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Lowering emissions in the south GreenFleet Southampton took place on 8 June. Read the review on page 40



Our panelists discuss the new challenges facing fleets LEASING & CONTRACT HIRE

INDUSTRY PRIORITIES A look at the BVRLA’s manifesto which highlights the sector’s priorities for the new government





Lowering emissions in the south GreenFleet Southampton took place on 8 June. Read the review on page 40



Our panelists discuss the new challenges facing fleets LEASING & CONTRACT HIRE

INDUSTRY PRIORITIES A look at the BVRLA’s manifesto which highlights the sector’s priorities for the new government


Visit nflee video e e r g e v ti a rm for info tent on t con tal flee nmen enviro agement man

Follow and interact with us on Twitter: @GreenFleetNews



The fleet effect on clean air I write this comment on National Clean Air Day, 15 June. With all the negativity surrounding air pollution and old diesel emissions, it is good to see the positive work cities around the UK are doing to improve the air we breathe. In Southampton, for example, where the GreenFleet team hosted an event on 8 June, we learnt that the city council is putting in place air quality measures that go beyond just implementing a Clean Air Zone.

GreenFleet Southampton took place on 8 June. Read the review on page 40

Sixteen areas in the UK though are still in breach of air pollution levels, and environmental law firm ClientEarth is planning to take the government to court (for the third time) for what it sees as major flaws in its draft air quality plans. Interestingly, it will be Michael Gove, the newly appointed Environment Secretary, that will be defending the UK’s plans in court and taking the measures forward. Air quality is one of the ‘challenges’ that is affecting fleet managers, according to our new leasing panelists. They say that with looming Clean Air Zones, Brexit and policy changes, fleet managers will need to keep their ear to the ground and plan for any changes that will affect them. Our leasing theme continues with a detailed look at the BVRLA’s manifesto of priorities for the new government, as well as the ICFM’s take on today’s after sales and consultancy from leasing firms. Angela Pisanu, editor

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226 High Rd, Loughton, Essex IG10 1ET. Tel: 020 8532 0055 Fax: 020 8532 0066 Web: EDITOR Angela Pisanu FEATURES AND ROAD TEST EDITOR Richard Gooding EDITORIAL ASSISTANT Andrea Pluck PRODUCTION CONTROL Ella Sawtell, Jo Sharrad PRODUCTION DESIGN Jo Golding WEB PRODUCTION Victoria Casey PUBLISHER George Petrou ACCOUNT MANAGER Kylie Glover ADMINISTRATION Vickie Hopkins REPRODUCTION & PRINT Argent Media

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MOVING YOUR FLEET FORWARD To find out more search: All-New Ford Fiesta

Official fuel consumption figures in mpg (l/100km) for the All-New Ford Fiesta range: urban 40.9-80.7 (6.9-3.5), extra urban 67.3-94.2 (4.2-3.0), combined 54.3-88.3 (5.2-3.2). Official CO 2 emissions 118-82g/km. The mpg figures quoted are sourced from official EU-regulated test results (EU Directive and Regulation 692/2008), are provided for comparability purposes and may not reflect your actual driving experience.


Contents GreenFleet 104 09 News

European Commission announces initiatives to clean and modernise transport; Gove to defend UK air pollution plan; Scottish government to spend £8.2m on EV uptake

16 Contract hire & leasing In many cases, the internal management of fleets is spread across several departments, with varying expertise. As such, there is need for contract hire and lease firms to be able to act as fleet managers

29 32

18 Contract hire & leasing The BVRLA has written a manifesto setting out the industry’s priorities for the new government, including Brexit, air quality, tax and emissions

20 Expert panel: leasing

Meet our new leasing experts, who in this first discussion, examine how new challenges such as Brexit, air quality and policy changes are affecting fleet managers

29 Clean air zones

With several cities due to implement clean air zones by 2020, private fleet operators can benefit from taking early action to comply. Experts from Cenex suggest ways to do this

32 Air quality

GreenFleet examines recent developments in the diesel and air quality debate and asks if the negativity surrounding this fuel is affecting vehicle choice

34 Interview: Gatwick

GreenFleet chats to Rachel Thompson, sustainability manager at Gatwick Airport, to find out how its use of electric and hybrid vehicles have played a key part in achieving the airport’s green ambitions

36 Expert panel: telematics With carbon reduction and air quality a pressing agenda for the UK government, our telematics expert panel share how technology and the data it provides can help fleets cut harmful emissions and run a more environmentally-responsible fleet

40 GreenFleet Southampton

With Southampton one of the cities due to implement a Clean Air Zone, GreenFleet hosted an event in the city on 8 June to share knowledge with local fleet managers on how they can lower emissions, as well as giving them the opportunity to test-drive electric vehicles

43 GreenFleet Leeds

On 13 July, GreenFleet is heading to Leeds to offer advice and share knowledge with fleet managers about how electric vehicles can lower fleet emissions and improve local air quality, ahead of the implementation of the Clean Air Zone

46 First drive: Renault Zoe Dynamique R90 Z.E 40 The Renault Zoe is the most popular electric vehicle in Europe, and a new version with a larger-capacity 41kWh battery is now available. Richard Gooding finds out what other benefits the revised Zoe has, aside from a longer 250-mile range

48 Road test: Toyota RAV4 Hybrid Excel AWD 2.5L CVT TSS On-paper, Toyota’s high-riding RAV 4 SUV now offers potential fuel and cost-saving benefits of a hybrid powertrain for the first time. How does it measure up in the real-world? Richard Gooding reports




GreenFleet magazine Volume 104 | GREENFLEET MAGAZINE



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European Commission announces initiatives to clean and modernise transport The European Commission has announced a range of new initiatives aimed at modernising mobility and transport across the EU. The plans specifically target road transport and aim to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, air pollution, congestion and encourage fairer road charging. The EU says the road transport sector is of particular importance as it directly employs five million Europeans and currently contributes to almost a fifth of the continent’s greenhouse gas emissions. The EU aims to drive the transition to more fair and competitive mobility by 2025 through targeted legislation and



Gove to defend UK air pollution plan

Scottish government to spend £8.2 million to boost EV uptake

One of Michael Gove’s first acts as environment secretary is to defend the UK in court over its ‘flawed’ plans to crack down on poor air quality. A hearing has been ordered by the High Court in the next coming weeks which will address the government’s plans to clean up illegal air pollution levels across the country. The government’s plans were released on 5 May, despite a last-minute bid by the government to delay them. Environmental law organisation ClientEarth found such major flaws in the proposals that it is taking the UK government back to court to seek urgent improvements.

The Scottish Government has announced an extra £8.2 million will be spent to support the purchase of electric and low carbon vehicles in the country. The second stage of ‘Switched on Scotland’, the country’s EV roadmap, sets out the next steps in delivering the Scottish government’s vision to be free from fossil-fuelled vehicles by 2050. The £8.2 million to is to go towards the Low Carbon Transport Loan Fund. These loans are for individuals and business to take up low carbon vehicles and are interest-free


infrastructure investment, research and innovation. In addition to this, the EU aims to make it easier for businesses and citizens to travel across European borders and tolling systems without being concerned about different administrative formalities. Commissioner for transport, Violeta Bulc, said: “Our reforms will set the foundation for standardised, digital road solutions, fairer social conditions and enforceable market rules. “They will help decrease the socioeconomic costs of transport, like time lost in traffic, road fatalities and serious injuries, health risks from pollution and noise, whilst serving the needs of citizens, businesses and nature.”

with a repayment term of up to six years. For the first time, loan funding will also be available for electric motorbikes and scooters and plug-in heavy goods vehicles. Scotland’s transport minister Humza Yousaf said: “I am delighted to announce a further £8.2 million for 2017/18 to help as many businesses and individuals as possible enjoy the many benefits of electric vehicles.” READ MORE


Electric vehicle guide for drivers launched by Venson


Venson Automotive Solutions has released a ‘Plug-In Vehicle Guide’ aimed at drivers to increase their knowledge of the cost and practicalities of electric vehicles (EVs). The ‘Plug-In Vehicle Guide’ was created after a recent survey conducted by Venson revealed that as many as 41 per cent of motorists said their general lack of knowledge about the total cost and convenience of owning an electric vehicle

impacted their decision-making when considering their list of potential vehicles. These findings resulted in the publication of the online guide in a bid to help drivers fully understand the commercial advantages – as well as environmental benefits – of choosing an EV. The guide covers everything from the EV technology to vehicle choice and battery range and recharging to the maintenance of an EV.




Norway, Netherlands and Sweden lead the way in EV market share, says new report The number of electric vehicles on the roads around the world rose to 2 million in 2016, according to the latest edition of the International Energy Agency’s Global EV Outlook. The report estimates a total of 2.3 million EV charging points worldwide in 2016, with the deployment rate of publicly accessible charging infrastructure slightly ahead of the growth of the electric car stock in the past year. China remained the largest market in 2016, accounting for more than 40 per cent of the electric cars sold in the world. With more than 200 million electric two-wheelers and more than 300,000 electric buses, China is by far the global leader in the electrification of transport. China, the US and Europe made up the three main markets, totalling over 90 per cent of all EVs sold around the world.




EV equivalent to ‘Boris Bikes’ set to be launched in London

EV Experience centre set to open in Milton Keynes

Bluecity owners, French firm Bolloré, has announced a £100 million investment plan to expand the capital’s electric car network along the lines of the Boris Bike scheme. The company will take over the existing Source London network of around 1,400

The London EV sharing scheme will be similar to Bolloré’s Autolib’ network in Paris



Electric car deployment in some markets is swift. In Norway, electric cars had a 29 per cent market share last year, the highest globally, followed by the Netherlands with 6.4 per cent, and Sweden with 3.4 per cent.

The electric car market is set to transition from early deployment to mass market adoption over the next decade or so. Between 9 and 20 million electric car could be deployed by 2020, and between 40 and 70 million by 2025, according to estimates based on recent statement from carmakers. The report offers a comprehensive collection of national-level data on EV deployment based on primary data collected from member governments of the Electric Vehicle Initiative (EVI) – a multi-government policy forum established in 2009 under the Clean Energy Ministerial (CEM), dedicated to accelerating the deployment of EVs worldwide.

electric charging points from Transport for London (TfL) and Siemens this summer, and hopes to allow Londoners to hire ‘green’ vehicles for short trips from next year. It plans to provide London with 6,000 charging points and up to 3,000 cars by 2018, with exact locations depending on the support of the city’s boroughs. Julien Varin, spokesman for Bolloré’s green technology arm BlueSolutions told London’s Evening Standard that one of the major barriers was securing access deals with all the 27 town halls involved in the Source London network. At the moment, five have been signed up – with Kensington and Chelsea, Greenwich, Hackney, Southwark and Sutton – but Bolloré hopes this will rise to 15 by the end of the year. Leon Daniels, head of surface transport for TfL, claimed the charging network requires no further public funding and TfL would merely be ‘facilitating’ the Bolloré project. Bolloré is moving to London after finding success with its Paris Autolib’ scheme, used by 220,000 drivers, and other car sharing clubs in France and the United States.


The Electric Vehicle Experience Centre in Milton Keynes (EVEC), which is due to open on Saturday 22 July, will help inform the town’s residents and visitors about the benefits of electric vehicle ownership in a relaxed setting. Showcasing the latest EVs from a range of leading vehicle manufacturers, visitors will be able to discuss all elements of owning and running an electric vehicle, as well as having the option to test a range of cars on local roads. The EVEC’s official founding partners, BMW i, Mitsubishi, Renault, Nissan, Kia and Volkswagen, will also display a range of leading EVs to suit all budgets and buying needs. Managed by Chargemaster and funded by Milton Keynes’ Go Ultra Low City scheme, the EVEC has been established to increase the number of EVs sold in the area. Milton Keynes’ target is for 23 per cent of all new cars registered locally to be electric by 2021.




Heathrow Airport takes on electric airside vehicles LowCVP’s Andy Eastlake

Do you love your ULEV? Are you clear on the CAZ? Heathrow airport has added 17 all-electric LEAFs to its fleet, as part of its plans to inspire a new culture of electric car usage across its site. Twelve of the LEAFs will be operated airside by teams including security and baggage and another five being used as pool cars. The move has been made in line with the company’s commitment that all cars and small vans in its own fleet are electric or

plug-in hybrid by the end of 2020, as part of plans to reduce emissions and improve air quality. By introducing the vehicles in highly visible airside roles and operating them successfully, Heathrow hopes to encourage the many third parties that operate thousands of vehicles around the Heathrow campus to follow suit. READ MORE


Pope receives Opel Ampera-e as the Vatican aims to become CO2 free The pope has received an electric Opel Ampera-e, as part of the Vatican’s aims to become the first CO2 free country. At the Laudato Sì conference, the Vatican, Opel and Italian energy company Enel pledged to work on a sustainable mobility programme for the city state. Opel CEO Dr Karl-Thomas Neumann who presented the

new papal car, commented: “We are proud that we as Opel can contribute to the ambitious goals of the Vatican City. Our new Ampera-e will make electric mobility feasible for everyday use without any compromises.”

Certain key phrases have come to dominate discourse in the low emission vehicle community – Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle, Clean Air Zone, Plug-in Car Grant etc – but how well are their meanings and definitions understood by the wider community of road users? Shortening commonly used names or phrases into acronyms can save us effort and energy, but they can also further confuse and undermine understanding, unless the definitions are very well pinned down. And absolutely and universally understood. In preparation for the new zones and even more focus on low emission vehicles and policy support, we have recently been looking more closely at motorists’ interpretation of some of the most commonly-used words and phrases and their associated acronyms. We found that less than one per cent of a large sample of current drivers of plug-in cars were able to correctly provide an ‘official’ definition for a ULEV (Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle). The main reference point is the Office for Low Emission Vehicle (OLEV) definition for a ULEV, which enables eligibility for the Plug-in Car Grant (PICG), is 75 gCO2/km. There is also evidence that the definition of the term ULEV is often misinterpreted; where a CO2 emission threshold is assumed, significantly more drivers believe the threshold to be ‘50’ or ‘25’ or even ‘10’ (g/km), supporting the contention that most drivers interpret the colloquial phrase ‘ultra-low’ to mean ‘almost zero’. ULEV is not the only expression that gives definitional challenges. With the plans on air quality now under way, we’re going to be hearing a lot more about terms such as CAZ (Clean Air Zone), U/LEZ (Ultra/Low Emission Zone) and other associated terms as the new policies to tackle local pollution are developed. And what is a ZEV or a LEN? People might, for example, assume that there is some kind of relationship between a ULEV and a ULEZ, but there’s – currently at least – no direct link. On the positive side, our research did find that once the emission acronyms are presented to respondents in full, both EV-user audiences and mainstream UK motorists can accurately order the vehicle terms. However, motorists from both our samples had a low level of awareness of the term and meaning ‘Low Emission Zone’ and few recognised the sign for it (present now in several locations). While London’s Congestion Charge Zone has become familiar to those in, or visiting, the capital, recognition and understanding of the meaning of either Clean Air Zones or LEZs is still very low. In general, the evidence we found suggests that ‘emission zones’ are more often perceived (now correctly) as indicating access restrictions for certain types of vehicle rather than mechanisms for charging for access. One of the lessons of the recent work was that in designing emissions-related traffic signs a choice should be made whether to communicate the mechanism (low vehicle emissions) or the desired outcome (clean air). So, where does all this leave us? Clearly there’s a lot of work to be done to agree, clarify, simplify and communicate the various terms and acronyms for lower carbon and less polluting vehicles and the areas in which they will be mandated or encouraged. With our wide range of stakeholder partners and forums for discussion, the LowCVP is well placed to steer this discussion and, I hope, shed more light on the best (low emission) routes forward.





EU Mobility Package explained in new FTA briefing paper

Leeds welcomes 1,000-space park and ride

The Freight Transport Association (FTA) has released a briefing paper on the main proposals of the recently announced European Commission’s ‘Mobility Package’. The package, comprising eight legislative files and various accompanying documents, has potentially huge implications for the transport sector – including proposals which would change drivers’ hours rules, tachographs, operator licensing and minimum wage rules for visiting drivers. David Wells, FTA Chief Executive, said: “This is a complex set of proposals, and FTA has the breadth and depth of expertise not only to understand what the implications for our members will be, but also to get actively involved in continuing to shape new rules so that law makers recognise the impacts they may have on industry. This document will aid members and the industry in understanding the potential impacts.” The briefing document makes clear why, even though the proposals are unlikely to come into law until after March 2019, the UK road freight sector still needs to pay close attention. Many of the proposals will affect the practicalities of how goods will move into and out of Europe from the UK. It may also be that, in the process of Brexit negotiations for an effective, frictionless trade deal and continued mutual access to our respective transport markets, the UK Government agrees to implement some or all of the proposals in domestic law as part of maintaining parity with EU standards. “We are advising our members to plan that any – or even all – of these proposals could come into force in the UK, once adopted,” he said.

David Wells, FTA: “This is a complex set of proposals”

FTA will be discussing the proposals with its members in freight council meetings across the country throughout June, and taking the agreed positions to civil servants and ministers in Whitehall, as well as European Commission officials and MEPs in Brussels. David Wells said: “FTA has had a permanent presence in Brussels for more than two decades to ensure members’ views are being considered at the heart of Europe. “Europe will always be an important trading block, and therefore critical for the logistics sector. With Brexit looming, FTA is expanding its presence and influence in the capital of the European Union – not, as some might have anticipated, rolling it back.”

A new 1,000-space park and ride in east Leeds designed to help cut city centre traffic congestion and air pollution has opened. On Monday 19 June, a fleet of modern, low emission, Wi-Fi-equipped buses were launched to be used for Leeds’ Temple Green Park and Ride, just off Junction 45 of the M1 motorway. Located next to the A63 at Leeds’ Gateway45 Enterprise Zone, Temple Green Park and Ride provides commuters with a 15-minute bus link to the city centre, running every 10 to 15 minutes. Tickets cost £2.70 per day and up to three children travel free with every fare-paying adult. Users park and get on board the modern, free Wi-Fi equipped, low-emission First West Yorkshire bus that will be waiting to take them to the city centre’s Boar Lane stop. Buses back to Temple Green leave from the same stop.





Waymo to develop self-driving trucks

Tesla teases images of its ‘Semi’ truck

Alphabet’s self-driving car firm – Waymo – is working on developing self-driving heavy-duty trucks. According to The Independent, Waymo is looking to expand its self-driving car efforts and expects autonomous vehicles to take over longer distance trucking in the coming years. This is in order to allow human drivers to handle local pickup and delivery routes.

In a statement, a Waymo spokesperson said: “We’re taking our eight years of experience in building self-driving hardware and software and conducting a technical exploration into how our technology can integrate into a truck.” READ MORE

Commercial Vehicle News


Tesla has revealed an image of its Tesla Semi heavy-duty electric truck at a shareholder meeting held in California. The Tesla Semi is an electric truck which will have the highest weight capability with long-range, and will out-torque any diesel truck, according to Tesla’s CEO Elon Musk. The truck will be shown off in September as a working prototype. Tesla also offered

attendees a glimpse of the Model Y, a small SUV to be released in 2019-2020.



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Stagecoach calls for more action on air quality Stagecoach Group is calling for tougher action on air quality to protect local communities following the launch of its Green Week campaign. As global concern grows over increasing pollution in towns and cities, the company said urgent action was particularly needed by central and local government to tackle the public health emergency. According to the bus operator, research shows that too many cars and worsening traffic congestion is a major contributor to the 40,000 to 50,000 early deaths a year in the UK from air pollution. The issue also has a financial cost to the country of over £20billion a year. To tackle the problem, Stagecoach is calling for: continued investment by public transport operators in cleaner vehicle technologies; tougher tax regimes and use of clean air zones to target vehicles and journeys which contribute most to pollution on a per-passenger basis. In addition to this, Stagecoach is asking for focused taxpayer support where it will deliver the best value environmental benefit; clearer promotion


of switching from cars to public transport as the most effective route to tackling the twin scourges of urban congestion; and air pollution targeted public investment in bus priority measures and better transport interchanges. Research by Prof David Begg for Greener Journeys has highlighted that across the country the congestion crisis is turning people away from bus travel and putting jobs in the industry and wider economy at risk. One full double deck bus can remove up to 75 cars from the road – thus freeing up road space, reducing overall emissions levels and helping to improve air quality. However, Stagecoach says that in order to achieve the kind of reliability and journey times that make buses more attractive to potential customers, operators urgently need input from politicians and local authorities to free up road space for buses, to deliver bus priority measures and to implement bus friendly policies. READ MORE READ MORE TINYURL.COM/Y8D5UP77

Daimler to begin production of light-duty electric truck Daimler is launching a limited series production run of the eCanter later this year with plans to go into mass production by 2019. This comes after Daimler displayed the light-duty electric truck during a German trade show for electric vehicles last year. It has an expected range of around 62 miles, can carry between two to three tonnes,

and can be charged in under an hour with a DC fast charger. The e-Canter – which is being developed by FUSO – has also been tested on public streets in Germany and Portugal, undergoing around 37,000 miles. The series production run is expected to run in Tokyo, Lisbon and New York with the ultimate goal to begin mass production in 2019.

Me, Myself and Freight Following my recent appointment as Environment Policy Manager for the Freight Transport Association (FTA), I wanted to take the opportunity to introduce myself and share my thoughts on the freight industry’s efforts to reduce emissions and the future direction of our fleets.

Becki Terry, climate change policy manager, FTA

My FTA journey began seven years ago in our tacho department where I was responsible for running the infringement reports for our tacho analysis service. I then moved into our member support team which provided me with a greater insight into the freight industry and FTA’s vast range of services. From there I progressed to our cost information team, providing statistical evidence to support our policy managers. I also worked closely with our climate change policy manager, looking after the Logistics Carbon Reduction Scheme (LCRS) and it was my increased involvement in this field that sparked my curiosity into environment policy. During my short time in my new role, and through my involvement with the LCRS and the Environment Working Group, I have been consistently impressed with the level of commitment demonstrated by the freight industry to continually strive for lower emissions. Air quality is an ongoing, increasing challenge, but industry continues to rise to it, remaining open to new ideas, trialling new technologies and developing its own new innovative techniques to achieve a cleaner fleet. I have been attending meetings with the LoCITY working group, LowCVP and local councils, who are all dedicated and passionate about reducing vehicle emissions, and I recently attended a STEP seminar in Edinburgh which not only highlighted the progressions in technology but also demonstrated the need for a change in behaviour in order for the technological advances to achieve their full potential. I have also attended meetings with gas suppliers and remain intrigued by gas’s high level of potential for the freight industry. The Centre for Sustainable Road Freight was also kind enough to meet with me and share its ongoing projects dedicated to finding solutions to make road freight economically, socially and environmentally sustainable. Electric technology has made revolutionary jumps, however further research and investment is required to ensure that an efficient infrastructure is introduced in order to support an increasing electric fleet. Electric is proving to be the favoured option for cars, vans and lighter commercial vehicles and I am confident that if a suitable infrastructure is provided, electric vehicles could have a permanent place in our future fleet. I also believe gas could be the future alternative fuel for heavier goods vehicles. Extensive trials and research have already been carried out to fine-tune the earlier vehicle prototypes and to address the issue of methane slip. Investment and funding is already in the pipeline to implement a strategic infrastructure to support the future of our HGV fleet. The next few years are certainly going to be exciting and challenging but I am confident that Industry will continue to inspire us and lead us into a cleaner, greener future. FURTHER INFORMATION



Contract Hire & Leasing Written by Peter Eldridge, director, ICFM

Today’s after sales support and fleet consultancy In many cases, the internal management of fleets is spread across several departments, with varying expertise in the running of vehicles. As such, there is need for contract hire and lease firms to be able to act as fleet managers. Peter Eldridge, director of the Institute of Car Fleet Management (ICFM), comments on this trend When evaluating the importance of contract hire and leasing company after sales support and fleet consultancy in today’s marketplace, there are many points to consider. The fleet industry now operates in an environment that is driven by a whole host of developing technology – connected vehicles; autonomous vehicles; and so-called ‘big data’ to name but a few. Loath it or like it, fleet operators and fleet service providers must embrace the challenges and changes that are coming their way if they are to survive and prosper in this brave modern technology-driven world. This of course directly impacts on the nature


and style of fleet consultancy provided and the ICFM firmly believe that there is real risk associated with the assumption that the technology will take care of itself and that the people involved simply become a bi-product of the process. To keep ahead of the game, contract hire companies and fleet service providers must get the mix right when it comes


to promoting modern technology-driven solutions and ensure that all customer facing staff, including their account management and consultancy teams, have the right credentials in respect of providing credible and skills-based advice to their end user customers. Soft skills But it does not end there, what about the new entrants to the fleet arena, particularly those employed on customer helpdesks within contract hire and fleet management businesses? The provision of ‘soft skills’ training and induction programmes is fine, but does that properly address the more critical issue of ensuring that these employees have the education and skills required to offer competent advice and guidance to the end user vehicle operators? The management of vehicle fleets, both from the fleet manager and the fleet service provider perspective, has changed beyond all recognition. There is now less requirement to understand what goes on under the bonnet of a vehicle, but a significantly greater requirement to understand how to operate a vehicle fleet legally, in a compliant manner and overall in a much more strategically aligned operational framework that is more business travel orientated.

Fleet rs operato race b must emnges that lle the chaing their way are comare to survive if they is modern in th gy-driven technoloorld w

Involving all stakeholders To coincide with this change, we now have a situation where there are more stakeholders in the average fleet operation, with representatives from senior management, finance, HR, compliance, procurement and the fleet departments all having input to a greater or lesser extent. Interacting with these stakeholders now requires a more sophisticated approach, which can only be achieved if the level of skill and knowledge are commensurate with challenge. That is why at ICFM’s annual conference late last year, we announced new Corporate Investor Programme designed to further raise the standards of fleet industry

With internal management of corporate fleets now, in many cases as mentioned above, diluted across several departments these organisations require external providers to effectively be their fleet managers. However, that goal can only be achieved if, employees in supplier companies think and act as fleet decision-makers. In turn that will only be successful if those customer-facing members of staff are equipped with the right knowledge, skills and experience. The new Corporate Investor Programme enables directors and senior managers to engage with ICFM and then ensure staff join a personal development programme delivered by the organisation.

Vehicle fleet management, from the view of both the fleet manager and the service provider, has changed beyond all recognition, with a greater requirement to understand how to operate a vehicle fleet legally professionals and overcome a skills and knowledge shortage inside many employers. Historically, ICFM’s focus has been on fleet manager training and while that continues, industry developments as highlighted above necessitated a requirement for significant training in supplier organisations, which includes contract hire and leasing and fleet management organisations.

Many businesses have acknowledged a skills shortage in terms of the fleet management knowledge of their employees. Those organisations admit that they are frequently asking employees to perform a role in which they have limited experience and little knowledge. While employers can delivers soft skills they frequently do not have the resources to fully develop staff to their full potential.

ICFM is dedicated to advancing the profession of car and light commercial fleet management. Its qualifications are viewed as the de facto stamp of approval for employees with fleet responsibility whether as full-time professional fleet managers or as part of an HR, finance or procurement role. ICFM currently has almost 800 members that are on the road to, or have achieved, qualifications.

Contract Hire & Leasing

About the ICFM

That’s why it is critical that businesses, such as contract hire and fleet management companies, that are selling products and services to fleets, but more recently have adopted a consultancy approach, need to ensure all their customer-facing staff understand how company car and van fleets function. The Institute Of Car Fleet Management is passionate about investing for the future to ensure that all fleet businesses and their staff promote the right level of human interaction and our criteria for success is simply this – if contract hire and leasing and fleet management companies ensure they have the right people, with the right level of accredited skills and knowledge, it will pay dividends in the long run. ! FURTHER INFORMATION





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Leasing & Contract Hire

A manifesto of industry priorities

motorists for decisions that they have already made based on previous policy. Regarding the Clean Air Zone (CAZ) Framework, the report asks that the government provides additional guidance to ensure consistency in terms of standards, enforcement, timescales and penalties for non-compliance. Businesses need to be fully informed The leasing, rental and fleet sector plays a significant role in about CAZs through a clear and engaging campaign, and the BVRLA suggests that the UK economy and other areas of government policy, such as air both national and local government quality, road safety and cost effective transport. The BVRLA has should promote vehicle rental, leasing therefore written a manifesto setting out the industry’s priorities and car clubs as potential solutions for those affected by the new standards. for the new government. GreenFleet shares the main points With regards to a possible diesel scrappage scheme, the BVRLA believes it needs to be flexible and targeted, and provide assistance The British Vehicle Rental and Leasing Air quality for companies looking to replace or retrofit Association (BVRLA) has written a manifesto, The report acknowledges that air pollution older, more polluting commercial vehicles. setting out its priorities for the new is a major health risk and that transport is This scheme should also incentivise private parliament, once everything has settled responsible for 80 per cent of nitrogen oxide car owners to swap their existing car for after the general election. The manifesto pollutants in the worst air quality areas, most a pure electric alternative, or give up their covers emissions, air quality, road safety, of which is related to emissions from vehicles. vehicles to use more sustainable modes of Brexit, red tape and connected cars, and The BVRLA therefore urges the government transport, such as car rental and car clubs. was sent out to the three major parties to take action on air quality as soon as What’s more, the BVRLA’s manifesto before the general election took place. possible. However it would like to see the recommends that the government The BVRLA points out that its 900 issue approached carefully, with a mix continues to fund the Plug-in-Car members have a combined purchasing of incentives and restrictions and Plug-in-Van Grants, power for around a million new vehicle sales that encourage sustainable Air gradually adjusting every year, contributing over £25 billion travel. It stresses, however, y t i l the CO2 emissions to the economy and directly employing that any air quality a u q and zero-emission more than 10,000 people in the UK. measures do not punish ld be

shou hed c approa with a y, carefull ncentives i mix of courage that en inable susta l trave



Leasing & Contract Hire

requirements to ensure that the incentive keeps pace with advances in technology. Regarding tax and emissions, the manifesto calls on the government to carry out a wholesale review of company car taxation, recognising the benefits of company cars in terms of reduced emissions and revenue to HM Treasury. Leaving the EU Regarding Brexit, the BVRLA has consulted with its members and urges the government to push for a barrier free relationship with its most important trading partner. It says the UK should try to remain a member of the European Economic Area, or otherwise secure a tariff free access to the single market. In the event that the government can not remain in the EEA, a trade preference scheme must be established with the remaining EU member states. The manifesto goes on to say the UK needs a clear plan for regulation that provides certainty in the short-term, and balances the need for simplicity and equal access to opportunity over the longer term. This is particularly important for the commercial vehicle sector, where EU Regulations and Directives govern the transportation of goods and vehicle standards. What’s more, the BVRLA highlights the need for a balanced migration system that

The BVRLA report calls for the government to continue to offer support in the way of plug-in grants for cars and vans

enables businesses to access the skills and labour they need to grow and innovate. Road safety and red tape The BVRLA report acknowledges that although UK roads are among the safest in the world, accidents still produce an unacceptable number of deaths and injuries each year, while costing the economy billions

standards and a regulatory framework that maintains an innovative and competitive market for automotive products and services. It suggests the government collaborates with its counterparts in Europe to ensure that Type Approval and Block Exemption legislation is revised and updated to reflect the emergence of a new market for connected vehicle data. These two pieces of

Regarding the Clean Air Zone (CAZ) Framework, the BVRLA report asks that the government provides additional guidance to ensure consistency in terms of standards, enforcement, timescales and penalties for non-compliance of pounds. It says that advances in vehicle technology have created an opportunity for the government to work with the fleet sector in drastically reducing their road accidents. It strongly recommends that Autonomous Emergency Braking is a mandatory fitment in all cars and vans, as it is for all HGVs registered in the European Union. The report goes on to say that the UK fleet and logistics sectors is constrained by red tape and regulations that are either unfit for purpose or are no longer relevant. It therefore urges for removal of the need for commercial vehicle examiners to be directly employed by the Driver and Vehicle Standards Agency, and provide HGV testing via the same MOT testing model available for private cars and light commercial vehicles. It also calls for the driver CPC exemption criteria to be raised, exempting people that are moving commercial vehicles within a 100km radius for non-hire or reward purposes. Technology The BVRLA says that the industry needs to be able to get full potential from connected vehicles and the data it creates. To make this happen, the UK needs common technology

legislation could play a vital role in ensuring that vehicle manufacturers do not gain a position of unfair market dominance through their privileged access to data. It recommends setting up a Mobility Data Hub to provide a neutral voice advocating and providing guidance to realise the full potential of connected vehicles and their data. This would ensure fleet operators, OEMs and third-party suppliers can share data in an open, secure and fair way. Commenting on the launch of the manifesto, BVRLA Chief Executive Gerry Keaney said: “It is essential that the new government understands the vital role our members’ huge purchasing power can play in delivering safer, sustainable and more cost-efficient road transport. Policymakers face a real challenge, not just in terms of Brexit, but also in how the UK embraces the move towards data-driven mobility services. We believe this manifesto will ensure the big issues for our industry aren’t forgotten about.” ! FURTHER INFORMATION



Meet our new leasing experts, who in this first discussion, examine how new challenges such as Brexit, air quality and policy changes are affecting fleet managers Fleet managers have always had to manage certain challenges, such as lowering emissions, keeping drivers safe and managing costs. But as the role of fleet management has become more complex, together with a changing political landscape that is likely to affect all industries, the types of challenges affecting the sector have evolved. The recent general election result and the further complications that gives issues like Brexit means that the future continues to be uncertain. Whether the UK pushes for a ‘hard’ or ‘soft’ Brexit, the aim will be for a trade deal that replaces UK membership to the Single Market. While it is expected that most EU regulations and directives will be retained in some form, there are still challenges that fleets should be aware of, such as a rise in import tariffs which could increase the price of vehicles, tyres and parts. What’s more, restrictions on migration may have an impact on human resources. The fleet sector will need to keep its ear to the ground to understand how any changes will impact their operations – and plan accordingly. “In the short-term, the uncertainty caused by the UK’s exit from the EU is challenging to the fleet industry,” says David Cooper from Arnold Clark. “It’s difficult for businesses to forecast their transport requirements until more details become available. The effect on exchange rates means that prices for vehicles are more volatile than ever. In the next 12 months, we fully expect multiple price increases for each manufacturer.” Matt Dale, from ALD believes that one of the biggest challenges fleet managers face is the sheer amount of changes that are happening in the motor industry, from changing legislation to the emergence of new technologies. He says: “There’s a vast array of external events that will impact a fleet manager’s decision making. To keep pace they need to keep an ear to the ground while juggling the day to day demands of managing a fleet.” Rob Mils from Daimler echoes this thought, saying: “The ever-present challenges of running a fleet are now compounded by more recent pressures on the fleet manager as they look to forecast the ramifications of Brexit for


Matt Dale, consultancy services manager, ALD Automotive Matt Dale leads a team of consultants who provide ongoing support and advice to help businesses meet their fleet objectives, no matter how diverse. The team specialise in financial modelling and analysis, risk management, alternatively fuelled vehicles, smart mobility solutions and employee benefits.

David Cooper, managing director, Arnold Clark With over 20 years of experience at Arnold Clark Automobiles Ltd, David’s top priorities are keeping both customers and employees happy. In the future David plans to continue investing in technology to improve customers’ digital experience throughout the Group.

Rob Mils, sales operation manager, Daimler Fleet Management Rob has 30 years’ industry experience, with the last 20 being with Daimler in various management roles across both the Daimler Fleet Management & CharterWay (van & truck) Fleet Divisions. He currently heads up the sales operations function covering pricing & risk management, plus consultative support to the sales management team their business, assess the future of business travel and prepare for a zero emission future.” Air pollution issues The UK government is under scrutiny over its illegal levels of air pollution and is being taken to court for the third time for failing to adequately handle the problem. It has been said that poor air quality causes more than 400,000 people to die prematurely in the EU every year. The main pollutant in question is nitrogen dioxide (N02), and emissions from old diesel vehicles are a major culprit. To tackle air pollution, London has an Ultra Low Emission Zone scheduled (ULEZ) for 2019, while wider plans from the government include Clean Air Zones (CAZs) for Birmingham, Leeds, Nottingham,


Derby and Southampton by 2020. The zones aim to reduce pollution in city centres by discouraging the most polluting vehicles, such as old buses taxis, coaches and lorries, from entering air quality hotspots, while at the same time, encouraging the adoption of modern, cleaner vehicles. Private car owners will not be affected, although in London, all vehicles will need to meet exhaust emission standards or pay a daily charge. The future of diesel As a result of air quality issues, as well the distrust that arose after the ‘dieselgate’ scandal, there is a lot of negativity surrounding diesel at the moment. Indeed, a recent report by the University of York and the International Council on Clean

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Expert Panel: Leasing


Expert Panel: Leasing

Transportation has concluded that diesels are emitting up to 50 per cent more toxins than they should, if complying with pollution laws. However, the SMMT has defended modern Euro 6 diesels, saying that they are the cleanest in history and play a critical part in improving air quality. With diesel engulfed in negativity at the moment, should fleet managers plan for a future with fewer diesels? “The commitment to improving air quality is almost certainly going to impact the make-up of the fleet of the future,” says Matt Dale from ALD. “However, fleet managers should focus on solutions that meet their individual requirements and objectives. Any reduction in the number of diesel vehicles in a fleet needs to be an evolutionary process, with careful consideration given to the needs of the company and the drivers themselves.” “This should include looking at factors such as Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) across different fuel types, not just vehicle categories, and comparing this against the individual objectives of the business, Matt continues. “For example, the TCO on the BMW 3 series is now similar for a diesel, petrol & plug-in hybrid (PHEV) on a 36 month lease agreement. If the reduction of carbon emissions is high on their agenda, this fact alone may influence

The ment govern crutiny rs is unde UK’s illegal over the air pollution f levels o being taken and is t for failing David Cooper from Arnold Clark points towards to cour ndle the the impact the new emission to ha lem testing method will have b o r p on the perception of diesel:

a fleet manager to consider making alternative-fuel vehicles available on their fleet policy.” Rob Mils from Daimler believes that the public perception of diesel has deteriorated due to the fall out from ‘dieselgate’, and therefore has accelerated the demand for non-diesel vehicles. Rob says: “What we would recommend to fleet managers is the beginning of a thorough fleet review to examine how some diesel vehicles on fleet can potentially be replaced by petrol, PHEV or even pure EV equivalents. Company car drivers are perceptive to the pressure on running diesel cars as it ultimately hits them in the pocket, and we have seen a move towards PHEVs and petrol in the past few years which will ultimately have helped the fleet manager in removing diesel engines from their fleet.” “There will always be a place for diesel engines in any fleet where high mileage is a major factor – the challenge for today’s fleet manager is identifying which part of their diesel fleet can be replaced, without impacting on the day-to-day efficiency of the fleet for a short-term gain.”

“Health concerns about diesel will result in fleet managers looking at other options, and will perhaps accelerate the move to hybrid and electric vehicles. However, the effects of the new real-life testing regime are still unknown, so fleet managers need to be aware of the potential impact, especially when Benefit in Kind tax becomes based on Worldwide Harmonised Light Vehicle Test Procedure (WLTP) figures.” David adds: “It has to be said that the recent emissions scandal has dented confidence in diesel, along with NOx health concerns, but some confidence may be restored once the new WLTP testing regime is introduced.” Advice and support With clean air zones looming, the push for electric vehicles, a changing political landscape, and changes to policy – organisations need to look carefully at their operations and how any changes might affect them. Firms in the leasing and contract hire industry keep themselves up to date with any changes " Volume 104 | GREENFLEET MAGAZINE


Planning for a future without diesel

Diesel engines have played a vital role in reducing the CO2 emissions produced by UK vehicles and purchasing diesel-powered cars was actively encouraged by successive British governments. However, the nitrogen oxides and dioxides (as well as particulate matter), pumped out by these vehicles is having a big impact on the health of the nation. As urban centres aim to improve the quality of air, diesel vehicles will be the first to have their use limited. Is the end in sight for diesel? Some of the world’s major cities including Paris, Athens and Madrid have agreed to outlaw diesel vehicles from their city centres by 2025. It has been suggested in some circles that a diesel scrappage scheme could be on the horizon in the UK to quickly reduce the presence of these cars on our roads. There is little support for this measure within the current government, but some form of incentive would seem to be inevitable in order to reduce pollution levels within cities. When drivers are encouraged to buy these vehicles, they will slowly begin to see more limitations with clean air zones and pollution charges, and may expect something back before moving on to new technology.

The electric revolution Electric and hybrid vehicle technology has developed at an impressive rate, but some issues of cost and range remain. However, electric and hybrid vehicles are being designed with extended range and more charging points

are being added to the UK infrastructure every week. On top of this, a tipping point has been reached in the industry. Uptake in this technology has reached an industrial scale and more manufacturers than ever, both existing and new, are developing electric vehicles. Within a decade, with improved technology, it’s expected that range anxiety will become a thing of the past with more than 200 miles on a single charge becoming a real possibility.

The right vehicle for right now Fleet managers do not have the luxury of considering a hypothetical future and instead must get the best value for their companies. While diesels are still on the market, they continue to represent a strong proposition, with a huge choice of vehicles available offering outstanding fuel consumption. It’s right to be aware of new regulations and how this may impact upon the next buying cycle, but diesel vehicles can play a vital role for business fleets for some years to come.

0141 332 2626


Arnold Clark Vehicle Management

# and so it is a good idea to seek their advice. “Finding sufficient time and resource to keep track of the many changes happening in the external environment, while managing an efficient and productive fleet is a big challenge for fleet managers,” comments Matt Dale from ALD. “Leasing and contract hire companies can take the pain out of this process by actively sharing their knowledge and expertise with fleets. The best leasing companies will also put clear strategies in place to help businesses cope with such changes.” Rob Mils from Daimler says that: “Lease companies can provide essential help for the fleet manager by proactively helping them with their fleet reviews, looking at the cost impact of running alternative fuel vehicles to diesel, assessing current fuel spends and looking at the ergonomic routines of both vehicles and drivers to assess whether diesel engines are genuinely required. “Similarly fleet locations should be monitored to take into account regional variations in fuel costs, and inner city travel should be taken into account where forthcoming government legislation may penalise diesel vehicles,” Rob continues. David Cooper from Arnold Clark says that working with a leasing firm is not a case of replacing the fleet manager, but rather working together with a specialist vehicle provider to “help improve the fleet, make it more efficient, reduce costs and lower emissions.” He adds: “With a leasing provider, not only do you have access to a source of funds, you also have access to a wealth of knowledge that can be invaluable.” After sales and consultancy For most reputable leasing firms, that “wealth of knowledge” doesn’t disappear

once the deal is done. It can be tapped into in the form of after sales support and consultancy, which is one of the draws of having a leasing provider on board. “After sales support and consultancy are important because a customer’s needs aren’t static; they will change over time, as will the demands of the external environment,” says Matt Dale from ALD. “The delivery of vehicles should not be the end point in the customer’s relationship with their leasing company, but rather the start. Consultancy services can add real value to their customers by effectively carrying out a lot of the hard work for them. From keeping fleet managers up to date with recent legislative changes to performing complex tax calculations on their behalf.” David Cooper from Arnold Clark echoes this thought, saying: “When you buy a vehicle, you’re pretty much left to your own devices. But when you lease a vehicle, customers can expect leasing providers to offer advice and guidance, to help them meet the mobility challenges they face. Fleet consultancy has become one of the most valuable services offered by vehicle leasing providers.” Rob Mils from Daimler explains that good after sales consultancy is the difference between working with a leasing and mobility expert that wants to be involved in a long-term partnership – and a supplier that just wants to finance your vehicles once every three to four years. He says: “Too many times we see lease companies make fleet suggestions because it suits them and not their customer. Genuine after-sales consultancy limits this “lease and go” mentality as fleet managers should be challenging lease companies to justify their recommendations and show a genuine increase in fleet efficiencies – and where possible cost efficiencies too.” !

With diesel in d engulfe at the ity negativ should fleet t, momen agers plan man ure with t or a fu diesels? fewer

Matt Dale The commitment to improving air quality is almost certainly going to impact the make-up of the fleet of the future. However, fleet managers should focus on solutions that meet their individual requirements and objectives. Any reduction in the number of diesel vehicles in a fleet needs to be an evolutionary process, with careful consideration given to the needs of the company and the drivers themselves. This should include looking at factors such as Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) across different fuel types, not just vehicle categories, and comparing this against the individual objectives of the business.

Expert Panel: Leasing

Expert final thoughts

David Cooper Modern hybrids, electric and petrol vehicles are moving forward at some pace, and they do represent a viable alternative to diesel. But with continuing advances in diesel technology, the diesel engine should not be discounted, and remains the best option in many cases. It has to be said that the recent emissions scandal has dented confidence in diesel, along with NOx health concerns, but some confidence may be restored once the new WLTP testing regime is introduced. Fleet managers have to be aware of changes in technology and government policies and make sure they choose the right car for the right job. Rob Mils The fall out of ‘dieselgate’ and the switch in focus to NOx emissions has somewhat changed the landscape. In future, fleet managers now face the likelihood that, depending on where they operate, diesel cars may not be allowed in certain areas. They also now have a greater ethical challenge due to the public and driver perception on diesels. The impact is an acceleration away from diesel being the automatic choice for all fleet vehicles. Advanced vehicle technology and alternatives fuels now means that fleet managers can plan for a future with fewer diesels.



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Tackling 800 WORD the EDIT grey HEADLINE fleet conundrum HERE AS TIGHT AS POSS

Written by Andrew Franklin, Public Sector Director, Europcar UK

Andrew Franklin, Public Sector Director for Europcar UK, highlights how the latest technology can offer a greener alternative to grey fleet usage According to a report by the Energy Saving Trust (EST)*, in partnership with the British Vehicle Leasing and Rental Association (BVRLA), there are 14 million grey fleet cars which drive approximately 12 billion business miles each year on Britain’s roads. The report says that this costs the private sector almost xoxoxoxo £5 billion, with grey fleet vehicles covering 11 billion miles a year, emitting 3.2m tonnes ofFURTHER CO2 and 7,038 tonnes of NOx. And it’s a INFORMATION similar story for the public sector, where grey xxx usage costs £750 million per year with fleet emissions hitting 447,000 tonnes of CO2 and 1,118 tonnes of NOx over 1.5 billion miles. The challenge The challenge for fleet managers doesn’t stop at costs because grey fleets are also more difficult to manage from a duty of care perspective. Figures suggest that grey fleet vehicles tend to be older – typically over 8 years old – and less reliable, leading to the risk of breakdowns, as well as employees potentially driving unroadworthy vehicles. In addition, the impact of the breakdowns to an organisation is significant. There’s lost revenue through downtime as employees can’t get to vital appointments, plus additional transportation costs to get them to their onward destination. Crucially, organisations should also look carefully at the impact grey fleet travel has on their total emissions, in order to meet their corporate environmental objectives. Generally grey fleet vehicles are older, use more fuel and create higher emissions than company provided vehicles such as hire cars and are less likely to be well maintained. Another challenge facing organisations whose employees drive their own vehicles for business is that there is no easy way to collect data that will give employers an insight into the condition of a vehicle and driving behaviour. Yet, with many workers using their own vehicles, employers face some clear duty of care challenges to ensure that each grey fleet vehicle has a valid MoT, is taxed, insured for business use and the driver has a valid licence. The right mobility solution for the job There are, however, some simple solutions that can help organisations tackle the issue of grey fleet usage without having to commit to significant vehicle acquisition that squeezed budgets simply cannot afford. For example, by using a cost calculator to assess the distance of a journey, employers can


identify when it makes sense for an employee to use their own vehicle and when it’s best to use an alternative form of transport. This adds a new dimension to employee travel management whereby the organisation can look at encompassing a variety of transport options, from car hire to car sharing to chauffeur drive which are all provided by Europcar as a global mobility solutions leader. And those options can include electric vehicles (EV), as well as modern hybrid fuel options that are becoming more widely available across the mobility sectors. With a publicly stated commitment to move our fleet to five per cent electric vehicles by 2020, Europcar has been working with our manufacturer partners to integrate both electric and hybrid vehicles into our mainstream fleet for some time. And our focus on embracing the latest fuel technologies, including adding the ground-breaking Toyota Mirai hydrogen vehicles to our fleet, aims to help organisations drive down their emissions and promote greener transport solutions that deliver the same level of convenience and performance our customers expect, while improving air quality on UK roads. Operating one of the youngest fleets in the car hire industry, combined with availability from one of the most extensive networks of locations, means we help public and private sector organisations meet


environmental targets. And our services are accessible through OJEU compliant frameworks, providing a comprehensive range of competitively priced mobility solutions across the UK for public sector users. Fleet managers keen to stay in control of costs and their emissions can tap into the latest technology to reduce the impact of grey fleet usage. Cost and convenience are going to be key factors when it comes to convincing staff to swap their privately owned vehicle for an alternative. However, these mobility services provide a cost-effective solution without compromising on the flexibility employees need or the environmental options. ! FURTHER INFORMATION For more information and to calculate when car hire is a more cost effective option go to

was underway, someone asked me if we’d xoxoxoxo ever see the world’s vehicle fleets brought to a standstill by cybercriminals. Personally, I don’t believe so. The sheer effort and skill FURTHER INFORMATION required to control a vehicle remotely, and xxx lack of any material reward for doing so, the means this is still the stuff of science fiction. But I thought this would be a good opportunity to make some recommendations to help every business enjoy the transformational benefits of vehicle telematics safely, securely and to maintain public trust in the industry.

Inside OBD-II telematics Today’s most advanced telematics devices attach to the vehicle’s OBD-II port, from where they capture rich and detailed real-time vehicle information. These devices are also designed to receive data like firmware updates (the internal software that makes the device work). And whereas a solution like O2 Smart Vehicle applies robust security measures to make sure only legitimate firmware is installed, not every product is so well protected. It’s technically possible for malicious firmware to transmit telematics data to an unauthorised third party. And in theory, malicious code on an OBD-II device could give the cyber criminals access to a vehicle’s engine management systems. Simple steps to keep safe It’s a fact that ‘ethical hackers’ have found security weaknesses on a small handful of OBD-II devices. But when I read about these incidents, it’s hard not to feel frustrated that the manufacturers and developers have left basic security loopholes open. Loopholes that could potentially tarnish not just the brand in question, but cloud the perception of all OBD-II telematics devices in the minds of our customers and users. So here are my tips for making sure your OBD-II devices really do add value to your business and your fleet – and don’t carry hidden security risks.

manufactures your devices It should be transparent who your telematics partner uses to manufacture their devices. Without this information, they themselves may be unable to guarantee the security of the devices they sell you. Or it could take them longer to react to threats and risks if they don’t have direct control over their brand’s hardware and software security.

2. Make sure data is encrypted as it’s sent across the network Give yourself the added protection of ensuring that data transmitted by your telematics devices is encrypted. Your network carrier will provide protection for the data they carry, but encryption will add an extra layer of security to protect your data if the network’s traffic gets intercepted. 3. Check firmware is signed to prevent unauthorised code changes This one’s really important! Firmware is the brain of your OBD-II telematics device – dictating everything from what data is captured to where it’s sent. Making sure every firmware update is signed with a digital signature will prove that updates come from a trusted source. 4. Make sure you have security documentation for hardware, software, servers and connectivity – as well as for your employees Your telematics provider should be happy to demonstrate their commitment to keeping your data secure. Ask them to provide details on the security measures they take to protect your data. Expect to see robust plans for the mitigation and recovery measures they’d take in the event of a security incident.

Firmware is the brain of your OBD-II telematics device – dictating everything from what data is captured to where it’s sent

Darryll Finch

Written by Advertisement Feature

Udae nonsend facepro et et, sed device led to Customers andicidisquid providersquam wouldelisimincim both lose out if a telematics quodi blaborum ut molorem aut ationse nos eumque laboribusbetween a major security breach. Here’s a timely look at the relationship et quoditiat dolo qui de volecab orerisqui nitibusdae nullacianti telematics and security, plus some advice on how to stay safe rest, sitiatis ut idem quodi consequat facimagnime pernatemquae nimus earibus, tem ipsaest moluptatium essure netyou et know who As the recent worldwide ransomware attack 1. Make

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Darryll Finch, Smart Vehicle Product Owner, O2 As solution specialist for O2 Smart Vehicle, which is powered by Geotab, Darryll is passionate about the ever-evolving possibilities of vehicle telematics. Darryll has worked with fleet telematics for over 20 years. 5. Establish a mitigation strategy so you’re covered if the worst occurs Make sure your telematics system itself contains as little personal information as possible in the unlikely event a cybercriminal infiltrated your telematics platform. For example, don’t store passwords in the system itself. Choosing to working with the most trusted and reputable brands will give you added reassurance. O2’s vehicle telematics partner Geotab, for example, is the world’s leading telematics provider, with over 700,000 devices active worldwide today. If you’d like to chat through any concerns you may have about your existing telematics provider, me and my team will be happy to help. ! FURTHER INFORMATION Contact us at




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Clean Air Zones

Cleaning up for future clean-air zones

With several cities due to implement clean air zones by 2020, private fleet operators can benefit from taking early action to comply. Experts from Cenex suggest ways to do this Crunching the data By Rob Anderson, Cenex senior fleet specialist Despite the ongoing efficiency improvements being made by vehicle OEMs, their published data on fuel consumption continues to be treated with a level of scepticism. Most fleet managers have therefore resorted to installing monitoring systems to record the fuel economy and carbon emissions of their high-mileage vehicles. However, the cost-benefit ratio of deploying such on-vehicle telemetry means that low mileage, and grey-fleet, vehicles typically go unmonitored. Therefore, opportunities to reduce emissions from these low-mileage vehicles are being missed; they may be suitable for some level of electrification.

The Cenex fleet team has developed a new vehicle-monitoring and assessment approach called CLEAR Capture, which, with support from Emissions Analytics, offers a low-cost means by which fleet managers can gain valuable insight into the real-world pollutant and carbon emissions from their vehicles. The CLEAR Capture system (see panel, page 31) utilises a simple, cost-effective device that is plugged into the vehicle to gather accurate real-world drive-cycle data. The CLEAR Capture analysis of any fleet can be simplified into three steps. The first step is to segment the fleet into different groups – this could be on operational need, journey type or drive cycle. Segmenting the fleet allows a more thorough assessment to be made as it focuses on like-for-like operations or journey types. Step two is to monitor the existing "

Written by Cenex

Over the course of the last year, local authorities in Birmingham, Derby, Leeds, Nottingham and Southampton have rolled out strict new environmental standards for large vehicle fleets ahead of the new government-mandated clean-air zones (CAZs) set to take effect in 2020. While similar targeted urban air-quality initiatives have proven effective in other European cities without significant impact on local businesses, fleet operators working in these cities are rightly concerned about the costs and logistical challenges of modernising their largest, and most critical, vehicles in just four years. In this article we suggest a roadmap of activities that fleets can consider, including how to conduct a comprehensive assessment, the importance of driver training and SMR schedules, redefining procurement, and road-testing new strategies.

Over the past year, se local authlected have rolle orities d environmout new standard ental large vehs for icle fleets



Clean Air Zones

What is CLEAR Capture? CLEAR Capture uses a simple plug-in device that is sent by post and plugged in to the vehicle to gather real world vehicle drive cycle data. Using this data Cenex are able to provide fleet managers with reliable, accurate and unique whole life costs, operational performance and emissions savings comparisons of switching from a conventional vehicle to an ultra-low emissions vehicle (ULEV), such as an electric vehicle or hybrid. The analysis does not rely on vehicle manufacturers emissions and fuel economy data but uses real-world fuel and energy consumption data based on independent testing and vehicle monitoring by Cenex and Emissions Analytics. After the data collection and analysis you will receive a report that provides journey pattern overviews, charging profile, detailed total cost of ownership and potential savings model, and an emissions report that includes tailpipe and well-to-wheel CO2 savings as well as Particulate matter and NOx. Your analysis also includes a 30-minute explanation call to go through your report and allow you to ask any questions. # performance of the segmented fleet – while this can be done through a variety of methods, including paper-based systems, the key is to ensure that the data gathered is as accurate as possible. The Cenex CLEAR Capture system ensures that accurate mileage and journey data can be gathered via the fitting of an unobtrusive device into the vehicle’s 12V socket or OBD port. Step three is to analyse and report on the data. The Cenex CLEAR Capture system analyses the performance of existing fleet vehicles against comparable low-emission vehicles, based on the captured real-world data, using Cenex’s unique fleet simulation software. For car models the analysis compares a conventional car against a similar electric (EV), plug-in hybrid electric (PHEV) and a range-extended electric (REEV) car. Vans (up to 2.2 tonnes GVW) are compared against a similar electric model only; this is due to the current technology maturity and market availability. The CLEAR Capture report provides fleet managers with a journey-pattern overview, a total cost of ownership and potential cost-savings assessment, an emissions report that includes carbon dioxide and NOx savings, and an electric vehicle charging assessment. The analysis also includes an optional 30-minute consultancy call to allow fleet managers to discuss the report and the results in more detail.


The role of drivers and SMR By Victor Lejona, Cenex technical specialist

£12,000 to train two workshop technicians and purchase the equipment required to service and maintain the Nissan Leaf and e-NV200. Other vehicle manufacturers estimate costs from £9,000 for initial training and equipment investment. Today, most manufacturers manage SMR of their EVs in-house, as the training and equipment costs make it uneconomic to self-service fleets of less than 50 EVs, considering the routine service for a Nissan Leaf is typically £99 per annum. Manufacturers develop bespoke self-servicing training agreements, but only to meet the demands of high-volume customers (typically those buying 20 or more vehicles at a time). Upfront investment in technical training and equipment means smaller fleets might not be able to realise the cost savings from bringing EV SMR in-house. However, there is potential for larger operators to partner with smaller fleets, allowing nearby fleets to pool their SMR services, like how a local authority may operate SMR of Hackney carriage vehicles and offer its shop to local businesses at a fee.

The key to successful and sustainable implementation will, of course, be to consider the long-term management of these new vehicles, as well as how best to manage their operational capability to maximise utilisation. One key opportunity is to look at driver training for vehicles that may not necessarily be ideal for electrification. It is recognised throughout the fleet industry that driver training has the potential to reduce fuel consumption, as well as wear and tear to fleet vehicles. Such programmes allow drivers to gain insight and understanding into how their driving behaviour impacts fuel consumption, vehicle lifetime, driver stress and many other aspects. Results from driver-training programmes can vary from driver to driver, depending on their existing driving styles. However, various research has shown encouraging potential. The Energy Saving Trust has estimated fuel Infrastructure procurement savings of up to 15 per cent for company By Luke Redfern, Cenex cars. A study of the national SAFED HGV project manager Scheme, undertaken in 2008, showed average fuel savings of five per cent per It is easy to fall into the trap of focusing driver. In addition, research into the national all the procurement efforts on getting the SAFED for Vans Scheme has shown average best deal for the vehicles, with the associated fuel savings of 20 per cent per driver. recharging infrastructure as a second thought. In addition to direct fuel savings, a smoother Successful procurement of infrastructure driving style can reduce vehicle and engine comes down to clear specifications and wear and tear. However, such fuel savings requirements that minimise uncertainty and are subject to reductions as drivers revert to future-proof any purchases. Infrastructure their previous habits; therefore, it is necessary technology is moving forwards, but there are to undertake annual driver monitoring and certain parameters that can, and should, be retraining. It also makes sense to focus included in procurement specification early implementation on the before tenders are released. vehicle segment (e.g., light Where possible, a financial e r e h W commercial vehicles) that tender should include a n atio holds the predominant shopping list, or basket lectrific ssible, e o fuel users, and hence of goods, that suppliers p may be t long-term are asked to quote will yield the quickest s return on investment. against, including the EVs boa d efficiency Where electrification cost of groundwork n a t it cos n e may be possible, EVs and installation, project h w boast additional long-term savings o vehicle management, and t cost and efficiency the hardware/software comes tenance aspects savings when it comes to allow a fully in ma to vehicle maintenance and rounded, accurate financial repair. When managed correctly, analysis. Where possible, limit the EVs have significantly lower service, suppliers to only the fees stated in the maintenance, and repair (SMR) costs than proposal (e.g., they provide their maximum their conventionally fuelled equivalents, price). Quality should also be assessed, with estimated cost savings of 25 per cent and recommendations are to put a higher and 40 per cent, respectively, compared weighting on the quality aspects, particularly to SMR costs for a petrol or diesel car. around service, maintenance and repair While in-house SMR is a relatively simple packages. Most charge points come with three activity for fleets operating conventional fuel years’ warranty (some manufacturers offer up and diesel vehicles, low-emission vehicle to 10 years), but additional warranty can be technologies require investment in additional purchased for years four and five if desired. training to deliver safe and effective in-house There are some existing frameworks that maintenance. The legal requirement for public bodies can access on the Crown training on high-voltage vehicles is covered by Commercial Service framework under Traffic health and safety laws that ensure employees Management Technology 2 (Contract ID: are competent enough to undertake this work. RM1089), namely Lot 10 Sustainable Transport If in-house SMR is desired, quantity is key. Infrastructure and Lot 15 Catalogue. The evidence suggests that in-house SMR for Private Bodies do not have access to EVs works best for fleets with high volumes frameworks; however, the Office for of vehicles. For example, a basic estimate is Low-Emission Vehicles (OLEV) has released


the Electric Vehicle Homecharge Scheme approved changepoint model list (available here), which is a good starting point for any procurement exercise. Where possible, Cenex always recommends gaining three quotes from local suppliers (or companies that have service depots close to you) and comparing them to ensure maximum value for money and quality. Concession contracts are preferential to service contracts (provided it is a “pay-for-use” network), and these are becoming industry norm, as they allow for better future proofing and service schedules, as well as higher KPI/SLA potential. Industry documents that should be consulted during a procurement exercise include: the Office for Low-Emission Vehicles’ Minimal Technical Standards, which define key technical specifications and requirements for installations using public money; and the UK Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment Association Procurement Guidance, which is a general procurement guide for private and public-sector organisations wishing to purchase equipment and services to support the conductive charging of EVs. Road-testing new strategies By Keith Budden, head of innovation support First, you need to test the vehicles out. Try-before-you-buy schemes are useful, as are attending events such as Cenex-LCV and GreenFleet events across the UK. Manufacturers may also loan you a vehicle if you speak to their fleets and dealerships. You need to monitor how the vehicles perform in your specific operational duty cycles – again, through accurate data collection. It’s also vital to gather feedback from the drivers. What do they like and dislike? What additional training would they like to receive? Then, if the case is proven, consider what uptake scenarios can be achieved, and how quickly you can or need to implement vehicles in line with your own vehicle replacement strategy. Finally, keep up to date with industry news. Vehicle ranges and prices are always improving, so keep informed, and your business will benefit in the long run. Cenex has a wide and dedicated team to support the uptake of low-emission vehicles and advise on the most appropriate strategy. We also have a vast fleet-services portfolio, including light-goods vehicles, HGVs and plant equipment. We will assess your fleet using the three-step process defined above, and provide you with a report, explanation and recommendations. Contact us to see how we can help you. !

Clean Air Zones

It’s all about the driver – getting better fleet performance by rewarding better drivers Lightfoot is an award-winning, government-supported technology that is helping to make our roads safer, our environment cleaner and our motoring less expensive. Lightfoot rewards better drivers and is the world’s first platform to help drivers monetise their good driving. It has two core components: the first is a small device that communicates directly with the vehicle’s engine and provides the driver with visual and verbal feedback to enable them to stay within the engine’s ‘sweet spot’ (optimum efficiency). The second is an exciting rewards platform that enables drivers to benefit personally from better driving (whether at work or at home) through competitions, prizes, discounts and other incentives. Drivers using Lightfoot typically see fuel costs down by up to 20 per cent; accidents down by up to 60 per cent; wear and tear costs down by 40-50 per cent; and harmful emissions down by 15-20 per cent. Lightfoot has pioneered the idea of ‘Rewarding Better Drivers’ and believes good driving needs to be recognised and championed. After all, the more good drivers we have, the cleaner and safer our roads will become for everyone. So, while the Lightfoot technology provides the real-time feedback drivers need to improve their driving style, it is the rewards platform that motivates them to do so in the first place, and then sustains their interest long term. Lightfoot Elite Drivers are eligible for rewards and incentives. Every week Elite Drivers win prizes such as supercar trackdays, ipads, weekend breaks, or a year’s supply of pies. There is a rapidly expanding network of partners offering rewards and special deals, including Admiral insurance who provide discounted premiums for Lightfoot’s Elite Drivers. Lightfoot is also actively lobbying policy makers to get better driving recognised and rewarded in the same way more efficient engine types currently are. For example, why shouldn’t a Lightfoot Elite Driver get a reduced road tax (VED) or congestion charge? As part of the broader commitment to rewarding better drivers, Lightfoot offers fleet drivers exciting incentives to motivate them to achieve and maintain a smooth driving style. A key component of this is the recently-launched Lightfoot Fleet Driver of the Week award. Every fleet driver who hits their company KPIs is entered into a draw each week and the winning driver receives a prize, sponsored by Allianz Insurance Plc. Lightfoot Fleet Driver of the Week has been very popular with drivers and management alike since its launch in February this year, giving fleet drivers further incentives to hit their company KPIs. So far, prizes have ranged from gadgets like the Amazon Echo to experiences such as supercar track days. Customer feedback on Lightfoot – “In my opinion Lightfoot is brilliant… It has a true, accurate and instant effect on the driver and it encourages better driver behaviour, empowering them to make their own decisions.” – Steve Love, National Driver Development manager, Alliance Healthcare. FURTHER INFORMATION Martin Kadhim, Sales Director, Lightfoot




Air Quality Written by Angela Pisanu

A closer look at the diesel debate GreenFleet examines recent developments in the diesel and air quality debate and asks if the negativity surrounding this fuel is affecting vehicle choice for fleets and consumers



Negative headlines The understanding of the impact that old diesels have on air quality has been made worse by the discovery that some manufacturers cheated their emissions data, with the so-called Volkswagen ‘dieselgate’ scandal leading to other manufacturers being investigated. A study last year by campaign group Transport & Environment (T&E) found not one brand complies with the latest Euro 6 air pollution limits when driven on the road. Last month there were several more diesel stories in the headlines. Swedish manufacturer Volvo said it is likely to stop making new diesel engines, citing the cost of making engines compliant with ever higher anti-pollution standards as a reason for making the investment not worth it. A report from an economist from Stanford University predicts that in the next eight years, there will be no more petrol or diesel cars, buses or trucks sold in the world, only electric vehicles – which will lead to a collapse of oil prices and the petrol and diesel industry. Firing up the argument that diesels are toxic to the environment, a recent report by the University of York and the International Council on Clean Transportation has concluded that diesels are emitting up to 50 per cent more toxins than they should, if complying with pollution laws. They say this is down to “engine calibration, equipment failure, inadequate maintenance, and tampering by vehicle owners.” For the report, researchers analysed data from 30 studies of vehicle emissions under

real-world driving conditions around the world, according to The Telegraph. It was found that vehicles emitted 13.2 million tonnes of nitrogen oxide – 4.6 million more tonnes than the 8.6 million which is expected under laboratory test conditions. Is it affecting consumer choice? The headlines and hype around diesel appear to be making an impact on consumers’ next choice of vehicle. Recent research from has revealed that three out of five diesel owners are planning to choose a different fuel type – such as petrol, hybrid and electric powered cars – when they next change their car. Forty-eight per cent of the 1,000 survey participants said that they currently own a diesel car and 40 per cent of those plan to buy another diesel. However, of those who say they will change their engine type, 35 per cent said they plan to opt for a petrol vehicle, and 20 per cent said they are looking to a buy a hybrid model. Five per cent are interested in switching to an electric vehicle. Drivers who plan to ditch diesel typically cited the prospect of future charges as the reason, and almost half of them said they were also concerned about the environmental effects of diesels on air quality.

pollution they’re causing. We need a sense of calm, because if the ‘dirty diesel’ phrase gets into people’s minds the likelihood is it will impact their resale values. This could then lead to the leasing sector suffering losses against forecasted residual values, and the contract hire companies who are pivotal to the UK automotive sector will subsequently have less to invest in green initiatives.”

Air Quality

Diesel vehicles had a surge of popularity in 2001 when Vehicle Excise Duty was cut to encourage the purchase of low-carbon vehicles. However, it has since emerged that diesel produces four times more nitrogen dioxide and 22 times more particulates than petrol, and is now viewed as a major public health risk. In fact, poor air quality is said to cause 40,000 early deaths a year in the UK. The UK has struggled to keep within EU limits on air pollution and has been required to draft air quality plans to address the issue. However, the draft plans, which were released on 5 May, have been criticised for failing to adequately tackle the issue. As such, environmental law firm Client Earth is taking the UK government back to court, arguing that the consultation does not include measures which the government’s own technical data shows are the best way to bring down air pollution as soon as possible. James Thornton, CEO of ClientEarth said: “We have found some major flaws. The law requires the final plan to bring air pollution down to legal levels in the shortest time possible. These flaws seriously jeopardise that timetable. “These are plans for more plans, what we need are plans for action.” Meanwhile co-leader of the Green Party, Caroline Lucas, has criticised the plan stating that the government is “standing idly by while Britain chokes” and called the plan “feeble”. Sadiq Khan, Mayor of London also commented that the proposals are “toothless and woefully inadequate”.

What about commercial vehicles? To counteract the negativity on diesel at the moment, the SMMT gathered a display of Euro-6 commercial, utility, and emergency response vehicles at the opening of the Commercial Vehicle Show in April. This was to demonstrate that commercial vehicles – which are mainly dependent on diesel – play a huge role in the UK economy, our safety, and daily lives. They argue that new diesel vehicles are the cleanest in history and play a critical part in improving air quality. Mike Hawes, SMMT chief executive, said: “Commercial vehicles play an essential but often overlooked role in keeping Britain functioning, performing jobs and transporting vital goods and services that we all rely on every day. This sector has never been so important to the UK economy – and to British jobs – and diesel’s role in powering these vital vehicles should not be downplayed. Hawes continued: “Nearly all our commercial vehicles are driven by diesel, and thanks to heavy investment by industry to develop world-leading low emission technology, the latest Euro VI CVs on our roads today are the cleanest and safest ever.” The government’s recent draft air quality strategy highlights that Euro 6 diesels will not face any penalty charges anywhere in the UK.

For the t, momen still are diesels red choice fer the pre ets, but fleet for fle ers should managor a future plan f wer diesel with fe icles veh

Fleet vehicles For the moment, diesels are still the preferred choice for fleets. However, Venson Automotive Solutions has recently said that fleet managers should “plan for a future with fewer diesel vehicles,” as the government reviews the way diesel vehicles are taxed, including possible changes to company car benefit-in-kind. Diesel company cars incur an additional three per cent benefit-in-kind tax supplement up to a maximum of 37 per cent, which the government has previously said would remain in place until April 2021. However, Venson says that national and international pressure for governments to take action to cut demand for diesel vehicles could see tax rises announced as soon as the Autumn Budget. In April, the ExpertEye Fleet Industry Review was released into the latest status and views of the UK fleet marketplace. It revealed that more companies are putting petrol-engined cars back onto their fleet lists, or drivers are opting for petrol, and that respondents expect to see a reduction in diesel in the next two years, with electric, electric range-extended and hybrid engines gaining in popularity. According to Shaun Barritt, CEO of Grosvenor Leasing, the ‘hysteria” surrounding ‘dirty diesels’ is not healthy for the fleet sector. He says: “Reading the headlines, the focus isn’t on portraying the benefits of everyone driving greener cars. Instead, the language is of doom and gloom about dirty diesels, scrappage schemes and the

Moving forward The government’s draft air quality plans include the proposal for a diesel car scrappage scheme, which could take 15,000 diesel and older petrol cars off the road. The plan also mentions that “appropriate tax treatment for diesel vehicles” is considered, and that car fuel efficiency labels should make it apparent to buyers how polluting their vehicle is. The strategy also suggests that the government will give local authorities the opportunity find alternatives to the Clean Air Zones that are ‘non-charging.’ The consultation closed on 8 June, and once the government reshuffle has completed, it should become clearer what the next steps will be. ! FURTHER INFORMATION



Fleet Interview

A chat about Gatwick’s green goals

Rachel Thompson

Gatwick has become a carbon neutral airport for its ground operations. GreenFleet talks to Rachel Thompson, sustainability manager at Gatwick Airport, to find out how its use of electric and hybrid vehicles, alongside its sustainable travel plans for staff and on-site waste processing plant, have played a key part in achieving the airport’s green ambitions Gatwick airport has experienced record growth and now has more arrivals and departures per hour than ever before and welcomes over 44 million passengers a year. In May this year, Gatwick was officially recognised as a carbon neutral airport through its use of 100 per cent renewable electricity and Gold Standard carbon credits to offset ground fuel emissions. The airport has also published its Decade of Change report which tracks its progress


Explain the range of vehicles that against ten ambitious environmental and make up your ground fleet. community-focused targets that it set itself Gatwick Airport Limited (GAL) has a ground over the ten years from 2010 to 2020. fleet of around 500 vehicles, with around 60 GreenFleet talks to Rachel per cent classed as specialist vehicles Thompson, Gatwick’s sustainability used in airfield, engineering manager to find out about the and security activity. airport’s use of low-emission k We have begun a vehicles and other green Gatwic on consolidation exercise initiatives that have b r a is a c irport, as vehicles reach helped make the airport a l a r t end of life, including carbon neutral. e u l e b n a


w its renecarbon o t e u d ity and electric which offset credits und fuel gro ns emissio

What role does your ground fleet play in reducing emissions of the airport overall? GAL’s ground fleet is a small proportion of our emissions at around 1,100 tCO2e less than 10 per cent of emissions from GAL’s fuel use (Scope 1 emissions), the rest being natural gas for heating and some diesel for plant and backup generators. Similarly, airport partners’ airfield vehicles emissions are a small proportion of third party ground transport emissions (currently estimated at three per cent), the remainder are mainly passenger and staff travel to the airport.

Explain how the electric car sharing service works. Gatwick is the first UK airport to partner with Blue City, part of the Bolloré Group who are rolling out electric charging points and an electric car sharing scheme throughout London (already successfully implemented in Paris). The London scheme is potentially game-changing for air pollution (benefits already seen in Paris), and its roll out at Gatwick has many applications, not least the opportunity to expand the scheme into local Boroughs for passengers, employees and surrounding councils residents. This will also be a significant contributor to our Decade of Change by helping to reduce Gatwick’s carbon and micro-particles footprint linked to gas vehicles. How did your electric taxi service come about? Airport cars were innovative winners of the last taxi tender. They brought in considerable improvements, changes and innovation to the private hire/taxi fleet on the airport. Airport Cars Gatwick (ACG) approached GAL with the initiative to introduce electric cars onto the airport, understanding and recognising the importance we placed on sustainable and environmentally friendly travel to the airport. ACG introduced the five electric Teslas as a first measure. This is being continually reviewed with a commitment to bring in a further 50 electric or hybrid cars per year over the next three years giving over 150 electric or hybrid cars (over 60 per cent of the fleet). In addition, to improve air quality around the airport they have committed to programming the hybrid cars to run on electric only within 10kms of the airport, improving the air quality around Gatwick in particular. The next round of car replacement will take place from November when the new hybrid Mercedes E-class estate will be launched. How will your EV Infrastructure Study benefit the airport? The study is looking at the short and medium term infrastructure needed to support increased electric, hybrid and other low emission vehicles (LEVs), in particular the electricity network infrastructure, energy storage options, charge point types and locations, and metering for cost recovery. It will support multi-year planning for uptake of LEVs in line with operational needs on a space constrained site. How do you incentivise green travel for staff? Gatwick offers a range of staff travel options and discounts for all airport workers to help incentivise staff to use public transport and other sustainable modes. We collaborate with our existing transport partners and proactively seek out new suppliers to continually expand and improve services to and from the airport. We work with other on-airport companies to inform staff about sustainable modes and public transport connectivity. For our own staff, we offer a Ride to Work scheme in partnership with Evans Cycles providing tax savings and salary sacrifice to allow staff to purchase bikes and other equipment. We are currently reviewing

our cycling facilities and exploring options to improve these to further encourage this healthy and sustainable way of getting to work. Explain how your waste processing plant works? Our new on-site Materials Recycling Facility, constructed and now operational in partnership with DHL, delivers two significant breakthroughs. It takes airport recycling rates to new heights by including a manual waste sorting conveyor which began operating in September 2016. Together with reclassification of waste streams into ‘Dry’ and ‘Wet’, on-site sorting is lifting the airport’s reuse and recycling rate to 60 per cent in 2017 and above 75 per cent by the end of 2018. In addition, by using small balers at our terminals and large ‘mill size’ bales to compress waste, there are 200 fewer industrial-size waste bin collections per day at the airport, reducing lorry vehicle journeys to external waste plants by 50 per cent. The second breakthrough is our ability to convert non-EU airline waste and other organic waste into energy. The facility is the first at any airport in the world to be able to do this. Category 1 waste comprises food waste and anything mixed with it from non-EU flights. Its disposal is governed by strict rules that require specialist processing (until now, off-site) to protect against potential spread of disease and infectious material. Around 20 per cent of the Airport’s operational and commercial waste is Category 1. To treat this waste, and other wet waste that cannot be recycled, the new facility incorporates an on-site dryer and biomass boiler. The waste is dehydrated and turned into solid biomass fuel which is used to generate heat for the dryer and for the facility buildings. Looking ahead, as the facility will produce more biomass than is needed to heat it, we are also considering installing a second biomass boiler to provide heating for the North Terminal. Water recovered from the waste-drying stage is also used to clean waste bins, helping to reduce airport water consumption by two million litres per annum. The biomass boiler has been designed to operate to emission standards that are stricter than required by EU regulation. The facility is set to save £1,000 in energy and waste management costs for every day it operates.

Fleet Interview

replacing around 20 per cent of vehicles with electric or plug-in hybrids over the next two to three years. We have also joined the government’s Go Ultra Low Companies initiative. There are several airside charge points to charge our electric vehicles. Existing charge points are connected into the Gatwick electricity network for which we purchase REGO (Renewable Energy Guarantees of Origin) certified electricity.

How do you monitor air quality? Our Decade of Change target is to maintain zero breaches of annual limit values for air quality at the airport, as measured by the real-time automatic monitoring station at the airport. On-airport continuous monitoring is done year-round at the eastern end of the runway. This real-time automatic monitoring station measures N02 and PM10 particulates. Off-airport continuous monitoring at three sites in residential streets near the airport is conducted year-round in partnership with Reigate and Banstead Borough Council (RBBC). These three monitoring sites near the airport are part of the Horley Air Quality Management Area (AQMA) established by RBBC in 2002. ! FURTHER INFORMATION



Expert Panel: Telematics

EXPERT PANEL TELEMATICS With carbon reduction and air quality a pressing agenda for the UK government, our telematics expert panel share how technology and the data it provides can help fleets cut harmful emissions and run a more environmentally-responsible fleet

Darryll Finch, Smart Vehicle Product Owner, O2

Colin Ferguson, MD of fleet & optimisation, Trakm8

Martin Kadhim, sales director, Lightfoot

Having worked in fleet telematics for over 20 years, Darryll is excited by all its innovations, none as much as the impact of the Internet of things (IoT). He’s product owner for O2 Smart Vehicle with responsibility for its future roadmap. O2 Smart Vehicle gives fleet managers and leasing companies real-time visibility of their fleet.

As a former fleet manager, Colin’s extensive understanding of the industry assists Trakm8 in providing businesses with better efficiencies, improved safety initiatives and significant cost reductions. He is the managing director of fleet and optimisation at telematics provider Trakm8.

Martin has extensive knowledge in the IT, advertising and automotive sectors. He is passionate about the use of technology and psychology to improve driver behaviour, lower costs and reduce harmful emissions. He has been a pioneer in the sector since 2006, playing a key role in the growth of Lightfoot.

Transport accounts for around a quarter of UK greenhouse gas emissions. It also lets off NOx emissions and particulate matter (PM) which is harmful for air quality – so much so that research says it accounts for 40,000 early deaths a year in the UK. As such, the government is about to be taken to court for a third time for failing to properly address the problem. Fleets and freight make up a significant portion of road users, and therefore have a big role to play in reducing harmful emissions from their vehicles. Adopting cleaner vehicles, driving them more efficiently, and cutting out unnecessary journeys are three ways fleets can make a difference. In order to do this, fleet operators need insight into how their vehicles are performing, how their drivers behave behind the


wheel, and what types of journeys they do. Telematics gives fleet managers data on vehicles, driving style and routes so they can identify where changes can be made. There is a good choice of cleaner vehicles on the market these days, but if they are driven inefficiently, by harsh braking, idling or speeding – they will still burn unnecessary fuel and let out more emissions. Identifying staff that drive in such a way means a company can introduce driver training, and possibly offer incentives for those that improve. “The driver is the single biggest impact on fuel consumption,” says Colin Ferguson from Trakm8. “Driver behaviour systems enable employees and fleet managers to monitor, analyse and improve driving behaviour in four key areas – excessive acceleration, idling times, heavy braking, and sharp


Mike Hemming, UK director of professional Services, Masternaut Mike has over 12 years’ telematics experience. This has involved implementing telematics solutions across the globe and partnering with large companies such as Shell and the National Grid to provide consultancy services aimed at improving driver behaviour, reducing fleet risk and maximising return on investment.

cornering. In our experience, it can cut fuel costs by up to 15 per cent; a huge saving.” Darryll Finch from O2 Smart Vehicle agrees that telematics can help build a “behaviour profile” of each driver. He says: “Real-time information on everything from seat belt use, speed and idling time to acceleration/ deceleration, and erratic driving helps businesses build a clear, comprehensive behaviour profile of each driver. From there, they can work with drivers to address and correct poor driving habits that are either unsafe or inefficient and contributing to unnecessary fuel consumption.” Lightfoot’s Martin Kadhim echoes these thoughts, saying that technology “ensures that each mile travelled is done so in a smooth and efficient manner, eradicating harsh and toxin-heavy

The right route Whilst driver performance is clearly a major factor in reducing fuel-usage and emissions, the types of journeys undertaken also have a big impact. Telematics can show which routes are too long or congested, or even unnecessary in the first place, so that better route planning can be implemented, or fewer journeys can be undertaken. “Ensuring your fleet operates at the optimum efficiency in the day, completing only the miles that it needs to, ensures that excessive fuel is not used through excessive distances,” says Mike Hemming from Masternaut. He adds: “Fleets can apply the same principles to out of hours mileage as well; policing your vehicle use in the evening or at the weekends can ensure that you only use the fuel you need to, which will in turn minimise your environmental impact.” Colin Ferguson from Trakm8 comments: “We increasingly see telematics integrated with route optimisation and fleet scheduling tools. By increasing vehicle utilisation and eliminating unnecessary mileage, optimisation can also substantially cut total fleet fuel consumption. A broad measure would be by roughly ten per cent, but it varies from fleet to fleet. Colin adds: “Increasing vehicle utilisation is going to become increasingly important, as it can reduce the number of vehicles on our roads. Freight sharing is a growing trend and works best when powered by optimisation software.” Darryll Finch from O2 Smart Vehicle says telematics can also give an insight into the vehicle and how it is performing. He says: “By working with a larger pool of vehicle data, managers can see when a particular vehicle has ceased to be fuel efficient and may need to be retired. And with more proactive maintenance reducing breakdowns, the life of each vehicle can be extended and scrappage delayed – cutting the environmental impact.”

meaning they utilise the internet to A diesel vehicle would have a higher cost connect them with the outside world. per mile for this type of use, and because the This allows the vehicle to let drivers know local offices are likely to be able to provide where nearby charging points are and a recharging point it would make good keep them updated on battery life. business sense to replace with electric.” Telematics can also help EV drivers with Colin Ferguson from Trakm8 also believes journey planning, taking into consideration that analysing a fleet using telematics data the range of the vehicle. For example, should can help identify which vehicles and routes the range not be enough to reach the final would benefit from switching to EVs. He destination, the system could suggest driving says: “Optimisation works by analysing to a train station with a car park with charge how a fleet operates, then using powerful points, doing the remainder of the journey on algorithms to identify efficiency gains. This train, and then returning to a fully charged same fleet analysis can also identify which vehicle. This journey planning is enhanced vehicles and routes could be switched to with real-time information on how trains are EVs, in a way that doesn’t negatively impact running and whether there is traffic on route. the organisation’s overall performance.” “Telematics helps EV drivers and fleet Colin adds: “Specialist EV optimisation tools managers plot the distance to the nearest also help fleets to sweat these comparatively charging station, get directions to the high-value assets. Every additional electric station, project the travel distance until mile means less emissions and lower fuel bills. another charge is required, and much A good system should be able to optimise a more,” says Darryll Finch from O2 Smart mixed fleet containing diesel, petrol, hybrid, Vehicle says. “This allows EV fleet managers EV and any other alternative fuel vehicles.” to instruct drivers on when and where Martin Kadhim from Lightfoot highlights to charge their vehicles, putting the the importance of driver behaviour in electric responsibility in the hands of each driver.” vehicles as it “directly impacts range”. He Crucially, telematics data can also help says: “The basic principle is that you need to organisations assess whether an electric enable the vehicle to be driven as efficiently fleet is suitable for their operations in as possible by giving the driver simple, the first place. “Telematics can play an real-time feedback. By doing this, the range important role in analysing whether a can be expanded to a significant degree vehicle fleet is compatible with the use of and that makes the electric vehicle a more electric vehicles,” explains Mike useful and practical proposition.” Hemming from Masternaut. “Using telematics to Air quality Vehicle is analyse low mileage In the last couple of years, on i t a diesel vehicles can really there has been a greater s i l i t u and , highlight where an understanding on t n a t r impo aring is a electric vehicle may be how NOx emissions sh t more cost efficient. For negatively affect air h h c i g i h e r w f d n e example, this could quality and public r t g be a pool car that health. Whilst fleets growin s best when is only used to drive managers have work ered by between local offices. become accustomed " pow

Expert Panel: Telematics

manoeuvres from everyday driving.” Explaining how Lightfoot tackles driver behaviour, Martin Kadhim says: “Our technology acts as the voice of a vehicle, coaching the driver in real-time to enable them to maintain a smooth and steady driving style which, in turn, reduces both fuel consumption and emissions.”

ation optimis

Promoting electric adoption There is a good range of ultra-low or zero-emission vehicles on the market today. Whilst adoption of these vehicles is relatively slow, it is on an upward trend. Since the launch of the Plug-In Car Grant in January 2011, there have been 100,041 eligible cars registered, according to SMMT figures. Pure EV sales surged in May this year, with a 79 per cent increase in registrations compared to the same period last year. Vehicle price, range and a limited charging infrastructure are still cited as the main concerns for those not going down the EV route. But can telematics help quash some of these fears? Most electric vehicles are connected,



Expert Panel: Telematics

Expert final thoughts Darryll Finch The UK Government have clear objectives to reduce carbon, especially in built-up areas with large populations. So truck manufacturers and governing bodies have a responsibility to work together in the delivery of a strategy that will reduce carbon by making diesel engines more efficient. In addition, a scrappage scheme would be beneficial to businesses that have older, emission-inefficient vehicles. Colin Ferguson Urban air pollution kills around 40,000 people a year in the UK. That’s a horrifically high number. So in principle, I fully support measures to remove diesel vehicles from town and city centres. However we have to balance that with access for goods vehicles that are the lifeblood of urban areas. It’s completely unfair to expect fleets or diesel drivers to foot the bill without any assistance from government. I am in favour of incentives to accelerate the switch to lower emission vehicles, rather than penalising diesel owners. Martin Kadhim The impact of the driver is more important than the engine type or drivetrain. An efficient vehicle, if driven like it has been stolen, will deliver worse performance than a less efficient vehicle driven well. With Lightfoot we focus on getting all drivers in all vehicle types to become smoother, steadier and safer drivers and that has an immediate and positive impact on reducing harmful CO2 and NOx emissions. Mike Hemming The tests used to define emissions standards are something that need to be considered moving forward. The laboratory tests used to define these standards are often not very representative of the way vehicles are used in the real world. With telematics now being either installed by manufacturers or the vehicle users, true, live measurements are possible as the vehicle operates in the real world. Much in the same way a vehicle never really achieves the MPG reported by a manufacturer, consumers would be able to base a purchasing decision on real world emissions data as well.


# to measuring and reducing their carbon emissions, NOx and PM may not be so familiar. Can telematics help drivers become less polluting in this area, or at least become more aware of the problem? Darryll Finch from O2 Smart Vehicle says: “Telematics solutions that track Adblue levels help ensure NOx emissions are maintained and businesses are compliant, arming fleet managers with valuable information. By combining this information with geographic location, fleet managers can pinpoint an accurate calculation of a vehicle’s environmental impact.” Mike Hemming from Masternaut believes that air quality measures are an extension of the work already done to reduce emissions through better driving. He says: “If a driver is improving their MPG then they will naturally be reducing emissions.” Martin Kadhim from Lightfoot echoes this thought, saying: “The fastest and most effective way to reduce harmful emissions affecting air quality is to ensure vehicles, whatever their type, are driven more efficiently. At Lightfoot we have learnt this requires three core components: technology to measure how efficiently it is being driven; real-time feedback to nudge

will be no more petrol or diesel cars, buses or trucks sold in the world, only electric vehicles – which will lead to a collapse of oil prices and the petrol and diesel industry. However, the SMMT have been quite vocal in defending new, Euro 6 diesels, saying that they are the cleanest in history and play a critical part in improving air quality. So what are our panelists thoughts on the future of diesels? “The new Euro 6 standard has made the tests even more stringent for diesel vehicles, with a key focus on the harmful NOx component,” comments Mike Hemming from Masternaut. “However this has not stopped some councils singling out diesel vehicles as a whole. Councils in London have started to implement a surcharge on all diesel vehicles no matter the age. Considering then that a Euro 6 petrol vehicle can output twice as much CO2 as a diesel one, this would seem a little out of sync.” Colin Ferguson from Trakm8 says: “Urban air pollution kills around 40,000 people a year in the UK. That’s a horrifically high number. So in principle, I fully support measures to remove diesel vehicles from town and city centres. However I am in favour of incentives to accelerate the switch to lower

Telematics data can help organisations assess whether an electric fleet is suitable for their operations in the first place the driver to make adjustments to their driving style, and incentives to encourage them to do the right thing. Taken together, these can easily result in an immediate and sustainable reduction in NOx emissions of 20 per cent or more (as verified for Lightfoot by the University of Bath).” Colin Ferguson from Trakm8 cites vehicle idling time as a great example of the type of driving that can be monitored and improved through telematics. He says: “Route optimisation used to be about using today to plan tomorrow’s fleet activities. While that is still often the case, optimisation has also evolved to offer dynamic scheduling. This enables fleets to re-route vehicles, in real time, to keep them out of areas that are experiencing unexpectedly high traffic congestion.” Focusing specifically on low-emission zones, Mike Hemming from Masternaut says: “Vehicle users are already pushing telematics providers to analyse their current vehicle operations within low emission zones. Which is leading to large scale cost benefit studies of vehicle work patterns, the cost of operating in low emission zones and the cost of replacing the vehicles for a lower emission models. This will only increase as these zones become more popular.” The diesel debate Diesel has received its fair share of negativity in the last couple of years. Recently, a report from an economist from Stanford University suggested that in the next eight years, there


emission, less polluting vehicles, rather than penalising the owners of diesel vehicles.” Darryl Finch from O2 says: “The UK government has clear objectives to reduce carbon, especially in built-up areas with large populations. So truck manufacturers and governing bodies have a responsibility to work together in the delivery of a strategy that will reduce carbon by making diesel engines more efficient. In addition, a scrappage scheme would be beneficial to businesses that have older, emission-inefficient vehicles.” Martin Kadhim from Lightfoot says that there are many situations where a new, modern and efficient diesel vehicle will have a lower impact on the environment and on air quality than a petrol vehicle. Bringing it back to driver behaviour, Martin says: “The key thing though is that the impact of the driver is more important than the engine type or drivetrain. An efficient vehicle, if driven like it has been stolen, will deliver worse performance than a less efficient vehicle driven well.” Looking to the future of emissions standards, Mike Hemming from Masternaut concludes: “The tests used to define these standards are something that need to be considered moving forward. The laboratory tests used to define these standards are often not very representative of the way vehicles are used in the real world. With telematics now being either installed by manufacturers or the vehicle users, true, live measurements are possible as the vehicle operates in the real world. This would allow consumers to base a purchasing decision on real world emissions data.” !

Four big opportunities to transform fleet management with advanced telematics Game-changing solutions like O2 Smart Vehicle, powered by Geotab, are rapidly pushing back the limits of vehicle telematics. They’re redefining the cost-efficiency, productivity and safety of today’s fleets. So, whether you’re already using some form of vehicle telematics, or are considering doing so, now’s the time to reassess what today’s advanced solutions have to offer. Fleets like yours are using advanced vehicle telematics to achieve millions of pounds worth of financial savings and performance gains every year. Or to put it another way, they’re saving almost £1,150 per HGV per month; or around £133 p/m for a typical passenger car*. Just think what those savings would add up to across your own fleet each year. Let’s start by taking a look under the bonnet of today’s cutting-edge vehicle telematics. The state of the art On-Board Diagnostic (OBD-II) devices are the latest step-change in vehicle telematics. They plug discretely and covertly into the OBD-II port of the vehicle, and give fleet managers remote visibility of detailed information about each driver and vehicle. What sets O2 Smart Vehicle apart is its unique database of over 6,000 reverse-engineered engine diagnostic trouble codes. Combine this with extensive scope for in-car coaching and alerts, and you have a complete solution for both proactive and reactive driver and vehicle management. Now let’s look at four areas of fleet management you can dramatically improve with advanced vehicle telematics. 1. Ramp up productivity Long vehicle idling times and inefficient route planning reduce your fleet’s productivity and profitability. So use real-time insights and comprehensive visibility of your entire fleet to increase efficiency and maximise your profit margin. Advanced telematics help you complete jobs faster by deploying the most suitable vehicles and drivers. You can plan smarter shift patterns and complete more customer calls or drops on every round. And you can cut mileage reporting, idling times and expensive overtime claims. Solutions like O2 Smart Vehicle are proven to boost productivity by up to

12 per cent, and to reduce manpower costs by the same figure. 2. Drive down fuel costs Aggressive driving wastes huge amounts of fuel. It’s estimated that excessive acceleration and heavy braking can reduce fuel economy by up to 33 per cent for non-urban driving. By delivering alerts and coaching drivers in real time, you can work towards eradicating bad habits behind the wheel. Using O2 Smart Vehicle to promote better driving styles can help you save up to 14 per cent of your fleet’s fuel costs, and reduce MPG by between seven per cent and 14 per cent. 3. Take a proactive approach to maintenance Aggressive driving is a sure-fire way to cause excessive wear and tear on components, leading to unplanned downtime and unnecessary expenditure. The cost of unscheduled maintenance interruptions range from £310-£545 per day, not including repair costs. Remote vehicle monitoring and in-car coaching give you three ways to tackle this issue: Actively correct poor driving with real-time alerts, which will help prevent component damage; Remotely monitoring engine fault codes means you can take fast corrective action as soon as a problem emerges; Remote visibility of mileage makes it easy to maintain correct vehicle servicing intervals. O2 Smart Vehicle helps you implement predictive maintenance and keep your fleet on the road, while reducing maintenance and repair costs by up to 14 per cent.

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4. Improve vehicle and driver safety Think how much more quickly and divisively you could respond to an accident if you were alerted the instant it happened. Depending on the severity of the incident, you could immediately notify the emergency services, and start arranging vehicle and/or driver recovery. Not only that: with O2 Smart Vehicle, you can take proactive steps that drastically cut the risk of accidents. Real-time in-car coaching can help you reduce accidents by 45 per cent. The financial benefits of safer driving are significant too: like a 50 per cent reduction in accident pay-out costs and up to 25 per cent lower comprehensive insurance costs. O2 Smart Vehicle in action at Van Elle With its large fleet of vehicles, Van Elle needed a smarter way to maintain visibility of their people, vehicles and plants. They immediately recognised the potential in O2 Smart Vehicle, and realised how it could improve day-to-day efficiencies, while helping the business plan for growth and create new business opportunities. Van Elle has already achieved significant operational improvements. Real-time vehicle location means the nearest driver can be deployed to a job, to make the business more efficient. Remote, proactive monitoring ensures vehicles are better maintained. While detailed data on mileage and fuel use is reducing operational costs. The information also helps the company with its duty-of-care by making sure drivers are driving carefully and safely. Tom Lindup, group managing director of Van Elle said: “The O2 solution is unique. Other companies could do driver behaviour and tracking, but no one else could get that detailed information from on-board diagnostics about how vehicles are performing on a day-to-day basis.” !

*All data is sourced from Geotab’s 2016 white paper – ‘Increasing Profitability with Telematics’ O2 Smart Vehicle is built on market-leading Geotab technology. Geotab vehicle telematics devices are deployed in over 500,000 vehicles worldwide. FURTHER INFORMATION Like to know more? Why not get in touch on



GreenFleet Southampton Written by Andrea Pluck

GreenFleet Southampton offers EV insight With Southampton one of the cities due to implement a Clean Air Zone, GreenFleet hosted an event in the city on 8 June to share knowledge with local fleet managers on how they can lower emissions, as well as giving them the opportunity to test-drive electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles Southampton is one of six cities that was chosen to implement a Clean Air Zone (CAZ) in 2019 due to high levels of air pollution. This means that the most polluting vehicles such as HGVs, buses and taxis, will have to pay a penalty charge when operating in the zone. As a result of this, in November 2016, Southampton City Council released its Clean Air Strategy. This detailed measures to support the Clean Air Zone, three years ahead of the mandatory requirement on 2019/20. The council also plans to raise awareness of the CAZ prior to any penalty charging and advise those affected how they can improve their fleet emissions. The strategy also explains plans to combine the work of the Sustainable Transport project and its MyJourney branding with the CAZ to provide clarity on transport options. In partnership with Southampton City Council, on 8 June, GreenFleet hosted an event at Southampton’s St Mary’s Stadium, where fleet managers were able to learn from electric vehicle experts and test drive the latest zero and ultra low emission vehicles provided by a selection of manufacturers. Sponsored by leasing and mobility specialists Alphabet, the event opened

with an address from motoring journalist and TV presenter Quentin Willson – an EV enthusiast who also campaigns to encourage the uptake of low emission vehicles. Delegates later listened to presentations from Alphabet, Snows Motor Group, BMW/MINI, Nissan, amongst others. Presentations Southampton City Council’s Mitch Sanders outlined upcoming plans for the mandatory category B CAZ which is due to be implemented in 2019. He emphasised the importance of reducing NO2 levels which exceed the legal emissions limit in some areas of the city. Sanders said that the city is committed to becoming a “clean city where people can prosper” and as a result the council is committed to implementing additional supporting measures in addition to the CAZ. In order to assist with improving air quality, Sanders informed delegates that the council have won a bid for over £13 million in order to support its strategies. It was made apparent that the council plan to set up a clean air partnership in order to unite businesses and stakeholders into looking at how they can best tackle air quality issues. In addition, he outlined aims to tackle the challenges by helping local taxi companies.

In ship partner with City mpton Southa , GreenFleet l Counciampton was South at St Mary’s hosted dium on sta 8 June



He went on to highlight a partnership between Southampton City Council and Hampshire County Council in which they plan to implement a city-wide electric vehicle charging infrastructure. Low CVP’s Brian Robinson also took to the podium to discuss the current increase in the interest in petrol vehicles. He also talked about the latest electric vehicle registrations figures and announced plans to create a car label design scheme which will determine the range and fuel consumption of a vehicle. Robinson went on to discuss the general election, of which votes were being cast on the day. He stated that “the political momentum behind doing something about air quality is not going to go away” because it is an area of “popular public policy”. After the presentations delegates were sectioned off into groups where they were able to speak with exhibitors and have a look at different electric and PHEV models in order to better understand how electric vehicles work and the practicality of this type of vehicle when incorporated into a fleet. ElectrAssure were on hand to talk about the electric vehicle charging infrastructure, along with Alphabet, who were available to share its expertise on business travel and discuss its range of innovative mobility products. Quentin Willson also hosted a roundtable discussion with different groups to address any questions that people had regarding the practicalities of living with an electric vehicle and how they can be suitable for different fleets.

Roundtable discussion sessions addressed delegates’ concerns about EVs

Test drives Many of the delegates had admitted that they had never driven an electric vehicle and so were keen to get behind the wheels of a selection of EVs. Nissan’s e-NV200 Acenta Rapid Plus van was available on the day, a pure EV which combines the technology of

the Nissan’s Leaf with the practicality of the NV200 van. It is powered by 24kWh rechargeable lithium-ion battery pack. The electric LCV has a 4.2m3 cargo capacity and is capable of holding a 703kg payload, with a serviceable range of around 106 miles. In addition, Nissan also brought its Leaf, which now has a claimed range of

GreenFleet Southampton

Speakers included Mitch Sanders from Southampton City Council

155 miles – an increase of 25 per cent compared to its previous model. Also present was BMW’s i3 which has a pure electric range of 125 miles. The range-extender version, meanwhile, has a small petrol engine that drives a generator to maintain the level of battery and extend the range. What’s more, the new MINI Cooper S E Countryman PHEV was available for delegates to take a look at. It has an electric range of 26 miles for short-haul journeys, but, it has a combustion engine which takes the total range up to 310 miles in order to meet the demand of longer trips. It is easily charged at home using a plug-in socket at home. The Toyota Prius Plug-in, brought by Snows Motor Group, was among the other electric vehicles available to try. It has an average fuel consumption of up to 282mpg with a charging time of around two hours. It also has an EV range of up to 39 miles with a top speed in electric mode of 83mph. Other cars available were Toyota’s Yaris Hybrid, the Renault Kangoo ML20, and BMW’s F30 330E M Sport. ! FURTHER INFORMATION


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Telematics 800 WORDand EDIT Optimisation: HEADLINE Helping Fleets HERE Cut Emissions AS TIGHT and AvoidAS Road POSS Pricing UdaeMayor nonsend icidisquid quam elisimincim faceproaetnew et, Toxicity sed The of London, Sadiq Khan, has announced charge quodi blaborum aut ationse nosinto eumque or T-charge zone ut in molorem central London. Coming forcelaboribus on 23rd October, et quoditiat dolo qui de 4 volecab orerisqui nitibusdae nullacianti it will apply to pre-Euro vehicles – typically those diesel and petrol rest, sitiatis ut idembefore quodi 2006 consequat vehicles registered – withfacimagnime up to 10,000pernatemquae vehicles expected nimus earibus, tem ipsaest moluptatium es netlevy et every weekday to be potentially liable for the new emissions The T-charge, also known as the Emissions xoxoxoxo Surcharge, will run in addition to the Congestion and use the same FURTHERCharge INFORMATION operating hours (Monday to Friday 7am6pm). xxx This means that it will now cost £21.50 to drive a pre-Euro 4 vehicle in the zone. Moreover, the Transport Committee of the London Assembly issued a report demanding that charging zones are scrapped. It is calling instead for the introduction of intelligent road pricing that covers all congested areas in London, not just central London. Counting the Cost Whether or not the Assembly’s proposal wins out, one thing is certain - drivers will be increasingly billed for using London’s roads. There is a growing consensus that the authorities need to combat the capital’s dual challenges of clogged roads and polluted air, for both public health and economic reasons. The Transport Committee report found that congestion costs the London economy £5.5 billion a year. It also blamed the growing gridlock issue on the increased numbers of delivery vans and minicabs. Traffic congestion is pushing air pollution to dangerous levels in parts of the city, where it already causes almost 10,000 premature deaths each year. London First, UK Next? Air pollution kills an estimated 40,000 people a year in the UK – twice the mortality rate of the USA. English cities breaching air quality limits due to emissions from road traffic include Birmingham, Bristol, Derby, Leeds, Nottingham and Southampton. All of them are establishing Clean Air Zones, along with local authorities in Greater Manchester and South Gloucestershire. So it seems likely that we will see road pricing in many more urban centres, in order to combat air pollution. There is little clarity at present as to whether the Government will provide support like a diesel scrappage scheme to help fleets replace older, more polluting models with

cleaner, greener vehicles. This could mean that fleets are expected to shoulder the burden – however, there are also technologies that can provide some of the answers. Cutting Emissions Companies like Trakm8 provide a range of business vehicle tracking and fleet management solutions that can help fleets to reduce emissions. Driver performance analytics, also known as driver behaviour systems, can play a huge role. The driver is the single biggest impact on fuel consumption. In-cab or incar technology that coaches the driver, in real-time, can make a massive difference to emissions – in our experience it can reduce fuel consumption by up to 15%. Fleet scheduling software like Trakm8 Optimisation works in tandem with telematics and GPS tracking. It helps managers to efficiently plan the route of each vehicle and can easily be programmed to factor in avoiding road pricing areas such as the C-charge zone. Furthermore, the powerful algorithms behind scheduling software can help delivery van fleets to significantly increase vehicle utilisation. This means that you can often achieve the same number of deliveries in fewer vehicles, again substantially cutting emissions. Another benefit is that dynamic scheduling can also recalculate routes, in real-time, to help vehicles to avoid road closures or a street that is badly congested. Beat Road Pricing Vehicle telematics can also help keep your drivers from accidentally entering areas with road pricing, thanks to geofencing. This enables you to effectively block vehicles from entering the C-charge zone. Point of interest (POI) alerts let fleet managers and drivers know, in real time, if a vehicle is getting close to a charging zone, helping them avoid accidentally straying onto a road that lands you with an unwelcome invoice.

Air pollution kills an estimated 40,000 people a year in the UK – twice the mortality rate of the USA 42


Colin Ferguson

Colin Ferguson is the managing director of fleet and optimisation at Trakm8 – a leading provider of telematics, dash cam and route optimisation solutions. Switch to EVs For those fleets that have to enter the Clean Air Zones on a regular basis, the best bet could be investing in vehicles that are exempt from all fees. Leading optimisation providers can analyse fleets to identify which current vehicles and routes could be switched to electric vehicles (EVs), meaning that you can add greener vehicles with confidence that they can do the job. And once your EVs are deployed, optimisation software enables fleets to sweat these valuable assets, significantly increasing the return on investment. The issue of air pollution and road traffic emissions will dominate urban transport policies for years to come. Smart and savvy fleet managers can use telematics and associated technology like optimisation to stay ahead of the curve. ! FURTHER INFORMATION Tel: 0330 333 4124

The city of Leeds has been looking into different ways it can tackle air pollution after it was identified as one of six locations in England that would require a Clean Air Zone (CAZ) by 2020. This zone would mean that the most polluting vehicles such as HGVs, buses and taxis, will have to pay a penalty charge when in the CAZ in order to reduce air pollution significantly. In order to support the mandatory CAZ, Leeds City Council has implemented a number of changes. They have switched 70 of its fleet vehicles over to zero or ultra-low emissions electric vehicles and offered free parking to owners of ultra-low emission vehicles at all council-run car parks or on-street parking bays until at least March 2018. Leeds has also opened the £29m Cycle Superhighway, a cycle route linking Bradford and Leeds, encouraging commuters to cycle rather than drive to work. In addition to this, the council is currently planning the creation of an alternative fuel station, which would allow them to convert 180 fleet vans to Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), including 70 refuse collection trucks. In association with Leeds City Council, GreenFleet will host its event at Elland Road Stadium, where industry experts will present keynote presentations on the day, highlighting the city’s vision for a greener city, plus the latest on cars, vans, LGV/HGVs and charging grants. Speakers and exhibitors Talking on the day will be senior officials from the Office for Low Emission Vehicles (OLEV) who will be outlining the government’s plans to reduce emissions and improve air quality. The council’s City Enterprise Leeds will also be in attendance to discuss fleet management and training, along with CNG Fuels – an operator of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) refuelling infrastructure and provider of compressed biomethane (bio-CNG). Local organisations which

operate vehicles in and around the city will also have the opportunity to be shown how to run vehicles that are of an EV, PHEV or gas equivalent. A number of exhibitors will be on-hand to answer any questions regarding low emission vehicles, including the event’s headline sponsor, LeasePlanUK, which provides vehicle leasing solutions and green mobility solutions. The Phoenix Works will also be present to answer questions and provide advice regarding clean and energy saving technology. What’s more, commercial vehicle manufacturer Iveco will be available to answer questions and offer insight in regards to greener vans and trucks.. Test drives Brands such as LDV, BMW/MINI (from Stratstone Leeds), Iveco and Nissan will also be heading to Leeds to demonstrate its latest ultra-low and zero emission vehicles, along with offering the opportunity for delegates to take a model out for a test drive. The Nissan’s popular Leaf will be available for delegates to take for spin, which has a claimed range of 155 miles – an increase of 25 per cent compared to its previous model. Nissan is also the brand behind the

e-NV200, which combines the technology of Nissan’s Leaf with the practicality of the NV200 van. It is powered by a 24kWh rechargeable lithium-ion battery pack. The electric LCV has a 4.2m3 cargo capacity and is capable of holding a 703kg payload, with a serviceable range of 106 miles. BMW’s i3, which has a pure electric range of 125 miles, will also make an appearance. There is also a range-extender version which has a small petrol engine that drives a generator to maintain the level of battery and extend its range. Commercial vehicle manufacturer Iveco will also have its Stralis NP available to drive, which has recently completed a trip from Lands End to John O’Groats on one tank of fuel, as well as the Daily Natural Power van. Other electric and ultra-low emission vehicles will be available on the day to help delegates leave the event with a better understanding of the practicalities of running a greener fleet. !

Written by Andrea Pluck

On 13 July, GreenFleet is heading to Leeds to offer advice and share knowledge with fleet managers about how electric vehicles can lower fleet emissions and improve local air quality, ahead of the implementation of the Clean Air Zone


GreenFleet Leeds

GreenFleet Leeds to showcase EV capability



In associa with Le tion Counci eds City will hosl, GreenFleet tG Leeds a reenFleet Road S t Elland tad 13 July ium on 2017


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European Breakdown Cover for fleets, with full English-speaking operator service/ liaison. xoxoxoxo We can also issue VE103 documentation where driversINFORMATION wish to take their FURTHER company-owned or leased vehicles overseas. For business critical fleets such as emergency xxx service providers, utility companies, cashcarrying vehicles and military vehicles, the AA providers tailored incident management. We also offer bespoke Management Information, including live online access to real-time breakdown incidents for all of our larger fleet customers. Our tailored approach to breakdown provision for larger customers means that we can offer onward billing, for example, enabling vehicles rental companies to charge their customers for driver induced faults we have attended (lost keys, misfuelling etc). Smaller fleets benefit from a range of breakdown packages comprising roadside, recovery and onward travel options as well as whole fleet cover in Europe and Breakdown Repair Cover – with specific services for specialist vehicles and minibuses. All fleet breakdown packages are available for online purchase and some aspects of account management 24 hours a day. For specific motor manufacturer customers, the AA employs dedicated technicians with the same on-board diagnostics and tools that would be available at a manufacturer’s main dealer network, leading to better roadside repair rate and higher customer satisfaction. Alongside our core breakdown provision, the AA also provides a wealth of additional services both relevant and specific to fleets. Supporting the roadside operation are our mobile fleets providing glass repair and replacement, fuel retrieval, key replacement (including cutting and programming of electronic keys and erasing of the missing/ broken keys) and battery replacement. Our comprehensive Accident Management service includes driver rehabilitation as well as vehicle recovery and repair. Via AA DriveTech, we provide a full range of Driver Training Services and Risk Management Solutions The AA’s 100+ years of motoring heritage enables us to support our fleet customers wherever possible with technical advice for their drivers (for example summer/ winter driving tips, vehicle maintenance checks

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As a fully rounded fleet supplier and operator one of the UK’s largest operational fleets, the AA understands what is required to help customers keep their fleets running efficiently and effectively. Stuart Thomas explains how Udae nonsend icidisquid quam elisimincim facepro et et, sed quodi blaborum ut molorem aut ationse nosvehicle eumque laboribus The AA offers Roadside Assistance to vehicles and essential model information Stuart Thomas ranging from motorbikes to HGVs of for user/ choosers) as well asnullacianti support at et quoditiat doloright quiupde volecab orerisqui nitibusdae 44T GVW and for fleet sizes from one single fleet roadshows and head offices where rest, sitiatis ut idem quodi consequat facimagnime pernatemquae vehicle to hundreds of thousands. Cover is the AA can undertake windscreen chip nimus nationwide earibus,and tem moluptatium eschecks net et 24/7/365 the ipsaest AA also provides checks, tyre and basic vehicle maintenance demonstrations. As part of the AA’s commitment to supporting the whole life cycle of a fleet vehicle, we also provide Vehicle Inspections both at point of purchase and end-of-life, helping to raise standards of independent garage networks and to maximise residual values. Finally, the AA’s broad range of fleet services also cover options for fuel cards, telematics and fleet insurance.

Investing in Innovation The AA’s award-winning breakdown app includes our route planner and traffic data, as well as vehicle reminders for MOT, tax, insurance and service dates. And we’ve added enhanced features for all AA members – including fuel prices, our parking-space finder and dashboard warning lights information. The app has already been downloaded by millions of personal members and all of this member functionality will soon be available for our fleet customers. Most excitingly, the launch of the app for our fleet customers will give their drivers access to the AA’s Rescue Tracker, allowing roadside incidents to be reported and monitored via the app, with real-time patrol tracking and no need to call. GPS technology pinpoints the breakdown location accurately and assists in swift dispatch of an appropriate resource. In recent years we have launched and expanded our garage and vehicle inspections services, growing our existing account with BCA and winning the major Motor Codes business. This means that we are able to work closely with the SMMT, dealer networks and other major bodies to enhance the quality of service drivers receive at garages whether they are a franchised dealer or an independent garage. Our inspections cover areas such as quality of work carried out; staff training; charges for work; health and safety; equipment and its safe use; customer facilities; appearance of premises and staff. Garages which meet our strict criteria and pass the inspection are able to display the joint Motor Codes and AA certification, thereby giving customers and fleets the reassurance of our trusted brand and the quality they will receive. Garages which do not meet the criteria

Stuart Thomas, head of fleet and SME – The AA are given detailed guidance and advice on how to improve so that when we make our follow-up inspection they can ensure they meet and maintain the required standards. Prioritising partnership We have worked with some of our partner organisations to develop exclusive, innovative deals for SME customers, enabling them to benefit from our larger business relationships. We have also set up exclusive offers for SME customers using AA Fleet Intelligence and also competitive driver licence checking services through IDS – both services which would normally be more commercially advantageous towards larger fleets. As a fully rounded fleet supplier and operator one of the UK’s largest operational fleets, the AA is best-placed to provide everything required to help customers keep their fleets running efficiently and effectively. The AA’s many relationships with motor manufacturers enables us continuously to improve our roadside repair capability. This is enhanced via tailored MI, enhanced tooling and equipment, patrol training and specialist services for driver-induced issues. We pride ourselves on focusing what is appropriate to the driver/ customer and recognising that one size does not fit all. ! FURTHER INFORMATION Tel: 0800 551188



First Drive Written by Richard Gooding


There’s t b no dou e that th city, apa larger-c , 41kWh le 250-mi ry boosts batte oe’s the Z l appea

Renault Zoe Dynamique R90 Z.E. 40 The Renault Zoe is the most popular electric vehicle in Europe, and a new version with a larger-capacity 41kWh battery is now available. Richard Gooding finds out what other benefits the revised Zoe has, aside from a longer 250-mile range Renault Zoe Dynamique R90 Z.E. 40 ENGINE:

68kW/92bhp synchronous electric motor, 41kWh lithium-ion battery


250 miles








£17,845 (inc VAT, after PiCG, battery rental from £59 per month)

What is it? The Renault Zoe has, unbelievably, been with us for half a decade. Much smaller and more premium than the company’s first all-electric offering, the Fluence saloon, the Zoe encapsulated a new train of electric car thought by the French manufacturer. With more cutting-edge technology and stylish looks designed to appeal to fashion-conscious urbanites, the Zoe was also an attractive fleet proposition thanks to its promise of low running costs. With an official range of 130 miles on its 2012 launch from its 22kWh lithium-ion battery and 65kW electric motor, the Zoe’s small car footprint made city centre e-mobility more appealing. Even though real-world range was between 62-93 miles, with a


starting price of £13,995, the Zoe opened up the world of electric cars to many drivers who wouldn’t have considered one before. Available until 2015 solely with a battery lease, an outright purchase option was added that year, along with a new ‘R240’ motor which increased the official range to 149 miles. Towards the end of 2016, the 41kWh Z.E. 40 battery-powered Zoe was launched, and it’s that car we have on test here. With an increased range of 250 miles on the NEDC cycle, drivers can expect around 186 miles in the real world from the R90 ‘Rapid Charge’ car. The 22kWh Zoe is still on sale alongside the new 41kWh model, though, meaning there are now two ways of getting into one of the most affordable new electric cars on the market. A ‘Quick Charge’ Q90 version of the 41kWh battery is also available for those drivers who favour charging speed out in the real world of public charging networks. How does it drive? As with the previous versions of Renault’s

First Drive

Z.E. apps: added user-friendliness Available later this year, the new ‘Z.E Trip’ and ‘Z.E Pass’ connected services will make the Zoe even more user-friendly. Renault’s patented ChameleonTM charger takes current from 3kW to 43kW, which makes topping up easier

all-electric supermini (GreenFleet issue 66), the Z.E. 40 is completely ‘normal’ to drive and that’s not a criticism. The original Zoe was so like an internal combustion-engined car to drive, there was no need for massive adjustments in driving style and it’s the same story here. Light steering make the car easy to thread through the urban sprawl, but the electric powertrain’s refinement and new longer range cope well when it’s called on to stretch its legs. The 92bhp/68kW motor bestows the little Renault with a decent turn of speed, and its agile handling offer somes driving pleasure. A non-adjustable effective regenerative braking system captures energy which would otherwise be lost under deceleration, with the lack of adjustability and differing modes of severity just adds to the Zoe’s ease of use. New interior materials and trims smarten up the cabin, with the biggest change being the use of darker materials: much more practical. What range does it have? The Renault Zoe Dynamique R90 Z.E. 40 has a quoted range of 250 miles (around 400km) on the official NEDC cycle. In ‘real-world’ and urban ‘summer’ conditions, Renault expects this to drop to around 186 miles, but that’s still impressively the longest of any ‘mainstream’ (and by that we mean non-Tesla) electric vehicle. Range in colder conditions is expected to be 124 miles. For comparison, the R90 22kWh car’s range is quoted as an official 149 miles, dropping to 106 and 71 in temperate and winter conditions respectively. The ‘Quick Charge’ Q90 model has an official quoted range of 230 miles. Renault’s Range ‘OptimiZEr’ technology features new-generation regenerative braking technology, as well as a heat pump which reduces power demand for heating when on the move, and Michelin Energy E-V tyres: the French manufacturer claims that all these features can help boost available range by almost 25 per cent. How long does it take to charge? Just as with the previous versions of the Zoe, the new car is equipped with Renault’s patented ChameleonTM on-board charger, with allows the French company’s EV to be charged using different power levels through the same socket, from 3kW to 43kW. All charges take place through the socket behind the front Renault badge, and a warning light blinks to indicate charging is underway, staying lit when the charge is complete. The 22kWh ‘R90’ car takes 8-9 hours to charge from a 16A/3kW domestic supply, dropping to 3-4 hours with a 32A/7kW

Darker cabin materials aid practicality

home wallbox/public charging connection. Charge to 80 per cent takes 1 hour 45 minutes when attached to a 32A/22kW connection, which decreases to 60 minutes on a 43kW supply. For the 41kWh R90 model, Renault quotes times of 15, 7.5, 2 hours 40 minutes, and 1 hour 45 minutes to 80 per cent for the same power sources. The ‘Quick Charge’ models with the 41kWh battery shared with the 41kWh R90 cars and ‘Q90’ motor can be charged in 15.5 hours from a 3kW supply, 8.5 hours from a 22kW source, and 2h 40 minutes when attached to a 22kW charger. Charge to 80 per cent when power is drawn from a 43kW supply takes just 65 minutes. Zoe drivers can monitor both battery charging and vehicle range remotely from a smartphone, tablet or computer using Renault’s ‘Z.E. Connect’ or ‘Z.E. Inter@ active’ systems. The car’s on-board seveninch colour touchscreen ‘R-Link’ system informs of charge point locations, and an interactive charge point map also features on the Renault website. Similarly to our current favourite, it also shows details of compatibility. For home-charging, a Chargemaster 7kW Homecharger is offered by Renault. Two new charging apps – ‘Z.E. Trip’ and ‘Z.E. Pass’ – apps will available later this year (see panel). What does it cost? If, like 90 per cent of Zoe drives, you buy with a battery lease, the Zoe range starts not far off the same price point it did on its arrival in the UK four years ago. After the Government’s Plug-in Car Grant (PiCG) has been deducted, 22kWh battery Expression Nav R90 models begin at £14,245. The Dynamique R90 Z.E. 40 with the larger 41kWh battery is £18,170 with the same deductions and leasing plan, while the Signature Nav R90 Z.E. 40 is another £2,250 on top of that. Battery leasing costs start at £59 with an annual mileage cap of 4,500 miles (the minimum available term), and increases by £10 in 1,500-mile increments, finishing at £99 with a 10,500-mile limit. The smaller battery 22kWh car meanwhile, is £10 cheaper in every mileage instance. If you cover even greater distances, excess mileage is priced at 8p per mile. If you’d like to own your Zoe outright and not pay any leasing costs, the ‘Zoe i’ range starts at £19,845 for the Expression Nav R90, rising to £23,770 for the Dynamique R90 Z.E. 40, topping out at the £26,020 Signature Nav Z.E. 40, once all PiCG deductions and ‘on-the-road’ costs have been taken into account. All versions of the

Z.E. Trip allows drivers to locate all public charging stations in many European countries and can be accessed by the car’s R-Link navigation system, or via the internet for advance journey preparation. Z.E. Trip also indicates the availability of each charge point in real-time, as well as its type and compatibility. Drivers can then select a point based on its charging capacity, with the right speed to suit their requirements. The Z.E. Pass app makes charging easier at most public charging points in Europe, even though they are owned by a plethora of operators. Drivers can pay using the smartphone app or with a singular RFID badge. Available charging points and price comparisons can also be selected on both a smartphone or tablet app. No registration on each network is needed. Zoe are covered by Renault’s ‘4+’ warranty and roadside assistance package which envelop the car for four years of 100,000 miles (unlimited in the first two years). How much does it cost to tax? As all Zoes are zero-emission cars, they slot into the lowest Vehicle Excise Duty (VED) band possible. This means they cost nothing to tax in the first year, and subsequent years thereafter at current rates. The Benefit in Kind rate for the whole Zoe range is 9 per cent for 2017-2018, and 13 per cent from 2018-2019. This rises to 16 per cent in 2019-2020. Why does my fleet need one? The Zoe has enjoyed tremendous sales success, with the 50,000th car produced in April 2016. The best-selling and most popular EV in Europe in 2015, Renault has wisely not tinkered much with its popular all-electric model. Just as with the original model, the Zoe Z.E. 40 drives just like a ‘normal’ internal combustion-engined small car, with very little adjustment needed. Stylish, comfortable, and now with that much longer and eminently more practical range, there are very few downsides to the 41kWh Zoe. There’s no doubt that the larger capacity battery makes longer and more expensive electric vehicle range more affordable, and the new refinements and battery capacity increase have only further spotlighted the small electric Renault’s appeal, which was nowhere near dimming just yet. ! FURTHER INFORMATION



Road Test


Toyota RAV4 Hybrid Excel AWD 2.5L CVT TSS

Written by Richard Gooding

On-paper, Toyota’s high-riding RAV 4 SUV now offers potential fuel and cost-saving benefits of a hybrid powertrain for the first time. How does it measure up in the real-world? Richard Gooding reports

What is it? Once a very small market, the crossover and SUV segment has boomed in recent years. The Toyota RAV4 was arguably one of the first when it was launched in 1994, and that first-generation car spurred on a host of rivals. Offering high-riding and practical style, it was a genuinely different proposition to the similar-sized hatchbacks of the period. Now in its fourth generation, the RAV4 has become a staple of the SUV segment. Myriad engine and front-wheel or four-wheel-drive combinations are available: the model tested here is the Hybrid version, one of the very few alternatively-fuelled models in its class. Launched last year, the RAV4 Hybrid is the first time the Japanese company’s petrol-electric powertrain has been added to Toyota’s 6m-selling SUV. How does it drive? The latest RAV4 takes on Toyota’s latest styling cues, its pinched front and rear


styling most echoing the latest Prius. It’s the sharpest-looking RAV4 for a couple of generations, our high-specification test car helped by its £795 white pearlescent paint finish, standard roof rails, 18-inch alloy wheels and rear privacy glass. Inside, the leather-like finish on the lower parts of the dashboard lend a quality feel, while the 7.0-inch colour touchscreen infotainment system usefully shows all sort of economy and powertrain information. Upgraded to Toyota’s Touch® 2 with Go navigation system with enhanced multimedia, voice recognition, text to speech and 3D mapping functionality on Excel models, the system still lacks behind the class best in terms of interface and usability, but it is responsive and comprehensive. Most functions are also displayed in the 4.2-inch colour TFT screen which is nestled in the instrument cluster ahead of the driver. The RAV4’s full hybrid system combines a Lexus-derived 150bhp 2.5-litre Atkinson cycle petrol engine with two electric motors (105kW at the front, 50kW at the rear) and Toyota’s ‘E-Four’ four-wheel drive system – front-wheel


drive versions of the RAV4 Hybrid do with just one motor. There’s a 204-cell nickel metal-hydride battery, too, mounted under the rear seats. Combined system output is 195bhp, with maximum torque of 206Nm/151lb ft is developed from 4,400-4,800rpm. The most powerful RAV4 ever, Toyota quotes a 0-62mph time of 8.4 seconds for the RAV4 Hybrid, but in reality, the car rarely feels that quick. Three driving modes – ‘Eco’, ‘EV’ and ‘Sport’ lets you control the way the car is driven, and it’s only when in ‘Sport’, the RAV4 Hybrid gives off a serious feeling of speed. Although at odds with the nature of a economy-minded hybrid, this mode is also recommended for mountainous or challenging terrain driving, in a similar way that the Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV uses its ‘Charge’ function to assist the petrol engine. However, most buyers don’t buy a hybrid for speed, and let the RAV4 do its standard hybrid thing, and it’s an accomplished enough machine. ‘Eco’ mode decides when the electric part of the powertrain is used and is the mode we mostly drove the car in. Toyota states that the hybrid powertrain is engineered to eliminate the need for the petrol engine as much as possible when driving in urban areas. As such, there’s no pure EV mode over 30mph, though, and it can be quite tricky to not let the petrol engine come into play at low speeds.


2,494cc, four-cylinder petrol with 150kW / 50kW electric motors and nickel metal-hydride battery

CO2 /NOx:

118g/km / 7mg/km

MPG (combined):





£150 (first-year rate)


22% £33,975 (including VAT, £35,520 as tested)

As with the engine in the Auris, the 2,494cc unit kicks in far too easily, with the CVT automatic gearbox making its presence felt through increased and sustained engine noise. The gearbox’s ‘S’ mode does let you change gears in a similar way to a Tiptronic, and at speed, the RAV4 Hybrid is very, very quiet, and has none of the engine gruffness which usually affects diesel-engined SUVs. At higher speeds the electric motors work in conjunction with the petrol engine, to help save fuel. A regenerative braking function restores battery charge, but it’s not as severe in a ‘mild hybrid’ like the RAV4 as it is in a plug-in hybrid or pure electric vehicle. Like the Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV, the RAV4’s ‘rev counter’ is divided into ‘Charge’, ‘Eco’ and ‘Power’ sections. The brakes are very sharp but the RAV4 Hybrid enjoys a very comfortable ride. The steering is light, too, which is perfect around the urban environments most will see, and it lends the car an agile feel. How economical is it? Toyota quotes a combined cycle figure of 55.4mpg for the RAV4 Excel Hybrid.

Over a week-long test of 343 miles, we achieved a more disappointing average of 39.8mpg over a mixed-route use, and recorded a highest value of 46.5mpg. What does it cost? At £33,975, the RAV4 Excel Hybrid is the range-topping version of Toyota’s SUV. The range starts with the £24,765 front-wheel drive Active, powered by a 2.0-litre D-4D diesel engine. Business Edition Plus models start at £27,290, while the cheapest hybrid version of the RAV4, the Business Edition Plus Hybrid, starts from £29,080. This does without the four-wheel drive powertrain of the more expensive Excel, but is 3g/km cleaner, no doubt thanks to its simpler drive configuration. The first RAV4 Hybrid model which gets four-wheel drive is the £33,275 Icon. Diesel versions of the Toyota SUV come with six-speed manual gearboxes, but the hybrid and 2.0-litre petrol models are CVT-automatic only. Excel models come very well-equipped with automatic LED headlights, wipers and rear-view mirror, DAB radio, dual-zone climate control, heated front seats, keyless entry and push-button start, as well as leather upholstery. Safety is high on the agenda, too, with hill start, traction control and vehicle stability systems fitted as standard. Our test car also came with the optional £1,060 Toyota Safety Sense package comprising of adaptive cruise control, automatic high beam, lane keep assist, pre-collision and pedestrian protection, and road sign assist systems. Practicality is aided by a powered tailgate, and even with the hybrid powertrain packaging, only 50 litres of boot space is lost over diesel-powered RAV4s. For comparison, the Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV which also features an electric motor allied to a petrol engine, is priced from £34,249 before the £2,500

Government’s Plug-in Car Grant (PiCG) is subtracted. While the two differ very slightly in size, the Outlander is also a full plug-in vehicle, whereas the Toyota is what is termed a ‘mild-hybrid’.

Road Test

Toyota RAV4 Hybrid Excel AWD 2.5L CVT TSS

How much does it cost to tax? With emissions of 118g/km, the RAV4 Excel Hybrid pollutes less than nearly all its fossil-fuelled rivals, but it’s not as clean as the 41g/km Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV. First-year rate Vehicle Excise Duty (VED) for the Toyota SUV costs £150 under the new VED rates which came into force in April 2017, and attracts a rate of £130 thereafter. Benefit in Kind is 22 per cent for 2017/2018. The slightly cleaner but less well-equipped 115g/km RAV4 Business Edition Plus Hybrid shares the more expensive Excel’s taxation costs. Why does my fleet need one? Toyota has plans to shift around 50 per cent of its UK buyers into hybrids by 2020, and the petrol-electric RAV4 is a worthy addition to the Japanese company’s alternatively-fuelled range. With very few alternatively-fuelled competitors, the RAV4 Hybrid has few peers in its segment. A high-specification and comprehensive kit list aims to entice buyers, along with Toyota’s standard five-year/100,000-mile pan-European mechanical warranty. The advantages of a more refined petrol-electric powertrain combined with on-paper economy almost on a par with its diesel siblings may also prove compelling to those who are looking past diesel for both fuel and emissions savings. ! FURTHER INFORMATION

RAV4 EV: the crossover crossover Leather-like materials add a premium feel to the well-specced cabin

Seven-inch colour touchscreen shows eco read-outs and information

While the fourth-generation RAV4 is the first to receive Toyota’s full hybrid powertrain, it’s not the first version of the Japanese SUV to feature electric power. The RAV4 EV of 1994 featured a permanent magnet electric motor in outputs of 45 or 50kW, while a theoretical range of 124 miles was mooted. Built until 2003 for fleet lease, this zero-emission RAV4 model was only offered for small-scale public sale in California. A 60,000-mile warranty was standard for its NiMh battery pack.

The RAV4 Hybrid is the first petrol-electric version of the Toyota SUV



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GreenFleet 104  

The Only Fleet Publication Dedicated to Promoting a Cleaner Environment

GreenFleet 104  

The Only Fleet Publication Dedicated to Promoting a Cleaner Environment