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THE TERRORIST THREAT IN EUROPE As premier media partner to the Security & Counter Terror Expo, we talk to Rob Wainwright about Europol and tracking extremists in Europe COUNTER TERROR AWARDS


A look ahead to the inaugural Counter Terror Awards

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THE TERRORIST THREAT IN EUROPE As premier media partner to the Security & Counter Terror Expo, we talk to Rob Wainwright about Europol and tracking extremists in Europe COUNTER TERROR AWARDS


A look ahead to the inaugural Counter Terror Awards

CONTRIBUTIONS TO COUNTER TERRORISM At the time of print, we are less than a month away from the 2018 iteration of the Security & Counter Terror Expo, which returns to Olympia on 6 March. As well as an invaluable line up of expert speakers, an exhibition of the latest innovations to counter the growing threat of terrorism and a conference agenda which promises to tackle the biggest challenges facing security services, this year also includes the first ever Counter Terror Awards. Organised alongside the Security & Counter Terror Expo, the awards take place on 6 March and will recognise the strategies, procedural excellence and technologies which help to mitigate the threats from terrorism. With a large number of entries received, the shortlist across the ten categories will soon be announced, including the first-ever Outstanding Contribution to Counter Terrorism Award. Read more about the awards on page 29, and be sure to look out for Counter Terror Business magazine on stand A50 at the expo. In relation to the expo, don’t miss our interview with Europol’s Rob Wainwright on page 33, where we discuss the threat of terrorism in Europe after the attacks of 2017, UK security in a post-Brexit world and the future of threat intelligence in detecting and defeating terrorism.

Follow and interact with us on Twitter: @CTBNews

We look forward to seeing you at the Expo! Michael Lyons, editor

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226 High Rd, Loughton, Essex IG10 1ET. Tel: 020 8532 0055 Fax: 020 8532 0066 Web: EDITOR Michael Lyons PRODUCTION EDITOR Richard Gooding PRODUCTION DESIGN Jo Golding PRODUCTION CONTROL Ella Sawtell WEB PRODUCTION Victoria Casey ADVERTISEMENT SALES Harry Harris, Victor Falade BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT MANAGER Martin Freedman ADMINISTRATION Vickie Hopkins PUBLICATIONS SUPERVISOR Jake Deadman REPRODUCTION & PRINT Argent Media

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CONTENTS CTB 33 12 PANEL OF EXPERTS With the help of our first Panel of Experts, Counter Terror Business takes a looks at the stability and flexibility of mission critical communications and how organisations can ensure that mission critical communications remain secure and ‘hack proof’

16 COMMUNICATIONS In this day and age, one of the most important tools against the terrorist threat is our technology. Ian Thompson, chief executive of British APCO, explains why and looks ahead to the association’s annual conference in March

21 CYBER SECURITY With technology now prevalent in all areas of life, security of devices should be encouraged in the same way as physical security. Hannah Khoo, business engagement officer at London Digital Security Centre, explains why

25 SECURITY & COUNTER TERROR EXPO Security professionals will gather to help tackle the growing threat facing nations at the Security & Counter Terror Expo. Here, we look ahead to the show, the first ever Counter Terror Awards and talk to Europol’s Rob Wainwright

47 SECURITY Security officials and government authorities must learn from the attacks in 2017 to make 2018 a more secure year. Gavin Hepburn, director at ATG Access, describes the importance of ensuring the public is kept safe during the UK’s Chinese New Year celebrations

51 PERIMETER SECURITY Since the 2016 Nice lorry attack, there have been similar attacks in Berlin, London and Barcelona. Simon Towers, chairman of the Perimeter Security Suppliers Association, examines how perimeter security products can aid against the threat

63 TERRORISM RESPONSE The UK’s policing lead for protective security, Deputy Assistant Commissioner Lucy D’Orsi, has called for private companies and the commercial sector to buy-in to a ‘Protect Duty’ and work with police and partners to help to keep the public safe in their response to terrorism

69 PHYSICAL SECURITY James Kelly, chief executive of the British Security Industry Association, discusses the importance of having a physical security presence across the UK’s national infrastructure to ensure that, in the event of an unforeseen attack, there is a basic level of physical defence at all times

72 PREVENT SCHEME At the end of 2017, both Prime Minister Theresa May and Greater Manchester Mayor Andy Burnham made significant interventions in the debate on counter extremism. In this article, Bob Hindle, of the University of Manchester, explains why a new Prevent strategy is needed

Counter Terror Business magazine // ISSUE 33 | COUNTER TERROR BUSINESS MAGAZINE




New group to lobby anti-terror policies

Religious extremists ‘perverting education’

Survivors of UK terrorist attacks have launched a new group to lobby the government over its anti-terror policies and gain greater support for its victims. Also including bereaved relatives, Survivors Against Terror will campaign for more effective measures against terrorism and aims to tackle the ‘hate speech that drives terror’, especially on social media. The group also argues that communities need to be better integrated and more inclusive and will campaign for stronger support for the police and security services. Among the members is Brendan Cox, whose wife Jo Cox was murdered by a far-right extremist on her way to meet constituents in her Parliamentary constituency of Batley and Spen, West Yorkshire, Charlotte Dixon-Sutcliffe, whose husband was killed in the Brussels metro bombing, and Travis Frain, who was hit by

the car that targeted pedestrians on Westminster Bridge last year. The group said: “Terrorism is not new, but still causes pain and anguish. Our country has taken on and defeated bigger threats in the past, and we know if we work together and look after those bereaved or injured, we can and will defeat this. Our collective view is that terrorism can be defeated – but only if we pull together as a country to fight it more effectively. We will work to build a voice for survivors.” Meanwhile, Prime Minister Theresa May has announced new funding that means the total government support for Greater Manchester following the Manchester Arena terror attack will now be over £24 million. The latest funding covers £4.1 million commitment for all NHS acute costs and the North West Ambulance Service, and over £2 million for mental health support.

At a the Church of England conference, Ofsted chief inspector Amanda Spielman said that religious extremists are using schools to narrow children’s horizons and ‘pervert education’. Spielman warned that Ofsted inspectors are increasingly coming into contact with such extremists and has warned head teachers to confront those who foster extremist behaviour and plan to use schools to ‘indoctrinate impressionable minds’. Spielman commented: “Rather than adopting a passive liberalism that says anything goes, for fear of causing offence, schools leaders should be promoting a muscular liberalism. That sort of liberalism holds no truck for ideologies that seek to close minds or narrow opportunity. Occasionally that will mean taking uncomfortable decisions or having tough conversations. “Under the pretext of religious belief, they use education institutions, legal and illegal, to narrow young people’s horizons, to isolate and segregate, and in the worst cases to indoctrinate impressionable minds with extremist ideology.”



Sara Khan to lead new counter extremism body READ MORE


£54m funding hole makes tackling terrorism harder The Commissioner of the Metropolitan has said that the UK’s fight against terrorism will be more difficult as a result of a potential £54 million gap in funding. Counter terrorism police bosses applied for a rise of £104 million in 2018/19, but reports suggest that they will receive an increase of £50 million. Although she would not directly discuss the leaked reports, Cressida Dick told LBC Radio that the ‘threat has gone up’ and that there is ‘an enormous amount of work to do’. She said: “If we got very, very, very much less than we asked for it makes it harder, of course it makes it harder. But

the government have their job to do and I respect that, and my colleagues respect it as well. There may well be room for us in the coming months to put in a further bid and that is absolutely what we will be doing if there is that room to do so. Meanwhile we have got some extra resources and we are building up the capability of the [counter] terrorist teams.”


The Home Office has announced that campaigner and charity leader Sara Khan has become the new lead commissioner for Countering Extremism. The role, which runs for three years, has a clear remit to support the government, the public sector, civil and wider society to identify and challenge all forms of extremism. Khan will be expected to provide the government with impartial, external advice on the tools, policies and approaches needed to tackle extremism, as well as support the public sector, communities and civil society to confront extremism wherever it exists. However, Khan, who has promised ‘zero tolerance to those who promote hate’, has faced instant criticism, with anti-Islamophobia campaign MEND saying her appointment ‘will further damage relations between the government and Muslim communities’, with Khan seen as the ‘mouthpiece’ for government ministers.






Major cyber attack on UK a matter of ‘when, not if’

FORS launches security and counter terrorism training

The head of the National Cyber Security Centre has warned that a major cyber attack on the UK is a case of ‘when, not if’. Speaking to the Guardian, Ciaran Martin said that the UK had been fortunate to avoid a so-called category one (C1) attack, broadly defined as an attack that might cripple infrastructure such as energy supplies and the financial services sector. However, he also said that he anticipated such an attack in the next two years. Through to December last year, the National Cyber Security Centre recorded 34 C2 attacks, with WannaCry the most disruptive of these, and 762 slightly less serious C3 ones. The most serious cyber attack on the UK so far has been the WannaCry ransomware attack in

May 2017, classified as only C2 rather than C1, that disrupted hospitals.



Social media giants need to do more to tackle terrorism Prime Minister Theresa May used a recent speech to business leaders to urge shareholders to pressure social media giants to do more to tackle terrorism. At the World Economic Forum, May called for more action from tech companies to identify and remove extremist content and say investors have a responsibility to pressure them to make improvements. Progress has been made, with firms identifying and taking down extremist content more quickly, but more action needs to be taken, May said. She commented: “Just as big

companies need to step up, so we also need cross-industry responses because smaller platforms can quickly become home to criminals and terrorists. We have seen that happen with Telegram. And we need to see more co-operation from smaller platforms like this. No one wants to be known as ‘the terrorists’ platform’ or the first choice app for paedophiles.”



UK fascists obsessed with terror The Guardian has reported that fascist extremists in Britain, influenced by Islamist terrorism, are prepared to murder and commit acts of terror. The Hope Not Hate campaign group said that UK groups such as National Action now espouse a violent extremism influenced by the Islamist terrorism they purport to oppose, modelling themselves on jihad. Hope Not Hate, founded in 2004, says that the police and security services had little understanding of the nature of National Action and related groups.


Following a disturbing increase in the use of commercial vehicles in terrorist-related incidents, the Fleet Operator Recognition Scheme has launched a new security and counter terrorism online training resource. Delivered through the dedicated FORS Professional training programme, the module aims to better focus a driver’s attention to vehicle security and the potential threat of terrorism, including the use of vehicles as weapons. Although primarily targeting van and truck drivers, FORS is also encouraging managers and other transport professionals to undertake this potentially life-saving learning tool. Wayne Watling, Counter Terror Focus Desk, Metropolitan Police Road and Transport Policing Command, said: “The threat to the UK from terrorism is high and it is important that drivers and operators report anything suspicious to the police as soon as possible. I was keen to be involved in the development of this important security and counter-terrorism eLearning module, as the knowledge gained will help drivers and operators ‘do their bit’.”



Volunteers to be recruited as counter terror officers Volunteer police officers are to be recruited to work alongside counter terrorism specialists to fight radicalisation and recruitment. According to the Mail on Sunday, the counter terror special constables will assist with investigations into major incidents, and will work with the Prevent scheme which stops people becoming radicalised online. Documents state that the project will examine a ‘previously unexplored area of specialism for special constables and potentially longer term for volunteers with powers’. If the scheme is a success, the number of volunteers recruited to the scheme could increase. But the move to introduce 20 special constables to Scotland Yard’s elite SO15 unit has led to accusations of ‘policing on the cheap’ by critics who say unpaid workers should not replace specialist officers.






6-7 March 2018, Olympia, London Security & Counter Terror Expo (part of UK Security Week) is the UK’s leading national security event. It is a world-class showcase of the capabilities, strategies and intelligence to keep nations, infrastructure, business and people safe. The event brings together over 10,000 senior professionals from government, private sector, critical national infrastructure, military, law enforcement, transport security, border security, security services, major events and emergency services. As the flagship event of UK Security Week, Security & Counter Terror Expo (SCTX) will feature over 350 exhibitors and an expansive educational programme that will deliver unrivalled insight into current issues and how to combat new challenges. 10 free-to-attend conference streams will cover border security, the cyber-threat, protecting national infrastructure, policing, major events security and security design.


6 March 2018, Olympia, London The tragic and despicable terrorist events of the early 21st century have forced the international community to act. Increasingly sophisticated strategies and technologies are being employed by organisations throughout the world in order to counter the threat. The Counter Terror Awards will be staged to recognise the efforts of organisations in both the public and private sectors and their contributions to counter terror strategy in the UK and overseas, as well as the vital role played by the military and emergency services in mitigating terrorist threats and striving to keep the public safe. The Counter Terror Awards will take place for the first time on 6 March 2018, in association with the Security and Counter Terror Expo.



6-8 March 2018, Farnborough This official Home Office event is a world-class opportunity to meet, network and discuss the latest advances in delivering national security and resilience with UK suppliers, colleagues and government officials. The event brings together visitors who have specific operational needs with exhibitors who have the relevant solutions, all within a secure environment. The unique three-day event also incorporates live demonstrations and immersive experiences providing the ideal setting for testing and collaborative showcasing.

UNDERWATER DEFENCE & SECURITY 20-22 March 2018, Portsmouth

Underwater Defence & Security, chaired by Rear Admiral Robert Tarrant CB, Former Commander Operations, Royal Navy, returns for its sixth year to Portsmouth, welcoming an international audience of submariners, MCM and ASW operators, Ship Captains, pilots, R&D organisations, procurement teams, academia and industry to discuss the key issues affecting this community.


20-22 March, Madrid The international border security community gathers to discuss the latest issues, challenges and solutions facing the industry. The past few years has seen unprecedented crisis on a global scale, from the Middle East warring factions creating mass refugee movements across Europe, illegal economic migrants from Africa and Asia have created increasing challenges for the international border management and security community. As the global migration crisis continues, the challenges faced by the global border management community show little sign of abating. The World Border Security Congress is a high level, three-day event that


will discuss and debate current and future policies, implementation issues and challenges as well as new and developing technologies that contribute towards safe and secure border and migration management.


17-19 April 2018, London Small UAS has emerged as a new type of guerrilla airpower that modern militaries are not equipped to defeat. Incidents involving the use of commercial and man-made small drones by ISIS and by conventional forces in eastern Ukraine suggest that they are becoming an asset for both low-tech and near-peer adversaries. Industry is beginning to respond to this capability gap. Yet before acquiring C-UAS systems, a common understanding of the UAS threat and a clarification of the rules of engagement is urgently required. Closing this gap and mapping future drone technology developments is the core objective of the upcoming C-UAS symposium. From 17-19 April 2018, the international military and intelligence community will convene for a unique exchange of ideas on how to counter the threat of small UAS. Building on the challenges and ideas raised at the 2017 Counter-UAS conference, attendees will have a unique opportunity to truly shape the future C-UAS doctrine and safeguard their war-fighters and freedom of movement for future operations.


17-19 April 2018, Rome cbrne-summit-europe-2018 The 5th annual CBRNe Summit Europe conference and exhibition will be heading back to Rome, Italy for the evaluation of the developments in CBRNe capabilities across Europe. The threat of CBRNe attacks across Europe is continuing to increase year on year. CBRNe Summit Europe continues to grow each year and provides you unrivalled access to public sector officials from across Europe, Middle East, Americas and South-East Asia in one place. The 2018 show will focus on the following topics over the two day conference and exhibition: Italian CBRNe Capabilities and Challenges; Maritime CBRNe threats; Chem-Bio Countermeasure Development; CBRNe Forensics; Countering IEDs; and Security in Public Spaces – Increasing CBRNe threats and Military-Civil CBRNe Response Cooperation.

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PANEL OF EXPERTS With the help of our first Panel of Experts, Jackson White, Richard Russell and Simon Hill, Counter Terror Business takes a looks at the stability and flexibility of mission critical communications and how organisations can ensure that mission critical communications remain secure and ‘hack proof’




Jackson White is business development director at Getac UK where he is responsible for growing the organisation’s defence, security and first responder customer base.

In 2017, Richard Russell joined Roadphone NRB as BDM to grow their Endurance Technology® portfolio for CNI, corporate and high value facilities.

Simon Hill is an experienced technical director at Excelerate Technology Ltd, with a demonstrated history of working in the telecommunications industry.

After joining the Royal Corps of Signals at 16, where he looked after general communication systems, Jackson supported Special Forces operations for 10 years. He then moved into the corporate world where he oversaw future technologies and innovation for video surveillance and communications systems organisations.

Richard’s telecoms career spans 36 years, including 25 years at Motorola, gaining expertise of MPT1327, DMR, TETRA and LTE. He has experience of service organisation and EMEA product management, and was a Global Business Development and EMEA GoTo-Market product specialist. He is also an advisor to many partners across Europe of multi million dollar awards.

ack in 2014, Ruben Santamarta, principal security consultant at penetration testing firm IOActive, published a white paper, entitled A Wake-up Call for SATCOM Security, in which he warned of the susceptibility of mission critical communications to interception, tampering or blocking. Amongst its findings, the paper reported malicious activity in providing false emergencies or misleading geographic locations of ships, planes, or ground crews, as well as suppressing reports of actual emergencies. The security of mission

critical communications belonging to utilities, energy suppliers or transport networks is also key. Confronted with myriad possible attacks, which appear to vary each year, precautionary measures are integral to sustainability, functions and safety. Maintaining the ability to transfer data and communicate seamlessly between emergency organisations is just the beginning of their unique needs. If an incident does occur, whether terrorist-related or not, governments are often not fully equipped to respond as quickly or suitably as




Simon is skilled in service delivery, technical support, mobile communications, Radio Frequency (RF) and VSAT.

necessary. Therefore, organisations need broadband communication networks, known as mission critical communications, to enable instant group communications with a high degree of reliability, availability, and security. When three suicide bombers coordinated detonations across Brussels in March 2016, emergency services were able to rely on the Belgian public safety network to communicate and coordinate their activities successfully, despite the inundated traffic caused by public networks.

Photo by Tony Stoddard on Unsplash

Emergency services will always require mission critical communication, with the emergency button pressed every six seconds in the UK. Like most other industries, the growing availability of rich information is required to drive front line decision making, and support efficiency, effectiveness and transformation. Within the emergency services, communications has traditionally been very voice-centric but now that there is far more data, video and voice communications available to a commander, there is also a much better way of responding.

Simon Hill, technical director at Excelerate Group, says that additional information carries additional risk ‘in terms of how fast that data is communicated and how fast it can be exploited’. The company’s hosted cloud services are ISO27001 accredited, meaning that security is up-to-date and that flaws in the system are identified before a possible penetration of the network, through continuous penetration testing, a process he refers to as essentially ‘hacking ourselves’. This limits any potential ‘back door’ or ‘open door’ attacks.

Alongside self-testing, for high security organisations, it may be critical to layer additional, more robust security measures into the chosen device. Windows 10 for example, also includes Windows Hello biometric recognition, Microsoft Passport and Credential Guard for additional protection. Jackson White, business development director at Getak UK, describes this as ‘data encryption software that guards against unauthorised use or shredding technology that renders data completely unusable by unauthorised parties’. !




EXPERT FINAL THOUGHTS JACKSON WHITE, GETAC UK “Implementing effective governance processes and activities to support accountability, authority, risk management and assurance are imperative to control risks. Yet, for most organisations, some form of attack is inevitable, so its ability to rapidly respond, report and resolve is paramount to damage limitation. From a technology standpoint, this means protecting data and devices from the ground up, choosing devices that are inherently secure through layered security at manufacture. And this can provide the necessary supporting evidence in a court of law that demonstrates security has been taken seriously.” RICHARD RUSSELL, ROADPHONE NRB “Is real due diligence shown when selecting your next communications solution? Threats to critical communications must be understood, solutions are available. There are no blank cheques, commercial and technical considerations influence choices and outcomes – there is no one-size-fits-all solution. Choosing the correct supplier and delivering the appropriate solution should deliver the desired outcome.” SIMON HILL, EXCELERATE GROUP “I’m certain that the security of our own data, the security of our customers data and the security methods of transmission is one of the highest priorities for us. It’s very easy to ‘over secure’ something. Over-securing a network can influence its flexibility, reliability or stability – especially when we’re talking about networks for out in the field vehicles that are connected by a cellular network or a satellite network. It needs to be fit for purpose for that particular set of objectives. It’s very important to ensure that the data that all covers integrity is there, risk of any interference with external parties is non-existent or extremely low so that the vehicles or pods or devices still do their jobs.”


# MULTIPLE DEVICES The world in which we live is far more connected than it has been at any other point in its history. In the home, Wi-Fi and an influx of wireless devices have created a smarter, more integrated way of living. Further afield, the Internet of Things, 4G technology and improved software have enabled differing networks to communicate with each other and information to seamlessly pass between each with little or no disruption. However, as seen through various cyber attacks over the last few years, exemplified most in the UK during the WannaCry attack on the NHS, the availability of information online and the smooth transition in which it can be transferred, accessed and integrated makes it easier for criminals, sometimes terrorists, to undertake malicious activities. Jackson White comments that ’the danger of a data breach is multiplied when devices are used in the mobile environment, where connectivity is vital but security is harder to maintain’. It is often the case that ‘one compromised device can expose an organisations whole infrastructure and may even put lives at risk’. Simon Hill points out that ‘when we talk about a system that is stable, reliable and flexible it’s important to ensure that the security that we apply to those systems or communications is at the right level for the data that is being transmitted’. This means that it is important that we acknowledge that ‘over-securing’ a network can affect its flexibility. However, Simon also points out that he doesn’t think ‘you can be too over-cautious’ as the benefits outweigh the risks. When looking at two-way radios, as provided by Roadphone NRB, clients expect to receive an ultra-secure product that can effectively mitigate against the threats of cyber attacks, tampering and hacking. However, the benefits extend further than this. Richard Russell explains that communications are secured using AES 256-bit encryption to stop unauthorised eves-dropping, while you can remotely kill a radio if it gets stolen. When ensuring the security, integrity and safety of high value CNI and corporate facilities, products, such as the Hytera handset, offer clear guidance for resilient and secure digital mobile radio infrastructure providing essential life safety critical communications. HARDWARE SECURITY Beyond the hand-held product, ‘purchasing reliable and robust hardware can also reduce the risk to vulnerabilities or data theft’. If devices, such as rugged mobile devices, are out of the organisation’s control, perhaps for repair or maintenance work, several touchpoints can be


added to the device where data could be compromised – a point that Jackson White agrees on when he emphasises that the ‘best approach to protect against an attack is to layer security technology within the hardware itself’. Mobile rugged devices that have security measures inherently built in are ‘more effective at protecting against ransomware attacks and data interception than if security technology was added later on’. For example, specialist inbuilt protection against ransomware attacks can ensure files and other data are kept safe even if a device is infected by malware trying to encrypt or manipulate protected files. Jackson says: “Both hardware and software have to be encrypted, and extends to system hardening, peripheral control and centralised management, all of which significantly improves the ability to control devices, enforce security policies, and provide audit trails and

AS SEEN THROUGH VARIOUS CYBER ATTACKS OVER THE LAST FEW YEARS, THE AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION ONLINE MAKES IT EASIER FOR CRIMINALS, SOMETIMES TERRORISTS, TO UNDERTAKE MALICIOUS ACTIVITIES reporting, while reducing support and maintenance overheads. This also gives administrators complete control and the ability to create separate encrypted user accounts or personas, enforce strong authentication, and manage different application and device policies.” Richard Russell also notes that ‘bespoke system design must take into consideration the system’s functionality’, essentially having control over who can and who can’t access the radio system. Stressing that authentication is essential to successfully managing and mitigating security risks, such a risk control, measure can help protect both data and devices while allowing workers to ‘safely access, process and manipulate sensitive and mission critical data’ as required by their job. Ever increasing threats drive security policy makers to take measures such as elimination of vital IP connection to critical systems, which are intended to provide legitimate maintenance and fault diagnostic services. The immediate knock-on effects of eliminating these connections in the name of security make systems less resilient. It’s possible to lock down digital radio systems, but at what price? "




The modernisation of the UK’s defence and security industries has been firmly on the agenda over the last few years. The adoption of more common IT and standardised technologies can deliver a leaner, more agile IT operation which can better support soldiers actively involved in training and warfare

Many technological innovations are starting to be tested and used in high risk and defence situations and to support security operations in the UK. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), robots and robotic carrying systems and artificial intelligence are all proving their worth in these industries and creating automation of important tasks and ultimately improve safety. Teams are also looking at ‘consumer-grade’ mobile devices with the aim of achieving better communication and productivity in the field. Put off by specific rugged devices that are all too often perceived to be heavy and cumbersome, it’s easy to see the appeal of consumer devices. But in this instance, these sorts of devices will invariably fail quickly as they lack the robustness and reliability to meet the needs of dismounted soldiers, security and defence workers, or survive the environments they operate in. In the case of mobile devices, there needs to be a balance that will provide soldiers and security workers the right technology to meet their data and security needs. Mission-critical tasks need specialist technology which is reliable and resilient, and designed with the use case in mind; it needs to be portable, easy to use, and can withstand harsh environments as well as be interoperable with other necessary technology used by defence personnel. So what are the key considerations for mobile devices for use in the field by dismounted soldiers, security workers or first responders? SECURITY In defence and security, more and more data is being transmitted from various locations, so security of sensitive and critical data and the need for device and data encryption and protection against hacks are the most important considerations when choosing mobile technology. Innovations at the system of chip level (SOC) are providing additional levels of assurance, but for the robust requirements of defence data protection is a must.

This includes encryption and extends to system hardening, peripheral control and centralised management, all of which significantly improves the ability to control devices, enforce security policies, and provide audit trails and reporting, while reducing support and maintenance overheads. It also gives administrators complete control, so they can create separate encrypted user accounts or personas, enforce strong authentication, and manage different application and device policies. To counter any limitations of software and hardware encryption, blister packs and bolt ons for specialist devices can be added that meet the hardware security required by government.

stringent industry standards are going to be able to withstand these environments. The dismounted soldier will likely be need a device to support operation in temperatures of between minus 21°C pushing up to 60°C. These workers are often required to wear specific protective clothing and technology needs to work within these conditions, so for example, it’s important to look for a touch-screen that will operate with gloves, or that can be clearly seen in low or bright light conditions and is compatible with night vision goggles (NVGs). Other productivity and efficiency features include barcode scanners, RFID readers, cameras and even fingerprint recognition sign on.

CONNECTIVITY Connectivity is also among the top criteria when looking to new technologies for defence personnel who need to be able to communicate quickly and securely access and transmit critical data in real-time. Reliable connectivity allows field data to be rapidly captured, analysed and sent back to base in real time, for enhanced accuracy, efficiency, situational assessment and response and even, in some instances, be the difference between life and death. Defence uses a number of specialist connectors – either for legacy soldier or modern soldier systems – that are only made by a handful of manufactures, and are not available on consumer-grade devices. In specialist devices, the manufacturer can customise devices so that connections are mounted in the best location on the device depending on how and where it will be used by the soldier.

ADOPTION AND IMPLEMENTATION Getac, a trusted provider of rugged technology for military and defence, provides rugged alternatives to consumer-grade mobile devices that are lightweight, compact, reliable and offer the features, functionality, security and connectors specifically required by defence. There is much to consider when looking to adopt new mobile technologies within defence and security. Pilot testing is one of the best ways to find out if a device is fit for specific purposes as workers put them through their paces in the field. It’s also a great way to ensure the adoption of the devices; workers need to understand and be able to work with equipment if it is going to deliver the ROI and efficiency improvements they promise. For more information please visit, or contact sales-Getac-UK@ / +44 (0)1952 207200. "

USABILITY Equipment to be used by defence is expected to stand the test of high-risk environments, drops, vibrations, spillages, extreme temperatures and even chemicals, but consumer devices will quickly fail in these situations. Only specialist rugged devices that have been tested against





PUBLIC SAFETY In this day and age, one of the most important tools against the terrorist threat is our technology. Ian Thompson, chief executive of British APCO, explains why and looks ahead to March’s annual conference

IMPROVING PUBLIC SAFETY THROUGH TECHNOLOGY lmost a year ago, on the 22 March at the conclusion of our Annual Conference & Exhibition 2017, the elation of a successful and enjoyable event was tempered by news of the terrorist attack near the Houses of Parliament. At the time, I was keen to harness the momentum of the event and push on with new initiatives and ideas. I intended to write a short piece on social media to thank everybody who had been involved in our event in whatever way. I couldn’t ignore what had happened though. This is part of the message we eventually sent out: “The events that took place in London as we were bringing BAPCO2017 to an end serve to bring public safety into sharp focus. Anything written today runs the risk of seeming trite when considered against those horrible incidents. How do you talk about improving public safety communications and IT when one event encapsulates everything we do and demonstrates the importance of the work? We are quite literally, asking people to put their lives on the line. The least we can do is give them the best possible tools to use and the support they need from all of us.” If anybody were in any doubt that communications and technology is at the centre of everything our emergency and other services do in their daily work, as well as during critical, major and terrorist incidents, the point was highlighted at the BAPCO event in Newcastle in November. Inspector Simon Davies, with colleagues from Greater




Manchester Police (GMP) and the North West Counter Terrorism Unit (NW CTU), gave a presentation on their work as Airwave Tactical Advisors (Tac Ads) following the bombing of the Manchester Arena on 22 May which killed 22 people. The audience sat in near silence as the trio talked about the issues of the operation which lasted weeks, rather than the days most of us would think about. There was no doubt that communications were vital to all of those agencies involved and to ongoing public safety. As we all know, there have been other incidents and terrorist attacks in the subsequent months. As some commentators put it, this is the ‘new norm’ not seen since the height of the IRA attacks many years ago. Of course, it’s not only the UK that has suffered such incidents, with many countries also experiencing major incidents through attacks as well as natural disaster. As important as providing the right equipment to allow responders to do their job, is providing the right systems and assistance to allow them to communicate. In this day and age that starts with the first person to report an incident, usually a member of the public, rather than after a control room has received a call and dispatched resources. The ability to collect, interpret and share the information provided by a caller already at the scene can be vital in providing the best and most appropriate response to an incident. By harnessing the technology !


COMMUNICATIONS # carried by most members of the public, emergency services can get ahead of the game in their response times and actions. Ask once, record properly and share as often as necessary has to be a requirement of really working together and providing the best response. EMERGENCY SERVICES COMMUNICATIONS Some 20 years ago we faced similar issues in communicating, so the UK commenced work to provide the emergency services with a state of the art digital communications system. By moving away from the previous analogue systems the aim was to provide clear voice and data transmission as well as interoperability and interworking between the services – something which had never before been possible. In the subsequent years, many of the benefits have been realised and there is certainly more closer working between the emergency services, assisted by the TETRA digital radio technology known in the UK as Airwave. The technology is the backbone of emergency services‘ communications systems across Europe and in many other parts of the world. As we all know, technology marches on. As terrorist methods evolve, so must our response and the tools we provide to our responders. The public expect their services to be using at least the same technology as them and the best available. Broadband is the new expectation. 4G and even 5G are the new buzzwords along with LTE (Long Term Evolution). It’s no longer enough just to talk to pass information – it’s vital to be able to share data and to share it immediately. Public safety communications and technology is following what is available to the public and to business. There is a move away from the ‘old’ radio systems to the ‘new’ communication systems. The UK is at the forefront of implementing the new technology. The government’s Emergency Services Mobile Communications Programme (ESMCP) will deliver a new Emergency Services Network (ESN) using the same technology we are all familiar with for our mobile phones and based on a commercial, rather than a bespoke, network provided by a commercial partner. The United States is using similar technology in its FirstNet project. South Korea is also providing a nationwide solution and will be using the technology at the Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang. Both projects are attending the BAPCO Annual Conference & Exhibition at the Ricoh Arena, Coventry on the 20-21 March to provide delegates with an overview and an update. As ever, public sector technology projects are not without their issues. The ESMCP is currently reviewing its plans on how and when it rolls out.

IN THIS DAY AND AGE ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT OF THOSE TOOLS IS OUR TECHNOLOGY. WE SHOULD NEVER STOP WORKING TO IMPROVE AND TO SHARE THE RESULTS TO IMPROVE PUBLIC SAFETY There may be delays, there will certainly be amendments to the schedule, but whatever happens, we at BAPCO agree it’s the right technology and we remain fully behind the project and all of those involved in delivering it. It’s not just the emergency services who respond to incidents who need to communicate and to share information. It’s no longer the traditional 3 Blue Light responders who deal with everything. It’s important to have the right people in the right place at the right time with the best information, whoever they are, or whichever badge or uniform they wear. Some will be from other agencies such as the Coastguard or Highways England, others will be volunteers such as our Search & Rescue organisations. All are vitally important to providing a service and protecting public safety. ANNUAL CONFERENCE & EXHIBITION BAPCO works in partnerships to improve public safety through technology. As a not for profit association we are open to all with an interest in public safety. Our members come from users and across the commercial sector. Membership is free for those working in the public sector public safety arena. There are very reasonable charges for commercial memberships which also bring a number of benefits such as attendance at our events and discounted exhibition costs. BAPCO runs three events per year in order to connect and inform our industry. The largest event is our Annual Conference and Exhibition which this year takes place at the Ricoh Arena in Coventry on the 20-21 March. The event will be opened by Gordon Shipley, ESN Programme Director at the

Home Office, who will give delegates a programme update. Later sessions include insight from the USA FirstNet programme by Mike Poth, CEO of FirstNet, and a presentation on cyber security following the international WannaCry attack which affected the NHS and many other organisations last year. Each day is rounded off by a case study presentation. On Tuesday 20 March we have a presentation on the Smiler crash at Alton Towers and on Wednesday 21 we close the event with a session by Deputy Assistant Commissioner Wayne Brown on the Grenfell Tower fire. In between the sessions there is time to view the exhibition and visit the many stands from key suppliers involved in providing communications and IT to the public safety sector. Networking and the exchange of ideas is a key part of BAPCO. Whether you meet in the Members’ Lounge or come to the Gala Dinner, you are sure to make new connections and come away with something to think about and time well spent. We may never stop those who seek to disrupt our world and try to achieve their aims through acts of terrorism but we owe it to those involved in preventing such attacks and those who deal with the aftermath to give them the very best tools available. In this day and age one of the most important of those tools is our technology. We should never stop working to improve and to share the results to improve public safety. "




20th-22nd March 2018 Madrid, Spain

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Enhancing Border Security Through Constructive Dialogue The world is experiencing the largest migration movement in history, with challenges for the border management and security community, as little sign of peace and security in the Middle East is apparent and porous borders in Africa and Asia continue to provide challenges. International organised criminal gangs and human and drug trafficking groups exploit opportunities and increasingly use the internet and technology to enhance their activities. Controlling and managing international borders in the 21st Century continues to challenge the border control and immigration agencies around the world. It is generally agreed that in a globalised world borders should be as open as possible, but threats continue to remain in ever evolving circumstances and situations. Advancements in technology are assisting in the battle to maintain safe and secure international travel. The border security professional still remains the front line against these threats. The World Border Security Congress is a high level 3 day event that will discuss and debate current and future policies, implementation issues and challenges as well as new and developing technologies that contribute towards safe and secure border and migration management.

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Speakers include: - Dr Enrique Belda, Deputy Director General of Information Systems and Communications for Security Secretary of State for Security, Ministry of Interior, Spain - Rasa Ostrauskaite, Director, Transnational Threats Department, OSCE - James Douglass, President, European Association of Airport & Seaport Police - Alvaro Rodríguez Gaya, Head of Strategy of Europol’s European Migrant Smuggling Centre (EMSC), EUROPOL - Antonio Doblas Jimenez, Lieutenant Colonel Head of the National Coordination Centre-EUROSUR Spain - Thomas Wuchte, Executive Secretary, International Institute for Justice and the Rule of Law For full speaker list visit

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DATA PROTECTION With technology now prevalent in all areas of life, security of devices should be encouraged in the same way as physical security. Hannah Khoo, business engagement officer at London Digital Security Centre, explains why

THE IMPORTANCE OF OPERATING IN A SECURE ONLINE ENVIRONMENT T he pace of growth in businesses using tech, and the tech itself, is rapidly increasing. Businesses of all sizes are increasingly reliant on the digital world to operate. This has resulted in innovative businesses seizing new opportunities that the digital world presents, but sometimes the pace of change has not incorporated sufficient security. For businesses to survive and grow in the 21st century, embracing the digital age is essential; however, as more and more aspects of life and business move online, the impact of breaches and hacks increases exponentially. WannaCry, Petya and Bad Rabbit are the latest examples of mass incidents crippling organisations of all sizes, and it won’t stop there. With this in mind, the London Digital Security Centre was set up. This not-for-profit organisation was founded by the Mayor of London, the Metropolitan Police Service (MPS) and the City of London Police (CoLP). The Centre works in partnership with private industry and academia to help businesses, primarily small and medium

sized, to embrace digital innovations and operate in a secure online environment. The first step in achieving this is to encourage SMEs to reflect on how much of their business is reliant on technology. Tech in the office is now standard procedure; whether it’s to check emails, receive a payment, scan a document or take a conference call. The second step is to consider the security of that technology. Security of devices should be encouraged in the same way as physical security, and should be as customary as locking front doors, using shutters and closing windows. Simple, routine security measures can make devices less likely to be a target in the same way that locking windows, security guards, alarms and restricted pass access make premises less likely to be burgled. A lack of security on devices allows the cyber criminal the opportunity to commit crime across the company’s network. The likes of WannaCry, Petya and Bad Rabbit caused chaos to those affected. Ransomware has a way of controlling the fate of your data until you pay a fee. These exploits were achievable !



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CYBER SECURITY # simply because of out of date software, people clicking on links and poor digital health. Although these attacks had flaws and limitations, they demonstrate the capabilities of cyber criminals. In addition to ransomware, new vulnerabilities have recently come to light. Meltdown and Spectre are affecting devices on a global scale, while KRACK renders data transmitted across Wi-Fi susceptible to interception. All three are providing opportunities for cyber criminals to steal data. BASIC MEASURES An organisation that has suffered a cyber attack could experience profit loss, disruption of service, compromised data, reputational damage and much more. For some organisations this could be difficult to bounce back from, taking years to recover from the ripple effect. Of all the businesses the London Digital Security Centre has engaged with: 62 per cent process personal information, 49 per cent have out of date operating systems and 22 per cent do not have antivirus. With this information, it’s clear

SIMPLE FIXES AND CHANGE OF HABIT ARE EASY STEPS TO TAKE TO PREVENT UNAUTHORISED NETWORK ACCESS AND SHOULD BE ROUTINELY REINFORCED that devices lack the basic measures that can help to mitigate against ransomware and fix vulnerabilities. Even after the aforementioned attacks, statistics of SMEs in January 2018 showed: 71 per cent process personal information, 24 per cent have out of date operating systems on their network, and four per cent do not have antivirus on their devices, despite the advice provided by organisations such as the National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC). Up-to-date operating systems means that patches will be in place to help fix the vulnerabilities that have been exposed, such as Meltdown and Spectre. Manufacturers do not release patches for operating systems that are too out of date, leaving them unprotected. Additionally, with out-of-date operating systems the chances of falling victim to

ransomware increases, as adversaries take advantage of unprotected systems to find a way in. Similarly, antivirus is a vital element to keeping data safe, as it will scan for known threats. It needs to be updated regularly for it to identify and safely remove any installation of the recent releases of malware. Simple fixes and change of habit are easy steps to take to prevent unauthorised network access and should be routinely reinforced. Many of the basic standards cost nothing at all; clicking a button in the settings, updating software, being mindful when browsing online, having secure passwords, changing default passwords, limiting access to data, etc. Security will increase with the more time and effort invested in it, much like adding an alarm or a security guard to a door. This doesn’t guarantee immunity to attacks, it simply means that someone else without security measures is a more appealing target. Increasing awareness through training and taking advantage of the services and information provided by organisations (such as the NCSC, the Information Commissioner’s Office and the London Digital Security Centre) will increase your cyber security posture. Now with the General Data Protection Regulation on its way, it has become even more imperative that organisations take cyber security seriously, as the consequences could cost more than there is available to spend. In essence, more vulnerabilities are being exposed and new attack methods are being created every day. It is important for businesses to stay ahead of the cyber criminals and remain alert when new vulnerabilities come to light. Take control of digital security, sign up for free and become a member of the London Digital Security Centre. Businesses across London can benefit from an assessment of their current security posture against the government’s Cyber Essentials framework. Each member is provided with a detailed report showing how the implementation of simple changes can reduce vulnerability to cyber crime. There are also free online training tools to help improve skills and knowledge, as well as masterclasses to give members an opportunity to find out more about what can be done to enhance security posture. Stay ahead of the cyber criminals by embracing cyber security. "




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International security professionals will gather in London in March 2018 to help tackle the growing threat facing nations and businesses at the Security & Counter Terror Expo

UK SECURITY WEEK TO CHALLENGE NATIONAL SECURITY or many nations across the globe, the threat from international terrorism remains severe. Physical attacks, carried out by terror cells and radicalised individuals, in Barcelona, London, Manchester, Stockholm, Paris and Brussels, have been coupled with an increasing number of cyber attacks. With the issue of national security and counter terrorism at the top of government agendas, Clarion Defence and Security Ltd announced the launch of UK Security Week, which will start on 6 March 2018. Designed to help international security professionals debate the ever evolving range of threats, define operational strategies and help shape future policy, UK Security Week will include Security & Counter Terror Expo (SCTX), the World Counter Terror Congress (WCTC), Forensics Europe Expo (FEE), Ambition, and the new People Movement and Management Show (PMMS). The events have the ultimate objective of helping those tasked with preserving national security, protecting assets and individuals against terrorism.


IDENTIFYING NEW SOLUTIONS AND CRITICAL ISSUES The flagship event of UK Security Week is SCTX, which attracted 9,851 security professionals from more than 114 countries in 2017. It will return to London Olympia from 6-7 March 2018, showcasing some of the most innovative security technologies, from biometrics to HGV mitigation solutions. Over 350 exhibitors will be present at the 2018 show, including BAE Systems, Chemring, Aaronia, Surelock McGill and Meggitt Training to name a few – making it the largest showcase of national security solutions in the UK. SCTX will also feature an expansive educational programme that will deliver unrivalled insight into current issues and how to combat new challenges. 10 free-to-attend conference streams, which will run on the exhibition floor, will cover border security, the cyber threat, protecting national infrastructure, policing, major events security and security design. One of the most important conferences will be Cyber Threat Intelligence, which is run in partnership with techUK.

Globally, there was a 36 per cent increase in ransomware attacks worldwide last year, highlighting the ever-growing threat caused by cyber criminals. The conference stream will focus on the threat posed by cyber crime and provide a platform for discussion on how to advance best practice and stay ahead of those intent on inflicting harm via the screen. Speaking about the 2017 Cyber Threat Intelligence conference, Sajid Younis, resilience adviser at DCLG Resilience and Emergencies Division, said: “The sessions have been extremely interesting. It’s a huge tier 1 threat to our society right now and it’s been great to hear from so many high-profile speakers in the field.” Brand new to the show this year, the Integrated Security Showcase will demonstrate a range of technology, solutions and services vital for the protection of critical national infrastructure facilities and major assets. A plethora of carefully selected products will be displayed in a live environment, enabling security professionals to learn how the solutions can be implemented. !



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SECURITY AND COUNTER TERROR EXPO # NEW COUNTER TERROR STRATEGIES A key feature of UK Security Week will be the paid-for WCTC, which will run alongside SCTX from 6-7 March. Last year more than 1,000 senior security professionals, including diplomats and high-ranking police officers, were in attendance, keen to learn more about the latest strategies being used around the world to tackle radicalisation, prevent lone wolf attacks and counter international terrorism. With the likes of Europol’s Rob Wainwright and Metropolitan Police Deputy Assistant Commissioner Lucy D’Orsi due to speak next month, the programme is not-to-be-missed. Fresh from announcing his retirement from the Metropolitan Police, Assistant Commissioner Mark Rowley has confirmed he will share his vast experience with delegates attending the World Counter Terror Congress at this year’s Security & Counter Terror Expo. Rowley, who has served in the police for over three decades and is credited for working alongside intelligence services to foil 23 terror attacks in the UK since 2013, will discuss national security at the World Counter Terror Congress, joining an array of leading speakers, including Sir Julian King, European Commissioner for the Security Union, Detective Chief Superintendent Scott Wilson, National Counter Terrorism Protect and Prepare Coordinator and Chief Constable Simon Cole, Leicestershire Police Force and National Lead on Prevent Strategy for the National Police Chiefs Council. Richard Walton, UK Security Week Special Advisor, said: “SCTX is the leading national event which is why so many leading figures want to attend and share their views. Bringing

FRESH FROM ANNOUNCING HIS RETIREMENT FROM THE METROPOLITAN POLICE, ASSISTANT COMMISSIONER MARK ROWLEY HAS CONFIRMED HE WILL SHARE HIS VAST EXPERIENCE WITH DELEGATES ATTENDING THE WORLD COUNTER TERROR CONGRESS Mark Rowley as speaker will help nations around the world learn from his unique experiences in leading the UK response to the terrorist atrocities of 2017 so they can evolve their own strategies.” Speaking at last year’s event, the head of security at The O2 Arena, London, said: “Security in crowded places is vital and the WCTC has been an ideal way to gain exclusive access to the latest measures other high profile attractions are taking. It’s been great to network and learn about so many new and innovative security solutions coming through the market.” EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS, RESILIENCE & RESPONSE Supported and chaired by the Cabinet Office, the Ambition event will also run from 6-7 March at London Olympia. The exhibition and conference is aligned with the National Resilience Capabilities Programme and the National Respond and Rescue Strategy, and is supported by the Cabinet Office. Ambition will provide professionals from government departments, the NHS, councils, local resilience forums, ambulance trusts, fire and police organisations and specialist agencies with the unique opportunity to meet, network and debate the latest challenges facing the EPRR community today. Visitors will hear from leading experts on

topics such as the future of emergency services, pandemic diseases, response to terrorist attacks and resilience for businesses, as well as being about to investigate the latest equipment. SHAPING THE FUTURE OF FORENSIC SCIENCE Forensics professionals play a vital role in apprehending those responsible for crimes, as well as helping law enforcement officers prevent future offences. Running from 6-7 March at London Olympia, FEE is the only international exhibition and conference that showcases the latest equipment and services, and presents new trends and techniques. The event provides a definitive source of education, best practice, training and networking. More than 80 exhibitors will showcase 3,000-plus products during the exhibition, with around 50 free-to-attend seminars exploring all the latest tools in forensic science, from crime scene to courtroom. EXPLORING PEOPLE ANALYTICS PMMS is the key pan-European trade show for the people analytics industry. From 6-7 March at London Olympia, visitors will be able to discover a plethora of technological innovation in this field which will provide insights into the future of operations from mass transit, retail, passenger terminals and universities to sports stadium, shopping centres and urban events. The solutions on display will ultimately aid with the modelling and design of urban spaces from a people movement perspective. The technologies on show will range from real time data acquisition to maximise space utilisation, to wayfinding, circulation efficiency, retail revenues, operational effectiveness, resilience and the securing of crowded places and ultimately visitor experience. Additionally, visitors will have the opportunity to hear and meet world-leading experts in this field, in a range of high level presentations delivered across a varied two-day agenda. Richard Walton commented: “The threat we are facing today is inherently different from that of even a few years ago. Cyber attacks are now a major concern for governments and businesses, while physical attacks being carried out by radicalised ‘lone wolves’ are incredibly hard to prevent. UK Security Week will deliver a series !



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THE FIRST OUTSTANDING CONTRIBUTION TO COUNTER TERRORISM AWARD WILL BE PRESENTED TO AN ORGANISATION OR INDIVIDUAL IN RECOGNITION OF THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO WORLDWIDE ANTI TERRORISM EFFORTS # of invaluable opportunities to learn about new strategies that can help security professionals keep civilians, assets and infrastructure safe.” COUNTER TERROR AWARDS Counter Terror Business magazine is premier media partner to the Security & Counter Terror Expo, and in 2018 will launch the Counter Terror Awards, which will recognise strategies, procedural excellence and technologies which help to mitigate the threats from terrorism. Running in partnership with SCTX, the event will take place on 6 March 2018. In light of the growing threat of terrorism, the Counter Terror Awards will recognise the efforts of organisations in both the public and private sectors and their contributions to counter terror strategy in the UK

and overseas, as well as the vital role played by the military and emergency services in mitigating terrorist threats and striving to keep the public safe. As the security challenge expands and the threat varies, so must the response. Because of this, the awards accommodate a variety of industries in its categories. For the inaugural event, the categories are: the CBRNE Product Award, the Communication Systems Award, the Counter Terror Policing Award, sponsored by Safetell, the Counter Terrorism Education Project, sponsored by Hesco, the Counter Terrorism IT Product, sponsored by Audax, the Counter Terrorism Project, sponsored by PA Consulting, the Perimeter Protection Award, sponsored by the Perimeter Security Suppliers Association, the Transport Security Award and the UAV Product Award.

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As premier media partner to the Security & Counter Terror Expo, Counter Terror Business talks with Europol’s Rob Wainwright ahead of his session on tracking extremists in Europe

COUNTER TERROR BUSINESS INTERVIEW s executive director of Europol, Rob Wainwright will once again be part of an array of leading security and counter terrorist specialists speaking at this year’s Security & Counter Terror Expo. As premier media partner to the show, Counter Terror Business talks with Rob ahead of his session on tracking extremists in Europe.


YOU ARE LEADING AN EXTENSIVE SPEAKER LINE UP AT THIS YEAR’S SECURITY & COUNTER TERROR EXPO. WHAT TOPICS CAN WE EXPECT YOU TO DISCUSS? I am looking forward to sharing with delegates my thoughts on how the terrorist threat in Europe continues to evolve and, in some respects, grow

in scale and complexity. A total of 25 terrorist attacks hit Europe in 2017, confirming the serious nature of the threat we are currently living with across Europe. But, there has also been a marked increase in the level and effectiveness of police and intelligence service cooperation between countries in response, which Europol has played an important role in facilitating. !



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Rob Wainwright is the executive director of Europol. Appointed in 2009 he has led the transformation of the agency into a world-class security institution.

of Europe today, along with other serious security concerns such as cyber crime, is so complex, large-scale and transnational in nature that a maximum level of cross-border police cooperation is an essential pre-requisite in any effective response strategy. This is clearly an opinion shared by the leaders of the law enforcement community in the UK, their counterparts across Europe, and their respective governments. I think security is a very important part of the Brexit process and will get the attention it deserves in the negotiations to come in 2018. "

Under Rob’s leadership Europol has pioneered the use of data and technology in new ways to better identify and respond to cross-border criminal and terrorist activity, developing transformational systems and networks that have significantly enhanced Europol’s information reach and operational impact. Rob Wainwright will be holding a session at the Security & Counter Terror Expo on 7 March 2018 at 14:30, discussing tracking the movement and intentions of extremists within Europe.




a huge law enforcement community for the purposes of intelligence exchange and operational coordination, have become an essential element in the continent’s response to more serious security threats, such as terrorism, cyber crime and people smuggling. I have no doubt it will go from strength to strength in future.

I THINK SECURITY IS A VERY IMPORTANT PART OF THE BREXIT PROCESS AND WILL GET THE ATTENTION IT DESERVES IN THE NEGOTIATIONS TO COME IN 2018 ! IN LIGHT OF A NUMBER OF TERRORIST ATTACKS LAST YEAR, HOW INTEGRAL WILL EUROPOL’S APPROACH TO THREAT INTELLIGENCE BE IN 2018? Europol’s increased focus on facilitating counter terrorist cooperation in Europe over the last two years has brought significant dividends, with enormous increases in the scale of the amount of intelligence collected, exchanged and analysed through a dedicated, secure communication network run by the agency. In turn, that has allowed Europe to identify new opportunities for counter terrorist investigation and

to support hundreds of cross-border cases each year. That provides the agency with a very strong basis on which to help national authorities in Europe deal with new threats and investigations that 2018 will bring. YOUR CONTRACT AT EUROPOL EXPIRES IN APRIL THIS YEAR. WHAT DO YOU ENVISAGE THE ROLE OF EUROPOL TO BE OVER THE NEXT FEW YEARS? Today Europol is regarded as a serious global security institution and one of the most important in Europe. Its unique capabilities, of providing an effective platform to inter-connect

Europol is the European Union Agency for Law Enforcement Cooperation. Headquartered in The Hague, the Netherlands, Europol supports the 28 EU Member States in their fight against terrorism, cyber crime and other serious and organised forms of crime. It now carries the reputation of being a major innovator in the global security community. #




SECURITY, EFFICIENCY AND INTEGRATION WITH ABLOY UK Abloy has been protecting critical infrastructure globally from a physical security perspective for over 100 years, and 54 years in the UK. During that time Abloy UK has led the way with its range of access control solutions. Renowned worldwide for its high security mechanical systems, Abloy has continued to innovate with new digital and smart devices. This extensive scope allows Abloy to create new customer experiences and automations, data integrations and work flow, meaning customers are provided with a complete locking solution that works with existing management control systems, not just a product. Abloy takes a holistic view to assess customers’ needs, driving efficiency through integration and true understanding of customer work streams. This unique offering combined with the wealth of experience held by the team means they can build a professional services package, tailored exactly to the needs of each customer.

“Anyone working within national infrastructure looking for greater security and control of access, that also delivers significant operational efficiencies and return on investment should be keen to talk with us. We can discuss the current threat of terrorism, and the role of remotely operated access control to reduce the risk from organised or opportunist attackers. “The need to achieve dynamic lockdown within buildings should form part of a building’s operational procedures just like fire alarm drills, so an organisation should practice dynamic lockdown drills in a combined method. This would sharpen their ability to quickly restrict access and egress - through physical measures in response to a threat.”

What’s more, this consultative approach and product offering allows Abloy to deliver bespoke locking solutions that help customers improve operational efficiency and provide a substantial return on investment. A secure solution Abloy’s security systems can meet many of the challenges faced by critical infrastructure organisations, from Telecom and Energy, to Airports, Rail and Water. These include fire and escape compliance, key management, carbon reductions and dynamic lockdown. In addition, Abloy products allow for smart infrastructure integration, and enhanced data collection and reporting. Steve Wintle, Head of CNI at Abloy UK, said: “Abloy has established a global reputation for tough reliable locking solutions that work even in the harshest of environments. “CLIQ technology in padlocks and door cylinders means we can build on this reputation with high tech solutions that give the end user benefits above and beyond the physical security we have always provided to national infrastructure.

Security & Counter Terror Expo With this in mind, Abloy UK is inviting visitors to stand B65 at Security & Counter Terror Expo (SCTX) 2018 to discuss the latest innovations in access control technology.

PROTEC2 CLIQ & Traka21 Abloy will be demonstrating the latest PROTEC2 CLIQ CONNECT technology, the web-based security management solution that allows for the remote management of diverse or large electronically controlled master-keyed sites at any time, from anywhere in the world. The risk from lost or stolen keys is eliminated as the PROTEC2 CLIQ CONNECT system provides businesses with full control of all access rights and comprehensive audit trails on cylinders and padlocks, recording who used each device, where and when, thereby providing secure, safe, monitored access management at all times. Keys are a thing of the past and whilst a connected device is used to access padlocks or door cylinders, the device is used in a variety of different ways, providing a wide range of solutions that makes management and security efficient without compromising on security. Solutions such as “one use code” or “user requests” are available, where the user can make specific temporary requests for access on the move using the CLIQ Connect app, available for iOS and Android smartphones. This improves flexibility to speed up the control and administration which is then locally managed.

Abloy will be showcasing its range of high quality compliant locking solutions, including low energy electric locks, LPCB-rated padlocks and its revolutionary PROTEC2 CLIQ Connect system. Visitors to Abloy’s stand will be able to see an interactive demonstration of a number of electric locking solutions and get ‘hands-on’ with the company’s collection of mechanical and electro-mechanical solutions to protect national infrastructure’s remote sites – frequently chosen for use in exposed or harsh environments. Visitors can also learn how Abloy products can be combined to help achieve dynamic lockdown, meet the latest access control escape route standards and contribute to company’s tough energy reduction targets.

The latest innovation of the system - CLIQ Connect - utilises a revolutionary highly encrypted online management system that uses advanced low energy Bluetooth 4.0 technology, enabling users to update access rights via a smartphone or tablet on the move.

PROTEC2 CLIQ can also be combined with the Traka21 key management system, which allows users to gain access to a single key for a fixed period of time. Access is granted by simply entering a PIN code into the Traka21 cabinet, taking a specific key, then validating by entering it into the CLIQ Wall programming unit. Electric locks Also on display will be Abloy’s electric locks which can be used as part of a Dynamic Lockdown solution, and meet the latest building regulation standards relating to access control used on escape routes in any building occupied by staff or general public.

These include BS EN 179 Emergency Escape (for when the building occupants are aware of the building environment), BS EN 1125 Panic Escape (for environments used by the general public) and the new standard BS EN 13637 Electronically Controlled Escape Systems (for use on escape routes).

These standards state that even if a door is electronically controlled for access there must be a compliant mechanical means of escape in an emergency.In the case of fire doors this is essential to provide fire protection, to compartmentalise a building and protect the escape routes. This is also a critical function in a terror situation – providing the capability to lockdown certain areas where the threats exist, but still allow egress to ensure the safety of staff and the public. Perhaps surprisingly, electric locks also help reduce energy consumption as they use 3,000 times less energy than magnetic locks. Electric locks only consume energy when they’re actually used, whereas magnets, which are the common method of locking access controlled escape doors, are constantly consuming electricity. Super Weatherproof Padlocks Abloy also offers Super Weather Proof padlocks, which are the strongest padlocks in the world and remain secure and fully operational in all weather conditions. This is why they are used around the world by the MOD in some of the most remote locations and harshest environments. Abloy padlocks have the ability to withstand the most extreme weather conditions, because the components are completely protected to ensure operation in all conditions. Security and ease of use is assured even with regular exposure to extreme heat or cold, storm-driven salt water or fine desert dust.

Abloy’s range of Super Weather Proof padlocks includes both mechanical and electromechanical models in a range of sizes and security ratings. All padlocks in the range offer the same high level of durability, and can combine both mechanical and electromechanical in the same locking system, but operated by a single key. Abloy Doors Abloy UK designs and manufactures a variety of high performance steel and timber doors too. Every single door within the Abloy range is tailor made to meet individual project requirements, from aesthetics that suit a building’s design, to the level of security necessary for the environment. Doors are manufactured to ensure they meet all relevant standards and security ratings necessary for the installation. From PAS 24 and LPS 1175 SR2 to SR4, to Ballistic and Blast resistance, as well as conforming to British and European Standards for emergency escape, panic escape and fire resistance, where applicable. Visit stand B65 at Security & Counter Terror Expo 2018 to find out how Abloy UK can help your organisation. For further information on products and services available from Abloy UK, visit, call 01902 364 500, or email

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There were at least five major terrorist attacks in the UK in 2017. While the face of terrorist threats appeared to be veering towards vehicular attacks and cyber warfare, September saw the return of a more traditional approach – targeting the transport network. As part of its contribution for the Security & Counter Terror Expo, we explore the differing attacks and how to better protect our transport systems



n Friday 15 September, a homemade bomb partially exploded inside a train carriage at Parsons Green underground station in West London, injuring 30 people on their rush hour commute. The improvised bomb, which was placed in a plastic bucket, detonated on the District Line train at 08:20, creating a ‘wall of fire’ in one section of the train carriage. The injured victims, who predominantly suffered from ‘flash burns’, were treated at nearby

hospitals, before being released. While there was no evidence as to confirm ISIS’s involvement in the attack, the group, unsurprisingly, claimed responsibility. Prime Minister Theresa May, having chaired a COBRA meeting in the afternoon of 15 September, announced that the UK’s terror threat level was immediately raised to critical – its highest level – but has since revealed that the level has been brought back to severe following key police arrests. The attack was the fifth major terrorist

attack in the UK last year, following the vehicular attacks on Westminster Bridge, London Bridge and Finsbury Park, as well as the Manchester Arena bombing in May. While the apparent improvised nature of the Parsons Green attack undoubtedly spared mass casualties, it would be unwise to consider the attack as amateurish. It is, however, appropriate to compare the most recent strike against recent charges across Europe, examining how the tactics vary and then revisiting a common thought trail from "



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SECURITY AND COUNTER TERROR EXPO ! each attack – how do we differentiate between an attack instructed by a terrorist group, usually ISIS, and an attack inspired by their actions. Then, if we can distinguish between the two, we must strongly consider what it tells us about the current nature of attacks and how we can mitigate against them. TARGETING TRANSIT As odd as it sounds, we have to cast our minds back for the last substantial transport network attack. The 2016 Nice attack on 14 July seemed to set a new trend of using large, everyday objects as the means of attack, with 31-year-old Mohamed Lahouaiej-Bouhlel driving a 19-tonne cargo truck into crowds of people celebrating Bastille Day on the Promenade des Anglais in France, killing 86 people and injuring 458 others. Similar attacks have since happened in Berlin on 19 December 2016, with 12 deaths at a German Christmas market, as well as in Sweden, Paris, Barcelona and London last year. The regularity of such events in the last 18 months has changed our perception of spontaneous attacks, so much so that the Brussels transport bombings in March 2016 seem somewhat distant. On 22 March 2016, three coordinated bombs, two at Brussels Airport in Zaventem and one at Maalbeek metro station in central Brussels, killed 32 civilians, injuring over 300 more. Related to this, in June last year, Belgian soldiers shot a man suspected of being a would-be suicide bomber, wearing a rucksack and bomb belt, at Brussels Central Station. The fact remains, and history reminds us so, that public transit is easily accessible and a mammoth security operation. More so, and key to the terrorist intent, public transport is heavily populated and therefore offers the potential of mass casualties, immediate chaos and the swift spread of fear. According to recent reports, approximately 75 per cent of casualties from terrorist attacks occur in underground train stations, although these account for just 13 per cent of attacks overall. The most well-known of these attacks in Europe, aside from the 2016 Brussels bombing, remains the London bombing on 7 July 2005, which killed 52 people and injured over 700 other civilians. Three bombs were successively detonated on the London Underground network, at approximately 08:50 am, near Aldgate, Edgware Road and Russell Square, before a fourth exploded on a double-decker bus in Tavistock Square nearly an hour later, in what was labelled as the country’s first ever Islamist suicide attack. An attack the year before in Madrid resulted in 192 deaths, when ten explosions occurred aboard four commuter trains. It was Europe’s worst terror attack since the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 over

THE 2016 NICE ATTACK ON SEEMED TO SET A NEW TREND OF USING LARGE, EVERYDAY OBJECTS AS THE MEANS OF ATTACK, WITH MOHAMED LAHOUAIEJ-BOUHLEL DRIVING A 19‑TONNE CARGO TRUCK INTO CROWDS OF PEOPLE CELEBRATING BASTILLE DAY Lockerbie, Scotland, in December 1988. The resulting fear of each type of attack is significant to understanding what the attacker is hoping to achieve. The vehicular attacks in London and, more recently, Barcelona, use what would otherwise be an unassuming object to cause random, impromptu and, often, spontaneous casualty. It is not only difficult to monitor a vehicle attack from a security perspective, but the public is usually unassuming as well. Only recently, the Metropolitan Police unveiled a net of steel spikes, to be deployed onto a road, designed to stop vehicles being used in terror attacks. The Talon, which can be deployed by two officers in less than a minute, can stop a vehicle weighing up to 17 tonnes by puncturing its tyres. It is designed to ensure that the vehicle skids in a straight line, significantly reducing risk to crowds. The speed in which it is deployed emphasises the often impetuous nature of vehicle attacks. To contrast this, transport system attacks are far harder to carry out spontaneously. They may be carried out in an amateur fashion, as seen in Parsons Green, but they tend to be coordinated, require more in-depth planning and structured in execution. Traditionally, they also tend to produce a higher number of casualties. Because of this, transport system attacks create a different fear. Millions of people use the tube, network rail and city metro systems each day, so an attack not only spreads fear of the act itself, but chaos and uncertainty about an everyday task – travelling to work. That fear is often what the terrorist desires – disruption to everyday activity. That fear is a lot harder to rid. SO HOW DO WE PREVENT TRANSPORT ATTACKS? It is important to recognise that there are measures which can be introduced, either to reduce the opportunity to commit a terrorist act or at least minimise the impact of such an incident. Writing a few years ago for Counter Terror Business magazine, transport security expert Chris Stevens wrote that ‘transport hubs and environments need to operate in the manner that they are intended; and that knee-jerk, panic-induced ‘disruptive measures need to be avoided’. While much is done within intelligence agencies to prevent attacks from happening, the transport sector, and those involved in the planning and implementation of transport hub design,

should be more concerned with reducing casualty numbers and limiting the consequential chaos of a terrorist attack. Therefore, design considerations become key. The choice of structure layout, space designation, material selection and fitting requirements are essential in the security planning process. Following the 2005 tube bombings, authorities in the capital replaced most of the city’s metal garbage bins with transparent plastic bags hanging from hoops, making the task of placing a bomb within the infrastructure harder to disguise, and, if placed within successfully, less dangerous upon detonation. Further to infrastructure changes, employing more police personnel at transport hot spots has proven successful in limiting the likelihood of an attack. As mentioned previously, Belgian soldiers stopped a would-be suicide bomber at Brussels Central Station in June. In the UK, the British Transport Police deploy Project Servator to detect crime and deter terrorism on the rail network. As part of the programme, deployments are highly visible police patrols designed to identify and prevent a range of criminal activity, from pickpocketing and theft to more serious crimes, including terrorism. This involves both uniformed and plain-clothed officers trained to detect suspicious activity, supported by other resources, such as armed officers, police dogs and a network of surveillance cameras. Describing why Project Servator works, Alun Thomas, assistant chief constable, said: “Working together to create a network of vigilance is the key to making Project Servator a success. Rail staff and people who work at stations are so crucial in the fight against crime because they are our eyes and ears on the network. They know their environment better than anybody, so they will know if something is out of place or doesn’t feel right.” This is an important tool in the fight against terrorism within the transport network. The British Transport Police use the headline ‘We love rush hour, it gives us 300,000 extra pairs of eyes’, similar to the ‘See something, say something’ campaign, created by Homeland Security in the US. The fear of being seen is a useful security measure, although the same premise would not apply to suicide bombers. Additionally, the project encourages vigilance by allowing civilians to be part of the network. Members of "



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SECURITY AND COUNTER TERROR EXPO ! the public who were surveyed during test deployments at Waterloo, Euston and Paddington stations in London in September 2015 found that the majority were reassured by Project Servator deployments, with 64 per cent and 66 per cent saying they would be more likely to report unattended items and suspicious behaviour respectively. With the public more likely to report suspicious activity, and the criminal more fearful of being targeted and caught, the public have reason to feel safer. In response to the Parson’s Green incident, British Transport Police’s Deputy Chief Constable Adrian Hanstock announced that there would be extra police officers across the tube network, while extra officers were highly visible both on board trains and at key stations nationally. Operation Temperer, enacted by the Prime Minister on 15 September, also allowed for extra firearms officers from the Ministry of Defence Police to patrol the UK rail network. Operation Temperer allows for the government to deploy the military to support armed police in a time of high terror threat. It is a temporary measure, first used by the Theresa May in May last year following the attack on Manchester Arena. CHANGING ROUTINES This article has avoided discussing transport security and the threat of terrorism to airports and the aviation sector. Whilst it will continue to do so, it is important

EVEN IF PRE-TRAVEL SEARCH WERE TO BECOME REGULATED AT MAINLINE STATIONS, THE RESOURCES AND ORGANISATIONAL COMPLICATION TO CARRY THIS OUT AT EVERY STATION ALONG A ROUTE WOULD BE BOTH DIFFICULT TO DELIVER AND ENFORCE to look at how airports differ from train stations, underground platforms and other transport hubs. The concept of check-in times, bag scans and body searches are regular at airports across the world. Passengers generally arrive at the airport, on average, two or three hours prior to departure. This enables enough time for bags to be checked-in, hand luggage to be searched, and any extra searches to be conducted by security or police officers. However, passengers understandably expect to be able to turn up to a train station minutes before the train arrives, even buying a ticket as the train pulls into the station or on the train itself. There is an expectation that you can arrive at a train station and board as long as the doors are still open, making monitoring passengers and luggage near impossible. However, perhaps something needs to change to ensure that the train network is more aware of who is boarding carriages and with what. In New York, passengers’ bags are subject to random searches on the metro network. But it

would be another question to remove the randomness of such searches – there is not the time or the personnel, while the transport network, especially in rail, is far too vast for such a policy to work. As Chris Phillips told us, even if pre-travel search were to become regulated at mainline stations, the resources and organisational complication to carry this out at every station along a route would be both difficult to deliver and enforce. With the Home Secretary announcing an additional £24 million for counter terrorism policing, it would be wise to invest some of this into transport security. The attack at Parsons Green underground station may have been unsuccessful, but it is a timely reminder that our transport networks need to be constantly monitored, protected and resilient to terrorist threats. #


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Arana Security specialises in smart card technology, biometric solution and access control. Using the latest in smart technology the company can provide bespoke solutions to suite your organisation. Arana Security provides full end-to-end security solutions, from design and programming to printing and authentication. With extensive experience delivering such solutions internationally to both public and private sector organisations, the company prides itself on working in close collaboration with clients to deliver a solution that adds value. At Arana Security, staff will always try to ensure harmony between quality, reliability and cost. Biometric security is a secure way to authenticate and provide access to a facility or system based on the automatic and instant

deliver risk mitigation solutions bespoke to the prevailing threat environment and budget. CE provides law enforcement and security training in four key areas: intelligence-based training; investigative-based training; specialist police training; and firearms and close protection training. In partnership with Ulster University, CE’s ‘Open Source Intelligence Course’ launched fully online in January 2018. The course provides training in intelligence gathering in the digital era, including social media intelligence training and an introduction to the dark web. FURTHER INFORMATION

verification of an individual’s physical characteristics. Biometric solutions are evolving and the importance of having a secure system is becoming more important. Arana Security specialises in biometric solutions and has developed a Biometric enrolment system which incorporates both ease of use and adaptability. The company will be at Security & Counter Terror Expo, so please visit Stand F35 for details on biometric enrolment systems, EFT generation, digital locking, Iris access control and smart card encoding applications. FURTHER INFORMATION

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SECURITY Security officials and government authorities must learn from the attacks in 2017 to make 2018 a more secure year. Gavin Hepburn, director at ATG Access, describes the importance of ensuring the public is kept safe during the UK’s Chinese New Year celebrations

STEPPING UP SECURITY FOR THE CHINESE NEW YEAR he run-up to Chinese New Year is officially underway. In China, millions will gather for two week-long celebrations that will commence on 16 February to welcome the Year of the Dog. But it’s not just China that will be holding celebrations; here in the UK, many large events are also due to take place. London is expecting around 700,000 people to emerge onto its streets to attend themed parades and events. In fact, London hosts the biggest Chinese New Year event outside of Asia, in terms of the number of people that attend. What’s more, in the Midlands and further north, major cities like Birmingham, Manchester and Newcastle are also preparing to host themed parades, light shows and firework displays. But, with such large volumes of people expected to attend the festive celebrations, it is important that security is stepped up to protect the public from a possible terror attack, especially given the surge of recent attacks that have occurred across Europe.


So, how do we keep the public safe this Chinese New Year? First, let’s take a look back at what security measures were implemented at the recent Christmas events across the UK. AN INCREASED POLICE PRESENCE Many people attending events throughout December – another busy time for outdoor celebrations – will have likely noticed the increased presence of armed and unarmed police officers across the UK. Deploying more police on the streets was in direct response to the recent terror attacks across Europe, such as in London and Barcelona, which led to the UK being placed under a ‘severe’ threat level. In Birmingham, undercover police officers were deployed at the Christmas markets to mingle in with crowds and attendees, and to spot any suspicious behaviour and activity. During the Manchester Christmas markets, meanwhile, armed police officers in plain clothes were deployed for the first time. These were accompanied by traditional armed officers in uniform. "




! 2017 New Year’s celebrations also sparked the introduction of heightened security measures due to growing concerns that an attack could be imminent. More police were present at public events and hotspots, such as at London’s Trafalgar Square. It was also revealed that the Special Air Service (SAS), the UK’s most elite special forces unit, was deployed to protect and monitor crowds in London, Birmingham, Manchester and Edinburgh, as the country welcomed in the New Year. The elite fighting unit was armed with the world’s most powerful sniper rifle in addition to armour-piercing rounds that can bring a moving vehicle to a halt from over a mile away. It is safe to assume that similar tactics will be deployed at the up-and-coming Chinese New Year celebrations, with

armed police officers patrolling public areas to safeguard the large crowds that are expected to gather. BOLLARDS AND BARRIERS TO SECURE THE PERIMETER Heavy-duty concrete bollards and barriers have also been a familiar sight over the recent festive period, with city councils having installed them to bolster security against a potential hostile vehicle attack. In Manchester and Birmingham, for example, heavy-duty barriers were used to create a ring of concrete around the perimeter of the Christmas markets to prevent any vehicles from mounting the pavements. Conversely, Bath City Council decided to install large concrete blocks around key landmarks, such as Bath Abbey, to deter vehicles from entering public walkways. The




council also utilised the large concrete blocks as barriers around the Christmas markets in a further move to keep attendees safe from a vehicle attack. While concrete barriers do provide an increased level of protection against vehicle attacks, they can also create additional dangers because of their size. Where there are thousands of people gathered for an event, the large and intrusive concrete blocks could act as a hindrance more than a help, as their size could obstruct and narrow public pathways. Blockages would also likely occur, which could lead to members of the public injuring themselves by people pushing and trampling on one another if an incident was to happen. FIT FOR PURPOSE AT OUTDOOR EVENTS Security bollards and barriers have advanced a great deal over the past few years. The security sector has had to adapt and innovate new products to ensure it is capable of dealing with the evolving terror threat, mainly hostile vehicle attacks at outdoor events.


Of course, not every public event requires a permanent bollard or barrier solution to be installed. Events that just happen for a short space of time, perhaps once or twice a year, would only need a temporary solution to safeguard the area while the event was underway. Rather than causing huge disruptions, temporary security measures allow for public areas and roads to be closed for a finite period of time before they can be re-opened for their intended use. This is where temporary Hostile Vehicle Mitigation (HVM) barriers present the ideal solution. These temporary barriers are capable of withstanding a direct impact from a vehicle attack – some can even stop a 7,200kg lorry travelling at 32kph in its tracks, and within less than five meters of penetration. And because the barriers have been designed to come in modular, lightweight components, they can be easily transported and installed, making them perfect for use at a temporary events. Securing a road takes just under 30 minutes without the need for heavy

DEPLOYING MORE POLICE ON THE STREETS AT CHRISTMAS WAS IN DIRECT RESPONSE TO THE RECENT TERROR ATTACKS ACROSS EUROPE, SUCH AS IN LONDON AND BARCELONA, WHICH LEAD TO THE UK BEING PLACED UNDER A ‘SEVERE’ THREAT LEVEL machinery, large-scale disruption and extensive road closures. Locations can therefore be secured quickly and just before the event takes place, meaning as little disruption as possible is caused for everyday users of roads and streets. Some temporary barriers have now also been designed to be completely pedestrian permeable, meaning that cyclists, people with prams and those walking on foot can easily pass through. This will prevent large queues from forming in small areas, which will also stop people from injuring themselves or others by pushing to get past. LEARNING FROM 2017 We are in times of great uncertainty, as an attack can never be ruled out. This is

leaving governments and security officials with the difficult challenge of keeping people safe by predicting and preventing future attacks from happening. It is important that people feel safe whilst attending public events, so security measures must be capable of dealing with threats, whilst ensuring they don’t cause distress or disruption to the general public. Security officials and government authorities must learn from the attacks in 2017 to make 2018 a more secure year. If not, then we may sadly witness yet more devastating attacks. #




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Since the 2016 Nice lorry attack, there have been similar attacks in Berlin, London and Barcelona. Simon Towers, chairman of the Perimeter Security Suppliers Association, examines the threat of vehicles as a weapon for terrorism, and how perimeter security products can aid against the threat

VEHICLES AS A WEAPON: HAVE I GOT A PROBLEM AT MY LOCATION? W e have seen a dramatic increase in the use of vehicles as a terrorist weapon since 2016. Virtually any location with a reasonable density of people on foot has become a potential target for such attacks and those that have taken place have been with a variety of vehicles used as the weapon (VAW). Since the June 2016 lorry attack on pedestrians in Nice there have been VAW attacks at a Berlin Christmas market, Westminster, London Bridge, Stockholm, and Las Ramblas in Barcelona. These are examples rather than an exhaustive list but they alone represent 130 deaths and over 700 injuries.

in a number of the most recent terror attacks has been the use of commonly available VAW. We believe it is clear, therefore, that as a nation we currently face a daily threat of terrorist action on our shores and that we should anticipate the use of vehicles as part of the future threat. Anyone responsible for the safety and security of premises or an event location has a clear duty of care. Therefore, in the current climate of heightened security awareness, they should be considering the extent to which vehicle or vehicle borne terrorist attacks may be a realistic threat to the people or premises that they are seeking to protect.

HAVE I GOT A PROBLEM? In recent times we have experienced a significant increase in the number of calls into the office from people and organisations trying to assess whether or not they have a potential problem with VAW and, if so, where they can get help in addressing the problem. The Perimeter Security Suppliers Association (PSSA) viewpoint on this is that the current threat level for both international and Northern Ireland-related terrorism in the UK is SEVERE, which, as defined by the UK security services, means a terror attack of some description is highly likely. As illustrated, a common theme

ASSESSING THE PROBLEM It can sometimes be very easy to do a too superficial assessment of hostile vehicle issues that may be faced by a particular location or event and then jump straight to the product selection stage. This in turn can lead to a product solution that is not necessarily the best available or one that is more expensive than necessary, or both. PSSA advocates spending an appropriate amount of effort in properly assessing the possible threat and in identifying the operational requirements of a location. Help is available in this regard from a number of sources including the National "



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Electrical barrier with double curtain Barriers with double curtain are being used for entrances needing a protection both against vehicles and persons in combination with the speed of an electrical barrier. USPs of Axel Tiede electrical barriers with double curtain out of perforated edge profile: • Reduced wind pressure by perforated Axel Tiede edge profile • Reduced wind pressure by open shaped Axel Tiede boom profile • High stability by perforated Axel Tiede edge profile • Compact barrier housing • Double curtain reaching to the end of barrier housing • Sturdy guide of double curtain • Connection between double curtain and hinged pendulum • Swivel points of double curtain out of plastic bushing (no aluminum wear and no black stripes) • Height of double curtain up to 2 m • Maximum passing width due to Axel Tiede hinging mechanism • Length of boom up to 10 m

Mobile protection Mobile protection is being used for construction sites and events as well as for covering temporary needs in general. Axel Tiede is providing plug-in equipment for purchase or rent.

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PERIMETER SECURITY ! Counter Terrorism Security Office (NaCTSO), Police Counter Terrorism Security Advisors (CTSAs), the website of the Centre for the Protection of National Infrastructure (CPNI) – as well as specialist private sector security consultants. NaCTSO is the police unit that supports the ‘protect and prepare’ strands of the government’s counter terrorism strategy. It has produced an excellent updated Crowded Places guidance document that provides plenty of help and advice for all sorts of locations, and can be downloaded from the NaCTSO website. NaCTSO also supports a network of circa 190 CTSAs who work within local police forces as officers and staff whose primary role is to provide more local help. They offer advice and guidance on all aspects of counter terrorism protective security and we regularly recommend organisations who are seeking assistance to contact their local CTSA. Similarly the CPNI website provides an abundance of general advice and some very good downloadable documents with regards to hostile vehicle mitigation. This includes help with considerations such as determining the type of vehicle-borne threat being faced, how to assess the strengths and vulnerabilities of any site to vehicle-borne threats, and how to reduce the vulnerability of any site and mitigate vehicle-borne threats to it. Support and assistance in assessing the potential hostile vehicle issues of any particular location can also be sought from the private sector. One

THE CURRENT THREAT LEVEL IN THE UK IS SEVERE, WHICH, AS DEFINED BY THE UK SECURITY SERVICES, MEANS A TERROR ATTACK OF SOME DESCRIPTION IS HIGHLY LIKELY such source recommended by CPNI is to look for a company or individual that is listed on the Register of Security Engineers and Specialists (RSES). Another is to look for a company or individual that is a member of the PSSA. A further new online source of help and information about hostile vehicle mitigation is being launched in March 2018. The HVMhub initiative has been developed by the PSSA with the support of the Joint Security and Resilience Centre (JSaRC, a division of the Home Office) in direct response to the increased threat of VAW and will include a host of information including threat risk assessment and operational requirement guidance, solution considerations, product options, testing standards explanations, spec writing and installer selection tips, links to other reputable sources of information, and relevant downloadable documents. Relevant parties will also be able to gain access to the HVMhub Continuous Professional Development (CPD) seminar programme whereby PSSA trained presenters can attend at your premises to present the latest industry information on a variety of hostile vehicle mitigation topics.

SOLUTION CONSIDERATIONS As stated earlier, selecting the most suitable product or solution for a site in order to mitigate a threat from either a vehicle borne improvised explosive device (VBIED) or use of a VAW should normally start by reference to the site specific threat risk assessment which in turn will have informed a site specific operational requirement document. This document will be key to helping identify the performance characteristics that are required from HVM solutions to help negate the previously identified threat(s). PSSA also recommends that any products or solutions selected should match not only the assessed threat but also any realistically anticipated future increase in that threat. When considering possible solutions, it is important to be clear about the requirement in terms of ‘is it a temporary or a permanent need?’. A temporary solution (e.g. for one off events) is often best resolved by products that are surface mounted thereby saving on potentially expensive foundation requirements. Permanent solutions will normally require foundations in the ground so an understanding of the depths available for equipment "





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PERIMETER SECURITY ! foundations is essential (shallow mounted equipment often comes with a premium cost). Understanding how the foundations are to be drained can also be essential to avoid subsequent operational issues and in some instances this may require sump pumps linked to existing drains which can add to the complexity of the solution. In deciding upon a method of HVM it is also prudent to consider any possible ‘knock on’ effects in case of unintentionally creating an operational problem elsewhere. For example: will the introduction of HVM at a particular point create traffic queuing on to public highways? If so, how do you mitigate this problem (a queue of traffic can, ironically, be an effective barrier in its own right). Frequency of operation is another important consideration as the equipment selected should always be robust enough for your intended use. It has to be available when needed and should be capable of continuous uninterrupted operation at the necessary speed (100 per cent duty cycling) if heavy traffic (general or peak) is anticipated. As well as considering the functional product performance we suggest also taking into account the immediate environment. For example, rising bollards can be made to have a more sympathetic aesthetic quality when compared to road blockers which give a more emphatic message on access restriction. Understanding the message the equipment will send can lead to a more socially acceptable solution. INDEPENDENT TESTING AND STANDARDS The first impact testing standard to be developed, US DoS SD-STD-02.01, was as a consequence of VBIED attacks

IN DECIDING UPON A METHOD OF HVM, YOU SHOULD ALSO CONSIDER ANY POSSIBLE ‘KNOCK ON’ EFFECTS IN CASE OF CREATING AN OPERATIONAL PROBLEM in 1983 against a US military target in Beirut. This standard was originally published by the Bureau of Diplomatic Security and issued in 1985. It quickly became the international benchmark for impact testing standards – until the UK’s PAS 68 standard was released in 2005. References to the old US standard are still seen in specifications today (K4, K8, K12) even though this has long since been superseded by newer testing protocols on both sides of the Atlantic. The US DoS standard was replaced in 2007 by the US ASTM F2656-07 standard (subsequently updated to ASTM F2656-15) which was similar to the PAS 68 standard (last issue PAS 68: 2013). This was itself latterly transformed into a CEN Workshop Agreement – CWA 16221:2010. An International Workshop Agreement standard (IWA14-1:2013) was introduced in 2013 to enable the harmonisation of the US ASTM F2656, CWA 16221:2010 and UK PAS68 testing standards. The testing criteria of the latest release of ASTM F2656-15 moves towards harmonisation with IWA14-1:2013. Regardless of which of the above testing standards you encounter in use around the world, it is important to understand that impact testing to a recognised standard is designed to give confidence in a product as it has undergone actual physical testing rather than just being the result of theoretical evaluation. The key to having

this confidence results from these tests being independently conducted to a specific standard by a suitably accredited testing organisation rather than just being reliant on the claims of an individual manufacturer. INDEPENDENTLY-TESTED PRODUCTS The marketplace for protection measures currently includes a wide selection of powered or manually-operated entry point control systems (active barriers) as well as static or fixed barrier solutions (passive barriers). Many of these measures are available as both temporary and permanent solutions and can be conventional foundation-mounted, shallow foundation-mounted or surface-mounted. This gives the end-user a wide range of possible solutions covering most eventualities with proven performance against vehicles up to 7,500kg in weight impacting at up to 80km/hour. The main categories of products that have been developed to counter hostile vehicles are fences, gates, bollards, road blockers, rising arm barriers, street furniture, pedestrian portals and longitudinal barriers. In each of these categories there are a wide variety of tested products available of varying performance and appearance providing a huge range of options available in order to tackle potential hostile vehicle issues specific to any particular situation. The HVM industry as a whole also continues to develop innovative solutions as it seeks to mitigate not only existing but also future developing threats linked to the use of vehicles in terrorist attacks. The PSSA is the foremost trade body specifically representing the interests of HVM manufacturers both in the UK and from around the world. It was formed with the specific aim of promoting best practice amongst its many leading industry members, whilst helping to ensure end user confidence in its members, their products and services. #

The PSSA is the trade association for companies involved in the supply and installation of products designed to provide high levels of physical protection and intruder detection for sites and their external perimeters in all circumstances where terrorist or criminal attack is a perceived risk.



Complete perimeter protection solutions under one roof Heras designs, manufactures, supplies, installs and services complete perimeter protection solutions across the UK.


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Effective perimeter protection With the inclusion of Geoquip (detection) and product category Broughton (entrance control) directly under the Heras brand name, the offer is clear: 1. Complete perimeter protection solutions including: demarcation, entrance controls and detection product categories 2. Enhanced service and maintenance protection 3. SigniďŹ cantly improve perimeter protection project and integration support Experts in perimeter protection



TAKING A HOLISTIC APPROACH TO PERIMETER PROTECTION Today, the UK’s critical national infrastructure (CNI) continues to face real threats from terrorism, espionage and other hostile activity. Threats are not limited to public places, such as crowded events, but the economy is at risk too from attacks to business premises from critical utilities to defence, blue light or other protection organisations

So, it is increasingly important for CNI organisations to assess their security measures. An effective security strategy should cover an entire organisation’s security requirements from physical assets, through to cyber, data as well as stakeholder awareness, behaviour and culture, including buy-in from the board. The government’s National Counter Terrorism Security Office (NaCTSO) states that: “Businesses can reduce the risk to themselves, their employees and customers by remaining vigilant, being security-minded and having good security measures in place. A small investment in security measures helps to protect businesses against crime and make the work of terrorists and hostile foreign states more difficult.” FIRST LINE OF DEFENCE Physical perimeter security is often the first line of defence against a malicious attack and so it’s important for organisations to prioritise protecting their boundaries and facilities from threats and vandalism. In order to have the best possible chance to deter, delay, and detect unwanted intrusion while simultaneously enabling controlled access for authorised parties, organisations need to take an holistic approach to physical perimeter protection. If organisation focuses on just one or two elements for example, access control, it potentially leaves a weak point in the strategy. So how can CNI organisations best protect their physical premises, perimeters, as well as staff and other assets? Adopting best practice starts by getting back to basics and conducting risk assessments and understanding any operational requirements so that an appropriate security strategy can be developed and safeguards put in place. To achieve complete security protection for physical assets, it is necessary to implement high security systems that have been designed to offer high deterrence and increase the amount of time and effort that is required to attack and get through, over or under them. Organisations should consider building

security in layers. According to Heras, experts in perimeter protection, there are the three main building blocks: building a barrier, controlling access points, and monitoring systems to detect or prevent someone or something bypassing. Firstly, demarcation defines the boundary of a location where a protective barrier or fence should be installed. Once this has been mapped, the boundary requires secure and controlled entry points for both vehicles and pedestrians. Reliable automatic intruder detection is then needed to identify unauthorised personnel crossing a perimeter. The detection technology can integrate with an organisation’s overall security management system to ensure control room staff are notified in real time of any potential intruder. Enhanced cyber technologies can offer an additional layer of protection for physical security. It is becoming increasingly common for attackers to threaten both physical and cyber, for example by creating false alarms that affect security perimeter systems as a means of a diversion. There are some simple techniques to stop basic intrusions such as firewalls and decent password protection, but todays hackers are becoming more adept at breaking and entering. Instead, Cyber Assurance for Physical Security Systems (CAPSS) look at the risks to the communication and electronic equipment within perimeter security systems to ensure they are secure. It helps prevent detection control equipment from being compromised so that false alarms or bogus information cannot be triggered by an attacker. It also can prevent cameras from being compromised, which may otherwise allow attackers to alter video images displayed on screens in the control room. Some perimeter protection suppliers, like Heras, also offer free consultancy services, which can be valuable in assessing what measures are appropriate and defining the best and most cost effective solution to meet various security and safety requirements of individual organisations. This could be

a combination of the three main layers (demarcation, entrance control and perimeter intruder detection systems) along with other technologies and products to increase effectiveness. Recently rebranded Heras now designs, manufactures, supplies, installs and services high security perimeter protection solutions across the UK, and internationally via export, for business, community and industry sectors. With over 65 years operating in the high security sector, the company offers a complete and wholly owned, end to end solution for all physical assets, helping to protect what customers value most. Threats to the UK critical national infrastructure are very real and organisations should be considering what the appropriate security measures are for their own individual needs. As part of a holistic security strategy, protecting physical assets is an important way to reduce the risk of attack. Above all, protecting property, assets and data is about limiting the potential of disruption to business continuity and reducing risks for people. Lives and livelihoods depend on effective perimeter protection and safety and security cannot be left to chance. #





In its annual review, the National Cyber Security Centre reported preventing a total of 79,567 attacks. But how successful has the organisation been and what else can it do to help safeguard the UK? David Warburton discusses

IS THE NCSC DOING ENOUGH AGAINST CYBER THREATS? T he digital sector is now worth over £118 billion annually to our economy and the cyber security stakes are higher than ever. The UK government is on high alert, having launched the National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC) a year ago to position the UK as the ‘safest place in the world’ for online engagement and business. Working with private, public and other specialist organisations, its purpose is to provide accessible preparatory and mitigative guidance and support. As a statement of intent, the initiative,



which is part of a wider £1.9 billion cyber security investment, has prompted much action and discussion. It is also ahead of the pack in many respects, preceding similar moves in both the US and China. But how successful has the NCSC been to date? What else can be done to safeguard the UK against a relentless cyber security onslaught? A YEAR OF CYBER AGGRESSION In its annual review, the NCSC reported preventing a total of 79,567 attacks. 590 were classified as significant, including

CYBER DEFENCE incidents related to key national institutions like the NHS and the UK and Scottish Parliaments. Over the past year, it has produced over 200,000 protective items for Armed Forces communications. Its Cyber Security Information Sharing Partnership (CiSP) with industry grew by 43 per cent. Following the WannaCry ransomware outbreak there were over 23,000 visitors to the NCSC’s online platform, including 15,000 during the first weekend. Other notable achievements include the Active Cyber Defence programme, which claims to have helped reduce the average lifetime for a phishing site hosted in the UK from 27 hours to less than an hour. The NCSC’s work is clearly a strong step in the right direction and its remit is continually expanding. As it evolves, it is important to build on its collaborative momentum, sharing best-practice, as well as strengthening its governmental and industry-specific alliances on a global scale. Looking further ahead, it also needs to do better to catalyse the notion of ‘security by design’ and, crucially, substantively address a growing skills-gap. IMPLEMENTING SECURITY BY DESIGN All-encompassing security must entail the rollout of a long-term strategy, specifically and sustainably structured to safeguard the future. A reactionary band-aid for the present is no use to anyone. New findings from the Ponemon Institute have yet again emphasised that the cost of a breach inevitably eclipses the cost of protection. Security by design means all operating systems, browser software and apps must be explicitly designed to safeguard against the latest threats. There is hope that the NCSC will ramp up its direct work with organisations to encourage proactive approaches to security. Cyber security threats are broad but also idiosyncratic – there is no on-size-fits-all to staying safe. It all starts with understanding the risks, including independent security testing and seeking consultancy from expert third parties. IT teams must evaluate where data is stored and ensure networks are built with security at the heart. Security architects and risk owners should assume that devices will get compromised and determine how best to segregate data in the event of a breach. Automatic device and system updates are vital, as is the constant monitoring of all user activity to spot anomalous behaviour. Setting a minimum-security requirement, as well as educating students and staff on safe password etiquette, should also be mandatory. Internal awareness-raising is another top priority. Employees are often the weakest link in an organisation’s defence. IT security is everyone’s responsibility and it cannot be left to a small team

of experts. For many, it will involve behavioural changes and cultural shifts. The NCSC needs to help bring about these step-changes on a wider scale. TACKLING THE SKILLS SHORTAGE Globally, we are facing a chronic cyber security skills crisis. According to the Center for Cyber Safety and Education’s 2017 Global Information Security Workforce Study, Europe will be understaffed to the tune of 1.8 million skilled professionals by 2022 – 15 per cent higher than predicted in 2015. No matter how advanced technology becomes, security teams will struggle to keep up with increasing threats if the talent pool remains limited. Collectively, government, education and industry need to take more responsibility for helping young people to channel their talent and choose a career in cyber security. Education must prepare students early by treating digital skills with equal importance as other core subjects. Meanwhile, college and university courses need to offer the right balance of knowledge and practical application of skills to cultivate a future workforce ready to tackle real world threats. Teachers also require better access to resources to bring the subject matter to life. Businesses have to take responsibility too and offer a wider range of internships and programmes to provide relevant, real-world experience, including mentoring from cybersecurity professionals.

HOW SUCCESSFUL HAS THE NATIONAL CYBER SECURITY CENTRE BEEN TO DATE? AND WHAT ELSE CAN BE DONE TO SAFEGUARD THE UK AGAINST A RELENTLESS CYBER SECURITY ONSLAUGHT? DEFENDING OUR FUTURE The NCSC is not a cyber security panacea, but it is certainly an effective initiative and reminder for all organisations to drive change. While we need stronger policies, collaboration and resources from the top, organisations cannot afford to remain idle and expect to be hand-held to safety. Cyber security is a collective responsibility. Threats will be bigger, more complex and unpredictable in 2018. Now is the time to build security into every juncture of design, process and online interaction. Now is the time to leave no stone unturned in the hunt for the best talent. #

David Warburton is Senior Systems Engineer for Government and Defence at F5 Networks.





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The 5th annual CBRNe Summit Europe conference and exhibition will be heading back to Rome to evaluate the developments in CBRNe capabilities across Europe. CTB previews the event

ASSESSING CBRNE CAPABILITIES IN EUROPE he threat of CBRNe attacks across Europe is continuing to increase year on year. In line with this, CBRNe Summit Europe continues to grow annually and provides delegates with unrivalled access to public sector officials from across Europe, Middle East, Americas and South-East Asia in one place. Many CBRNe threats are developing and many terrorist cells are looking at different ways to create destruction across major cities in Europe. The event, being held on 17-19 April, will focus on many aspects of CBRNe to provide visitors with a complete overview of the challenges faced to our first responders, emergency services and military in responding to new style attacks in our urban cities. The 2018 show will focus on the following topics over the two day conference and exhibition: Italian CBRNe Capabilities and Challenges; Maritime CBRNe threats; Chem-Bio Countermeasure Development; CBRNe Forensics; Countering IEDs; and Security in Public Spaces – Increasing CBRNe threats and Military-Civil CBRNe Response Cooperation. Sessions on day one of the conference will look at training techniques for


military personnel on CBRNe incidents, where Brigadier General Sossio Andreottola, of Italy’s Ministry of Defence, will share his experiences, before his colleague Colonel Fabrizio Benigni, Commander of the 7th NBC Defence Regiment ‘CREMONA’, will provide an overview of the current military CBRNe capabilities. PUBLIC SPACE PROTECTION CBRNe threats are growing alongside public safety protection. In that stream of the show, moderated by Gen. Div. (r) Antonio Badalucco, a panel will be presented to look at the importance of keeping civilians safe from continued threats in public spaces. Professor Luisa Borgia, deputy president of the National Bioethics Committee of Republic of San Marino, will assess CBRNe events and bioethics, while Professor Robert Chilcott, head of Toxicology at the University of Hertfordshire will present the UK perspective with a case study on acid attacks and UK response. William Alberque, head of Arms Control and Coordination Section for NATO’s Political Affairs and Security Policy Division will provide an overview of NATO CBRNe capabilities, with following

sessions covering NATO cooperation with European national and international training and development to bring further awareness of CBRNe threats. After the event, delegates should come away with a complete and diverse understanding of how national first responders deal with CBRNe attacks from preparations, response, decon, recovery, forensics and lessons learnt, hearing in-depth presentations from leading officials on different CBRNe threats. As well as reviewing different threat scenarios, show hosts, Intelligence Sec, will also be looking at new emerging CBRNe threats during the conference such as CBRNe threats in the maritime domain which is becoming a major concern to the Italian Navy. Another developing threat is the capability of terrorist cells using drones with chem-bio payloads to attack public places for mass casualties. During the conference these new challenges will be discussed and efforts to mitigate against explored. !

FURTHER INFORMATION cbrne-summit-europe-2018



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The UK’s policing lead for protective security, Deputy Assistant Commissioner Lucy D’Orsi, has called for private companies and the commercial sector to buy-in to a ‘Protect Duty’ and work with police and partners to help to keep the public safe

PROTECTIVE SECURITY KEY TO FUTURE EVENTS PLANNING ddressing policing and government officials from around the world at the UK Security Expo in London at the end of 2017, the Metropolitan Police’s Deputy Assistant Commissioner Lucy D’Orsi stressed the importance for the commercial sector to start factoring protective security measures into event planning and new infrastructure projects at the earliest possible stage. She said: “Methodologies to protect our cities from the increasing terrorist threat are constantly evolving, to ensure that we are prepared to effectively respond and recover from attacks. We in policing will rightly lead on this vital work, but there is always a limit to what we can do and I believe


that our colleagues in the private sector also have an important part to play.” D’Orsi made the comments while co-chairing a ‘Safer Cities’ round table discussion alongside the Home Office, created in conjunction with the Cross-sector Safety and Security Communications (CSSC), and hosting officials from Melbourne, Barcelona, Brussels and Rotterdam. The event was opened by former UK Security Minister, Admiral Lord West of Spithead, who outlined the aim of sharing best practice and lessons learnt from recent incidents. Stressing that ‘terrorists are good at learning from each other, we should be too’, he highlighted recent MET and MI5 briefings which stated that ‘the tempo and "



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TERRORISM RESPONSE ! ferocity of recent terrorist attacks are now the new norm and not a blip’. The panel, chaired by Philip Ingram MBE, shared their local context and background, then went on to contribute ideas for the benefit all those for responsible for security around the world. The purpose was to bring together representatives from cities which have been recently affected by terrorism, to share collective experience of dealing with attacks in the hope it can promote best practice and help keep the global public safer. FUTURE EVENTS PLANNING D’Orsi used the platform to appeal to companies to make protective security key to their future events planning and building management. She said: “Terrorists are using low sophistication, high impact methodologies which are often planned and executed in a short time frame, minimising our ability to disrupt attacks before they occur. Protective security is therefore a key strand of our activity to reduce the impact of attacks. The private sector has become more willing partners in recent years. Together we have developed communications packages like CSSC and have partnered with business under the Step Change initiative – but to do more to protect the public we need to deliver a more fundamental shift of approach.

THE PURPOSE OF SAFE CITIES WAS TO BRING TOGETHER REPRESENTATIVES FROM CITIES WHICH HAVE BEEN RECENTLY AFFECTED BY TERRORISM AND TO SHARE OUR COLLECTIVE EXPERIENCE OF DEALING WITH ATTACKS “The police have a duty to protect the public from terrorist threats, but many responsible private sector entities are already asking how they, too, can contribute. By sharing this ‘duty’ more widely we can increase its reach, scope and efficacy even further.” Senior officers working for Counter Terrorism Policing are developing plans for how policing can better support the private sector in contributing to the UK’s collective protective security measures. These include developing accredited private sector security advisory services, creating bespoke products and communications networks for specific sectors, such as entertainment venues or commercial buildings. Specialist officers could also support testing and exercising across the country to ensure a national standard of security training across private sector workers, as well as developing develop protocols and systems which would allow for the police and government to recover the costs of the use of national assets to protect private events.

D’Orsi added: “Private companies looking to host public events or begin new infrastructure projects must meet stringent targets to ensure they have valid fire safety certificates, and I see no reason why we can’t do the same for Protective Security measures. Similarly, commercial entities such as football clubs must contribute to the policing operations which protect their sites and their customers. So surely it is only right they do the same when utilising national protective security resources. “I know from speaking to private sector representatives that the vast majority of private companies are ready to work alongside police to make the UK safer place, and I believe we now have the blueprints to make that a reality by making our public spaces as hostile as possible for those looking to do us harm.” #



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Behavioural Analysis 2018 is a two-day security conference exploring non-racial profiling, stress responses, behavioural indicators and tactical risk analysis techniques. Counter Terror Business looks ahead to the show

IDENTIFYING HOSTILE AND CRIMINAL INTENT ver the past few years, transportation hubs, entertainment venues, sporting events, markets, beaches, museums, places of worship and city centres have all witnessed callous acts of terrorism, let alone actions by those with psychological problems, which have resulted in fatalities and serious injuries to unsuspecting members of the general public.

O 66

Behavioural Analysis 2018 delegates will be gathering in the iconic Principality Stadium in Cardiff on 14-15 March to look at the behavioural traits of the, often suicidal, perpetrators and consider how the early identification of such indicators might have helped prevent the attacks being successful. It will also importantly look at how behavioural analysis techniques can enhance the security of an event or any given venue.


Behavioural analysis and crowd surveillance techniques are used in a broad range of different environments and the event kicks off with a look at some industry sectors where presenters explain how surveillance has enhanced security and addressed specific challenges beyond that of terrorism. Michael Whine, of the Community Security Trust, will be speaking about â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Places of Worship: communities

BEHAVIOURAL ANALYSIS protecting themselves’, whilst Andrew Wolfe Murray of Theseus Partners will be talking about ‘Sporting Events: combatting court-siding and gambling’. Finally, human trafficking will be examined, from a transportation industry perspective, by Sarah-Jane Prew of the Wales Anti-Slavery Leadership Group. There are a number of case studies during the event, including from London’s The O2 Arena, from Munich’s Oktoberfest, how behavioural detection was incorporated into security operations of the British Transport Police, and, from Romania, the impact of behavioural analysis for those responsible for observing, targeting, engaging and responding to those who may pose a serious threat to airport safety and security. In a session on ‘The Biology of Fear & Deception’, delegates will learn about some popular misconceptions regarding behavioural analysis. In ‘Fight, Flight or, Perhaps, Freeze: anxiety isn’t always what it seems’, Louise Jupe of the University of Portsmouth sets out to explain the way in which our bodies might emit indications of discomfort or anxiety. Delegates will gain a better understanding of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, the

BEHAVIOURAL ANALYSIS DOES NOT NECESSARILY MEAN SUBJECTIVE DECISION MAKING AND THERE ARE EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES WHICH MIGHT HELP IDENTIFY PERSONS WITH NEGATIVE INTENT Halo Effect’ explaining our predisposition to view more attractive individuals as innocent and those less so as being more likely guilty of committing a crime. In a panel discussion on ‘Religious Sensitivities in Security Decision-Making’, representatives of Jewish, Muslim and Sikh faith consider challenges their communities face, both in terms of stereotyping and subsequent screening. There are some anti-social and illegal activities which impact a broad range of industries. Theseus Partners’ David James sets out the ‘Profile of the Fixated Threat in Action’, whilst the ‘Profile of Group Offenders’ is presented by Dr Jessica Woodhams, co-director of the Centre for Crime, Justice and Policing at the University of Birmingham. The ‘Profile of Frotteurs & Sexual Deviants’ is described by Dr Lynsey Gozna of the University of Leicester, and that of the cyber criminal by Nadine Touzeau from France.

‘WHO BECOMES A SUICIDAL TERRORIST AND WHY?’ IS A QUESTION OFTEN POSED. MORE APPROPRIATELY FOR THIS CONFERENCE, WE ADDRESS THE QUESTION OF HOW IS THE SUICIDAL TERRORIST SELECTED AND WHAT TRAINING DO THEY UNDERGO? ‘THE SUICIDAL TERRORIST: RECRUITMENT & TRAINING’ WILL BE PRESENTED BY ISRAELI CRIMINOLOGIST DR SAGIT YEHOSHUA fight or flight response and how we might (or might not) be able to identify deception through observation of visible physiological reactions to stressors. The presentation will also consider what steps those with ill intent might take to cover up signs of stress which would otherwise be emitted and the reasons why not every liar displays signs of nervousness in the first place. It’s impossible to consider behavioural analysis without considering ‘Stereotyping, Perception & Racial Profiling’. Colombian man. Thai woman. The phrases conjure up intuitive stereotypical images, often negative in nature and unfairly so. Humour is also based on such stereotypes, hence concepts such as the Irish joke or Jewish joke. The terrorist threat is often perceived to be exclusively Islamic nature, regardless of the statistics. How exactly do such intuitive judgments affect and bias our decisions? Wim De Neys, of Université Paris Descartes, explores ‘Intuitive Bias’. Also Ran Cohen, of the SDR® Academy in The Netherlands, presents on ‘Good Looking People & the

From a policing perspective, Nick Glynn of the Open Society Initiative for Europe will set out the challenges of stop and search, whilst Mick Neville will explain how super recognisers rely on the human brain, rather than technology, to identify threats, and how police forces are now deploying them in order to detect known terrorists, criminals or, in a sports stadium, hooligans. Behavioural analysis does not necessarily mean subjective decision making. There are emerging technologies which might help security agencies identify persons with negative intent. Intelligent CCTV (Simon Moore, Cardiff University), Facial Thermographs (Reyer Zwiggelaar, Aberystwyth University) and Layered Voice Analysis (Amir Liberman, Nemesysco) are just three of the solutions which will be presented. It’s all very well identifying an individual with negative intent, but how should the security services react? Charlotte Hudson, of the University of Portsmouth, will present on ‘The Art of Questioning’ and Ofir Malka, of SafeZones Germany, will cover ‘Emergency Response: when you

think the threat is real’. After all, perhaps the greatest challenge for the security operative is knowing what to do when they feel a person they initially suspected of having negative intent is actually about to commit a criminal act. All too often responses become watered down by either excessive reporting channels or a preference for keeping people under surveillance... potentially until it’s too late. At one end of the scale the observer may be faced with the protestor, who means no harm, or streaker who is exhibitionist in nature, yet at the other end is the suicidal terrorist who must be stopped before reaching their intended target. The insider threat is one of the most significant concerns for the security services – the trusted individual morphing into the attacker. How can organisations best identify the employee who poses a threat – particularly those who may been radicalised – and, having done so, how is that threat best managed? The subject of ‘Insider Threat Response: identifying radicalisation in the workplace’ will be addressed by Dr Usama Hasan of the Quilliam Foundation. Over the past few years there have been an abundance of attacks perpetrated by heavily armed individuals with a range of ideologies and psychological mindsets, the massacre in Las Vegas being the most recent example. How can gun crime be anticipated? In a paper entitled Marauding Firearms Attacks: not always by suicidal terrorists, Leeran Gold of Promises Healthcare, Singapore, examines the profile of those who kill en-masse. Who becomes a suicidal terrorist and why? It’s a question often posed. More appropriately for this conference, we address the question of how is the suicidal terrorist selected and what training do they undergo? ‘The Suicidal Terrorist: recruitment & training’ will be presented by Israeli criminologist Dr Sagit Yehoshua. And, last but not least, in a paper entitled The Proof of the Pudding: attacks against aviation identified by behavioural analysis, Green Light’s Philip Baum demonstrates how behavioural analysis techniques have actively prevented suicidal attacks against the aviation industry and how might the lessons be adopted by those involved in securing sports stadia, entertainment venues, festivals and tourist attractions. !




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PHYSICAL SECURITY James Kelly, chief executive of the British Security Industry Association, discusses the importance of having a physical security presence across the UK’s national infrastructure to ensure that in the event of an unforeseen attack there is a basic level of physical defence at all times

REMOTE RADICALISATION: MITIGATING THE RISKS I n January 2018 a report by Max Hill QC, the Independent Reviewer of Terrorism Legislation, warned that terrorists are being ‘remotely radicalised’ online in a new trend driving a rising threat to the UK. Worryingly, the report highlighted that methods of attack are diversifying as plans become harder to detect. Stopping terrorists in their tracks before plans come to effect is always the preferable outcome. However, with terrorist radicalisation increasingly happening in cyber space, government security forces are under immense pressure when it comes to pin-pointing individuals or groups that pose the highest risk to the British population. Reflecting on current operations, the Director General of MI5, Andrew Parker, recently said that the tempo of counter terrorism operations was the highest he had seen in his 34-year career. With terrorist radicalisation and planning dramatically changing from just a few years ago where would-be terrorists were using text messages, meeting up in person and buying bomb-making materials in local shops, it is more important than ever that the necessary physical measures are put in place as the first line of defence should a planned attack go undetected. Without effective physical security in place, the devastating consequences of attacks are severely multiplied.

PROTECTING THE PUBLIC Terrorist targets typically focus on areas open to the public with dense populations in order to cause the highest possible damage and loss of life possible. As seen in recent attacks across Europe, a huge amount of damage can occur in a very short timeframe. Therefore, it is crucial that spaces open to the public – whether internal or external – have a basic level of physical security at all times. As seen in the Westminster and London Bridge attacks, outside spaces can be incredibly hard to safeguard against terrorist attacks. A challenge for designers and planners when considering appropriate protection against a terrorist attack is balancing urban design principles against the implementation of effective counter terror measures. That is, creating an environment that retains and attracts people to places whilst also keeping them safe and secured against attacks. Invisibly integrated components such as structurally enhanced bus shelters, lamp columns, benches or cycle racks can help prevent vehicle-borne attacks on pedestrianised areas while maintaining practical aesthetic appeal. Other hostile vehicle mitigation (HVM) techniques include making use of bollards, concrete planters and other physical architecture, or more mobile solutions such as water or sand filled barriers that are lifted into place to provide some, but not "




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THE PROJECT GRIFFIN INITIATIVE HAS BEEN EQUIPPING PRIVATE SECURITY OFFICERS WITH INVALUABLE COUNTER TERROR TRAINING SO THAT THEY ARE ABLE TO GAIN A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF THE THREAT OF TERRORISM # guaranteed, protection. Rudimentary temporary solutions may also include other vehicles – potentially emergency vehicles – and boulders, concrete blocks or other heavy objects that can be relatively easily moved at reduced cost. BLAST RESISTANCE Protection against explosive or penetrative (ramming) attacks is another consideration when it comes to physical counter terror measures in spaces open to the public. External barriers or a strengthened perimeter will help prevent terrorists accessing crowded areas such as stadiums, concert halls, museums or retail centres. Similarly, building materials can play a crucial role. By using materials which have a reduced risk of fragmentation, such as blast resistant glazing, and structural design which reduces the risk of building collapse, the devastating

effects of explosions in public spaces can be dramatically reduced. Where possible, doors and locks should also be able to withstand entry from armed intruders. To achieve this, good quality five-lever mortise locks can be fitted to doors, or better still, high security cylinder locks. Doors should also be strong and in good condition, complying with the essential British Standard PAS 24-1 ‘Doors of Enhanced Security’. Locks should also be fitted to windows, especially those that are on the ground floor of a building or accessible – such as from a flat roof. Where windows are out of sight of CCTV cameras, a grille or shutter may also be necessary. Making use of robust ground floor façade materials will help to provide cover in the event of a firearms attack. BUILDING MANAGEMENT FACILITIES It is vital that building management systems are put in place with counter terror measures in mind. For example, by separating general heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems for entrance areas, delivery areas and mailrooms from those occupying the central spaces of a building it is possible to safeguard a large percentage of the building’s population from air-borne or chemical attacks. In order to prevent attacks making use of hazardous materials that may already be stored on site or nearby, potentially dangerous materials should always be stored a safe distance from a building.

Outbuildings also require a high quality lock in order to protect their contents. Where possible, communication systems, such as public-address systems should also be installed to pass on advice to members of the public caught in a terrorist attack. COUNTER TERROR TRAINING Another effective way of maximising physical security measures across the UK’s national infrastructure is exposing those who work daily in public spaces to effective counter terror training so that in the event of an attack they are able to provide on the spot support and advice. Project Griffin, the national counter terrorism awareness initiative for businesses produced by the UK’s National Counter Terrorism Security Office is an effective resource in this regard. For years the initiative has been equipping private security officers with invaluable counter terror training so that they are able to gain a better understanding of the threat of terrorism, what to do in the event of an attack and how to recognise and report suspicious activity. This sort of increased collaboration between the public and private sector is vital when it comes to tackling terrorism. AN INTEGRATED APPROACH While physical security measures are crucial in their own right, when it comes to protecting the public from increased threat levels, they are most effective when used in collaboration with electronic security systems such as CCTV and alarm systems. For example, perimeter fences are now integrated on many sites as part of a comprehensive solution, fitted with devices that can detect vibration, or video surveillance measures that can be placed strategically along the perimeter. Ultimately, no matter what combination of physical and electronic measures is chosen, the most important ‘box to tick’ is that the chosen security products and services are provided by a reputable supplier who meets with the relevant standards. After all, a site is only ever as secure as its weakest link, and skipping corners when it comes to quality can have catastrophic effects. An experienced security consultant can carry out bespoke security practical site assessments which consider the existing architecture of a building, its facilities systems, whether HVM measures would be practicable as well as many other security considerations. Members of the BSIA’s Specialist Services section have a wealth of expertise and experience and are able to provide guidance on a range of counter-terror related security products and services. !




PREVENT SCHEME At the end of 2017, both Prime Minister Theresa May and Greater Manchester Mayor Andy Burnham made significant interventions in the debate on counter extremism. In this article, Bob Hindle, of the University of Manchester, explains why a new Prevent strategy is needed

DEVELOPING A NEW PREVENT STRATEGY he government’s Prevent duty forms part of its wider CONTEST counter terrorism strategy. The duty came into force in 2015 and covers schools, colleges, training providers and universities. It requires that staff be trained in preventing young people from being ‘drawn in to terrorism’ and in ‘understanding radicalisation’, developing institutional ‘capabilities’ to challenge this and being ‘aware of what action to take’. Referrals are made to Prevent co-ordinators. In schools and colleges, safeguarding leads are responsible for aligning procedures to the duty within school systems and collect referrals from staff, making a decision as to whether a case can be dealt with in house or whether the Prevent co-ordinator needs to be involved. Policy must consider wider educational responsibilities such as strengthening community cohesion and the commitment to equality and diversity, utilising the expertise of experienced teachers and safeguarding leads in developing greater consistency and in building the trust of young people.


IT IS NOW THE TIME TO CONSIDER MORE CLOSELY HOW WE DEFINE ‘EXTREMISM’ AROUND RELIGIOUS CONSERVATISM TO AVOID INAPPROPRIATE REFERRALS TO PREVENT COORDINATORS It is now the time to consider more closely how we define ‘extremism’ around religious conservatism to avoid inappropriate referrals to Prevent co-ordinators and to support teachers in helping to challenge intolerance. Any new response must be based around the celebration of increasing diversity, with an acknowledgement that to some such diversity is a threat. Recent months have seen two major interventions connected to the Prevent duty. First the Mayor of Greater Manchester, Andy Burnham, called to replace the overly ‘top down’ Prevent strategy in the Greater Manchester region, to incorporate ‘people and communities’. Secondly, Prime Minister Theresa May talked of ‘too much tolerance of extremism’, calling for a review of how the UK is responding to the threat posed by terrorism. In this context, if the Prevent duty



responsibilities are to remain, how might they be reviewed and how best can the threat from violent extremism of all forms be countered through activities in schools and colleges? Here, I make three interconnected arguments. First, I suggest it is now the time to consider more closely how we define ‘extremism’ around religious conservatism to avoid inappropriate referrals to Prevent co-ordinators and to support teachers in helping to challenge intolerance. The degree to which we are collectively comfortable with each term will determine uniformity and consistency in any response to Islamist extremism. Second, we must examine the spike in referrals since the 2017 attacks in Manchester and London. Students must be confident in what they are able to say and do – and to ask questions – within a context of mutual tolerance and respect. Teachers must feel confident, willing and able to respond, through training that seeks to more firmly establish their understandings. Can we realistically expect all teachers to deal with questions about UK foreign policy and the Middle East? Finally, policy must consider wider educational responsibilities such as strengthening community cohesion and the commitment to equality and diversity, utilising the expertise of experienced teachers and safeguarding leads in developing greater consistency and in building the trust of young people. WHAT IS ‘EXTREME’? A good first step must be to consider how workable and helpful the current definition of extremism is. The Joint Parliamentary Select Committee on Extremism view this as unwieldy; arguably, it is designed with Islamist extremism in mind and a product of both the aftermath of the brutal murder of Lee Rigby and the ‘muscular liberalism’ evident in David Cameron’s 2011 Munich speech and in Michael Gove’s book Celsius 7/7, with the focus on British values. Meer and Modood (2013) note the policy use of ‘Muslim’ as an identity ‘without any unanimity on Islamic matters’. Two recent publications on extremist funding widen the debate. The long-awaited Home Office report asks for greater challenge of more isolationist religious interpretations and ‘socially conservative literature’, or ‘an "




PREVENT SCHEME # illiberal, bigoted Wahhabi ideology’ in the words of the Henry Jackson Society. Wahhabism stems from Saudi Arabia, a country whom the UK consistently appears aligned to and from where funding for UK mosques dominates in Sunni communities. Perhaps the process of reform begun by Crown Prince Salman might provide scope for optimism, with his spoken policy one to return to ‘moderate Islam’. Both reports speak of the damage done by groups inspired by such ideology, including Al-Muhajaroun, active on some college and university campuses until proscribed. But there are problems, with little research supporting a conveyor belt between conservatism and violent extremism. The experience of the Trojan Horse schools – where allegations were made of ‘extremist’ groups seeking to take over governing bodies of some Birmingham schools – makes this a messy business. The Muslim Council of Britain’s response to the Clarke report into the events of Trojan Horse states that ‘it is not for the state to define the theological boundaries of the Islamic faith and to create an approved version of Islam’. This is perhaps the ‘difficult conversation’ both Burnham and May speak of. But they have no ability to stem the cultural and religious flow of Wahhabism unless they speak with the Saudis directly. Such ideology will make its way into schools and colleges in one form or another. A response needs to clearly set out what is merely conservative and what is ‘extreme’, conservatism on its own being an unreliable witness. This requires the involvement of a broad church of religious scholars, teachers and academics. WHY SO MANY REFERRALS? It is necessary to look at the reasons behind the spike in referrals and ask are schools and colleges identifying a greater number of concerns? In his recent book, Hanif Qadir notes the importance of strong relationships between teachers and students as a means of tackling extremism. He details a number of case studies referred to Prevent where young people in school and college who went on to be radicalised first began by asking questions of teachers – about Israel/Palestine and Iraq – that went unanswered. They then went on to find these online from ISIS material and were picked up by recruiters. Should we be expecting teachers of maths, chemistry and economics to be able to answer these? If so, how are we equipping them with the skills to do so? I’ve previously blogged for Policy@ Manchester about a ‘when in doubt refer’ safeguarding culture, built around staff protecting themselves, and a ‘fear of Ofsted’ (in the case of missed referrals and a downgrade to ‘inadequate’). A recent report, from academics at

ALTHOUGH PREVENT MAY SEEK TO IDENTIFY WIDER FORMS OF EXTREMISM BEYOND ISLAMISM, THIS WASN’T BORN OUT IN SCHOOL AND COLLEGES Coventry University, suggested schools and colleges have embedded Prevent within their activities. It also found that referrals are being made which may well have been dealt with previously as pastoral or disciplinary issues. The study found that although Prevent may seek to identify wider forms of extremism beyond Islamism, this wasn’t born out in school/college practice. This also underlined a point from my own research which suggests less experienced staff, with more limited case expertise in safeguarding, pastoral work and an understanding of local communities and cultural and religious practice, may be more likely to refer. More experienced safeguarding leads are likely to ‘localise’ a response and deal with them through internal school and college systems, as well as at Local Safeguarding Children Boards and with wider local services. We must use their expertise and experience to support colleagues in wider institutions if referrals are to be appropriate and consistent, involving them in local Prevent and Channel Panels. The key to effective safeguarding is to put the interests of the young person first. PROMOTING CULTURAL AND RELIGIOUS AWARENESS My third argument is that developing the confidence of Black Minority Ethnic (BME) students is critical, answering some concerns that Prevent is not for them. These are young people for whom it is vital to include to help sell the case to those who feel threatened by this diversity itself. A recent Department for Education (DfE) report suggests BME teaching staff are under-represented in schools in Manchester and elsewhere. The DfE setting and meeting challenging diversity targets would be a start. Is this itself not a threat to community cohesion and common understandings? Until 2008, the promotion of equality and diversity was a ‘limiting grade’ in an Ofsted inspection, a minimum expected level reached before an institution could be rated ‘Good’ or ‘Outstanding’. Whilst Ofsted have a responsibility to report on an institution’s compliance with the Equality Act [2010], this is a time to make it a higher profile responsibility and to promote cultural and religious awareness training in institutions to underpin staff understandings. Such training is required to dispel misconceptions and fears and to build confidence amongst teachers involved in any referrals, and avoid embarassing media cases. A recent paper from

academics at Edge Hill University found trainee teachers ‘unable and unprepared’ to deal with issues of Britishness, concluding ‘it is likely that the majority of student teachers will struggle to develop a sense of belonging among some BME pupils that engenders feelings of pride and loyalty in being, say a British Muslim, a British Sikh, or a British Hindu’. To support the ability of schools to answer student questions, the focus needs to move away from just themed ‘diversity days’ into global dimensions within curricular; and beyond mere ‘British Values’ into community projects and inter-school practice. Professor Ted Cantle reviewed the causes of the riots in northern towns in 2001 and led the Institute of Community Cohesion. His review of community cohesion initiatives notes the value of ‘encouraging positive relationships’ around ‘real life issues’ rather than fostering civic values. In his study, improving socio-economic prospects is important, alongside work with groups especially vulnerable to disengagement and support for new arrivals. The RadEqual campaign in Greater Manchester has made a good start at using funding to build cross-city initiatives. TOWARDS A NEW STRATEGY So any new strategy must start at foreign policy level and tackle the causes of religious intolerance. Any new response must also be curricular and be based around the celebration of increasing diversity, with an acknowledgement that to some such diversity is a threat. Therefore, there is a need to: introduce curricular initiatives in schools and colleges that seek to encourage commonality and acknowledge the barriers of context and difference; add to the capacity of Prevent co-ordinators through use of the expertise of experienced teachers and safeguarding leads, encouraging discussion of cases and best practice across institutions; build up a bank of shared teaching resources, with accompanying training for new and early career staff in schools and colleges – their diversity must represent the communities they serve; train staff to ensure there are those confident in dealing with key questions about world events; and avoid embarrassing media cases. In all, build the trust of young people that they are being listened to as part of the solution. !







Did you know that in 2014/16 the PTSD rate in veterans and those still serving in the military had risen to six per cent, compared to 4.4 per cent within the civilian population?

Within the wider Explosive Ordnance Disposal and Search community the levels of stress and other mental health issues are particularly high. Not just following their experiences in Iraq and Afghanistan, but the day to day nature of the roles they carry out have a big impact on those serving and their family members. Many keep quiet suffering in silence. A CHARITY TO HELP THOSE SUFFERING Felix Fund is one of many charities and other organisations that are looking at ways in which to help those suffering and to try and reduce the number of new cases. In the early years the charity provided normalisation breaks for hundreds of individuals from Explosive Ordnance Disposal and Search teams on their return from Afghanistan and Northern Ireland. These breaks were designed to identify or reduce the impact of mental stress that a high-pressure tour can bring about and consisted of a week’s therapeutic team building activities, discussion groups designed to draw out and share operational experiences and more importantly provided the opportunity to regroup and reinforce peer bonds with colleagues who had travelled the same operational journey. The breaks proved vital in identifying and ultimately reducing the risk of poor mental health among individuals.


THE DASHBOARD COURSES With troops no longer deployed in great numbers, today Felix Fund continues to focus on the important issue of mental health amongst serving military and, in late 2015 we launched a programme providing training in mindfulness techniques. Known as the Dashboard courses, the aim is to provide individuals with tools and techniques which will enable them to recognise warning signs of stress and other mental health illnesses and to allow them to develop their ability to relax, clear their minds and focus on the positive aspects of their life. This will then feedback into a more productive and stress reduced work and home environment. Named the Dashboard course to remove any stigma of personal development training or mental health training; we make use of the analogy that if a light comes on the dashboard of your car you know what to do; check the oil, take it to a garage etc. However, what if a light comes on in your own mind do we really know what to do, how to ask for help, who to ask for help? All too often the answer is no. Felix Fund hopes this course will answer those questions and help individuals before they end up too far down the rabbit hole. Running since early 2016, the Dashboard courses have proved very effective. How many training programmes will get a group of soldiers, sailors or airmen doing yoga,


breathing exercises and running around a room playing catch with fluffy toy?!! The key to the whole programme is a totally relaxed environment away from work and home stresses, where individuals can focus on them self. The two civilian trainers are totally committed to helping this unique group of men and women and we are now looking at rolling out this programme to the whole reach of Felix Fund, that means all three services plus the Metropolitan Police’s Counter Terror Unit. To date, Felix Fund has had nearly 200 Explosive Ordnance Disposal and Search personnel go through these courses, with fantastic results – a 98 per cent positive response to the course and what it delivers, and 90 per cent of people stating they would encourage colleagues to attend. Also, 80 per cent stated they would continue with the meditation and breathing techniques. The course is not stand alone, it can be used as a signposting mechanism for additional help from welfare officers, medical practitioners or other charity programmes from the likes of Combat Stress or Help 4 Heroes where necessary. Aimed at all ranks, ages and regardless of where they are in their military career it has helped to break down barriers, formed tighter working relationships and enabled a large number of people to realise what effects their personal lives and work environment can have on their own mental health without them necessarily realising it. Currently the Dashboard courses are only open to serving personnel, but as we continue to develop the programme and raise more funds for the charity we would hope to open this up to veterans as well in the near future. SUPPORT FELIX FUND For more information about Felix Fund, its work and how you can support us please check out our website or follow us on Facebook and Twitter: !




Defence Secretary discusses threats with US counterpart

Radar to better protect UK Northern airspace

Defence Secretary Gavin Williamson has met with his US counterpart Jim Mattis to discuss how to tackle the increasing threats faced by both allies. Both nations have recently unveiled new plans for improving security, with the US publication of its National Defense Strategy following the UK’s Modernising Defence Programme. Both plans highlight the importance of modernising forces to jointly tackle the increasing threats faced on several fronts, while strengthening international alliances and forging new ones. Speaking during his first visit to Washington DC as Defence Secretary, in which he discussed the threats posed by Russia, North Korea and ISIS, Williamson said: “Our two countries face the same threats in

an increasingly dangerous world. We stand shoulder to shoulder on the battlefield, we share vital intelligence and technology, and our century-long relationship is the closest of any two allies across the globe. Together, we will always keep the streets of the UK and the US safe, protect our citizens, and defend our way of life.” Ahead of the NATO Summit in July, the UK and the US have been calling for other nations to invest more in security, remaining two of only six countries to commit at least two per cent of their GDP to defence.



New defence cooperation for UK and France Prime Minister Theresa May and French President Emmanuel Macron have agreed a range of measures to strengthen defence cooperation between the UK and France. The 2018 UK-France Summit, which was also attended by Defence Secretary Gavin Williamson, Chancellor Philip Hammond and Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson, saw Macron agree to further French support to the UK-led enhanced Forward Presence battlegroup in Estonia in 2019, which will help to deter Russian aggression towards NATO Allies and bolster the security of NATO’s Eastern flank. Additionally, the UK will deploy RAF Chinook helicopters to Mali to provide logistical support for the French counter terrorism mission there. This will increase British logistical support to France’s Operation BARKHANE, which up to now has been limited to RAF strategic air transport flights. The measures agreed between the UK and France also included the creation of a UK-France Defence Ministerial Council, creating a permanent and

regular forum in which UK and French defence cooperation can be discussed by the two Defence Ministers, and an agreement on the importance of the ability of the UK’s defence industry to continue to be able to engage in European defence research and capability development programmes.

Air Chief Marshal Sir Stephen Hillier visited the site of the new £10 million Remote Radar Head facility in Shetland at the end of January to inspect its progress. The radar will see the island return to the role it performed during the 1960s and 70s, when the site was used as an early warning radar on NATO’s northern flank, and will now improve RAF and NATO understanding of the airspace north of Britain and further out across the Norwegian Sea, improving the UK’s sovereign capability at a time of heightened Russian military activity. The Saxa Vord Radar head will feed the nationwide Quick Reaction Alert (QRA) operation, with the RAF having carried out 69 QRA launches within the last five years. The Chief of the Air Staff said: “The radar system at Saxa Vord is an important part of ensuring that the RAF can fully protect both the UK’s airspace and that of our NATO allies, in the face of increasing pressure from Russia. Right at the tip of Shetland, Saxa Vord is a very remote site, so I’m extremely grateful to the team who have been working hard through the cold of winter, with snow and 120 mph gales, to ensure that the construction has remained on schedule.”



Russia could cripple UK infrastructure, Williamson warns Defence Secretary Gavin Williamson told the Daily Telegraph that Moscow was spying on energy supplies which, if cut, could cause ‘total chaos’ in the country and instigate ‘thousands and thousands of deaths’. Williamson said Russia has been researching the UK’s critical national infrastructure and how it connects to continental power supplies with a view to creating ‘panic’ and ‘chaos’, saying the country would be willing to take action ‘any other nation would see as completely unacceptable’.



Follow and interact with Defence Business on Twitter: @defence_b ISSUE 33 | COUNTER TERROR BUSINESS MAGAZINE



FUTURE REFORM Dr Bill Egginton, senior lecturer in Defence Management & Leadership at Cranfield University, presents the final instalment of his papers examining defence reform in the UK

DEFENCE REFORM PART 3: LOOKING TO THE FUTURE W e have seen in previous articles that the principles, processes and practices associated with project, programme and portfolio management (P3M) have shaped many of the changes made as part of Defence Reform and described in ‘How Defence Works’ (December 2015). These changes have been reflected in Front Line Command (FLC) and Top level Budget (TLB) operating models, ways of working and organisational structures. New forum have been established (Portfolio Direction Groups, Portfolio Progress Groups), new functions created (Portfolio and Programme Offices) and new roles and responsibilities established. Tools and techniques have been developed to improve reporting and management information. Service Level Agreements and ‘soft’ contracts have been introduced in order to make more robust the relationships between customers (the Commands) and their suppliers (Defence Equipment and Support, Information Services and Support, Defence Infrastructure Organisation and so on). Investment in education, training and people development has been a further priority at a time of constrained and indeed, diminishing resources. So, a great deal of work has been done, and all at a time when operational tempo has remained high. The scale of the changes introduced through Defence Reform will inevitably take time to reap tangible benefits. However, despite that, early indications are positive. In its Major Projects Report, published in February 2014, the National Audit Office stated that: “With the exception of the Carriers, where costs have increased by £754 million, the performance of other major projects during 2012-13 has resulted in no overall significant cost increases and minimal delays in comparison to previous years.” Again, in the accompanying publication, Equipment Plan 2013 to 2023, that: “The Department’s work to address the affordability gap and lay foundations for future stability, on which we reported last year, appears to have had a positive effect on the Department’s ability to maintain an affordable Equipment Plan.”



Lord Levene in his December 2014 update to his 2011 report stated the following: “To me the MOD is now a very different animal... in terms of showing they can be trusted to manage the money… top level budget holders now ‘own’ their own plans and are more active in determining their own priorities.” And again, in December 2015: “Important changes have been achieved in the management of the services, with the Service Chiefs starting to shape, own and be held responsible for their performance and developing their capabilities as ‘Intelligent Customers’.”

POLITICAL INTERFERENCE So, much has been achieved. It is also interesting to note, that in the same report, Lord Levene recommends that Treasury should ‘formalise with the Department the practice of allowing full end – year flexibility’. That recommendation in fact sets the tone for some of the challenges confronting MOD as it continues to develop and deliver against national strategic security priorities. We have spoken of P3M: project, programme and portfolio management. But there is in fact a 4th ‘P’ to be managed: political. The challenge of ‘political management’ comes in a number of forms. Firstly there is the issue of political interference. It is of course the case, that in a democratic, party political system some level of political manoeuvring, veering and hauling and policy massaging and re-shaping is inevitable. However, if the ownership of plans is to be complete, and personal accountability is to be genuine, then our political masters must begin to acknowledge the consequences on ownership and accountability of some of their actions. Take for example, the role of the Senior Responsible Owner (SRO) – one that has attracted a great deal of attention, and involved a considerable investment of public funds to train and equip individuals across all government departments. MOD practice ordains that a letter of appointment (a letter, by the way, that is published for all Government Major Projects) should be accompanied by a letter of delegation


THE SCALE OF THE CHANGES INTRODUCED THROUGH DEFENCE REFORM WILL INEVITABLY TAKE TIME TO REAP TANGIBLE BENEFITS. HOWEVER, DESPITE THAT, EARLY INDICATIONS ARE POSITIVE outlining the level and sources of funding available to the SRO to expedite his or her duties. As present, such letters of delegation are rare. Moreover, even where they exists, the reality is that changes – cuts – to those delegations can and are made without due consideration of the impacts on personal accountability. Under the Osmotherly Rules, where SROs may be invited to attend and be answerable to Parliament, such practice seems to fly in the face of the very principles we are looking to

establish and maintain. Ministers must be part of the solution, otherwise they will continue to remain part of the problem. TIME, COST AND QUALITY A further challenge concerns the shape and nature of the success criteria used to evaluate major defence (and for that matter, other major government projects and programmes). The criteria used by the NAO in reporting on project – and programme – performance are the traditional criteria of time, cost and

quality. Simply put, has the project (or programme) delivered within the agreed schedule, the approved budget and to the agreed Key User requirements? Yes equals success. No represents failure. We are all too familiar with newspaper headlines proclaiming another failure to deliver, when actually the dimensions of success (and failure) are far more complex. For major public sector programmes involving British industry, British jobs, issues of national interest and international concern, such criteria are at best simplistic, and at worse misguided. It could be argued, therefore, that the criteria used to ‘baseline’ Defence project and programme performance are themselves flawed. Project and programme management literature highlights the difficulties associated with using traditional outcome metrics such as cost, schedule and performance "



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DEFENCE REFORM projects’ as a sign of organisational maturity and not one of failure. Better still, should demand for resources exceed supply, is having the means to decide not to start a project in the first place. This is precisely the intention behind the following statement taken from the Financial and Military Capability Operating Model (2016): “The Defence Plan is the backbone of the Head Office ‘direct’ function and while TLBs will have an opportunity to shape the plan through the Armed Forces Committee, it is designed as a deliberate explanation of what defence aims to achieve to meet policy. (However) If an acceptable position cannot be reached that matches demand with available resources, either policy will be adjusted to reduce demand, risk will be accepted or extra resources found.”

# for any other than the simplest of projects (Shenhar and Dvir, 2007; Fox and Miller, 2006). Nevertheless, the UK government, through the NAO, continues to focus primarily on these three metrics even for the largest, most complex and most political of its defence programmes. In reality, the extent to which these traditional metrics have any real managerial or policy effectiveness is questionable. Clearly, if the assessments of outcomes are flawed then so too might the specific interventions aimed at averting failure. Perhaps a more strategic and holistic set of success criteria are needed if the ‘right’ investments are to be made and performance management and holding-to-account are to be taken seriously. Adopting and adapting P3M within defence, being able to introduce the necessary governance, build credible business cases, make accurate estimates, develop realistic schedules, manage the associated risks, deal with the issues, engage with and inform stakeholders and ultimately deliver the benefits from investment in change inevitably requires people with the right P3M skills and competencies. There is, therefore, a significant upskilling challenge. This is especially so for our serving military not only because of the fact that their primary role is seen to be in the ‘battle space’ and not the ‘business space’ but also because historically, and still to some extent today, management education and training has not been a top priority and the military ‘posting cycle’ plays havoc when trying to establish continuity in key P3M roles. This situation is, of course, changing for the better. New policies are aimed at reducing ‘churn’ and MOD leaders

now acknowledge the importance of management education and training supported by Cranfield University, the ‘academic provider’ at the Defence Academy, but others including Kings College and Civil Service Learning. So, let us, for a moment, imagine a world in which political interference is more measured, our understanding and reporting of success and failure more meaningful and we have the right people with the right skills and in enough of them. OTHER CHALLENGES FACING THE MOD There remains, of course, the ongoing challenge of reducing budgets: the need to do the same for less, or, as it all too often seems, to do more for less. This is of course, the whole point about being in a position to prioritise. In its January 2017 Equipment Plan 2016 – 2026 publication, the NAO had this to say: “The department should ensure that it has in place suitable mechanisms for prioritising spend and removing or deferring projects from the Plan should affordability be compromised to the extent that Commands are unable to accommodate cost growth within their budgets, and central contingency is insufficient.” In their report, the NAO reaffirmed the responsibilities of Commands to manage their own budgets and stressed the need for the Department to be able to ‘reprioritise commitments in the Plan’. Precisely the intention of a portfolio management approach; exactly what is intended through the introduction of Command Level portfolios. Indeed, it was Lord Drayson who, in his Defence Industrial Strategy of 2005, described ‘killing

INSTALLING BEHAVIOURAL CHANGE And this idea of ‘challenging policy’ introduces MOD’s final and possibly toughest challenge: behaviour change. Defence by its very nature is a ‘can do’ organisation. Saying ‘No’ does not come naturally when its history, doctrine and reputation is driven by following orders. However, while the tangible aspects of organisational development – roles, structures, job descriptions and so on – have been central to the implementation of Defence Reform, sustaining that transformation will require a different set of behaviours. This has been recognised by the NAO in its report Strategic Financial Management in the MOD (July 2015): “Good financial management alone will not achieve all of the change that the department requires. This will also be dependent on changing the behaviours necessary for the system to work.” However, the department’s operating model as described in ‘How Defence Works’ (December 2015) is rather ‘thin’ in its treatment of behaviours, with just three cursory references to the topic. That said, statements that include ‘placing the best interests of defence at the heart of the business’ and ‘continuing to display the right behaviours’ are encouraging signs. So now the future really is beginning to look bright: one in which political interference is more measured, our collective understanding of success more meaningful, our approach to starting – and killing – projects more mature and our behaviours fully aligned to, and consistent with, the needs of the business of defence. Now that is a future worth working towards. !





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