWE in Germany. The two brands will continue to be marketed in parallel. Users will notice little change, although some pricing schemes may be altered. Chargemaster owns and operates the POLAR recharging network, which it launched in 2011. It has grown to become the UK’s largest national recharging network. In 2012 Elektromotive launched Charge Your Car, designed to connect regional charging networks and adopt a central pay‑as‑you-go scheme. Over the next eight years the majority of car manufacturers will bring out an electric or plug in hybrid model, and therefore the European market for infrastructure is growing rapidly – EV charging point sales in Europe are expected to grow 20 fold over the next eight years and to be worth some 1.2 billion by 2020. According to Pike Research, the market is currently increasing at an annual compound growth rate of 40 per cent. David Martell, ceo of Chargemaster, said: “I am delighted that we have reached this agreement with Elektromotive; the two companies target highly complementary sectors of the market and offer synergistic product ranges.” Calvey Taylor-Haw, managing director, Elektromotive, commented: “This is an extremely positive deal, not only for the two companies but also for the industry and customers. I have respected the market drive and innovative technology that Chargemaster has brought to the sector over the last few years.”

INDUSTRY

Avis snaps up Zipcar for £310m Car rental giant Avis Budget Group has announced that it intends to acquire carsharing pioneer Zipcar for nearly $500 million. Avis paid almost 50 per cent above the share price the end of 2012, reflecting the global and rapidly growing car-sharing market. As with other car clubs, Zipcar’s members, which number more than 750,000, pay an annual fee and then are charged additionally per hour of vehicle use. It appears that public acceptance of new car sharing models such as car clubs is becoming more open, and new car sharing models such as those of Zipcar and Whipcar are poised to become more popular in the UK and elsewhere. “We see car sharing as highly complementary to traditional car rental, with rapid growth potential and representing a scalable opportunity for us as a combined company,” said Ronald Nelson, chairman and chief executive of Avis. He continued: “Avis Budget’s existing infrastructure, scale and experience with managing multiple brands make us uniquely positioned to accelerate the growth and profitability of Zipcar. At the same time, we are committed to retaining the elements of the Zipcar brand and culture that have allowed Zipcar to achieve such rapid growth and success.” Zipcar was founded 12 years ago in Cambridge, Massachusetts, specifically to take

the car sharing concept to the US. Avis hopes to expand the Zipcar approach, by placing more cars in more locations. The firm is also likely to adopt some of the Zipcar technology across the existing group, such as using a smart-card to access a vehicle rather than keys. Following the acquisition, Zipcar will operate as a subsidiary of Avis Budget Group and will continue with its planned move to new headquarters in Boston, Massachusetts. Avis Budget anticipates that key members of the Zipcar management team, including Mr. Griffith and Mark Norman, president and chief operating officer, will continue to set the overall direction and run day­to­day operations of Zipcar.

CENTRAL GOVERNMENT FUNDING

£2m ‘air quality’ grants awarded for low-emission zones Government grants worth up to £2m could pave the way for a new wave of low emissions zones across England. Councils in Birmingham, Bradford and Devon have each been awarded £150,000 to investigate the possibilities of bringing in zones similar to those used in London since 2008 to tackle air pollution. The London zone forces vehicles that do not meet certain emissions standards to pay a charge for driving in much of the city and its suburbs. The standards were tightened this time last year, effectively banning older polluting vehicles from the capital. The grants were announced as part of 36 funding awards to local authorities across England covering 42 projects designed to tackle nitrogen dioxide emissions. These include initiatives to create best practice guidance and tools for local authorities that want to decrease emissions, and efforts to improve communication around air quality risks. The country’s air quality has been widely criticised by campaigners and London remains at risk of EU fines over repeated breaches of legally-binding air quality standards. Last year, the government was embroiled in a court case over its plans for tackling air pollution, after it

admitted in December 2011 that 16 of its 43 regions will fail to comply with EU standards for nitrogen dioxide pollution by 2020. Environment Minister Lord de Mauley said without money from the air quality grant programme, which is now in its 15th year and has handed out over £50m in grants, many pollution-tackling projects would not have been possible. “Air quality has improved significantly in recent years; however, we need to keep striving to improve the air we breathe. This £2m air quality grant will help local communities take matters into their own hands.” The funding comes after Defra awarded a share of £200,000 to three businesses looking to develop technology to aid climate change adaptation and manage flood risks. A reusable, low-cost ‘flood brick’ that could replace sandbags to protect homes, businesses and infrastructure won £44,000 in the Dragons’ Den-style competition, while a cost‑effective rainwater harvesting system was awarded £88,000, and a project to model drainage in urban areas was allocated just under £55,000.


No, not a misprint. 109g /km*. The C- Class Executive SE Saloon now has it all: performance, superior comfort and distinctive styling. And, with just 109g/km*, it’s our most efficient C- Class yet. Take another look.

A Daimler Brand

mercedes-benz.co.uk/fleet

Official government fuel consumption figures in mpg (litres per 100km) for the C-Class Saloon range: urban 15.5 (18.2) – 54.3 (5.2), extra urban 33.6 (8.4) – 80.7 (3.5), combined 23.5 (12.0) – 68.9 (4.1). CO2 emissions: 280-109g/km. *Based on C 220 CDI BlueEFFICIENCY Executive SE Saloon.

Model featured is a C 220 CDI BlueEFFICIENCY Executive SE Saloon at £29,305.00 including optional metallic paint at £645.00 on-the-road (on-the-road price includes VAT, delivery, 12 months’ Road Fund Licence, number plates, first registration fee and fuel). Some combinations of features/options may not be available. Please contact your Mercedes-Benz Retailer for availability. Price correct at time of going to print.


Testo Thermal Imaging Thermal Analysis is our speciality • Accurate conduction and convection heat analysis • Visualise engine efficiency instantly • Superior quality, ergonomically designed

www.testolimited.com/thermal


EV FLEET

Pizza pair: Domino’s takes delivery of ultra-clean and quiet Twizys Pizza franchise Domino’s has taken delivery of a pair of Renault Twizys to help deliver it’s oven‑baked fayre on time in the Swindon area. The Swindon franchisee delivers until 5am all over Swindon and the surrounding areas.  The super-quiet Twizy, which also happens to be highly economical, is perfect for nipping around residential areas without waking up the neighbours. It is also helping Domino’s achieve its company targets of reducing carbon emissions. James Swift, franchisee of Domino’s in Swindon, said: “We are extremely happy with our Twizys as for us they are the perfect run

around for delivering our piping hot pizzas quickly, responsibly and most importantly with minimal running costs. They are quite a head turner too, so it creates a great buzz for us as we like to do things differently.” Jason Derry, Pro+ Manager at Fish Brothers Renault who supplied the Twizy twins, added: “Domino’s is a great example of an established and popular local company and we were glad to be able to offer them something a bit different. The Twizy has stirred up a huge amount of interest since it has arrived, so it will be great to see them driving round Swindon in their distinctive livery.”

News

DEDICATED TO PROMOTING A CLEANER ENVIRONMENT – www.greenfleet.net

NEWS IN BRIEF Revised pricing for Honda CR-Z hybrid sports coupé Honda has announced prices for the CR-Z will start from £20,550 OTR for the Sport variant and £23,050 for the GT model. The CR-Z has been given a range of enhancements to performance and styling and will be available in dealerships from January 2013.

London Electric Vehicle Conference set for 30 April The Electric Vehicle Conference – Overcoming Barriers, Driving Adoption is an industry-led conference and networking event aimed at exploring the barriers of electric vehicle adoption and various practical business models for moving the industry forward. Among others, the 26 senior speakers will include Waitrose Ltd, UPS EMEA, Heathrow Airport Ltd, JC Decaux UK Limited, OLEV, London Borough of Hackney and Renault UK. www.electricvehiclesconference.com

Volvo V60 Plug-In named safest electric car by Euro NCAP

EV SALES

Strong plug-in EV sales growth in US The market for plug-in electric vehicles in the US continues to grow with sales of battery electric and plug-in hybrids increasing month on month. According to the Electric Drive Transportation Association (EDTA), by the end of 2012 in the US over 60,000 plug-in vehicles had been sold, including battery electric, plug-in hybrid and range-extended electric vehicles. This is compared to around 3,000 sales in the UK. The EDTA reports a clear increase in unit sales with over 6,500 EVs being sold in November 2012. In comparison, sales of plug-in vehicles in the UK have been slower than expected, although many industry analysts remain optimistic that as the technology continues to improve and prices begin to fall in 2013, more consumers will be attracted to what electric cars have to offer. Although the US has a much larger car market than the UK, the general EV sales trend

may be followed in the UK. However, between 2011 and 2012, the SMMT reported an increase in UK EV sales of around 80 per cent, significantly less than the sales increase in the US which is more than doubling each year. As Dr Ben Lane of Next Green Car notes, the lower demand for electric vehicles in the UK is due in part to the continuing high price of EVs. “The pricing is not yet quite right and the range is still not long enough. Very few people in 2012 were willing to pay a significant sum more for a car that still cannot do everything.” Despite the slower rate of growth, Lane considers that, should prices continue to fall and new models continue to come on to the market, the number of electric cars in the UK is expected to rise from 3,000 in 2013, possibly reaching 6,000 TO READ MORE VISIT: by the end http://bit.ly/13GMCCH of the year.

The Volvo V60 Plug-in Hybrid has achieved the highest ever Euro NCAP score for a plug-in hybrid. The five stars in the recent test, which included a frontal offset collision at 40 mph, demonstrates the same high safety level as the standard V60. The integration of the battery pack required a unique safety approach during the development.

Doubling of grant take-ups surge 2012 electric car sales Electric cars look set to show that sales surged through 2012, with 2,311 cars registered to the end of September through the Government’s Plug in Car Grant. Although full year registrations of plug-in hybrids and electric cars through the grant scheme have yet to be released by the Office of Low Emission Vehicles (OLEV), the market looks like it is on target to double on 2011’s result. TO READ MORE VISIT: http://bit.ly/Yb8JRE

Volume 60 | GREENFLEET® MAGAZINE

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business.peugeot.co.uk /508hybrid4

AUTO MODE

ELECTRIC MODE

200BHP

4 WHEEL DRIVE

HY TECH, LOW CO 2

A PREMIUM CAR WITH FLEET PRACTICALITY Thanks to our state-of-the-art diesel hybrid technology, the New 508 Diesel HYbrid4 Saloon delivers a class-leading 95g/km of CO2 and exceptional fuel economy. Add to that four distinct driving modes and a high specification, and you’ve got a premium car with fleet practicality. To arrange a demo, please contact our Fleet Centre on 02476 88 4644. The official fuel consumption in mpg (l/100km) for the 508 Diesel HYbrid4 range is: urban drive cycle MPG (litres/100km) 80.7 (3.5) Extra Urban drive cycle MPG (litres/100km) 76.3 (3.7) Combined drive cycle MPG (litres/100km) 78.5 (3.6).

NEW PEUGEOT 508 DIESEL HYBRID4 SALOON


News

DEDICATED TO PROMOTING A CLEANER ENVIRONMENT – www.greenfleet.net

AIR-CONDITIONING REFRIGERANT

EU to prosecute over new eco‑friendly coolant law The European Commission will consider prosecuting nations that flout a new EU law requiring the use of a more environmentally friendly coolant in vehicle air‑conditioning, which Daimler AG claims is dangerous. From the start of January, EU law has demanded the phase-in of a refrigerant with a relatively low level of greenhouse gases, instead of a previous industry. EU Industry Commissioner Antonio Tajani said in response to a parliamentary question that he would start infringement procedures against member states that broke the new rules. The Commission, meanwhile, is analysing a request by the German authorities to find a special solution for Daimler, which wants a six-month grace period. “The Germans have proposed a number of measures to meet the new requirements of the directive, including penalties for car makers that do not abide by it”,

a Commission official told Reuters. The law has already been delayed. It had been scheduled to take effect on Jan. 1, 2011, but car manufacturers were given until the end of 2012 to make sure they had a supply of the right coolant for the new generation of cars after January 1, 2013. A Daimler test last year involving a simulated leak resulted in the coolant bursting into flames, triggering bitter exchanges between the German luxury automaker and Honeywell International Inc., which developed the new coolant in partnership with Dupont, and says it is safe. The new coolant has a greenhouse gas potency only four times greater than CO2 and therefore complies with the EU law requiring a greenhouse gas potential of no more than 150 times that of CO2. TO READ MORE VISIT: http://fxn.ws/11BdJzD

ELECTRIC VEHICLES

Nissan cuts price of US LEAF by 18 per cent The US-market Nissan LEAF revealed at the Detroit motor show is now 18 per cent cheaper. The American-specification will go on sale later this year with a starting price of $28,800 rather than the current model’s $35,200. Nissan says the latest generation will be built in Tennessee and will be sold with a warranty covering battery capacity loss for the first five years of ownership, or 60,000 miles. The models will also have a larger on-board 6.6kW charger, which reduces charging time to

around four hours. The warranty is designed to protect against battery capacity loss in the first five years or 60,000 miles. Should the battery capacity gauge fall below nine bars (from twelve) in that period, Nissan will repair or replace the under warranty with a new or re-manufactured unit. A revised European version of the Nissan LEAF, to be built in the UK, is due to be revealed later this year. Although Nissan has said the car will be cheaper, it is not clear if its price will drop as significantly as in America.

Andy Eastlake A new year and a new decade for cutting carbon Here at the LowCVP we are looking forward to celebrating not just a new year but a new decade; our 10th anniversary takes place this January and I think we can all look forward to the start of this new decade with some optimism about the prospects for low carbon vehicles sales and investment in the UK. Average new car CO2 emissions have been falling at an unprecedented rate in recent years and, despite earlier warnings about the threats associated with policies designed to cut carbon, rapid progress has been achieved at the same time as investment in vehicle development and production in the UK has been growing strongly. The latest SMMT data shows that 2012 vehicle registrations have just exceeded two million for the first time since the recession struck – and many more of these are lower carbon models. For fleets of course, economic stability is critical to be able to make those investments in new technology which can deliver real fuel savings over many years. And it is really that longer term view which I think is crucial; we need to be making decisions (particularly about what vehicle to buy), based on the longer term outlook. The trajectory for CO2 legislation – with stringent targets for manufacturers being phased in from now until 2015 for cars, and from next year through 2017 for vans – means that the pressure will only increase. Very soon after that – in 2020 – another round of CO2 limits will come into play. It’s not only an exciting time for new vehicle technology, but also in terms of the drive to “decarbonise” the fuels we use. The bulk of fleet vehicles are now diesel-powered, but what will the vans and cars of 2017 or 2020 be running on? Of course this is among the questions exercising the team here at LowCVP as we map out our vision for the coming years and work to establish UK policies which encourage the lowest carbon options and deliver benefits for UK plc. So if any of you received an accurate crystal ball in your stocking please join us! Happy New Low Carbon Year(s)! FURTHER INFORMATION www.lowcvp.org.uk Andy Eastlake is managing director of the Low Carbon Vehicle Partnership

Volume 60 | GREENFLEET® MAGAZINE

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Welcome to The Green. Helping you put sustainability at the heart of your fleet. Looking for ways to run a greener fleet? Why not visit The Green, the acclaimed sustainability website from Lex Autolease, the UK’s leading fleet management and fleet funding specialist. Listen to our latest podcast about low carbon vehicles at The Green www.lexautolease.co.uk/theGreen Find free help and advice on sustainable issues, including: • choosing the right vehicles • tax and budget • fuel strategy and how to cut your fuel bill. Visit The Green at www.lexautolease.co.uk/theGreen today, and see how we can help you run a greener fleet. Or you can call us for more information on 0800 389 3690.


INDUSTRY EVENTS

Events

DEDICATED TO PROMOTING A CLEANER ENVIRONMENT – www.greenfleet.net

DATES FOR YOUR 2013 DIARY A look at the upcoming events for the green motoring and fleet sector GENEVA MOTOR SHOW 7-17 March, Palexpo, Geneva The 83rd Geneva motor show will be held in March in the Swiss city of Geneva. The show is hosted at the Geneva Palexpo, a convention centre located next to the Geneva Cointrin International Airport. The show is organised by the Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d’Automobiles, and is considered an important major international auto show. The Geneva International Motor Show will open its doors to the public from March 7-17, 2013. There will be even more space and more than 700,000 visitors from five continents are expected to visit. A huge number of world and European debuts are expected, including the all‑new Skoda Octavia, Alfa Romeo 4C, Mercedes A45 AMG plus the launch of the all‑new Qoros brand, with its VW Jetta‑rivalling Qoros GQ3. There will be a green area exhibiting electric cars and alternative powered cars. The official website www.salon-auto. ch is now offering the initial information regarding the show and tickets for the event can be purchased online. www.salon-auto.ch eDRIVE 6-8 March, Titanic Belfast, Ireland This three-day event will showcase the latest in EV recharging infrastructure in Northern Ireland, as well as the vehicles themselves. Visitors will get the chance to actually test drive the vehicles, giving you that crucial ‘Touch, Taste, Feel Experience’. The Department for Regional Development and Department of the Environment have put Northern Ireland in a position whereby EVs are now a viable everyday solution, and this event is designed to show you how. After receiving funding in Round 2 of the Plugged in Places (PiP) scheme, funded by the Office for Low Emission Vehicles (OLEV), and other regional partners, the ecar project aims to ensure that drivers are never far from an electric vehicle charging point. Added to this, the region is beginning to see take-up of electric vehicle interest, helped by the introduction of the Plug-In Car and Van Grants. There is a three day programme with a line-up of speakers covering the latest topics concerning electric vehicles and infrastructure. The first day will be an Education day, the second, a Business Day, and the third, a Public day, which is for the general public. www.ecaredriveni.greenfleet.net

THE COMMERCIAL VEHICLE SHOW 9-11 April, NEC, Birmingham With the implementation date for Euro 6 set for January 2014, the Commercial Vehicle Show will allow European manufacturers to present their latest products and innovations. DAF will be there with its new Euro 6 XF, Volvo will be making a major splash with its recently launched new FH series and Mercedes-Benz UK will be showing its new ‘urban hero’, the Mercedes-Benz Citan. It will be five years since Iveco has exhibited at the Commercial Vehicle Show in its own right but it too will be back showing its flagship Stralis Hi-Way, winner of the International Truck of the Year Award 2013. MAN will also take the opportunity for the first UK showing of its Euro 6 cabs. Following on from the successful launch earlier this year of Isuzu’s innovative telematics system, Mimamori, The Commercial Vehicle Show 2013 will see the launch of the next stage in the company’s driver and operator management programme, Mimamori 2.

INSURANCE TELEMATICS EUROPE 2013 7-8 May, Victoria Park Plaza, London Insurance Telematics Europe 2013 will gather the thought leaders and pioneers of the insurance telematics space to carefully dissect and answer the issues that are affecting businesses. Visitors can expect over 60 expert speakers sharing their knowledge; over 24 hours of networking with pioneers in the insurance telematics space, and over 30 innovative sessions covering all the key topics in the insurance telematics space. There will also be four focused tracks to help you design your own unique business agenda. Speakers include Ben Gaukrodger, Policy Advisor, Association of British Insurers, Andrew Brown-Allan, Marketing Director, Carrot Insurance, and Steve Sweeney, General Manager – Motor, Moneysupermarket.com. www.telematicsupdate.com/ insurance-telematics-eu GREENFLEET ARRIVE ‘N’ DRIVE 16 May 2013, Rockingham, Northants The 2013 event will see a huge demonstration of low and zero missions cars and commercial vehicles that will help to slash emissions from fleets across the UK. Sponsored by EDF Energy, the Arrive ‘N’ Drive will have more vehicles available for test drive than ever before, with Citroen, BMW MINI, Vauxhall, Volvo, Honda, Renault, Peugeot, Kia, Toyota and Fiat already confirmed. A massive focus on electric vehicles will feature this year, along with afternoon seminars that will examine the latest developments in funding, infrastructure and leasing. What’s more, ACFO (The Association of Car Fleet Operators) will be holding its annual conference and AGM at Arrive ‘N’ Drive. Attendance is free of charge to qualifying individuals in the fleet management and associated industries. www.arrivendrive.greenfleet.net

www.cvshow.com GreenFleet Arrive ‘N’ Drive

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INDUSTRY INSIGHT The UK is not alone in failing to jump‑start this market – EV sales are struggling worldwide. Where they are doing well, Norway for example, it is because the government has unveiled a group of incentives that support the use of these vehicles as well as just their up-front purchase. Prices of EVs will continue to come down, but in isolation this will not be enough to create significant momentum in this market.

THE FLEET INDUSTRY FOR 2013 The BVRLA’s chief executive John Lewis makes some predictions about the vehicle rental and leasing industry for 2013 The BVRLA kicked-off 2012 with a ‘Fleet Optimist’s Guide’ and this positive message certainly seemed to rub off on the industry last year. Latest figures show that the association grew its membership in all areas last year when compared to 2011, seeing an increase in rental, leasing, commercial vehicle and leasing broker members. The BVRLA member fleet starts 2013 at 2.75 million vehicles, having risen nine per cent over the last year to its highest ever level. A 10 per cent rise in the car (2.2m) and van (430,000) fleets was offset slightly by a seven per cent decline in the larger commercial vehicle fleet (102,000). Even as the economy continues to limp along, these figures are a sign that the vehicle rental and leasing industry is as strong as ever, a vital cog in the UK’s transport network. The outlook for 2013 is no less uncertain than it was a year ago, but the BVRLA is confident enough to make some predictions.

but steady growth. This will continue to be driven by greater penetration into the SME market and the continued popularity of salary sacrifice schemes with larger corporate customers. The slump in van registrations towards the second half of 2012 took many people by surprise, especially as it was offset by a strong rise in truck registrations (which nonetheless remain well down on pre-credit crunch levels). We expect steady growth in both sectors next year, with truck sales in particular driven by operators choosing to replenish their fleets ahead of the introduction of new EURO VI emissions standards. New business car tax thresholds will continue to have their desired effect, pushing average fleet emissions down, probably by another three or four per cent. Fleets will review their policies and move emissions caps to 130g/km giving an advantage to those manufacturers who have been able to produce a significant range of models below that level.

New fleet car registrations will continue their recovery from the slumps of 2009/10, with slow, but steady growth. This will continue to be driven by greater penetration into the SME market and the continued popularity of salary sacrifice schemes with larger corporate customers LEASING INDUSTRY The fleet sector will continue to be the mainstay of the new car market and a reliable source of business for manufacturers who will struggle to cope with what is likely to be a volatile retail market. New fleet car registrations will continue their recovery from the slumps of 2009/10, with slow,

ELECTRIC VEHICLE SALES The potential surge in EV registrations we pointed to last year didn’t happen. Prices are still too high, and the own goal scored by the government in the March 2012 budget, which will result in fleets actually being incentivised not to lease EVs from next Spring, did the damage.

Finance & Leasing

DEDICATED TO PROMOTING A CLEANER ENVIRONMENT – www.greenfleet.net

FUNDING What a difference a year makes. The industry enters 2013 with healthy supply of funding and funders, with a range of new entrants firmly entrenched in the market and lending. Another massive bonus is the decision of the industry’s largest funder, Lloyds Banking Group, to renew its commitment. Industry consolidation is a perennial topic, but apart from the recent deal between Avis and Zipcar, we are not seeing much of this at the moment. The BVRLA reported an increase in members during 2012 and we see continued growth in the short term at least. Much of this growth is coming from the ‘captive’ sector where manufacturers, who have traditionally remained in the background as suppliers of finance, are becoming directly involved in the sector, either as leasing providers or suppliers of ‘pay-as-you-go’ mobility solutions. In an era when demand for the traditional company car is static at best, these new entrants to the market are helping to enlarge the overall vehicle rental and leasing market. Residual values will remain strong. No‑one currently knows what a normal used car or van market looks like and seasonal trends have almost disappeared. All we can be sure of is that the UK is facing an almost unprecedented supply shortage of quality young used vehicles. With the economy hopefully entering a more sustained growth phase, this shortage will continue to support stronger residual values. TELEMATICS For many years sold as a way of obtaining greater cost controls within fleets, telematics is becoming cheaper and companies are using it as a tool for ensuring greater duty of care. This can only be good news and should hopefully feed through in the form of reduced insurance costs. Regarding our roads, government strategy is always difficult to predict, particularly with such a revolving door at the Department for Transport. But one thing that is clear is that the government will continue to place greater priority on a high-speed train line than creating a sustainable, long-term plan for funding the high-quality road network that this country so desperately needs. FURTHER INFORMATION www.bvrla.co.uk

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WORK 94g/km CO 2

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Fleet Management Written by Roddy Graham, Chairman, Institute of Car Fleet Management

DEDICATED TO PROMOTING A CLEANER ENVIRONMENT – www.greenfleet.net

GREY FLEET

GREY FLEET: A PROBLEM WAITING TO HAPPEN?

If you have employees that use their own cars for work related trips, there are two pieces of legislation you have to be mindful of in terms of meeting ‘duty of care’ responsibilities, explains Roddy Graham, Chairman of the Institute of Car Fleet Management The grey fleet should be of concern to all organisations. Those privately-owned vehicles used by employees while ‘at work’ are difficult to manage in terms of meeting any organisation’s basic duty of care responsibilities, not to mention corporate social responsibilities (CSR), in terms of the environment. They need to have measures in place to ensure that grey fleet vehicles are ‘fit for the purpose’, roadworthy, properly maintained, taxed and insured, which unfortunately is not always the case. In the public sector alone, the former Office of Government Commerce (OGC), now the Efficiency Reform Group (ERG), estimated a while back that nearly 57 per cent of ‘at work’ mileage was covered by employees in privately-owned vehicles. That equates to around 1.4 billion miles a year covered by vehicles that do not necessarily comply with current law or are ‘fit for the purpose.’ Potentially, therefore, the grey fleet is a problem waiting to happen. As the above figures indicate, the grey fleet may be much larger than imagined, especially if eligible employees have taken ‘cash’ rather than a company car. Historically, this happened at a time when company cars were unfairly taxed as a perk. Now attractive BIK rates linked to low CO2 emissions, allied to wide choice, make this no longer the case. Indeed, many responsible organisations are taking steps to encourage cash takers back into company cars and introducing attractive car salary sacrifice schemes.

The number of ‘at work’ deaths now account for over a quarter of overall road deaths. The figure of 559 ‘at work’ deaths represents 29 per cent of the total. While, we have yet to see the first successful prosecution under the 2007 Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act involving an ‘at work’ driver, meeting duty of care responsibilities should remain a top priority. Overall, there are three main reasons for tackling grey fleet – health and safety, cost savings and the environment. HEALTH AND SAFETY The two main pieces of current legislation to be mindful of in meeting duty of care responsibilities are the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 and the UK Corporate Manslaughter (England, Wales and Northern Ireland) and Corporate Homicide (Scotland) Act 2007. The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 requires employers to ensure the health and safety of all full and part-time workers while ‘at work’, as is reasonably practicable. The Act covers all work-related journeys including drivers in company vehicles, using their own cars or other vehicles for business use, temporary drivers, freelance drivers and agency or contract workers. The ‘Driving at Work: Managing work‑related road safety’ guide highlights the legal responsibilities of employers to comply so far as is reasonably practicable with the Health and Safety at Work Act, stresses the benefits of managing workrelated road safety and suggests how it should be managed and road risks assessed. Employers need to consider driver competency and training; driver health; knowledge of basic vehicle checks; vehicle suitability, condition and maintenance; a valid MOT certificate if required; and safety equipment. Other considerations

ce One pie tion la of legis ful of in ind to be m duty of care meeting sibilities is repon alth and the He at Work Safety 1974 Act

UK ROAD DEATHS AND INJURIES The latest government figures show that the number of deaths on Britain’s roads rose by three per cent overall last year to a record low of 1,901 in 2011. Car drivers and passengers accounted for 46 per cent of deaths, up six per cent, and pedestrians for 24 per cent. These deaths saw the sharpest rise, up 12 per cent.

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should even include adequate travel time allowance and proper route planning. The HSE guide extends to the use of privately-owned vehicles on business trips. Employers can be liable if employees use an un-roadworthy vehicle on company business. Employers have a duty of care to ensure they have checked employees hold a valid driving licence, are monitoring the maintenance history of the vehicle and that the vehicle insurance also covers business use. Besides conducting a professional risk assessment audit of both vehicles and staff, employers need to have an agreed comprehensive ‘driving at work’ risk management strategy. In the unfortunate event of an ‘at work’ road accident, employers need to be able to provide evidence that they have taken ‘reasonably practicable’ steps to manage their duty of care responsibilities. Following an accident, employers failing to act on the guide run the risk of facing significant fines under the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974. Directors and senior management can also face large fines and even possible prison sentences. The UK Corporate Manslaughter (England, Wales and Northern Ireland) and Corporate Homicide (Scotland) Act 2007 makes it possible for an employer to be prosecuted as the result of the failings of senior management. Under the Act, all employers have a duty of care to ensure the safety of their ‘at work’ drivers. The Act makes it much easier to prosecute organisations for manslaughter following a work-related death, than previous legislation. The Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) does not have to rely on an individual being found guilty of gross negligence; it just needs to prove the fatality resulted


from a gross breach of the relevant duty of care by the organisation as a whole. Under the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974, the fine will be seldom less than £100,000 and more likely several hundred thousand pounds. Under the UK Corporate Manslaughter (England, Wales and Northern Ireland) and Corporate Homicide (Scotland) Act, a work-related road death will result in an organisation being fined rarely less than half a million pounds and more likely several million pounds. In addition, a publicity order could be imposed on every organisation found guilty. COST SAVINGS Employers should seriously review what they pay grey fleet drivers as the mileage rates may not make financial sense. Sewells and The Energy Saving Trust conducted research which flagged up that just under a third of companies allowed their employees to drive privately‑owned vehicles more than 7,000 miles a year ‘at work’ and reimbursed them nearly £3,500 each. The same research also showed that a quarter of grey fleet vehicles covered more than 10,000 miles per annum on employer business. For many organisations a grey fleet can cost them more than a company car fleet. Many grey fleet drivers see business mileage reimbursement as a potential moneymaking exercise. Currently, employees are reimbursed at Approved Mileage Allowance Payments (AMAP) rates – 45 pence per mile. This is significantly higher than typical Advisory Fuel Rate (AFR) payments of 12 to 14 pence per mile for a company car driver. For employers, a practical ceiling for requiring employees to use a daily rental vehicle rather than their own privately-owned vehicle might be a maximum daily distance

of 100 miles at the above standard rates. Above 100 miles, it may cost more for an organisation to reimburse a grey fleet driver.

Fleet Management

DEDICATED TO PROMOTING A CLEANER ENVIRONMENT – www.greenfleet.net

Organis need toations have measur e s i np to ensu re that lace fleet ve g chicles rey ‘fit for are roadwo purpose’, rth and ins y, taxed ured

THE ENVIRONMENT There is an astonishing choice of vehicles available with CO2 emission levels below 120g/km. Against this backdrop, employers looking to significantly reduce their CO2 emissions as part of their CSR can easily operate a carbon neutral transport policy as a first step towards running a greener fleet. The only obstacle in the way is the grey fleet. The majority of grey fleet vehicles are older than company car vehicles and therefore are higher polluters. In the public sector, the average age of a privately-owned vehicle used ’at work’ is 6.7 years old. In comparison, the average age of a company car is around 18 months based on the current trend of replacing company cars every 37 months. SMMT figures confirm that the average new car sold in the UK in 2011 emitted just 138.1g/km of CO2, 4.2 per cent lower than the 2010 figure and 23 per cent better than in 2000. New technology, improved fuel consumption and better overall consumer awareness are the principal contributors to this continued progress. According to the SMMT, 46.8 per cent of cars had emissions below 130g/km CO2. MANAGING THE GREY FLEET Grey fleet drivers should be made responsible for ensuring that their privately-owned vehicle complies with Road Traffic law; is properly maintained, safe and roadworthy; and is ‘fit for the purpose’ when used ‘at work’. Grey

fleet drivers should be responsible for ensuring that their vehicle has a current vehicle registration document, valid vehicle excise duty disc, current MOT Certificate if over three years old, vehicle insurance covering business use and an up-to-date service handbook. The fleet policy should lay down that all these documents should be checked at least once per year. To protect itself, the employer should have on file a signed document authorising use of a specified grey fleet vehicle and covering the above. Going the extra mile, employers could insist on minimum safety standards based on European New Car Assessment Programme (Euro NCAP) ratings and minimum safety equipment (e.g. ABS and ESC). In order to reduce their carbon footprint, employers could specify an upper emissions limit and a maximum engine capacity too. Regular and occasional spot vehicle safety checks on both company cars and grey fleet vehicles should be the norm. The fleet policy should state clearly that the grey fleet driver must hold a current driving licence valid in the UK for the type of vehicle used and advise the organisation of any endorsements. Driving licence checks should be undertaken annually, if not more frequently. Fleet policy should seek to reduce all ‘at work’ journeys to a minimum by conducting a series of pre-journey assessments, challenging whether the journey is really necessary. If it is, the most economic form of transport should be chosen and car sharing considered. L FURTHER INFORMATION www.icfm.com administration@icfm.com

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Alternative Fuels Written by Ian Williamson, President, European Hydrogen Association

DEDICATED TO PROMOTING A CLEANER ENVIRONMENT – www.greenfleet.net

HYDROGEN Techno-Taxi: EU-funded vehicles ran VIPs around the 2012 London Olympics

HYDROGEN: READY FOR PRIME-TIME?

Fans who followed the London Olympics last year may have noticed the launch of a fleet of London black cabs specially adapted to run on hydrogen-powered fuel cells to ferry VIPs during the Games. Developed as part of a new EU-funded project, the cabs are just one example of the strides being made across Europe in the development of hydrogen transport. Ian Williamson reports Adoption of hydrogen-powered vehicles is still in its infancy and there is a great need for national- and European-level support for hydrogen technologies in order to help reduce reliance on fossil fuels. This becomes obvious when Europe’s commitment to reduce CO2 emissions by 80 per cent by 2050 is considered – road transport can account for 95 per cent in CO2 reduction if hydrogen fuel cells can be harnessed aggressively. 2012 also saw the expansion of a network of new fuelling stations and hydrogen‑powered vehicle fleets. In addition, major new hydrogen transport ventures were announced that will lead to increasing momentum this year as many European countries including the UK prepare for the arrival of commercially available hydrogen fuel cell vehicles from 2014/15. Hydrogen represents a viable alternative to conventional fuels and a solution to some of the planet’s most important energy problems, producing zero harmful emissions at the point of use. As a result, many companies ranging from small innovators such as Surrey-based AFC Energy to multinationals such as Air Products and Mercedes-Benz are investing vast amounts of human and financial capital to harness it

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for clean energy. For example, Air Products alone has built more than 150 fuelling stations in 19 countries worldwide. THE NEW FUEL Green bus fleets powered by hydrogen fuel cells are becoming a familiar sight in big cities in Europe and with the expected launch of hydrogen cars by major manufacturers, the day is not far off when fuel cell vehicles become a hot topic of celebrity gossip just as hybrid vehicles did a few years ago. Fuel cell electric vehicles powered by hydrogen provide the same range, performance and fuelling time as conventional internal combustion engines while producing zero emissions. While it is still early days, the market for fuel cell vehicles could grow rapidly in the next 20 years. According to E4tech, the sustainable energy consultants, 1.5 million fuel cell cars alone could be on the road by 2020 and increase to 35 million by the following

decade. Taking account of the fleets of buses and light commercial vehicles that are also likely to come into service, the potential size of the market is obviously colossal. CAR SECTOR The first hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are set to hit the market by the middle of the decade, with several major car manufacturers developing hydrogen-powered models. At the 2012 World Hydrogen Energy Conference, Daimler AG, Honda, Hyundai and Toyota all confirmed plans to produce hydrogen fuel cell vehicles for sale by 2015, with some types planned to enter the showroom in 2013. Fuel cell light duty vehicles have so far seen limited use but this is set to change as automakers have targeted 2015 for initial commercial sales of their fuel cell vehicles. Initial locations for this roll-out will most likely concentrate around clusters of early hydrogen refuelling infrastructure in Japan, Germany and the USA, and will then spread outwards from these centres as the market is established. In the UK a £400 million government backed cross‑industry trial programme called UKH2Mobility was launched recently to help commercialise and reduce the costs of making fuel cell vehicles. The project brings together three government departments and 13 companies from the utility, gas infrastructure and car manufacturing sectors.

en Hydrog ll fuel ce due s are vehicle iddle of by the me – several ad the decfacturers are manu eloping dev models

PUBLIC TRANSPORT The fuel cell bus sector is also gaining traction with more prototypes being unveiled. Successful deployments have taken place in Europe, Japan, Canada and


the USA but the high capital cost is still a barrier to widespread adoption. However late last year the EU Commission’s Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking (FCH-JU) published an encouraging study on hydrogen buses throughout Europe. The project was established to evaluate the feasibility of de-carbonising public transport by 95 per cent throughout Europe by 2050. The performance of hydrogen fuel cell buses was found to be broadly similar to their conventionally fuelled counterparts. The report also highlighted the economic argument in favour of fuel cell buses as the cost of hydrogen fuel compares favourably with conventional fuels. The report concluded that hydrogen fuel cell buses, and other zero-emissions vehicles, are crucial if the EU expects to meet its transport and greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets. The FCH-JU has invited public authorities, transport operators, bus manufacturers, component providers and other interested organisations to partner with them in the next phase of the study, which aims to detail the roadmap towards the implementation of hydrogen fuel cell technology in urban transport in Europe. Europe’s leading hydrogen bus demonstration project CUTE and its successor HyFLEET: CUTE blazed a trail in proving fuel cell and hydrogen propulsion technologies. The trials were conducted in eight European cities including Amsterdam, London and Hamburg. In HyFLEET: CUTE, 33 fuel cell buses and 14 internal combustion engine buses operated in daily public service. In total the buses accumulated in excess of 2.5 million kilometres and carried more than 8.5 million passengers, proving the reliability of the new technology. The project also demonstrated the next generation fuel cell/battery hybrid bus which has reduced hydrogen consumption by half. Perhaps the most high profile hydrogen transport project in the UK, the Transport for London hydrogen bus fleet, in 2012 completed a second full year of operation and reached some important milestones. This project formed part of the FCH-JU successor project ‘CHIC’ or ‘Clean Hydrogen in Cities’ in which a further 26 buses produced using the knowledge and experience gained from the CUTE project are currently being demonstrated. A fleet of these buses have been transporting London’s passengers on the busy RV1 route between Covent Garden and Tower Gateway Station and are central to the city’s efforts in reducing CO2 emissions. The fleet is refuelled at Air Products’ Stratford fuelling station where well over 1,000 fuellings have enabled the buses to travel 100,000 miles around the capital. One full tank of hydrogen enables a bus to travel for up to 18 hours, and the buses emit no carbon emissions – only water vapour. A brand new hydrogen bus fleet was announced for Scotland recently. Backed

by funding from the Scottish Government, Aberdeen City Council is planning to order 10 hydrogen fuel cell buses, which they expect to be running from 2014. The project will also mean the installation of a new fuelling station in Aberdeen and an effort to generate renewable hydrogen from wind energy.

able to store hydrogen in their tanks at this higher pressure, allowing them to achieve a greater range of travel between refuelling. Across the Channel, the Hydrogen Infrastructure for Transport (HIT) project recently received the green light for the roll-out of a network hydrogen refuelling stations along a first 1000km corridor from Gothenburg to Rotterdam and to demonstrate state‑of‑the-art refuelling technology through the construction of three pilot stations in the Netherlands and Denmark.

Alternative Fuels

DEDICATED TO PROMOTING A CLEANER ENVIRONMENT – www.greenfleet.net

Daiml AG, Honer Hyunda da, Toyota i and confirm have all produceed plans to vehicle hydrogen s for by 2015 sale

AN OLYMPIC TEST London is increasingly becoming a hydrogen transport hub and a new project was delivered in the capital to coincide with the Olympics. The fleet of hydrogen fuel cell powered taxis provided by the HyTEC (Hydrogen Transport for European Cities) consortium travelled 2,500 miles around London during the Olympics fuelled by the capital’s second hydrogen fuelling station installed at Heathrow airport. The pioneering fleet of fuel cell electric London taxis, which were developed by the UK power technology company Intelligent Energy and The London Taxi Company, transported 132 visiting dignitaries and the VIP guests of the Greater London Authority during the Olympic and Paralympic period. This was the first phase of the HyTEC project, which will continue for the next three years and will also install a network of fuelling stations in Copenhagen, Denmark. LOOKING TO 2014/15 2013 is going to see major new projects as the hydrogen transport industry seeks to ready itself for the arrival of commercially available hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. With major car companies committed to having hydrogen fuel cell vehicles on the forecourts of car dealerships by 2014/15, hydrogen infrastructure companies have a clear target to work towards. One of the main requirements is 700 bar fuelling stations, up from the original 350 bar pressure. The latest hydrogen fuelled vehicles are

GOING THE DISTANCE A strong selling point to use hydrogen as an energy carrier for long distance transport is that it is a perfect range extender for electric vehicles. The ambition of HIT is to kick-off an EU network of refuelling stations to facilitate clean and sustainable transport along the main transport axis in Europe, thereby turning these into Green corridors. While the impact of a functioning hydrogen economy on the environment would be hard to overstate, major economic benefits are also likely if the transition from fossil fuels is helped with fiscal incentives. A recent survey and analysis by the UK Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Association (UKHFCA) and the Energy Generation and Supply Knowledge Transfer Network found that the sector has the potential to become a low carbon success story by delivering more than 2,200 new jobs in the UK, preserve approximately 145,000 jobs in automotive manufacturing and generate £1bn annual revenues by 2020. To help make this happen, the UKHFCA is calling on the government to introduce a feed-in tariff to support fuel cells across the transport, heat and power sectors. In transport, we envisage support in the form of a rebate paid per mile equivalent to the fuel duty paid per mile by a similar conventional vehicle. L Blameless buses: one tank of hydrogen allows a bus up to 18 hours’ travel with no carbon emissions

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Tyres

DEDICATED TO PROMOTING A CLEANER ENVIRONMENT – www.greenfleet.net

TYRE LEGISLATION

TYRES MOVE INTO THE SPOTLIGHT

At the end of 2012, two major pieces of tyre law came in. The introduction of tyre labelling will affect the way tyres are bought, and the legal requirement for all new cars to be fitted with Tyre Pressure Monitoring Systems will alert drivers when pressure fall below a certain threshold. TyreSafe reports on these changes

Having been largely taken for granted by many drivers for a considerable time, tyres are currently attracting a large amount of attention from those both within the automotive industry and the wider mainstream media. The catalysts responsible for the renewed level of interest are a couple of new pieces of European legislation. The first, tyre labelling, relates to how tyres are sold and marketed and such is the impact of this introduction that it is being described by many as the single biggest factor affecting the tyre industry in many years. The second relates to tyre pressure monitoring systems (TPMS), which is also placing tyres in the spotlight. Speaking on behalf of the UK’s leading tyre safety organisation, Stuart Jackson, chairman, TyreSafe, said: “Tyre manufacturers are being placed under increased scrutiny about the abilities of their tyres from a safety, environmental and performance perspective. These growing levels of awareness and interest are likely to help improve people’s attitudes towards tyre care and maintenance which can only be a positive move for improving road safety.” WHAT’S NEW? Possibly most important and having the biggest impact is the new EU tyre labelling regulation that was introduced in November 2012. The law requires all new tyres to be graded against three criteria which must be displayed on the tyre label at the point of sale. The areas being judged are wet braking performance, fuel efficiency and exterior noise emissions. The newly introduced labels will look familiar as they use graphics similar to those found on many new domestic appliances, cars and buildings. Wet breaking and fuel efficiency is rated on a scale from A to G, with A providing the best level of performance and G the lowest. Noise emissions are shown by a series of black waves, with three being the loudest. The differences in the A to G ratings can be significant. This is perhaps most important when it comes to stopping in the wet when it really could be a matter of life or death. A car driving on four A-rated tyres at 50mph can stop up to 18 metres shorter (approximately four car lengths) than if it were driving on four G-rated tyres. Jackson explained: “Your tyres are the only point of contact between your vehicle and the road surface so it is essential they can still perform properly in the most treacherous of conditions. The wet braking rating will help drivers make an informed choice about which product best matches their needs. However, they must also remember that whichever product they pick, regular tyre checks are still needed to maximise performance and safety.” GREENER DRIVING The new labels also spell out which tyres are better at helping to drive down fuel costs and reduce CO2 emissions by measuring the tyres rolling resistance.

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Tyres

DEDICATED TO PROMOTING A CLEANER ENVIRONMENT – www.greenfleet.net

Tread carefully (left): the introduction of new EU tyre labelling is one of the biggest changes to the tyre industry in recent years

Category A offers the lowest rolling resistance making the tyre the most fuel efficient. Category G tyres have the highest levels of rolling resistance on the scale making them the least fuel efficient. Once again, the difference between the two extremes is stark. Choosing A-rated tyres over G-rated tyres could reduce your fuel consumption by 7.5 per cent. The final category shown on the labels is for exterior noise emissions (not what is heard inside the vehicle). There are just three ratings for this category represented by three black lines, with one black line being the best performing and three being the worst. TYRE SAFETY While the new tyre labels considers these three very important elements, drivers and fleet operators may have additional requirements or other factors to consider when selecting their replacement tyres. Your local tyre specialists can provide assistance and advice with this. It is also important to remember that correct tyre care and maintenance is essential for safety on the road. Tyre pressures should be checked at least once a month or before a long journey. Tread depth should be checked regularly to ensure the tyres meet the minimum legal requirements of 1.6mm of tread across the central three quarters of the tyre around its entire circumference. The condition of the tyres should also be checked, looking out for any cuts, bulges or embedded objects. Properly maintained tyres also have a longer life and can also help reduce fuel costs, potentially saving fleet operators thousands of pounds in fuel bills. TPMS LEGISLATION But it’s not just tyre labelling that is new to the industry as from November 2012; following the introduction of European legislation on vehicle emissions and tyre safety, all newly homologated cars are required to be fitted with a pressure based Tyre Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS), a battery-powered sensor to be fitted inside every tyre. TPMS systems monitor the amount of air within the tyre and alert the driver when the pressure in any of the tyres falls below a certain threshold, typically 20 per cent

below the correct inflation level. Having the correct tyre pressure is crucial for a number of reasons, including increased road safety, lower fuel bills, longer tyre life and reduced CO2 emissions, so it is important that the TPMS system is working properly. Added incentive is a European Commission directive which states that from January 2012, a vehicle will fail its MOT if the air pressure monitoring system is malfunctioning or obviously inoperative. However, in the UK, VOSA’s interpretation of this regulation means that a vehicle fitted with TPMS will not fail on this aspect until 2015. In the meantime, any TPMS fault will be recorded on the MOT test as an ‘advisory’ meaning owners should seek further assistance from the workshop. Drivers should also remember that it is important to service the TPMS sensor each time a tyre is removed. The service replaces the arubber seals and other important service parts so that the sensor is kept fully operational and works properly.

PRESSURE POINTERS Irrespective of whether the vehicle is fitted with a TPMS system, tyre pressures should be regularly checked at least once a month or before a long journey and pressures should be checked against the vehicle manufacturer’s recommended level. This can be found in the vehicle handbook and on a plate which is often located inside the fuel filler flap or on the driver’s door sill. TyreSafe also has an online pressure database and iPhone App to provide these details for car owners. Drivers should also check the pressure when tyres are cold (i.e. when the vehicle has travelled less than two miles). If you are carrying a full load of passengers or luggage or will be towing a trailer or caravan, tyre pressures should be increased in line with the vehicle manufacturer’s recommendations. Every time the pressure is checked, ensure a reliable and accurate pressure gauge is used and that all four 2 tyres – and the spare – are checked. While checking pressures, give the rest of the tyre a visual inspection. Remove any stones embedded and look out for any bulges, lumps or cuts. If you are unsure on any aspect then speak to the experts. “While the introduction of new legislation and regulations which can help improve road safety are to be welcomed, it still remains the responsibility of the individual driver to check that their tyres are safe and legal,” concluded Jackson.

ced Introdumber in Nove new EU e t 2012, th spell outer s l e b a l t tyre s are beive e r y t h c r whi lping to d at he fuel costs down duce CO and re ssions emi

WHY PRESSURE MATTERS Having the correct tyre pressure is vital for a number of key reasons, namely safety, fuel economy and tyre wear. “TyreSafe has long been campaigning for motorists to regularly check their tyre pressures and while we always emphasise the safety aspect, there are cost-saving reasons to make it a high priority as well,” said Jackson. Road safety depends on correct tyre pressure. Under-inflated tyres can suffer from excessive heat build-up making them much more likely to suffer from a dangerous blowout. Equally, vehicle handling, cornering, acceleration and braking are all adversely affected if tyres are not inflated to the correct pressure. The rolling resistance of a tyre increases when it is under-inflated which means they need more energy or fuel to make them turn. By making sure the tyres are properly inflated it will maximise the fuel economy and minimise CO2 emissions. Calculations from one TyreSafe member found that when tyres are under-inflated by 20 per cent (around 6psi), three per cent more fuel is used. What’s more, correctly maintained tyres can prolong tyre life. The contact patch of a tyre with the road surface is concentrated towards the two outer edges of the tread when it is under-inflated. This leads to rapid wear on the shoulders and reduced tyre life, further increasing motoring costs. By running tyres at 80 per cent of the recommended pressure, tyre life is reduced to around 75 per cent. If the pressure falls to 60 per cent, then it may achieve as little as 35 per cent of the tyre’s potential mileage.

WINTER TYRES As spring looms large on the horizon, motorists could be forgiven for believing that the need for winter tyres has passed. However, according to TyreSafe, drivers should think again. It is not just snow and ice that these tyres relish but also cold and damp conditions, especially when the temperature drops below seven degrees celsius, which is not uncommon right through to March. Driving in lower temperatures especially applies to commuters and business motorists who are on the roads in coldest conditions in the early morning and evening. Indeed, according to figures from the Met Office, the temperature fell below seven degrees during prime commuting hours on 147 separate days between October and March. If proof was needed, tests conducted by the British Tyre Manufacturers’ Association found that a car braking at 60mph on a wet road at 5°C stopped five metres shorter, equivalent to more than one car length, when fitted with winter weather tyres. L FURTHER INFORMATION www.tyresafe.org

Volume 60 | GREENFLEET® MAGAZINE

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Road Safety

DEDICATED TO PROMOTING A CLEANER ENVIRONMENT – www.greenfleet.net

MOTORWAY SPEED LIMITS

THE BIG SPEED LIMIT DEBATE Written by Hannah Sampson, solicitor at Saunders Law

The national speed limit on Britain’s motorways is set to rise from the current 70mph to 80mph. But is this a good thing? Motoring law specialist Hannah Sampson investigates This issue has been discussed for some time now. In 2011 the government announced plans to increase the limit at the start of 2013. It seems on the face of it straightforward. Many of us drive over 70 mph and some regularly drive at 80mph when they are able to. However, when you examine this issue there are many issues to be considered.   The main concern must be that of safety. It is fair to say that when the 70mph limit was set in 1965 for many vehicles on the road it was difficult to even reach that speed. Today though, it’s a different story. High performance cars have flooded our roads and with these amazing technological advancements the safety of vehicles is also far greater than it ever was. Research suggests that since the 70mph limit was introduced the number of fatalities on our roads has reduced by up to 75 per cent. INFRASTRUCTURE CONCERNS However, it is not just the safety of the vehicle that has to be considered. Can our network of motorways cope with the increase? As safe as cars now are, roads need to be safe too. There are 4,350 miles of motorway in our country at the last count. But unfortunately poor motorway maintenance over the years means that large sections of this network would need vast improvement before any increase to the limit would be safe. Crash barriers are there to assist in the event of a collision and they absorb a lot of the impact in the event of a collision, which leads to increased chances of survival and reduced injury to any occupant of a vehicle. On our motorways large sections are without crash barriers or where they are in place they have been left in need of repair after a previous collision.

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GREENFLEET® MAGAZINE | Volume 60

It is understandable perhaps that road safety campaigners are up in arms that plans to increase this speed limit are nearing fruition when after much campaigning on other stretches of road limits have been reduced to 20mph. But it is not just road safety campaigners who are less than supportive to these plans. We live in a world where everyday we are battling to reduce pollution and carbon emissions. Driving at higher speeds has long been known to produce increased carbon emissions and will of course increase oil consumption at a time when the cost of even driving a vehicle is becoming eye-watering for many.   But we also live in a world that is suffering with recession and businesses need to be as productive as they can to increase growth and work towards rebuilding our limping economy. Being able to get to your destination more quickly could have hugely positive impacts on business. Increasing a companies profits must be considered a priority in these current difficult fiscal times. OVER THE LIMIT Research suggests that 49 per cent of drivers break the limit. I would suggest that is a very conservative estimate. The sad reality is that many of us already drive up to and sometimes in excess of 80mph. It’s fair to say that the police in a lot of cases turn a blind eye when drivers reach speeds slightly in excess of the current limit. But will increasing the limit to 80mph mean that many of us will push our speeds to nearer the 90mph mark when we never

would have dreamed of doing so before? There is a common myth that police will not pull you over if you are within 10 per cent of the legal limit. However, the reality is that if you drive over 70mph you are breaking he law and you can legitimately be prosecuted and you would not have a defence. Often the police will ignore someone driving slightly over the limit because they are involved in more pressing matters. But equally, pulling over someone driving over the limit even only slightly will relieve the boredom for a traffic officer on a quiet day. Again, technology plays a part here. Nowadays speed cameras and guns are calibrated and very accurate tools. They are also unforgiving creatures and will accurately record a vehicles speed which enables an officer to pull over and prosecute a driver who is only slightly over the limit. Previously before these machines were there to assist, the police had to judge a vehicles speed themselves, so someone only slightly over the limit would be able to continue on their way. It was only those driving at seriously high speeds who would be stopped and prosecuted since the police could then be sure that the law was being broken.   There are less traffic officers on our roads but there is technology that makes their job easier. When a driver is clocked breaking the limit they are more often than not sent a summons with evidence of the speed at which the vehicle was travelling at sent out along with the court summons. The recipient of this is given the opportunity to plead guilty by post

Will al a nationmit i speed l 80mph e to increas e will push mean wds to 90mph e our spe we wouldn’t when done so have re? befo


and the court will then swiftly deal with the matter by endorsing the driver licence and sentencing them to pay a fixed financial penalty. The minimum is three points. This is a swift and easy way to prosecute an individual and it is a revenue winner for the local authority. However, there are fixed guidelines in relation to the sentences a court can impose depending on the speed being driven. At present, once the speed reaches 91mph the court can disqualify a driver or impose an increased amount of points. This increase in points could lead to a driver facing a period of disqualification in any event as a result of the totting procedure. CHANGING TIMES The technology has always been there for the police to prosecute the speeding driver swiftly and easily. The reality is that they have often turned a blind eye provided the driving is overall safe, not endangering other road users and the speed is not excessively over the limit. But times have changed since this limit was imposed. We all know that otherwise law abiding citizens disregard the 70mph limit currently enforced. Sometimes without even realising it, given the general performance of vehicles theses days and if one is following the flow of traffic, then it is all too easy to break the limit. For these very reasons the police do not enforce the speed limit as strictly as they could. I would anticipate that should the national speed limit on our motorways be increased to 80mph then the police will enforce this limit far more rigorously then they do the current one. It is also fair to say that driving at 80mph on a clear road in good conditions is far safer then tailgating at 50mph.

HEAVY GOODS VEHICLES But what of our HGVs? Currently on our single carriageway roads the speed limit for HGVs over 7.5 tonnes is set at 40mph. Last month the government announced plans to consider an increase in this limit up to 40‑50mph. The benefits to business would run into the millions if these vehicles could get to their destinations more quickly. Surely that is the aim of a delivery vehicle – to get to its destination as quickly as possibly but of course legally and safely. Whilst all the same considerations apply, there is more to consider in terms of these giants of the road. Firstly – what of these single carriageway roads and the potential damage to them of these vehicles driving in that bit faster? Maintenance of these roads is paramount. There is also a safety issue, but I would argue that perhaps there would be a reduction in accidents if these vehicles could go that little bit quicker. There would be a reduction in cars and smaller vehicles tailgating and attempting to overtake sometimes with dire consequences.   There are always pros and cons to any change to our motoring laws and speed limits are always a contentious issue since safety on our roads is so important. But when one considers how our roads and vehicles were at the time that these limits were set almost half a century ago, perhaps it is right that we move with the times and bring ourselves alongside many other countries in the world. We need to compete and this might result in a much needed boost to our economy and simply acknowledging the reality of life on our roads today.   FURTHER INFORMATION HannahSampson@saunders.co.uk www.saunders.co.uk Tel: 020 7632 4300

There are bot pros an h to any c d cons our mo hange to and spe toring laws, e content d limits are io road sa us since fe importaty is nt

Road Safety

DEDICATED TO PROMOTING A CLEANER ENVIRONMENT – www.greenfleet.net

About the author Hannah Sampson is a solicitor in the motoring team at Saunders Law. Hannah has always practised Criminal Law since being admitted as a solicitor in 2002 and joined Saunders in 2009 as a solicitor where she continues to practise criminal law. Hannah’s work covers the broadest spectrum from shoplifting to murder. Hannah has a particular interest in motoring law and regularly appears all over the country representing clients facing road traffic and motoring related offences. Hannah is an advocate in both the Magistrates Court and Youth Court and also works alongside counsel in the Crown Court and Court of Appeal. Saunders Law is a central London law firm with 37 years’ litigation experience, particularly known for its work in criminal defence, motoring, fraud, regulatory and litigation.

Volume 60 | GREENFLEET® MAGAZINE

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EV Charging With its proven Evolt range, APT Technologies is at the forefront of electrical vehicle (EV) charging, with a constantly evolving range of products for domestic and commercial applications. From single point on-street or at-home charging, to multiple charging technologies for whole fleets, APT Technologies is constantly innovating, with solutions that include a new Ultra-fast charger that brings concept of filling stations for electrical vehicles even closer to reality. And with the ability to integrate Evolt with the parking solutions of sister business APT Skidata, and pay for both services via a single ticket, the future is already here. Visit aptcontrols.co.uk/apt-technologies

Intelligent controls for people in motion For more than 45 years, the UK-based APT Controls Group has led the way in providing parking management solutions and secure access control for vehicle and pedestrian applications. Our clients rely on us to help them ensure the safe movement and management of vehicles and people. With over 150 staff, we apply intelligence and insight to current and future technologies and utilise the latest developments to deliver products and services that find the best answers to difficult challenges. Parking and car park management • Electrical vehicle (EV) charging • Traffic safety and signage solutions • Crowd control systems • Road safety systems • Counter-terror hardware • Visit aptcontrols.co.uk


EV CHARGING

PUTTING INTELLIGENCE BEHIND VEHICLE CHARGING

The argument for the use of fully electric – or hybrid electric – vehicles has largely already been won. Electric Vehicle (EV) popularity is continuing to gain momentum across Europe’s major cities, spearheaded by environmentally conscious companies, urban dwellers and the so-called ‘early adopters’. And it is being helped by governments’ respective commitments to cut car emissions and make their cities cleaner and more environmentally ‘sound’. If there are dissenting voices around the wider take-up of electrical vehicles, then the arguments tend to fall into two distinct camps: on the one hand, there are those that say that the vehicles are unattractive and do not have sufficient ‘range’ to be of practical use, especially in a business context; on the other, there are those that say that the vehicles simply consume too much energy, and the cost of that energy is difficult to monitor, manage and control. GOING THE DISTANCE To the first point, both the ‘range’ and the viability of vehicles today have increased significantly. Whilst early models may only have been capable of 50 kilometres before recharging, latest vehicles have more than treble the range. This means they are now more than capable of dealing with the vast majority of driving patterns, making them especially viable for commercial fleet needs and for passenger transportation. Indeed the proof is there to see. The list of companies running EV vehicles as part of their fleet is growing, and the number of vehicle manufacturers that are producing viable cars is also increasing: the Mitsubishi i-MiEV, the Nissan LEAF, the Peugeot iOn and the Citroen C-Zero have all started to push the boundaries far beyond the niche, and the prices of EVs are coming down as a result. Additionally, there are clear commitments from local authorities including Greater London Authority with London Mayor Boris Johnson’s announcement of plans to put 100,000 EVs in the capital, including replacing at least 1,000 of the GLA’s fleet of vehicles with electric equivalents, by 2015. MONITORING ENERGY So the second challenge is perhaps the greater one: how to monitor, manage and control the energy being used, and in doing so, monitor, manage and control the costs.

Of course not all charging points are the same, and that in itself still leads to confusion. Slow charging points for use on single vehicles at home or in the workplace are perfectly acceptable if the vehicle can be charged overnight; faster charging points are needed when the demand is to ‘top up’ for routine trips, and when the vehicle can be left for an hour or more. Then there are ‘rapid’ charging points that deliver a charge within a handful of minutes, where the driver may wish to recharge his vehicle mid-journey in a way not dissimilar to current ‘refuelling’. Technology is constantly emerging that will increase the speed (and therefore the convenience) of charge. But the biggest development within the current breed of charging posts is actually around the intelligent energy management SCADA software that supports them. Because it is this software that enables the simultaneous charging of multiple vehicles to become a reality. Indeed it is already proven. TRANSPORT SCOTLAND Transport Scotland recently bid to join the Government’s Plugged-In Places scheme, an initiative which funds commercial and public sector investment in EVs and their requisite infrastructure. As a result, Dundee City Council was given the opportunity to receive contributory funding towards the cost of EVs and charging points – both for council fleet use and, eventually, wider use by the city’s inhabitants and visitors. Fraser Crichton, Transport Officer at Dundee City Council, says that EV travel seemed ideal for the council’s needs: “Most council vehicles do not exceed around 60 or 70 miles in a day and while they can go further, this is more than sufficient for our

Written by Justin Meyer of APT Technologies

Organisations investing in electric vehicles will need to consider whether the charging technology installed today goes the distance and does not restrict their respective plans years down the line

Advertisement Feature

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needs. The vehicles are used during the daytime and re-charged overnight, thereby significantly reducing our carbon footprint.” Naturally, the council’s plans required a reliable and easy-to-operate electrical charging infrastructure in place across Dundee to support its new EV fleet. APT Technologies was chosen because it could provide both the standard 7kW charging units and the rapid charger unit. Its products are also able to support the range of different payment methods, should they be required. The council has so far installed 12 charging posts in Dundee, including two single outlet wall mounted units at a hospital; two dual outlet wall mounted units at the University; and seven dual outlet charging posts plus a dual outlet rapid charger at four council‑owned parking sites across the city: “We felt that other city locations should benefit from the opportunity to introduce EVs and charging infrastructure, so we shared the funding with local public bodies through the Dundee Partnership,” says Fraser. The council also hopes to install a further 24 charging units between now and April, of which at least one will be another rapid charger and a minimum of 14 will be open to members of the public. Potential sites at the moment include Dundee’s new V&A Museum and the new Olympic swimming pool, both of which will have new parking facilities. What is important to Dundee is that any technology installed today does not restrict their respective plans for tomorrow. The same will be true of any local authority looking at the possibilities of EVs for the first time. L FURTHER INFORMATION www.aptcontrols.co.uk/apt-technologies

Volume 60 | GREENFLEET® MAGAZINE

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All the abilities that drive success

Desirability Reliability Sustainability

More range, less anxiety

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Prius

Prius Plug-in Hybrid

7-Seat Prius +

CO 2 89g/Km 10% BIK

CO 2 49g/Km 5% BIK

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delivering

Rangeability The Prius range, like all our hybrids reduces emissions, tax and fuel bills. The Prius Plug-In Hybrid, for example, provides zero CO2 emissions driving up to 15.5 miles, then switches to petrol-hybrid power for longer journeys. More range, more choice, more affordable.

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brilliant for business Prius range from ÂŁ21,845 to ÂŁ33,245 OTR. CO 2 from 49g/Km to 101g/Km. Combined mpg from 64.2 mpg to 134.5 mpg.

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TOYOTA PRIUS PLUG-IN/PRIUS+

Road Test

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WHAT’S NEW FROM THE ORIGINAL GREEN MACHINE? Fifteen years since its launch and the Prius has gone from a single model to a full family of hybrids. Angela Pisanu test drives two of the latest additions: the Prius Plug-In and the seven‑seat Prius+

High-miler: Toyota says Prius Plug-In achieves 134.5mpg – 45 per cent better than the standard version

What’s the advantage of having a rechargeable Prius over a standard Prius? That was my first thought when testing the Prius Plug-In. Well, it can go further and reach higher speeds on electric power alone, and consequently, has fewer emissions overall – just 49g/km. To be more specific, Toyota says it can go 15.5 miles in pure electric mode. The car seamlessly swaps between being powered by the 1.8 petrol engine, and the electric motor, depending on what the car needs to perform its best and achieve maximum fuel efficiency. You can however choose to have it in pure EV mode if, for example, you are doing short urban commutes. That way you are using no petrol and emitting zero emissions. But unlike a fully electric vehicle, once the battery has run out, the petrol engine takes over, meaning there’s no restrictions on how far you can drive. Thanks to the car’s extended EV range, the Prius Plug-In can achieve a remarkable mpg value

Plugged in: plug fits into any domestic three-pin socket, as well as charging posts, making topping up easy

of 134.5mpg – 45 per cent improvement from the standard Prius. And once the battery has run out and the car is being driven by petrol alone, the car still achieves 78.5mpg and 85g/km CO2, which is still impressive. TESTING, TESTING So how did the car perform? It’s quiet, smooth and comfortable, yet feels powerful, especially when pulling off as the electric motor gives it instant torque. Despite being 55kg more than the standard model, it still feels agile and responsive. The switch between petrol and electric mode is virtually undetectable. On a 112 mile trip to London including city driving and motorway driving, I achieved 69mpg which is pretty good for a real world test. To charge the battery, there’s a cable in the boot with a standard three pin plug that can fit into any domestic socket and will take about an hour and a half to recharge. Obviously, keeping the battery fully charged will give you

Toyota Prius Plug-In ENGINE:

1.8-litre, 4-cyl, Toyota Hybrid Synergy Drive

CO2 (PHEV combined):

49g/km

MPG (PHEV combined): VED:

134.5 Band A

0-62mph:

11.4 seconds

TOP SPEED: 112mph PRICE:

£33,245

the maximum fuel efficiency of the car, and keep emissions and fuel costs down. What’s more, the car cleverly makes use of regenerative braking – converting lost heat from braking into energy to charge the battery – which adds to the EV range and overall efficiency of the car. The Prius Plug-In costs £33,245, but this falls to £28,245 with the benefit of the £5,000 Government grant. It also benefits from zero London congestion charge. SEVEN-SEATER HYBRID The Prius+ retains the same distinctly Prius shape – albeit longer, wider and higher than the standard model – but has the ability to seat seven inside, in three rows of seats. The third row of seats does take up boot space, but when folded down, there’s 784 litres of cargo space. When all the rear seats are folded E

Volume 60 | GREENFLEET® MAGAZINE

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Road Test

DEDICATED TO PROMOTING A CLEANER ENVIRONMENT – www.greenfleet.net

TOYOTA PRIUS PLUG-IN/PRIUS+  flat, a maximum 1,750 litres is available. All-in-all, the Prius+ is a different driving experience from the Plug-In. It works in the same way, in that the 1.8 petrol engine and the lithium battery work together, swapping between EV and petrol mode depending on the driving requirements. But the transition between petrol and EV mode is less seamless, which takes away some of the fluidity of the drive. That said, once cruising the car is smooth, quite and comfortable. What’s more, I drove the Prius+ in settled snow and was impressed with how well it handled, retaining its grip and response. The Prius+ achieves a combined mpg of 68.9mpg and emits 96g/km. Driving the car 53 miles, mainly on the motorway, I achieved 56.4 mpg. Compare this to other seven seater vehicles on the market and this is impressive. The Prius+ is fitted as standard with a large panoramic roof, measuring about two and a half times the size of that on the standard Prius. This not only looks great but adds in ample light. The Prius+ is a great option for those who need the space and flexibility of a seven-seater, but with the low running costs associated with a low-emission vehicle, such as zero tax, fuel savings, and no London congestion charge. In fact, the Prius+ is the only seven-seat model on the UK market to come in below the 100g/km CO2 threshold. L

Toyota Prius+ ENGINE:

1.8-litre, 4-cyl, Toyota Hybrid Synergy Drive

CO2: MPG (combined): VED: 0-62mph:

96g/km 68.9 Band A 11.3 seconds

TOP SPEED: 103mph Inside story: interior similar to standard Prius

PRICE:

£29,495

Load-lugger: maximum carrying capacity is extended to 1,750 litres with the back seats folded thanks to larger body

Added space: Prius+ offers two more seats and more practicality over standard Prius, but same hybrid drivetrain

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GREENFLEET® MAGAZINE | Volume 60


Road Test

FEATURE SECTION FIAT 500 SUB COLOUR THERAPY TWINAIR

DUMMY HEADLINE TO FIT THIS SPACE TIGHT AS POSSIBLE

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IN NEED OF SOME COLOUR THERAPY?

Fiat have boosted the iconic 500’s personality even further with new ‘Colour Therapy’ models designed to bring back the spirit of the ‘70s. Ian Bond hops behind the wheel to see how it performs

Fiat make a point of telling us that the Colour Therapy models are designed to bring back the ‘spirit of the 1970s’ with vibrant colours and retro white detailing. This gives the car’s already distinctive and iconic personality a further boost. The model I test drove was a very vibrant ‘Countrypolitan Yellow’. Details like contrasting white hub caps, aerial and wing mirrors – plus its coordinated interior colours – made it very eye catching indeed. Other colour options in the range include the quirky sounding ‘Pasodoble Red’, ‘Volare Blue’, and ‘Tech House Grey’. The Fiat 500 also gives you the options to customise your car with its rims, roof, mirrors, stickers and even the key cover. But it’s not all about good looks: the Fiat 500 TwinAir has low CO2 emissions of just 90g/km, along with an impressive 70mpg fuel economy (combined cycle). And for a small car with a 0.9 litre engine, its performance is surprisingly strong, achieving 0-62mph acceleration in 11 seconds, and achieving a maximum speed of 108mph.

engine gives you a feel of a much bigger car. Driving the Fiat 500 was easy and fun. Being light weight and small, I found the car pretty nippy, zipping effortlessly in and out of traffic. It’s also quite roomy on the inside, even with passengers in the back. I mainly used the Fiat 500 for short, stop‑start, urban commutes and yet still managed a very respectable average of 50mpg. Fuel economy is of course helped by the stop-start function which temporarily cuts the engine when the car has stopped and is in neutral and re-fires it when the clutch is pressed. As a city car, I thought it was perfectly suited and it’s not hard to understand why it has achieved the accolades and sales that it has (it won our very own City Car of the Year at the 2011 GreenFleet Awards).

Driving 00 5 the Fiat easy is both ing light . Be and funmall, it zips and s ssly in and effortle traffic. It’s out of rprisingly also su omy ro

SETTING OFF On turning on the engine, you immediately hear its distinct ‘turbo’ sound, which for a 0.9-litre

AT SPEED When at speed on the motorway, the Fiat 500 held the road well and was a comfortable and smooth ride. It was also amusing to see the looks I was getting from other drivers when overtaking them, when they saw the size of  he car going past. Again I was impressed

by its economical petrol consumption as I achieved an excellent 64mpg. Safety is of course taken care of with an extensive list of standard equipment including ABS anti-lock brakes, Electronic Brakeforce Distribution, ASR Anti-Slip Regulation and numerous airbags. Fiat’s quoted CO2 figure of only 90g/km means you are exempt from car tax and London’s congestion charge. Certainly if you are running a fair size fleet of cars that run around town on medium length journeys then the extra saving on taxes and fuel savings soon add up. The Fiat 500 Colour Therapy range starts at £10,760 (OTR) for the 1.2 Colour Therapy, rising to £14,510 (OTR) for the 500C 0.9-litre Colour Therapy TwinAir. L

Fiat 500 Colour Therapy TwinAir ENGINE: CO2:

875cc 90g/km

MPG (combined): VED:

70 Band A

0-62mph:

11 seconds

TOP SPEED: 108mph PRICE:

£14,510

Volume 60 | GREENFLEET® MAGAZINE

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Road Test

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FEATURE SUBD2SECTION VOLVO V40

A SAFE BET? DUMMY HEADLINE TO FIT THIS SPACE TIGHT AS POSSIBLE

High-tech safety features, strong performance, low emissions – and staggering fuel economy, GreenFleet’s gargantuan Roland Rendell predicts the Volvo V40 will be a hit with fleet buyers

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I was amazed to hear, around 18 months ago, that Volvo produced more models that are London Congestion Charge exempt, than any other OEM. Can anyone back this up? Answers on the e-mail please. But when you look at the stats, they certainly speak for themselves. I took delivery of the new V40 SE, with a 1560cc turbodiesel 4 cylinder engine. The CO² is a reported 94g/km, which is very impressive, and road tax free. The thing I needed to find out is whether there was any compromise. FIRST THOUGHTS First impressions were good. From the outside, this Focus sized 5-door hatchback – the first they have produced in many years – looks very nice. Good, clean lines, the long, drooped snout of a bonnet, and the roof aerofoil all add to the look of a refined speed merchant. The Caspian Blue metallic paint (a £550 extra) was very appealing too. Open the door and it was everything I expected. The charcoal grey upholstery was complimented by the Shimmer Graphite centre stack. Everything looked like it belonged; it was all in the right places. As is more common

Volvo V40 D2 ENGINE:

1560cc turbodiesel, 4-cyl

CO2: MPG (combined): VED:

94g/km 78.5 Band A

BIK: 13% PRICE:

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GREENFLEET® MAGAZINE | Volume 60

£19,745

On ger the big ays, w carriager comes to the mo own, with FUEL FACTS into its g easily So, after a few hours p 80m d at an taking in a bit of town, I started to look at the hard achievedly speed facts. What’s my MPG? I n eco-frie55mph must say, very impressive, of at a whopping 64mpg. Not

these days, it was keyless starting, so I dipped the clutch, pushed the Start button, and it purred to life. And your eyes are then drawn to the dash, behind an all-singing, alldancing steering wheel. The central speedometer dial has ‘wings’ either side that show revs and your throttle use. There’s the gear change indicator on the right and the fuel gauge on the left, and they all light up and combine to make a very impressive sight. There’s a screen that highlights the performance of the car, an entertainment system, hands-free telephone and climate control. I must say though, I was a bit disappointed that for a car that will set you back over £21,000, you will still need to go out a buy a sat-nav.

PERFORMANCE Shift in to first, pull away, and it’s not too bad. The initial acceleration isn’t mind blowing at first, with the 0-60 timed at just under 12 seconds. However, once it gets going, the 114bhp and 270Nm of torque kicks-in and the car pulls very strongly indeed. The 6-speed manual gearbox is smooth, and not clunky at all. The ride is quite low, so even at a lower speed, it feels like you’re travelling much faster. The car handles very well, with a great response when you steer, with the PAS helping to guide this 4.4m long car around. Volvo have really taken care of safety, adding several high tech features, including the intriguingly sounding ‘Lane Keeping Aid with haptic auto steering’ and ‘Park Assist Pilot’.

quite the 70.6 urban figure they quote themselves, but nevertheless it’s still great for your rep around town. Out on the bigger carriageways, and this motor then starts to really come in to its own. I managed just shy of 80mpg, but that was me applying your typical eco-driving recommended speed of 55mph(ish) to my journey. This car will easily do in excess of 110mph, so not too sure if that figure is achievable at full motorway speed, but when you add it up, the performance of this car will certainly have fleet managers grouping it in the ‘should certainly consider’ column, at the very least. What you then need to do is the maths. First up, let’s not forget, there’s no road tax. In terms of fuel use, certainly up there with the very best. The BIK is 13 per cent, and the model I drove, including the metallic paint, rear park assist, high performance multi-media (questionable use of wording there, without a sat-nav), comes in at £22,890 OTR. We all know that from the drivers point of view, this car is definitely a safe bet, given its safety focus and fuel efficiency. In terms of ride and drive quality, it’s in the same league as the Germans. But, in my humble opinion, I would like a bit more ‘bang for my buck’, to really make this car a no-brainer. L E-MAIL ROLAND RENDELL rendell@greenfleet.net


PEUGEOT 508 RXH

Road Test

DEDICATED TO PROMOTING A CLEANER ENVIRONMENT – www.greenfleet.net

SAVAGELY SPECIAL

The mighty Roland Rendell takes to the road in a 508 RXH, Peugeot’s diesel-electric hybrid with four‑wheel drive, and is suitably impressed by its class, power and dual-fuel economy The last decade has seen Peugeot do well in the small car segment, with the 307 introduced in 2001, that went on to win European Car of the Year in 2002, and most recently, the 208 helping them scoop City Car Manufacturer of the Year at our GreenFleet Awards. Add to that the 107, the 207 and the 308, and you realise that when it comes to city vehicles, Peugeot were very focused on delivering cars that were more of a cub than a fully grown beast. But now they are looking at the fleet car segment again, and their latest offering is really quite special. Despite abandoning its attack on the Le Mans 24 Hours, that doesn’t mean the company’s fierce rivalry with Audi is over. The new 508 RXH is aimed directly at the recently revised A4 Allroad, and the battle between these production models looks set to be just as competitive. A BIG OLD BEAST I was delighted to take delivery of the 508 RXH, the model that is a step up from the 508 SW. If its younger brother was the scar of the family, the RXH is most certainly the Mufasa, as it sits 50mm higher and has a 40mm wider track than its sibling. At 4823mm long, it is certainly a big old beast. And from ear to ear, or wing mirror to wing mirror, it’s a staggering 2068mm. The nose sits higher than that of the A4, giving it a taller overall stance, and under the hood there is a 1997cc diesel/electric engine and powertrain. All of this adds to the 2325kg of weight, supported by 245/45 R18 ‘feet’, which house the striking 18” ‘Attila’ alloy wheels. Being an estate, this is designed for the ‘Rep on the Road’, but due to its pricing, which I will come on to later, it’s probably going to attract more senior management. Internally, this car does not disappoint. The gorgeously detailed light fittings and hi-tech head-up display provide the cabin with a very smart, modern feel, and as with its distant relative, the Citroen DS5, and closer sibling, the 3008, this Hybrid4 envelops you and

makes you feel strong and secure. The RXH holds the upper hand for interior space, over its rivals, including the A4. Because its rear wheels are driven by electric motors, not a conventional driveshaft, the rear passenger footwell isn’t impeded by a transmission tunnel. This means three adults can easily fit in the back. As with the 3008, the RXH is controlled by the dial in the centre consul. It features the all too familiar AUTO, ZEV, 4WD and SPORT modes, and as usual, I select AUTO as the entire system is then electronically controlled, including operation of the HDi diesel engine and electric motor. I slip it in to reverse and a whirring catches my attention. I have seen it on the BMW 320d, and I liked it. The nearside wing mirror moves down to show me the kerb – they really want you to look after the Atillas. No need to release the handbrake, just apply some throttle and it releases itself.

200bhp combined output of

With the 2.0-litre HDi engine plus electric motor. And boy parking could I notice a difference. sensors The whole ‘feel’ of the f r o n and rea t car becomes a lot electron r, the car’s more ‘responsive’. ics mea The acceleration is sure parking there, and in terms of s p aces, meanin manoeuvrability, it is g more than capable of park th you can quick shifts in direction. is beast anywhe re DRIVE IT RIGHT,

ROARING TO LIFE The automated manual 6-speed gearbox with optimised shifts, is incredibly smooth, if you drive it properly. Apply too much gas, and the roar of this beast sounds a bit strained, and it appears to reach very high revs before the next gear is found. That said, I have it in a mode that is designed for MPG, not speed and acceleration, and I discover that there is real bite, a little later on. The 7-inch widescreen in the centre console reveals the workings of this car, such as whether the 27kW (37hp) electric motor fitted to the rear axle is active or not. The Power Train Management Unit (PTMU) that manages the operating modes of the diesel engine and electric motor, will automatically select the mode that will deliver the best fuel economy. The SPORT mode frees up the maximum

REAP THE REWARDS On the motorway, the Peugeot is a great cruiser thanks to its large fuel tank and hushed cabin. I didn’t quite manage the claimed 70.6 mpg for Extra Urban, but was nearer the 68.9 combined figure at 66mpg. But it again comes down to driver style. Drive it properly and you’ll reap the benefits. When you’re looking for a tree for the lion to rest under, the question then is will this car park easily? The answer is – yes. Peugeot have made it as easy as possible for you to shoe‑horn this beast in to pretty much any space. With front mounted parking sensors on the bumper, the car’s electronics can measure the size of a parking space. A similar sensor on the back means you can lay this beast down to rest pretty much anywhere.

THE BOTTOM LINE So, all in all, the benefits of this hybrid are clear on the open road, and especially around town: the RXH can travel at up to 2.5 miles purely on electric power (ZEV mode). This also means that the Peugeot is cleaner than the Audi it so wants to beat. The lower CO2 emissions (107g/km) make the 508 RXH a decent executive company car choice, but as is always the case, it may come down to price. At £33,695 OTR, some may say this is over the top. Who am I to say one way or the other? Would I buy one? Yes, I would. L

Peugeot 508 RXH ENGINE: 2.0-litre diesel/electric hybrid CO2:

99g/km

MPG (combined): VED:

68.9 Band B

BIK (%): 12 PRICE:

£33,695

Volume 60 | GREENFLEET® MAGAZINE

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Product Finder

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Days Contract Hire Swansea Road Garngoch Swansea SA4 4LL Tel: 0845 815 0019 contracthire@days.co.uk www.dayscontracthire.co.uk Days Contract Hire is a unique independent contract hire company servicing private and public sector clients across the UK. Specialists in providing bespoke fleet funding and management solutions for clients of all shapes and sizes. FLEET MANAGEMENT AND FUNDING

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FLEET MAMAGEMENT REPORTING

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GREENFLEET® MAGAZINE | Volume 60

APT Controls Group Citroen Fiat

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18, 19 14 7, 9

Peugeot 12 Shell OBC Testo 10 Toyota 32


70S wear Jasmine wears Fiat 500

in Countrypolitan Yellow. (Part of the 70s Colour Therapy range). Comes with poolball design gear knob and white wheel covers. Its über-low emissions TwinAir engine means zero road tax†. Model’s eyelash tint by TechnoColour Paris.

From just £129 a month for business users only. Visit fiat.co.uk/fleet for more information.

fiat.co.uk Fiat, the car brand with the lowest average CO2 emissions in Europe^. Fiat 500 TwinAir, the lowest CO2 emission petrol car engine in the world*. Fuel consumption figures for Fiat 500 Colour Therapy range in mpg (l/100km): Urban 49.6 (5.7) – 64.2 (4.4); Extra Urban 65.7 (4.3) – 78.5 (3.6); Combined 58.9 (4.8) – 72.4 (3.9). CO2 emissions 113 – 90 g/km. Above rentals based on Fiat 500 1.2 Colour Therapy on Contract Hire payment profile of 3 rentals in advance (equivalent to £387)

followed by 35 rentals of £129. All rentals exclude VAT and maintenance. Based on 10,000 miles per annum. Excess mileage charges apply. Vehicles must be registered with Fiat Contract Hire before 31st March 2013. Offer subject to status, guarantee and/or indemnity may be required. Fiat Contract Hire, 240 Bath Road, Slough, SL1 4DX. †Under current DVLA regulations there is no charge for Vehicle Excise Duty in the first year of registration and every subsequent year. Vehicle Excise Duty rates are reviewed annually by the government and are subject to change. ^Source: JATO Dynamics. Based on volume-weighted average CO2 emissions (g/km) of the best selling brands in Europe, 1st half year 2012. *According to NEDC standard.


A NEW WAY TO REDUCE YOUR FUEL COSTS Would you like to save up to 10% off your commercial transport fleet fuel costs? By analysing your fuelling, vehicle and driver data and creating easily actionable reports, it shows you exactly where and how your fleet can save fuel. Shell FuelSave partner also has a wealth of features to support effective fleet management, including: ■ Track and Trace your vehicle ■ Fraud prevention by reconciliation of fuel purchases to fuel consumption ■ Tachograph data downloads (with optional remote data download if required – no need to physically download data from each vehicle) ■ Web-based platform so you can manage your reports from anywhere ■ Continuous improvement - Shell FuelSave Partner is updated three times a year with new features as a result of customer feedback Interested in finding out how we can help you save on fuel consumption and fuel costs? For a limited time only, for fuel card customers new to Shell, we will match your current fuel card price and give you 20 Shell FuelSave Partner boxes free for 6 months.* Try Shell FuelSave Partner and the euroShell Card, and see how we can help you save on your fleet costs. To find out more please contact us on 020 7934 8686, Info-shellfuelsavepartner@shell.com or visit www.shell.co.uk/sfsp. *Terms and Conditions apply. Offer on a first come, first served basis. Sign up for a minimum of 10 euroShell cards, and minimum fleet size 50 HGVs. Limited number of boxes available.


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