Page 1 | ISSUE 32





ASSESSING DIGITAL CRIME Analysing the current state of UK cyber security in the face of terrorism



Social media’s popularity is regularly being mooted as the terrorists’ gain. But how good a tool is it?



TERROR THREAT MOST INTENSE YET? Andrew Parker, the director general of MI5, has given a rare speech in which he claimed that the UK is facing its most severe terrorist threat yet.





ASSESSING DIGITAL CRIME Analysing the current state of UK cyber security in the face of terrorism



Social media’s popularity is regularly being mooted as the terrorists’ gain. But how good a tool is it?

The threat from Islamist terrorism, according to Parker, is ‘multi-dimensional, evolving rapidly and operating at a scale and pace we’ve not seen before’. Acknowledging that it can be harder to detect, the MI5 chief also warned that ‘the threat is more diverse than I’ve ever known’. Whether it is encouraging to see such a high security official speak so honestly, or worrying to see someone with so much responsibility fail to offer necessary reassurance, some of the details of Parker’s speech warrant careful consideration. MI5 is currently running 500 live operations involving 3,000 individuals involved in extremist activity in some way, and, with some 800 individuals having left the UK for Syria and Iraq, that number is likely to increase as jihadi supporters return to European borders. International co-operation has never been more important, and, with ISIS losing territory by the day, how the UK coordinates its security plans post-Brexit will be heavily scrutinised.

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In light of this, it is positive to see the Mayor of London, Sadiq Khan, outlining six ‘red lines’ to ensure the UK can continue visual EU collaboration on security and counter terrorism post-Brexit. Michael Lyons, editor

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226 High Rd, Loughton, Essex IG10 1ET. Tel: 020 8532 0055 Fax: 020 8532 0066 Web: EDITOR Michael Lyons EDITORIAL ASSISTANT Marianna Chrisostomou PRODUCTION EDITOR Richard Gooding PRODUCTION DESIGN Jo Golding PRODUCTION CONTROL Ella Sawtell WEB PRODUCTION Victoria Casey ADVERTISEMENT SALES Rachael McGahern, Harry Harris, Mark Jones, Michael Wheeler BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT MANAGER Martin Freedman ADMINISTRATION Vickie Hopkins, Charlotte Casey PUBLISHER Jake Deadman REPRODUCTION & PRINT Argent Media

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CONTENTS CTB 32 11 UK SECURITY EXPO Knowing your enemy is critical to stopping terrorism, says Philip Ingram ahead of November’s UK Security Expo. Plus: Professor Anthony Glees analyses the state of UK security and how security should be maintained in Brexit negotiations

25 UAV TECHNOLOGY There is no single system that can counter the full spectrum of threats posed by weaponised drones. Here, Dr James Rogers examines some of the novel ways in which these threats are being countered

29 CYBER SECURITY The Business Continuity Institute discuss the findings of the recent Cyber Resilience Report and the growing threat to organisations of digital disruption. Plus: CTB interviews Roderick Jones about the current state of UK cyber security in the face of terrorism

38 SOCIAL MEDIA Social media’s popularity offers an opportunity for terrorists to reach audiences who would never would considered engaging with such content. Amy-Louise Watkin & Joe Whittaker, from Swansea University, explore social media as a tool for terrorism

43 COUNTER TERROR AWARDS AND UK SECURITY WEEK The Counter Terror Awards, launching on 6 March 2017, will recognise the strategies, procedural excellence and technologies which help to mitigate the threats from terrorism. The Awards fall in the middle of UK Security Week

51 PERIMETER SECURITY When hardening a target, just how hard is hard enough? Steve Green, of the Security Institute, examines the current threats posed to physical security and what measures would be most suitable in controlling access to buildings that could face a security threat

55 BORDER CONTROL More people are crossing international borders than ever before. With air traffic also set to double over the next 20 years, Tony Smith, formerly of UK Border Force, argues that the time has come for another paradigm shift in the way we manage border controls

62 POLICING Not too long ago, the idea of teaching terrorism awareness and safety advice in schools would have been unheard of. Here, the NPCC detail the latest counter terrorism safety campaign for young people which police hope will be saving young lives for many years to come

72 DSEI REVIEW The latest edition of DSEI, staged 12-15 September 2017, cemented its position as the market leading event for air, land, naval, security and joint applications of defence and security products, technology and services. Organisers Clarion Events review the show

Counter Terror Business magazine // ISSUE 32 | COUNTER TERROR BUSINESS MAGAZINE



UK facing ‘intense’ terror threat, MI5 chief warns Britain is facing its most severe terrorist threat yet, the MI5 chief has warned in a rare public speech. Andrew Parker, the director general of MI5, said the UK had seen a ‘dramatic upshift’ in the threat from Islamist terrorism this year. In Parker’s speech to specialist security journalists on 17 October, he said that MI5 had stopped far more terror plots than those that caused mass casualties this year, and that 20 plots had been thwarted in the last four years. Parker also said that military defeat in Syria and Iraq for Islamic State did not mean its threat would dissolve.

With 100 Britons believed to have died fighting for ISIS, there is a fresh danger posed by the potential return of 850 more who had travelled to its territory. Andrew Parker, MI5 chief



Cyber security on par with counter terrorism The head of GCHQ has warned that maintaining security against cyber attacks is now of equal importance to combatting terrorism. Jeremy Fleming, the head of the intelligence monitoring service, said that, after nearly 600 ‘significant’ cyber attacks required a national response in the last year, GCHQ was prioritising cyber intelligence as much as countering terrorism. Writing in the Daily Telegraph, Fleming said that the UK’s National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC) has a ‘world‑leading programme to reduce the

incidence and impact of cyber‑attacks without users even noticing’. He wrote: “If GCHQ is to continue to help keep the country safe, then protecting the digital homeland – keeping our citizens safe and free online – must become and remain as much part of our mission as our global intelligence reach and our round‑the‑clock efforts against terrorism.”



Rule book torn up to tackle terror threat A former leading Metropolitan Police officer has said that the ‘rule book’ on tackling cyber crime and terrorism is constantly being torn up to meet emerging threats. Speaking at the British Venture Capital Association Summit, Maxine de Brunner, former Deputy Assistant Commissioner, said that the Metropolitan Police had to embrace widespread change in training and culture to deal with changing trends in cyber crime and terrorism. She said: “70 per cent of robberies in London today are mobile phone thefts which generate widespread identity theft crimes. At the Met we had to undergo rapid change to deal with this threat more effectively. “The same willingness to embrace change applies to the terrorism threat.

We have to stay ahead of the terrorists or they win. The events at the London Bridge attack were horrific and tragic but police were able to respond within eight minutes and that would have been very difficult a few years ago. Every single person can make a change to their own organisations which will help in dealing with these type of threats.”



12-14 December 2017 Central London, United Kingdom The largest Countering Drones event returns to London. Drones are an ever increasing threat to society and whether used to cause nuisance or drop bombs they are a real threat to todays society. Airports, sea ports, borders and railways, civil aviation authorities and air traffic managements, counter-terror agencies, law enforcement and emergency services, government buildings, military bases and sensitive installations, public buildings, embassies and consulates, international organisations including the UN, NATO and WTO, sporting arenas and major venues event venues will all be attending Countering Drones.


7-9 November 2017 Nuremberg, Germany The scale of investment in European defence from NATO partners and the European Union sees continued development of military engineer capabilities. Combat Engineer 2017 will explore these key topics and remains the leading event that discusses and showcases innovative military engineering capabilities and industry solutions.

ELECTRONIC WAREFARE EUROPE 2018 16-18 January 2018 Warsaw, Poland developing-electronic-warfarecapabilities.php

The Electronic Warfare meeting returns to Warsaw, Poland, in January 2018 ready to provide a forum for nations and industry to discuss capability requirements within the electronic warfare and cyber space domain. With the Eastern Europe area in mind, militaries need to be mobile and ready to move critical infrastructure. Radar, vehicles, satellites, command systems and radio infrastructure need to be able to be relocated so the army can dominate the spectrum as early as possible.



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EU steps up efforts to tackle illegal content The EU has produced a list of new guidelines urging social networks to be more proactive in preventing and swiftly removing hate speech online. The Commission said that it will monitor tech firms over the coming months, with plans to increase the use of automation to stop removed content being reposted, as well as outlining intentions to remove flagged content more quickly. The Security Union, which may consider further regulation, has also urged social

platforms, such as Facebook and Twitter, to work more closely with authorities and to invest more in automated tools for flagging content which incites hatred, violence and terrorism. The Commission will complete its assessment by May 2018.




Survey finds increased support for police arming A survey by the Police Federation of England and Wales has found that over a third of police officers in England and Wales believe they should be able to carry guns at all times. The survey of 32,000 officers saw an increase for armed policing from its last survey, back in 2006. When the body last conducted firearms research, 23.4 per cent of officers backed routine arming, but this figure has now risen to 34.1 per cent. Additionally, 55.2 per cent said they would be prepared to carry a firearm if it was decided all officers should be armed on or off duty, an increase from 44.6 per cent in 2006. Firearms to not be issued routinely to all officers, but for more to receive training and be issued with firearms as and when needed, was backed by 42.5 per cent of officers. The figures suggest that support for routine arming is higher among male officers than female, and also more appealing in urban locations. Frontline officers and response officers were also found to be more in favour of the move.


Terrorism unsustainably straining UK police The National Police Chiefs’ Council (NPCC) has warned that the UK’s counter terrorism efforts are putting an unsustainable strain on policing. In a piece written on the NPCC website, Chief Constable Sara Thornton said that diverted resources were putting ‘extra strain on an already‑stretched service’. For example, the Manchester Arena attack saw three quarters of the resources deployed come from mainstream policing, disrupting ‘the daily work of policing on which the public rely’.


Proposal for new terrorism sentencing guidelines

Additionally, diverted resources also create a ‘backlog of incidents in control rooms and results in a slower response to the public’. The Conservatives cut funding to police and officer numbers in 2010 with then Home Secretary, Theresa May, ignoring protests and claiming crime had fallen despite the cuts.



SAS and SBS to get £300 million cash injection New reports have claimed that the UK’s special forces will receive a £300 million funding boost to enhance counter terrorism strength and end understaffing. The Daily Mirror says that the funding will help pay for better weapons and vehicles for the SAS and SBS, as well as the Special Reconnaissance Regiment and the Special Forces Support Group to fight ISIS and other terrorist groups. According to the paper, a source

said: “There is no extra money coming in to defence so if the special forces are getting more cash then other units will be cut to pay for it. They are the ‘go to’ troops in an emergency so they need more cash.”


The Sentencing Council has published new proposals for how those convicted of terrorism offences in England and Wales should be sentenced. The body has set out the first proposed sentencing guidelines for dealing with offenders guilty of a wide range of terrorism offences, including preparation of terrorist attacks, collecting or sharing extremist material, raising funds for terrorism, glorifying terrorist acts and joining or supporting a banned organisation. The introduction of guidelines will help assist judges in reaching appropriate sentences and hopefully create greater transparency and consistency in the sentencing of very serious and difficult cases. Given the developing nature of the terrorist threat, the Sentencing Council accelerated the production of the guidelines after the terrorist attacks in the UK this year. As part of the proposals, lower level offences are likely to receive increased sentence lengths.




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Knowing your enemy is critical to stopping terrorism, says Philip Ingram ahead of the UK Security Expo, which returns on 29-30 November at London’s Olympia

COUNTERING TERRORISM IS AN INTELLIGENCE WAR I n The Art of War Sun Tzu wrote: “If you know the enemy and know yourself, you need not fear the result of a hundred battles. If you know yourself but not the enemy, for every victory gained you will also suffer a defeat. If you know neither the enemy nor yourself, you will succumb in every battle.” The difficulty with battling terrorists is that, like insurgents, they operate from within the community. Insurgents tend to be part of a group with some form of articulated aim and may use terrorist tactics and carry out acts of terror, whereas extremist terror in many cases is based on a warped interpretation of an ideology and can operate without a

group structure – the lone wolf concept. There are three types of terrorist in the UK: international, northern Irish and domestic. According to the MI5 website: “Terrorist groups use violence and threats of violence to publicise their causes and to achieve their goals. They often aim to influence or exert pressure on governments and government policies but reject democratic processes, or even democracy itself.” It goes on to say that domestic terrorists ‘may seek to change legislation or influence domestic policy and try to achieve this outside of the normal democratic process. For the most part, they pose a threat to E



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UK SECURITY EXPO  public order but not to national security and are investigated by the police, not MI5’. Adding to the difficulty in dealing with terrorism is the rule of law approach to policing, so critical in modern democracies. Dealing with people and organisations who, by their very existence, are operating outside the law can prove challenging to say the least. However, this means that in identifying, tracking and disrupting potential terrorists the rules of necessity and proportionality must be applied to all intelligence operations with the aim of the police to protect public safety and at the same time gather sufficient evidence to prosecute. This makes monitoring terrorists extremely difficult and can come into conflict with the ability to penetrate terrorist networks, the way they were in Northern Ireland. PATTERNS OF CRIME Most police forces now have an intelligence-led policing model through the National Intelligence Model or NIM. This was defined in 2003 by Professor Nick Tilley as ‘developing and maintaining a detailed and up‑to‑date picture of patterns of crime and criminality in order to intervene in it most effectively to disrupt networks and remove prolific offenders’. This works where there is a network and activity to monitor but proves challenging when dealing with ‘lone wolf’ attacks or ‘clean skin’ attacks. Counter terror policing is organised in such a way as to tap into the local intelligence available in regional constabularies but bring it together in a more rapid way across the country. This is done through the National Counter Terrorism Policing Headquarters, hosted by the Metropolitan Police, and has five regional counter terror units (CTUs) and six regional Counter Terrorism Intelligence Units (CTIUs). These are all resourced by the police forces in their respective areas and the CTIUs carry out primarily intelligence gathering operations. This is bottom up intelligence gathering from within areas and communities and is critical to the success of any counter terror operation. Intelligence is the key to identifying potential terrorists and disrupting their activities before they get the opportunity to execute their attack. The difficulty is that the terrorism we are now seeing is not building up patterns in communities, nor have the activities, of the terrorists who have carried out successful attacks, done anything to cause themselves to tip over the evidential bar and get arrested. The police ACT (Action Counters Terrorism) programme is designed to maximise the low-level information reported to try and fill this gap, using the very real knowledge of communities themselves. More active intelligence gathering by the

COUNTER TERROR POLICING IS ORGANISED IN SUCH A WAY AS TO TAP INTO THE LOCAL INTELLIGENCE AVAILABLE IN REGIONAL CONSTABULARIES BUT BRING IT TOGETHER IN A MORE RAPID WAY ACROSS THE COUNTRY police only really happened in Northern Ireland when dealing with both republican and loyalist terrorists but the dangers of such actions are clear in an ongoing case where an ex‑senior loyalist terrorist, Gary Haggarty, who pleaded guilty to over 200 charges including five murders has offered to give evidence against several former police officers he’s accused of collusion while he was working as an informer from 1993-2004. Where is the ‘rule of law’ line drawn when running agents who are active terrorists?

The world of intelligence is often referred to as ‘murky’ but it is the frontline defence we have against modern terrorism. As terrorists become more able to operate alone through internet enabled training, finding them is becoming harder. Are we doing enough? Are our police intelligence methodologies good enough? These questions and more will be examined at the UK Security Expo at London Olympia on 29-30 November. There are eight free‑to‑attend E




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UK SECURITY EXPO  conferences covering major events, transport and borders, CNI, protecting crowded places, designing out terrorism and cyber security. Plus a high-level conference on Global Counter Terrorism. Major Themes include: cooperation post-Brexit, migration, Trump’s America, countering radicalisation and tackling extremism, the dark web, returning Islamic State fighters, social media and engagement with extremism, counter-terrorism financing, CBRNE and IEDs threats. TRANSPORT SECURITY The Aviation & Border Security Conference will hear from Kashif Chaudry, deputy director for Aviation Security International Operations at the Department for Transport, who will discuss the developing threat to civil aviation in Theatre 2 on 29 November. Chaudry’s talk will be followed by sessions on assessing the potential for a major air accident as a result of a drone strike on an aircraft, presented by author Dave Sloggett, and addressing the insider threat, to be hosted by Tom Willis, security director at Heathrow Airport. Alexander Hitchcock and Maisie Borrows, two researchers from Reform, will address the crowd on the future of public services and the role of digital borders on the afternoon of the first day. Before the close of the conference, there will also be a session on engaging

the airport community and collaborating for Protect, Prevent and Prepare. Meanwhile, the Maritime and Transport Security Conference, taking place on 30 November, will hear from Captain Dr Kamal-Deen Ali, from the Ghana Navy, who will provide an update on maritime security in West and Central Africa. A more global analysis will be provided by Cormac McGarry, before James Douglas, from the National Counter Terrorism Policing HQ, presents a UK maritime security update. With cyber threats affecting all sectors, Professor Kevin D. Jones, from the Maritime Cyber Threats Research Group at Plymouth University, will address the cyber threat to maritime operations, leading into a session on maritime terrorism and the vulnerability of maritime targets to IEDs. Aside from maritime security, Andrew Round, of the National Vehicle Crime Intelligence Service, will explore freight crime in the UK, following a session on securing and policing the UK’s railways. THE DRONE ZONE In partnership with the UK Drone Show, Europe’s largest drone event, UK Security Expo will be launching the ‘Drone Zone’ at November’s event. Leading manufacturers and suppliers will present their high-quality UAV products, explaining how their concepts canVCA Thermal enhance security efforts, while adhering

WITH A DEDICATED DRONE FLY ZONE AND DRONE PAVILION, VISITORS WILL HAVE THE UNIQUE CHANCE TO SEE THE LIVE APPLICATION OF BOTH DRONE AND ANTI‑DRONE TECHNOLOGY to safety and regulatory requirements. With a dedicated Drone Fly Zone and Drone Pavilion, visitors will have the unique chance to see the live application of both drone and anti‑drone technology and get a better understanding of how they can use both to protect their businesses and the public. The live demonstrations will also be accompanied by video feeds and plenty of opportunities to discuss the business use of drones, including Q&A sessions from industry leading manufacturers and suppliers. L

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Professor Anthony Glees, director at the Centre for Security and Intelligence Studies, part of the University of Buckingham, explores the current security threats to the UK and how security should be maintained in Brexit negotiations

CURRENT NATIONAL SECURITY CHALLENGES S peaking on 15 September 2017, after the latest terror attack in the UK, Home Secretary Amber Rudd said that 2017 had so far been ‘a year like no other’: Britain had been hit by five terrorist attacks in nine months, the Security Service (MI5) and counter terrorist police had disrupted a further six plots but were immersed in 500 counter terrorist operations. Earlier this summer, Security Minister Ben Wallace, disclosed that there were now 23,000 potential jihadists in the UK – 20,000 more than the previous estimate provided two years earlier. This is just the threat Britain faces from Islamism. We are also challenged by neo‑Nazism. By the end of September, 14 people, including two members of our armed forces, were arrested on neo-Nazi terrorism

and two neo-Nazi groups, ‘Scottish Dawn’ and ‘NS131’, were proscribed (‘National Action’, their predecessor, was banned in 2016, following the killing of Jo Cox MP by a member). To date, the British government has banned 71 organisations in all, of which 70 have an international presence, proscribed under the Terrorism Act 2000, with a further 14 banned in Northern Ireland. That the threat from terrorism to Britain’s national security is currently set at ‘Severe’ is hardly surprising (in September it reached the highest level, ‘Critical’, for a short time). Yet home-grown Islamist and neo‑Nazi terrorism are not the only security challenges the UK now faces. As we leave the European Union, whether in ‘soft’ or ‘hard’ mode, we are, in security terms, entering decidedly choppy and uncharted waters. E



UK SECURITY EXPO  Some of these threats have to do with the transnational nature of external Islamist and neo-Nazi terrorism and the self-evident truth, fully accepted by the Prime Minister, that they require both national and Europe-wide cooperation if they are to be withstood. Others stem from the perceived and actual current position of the UK at a time of huge transition and volatile domestic politics: this must be a trigger to ‘predators’, whether states – particularly Russia, who sees a straightforward political advantage to itself in promoting instability and division – or sub-state external actors including serious organised criminals. THE BREXIT EFFECT In the future, Britain will become even more vulnerable if Brexit does not follow the government’s current chosen path as outlined in the Prime Minister’s Lancaster House speech and, more clearly and attractively, to the EU27 in her Florence speech. A ‘global’ UK, entirely cut out of any EU connection after March 2019 will become even more vulnerable to attack because we will lack the support of EU-promoted agencies, with whom we have previously been joined at the hip, and because if the UK becomes initially less prosperous, there will be less cash for security. Prior to the Brexit vote in June 2016, May, then Home Secretary, had declared that ‘remaining a member of the EU means that we shall all be more secure from crime and terrorism’ and that ‘leaving the EU did not mean we would be as safe as if we remain’. Outside the EU, she said, we would have no access to the European Arrest


will have to be constructed. Whilst the government may insist that a ‘seamless border’ is possible in Northern Ireland, in reality this is a meaningless oxymoron. Borders cannot at once be borders and ‘seamless’; IT cannot counter smuggling, illegal immigration or serious organised crime because it cannot do so now (indeed IT often promotes it).

Warrant which had allowed the UK to extradite 5,000 people since 2011 and bring 675 suspects or convicts to the UK. Britain had used the EU Schengen Information Database System 514,160,087 times in 2016. There are some 70 billion items in the Brussels database tracking 28,472 persons of interest to British intelligence, 1768 firearms and 113,414 vehicle records. There are still other vital national security challenges to be addressed by a Brexiting Britain: mainly how to control immigration into Britain from myriad of ports and minor airports as well as major hubs, and how to police the new borders with the EU27 that

SO WHAT IS TO BE DONE? In respect of the Brexit-related challenges, one answer would indeed be provided if the Prime Minister’s security offer were accepted by the EU27 and the European Commission. It should be. Theresa May is plainly keen that we should continue to have an effective security and intelligence relationship with the EU27 after Brexit. This is not just because the UK’s obvious strength in this sector is a bargaining chip in the trade negotiations with the EU27, but because she understands the vital importance of the security relationships that function within the umbra of the EU. Indeed, this is so important to her that in her Florence speech of 22 September 2017

she offered not just a new security treaty with the EU27 but said the UK would be ‘unconditionally committed’ to this. But Brexit, whether hard or soft, inevitably means the UK will be required to leave INTCEN, the Open Source (OSINT) Division, the EU Situation Room and the Consular Crisis Management Division as well as the Counter-Terrorist Group (Whitehall Briefing, 2016). The UK will also have to quit Europol which is now an EU institution. Britain will no longer participate in the Common Security and Defence policy, the Political and Security Committee, the EU Satellite Centre (SATCEN), Galileo, as well as a host of OSINT research groups, such as the Single Intelligence Analysis Capacity. If Brexit is soft, the UK could apply for re-entry. However, all these bodies require members to accept the ultimate jurisdiction of the European Court of Justice. As the UK government’s refusal to do so is a ‘red line’, it is hard to see how Britain will have these resources at its disposal after 2019. We will therefore have to do these things alone, as best we can. E




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The Swiss company Droptec is hunting for drones Various prisons and police forces gear up with the Dropster. The civilian drone market has been growing worldwide in the last years. The drones are in the meantime cheaper and more powerful than in the past. Regardless of how exciting and innovative the new technology may be, it also entails new dangers. The destructive forces are increasingly using the new possibilities, whether smuggling attempts in prisons, espionage of system-critical buildings or facilities or even attacks with explosive-laden drones. The abuse potential of these devices is huge. In order to defend itself against this misuse, the Swiss company Droptec offers the Dropster: A mobile net pistol for taking down rogue drones. This means, that threatening drones can be easily neutralized within a radius of 30m. Gas pressure is used to launch a tear-resistant net up to 60m. The net blocks its rotors when it gets in contact with the targeted drone, causing the aircraft to crash. In particular, the system is very well suited for the prevention of smuggling or espionage attempts by drones. With Dropster the Detention Directorates receive a favorable defense system to counteract the exsisting impotence. Droptec already supplies some prisons in Switzerland and at the same time also takes over the training of the warden staff in dealing with the weapon. Employees who attend the training receive important technical and legal information on the use of the Dropster as well as a training certificate after completing the final examination. The Dropster is also a mobile device for security service providers and police officers, because, if nothing else happens, it is quickly ready for use and can be used efficiently by the operator as an ‘ultimo-ratio’ weapon.

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THAT THE THREAT FROM TERRORISM TO BRITAIN’S NATIONAL SECURITY IS CURRENTLY SET AT ‘SEVERE’ IS HARDLY SURPRISING. YET HOME‑GROWN ISLAMIST TERRORISM IS NOT THE ONLY SECURITY CHALLENGE THE UK NOW FACES  In respect of the fight against home-grown extremism and terrorism, the first thing the government needs to do is to deliver measures it already has at its disposal whilst developing new ways of combating jihadism. It should increase the number of counter terrorist police and the size of MI5 as speedily as possible, as both major UK parties promised during the election. It must also develop new strategies to contain what looks increasingly like an endemic spread of jihadism amongst Britain’s young Muslims where one ‘success’ energises others to try their hand at terror. All will have to be carefully targeted and intelligence-led if the increase is not to become exponential.

Large numbers of immigration officers will be needed and, in the case of Northern Ireland, there are both land and sea borders that must be controlled if the smuggling of people and goods from the EU into Northern Ireland, and thence into the UK, is to stand any chance of being prevented. Budget cuts to the police will need to be reversed and increased funding to intelligence-led agencies maintained. Other measures of control are now required and the ‘Prevent’ counter extremism policy, far from being scrapped, should be extended, to involve MI5 in the process to ensure targeting is as successful as possible. The legal apparatus exists in the form

of the Investigatory Powers Act 2016. Prevent has, in fact, frequently worked: in 2015-16 7,500 people were referred to Prevent, 20 a day, and it is thought at least 150 people were stopped by it from travelling to join ISIS. Finally, in respect of Russian subversion, the 1989 Security Service Act placed on MI5 the statutory duty of ‘protecting national security… from actions intended to overthrow or undermine parliamentary democracy by political…or violent means’. MI5 must get cracking on this as well. L


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TECH TO COUNTER UAV’S CAN SERVE MILITARY AND POLICE FORCES In the third Counter Terror Business public reportage with Fabian Ochsner, vice president at Rheinmetall Air Defence AG, this piece explores the use of Counter UAV technology for police forces CTB: SHOULD DRONE DEFENCE TECHNOLOGY BE USED SOLELY FOR MILITARY PURPOSES, OR IS THERE AN ARGUMENT FOR POLICE USE AS WELL? Fabian Ochsner (FO): The fact that we do not have adequate counter drone systems available to cope with purpose built drones indicates that we first have to conceive counter drone technologies and after this we can then decide who is entitled to use and deploy them. If it comes to the task of ‘Sense’ it can be assumed that technologies which will be capable to do the job can be used in both military and police missions. It may prove to be prohibitively expensive to apply military technology for police operations, but if it is crucial to detect drones it may be required to consider new ways to make such technology available, such as the use of military software combined with commercial components. A main task for both applications is that there is no single sensor technology that can do the job by itself. This requires different technologies – for a full system comprising of visual, acoustical, Radio Frequency, Electro Optical (TV + IR) and Radar (including Micro Doppler) means – which have to be fused to allow a single integrated air picture for very small objects with low false alarm rates. The advantage of using such a sensor mix is that TV or IR pictures can be used for identification and evaluation of the threat, this is the ‘Decide’ function, used to apply adequate effectors to mitigate. The ‘Act’ task will be the one that differs most between military and police missions. The main concern for police missions is the risk for collateral damage which is regularly less prohibitive in military missions. Effectors


to mitigate drones are far reaching and must be tailored to the mission, if an Eagle can do the job, use it by all means. If, on the other end of the spectrum, you have air defense guns or missiles deployed it is crucial to make sure such capabilities can be used. Air defense guns, like the 35mm revolver gun from Rheinmetall with its unique AHEAD ammunition, can defeat even smallest drones already. The spectrum is wide open to use all means of effectors if they match the requirements for a specific mission.

CTB: WHEN DOES THE THREAT OF A DRONE FORCE THE POLICE TO TAKE ACTION AGAINST IT? FO: Many police corps are concerned with the potential to use drones to carry explosives into crowded places or high visibility events. It is considered a nuisance if paparazzi and irresponsible enthusiasts fly drones into no fly zones to get close-up footage, but not a real danger. Most police corps do not plan to endeavor to take such drones down. If a drone is considered to be a danger it must be removed from the scene – downing it by whatever means is not a valid option. A special case are prisons, which fear that drones are used to smuggle weapons or drugs into the secure zone. The task here is to supervise the ways over the wall and from above and detect the drones in order to raise an alarm. In a prison environment it is normally possible to deal with the situation using regular processes, but this happens only if an entry is detected.


CTB: HOW CAN MILITARY TECHNOLOGY BE USED IN A CIVIL ENVIRONMENT? FO: As stated before, the underpinning technology to deal with the threat from drones is the same for both cases. To negate a drone threat from a

terrorist or criminal means to be fully in the air defence domain. Air-defenders have to deal with non-cooperative targets and cannot assume that the enemy is predictable. If we apply this to the civil or police environment, we find that there are currently no systems on the market that fulfill the stated requirement and, even worse, militaries are in desperate search for such systems too. I assume that we will see a situation where the more desperate entities will drive the efforts for solutions which can then, after successfully installed in one environment, be transferred to the other domain. One example of a successful transfer is Rheinmetall’s Radshield prison protection system that detects drones entering prisons where commercial technologies have been used with military system knowhow (software) to conceive an affordable solution.

CTB: IN WHAT CIRCUMSTANCES IS THE USE OF COUNTER UAV TECHNOLOGY JUSTIFIED? AND WHAT IS NEEDED TO COUNTER THE IDENTIFIED THREAT? FO: As indicated before, this depends largely on the mission and the environment. On a battlefield you can use guns and missiles to deal with the threat as the threshold for collateral damage is much less. If, on the other side of the spectrum, you have a station filled with hundred-thousand people the situation is the opposite. To shoot down a drone in such an environment is a no-go since the effects may be even more devastating than letting it fly. In such a case one of the only options is a net-based ‘Catch&Carry’ system that can fly out, catch the drone with a net and carry it to a safe place or into the bomb container of the anti-bomb squad outside the stadium. Such a system will be part of Rheinmetall’s comprehensive Counter Drone Toolbox which resembles the full capabilities of the group and specialist partners. L



Dr James Rogers, associate lecturer in International Politics at the University of York, tracks the emerging threat posed by weaponised drones and examines some of the novel ways in which these threats are being countered

COUNTERING WEAPONISED DRONES T he use of drones is widespread. Once the sole province of the state, they are now utilised by an increasing circle of sub-state groups. Weaponised drones, in their various forms, have spread to over sixteen state actors and multiple terrorist and criminal organisations. The use of a weaponised drone is now open to anyone who can turn an off-the-shelf quadcopter into an airborne improvised explosive device (IED). Traditionally, armed drones have been the preserve of the nation state alone. The US military’s ‘iconic’ Predator and Reaper drones dominated lethal remote warfare. As the IED attacks increased in Afghanistan and Iraq, and the coalition casualties rose, it was these armed unmanned aerial systems that became seen as both a panacea to the human costs of war, and the ‘poster boys’ for a new and improved

form of warfare. Yet it was not just about the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, their utility went much further. Long-range data transmission, innovative computation technology, advanced video relay, and high-tech guided missiles, allowed the US to deploy force globally, yet without any risk to allied military lives. One purported benefit was that drones also decreased the risk to civilians through precision strikes. ‘Precision’ became a buzzword, especially during the Obama administration (2008-2016). The argument was that the ‘pin‑point’ precision missiles fired by armed drones allowed for the ‘bad guys’ on the ground to be hit, whilst innocent bystanders were apparently spared. These claims were highly controversial and disputed by a range of commentators. Yet, whatever the concerns over so called E



UAV TECHNOLOGY  collateral damage, the precision strike

capability of the drone was hailed by the president as being ‘part of a just war, a war waged proportionately’. Armed drones and their precision strikes were, therefore, deemed to be a virtuous addition to modern conflict. Yet just as President Obama celebrated the precision nature of armed drones and the ability to target and execute a range of enemies seemingly without costs or ‘blowback’, the ability of the ‘enemy’ to adapt and innovate in the use of drones is proving to be a new part of the drone story.

GOVERNMENTS AND ARMS COMPANIES HAVE INVESTED IN A VAST ARRAY OF EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES FOR DEALING WITH THE DRONE THREAT NON-TRADITIONAL DRONE THREATS As the number of actors who possess weaponised drones grows, the multitude of nefarious ways to deploy such systems has also expanded. Non-state actors, including criminal gangs and terror organisations, have acquired relatively sophisticated drone technologies. Civilians, aid workers, and various military personnel, are


now actually the potential victims of drones operated by a range of groups and indeed individuals. Western military personnel have already fallen victim to these ‘improvised precision strikes’. The ISIS use of drones against US troops in Syria (June, 2017) is but one example. US Special Operations Forces deployed around Raqqa have come under continued attack by small, hard to spot, weaponised drone systems. Armed with small mortar rounds or shells, and sometime HD quality live video streaming, ISIS is able to release munitions with considerable accuracy. Videos of these strikes have been posted on YouTube by ISIS to promote its new capabilities. This is not the only evidence of this type of activity. One striking case comes from the use of a so-called Trojan Horse weaponised drone. Deployed by ISIS last year for use against Kurdish military personnel and French special forces, the aim was to deliberately allow for the drone to be shot down, taken away for inspection, and then to detonate when examined. The plan worked. The resulting explosion cost the lives of two Kurdish fighters and caused injury to two French military personnel. This is an important turn. Whereas drones once allowed a state military or intelligence agency to strike down suspected terrorists, these same terrorists are now using armed drones to deploy their own form of deadly precision against the forces of the state. This is


just one part of a broader global trend. Military personnel are not the only target. Since the 1990s we have witnessed attacks on aid workers in a variety of guises not least as hostages for ransom, but in Iraq ISIS has explicitly targeted aid workers with modified commercial drones carrying 40mm rifle grenades. In Brazil, drug cartels have waged drone ‘dog fights’ against each other in the skies above cities. In Japan, a so-called ‘radioactive drone’ – that is a quadcopter carrying a vessel of radioactive liquid – was flown up onto the roof of the Japanese Prime Minister’s residence. It sat there radiating for up to a month. In Washington D.C. the Secret Service arrested one man who was trying to fly a drone over the fence around the White House and questioned yet another who actually crashed a drone on the White House lawn in the middle of the night. Although in both cases the drones were unarmed, these breaches of security highlight the risks posed by drone systems and the difficultly in countering attacks. The threat posed by weaponised drones is increasing. As Nicholas Rasmussen, US National Counterterrorism Center Chief, clearly stated to US Senators just last month, drones are ‘a real problem’. COUNTERING WEAPONISED DRONES So, can such a threat be countered? The answer is that there is no single ‘quick fix’. It may seem simple. Why not just

UAV TECHNOLOGY shoot down the drones? Shotguns or modified anti-missile systems could, in some cases, provide a sufficient countering capability. Yet, unfortunately it’s not that easy. As the case of the Trojan Horse drone demonstrated, sometimes terrorists want a drone to be shot down. For example, if a drone were packed with a noxious gas or hazardous powder, it would be preferable for the system to be destroyed in mid‑air, or forced to crash to the ground. So there are no quick fixes, but more considered options are being developed. Governments and arms companies have invested in a vast array of experimental techniques for dealing with the drone threat. These have included the rudimental use of certain animals to assist in countering drones, but also the deployment of some systems that would not seem out of place in an episode of Star Trek. In the former category, for example, drone hunting eagles have been used in France to patrol the skies at major events as a means to combat what the L’armée de l’air considers ‘a credible threat’ from so called ‘terror drones’. The positive scenario here is that the eagles can track, grab, and descend with the drones, meaning that they will be less likely to fall on to crowds below. The negative feature, however, is that if terrorists were to use weaponised drones in swarms – say for example ten or twenty drones launched simultaneously

THERE IS NO SINGLE SYSTEM THAT CAN COUNTER THE FULL SPECTRUM OF DRONE THREATS. YET, SOME PROMISING TECHNOLOGY IS BEING DEVELOPED – the small number of eagles currently available for the counter drone tasks would be quickly overwhelmed. A not dissimilar problem is found with the Japanese attempt to use drones carrying nets to capture other drones. The Tokyo Police have developed a fleet of single net wielding drones that can be used in a so-called ‘drone denial’ capacity against suspicious airborne systems. Yet, once again, if faced with a high number of offensive drones, these systems may quickly become overwhelmed. Other, more high-tech options are available, yet they also need to be operated with caveats. The US Air Force is in the process of developing a laser and microwavebased system that uses direct energy beams to rapidly destroy single or multiple weaponised drones. Other laser systems, such as the US Navy’s ‘Ground-Based Air Defense Directed Energy On-the-Move’ will be fitted to armoured vehicles and used to destroy incoming small drones whilst still advancing towards the enemy. In both of these cases there are positives and negatives to the counter drone systems. Although potentially useful in zones

of combat to rapidly remove multiple threats, if used in a civilian/public space, these anti-drone systems would be subject to the same pitfalls as merely shooting the drone from the sky. With no control over how to dispose of the drone, or where the drone lands, these systems could allow terrorists to adapt and deploy more weaponised drones that are intended to fall to the ground. One system which seeks to remedy this issue, however, is the ‘drone force field’. Straight out of a sci-fi film, the anti‑drone force fields (such as the Sky Fence) are made up of a number of signal disruptors placed around a high‑value location. The Sky Fence can offer a 600-metre‑high electronic barrier to stop drones entering the area. These systems will likely need to be accompanied by nets to ensure that the drones do not simply fall from the sky and hit the ground. In addition, they will need to be frequently updated to ensure those developing weaponised drones have not developed their own system to counter the electronic barrier. This being said, however, the force fields are considered to be a positive addition to the anti‑drone arsenal; especially when used in conjunction with a number of the other systems that have been outlined above. Finally, one system worth mentioning is the ‘tractor beam’ anti-drone rifle. Aptly named the Drone Gun, this system uses 2.4 and 5.8 GHz frequencies to take control of drones up to two kilometres away. The utility here, compared to other anti-drone systems, is that this ‘gun’ allows anti‑drone operatives to take control of a weaponised drone and render its previous pilot impotent by removing visual and motor control of the system. As such, the anti-drone operative can then direct the drone into a safe area away from vulnerable targets. As the system manufacturer states on their website, ‘it allows for a controlled management of drone payload’. Overall, therefore, there is no quick-fix and no single system that can counter the full spectrum of threats posed by weaponised drones. Yet, as the anti-drone devices highlighted above show, some promising technology is being developed. As such, when used in partnership with each other the current weaponised drone threat will likely be kept at bay – at least for now or until the next generation of weaponised drones come our way. L



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Andrew Scott, senior communications manager at the Business Continuity Institute, discusses the findings of the recent Cyber Resilience Report and the growing threat to organisations of digital disruption

PREPARING FOR DIGITAL DISRUPTION O ur organisations face disruption all the time. Natural and manmade disasters can both have a devastating impact that can cost our organisations time, money and customers. But it’s not just events in the physical world that we ought to be concerned about. In our digitally driven world, virtual disruptions can also have severe consequences. We are so reliant on our IT networks that work effectively stops when they shut down. Such is the threat of digital disruption, that cyber attacks, data breaches and network outages were all considered the greatest

concerns to business continuity and resilience professionals, according to the Business Continuity Institute’s latest Horizon Scan Report. The level of concern far exceeds that of disruptions caused by adverse weather, fire, terrorism or human illness. This is perhaps justified given that another report by the BCI – The Cyber Resilience Report – revealed that two-thirds of organisations had experienced at least one cyber security incident during the previous year while 15 per cent had experienced at least 10. Additionally, 13 per cent experienced E



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CYBER SECURITY  cumulative losses in excess of €250,000 as a result of a cyber incident. SO WHAT MAKES THE CYBER THREAT SO GREAT? In any one second it is estimated that over 10 terabytes of data are being transferred across the internet, but the global IT infrastructure makes this a relatively easy task to handle. What happens, however, when a large chunk of that data is focused on one server? That was the position the UK’s largest broadcaster – the BBC – found itself in on New Year’s Eve a few years ago when a Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack of up to 600GBps brought down their website including iPlayer for several hours. A DDoS attack involved an attacker using a series of compromised devices that are connected to the net in order to bombard a single target with data until it overloads and crashes. Cyber attacks such as this one are becoming more frequent with some studies suggesting that half of all organisations are affected by at least one attack every year.


Arguably, this increased frequency correlates with the rise of the Internet of Things as more and more devices are coming online, and many of these devices do not have effective security. DDoS attacks can be used as a form of activism; perhaps a smokescreen to hide a more malicious attack or theft of data; sometimes the impact on one organisation is just the collateral damage as part of a wider attack. In the case of the BBC it was reported that it was simply to test whether an attack on such a scale could be mounted. It could. It is ransomware, and the encryption of all your data until a ransom is paid, that is currently gaining the most attention in the headlines, however. The WannaCry attack back in May which affected about a quarter of a million computers in about 150 countries was soon followed up by the NotPetya attack which may have been smaller in scale but proved more costly to some organisations. The cost to Maersk as a result of losing its IT systems was reported to be in the region of $100 million. Data is a valuable asset for organisations as they gather as much information on their clients or prospects as possible. As many products and services are now being sold online, this data is becoming easier to collect and organisations are building vast databases containing personal contact details and credit card information. This data is worth a lot of money and there are plenty of people who would like to get their hands on it. Adobe,

Sony, JP Morgan – all big names who no doubt invest heavily in IT security, yet have all suffered a data breach in recent years where information has been stolen. Reputation is another important asset to organisations and when customers see their personal information being lost or stolen then the reputational damage can lead to those customers taking their money elsewhere. The financial costs can also be high as fines or legal action can take their toll – the three organisations above were estimated by some sources to have lost over $1 billion each as a result of these breaches. Don’t assume that data breaches are always the result of sophisticated technology used by hackers – human error is often to blame. A recent study found that the most common passwords used are ‘123456’ and ‘password’, and the remainder of the top twenty was made up of passwords that were equally as guessable. It wouldn’t take a computer genius to hack into those people’s accounts. It is cyber vulnerabilities on the part of the end user that the Business Continuity Institute focused on as part of its latest campaign, highlighting the steps that each and every one of us can take to help improve cyber security. It suggested that organisations and individuals should: use secure passwords including a combination of at least 12 upper and lower case letters, numbers and symbols, rather than 123456 or your pet’s name; keep passwords safe and don’t write them E





COUNTERING THE OVERWHELMING CYBER THREATS OF THE FUTURE Written by Piers Wilson, Head of Product Management, Huntsman Security

High profile cyber security attacks have dominated the headlines in recent months, making it clear that even the most security conscious organisations, whether public or private, are highly vulnerable

Whether the perpetrators are terrorists, hostile foreign powers, organised criminals or mischief-makers, the results can still be the same – theft of sensitive information, service disruption or critical assets being held to ransom. Everyone is now re-addressing the strength of their cyber defences in light of the overwhelming volume of threats. REVIEW YOUR OWN CYBER SECURITY STRATEGY USING THIS FREE BENCHMARKING TOOL: It’s not as simple as going on the offensive to find perpetrators before they strike and, with so many potential attacks, from so many potential attackers, a reactive defence is not a complete solution. More worryingly, while organisations have put in place a variety of traditional security measures that are able to deal with external, predictable threats, such as DDoS or known malware, these systems cannot stop the steadily growing number of more advanced, essentially random attacks. THE VISIBILITY PROBLEM One of the most important factors, is fully understanding the risks. Without adequate monitoring, organisations might not even be aware that they are currently under attack. How do they know what devices are connected to the network and could leak data or create an undetected vulnerability?


People who have legitimate access to applications, networks, systems and data can still potentially steal, misuse or corrupt sensitive information –sometimes even without intending to, through ignorance, negligence, or just plain carelessness. FOR PERSONAL DATA, SECURITY IS VITAL, THIS GDPR FOCUSSED REPORT TELLS YOU WHY: With many organisations outsourcing IT functions, it is increasingly challenging to guarantee full visibility, let alone control, over the systems and data used. This leads to a situation where there can be a number of potential entry points into an organisation’s network that are difficult to control, and could potentially be used to access sensitive systems. It is a real challenge to address every eventuality in which an attacker could act against an organisation. Since different attackers have differing motives, skill sets and risk profiles, controls put in place to address one scenario may be completely ineffective in another. Although blocking attackers at the perimeter is important, we should also prepare for those who make it through and prevent them from doing damage. THE NEED FOR NEXT-GEN SECURITY One of the key ways of managing threats within an organisation is to track user and network behaviour, which is then


monitored through AI and machine learning to spot any suspicious activity. In most organisations, security analysts undertake this work manually, but with the sheer amount of data, users, requests and potential breaches this is impossible to sustain. Therefore, machine learning must be able to not only identify unusual behaviour, but also analyse the threat and take action. If we imagine that a cyber attack similar to the disrupted the Ukraine energy supply incident of 2015 had proven successful in the UK, the potential consequences of disruption, financial cost and civil discontent are immense. THE EMERGENCE OF SECURITY ANALYTICS The drive to intelligence in cyber security decision making has led to the emergence of Security Analytics solutions that provide machine learning, automation and behavioural detection. TO FIND OUT MORE, READ “ANALYTICS AND AUTOMATION IN CYBER SECURITY” AT: Coupled with identifying risks is the need to focus on understanding them. Threats should be presented in terms of their potential effect – whether that means disrupted systems, loss of public confidence or the risk of harm. A threat can originate from anywhere in the world. Organisations must ensure they have the means to identify, understand and counter this reality. MEASURE THE STRENGTH OF YOUR CYBER DEFENCES: L



CYBER ATTACKS ARE BECOMING MORE FREQUENT WITH SOME STUDIES SUGGESTING THAT HALF OF ALL ORGANISATIONS ARE AFFECTED BY AT LEAST ONE ATTACK EVERY YEAR  on a post-it note that’s left next to your computer; lock your computer when you’re not using it; be cautious when using public Wi-Fi and don’t access sensitive information when using it; don’t plug in untrusted USB devices; and don’t click on untrusted links. The essence of the campaign was that cyber security is everyone’s responsibility and we can all play a part in building a resilient organisation. BUSINESS CONTINUITY PLANNING So how do you prepare your organisation for the various disruptions that it could face. Horizon scanning is a fundamental part of business continuity and while the BCI’s Horizon Scan Report offers an overview of the top level threats, it is important for each organisation to assess the threats that are relevant to them. If

you know the threats you face, you will have a better understanding of what the potential impacts could be. If you know what the potential impacts could be then you are in a much better position to put plans in place to manage through them. With digital infrastructure, it doesn’t matter whether it’s a cyber attack or a power failure, if the IT is out of action then you need to have plans in place to manage through this. Can it be replicated elsewhere? There are many data replication solutions available that can migrate all of your data to a secondary system, removing the potential single point of failure that could result in you losing all of your data in the event of an IT disaster. You must always make sure that your data is backed-up. If your data is backed-up and you experience

a ransomware attack then you can isolate the ransomware, clean the network of it and then restore the data from your back-up. It’s not necessarily an easy process, but it means you don’t lose all your data and you don’t pay a ransom. Of course you need to ensure that the back-up can’t be encrypted by the ransomware as well. Whatever the crisis, it is essential to respond swiftly as the longer you delay any action the more disruptive it could become. Communicate to all your stakeholders what is going on and what you are doing to resolve it. People are a lot more understanding when you’re being transparent and they can see you’re making an effort to sort things out. Disruptive events will always occur, whatever form they may take. By having an effective business continuity programme in place, it should mean that, in the event of an incident, a drama doesn’t turn into a crisis. L




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Counter Terror Business interviews global security leader Roderick Jones about the current state of UK cyber security in the face of terrorism

RODERICK JONES INTERVIEW: ASSESSING DIGITAL CRIME D uring his time as a member of Scotland Yard’s Special Branch, Roderick Jones focused on international terrorism and the protection of a prominent British cabinet member. Since then, Jones founded the cyber security firm Rubica. Here, following a number of cyber attacks on UK organisations in 2017, Counter Terror Business (CTB) speaks to Roderick Jones (RJ) about digital crime and UK police force capabilities.

CTB: A recent report by Reform has argued that a range of changes are required to make UK police forces fit to fight the growing trend of digital crime. Just how important is it for UK police forces to educate their members of cyber crimes and their role in other offences?

RJ: Successive governments have been proclaiming year-on-year reductions in the crime figures and using this data to design a much more reduced policing delivery in the UK. However, when cyber crimes were added to the official crime count this year the overall crime rate doubled.  In short, crime has moved off the street and online and arguably by looking at the wrong data for years the Home Office has left UK police forces poorly equipped to handle this change. If half the crimes being committed are wholly digital in nature, and arguably most physical crimes have a digital evidential component to them, then police officers need to be fully conversant in digital crime to be effective. E





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 CTB: The Bobbies on the net paper suggests that the Home Office should also create a digital academy to train cyber specialists. How important are cyber specialists in assisting the police meet the challenges of changing demands?   RJ: Training is critical in closing the knowledge gap that exists in the UK police around digital crime. While having a certain number of specialists is important digital training should be a general requirement for police officers and should form part of the basic training curriculum in the same way that other skills are core to being a police officer.   CTB: As the capabilities of technology expand, so do the threats. To what extent has the digital side of terrorism changed since you were a member of Scotland Yard’s Special Branch?   RJ: Terrorism has almost wholly virtualised in the period from when I was in Special Branch to now. Most aspects of terrorism have moved online from recruitment, ideological engagement, communication, fundraising and training. The one element that has remained physical is the attack itself but this too is likely to migrate online. Digital assassination of politicians by hacking their digital persona’s is possible and likely as are cyber terrorist spectaculars against infrastructure targets in the UK. It’s impossible to argue why the cyber trend in general crime won’t be fully replicated in terrorism.

ENCRYPTION IS A FUNDAMENTAL PART OF THE INTERNET AND IS USED IN ALL KINDS OF DAILY DIGITAL ENGAGEMENTS, SO WEAKENING ENCRYPTION IS A MISPLACED IDEA. ENCRYPTED COMMUNICATIONS ARE NOW A REALITY FOR GOVERNMENTS TO MANAGE CTB: Home Secretary Amber Rudd has warned that encrypted messaging services such as WhatsApp must not offer terrorists a place to hide. What are the dangers and vulnerabilities of encrypted applications? RJ: The current Home Secretary hasn’t shown a particularly solid command of her brief when it comes to technology. Encryption is a fundamental part of the Internet and is used in all kinds of daily digital engagements, so weakening or requiring backdoors to encryption is a misplaced idea. Technology development can’t be reversed and encrypted communications are now a reality for governments to manage.  There was a time prior to the mass adoption of the Internet when communications between terrorists were hard to intercept, then the Internet provided a brief window when mass interception was possible but this window was negligible when considered over the span of the 100 plus years of modern terrorism in the UK. A variety of techniques are used to develop intelligence in order to disrupt terrorism plots, intercepting communications is only one tool in this arsenal.

CTB: Following a number of large scale hacks this year, are organisation’s security standards rigid enough to face challenges?   RJ: No they aren’t. However, it is too easy to play the blame game because the Internet was built without any security in place because nobody thought it would be used for so many critical functions. As a society we are trying to adapt as quickly as we can to this reality and build in security after the fact. This takes time and, therefore, this gap allows for the golden age of crime we are living through. Roderick Jones is a global security leader with over 15 years of experience operating at the highest levels of the international security environment. He is the founder of cyber security firm Rubica. Originally a service of Concentric Advisors, Rubica provides those concerned with online crime the most effective digital security available. L





TECHNOLOGY Amy-Louise Watkin & Joe Whittaker, from Swansea University, discuss social media as a tool for terrorism, and how terrorists use the opportunity such sites present to reach audiences less familiar with the deep, dark web

EVOLUTION OF TERRORISTS’ USE OF THE INTERNET I t is often argued that terrorists are among the first to exploit new technologies to achieve their aims. This is, perhaps, unsurprising, as multiple studies have found the average age of a terrorist actor to be in their mid-twenties; an age usually associated with embracing technology. However, it is not just youthful exuberance that accounts for this trend. As governments, law enforcement and civil society begin to catch up with the use of a particular technology, terrorist actors must usually learn to use the next mode of communication to be able to spread their message. The first era of terrorist content on the Internet was not dissimilar to general user experience – web pages which one could visit and read, as well as the peer-to-peer media of email and online fora. In its early days, the Internet was something of a libertarian paradise, to the point in which even the notion of a ‘cyber crime’ was an ill-defined concept. However, as soon as practitioners started to act against this content something of a cat and mouse game began. One of two things usually happened. Sometimes websites and fora would be taken down and content creators would strive to make quick replacements, perhaps with greater anonymity than before. If sites remained open, the (usually correct) assumption among users was that security services had infiltrated them for the purposes of intelligence. Multiple studies found that this caused distrust to be rife among these platforms and a number of trust-reassuring systems were put in place. However, transactional terrorist matters rarely took place online. Instead, they tended to be places to share propaganda, socialise, and teach according to specific ideologies. If users showed their dedication to the cause then they were often invited to more private channels, or indeed, to show their support offline. WEB 2.0: SOCIAL MEDIA However, as the Internet gradually transitioned into the ‘Web 2.0’, the user experience



dramatically changed. Suddenly, rather than being found in the deepest, darkest corners of the Internet, the opportunity appeared to engage audiences on the new front pages of the web: social media sites. These sites’ popularity offered an opportunity to reach audiences who would never have considered engaging with such content, and would never have found it if left to their own devices. However, it should not be understood that groups had immediate success with such sites. Many discovered that digital marketing is not easy, especially without significant expertise and personnel. For most, investing considerable time and resources did not seem like a cost worth bearing. Here lies an important misunderstanding. While it is often claimed that terrorists are particularly apt at using technology, this is the result of a survivorship bias. Most groups do not use such technology effectively, and often fall into obscurity as a result. However, many groups have used ‘Web 2.0’ technologies to disturbing effect, such as al-Shabaab, who became the first group to live tweet an attack during their siege of the Westgate mall in Nairobi in 2013. Despite this early warning of groups being able to utilise social media to their advantage, law enforcement was caught entirely unprepared for the rise of the Islamic State (ISIS) and the declaration of the caliphate in the summer of 2014. Just as important as their physically occupied territories was their virtual caliphate. During that summer, accounts were able to operate with a great deal of freedom, especially on Twitter, which has always prided itself on not taking content down unless absolutely necessary. In fact, the company used to hold the unofficial motto: ‘the free speech wing of the free speech party’. Twitter quickly became ISIS’ go-to platform as its short form micro-blogging format was perfect for links to other sites or media such as pictures or videos. When new content was released, both official members and E




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SOCIAL MEDIA  ‘disseminators’ would act in a way not dissimilar to a viral marketing campaign, sharing and retweeting to create a buzz to ensure the maximum reach possible. At peak, estimates of the number of users were in the tens, or even hundreds of thousands at any one point. In short, ISIS became the first group to really successfully harness social media because they had the skills and knowledge to use it and the understanding of its potential power. Anecdotal stories from within the ISIS-controlled territories say that being a propagandist in the group carries the same social kudos as being a fighter, which is emblematic of how important it is seen. ENCRYPTED PLATFORMS However, in 2016 this began to change as both governments and private industry started to adapt to this threat. Under an immense amount of public pressure, Twitter adopted a robust suspension policy which severely damaged the group’s ability to act on the site. There are now very few readily available IS supporting accounts, and those that do are usually suspended very quickly, and often have no profile pictures and long, undistinguished screen names to avoid detection. However, as with previous technologies, when security services and civil society caught up, ISIS migrated to new platforms. Between these mass suspensions and the loss of territory over the last year, ISIS has shown an increased reliance on other online platforms and incredible adaptability with a giant leap to encrypted platforms such as Telegram. Telegram hosts many of the same features and capabilities of open platforms, but with the additional components of security and privacy. Telegram is a free, cross-platform app that can be accessed via mobile devices, laptops and desktop computers. There are two main features in this app: channels and chat rooms. Channels allow individuals to release information in several formats (text, images, videos, audio etc.), but do not allow for the consumers of this information to do anything other than consume (i.e. they cannot comment on the posts). Chat rooms, on the other hand, allow for individuals to interact with each other either via conversations or posts, including sending memes and stickers. Telegram has several features that are particularly appealing to terrorist organisations such as allowing secret encrypted one-to-one chats and the option for messages to ‘self-destruct’ after they have been read. It has been argued by some scholars that the chat rooms have become ‘virtual


communities’ providing followers with a sense of purpose and belonging. Scholars have also reported that the content being shared on Telegram is not unlike the content that was previously seen on Facebook and Twitter before the suspension crackdowns: recruitment videos, violent imagery, beheading and suicide videos, and images of dead children killed by their enemies. This content, particularly the latter, are all intended to encourage followers to join them and take action. Telegram now allows for terrorist organisations to reach out to their sympathisers in private encrypted one‑to‑one chats and call for attacks in their home countries. Research has found that there is prominent discourse around the encouragement of simpler attacks that do not require sophisticated weapons or methods with the primary message being that anyone can undertake an attack for them. These dangers have already been seen in the case where the Istanbul Reina club attacker was told to commit the attack from his Emir in Raqqa over Telegram, and then again when Rachid Kassim, a French-born ISIS propagandist used Telegram to recruit individuals to undertake attacks in France. After the Brussels and Paris attacks, it became apparent that the attackers had used the private chat feature in Telegram to plan the attacks. With the app’s constant increase in popularity, it is unlikely that this will be the last time that this occurs.

NEW PLATFORMS, NEW PROBLEMS However, it is important to note that terrorists’ use of Telegram does not come without problems for them. The private and secure nature of Telegram does not offer the same momentum and ability to reach new recruits in the way that Twitter did. The use of ordinary hashtags on Twitter allowed terrorist organisations to reach those who may not have reached out to them otherwise. Additionally, the use of terrorist-related hashtags allowed the curious to find them fairly easily. Telegram is rather secluded in this sense as it does not allow either of these and is mainly accessible to existing followers. As a result, terrorist leaders have been calling out to their followers, encouraging them not to seclude their efforts just to Telegram but to continue utilising the benefits that come from using open platforms. Interestingly, despite encrypted platforms representing the cutting edge of cyber technology, the anonymity and fear of infiltration by security services results in a level of distrust that is emblematic of the first era of online terrorist content. On the topic of open platforms, it is important to remember that they are evolving all the time with new features being added fairly regularly which are at risk of exploitation from terrorist organisations. It was only in 2016 that Larossi Abballa killed Jean‑Baptsiste Salvaing, a senior police official in Magnanville, France, and his wife, and then turned to Facebook’s feature (which was new at the time), Facebook Live. Abballa used this feature to broadcast a live speech for 12 minutes in which he called for others to undertake similar attacks in France. The notion of terrorists adapting by utilising new technologies is not a new one and the current terrorist threats are no different. Major suspensions on the most popular open platforms have caused ISIS to move to encrypted platforms. Despite the greater freedom this allows the group, it is not without a new set of difficulties for the group, whose reach has been severely diminished and hampered by severe distrust. These costs and benefits must be weighed up by practitioners trying to decide whether intelligence or limiting reach is more beneficial. L




AT THE NOVOTEL HOTEL LONDON WEST, 6 MARCH 2018 THE COUNTER TERROR AWARDS WILL RECOGNISE STRATEGIES, PROCEDURAL EXCELLENCE AND TECHNOLOGIES WHICH HELP TO MITIGATE THE THREATS FROM TERRORISM Acts of terrorism are designed to influence an audience beyond the immediate victims, and have been used throughout history to strike fear into the population. The tragic and despicable events of the early 21st Century have forced the international community to act. Increasingly sophisticated strategies and technologies are being employed by organisations throughout the world in order to counter the threat. RECOGNISING COUNTER TERROR STRATEGY The Counter Terror Awards will be staged to recognise the efforts of organisations in both the public and private sectors and their contributions to counter terror strategy in the UK and overseas, as well as the vital role played by the military and emergency services in mitigating terrorist threats and striving to keep the public safe. The Counter Terror Awards are supported by Counter Terror Business magazine and will take place for the first time on 6th March 2018, in association with the Security and Counter Terror Expo. AWARDS CATEGORIES • Airport Security Award

• Emergency Services Product Award

• Best Use of Information Technology in Counter Terrorism

• Forensic Science Award

• CBRNE Product Award

• Outstanding Contribution to Counter Terrorism

• Communication Systems Award

• Perimeter Protection Award

• Counter Terror Information Sharing Award

• Physical Security Award

• Counter Terrorism Education Project

• Private Sector Contribution to Counter Terrorism Award

• Counter Terrorism Project (International)

• Public Sector Contribution to Counter Terrorism Award

• Counter Terrorism Project (UK/Ireland)

• Terrorism Research Award

• Cyber Security / Counter Terrorism Technology Award

• Threat Detection Award

• Emergency Services Award

• UAV Product Award




The Counter Terror Awards, launching on 6 March 2018, will recognise strategies, procedural excellence and technologies which help to mitigate the threats from terrorism



hile Europol’s 10th publication of its EU Terrorism Situation and Trend Report (TE-SAT), published in June this year, reveals a decline in the number of failed, foiled and completed terror attacks in Europe since 2014, it also shows that the number of deaths associated with such attacks has spiked over the last few years from just four to 142. It seems as though tactics have changed; the focus is no longer on how many attacks terrorists can orchestrate, but how many fatalities they can cause at any one time. Acts of terrorism are designed to influence an audience beyond the immediate victims, and have been used throughout history to strike fear into the population. In previous years, perpetrators have used bombs, suicide vests and guns to cause as much destruction as possible, especially on public transport. The most memorable attacks of this kind include the 11 March 2004 Madrid train bombings, which left 191 dead and 1,841 injured, the 7 July 2005 London Underground bombings which killed 25 and injured 750, and the 22 March 2016 Brussels subway bombings which caused 21 fatalities and 130 injuries. Each of these attacks were carried out by groups of four or more – Madrid having the

largest organisation with 21 suspects. Although bombs, suicide vests and guns are still used in terrorist attacks, terrorist tactics have undoubtedly changed. It has become a common trend to use everyday objects, such as vehicles and knives, as weapons, and to execute an attack alone. INTERNATIONAL RESPONSE The tragic and despicable events of the early 21st century have created fear and hysteria across the world, but has forced the international community to act. As a result, increasingly sophisticated strategies and technologies are now being employed by organisations, both in Europe and beyond, in order to counter the threat. In light of this, the Counter Terror Awards will be staged on 6 March to recognise the efforts of organisations in both the public and private sectors and their contributions to counter terror strategy in the UK and overseas, as well as the vital role played by the military and emergency services in mitigating terrorist threats and striving to keep the public safe. As the security challenge expands and the threat varies, so must the response. Because of this, the awards accommodate a variety of industries

in its categories, including: airport security, CBRNE, communications systems, education, cyber security, emergency services, perimeter protection, forensics, UAV technology, research and threat detection. The first Outstanding Contribution to Counter Terrorism award will be presented to an organisation or individual, from either the private or government sector, in recognition of their contribution to worldwide anti terrorism efforts. A full list of categories can be seen on the Counter Terror Awards website. The Counter Terror Awards, run by Counter Terror Business magazine, is being supported by a number of organisations, including: Counter Terror Policing; the Perimeter Security Suppliers Association; the Transported Asset Protection Association; the Information Systems Security Association; the Emergency Planning Society; the National Association of Security Dog Users; the Institute of Information Security Professionals; the International Professional Security Association; and the Association of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems. L







special event and a massive learning curve for everyone involved (not just the riders!)

In May the charity merged with the Royal Engineers Injured Soldiers Fund. The fund was a pot of money designated for helping injured soldiers. A large area of the help they provided was in line with the objectives of Felix Fund. As the charity has been keen to stress its tri-service links and the fund would benefit from being within a registered charity it seemed a logical step for the two to merge. Plans were drawn up and the charitable objectives reviewed, then on the 1 May the two became Felix Fund – the bomb disposal charity. We were very pleased to welcome onto our board of trustees Commanding Officers from 33 Engineer Regiment Explosive Ordnance Disposal and 101 (City of London) Engineer Regiment Explosive Ordnance Disposal. All of which will help to re-enforce our links with the wider EOD community.

FELIX FESTIVAL Another exciting event in the Felix Fund calendar was the Felix Festival. Back in 2015 a group of volunteers got together and organsied the first Felix Festival. A music festival, which combined the Rugby World Cup, plus bar, food and camping was a massive success with over 600 people attending and raising over £24,000 for the charity. Having a break for a year they decided to come back bigger and better with Felix Festival II. The event attracted close to 1,000 people and raised far more than version one. Maybe we will see this as a regular feature (every other year of course!) 2018 will see Felix Fund join forces with our ‘sister’ charity across the Atlantic; the EOD Warrior Foundation. In 2016, we held a joint EOD Charities Gala Dinner in London, which coincided with the Counter Terror Expo. A wonderful event it saw personnel from the UK and USA reinforcing their bonds. A return fixture was always planned and with a date now fixed – 15 September 2018 in Washington DC, plans are underway. Anyone interested in sponsoring the event or purchasing tickets should contact Melanie Moughton at: L

2017 has been a year of expansion and development for Felix Fund – the bomb disposal charity

NEW LOGO Another step towards being seen as more tri‑service focused, something the charity’s image has struggled with, has been the development of a new logo. The name stays the same but we now have Felix in the centre. Felix the cat was created by a serving soldier based in Northern Ireland during the 1970s as a symbol for the bomb disposal personnel. Initially their call sign had been Phoenix but a mis-hearing caused it to become Felix which stuck. After all what better a mascot than a cat with nine


lives. As their charity, we have adopted him as our symbol and mascot, so what better way to celebrate Felix than to include him in our logo. We will continue to work hard forging ever closer links with all elements of the EOD community to ensure those people we are here to help know about it. CYCLING Another new step for Felix Fund this year was a big fundraising challenge the Tour de Troops cycle ride. Nine bomb disposal experts from the British Army covered 1,600 miles by bike to raise funds for Felix Fund. Switching blast suits for Lycra, the cyclists began their ride from Edinburgh to Bielefeld in Germany on 12 June and averaged about 100 miles per day. In just 15 days, and during some very hot weather they visited every security-cleared squadron within 11 EOD Regiment RLC in the first-ever Tour de Troops. The tour’s route traversed through England before crossing into to northern France. Along the way, the cyclists passed through the towns and cities close to their military bases. At each stop they were met by supporters and the media, all cheering them on. Key funding had been provided for the event by Kirintec, who specialise in the design and production of security technology solutions. Without their assistance it would have been impossible to pull together the logistics for the challenge. It was a very

SO HOW DO WE TOP THAT? Plans are already being discussed for a Tour de EOD in 2018. This would be a cycle ride via all security-cleared EOD bases; Army, Royal Navy and Royal Air Force, which could be a route in excess of 2,500 miles. A massive challenge for the riders but a huge fundraising and profile-raising activity for Felix Fund. With a year to plan we are on the lookout for potential sponsors.



International security professionals will gather in London in March 2018 to help tackle the growing threat facing nations and businesses, as UK Security Week examines the policies and strategies helping to eliminate the terrorist threat in the UK

UK SECURITY WEEK LAUNCHES IN MARCH 2018 F or many nations across the globe, the threat from international terrorism remains severe. Physical attacks, carried out by terror cells and radicalised individuals, in Barcelona, London, Manchester, Stockholm, Paris and Brussels have been coupled with an increasing number of cyber attacks. With the issue of national security and counter terrorism at the top of government agendas, Clarion Defence and Security Ltd has recently announced the launch of UK Security Week, which will start on 6 March 2018.

Designed to help international security professionals debate the ever evolving range of threats, define operational strategies and help shape future policy, UK Security Week will include Security & Counter Terror Expo (SCTX), World Counter Terror Congress (WCTC), Forensics Europe Expo (FEE), Ambition, and the new People Movement and Management Show (PMMS). The events have the ultimate objective of helping those tasked with preserving national security, protecting assets and individuals against terrorism. E






6-7 March 2018 Olympia, London



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6-7 March 2018 Olympia, London

6-7 March 2018 Olympia, London

6-7 March 2018 Olympia, London


6-7 March 2018 | Olympia, London

UK SECURITY WEEK  IDENTIFYING NEW SOLUTIONS AND CRITICAL ISSUES The flagship event of UK Security Week is SCTX, which earlier this year attracted 9,851 security professionals from more than 114 countries. It will return to London Olympia from 6-7 March 2018, showcasing some of the most innovative security technologies, from biometrics to HGV mitigation solutions. Over 350 exhibitors will be present at the 2018 show, including BAE Systems, Chemring, Aaronia, Surelock McGill and Meggitt Training to name a few – making it the largest showcase of national security solutions in the UK. SCTX will also feature an expansive educational programme that will deliver unrivalled insight into current issues and how to combat new challenges. 10 free-to-attend conference streams, which will run on the exhibition floor, will cover border security, the cyber threat, protecting national infrastructure, policing, major events security and security design. One of the most important conferences


will be Cyber Threat Intelligence, which is run in partnership with techUK. Globally, there was a 36 per cent increase in ransomware attacks worldwide, highlighting the ever‑growing threat caused by cyber criminals. The conference stream will focus on the threat posed by cyber crime and provide a platform for discussion on how to advance best practice and stay ahead of those intent on inflicting harm via the screen. Speaking about the 2017 Cyber Threat Intelligence conference, Sajid Younis, resilience adviser at DCLG Resilience and Emergencies Division, said: “The sessions have been extremely interesting. It’s a huge tier 1 threat to our society right now and it’s been great to hear from so many high-profile speakers in the field.” Brand new to the show this year, the Integrated Security Showcase will demonstrate a range of technology, solutions and services vital for the protection of critical national infrastructure facilities and major assets. A plethora of carefully selected products will be displayed in a live environment, enabling security professionals to learn how the solutions can be implemented. NEW COUNTER TERROR STRATEGIES A key feature of UK Security Week will be the paid-for WCTC, which will run alongside SCTX from 6-7 March. Last year more than 1,000 senior

security professionals, including diplomats and high-ranking police officers, were in attendance, keen to learn more about the latest strategies being used around the world to tackle radicalisation, prevent lone wolf attacks and counter international terrorism. With the likes of Europol’s Rob Wainwright and Metropolitan Police Deputy Assistant Commissioner Lucy D’Orsi due to speak in 2018, the programme is not to be missed. Speaking at last year’s event, the head of security at The O2 Arena, London, said: “Security in crowded places is vital and the WCTC has been an ideal way to gain exclusive access to the latest measures other high profile attractions are taking. It’s been great to network and learn about so many new and innovative security solutions coming through the market.” THE EPRR COMMUNITY EVENT Supported and chaired by the Cabinet Office, the Ambition event will also run from 6-7 March at London Olympia. The exhibition and conference is aligned with the National Resilience Capabilities Programme and the National Respond and Rescue Strategy, and is supported by the Cabinet Office. Ambition will provide professionals from government departments, the NHS, councils, local resilience forums, ambulance trusts, fire and police organisations and specialist agencies with the unique opportunity to meet, network and debate the latest challenges facing the EPRR community today. Visitors will hear from leading experts on topics such as the future of emergency services, pandemic diseases, response to terrorist attacks and resilience for businesses, as well as being about to investigate the latest equipment. SHAPING THE FUTURE OF FORENSIC SCIENCE Forensics professionals play a vital role in apprehending those responsible for crimes, as well as helping law enforcement officers prevent future offences. Running from 6-7 March at London Olympia, FEE is the only international exhibition and conference that showcases the latest equipment and services, and presents new trends and techniques. The event provides a definitive source of education, best practice, training and networking. More than 80 exhibitors will showcase 3,000-plus products during the exhibition, with around 50 free-to-attend seminars exploring all the latest tools in forensic science, from crime scene to courtroom. EXPLORING PEOPLE ANALYTICS PMMS is the key pan-European trade show for the people analytics industry. From 6-7 March at London Olympia, visitors will be able to discover a E



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UK SECURITY WEEK  plethora of technological innovation in this field which will provide insights into the future of operations from mass transit, retail, passenger terminals and universities to sports stadia, shopping centres and urban events. The solutions on display will ultimately aid with the modelling and design of urban spaces from a people movement perspective. The technologies on show will range from real time data acquisition to maximise space utilisation, to wayfinding, circulation efficiency, retail revenues, operational effectiveness, resilience

and the securing of crowded places and ultimately visitor experience. Additionally, visitors will have the opportunity to hear and meet world‑leading experts in this field, in a range of high level presentations delivered across a varied two-day agenda. Richard Walton, UK Security Week Special Advisor and former Head of Counter Terrorism Command (SO15) at New Scotland Yard, commented: “The threat we are facing today is inherently different from that of even a few years ago. Cyber attacks are now a major concern for governments


and businesses, while physical attacks being carried out by radicalised ‘lone wolves’ are incredibly hard to prevent. UK Security Week will deliver a series of invaluable opportunities to learn about new strategies that can help security professionals keep civilians, assets and infrastructure safe.” Counter Terror Business magazine is premier media partner to the Security & Counter Terror Expo, and in 2018 will launch the Counter Terror Awards, which will recognise strategies, procedural excellence and technologies which help to mitigate the threats from terrorism.

The event will take place on 6 March 2018. Find more information on page 43. L




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Steve Green, of the Security Institute, examines the current threats posed to physical security and what measures would be most suitable in controlling access to buildings or other populated areas that could face a security threat



ince time immemorial, one of the basic tenets of security has been the principle of ‘Defence in Depth’; the establishment of multiple, concentric, secure perimeters around a critical asset, each of increasing resilience, to filter authorised friend from unauthorised foe. Assets, in this regard, may include property, people and information. The object of the exercise is to ensure that any actual or perceived weaknesses in a perimeter layer are reinforced and neutralised by strengths in the next, such that a coincidence of gaps cannot occur which might allow an assailant passage to the asset. This ‘hardens’ the target, increasing the perceived risk to the attacker of being caught and sanctioned, and thus providing a powerful psychological, as well as physical, deterrent factor. Both Roman castra marching camps and Norman motte-and-bailey castles employed this simple but effective design philosophy, and it serves equally well in every conceivable operational theatre in the modern world. Such perimeter control can be designed to segregate and filter people, vehicles or goods, according to the type of risks being addressed. But herein lies the security practitioner’s

dilemma: how many layers, and of what size and granularity, is optimal in a given situation? Or to put it more simply, when hardening a target, just how hard is hard enough? ACCESS LEVELS Unfortunately, as with much else in the risk management domain, the answer is entirely subjective. It is a complex function of personal and collective risk appetites, assessment and interpretation of the security risks faced, the nature of the site being protected and, of course, the available budget. In the simplest case of a fixed, highly-valued asset, for example, where the risk perceived is one of access by unauthorised persons, a solution might be appropriate in which the types and number of authentication factors varies and becomes more individually specific the closer you approach, thus creating a number of ‘access levels’. So whilst a notional outer perimeter might feature proximity card readers and CCTV cameras, the next might include PIN keypad and proximity card readers and video motion detection, while the inner perimeter could comprise biometric authentication and

volumetric intruder detection. Coupled with appropriate levels of personnel and baggage screening, with effective security vetting of staff matched closely to the necessary level of clearance required for each access level, a robust yet flexible architecture begins to form. Similarly, where motorised access into a site needs to be controlled, this may be achieved by fencing or otherwise demarcating secure areas, providing vehicle control points for authorised access into these areas, whilst anti-impact protection on vulnerable parts of the boundary prevents unauthorised access. However, if operating in the counter terror domain, the security risk is not merely unauthorised access which might lead to theft of information or property, but rather a scenario in which the perpetrator aims to damage, destroy or otherwise harm the asset itself, including personnel. In this case the equation changes. Now, access control regimes need to take into account the concept that the assailant no longer necessarily needs to be in immediate proximity to the asset to achieve the required impact. Instead, force may be projected and applied from E



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PERIMETER SECURITY  afar, or the infrastructure supporting the asset may be compromised. In the former case, where explosive attack is anticipated, the guiding light for designers remains the venerable Hopkinson’s Inverse Cube Rule. Simply put, this 100 year old model suggests that, with all else being equal, the effect of an explosion reduces by the cube of the distance of the blast from the target. In other words, a similar impulse force as might be generated by a 100kg explosion at a specific distance would require an 800kg device

HEREIN LIES THE SECURITY PRACTITIONER’S DILEMMA: HOW MANY LAYERS, AND OF WHAT SIZE AND GRANULARITY, IS OPTIMAL IN A GIVEN SITUATION? at twice this distance. It is therefore possible to calculate the maximum theoretical blast load that a structure can support, equate this to a notional device size at a range of distances, and design access control measures to restrict the size of explosive device that can be delivered by a perpetrator at these distances. Thus sequential perimeters would filter out trucks, cars and a person with baggage respectively as the distance to the asset reduces. Conversely, where space is limited and perimeters must be placed at less than optimal distances, the standoff achieved can be used to calculate the residual blast load which is likely to be applied to the asset. The structure can then be reinforced to meet this requirement, or additional intervening mitigation can be provided, such as hard landscaping or screening walls. Such screening can also support hostile vehicle mitigation to prevent explosive devices being forcefully delivered through the perimeter. The major failing of this simplistic model is that, where a terrorist’s targets include organisational reputation, an

attack on an outer perimeter may be just as damaging as one that reaches the centre of the site. It also creates an ‘arms race’ of crime displacement, where the response to hardening of a specific target leads the assailant simply to seek out new weaknesses to exploit. Recent bitter experience in aviation security, in London, Glasgow, Brussels and Istanbul, has demonstrated this all too clearly. As a result of attempted attacks on aircraft, enhanced security between landside and airside was introduced. However, this simply pushed the point of attack to the check-in hall, both on foot and by vehicle through the glass facade. Subsequent enhancement of hostile vehicle mitigation measures, and the creation of search areas prior to check-in, has resulted in the terminal entrances becoming targets. These advances in counter-measures have limited successfully the damage to the terminal building, and thus aided early return to service, but the resultant publicity demonstrates that the fear caused remains the same no matter how far away you push the point of attack. The terrorist goal is still, in the main, achieved. NEW RISK SCENARIOS Indeed, we have to face the unpleasant reality that it may never be possible to deflect the problem far enough away. The interconnected nature of the modern world has benefitted society in innumerable ways, allowing us to contemplate lifestyles and business processes inestimably more complex than our forefathers could imagine. However, such systemic interdependency comes at a price, not least of which is that both our critical assets, and those security systems that we put in place to protect them, now depend inevitably on various elements of supporting infrastructure. This introduces a whole new set of risk scenarios in which it becomes attractive for an assailant to attack dependent infrastructure and thus either deny the use of the asset to its owner, or to negate the security counter-measures protecting

it. Our notional perimeter protection must therefore become multi-nodal, with protection being provided across multiple smaller, isolated, geographically‑dispersed infrastructure assets. This is a challenge faced by the owners of very large facilities, such as air and sea ports. The cost of protecting the entire outer perimeter of an extensive site rapidly becomes prohibitive. In such cases, an alternative ‘Citadel’ approach may be more appropriate, in which a semi-permeable outer boundary is drawn around discrete clusters of critical assets which are then individually hardened. Thus, rather than preventing access through the huge outer layers, these are provided simply with detection capability, such as ground radar, to provide notification of a breach. The asset clusters are then designed to delay the intruder long enough for intervention forces to arrive. A similar model can be applied on a national basis, where protection of the entire border against security risks is impractical, but protection of specific critical national infrastructure, such as water, fuel, electricity and telecommunications facilities, is adopted. DIGITAL VULNERABILITIES Here is where we start to rub up against the limits of what physical security alone can achieve, as we have arrived at the point where infrastructure can be compromised not by the application of direct physical intervention, but rather remotely via telecommunications media. Quite correctly, international governments have recognised that myriad benefits arising from the Internet are accompanied by a new set of vulnerabilities which allow an assailant to attack corporate and national infrastructure systems without ever setting foot in the country. Judging by the priorities being set in national security expenditure across the world, the adversaries that governments are losing sleep over today are less likely to be balaclava-clad insurgents or sinister Mafia gangsters, but rather acne-ridden ITC students, living with their mums. The motivations, however, are often identical: greed, naïve ideology or a misplaced sense of challenge. Ironically the solution, in both physical and virtual versions of reality, is simply to close the circle, returning once more to the simple principles of Defence in Depth. Information is just an asset as any other, and can be protected using perimeter protection following the same basic rules of access control and intruder detection as in the physical world. Fences and firewalls, card readers and passwords, logical and physical security are two sides of the same coin. L






ROBOTS TO CONTROL PORTS AND BORDERS Written by Tim Norton, Smiths Detection

Tim Norton, Global Head of Market, Ports & Borders at Smiths Detection, explains what a world of bot-controlled ports and borders could look like Aside from cost cutting benefits, AI also has the potential of expanding the organisation’s capabilities such as its business acumen. From the same Infosys survey, respondents that had already adopted AI mentioned that they expect their overall revenues to increase by at least 39 per cent in the following three years. Organisations that had experienced faster growth in revenue over the last three years were seen to be more advanced in AI maturity and adoption.

The ports and borders sector looks to be growing. A Straits Times article, titled 40% spike in parcel clearance, rigorous checks to sniff out illegal items: ICA on 22 March 2017, noted the increase in parcel clearance in Singapore last year – over 40 per cent compared to 2014. Separately, visitor arrivals in the country have peaked to 16.4 million in 2016, recording a 7.7 per cent year-on-year growth. Assuming this upward trajectory continues, it would mean busier years ahead for Singapore customs. But inevitably with growth, there will be issues that need to be addressed. We have seen reports that it is now tougher for clearance authorities to detect contraband items such as drugs and cigarettes. Meanwhile, another Straits Times article, New drugs designed to avoid easy detection on 8 May 2017 points to how authorities are increasingly pressured to maintain vigilance on all fronts. According to Singapore’s Immigration & Checkpoints Authority (ICA) Annual Statistics Report last year, while the number of contraband cases detected at local checkpoints have decreased by eight per cent from 2015 to 2016, smugglers are constantly coming up with new ways to conceal forbidden materials and evade detection. In addition, personnel working in the ports and borders sector are known to work long hours coupled with graveyard shifts. How then can the industry tackle these issues without exhausting the talent pool? AI IN ACTION AT BORDERS One way to solve the issues at hand would be to deploy artificial intelligence (AI), one of the highly discussed emerging technologies today. Wired to be intelligent and to replicate human efforts, AI has proven to be useful in reducing the amount of time and effort required for time-consuming tasks, and its usage is set to increase further. By 2018, there might be a rise of AI that


can mimic human conversations in terms of how we speak and listen, and approximately 20 per cent of business content might come from AI, such as writing shareholder reports, legal documents and press releases. It is also predicted that AI could power up to 85 per cent of all customer service interactions by 2020. To that end, it is unsurprising that AI has been applied in the ports and borders industry: the main objective of doing so is to improve working efficiency but without compromising on security. The Port of Rotterdam has tested an AI system which scans through a fraction of containers for illicit content, with the goal of speeding up the inspection process. At Gongbei Port of Entry, the border between China and Macau, AI has been deployed to help cover various functions such as answer passengers’ queries in 28 different languages and perform facial recognition to help detect potential security threats. Given that AI usage is proliferating, it is worthwhile for the ports and borders industry to consider investing in AI to help improve productivity and efficiency. THE BEST IN EMPLOYEES AI addresses some of the deep-rooted challenges in the industry, one of which is the long working hours the industry is notorious for. A survey by Infosys on 1,600 business and IT executives saw that 55 per cent see AI as helping to create and improve products, services and business models, as well as give quicker access to such existing products and services. Half of the respondents felt that AI could solve their problems faster and two‑thirds of them believe that AI will ‘bring out the best’ in their employees. Most respondents are also positive that AI will enable displaced employees to take on higher-value work. Implementing AI at work could also mean lesser costs accumulated in the long run.


HUMAN COMPONENT STILL KEY However, there are some key dependencies to be considered with AI. The ports and borders industry is a volatile one and terrorism continues to be one of the key threats to the industry. Even though technology upgrades and simulation exercises can be done, security and threats cannot always be predicted. Similar to how smugglers are coming up with new ways to evade detection, terrorists could also adopt similar tactics to try to smuggle in dangerous goods such as weapons or explosives into the country. During times like these, machines would need to have the flexibility that humans have to react to unforeseen circumstances. In that regard, the example of Uber’s self-driving car which crashed during a test drive in March 2017 in Arizona doesn’t exactly inspire confidence – yet. Due to the sensitive nature of the work, checkpoints cannot be fully automated and will continue to require human vigilance and interaction to manage unforeseen circumstances. To that end, it is important that technology enablers like Smiths Detection focus on not only product development, but also delivering expert advice to military and security personnel to better equip them in addressing their day-to-day challenges. As incredible an enabler as AI is, it is still limited in what it can do compared to human abilities. As such, instead of looking to replace, it would be best to have AI as a complement to human labour and take on more routine aspects of the job. Employees can then take on more elevated capacities by retraining themselves. In this way, the pursuit of efficiency will not come at the cost of valuable human talent. L



With air traffic set to double over the next 20 years, and freight set to triple over the same period, the time has come for another paradigm shift in the way we manage border controls. Tony Smith explains why



ore people are crossing international borders than ever before. The vast majority are perfectly innocent travellers, going away on holiday or business. Some are moving for temporary or permanent migration (students, workers etc). Others are displaced through no fault of their own, due to conflict or persecution at home. In some countries, people live adjacent to a land border and even commute daily across it. In general terms, the mass movement of people and goods across the globe is a good thing. It encourages trade and tourism, which in turn fosters growth. Some would say it is the lifeblood of the global economy. Others will argue that it is unsustainable to

allow mass migration from the developing world to the developed world. More controls are needed to protect national interests such as economic prosperity and security. Either way, border controls have never been under greater pressure than they are today. And things will only get tougher for the agencies responsible for managing them. Since 9/11, the more advanced countries have recognised the need to adapt their border controls to cater for a range of threats, rather than just for immigration or customs purposes. I was the director of Citizenship & Immigration Canada when 9/11 happened. US Customs – who had hitherto had limited responsibility E



BORDER CONTROL  for national security and anti‑terrorism at the US border, let alone on domestic flights – found that within 24 hours of the attacks they were able to identify and link all 19 of the perpetrators through their access to airline passenger reservation systems. I witnessed at first hand the creation of the Department of Homeland Security, and the implementation of the Patriot Act in the United States. I worked on the ‘Hands Across the Border’ initiative, creating joint targeting units between myriad of US and Canadian enforcement agencies to develop intelligence-led controls. There was a clear and pressing need for government agencies to share data and intelligence; to work with the travel industry, where a good deal of the required data was located; and to develop technology which was capable of refining data into actionable



intelligence to identify and disrupt threats at the border. A paradigm shift in border control was born. When I returned to the UK Immigration Service and became director for Ports of Entry, I found the Home Office to be totally preoccupied by immigration pressures. Asylum figures had reached record numbers; backlogs were piling up; and there was a public outcry to get a grip of immigration numbers. Then – just six months into my tenure – 7/7 happened. The worst terrorist attack in UK history. Perpetrated on this occasion not by foreign nationals who had exploited weaknesses in our immigration and visa systems (as was the case with 9/11); but by a new breed of ‘homegrown’ terrorists who had turned upon their homeland. Terrorists had become more sophisticated. They were building global networks of their own, where border agencies were not. They were crossing borders as ‘low risk’ travellers – no threat to immigration controls, because they were already entitled to enter. But they were travelling to far off places to meet with other terrorists, to train, and to come back and kill. Thus, we recognised the need for a paradigm shift in the way we viewed the UK border. We should be just as concerned with our own nationals


crossing our borders as we were with foreign nationals crossing them. This meant bringing our police and security services much closer to the border than had hitherto been the case; and developing a new strategy (PROTECT) to ensure that all agencies and communities worked together to combat the threat of terrorism. The UK Immigration Service was dissolved in favour of a new UK Border Force, which combined the immigration and customs functions into a single agency within the Home Office. We developed our own data eco system, including a national border targeting centre. And we joined up our enforcement agencies like never before behind a common Border Strategy; using similar tools and processes to those I saw emerge just a couple of years earlier in North America. WHERE DOES THIS LEAVE US TODAY? We continue to see terrorist atrocities across Europe. Many have been inspired and perpetrated by people who have crossed international borders to fight for terrorist organisations; and then returned to cause massive harm at home. The United Nations has passed resolutions calling upon border agencies to do more to prevent terrorist travel; and to share


data and intelligence with one another on terrorist movements. But the problem remains. After every attack, there is an immediate media inquest into who did it; what the law enforcement community knew about them; and why it wasn’t stopped. And if any of the perpetrators crossed the border, why weren’t they stopped there in the first place? In fact, the UK border is one of the best in the world in this field. Our Border Force, police, and security services work closely together to ensure intelligence is shared to maximum effect, to minimise risk. We check every person entering the UK against watch lists; we receive and analyse passenger data in advance, working closely with airlines and other transportation companies to acquire it; and we use enhanced data analytical systems to give our enforcement agencies the best risk assessment tools around. But this is not enough. With air traffic set to double over the next 20 years, and freight set to triple over the same period, the time has come for another paradigm shift in the way we manage border controls. This comes not through the injection of more physical checks into an infrastructure already struggling to cope with volume, but through much greater investment in new and emerging technologies. TECHNOLOGY IMPLEMENTATION Since leaving public service I have been fortunate enough to witness some of the very best technologies now emerging at borders around the world.

UK BORDER FORCE CHECK EVERY PERSON ENTERING THE UK AGAINST WATCH LISTS AND USE ENHANCED DATA ANALYTICAL SYSTEMS TO GIVE OUR ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES THE BEST RISK ASSESSMENT TOOLS Much more so than I ever saw when I was running the UK Border Olympic Security Programme, or the UK Border Force. Artificial intelligence, the ‘internet of things’, biometrics, blockchain, the Cloud, digital technology and the like are all developing at huge pace. Fortunately for us, the UK government has not been idle in recognising the value of these technologies; and it is now embarked upon an ambitious and exciting programme of implementation across Whitehall departments and agencies. The introduction of these technologies into future borders will, in my view, lead to the next paradigm shift in border security. But regardless of the capabilities of such technology, this can only be realised through collaboration. That means bringing together all the key ingredients of the eco system that surrounds border management. Control agencies, airlines, airports, rail and sea carriers, port control authorities, academics, policy makers and technology providers (big and small) must unite behind this common purpose. They all have a role to play. In my experience, the most successful border security programmes don’t make the news. It is those that fail

that hit the headlines. I have seen my share of failures; but I have also been fortunate enough to have been involved in some excellent national and international border projects over the years. I travel the world attending border security conferences, expert panels and workshops arranged by an array of different organisations. I would not claim to be an expert in new and emerging technology – far from it. But of one thing, I am certain. We will only be able to deliver the border of the future if we work together across national and international boundaries to do so. Then – and only then – we will see the paradigm shift in border controls that is so urgently required. L

Tony Smith CBE is a former Director General of the UK Border Force and managing director of Fortinus Global Ltd, an international Border Management Consultancy. Smith is also chairman of the International Border Management and Technologies Association (IBMATA).




RADICALISATION Following the opening of HMP Frankland earlier this year, Counter Terror Business writes about political radicalisation and the recent growth of violent extremism in the UK


n July, the first of three separation centres opened at HMP Frankland in an attempt to stem the flow of radicalisation behind bars and prevent radicalised prisoners spreading their influence over others. Forming part of the wider government strategy to tackle extremism in prisons, the policy sees offenders placed in the specialist centres if they are involved in planning terrorism or are considered to pose a risk to national security. This can be in the form of extremist views undermining good order and security in the prison estate or by influencing others to carry out terrorist crime. Coined ‘jihadi jails’, two further centres are planned to follow at other establishments in the near future, with the three centres combining to hold up to 28 of the most subversive offenders. Alongside the opening, the Ministry of Justice also confirmed that more than 4,500 frontline officers have received the latest specialist counter extremism training to identify and challenge extremist views, with new prison workers also receiving the training as standard. Back in April, the Ministry of Justice had announced a new specialist taskforce to analyse intelligence compiled

by about 100 counter-terrorism experts working across the country to assess the threat posed by radicalisation in prisons. Writing in Counter Terror Business last year, Peter Dawson, deputy director of the Prison Reform Trust, said that ‘everything that happens in the prison is rooted in relationships’. Only with strong relationships between all staff and prisoners can prisons produce ‘the trust that allows risks to be taken and managed’ and ‘the intelligence that allows the prison to intervene to protect staff, other prisoners or the public’. According to Dawson, ‘many of those vulnerable to radicalisation have also experienced a steady accumulation of institutional discrimination’. Having the systems in place to form relationships, build trust and notice changes can be key in preventing radicalisation, but so can stopping or slowing the ‘steady accumulation of discrimination’ from which it stems. PREVENT AND THE RADICALISED On HMP Franklin’s opening, Prisons Minister Sam Gyimah said: “Extremism must be defeated wherever it is found. The most dangerous and subversive offenders are now E



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THE EXTREMISM MUST BE DEFEATED WHEREVER IT IS FOUND. THE MOST DANGEROUS AND SUBVERSIVE OFFENDERS ARE NOW BEING SEPARATED FROM THOSE THEY SEEK TO INFLUENCE AND CONVERT  being separated from those they seek to influence and convert – an absolutely crucial element of our wider strategy to tackle extremism in prisons and ensure the safety of the wider public.” However, Gyimah’s assertion that ‘extremism must be defeated wherever it is found’ has, despite government efforts, not been as easy as ministers hoped. The Prevent strategy, first established by Labour in 2006, aims to stop people becoming terrorists or supporting terrorism. In her role as Home Secretary, Prime Minister Theresa May was key in removing the concept of integration from the strategy in 2011, so that now it challenges the ideology that supports terrorism and those who promote it, protects vulnerable people and supports sectors and institutions where there are risks of radicalisation.

But without the integration element, Muslim communities have declared themselves isolated and restricted, whilst freedom of speech has come under question. In recent months, May and the Mayor of Greater Manchester, Andy Burnham, have queried the strategy’s success, with Burnham joining a chorus of voices seeking to replace the strategy, at least in his region, whilst May has confirmed the need to review how the UK is responding to the threat posed by terrorism, saying that there currently is ‘too much tolerance of extremism’. In order to better understand how to prevent radicalisation, we must know how to understand why it is happening in the first place. In a blog post, Bob Hindle, lecturer in Education at the University of Manchester, says that the conversation must begin with clarification on the definition of extremism. But perhaps more accurately, the conversation must begin full stop. Extremism is very hard to define, as successive governments have found, but with Simon Cole, police lead for Prevent, recently saying that some people need to be forced to take part, we must question whether forcing someone into deradicalisation will work. Cole’s thoughts may be necessary for retiring jihadi fighters, but not for preventing extremism at its roots. As Pater Dawson asserted, having close relationships with those who may be susceptible to radicalisation is far

healthier, easier and less dangerous than forcing a questionable scheme onto those who are either already radicalised or already under the weight of oppression, whether that be in prison or not. Which all brings us back to the importance of integration. Isolation can breed resentment and irritation. Integration can breed a collectiveness and common bond – the basis for forming positive, open and, when needed, forceful conversations. COMMUNITY COHESION AND PREVENT IN SCHOOLS Aside from prisons, the Prevent scheme is perhaps most prevalent in schools and colleges. Hindle, writing on the Manchester Policy Blogs website, said that a new Prevent policy must consider wider educational responsibilities such as strengthening community cohesion and the commitment to equality and diversity, utilising the expertise of experienced teachers and safeguarding leads in developing greater consistency and in building the trust of young people. He also lingers on the redefining of ‘extremism’, for the ‘degree to which we are collectively comfortable with each term will determine uniformity and consistency in any response to Islamist extremism’. Understanding difference is important – to some such diversity is a threat – but encouraging commonality more so. L

Me and You Education is a collaboration between two companies, two individuals whose divergent backgrounds and with deep insights into the murky and complex world of Counter Terrorism. As Office of Security and Counter Terrorism approved Interventionists we get to speak with both vulnerable individuals on a pathway towards Extremism and also those that have been convicted of TACT offences – put more bluntly we speak one to one with those that want to blow us all up! As key people working in the security world we believe our specialist training sessions will be invaluable for your work. We present and debunk the Extremist Narrative – both on domestic (Far Right Extremism) as well as the International threat of Islamism. We believe the world of countering terrorism is far more nuanced than simply locks, guns and surveillance, for us at Me and You Education we like to be able to disarm the terrorist mind-set by providing ideological, scientific and sometimes very simple logical counter narratives. Our interactive training sessions equip delegates with the knowledge and understanding of the actual thought process of individuals willing to commit atrocities that put both themselves and others in harms way. Check out our Youtube Channel and Website and enquire about our bespoke packages today.

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ACT FOR YOUTH Chris Taylor, of the National Police Chiefs’ Council, details the latest counter terrorism safety campaign for young people which Counter Terrorism Police hope will be saving young lives for many years to come

TEACHING TERRORISM: A CHANGE IN APPROACH N ot too long ago, the idea of teaching terrorism awareness and safety advice in schools would have been unheard of. Why would parents, teachers and school governors want to risk frightening children for the sake of saving them from something that was very unlikely to affect them? But following this year’s attacks and the young age of some of the victims, it was clear that children needed to be spoken to about terrorism, and the risk it poses. On Tuesday 14 November 2017, the second phase of a specially designed counter terrorism safety campaign for young people will be made available to schools and youth groups, the first time such advice has ever reached into the classroom. Adults should be familiar with the messaging by now, it has been in the public domain since 2015. Existing advice to ‘run’ to safety, ‘hide’ if you can’t, and ‘tell’ the police when you’re safe was already well known amongst older age groups, but needed to be adapted if a younger audience was to be reached. So, ‘ACT for Youth’ was created,



a ground-breaking information campaign which teaches children how to react in the unlikely event of a knife or gun attack. Designing a counter terrorism safety campaign aimed, for the first time, at children aged 11 to 16, and introducing this campaign into the national school curriculum was a bold step, but one that our experts knew would have the best chance of keeping future generations safer. Lucy D’Orsi, Deputy Assistant Commissioner, and the UK’s lead for Protective Security, said: “Terrorism is understandably at the forefront of people’s minds right now, and while this public awareness is piqued it makes sense to introduce changes which will make everyone safer in the long term. We knew we needed to educate a younger audience and we knew that, if done correctly, this could be a campaign which will continue to keep people safe for decades to come. “We all grew up with public safety films of our respective eras, ‘stranger danger’, ‘clunk click’ and others. They all had a profound effect, and gave young people E

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CT POLICING  advice which they would internalise and eventually pass on to their children and so on. We created this campaign with that aim in mind, to produce a generation of young people who not only would know exactly what to do in the unlikely event they were ever caught in gun or knife attack, but would pass that information on to others.” GROWING UP WITH TERRORISM To develop an effective campaign, Counter Terrorism Policing experts needed to know what young people thought about terrorism, existing safety advice and also how they like to get their news and information. The subsequent research, based on the views of 11-16 year‑olds from a range of backgrounds, was illuminating. The younger generation felt that they had ‘grown up’ with terrorism and while some showed fear and trepidation, they overwhelmingly felt ready to talk about the threat and how to try and survive an attack. But

it also demonstrated that existing safety messaging had not reached them, and while many said they would know to run as a first instinct, a worrying number felt it a good thing to stop and film incidents on their mobile phones. One 12-year-old who took part in the research said: “I would video a terrorist attack but only for evidence, not for social media for people to comment on, but just to warn them.” Armed with this information, and the fact that the 75 per cent of the 11-16 year‑olds got their news and information from popular social media channels such as Snapchat and Instagram, our CT security experts, communications professionals from the National Counter Terrorism Policing HQ and partners from the NSPCC, collaborated to create a campaign that would reach into a young person’s world and impart life-saving information in a way that they could relate to. With help from the NSPCC, we would also be able to educate parents to talk



to their children about terrorism in an age-appropriate way. The campaign would form two distinct phases, the first using a collaboration with The Sun newspaper to create an impactful social media campaign starring celebrities from entertainment and sport. The second phase, in the form of a specially designed package of teaching materials created with the support of the Department for Education and the PSHE Association, is set to become the first ever counter terrorism safety campaign to be included in the national school curriculum. With The Sun’s influence, they were able to enlist the support of celebrities such as Bear Grylls, Leicester City and England footballer Jamie Vardy and double Olympic gold medallist Jade Jones, while their reach upon social media channels was huge. With a total reach of just under 30 million – crucially including 3.9 million aged 11-16 years, and 1.3 million 13-17-year‑old Snapchat viewers – our messaging could extend to that previously untouched audience. And with the support of The Sun’s editorial team, we knew the messages would be reaching not just children, but their parents via the newspaper. Launched on 28 September, the first phase landed with huge impact in the public domain. With support across police forces, government, the

CT POLICING media and online, the ‘Run, Hide, Tell’ celebrity films and messages reached more than 20 million people, a figure which continues to grow. Lucy D’Orsi commented: “The launch of the celebrity piece really made young people sit up and take notice. But it was only ever meant to introduce the basic ‘Run, Hide, Tell’ messaging to that younger audience. We knew such a launch would have fantastic short-term impact, but the overall aim was building something which would become familiar to children for generations to come. Introducing this into the curriculum was our way of doing that, and we are delighted to have had the support of such key partners in the DfE, the PSHE Association and the NSPCC.” A SUBSTANTIAL MESSAGE If the first phase of the campaign was designed for children to digest in short, sharp, social media-style bursts, the second phase would take that simple messaging and expand it into something much more substantial. An animated film was created by Embolden Media Agency with close consultation from NaCTSO, DfE and the PSHE Association. It follows three young protagonists as they find themselves in midst of a gun and knife attack at a shopping centre, with all three talking through different elements of the safety

THE YOUNGER GENERATION FELT THAT THEY HAD ‘GROWN UP’ WITH TERRORISM AND WHILE SOME SHOWED FEAR AND TREPIDATION, THEY OVERWHELMINGLY FELT READY TO TALK ABOUT THE THREAT AND HOW TO TRY AND SURVIVE AN ATTACK advice over a ‘graphic-novel’ style animation. It is designed to be impactful and hard-hitting, but not terrifying for younger viewers. This animated film forms the basis of a half-hour lesson plan which not only covers the Run, Hide, Tell headlines, but also extends to other advice. Advice such as looking out for, and reporting, suspicious activity and behaviour. The lesson plans have been developed for two age groups, children aged 11-13 and those aged 13 and older. The film, lesson plans and teaching materials will be made available to teachers and schools on the launch date of 14 November. Wide-spread support across the education sector, government and youth organisations such as the Scouts means that millions of children across the UK will potentially benefit from this safety advice, and hopefully, their children and their children’s children. D’Orsi concludes: “The chances of being caught up in an attack are rare,

but we must still be prepared. It can be scary for parents and children alike to talk about terrorism, but that is exactly why we have worked so hard with the relevant partners and agencies to develop a campaign which tackles this difficult subject with tact and care. And I feel we’ve done a fantastic job of that, and am incredibly grateful for the hard work and professionalism of my policing colleagues and partners such as the PSHE Association and the NSPCC. “I fully expect this campaign to become this generation’s ‘stranger danger’, and that is incredibly important. It is a public safety film that changes the way young people think about terrorism, and equips them with knowledge that will not only save many lives, but also make the lives of terrorists more difficult.” L



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PYROTECHNIC PAGE FLAG DETECTION The National Association of Security Dog Users looks at pyrotechnic detection dogs at football stadiums and the reasons why detection dog use has increased significantly over the past decade

THE QUESTION OF SEARCHING AT FOOTBALL GROUNDS O fficial Home Office statistics for England and Wales for the 2015/2016 season saw a total of 1,895 football related arrests, a one per cent increase on the previous season. Of the 1,895 arrested across all divisions the three most common offences were public order (31 per cent), alcohol (20 per cent) and violent disorder (19 per cent). It is interesting that it was the Championship that had the overall highest number of offenders with 470, with the Premier League second with 431 offenders. Arrests for possession of pyrotechnics, such as flares, have shown a large increase over the last five seasons from 32 arrests in 2011/2012 to 141 arrests in 2015/2016. In light of recent atrocities across Europe in the last few years, the searching of spectators entering sporting venues has increased considerably and has become more imperative at football grounds since the Stade de France bomb in Paris, in November 2015. It is well established that a trained detection dog has the capability to detect the presence

of a variety of identified target scents, such as explosives, drugs, and pyrotechnics. Whilst it is accepted that a dog will indicate on pyrotechnic substances contained within most fireworks and flares, it is acknowledged that there may be some difficulty in identifying pyrotechnic substances when hermetically sealed in protective propulsion canisters/ tubes such as certain marine flares.

PYROTECHNIC DETECTION DOGS Therefore, because of this difficulty in detecting some flares, it is recommend that the use of a pyrotechnic detection dog is a supplement to a physical search strategy rather than the prime focus of the search procedure. Currently, the National Association of Security Dog Users (NASDU) offers a suite of Detection Dog Handler qualifications at Level 3 which are endorsed by the awarding organisation HABC who are regulated by OFQUAL and acknowledged by the SIA. A handler achieving this qualification, and in particular the Pyrotechnic Detection Dog E




EX-MIL RECRUITMENT – BEYOND THE GUN Online and traditional recruitment consultancy Ex-Mil Recruitment Ltd draws attention to common issues veterans face when entering the civilian job market and examines the value ex-military personnel can bring to UK employers ADDRESSING THE STIGMA Military personnel are renowned across the world for having the best training, adaptability and dedication. In often harsh and demanding environments they prove themselves time and time again whilst maintaining a high level of professionalism and a healthy sense of humour. Yet upon leaving the forces many of these talented and highly skilled men and women find themselves held back by stigmas against ex-military people and their potential within civilian companies. Common misconceptions, including idiocies like a lack of education or intelligence, being indoctrinated, full of bluster, too posh to fit in or only being suited to security work, haunt ex-servicemen and have been part of a serious problem they face upon entering the civilian job market. The diverse and intense training across the modern military in fact provides ideal candidates with incredible advantages to companies. THE HARD TRUTH Approximately 30,000 service men and women leave the military every year and yet despite the advantages military training can offer outside of the forces many veterans find it very difficult to secure a new career or even somewhere to live. Part of the problem, beyond the aforementioned stigma, is that there is little to no assistance in careers advice and job hunting from the military itself. In particular there is little support offered in this area for those who have served less than three years, however, even those that have served longer often only receive fragmented and

poorly coordinated support. Furthermore the advice given by HM Forces points their veterans to very few potential career paths. This lack of resources for veterans combined with the continued failure of employers outside of these ‘over used paths’ to recognise the value of ex-military candidates leaves many ex-servicemen struggling to find what their next career step could be. RECOGNISING THE VALUABLE SKILL SET The real truth is that the exceptional qualities held by military personnel also translate superbly into the civilian job market. Innate qualities of commitment, loyalty, team-work and discipline are just part of their great potential. The vast array of training they have undertaken to suit the needs of the modern military give ex-military personnel a wide range of skills. With over 350 qualified trades in the military there is a huge spectrum of work for which ex-military staff are suited. This multitude of skills range from IT, telecoms, security, project management, transport, procurement, logistics, human resources, catering, engineering and avionics to name but a few and many personnel have swiftly moved into corresponding career areas seamlessly. Others use their many transferable skills to move into indirectly related areas such as sales, facilities management, general management along with training and development. Indeed, former military personnel are capable of adapting and succeeding in demanding and

challenging situations which translates to confident, efficient employees with integrity in the commercial workplace. Officers and soldiers come from all walks of life and many have higher education qualifications prior to or gain them during their military service. Key skills of problem and people management, team motivation, training and mentoring and success under pressure are common place within the military and, needless to say, are also crucial skills outside of the forces. MOVING FORWARD Jean-Claude Hedouin, the founder of Ex‑Mil Recruitment Ltd, knows all too well the situation veterans face when leaving the forces. Having served 10 years in the British Army and an extensive recruitment based background outside of the Army, he is in an excellent position to understand both sides of the issue. Jean-Claude founded Ex-Mil Recruitment in 2005 as a solution to the employment difficulties faced by former military personnel. Ex-Mil Recruitment is now one of the leading UK based recruitment consultancies for ex-military personnel. Since the company began, it has worked with thousands of ex-military men and women to match them with companies that appreciate the valuable skill set they offer and hundreds of employers have benefited from finding the best quality staff on the market. E x-Mil Recruitment carefully vets each and every applicant to ensure they are right for the client. Each candidate possesses the unique mix of skills which come from time spent in the armed forces and great care is taken to match the right individual to the vacancy. As specialists in relationship building, the extensive expertise provided by Ex-Mil Recruitment actively helps to decrease staff turnover whilst making recruitment efficient and effective. Furthermore, since 2007 Ex-Mil Recruitment has committed to donating 10 per cent of its profit to established military charities. L




PYROTECHNIC DETECTION  pathway, would also be awarded a team certificate for both them and their dog. This has a 12 month expiry and confirms compliance regarding the training recommended in BS 8517 Part 2. It is this qualification and subsequent team certification that end users, whether it is the football club direct or through a security provider, should be insisting on. It should be remembered that a pyrotechnic detection dog is not an explosive detection dog (EDD) as the ‘actions on a find’ are considerably different and, as such, an EDD dog should never be used for pyrotechnic detection. End users requiring an EDD should seek the appropriate advice from NASDU or a recognised supplier of EDD dogs. Whilst it is recommended that sometimes dogs are dual trained in both drugs and pyrotechnics, it is recommended that companies and handlers deploying dual disciplined dogs should ensure the end user is aware of the dogs capabilities prior to deployment. For example, a dog deployed as a pyrotechnic dog and also trained for drugs will inevitably give a large number of false positive indications, as the possession of drugs by supporters is going to be more prevalent within a crowd than those carrying pyrotechnics and as such search teams may and will be tied up for greater periods screening individuals for drugs. The UK government regulator, the Sports Ground Safety Authority (SGSA), is currently working with the National Counter Terrorism Office (NACTSO) to produce safety guidance for sports ground operators and, whilst this guidance is predominantly aimed at

THE SCIENCE BEHIND ‘HOW DETECTION DOGS WORK’ HAS DEVELOPED WHICH HAS ENABLED ALL TRAINERS AND CLIENTS ALIKE TO UNDERSTAND THE CAPABILITIES CANINE CAN OFFER anti-terrorism, much guidance could be applied to pyrotechnic searching such as where does a venue occupier carry out its physical search. Should there be a proactive search prior to occupation? A passive search during occupation? A passive search at point of entry at the turnstile? A passive search at perimeter of premises? Or even on the public highway? The SGSA has also identified that searching at point of entry, such as at the turnstiles, will undoubtedly slow down entry into grounds. Therefore grounds should look at: advertising security

entry requirements prior to event; communication to spectators regarding delays at point of entry; increasing entry and arrive times; increasing the search resource potential (i.e. number of security personnel/detection dogs) plus those required to respond to a positive indication; and increasing the use of technology (i.e. x-ray detectors) and again those required to respond to a potential positive indication. DETECTION DOG USAGE Detection dog work has increased significantly over the past decade. Along with this, so has the knowledge and expectations of end users/clients. In the late 1990s early 2000s, clients had very limited knowledge of capabilities and limitations of a detection dog. Over time both the private security industry and uniformed services have worked tirelessly to educate end users and improve the standards of the capability to provide a service that is not only extremely well executed but also meets the requirements of our current climate. The science behind ‘how detection dogs work’ has also developed which has enabled all trainers and clients alike to understand the capabilities canine can offer. This will be most recently portrayed in the new BS8517:2 and

NASDU assessment criteria. We believe the key drivers for demand are a mixture of commercial viability and illegal activity being thrust upon our country. Commercially it makes sense to employ a detection dog due to their immense sensing ability; they have no preconception of areas or individuals which allows all searches to be carried out with the same vigour and intent. A detection dog, or any service dog for that matter, will carry out the role where in other circumstance a number of pre‑trained search individuals or security officers would have to be employed. As you will understand this will be a large financial saving to an end user. We also feel that having dogs deployed in high populated areas (football stadiums, concerts, shopping centres) offers assurance to members of the public that their safety matters. This is a method that has been used in the US for many years. Although this is a very fixed opinion we do see spikes in the requirement of EDDs when threat level changes in the UK. End users are very much of the opinion of that ‘prevention is better than cure’. L




Milipol Paris 2017

Worldwide Event For Homeland Security 20th edition

Take Up The Challenge of a Safer World

The World’s Leading Network of Homeland Security Events


NOV. 2017





UK and Poland hold defence talks The Foreign Secretary and Defence Secretary have met with their Polish counterparts for talks on security and defence co-operation. Boris Johnson and Michael Fallon hosted Foreign Minister Witold Waszczykowski and Defence Minister Antoni Macierewicz in London on 12 October to discuss European security, joint work on the Western Balkans, and countering Russian influence in Eastern Europe. The Ministry of Defence revealed that Fallon and Macierewicz discussed

F-35 jet cleared for Carrier take-off

working towards a Defence Capability and Industrial Partnership to strengthen co-operation between UK and Poland defence industries. They also progressed talks on the Defence and Security Co-operation Treaty, which the Prime Minister will sign at the next UK-Poland inter‑governmental meeting in December.



Defence Secretary Michael Fallon is expected to unveil a new model worth around £1 billion to support a growing Royal Navy fleet. Worth approximately £1 billion, the Common Support Model (CSM) will provide a framework for comprehensive support across the Royal Navy’s fleet of warships for decades to come in one new overarching arrangement, maintaining both brand new Queen Elizabeth aircraft carriers, as well as all existing warships. 10 of the 16 agreements included in the model, worth £794 million, have already been signed, with the others set to follow in the coming months. The includes four contracts worth £320 million for Marine Systems Support Partner (MSSP) with Babcock and a £200 million contract for the Joint Support

Contains public sector information licensed under the Open Government Licence v3.0

New £1bn support model for Royal Navy

READ MORE Solution 2 with BAE Systems to support combat management systems, tactical networks and shared infrastructures aboard 38 Royal Navy platforms.


UK makes 1,500 airstrikes against ISIS The UK has carried out over 1,500 air strikes against ISIS since it began its bombing campaign against the caliphate three years ago. Defence Secretary Michael Fallon said that the airstrikes have made a major contribution to crippling ISIS and towards the terrorist group’s collapse in Iraq and Syria. The RAF has targeted weapons stores, truck bombs, mortar teams, snipers and heavy machine-gun

positions, dropping approximately 3,500 bombs and missiles. The Ministry of Defence maintains that there is no evidence it is responsible for civilian casualties. The RAF believes it has killed more than 3,000 extremists.


Defence Minister Harriett Baldwin has announced that the UK’s F-35 fighter jet is cleared for take off from HMS Queen Elizabeth following successful trials using a ski-ramp design. The F-35 Integrated Test Force, which includes five British pilots, has successfully completed ski ramp trials, clearing the aircraft for take-off from the deck of the carrier. The UK currently has 12 F-35 jets in the US where they are being tested ahead of flight trials from the Royal Navy’s 65,000–tonne carrier, HMS Queen Elizabeth, next year. Speaking to the House of Commons Defence Select Committee on 17 October, Baldwin said: “Successful ski-ramp trials mean the F-35 is cleared to fly from the carrier as the momentum continues for this game‑changing jet. This milestone comes as our pilots and planes prepare to return from the States, ready for next year’s unforgettable flight trials from the deck of the nation’s new flagship.”



Dozens killed during US strikes on IS training camps The US military has revealed that dozens of ISIS fighters have been killed at the terrorist group’s training camps in central Yemen. The first strikes in the country’s conflict targeted the Bayda province. The US Department of Defense said that ISIS used the camps to ‘train militants to conduct terror attacks using AK-47s, machine guns, rocket-propelled grenade launchers and endurance training’.


Follow and interact with Defence Business on Twitter: @defence_b ISSUE 32 | COUNTER TERROR BUSINESS MAGAZINE


DSEI 2017

The 2017 edition of DSEI attracted record numbers of high-profile stakeholders affiliated with the defence and security sectors, reflecting the important role of the show in the defence sector



he latest edition of Defence and Security Equipment International (DSEI), staged 12-15 September 2017, cemented its position as the market leading event for air, land, naval, security and joint applications of defence and security products, technology and services. This year’s event not only proved the most popular to date but it also attracted record numbers of high-profile stakeholders affiliated with the defence and security sectors. At a time of severe security risk, with a multifaceted terrorist threat posed from the digital battlefield to civilian streets, DSEI provided a key platform for senior international military and political representatives to candidly discuss current threats and get an exclusive view of the latest equipment and services designed to tackle these threats. 35,008 visitors walked through the doors


of ExCeL London. Delegates from 110 countries joined 1,604 exhibitors and 42 international pavilions on a packed exhibition floor. In total 2,759 VIPs were in attendance marking yet another milestone for DSEI 2017 and enhancing its reputation as the key summit for the defence and security community. The event once again featured theatres in each of the exhibition Zones – Air, Land, Naval, Security and Joint and around 300 seminars and keynote speeches by MOD Service Chiefs, Ministerial keynotes and thought leaders from the international military, government, industrial and academic community. REMARKABLE MINISTERIAL AND SERVICES PRESENCE DSEI has attracted an unprecedented level of UK government support involving the Department for International Trade; Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy; Foreign & Commonwealth Office; Home Office and the Ministry of Defence (MOD). The line-up of ministerial guests included Michael Fallon, Secretary of State for Defence, who attended for three days in a row, giving two keynote speeches; Liam Fox, Secretary of State for International Trade; Harriett Baldwin, Minister for Defence Procurement; and Ben Wallace, Minister of State for Security. Ministers made a number of visits to DSEI, delivering keynote speeches and

engaging with exhibitors. Rear Admiral Simon Williams, chairman of DSEI organisers Clarion Events, Defence and Security, said: “The support we are receiving from the UK government is solid evidence of their commitment to the nation’s defence and security sectors. It is very pleasing that our industry’s performance and potential in key areas such as innovation, technology development and exports are being recognised in this way.” On the event’s opening day, Defence Secretary Michael Fallon delivered a keynote address in which he described DSEI as ‘a remarkably stable landmark in an otherwise turbulent world’. He chose DSEI to outline his vision for the UK to take a bigger share of the international defence market and said: “As we look to life post Brexit and seek to spread our wings across the world, it’s high time we do more to compete for a share of this international export market.” Meanwhile, away from the exhibition floor, the seminar programme included a number of engaging presentations from international speakers including: Michael Vaccaro, director at the Office of Strategic Industries and Economic Security, US Department of Commerce;


Maj Gen Kathryn Toohey, head of land capability for the Australian Army; and Brian Johnson-Thomas, a former arms expert for the UN. EXHIBITION SPOTLIGHT ON NEW PRODUCT LAUNCHES As the world leading event that brings together the global defence and security sectors, DSEI is the place companies choose to announce product launches and new contracts. Among the wide range of product launches on the exhibition floor, Saab used DSEI to unveil its Gripen Aggressor, which is used to act as an opposing force in advanced military combat training. Swarm Systems’ stand featured its Owl 4 ‘Nano UAV’ which can be carried in soldiers’ pockets and deployed to help them see around corners or over hills without exposing themselves to gunfire. BMT Defence Services unveiled an innovative mine countermeasures (MCM) platform concept, designed and configured to exploit next-generation offboard vehicles, mission systems and operational concepts. Meanwhile, Dutch firm Delft Dynamics showcased its ‘DroneCatcher’ counter UAS system for the first time at DSEI 2017 – one of the only technologies of its type which can eliminate rogue drones by catching the threat in mid-air. AIR DSEI 2017 featured its strongest aerospace offering yet, comprising fixed wing, rotary and unmanned systems. The popular Air Zone, fully supported by the Royal Air Force and Joint Helicopter Command, included a capability area dedicated to the aerospace supply chain. The zone hosted a comprehensive seminar programme focused on procurement, training, export maximisation and promoting opportunities for SMEs. An impressive range of aerospace platforms on display included: Gripen; Tornado; Wildcat; Merlin Mk 2 and 4; Apache AH64-D; Chinook; Blackhawk; and Brimstone. Furthermore, DSEI also hosted presentations by top level UK and overseas senior air officers, emphasising the importance of DSEI as a leading business forum for military aerospace professionals. LAND The DSEI 2017 Land Zone showcased relevant exhibitor-produced equipment which is set to be used by the British Army and other NATO militaries. The zone also featured two displays: a Dismounted Soldier Showcase, featuring capabilities for the modern close combat infantry soldier, and a Static Display area, showcasing a range of vehicles currently used by ground forces worldwide. The range of new technologies and innovation that was on display clearly emphasised that DSEI is the global hub

of defence and land-based expertise for all Armed Forces’ requirements. NAVAL Navies will be investing over $150 billion worldwide in new-build surface ships over the next 10 years. In this complex market, all stakeholders in the maritime defence and security enterprise need DSEI as a platform to engage, develop and secure trusted partners, and to understand the dynamics of the market. Moored in the dock adjacent to the exhibition halls were seven outstanding examples of maritime capability: HMS Argyll – Type 23 ‘Duke’ Class frigate, Royal Navy; HMS Cattistock – Hunt Class Mine Countermeasures Vessel, Royal Navy; HMS Mersey – River Class Offshore Patrol Vessel, Royal Navy; HMS Puncher – Archer Class Patrol Vessel, Royal Navy; HMS Trumpeter –Archer-class Patrol Vessel, Royal Navy; BNS Pollux – Belgian Navy; and Le Samuel Beckett – Offshore Patrol Vessel, Irish Naval Service. The main theme of this year’s waterborne demonstrations, which took place every day in the Royal Victoria Dock, was how terrorist attackers are diversifying their methods and the new defence responses. Operation MARCAP – a program of live-action from nine specialised vessels, focused on a Royal Marines team identifying, surveilling and boarding a suspect vessel under the cover of fire-support. SECURITY The modern security threat environment is varied and complex. Intensifying state competition, regional instability and civil unrest, and the borderless realm of cyber space have manifested a number of emerging security trends globally. These include innovative cyber capability and skills, the digital modernisation of legacy systems, the Internet of Things, enhancement of regional and national border security, military and police interoperability, and the growth of militarised police forces. The Security Theatre seminar programme considered the evolving threat picture and the role of industry and government in reshaping security policy and propelling security capability into the future. JOINT ZONE DSEI 2017 saw the introduction of a Joint Zone encompassing the key

joint enablers of medical, unmanned, training, electronic warfare (EW) and command, control, communications, computers, information/intelligence, surveillance, targeting acquisition and reconnaissance (C4ISTAR). This year saw the set-up of a brand-new feature, the Innovation Hub, in collaboration with TechUK and the Defence and Security Accelerator. The aim of the hub was to encourage imagination, ingenuity and entrepreneurship. Exhibitors within the hub included: Swarm Systems, Nexor, Vocavio and Sea Sure. Alongside the Innovation Hub, the Defence Medical Services ran demonstrations focusing on simulation, defence engagement and research and exploitation. The citizenAID team also hosted demonstrations on its new app designed to provide reliable public safety and life-saving interventions for public use in future terror attacks and incidents. 100 YEARS OF WOMEN IN THE NAVY While equipment and procurement is a traditional core focus area of DSEI, the event in 2017 expanded its content to cover what is considered by many to be the most important capability of all – the people and skills of the defence and security sector. Whether it’s recruiting the next generation of defence and security professionals, training, retaining or supporting the workforce, the seminar programmes across DSEI on day four were dedicated to this important element of the sector. Day four was also the opportunity to celebrate the 100th anniversary of women in the Navy. Hosted by DSEI, former members of the Women’s Royal Naval Service (WRNS) met up with current serving members of the Royal Navy to learn how life has changed since the separate service was disbanded, and ‘Wrens’ were fully integrated into the Royal Navy. The Naval presentation, given by Captain Sharon Malkin, looked back at those early days of 1917, putting the efforts of the first WRNS pioneers into context of the current Royal Navy. L




ISDEF 2017

The 8th edition of ISDEF took place on 6-8 June 2017, and successfully solidified the show’s reputation as the largest defence and security event in Israel



s in previous years, the focus of the exhibition was on interoperability and the diverse use of products by end users for various purposes. The expo was opened by a speech from the Israeli Deputy Defense Minister, Eli Ben Dahan; and visitors included both procurement and end users from the public and private sectors. Attendees had the opportunity to learn about the latest developments in defence technology and watch live demonstrations showcasing a variety of products. ISDEF 2017 also dedicated a great deal of resources to promoting and sharing professional knowledge among manufacturers, distributors and end users. This was displayed in a conference that took place alongside the exhibition and featured world renowned lecturers from the IDC, INSS, Tel Aviv University and more. The conference took place in addition to the workshops and discussed global concerns from immigration to homegrown terrorism and the impact on HLS and the financial issues.


KEY ISSUES AT ISDEF For the first time at ISDEF, a professional conference was incorporated, covering subjects such as ISIS, the refugee crisis and immigration. These issues were examined from three different perspectives: the ‘real world’, the ‘virtual world’, and the ‘financial world’. The conference spanned two full days, and included lectures by top Israeli experts such as: Professor Boaz Ganor, from the International Institute for Counter-Terrorism (ICT); Dr. Gabi Saboni, Institute for National Security Studies (INSS); Professor Zisser, Tel Aviv University; and Gila Gamliel, Minister of Social Equality. Altogether, the conference featured over 30 lecturers. ISDEF 2017 was also the main event celebrating 25 years of diplomatic relations between Israel and India. This manifested in the presence of official Indian delegations at the diplomatic level, including as an Indian national pavilion of 400 square meters. In addition to the Indian pavilion, ISDEF also featured national pavilions on an unprecedented scale; including Czech Republic, China and US pavilion with 30 exhibitors.


This year’s expo proved that quality and quantity need not come at the expense of each other. With more than 14,000 attendees and almost 300 exhibitors, ISDEF 2017 also featured advanced products and technologies by leading companies such as IMI Systems, HP, Plasan, Surefire, Schmidt & Bender, Steiner, ECA Group, Avon Protection and Beth-El Industries. Overall, ISDEF 2017 exceeded the expectations of the event organisers, exhibitors and visitors alike. With record media exposure and attendance, ISDEF 2017 set a high bar for future defense exhibitions in Israel; and we are confident that we will exceed all expectations at ISDEF’s next event.

ISDEF 2017 welcomed 14,400 visitors, of whom 292 were exhibitors. Additionally, the number of international visitors reached 3,242. ISDEF 2019 will be taking place in Tel Aviv, June 2019. L



Dr Bill Egginton, senior lecturer in Defence Management & Leadership at Cranfield University, presents the second of three papers examining defence reform in the UK



n Part 1, we recognised that defence reform was shaped by the confluence of two key streams of activity: political and professional. Politically, the election and SDSR of 2010, the Levene Report that followed in 2011 and the government’s push for greater transparency and accountability highlighted the need for improved MOD performance requiring structural changes and new ways of working. Meanwhile, the increased visibility and maturity of P3M principles provided government with an opportunity to leverage those principles to support its agenda and objectives within and across the public sector. The 2015 election and SDSR15 maintained that political impetus. At the same time, the launch of the Major Projects Leadership Academy (2012) and the Civil Service Project Delivery Profession (2015), followed by the award of Chartered status to the Association for Project Management (APM) in April 2017 and publication of the government’s own Project Delivery Profession Competence Framework (in May 2017), has continued the push towards greater professionalisation.

Although Lord Levene made no mention of ‘portfolio’, his recommendations resonated fully with a portfolio management approach: stronger strategic corporate governance, more effective prioritisation, better alignment of investment to strategic objectives with greater empowerment, and accountability underpinning improved performance management. The principles of P3M have since shaped many of the changes made as part of defence reform, as stated in ‘How Defence Works’ (December, 2015): ‘Head Office and TLBs manage the way major programme spending is managed using a Portfolio, Programme and Project Management (P3M) approach, following best practice across government. This supports a better, evidence-based balance of investment decisions clearly linked to aims, priorities and available resources. It also makes sure we can successfully deliver change programmes and clarifies who has authority and accountability’. Given this pivotal role that P3M has played, it might be useful at this juncture to provide some brief explanation as to

what is meant by ‘project’, ‘programme’ and ‘portfolio’, before we take a look at how these disciplines have been applied in the context of the MOD and TLBs’ own operating models. The Association for Project Management defines a ‘project’ as ‘a unique, transient endeavour undertaken to achieve planned objectives’ and a ‘programme’ as ‘a group of related projects and change management activities that together achieve beneficial change for an organisation’. An alternative definition comes from AXELOS guidance Managing Successful Programmes (MSP) which defines a ‘programme’ as ‘a temporary, flexible organisation created to coordinate and oversee the implementation of a E




DEFENCE REFORM  set of related projects and activities in order to deliver outcomes and benefits related to the organisation’s strategic objectives’. Finally, in Management of Portfolios (MoP), a ‘portfolio’ is defined as ‘the totality of an organisations investment (or segment thereof) in the changes required to achieve its strategic objectives’ and ‘portfolio management’ as ‘a co-ordinated collection of strategic processes and decisions that together enable the most effective balance of organisational change and business as usual’. So, in summary, projects deliver outputs and are generally of a relatively short and clearly defined duration. Programmes bring together a number of related projects and so tend to be longer in duration with a less clear path aimed at the delivery of benefits associated with a future outcome. An organisation’s portfolio represents its total investment in change – projects and programmes – that it is making to achieve its strategic objectives within the constraint of the resources available to invest in both changing the business as well as running the business. THE APPLICATION OF P3M WITHIN DEFENCE The delegated operating model described in ‘How Defence Works’ was declared to be fully operational on 1 April 2014. Under the model, the head of each of the six TLBs is personally accountable for the performance of their organisation. Whilst each TLB has been required to adopt ‘How Defence Works’ (akin to a set of building regulations), differences in detail have inevitably arisen in the


design and construction of bespoke TLB level operating models. However, despite these differences in interpretation and implementation, significant progress has been made in the adoption of standard P3M terminology such that now, across all TLBs, there is mutual understanding and an increasingly common taxonomy. This combined with senior level buy-in and universal acceptance of the relevance of P3M to the ‘business space’ of defence has already led to some improvements in performance. Lord Levene, in his report published in December 2014, stated that ‘a leopard really can change its spots’ and that TLBs were now more active in

PROJECTS DELIVER OUTPUTS AND ARE OF A RELATIVELY SHORT AND CLEARLY DEFINED DURATION owning plans and setting priorities. The overall aim of strategic planning as described in the ‘How Defence Works’ is to translate government policy into Defence Strategic Direction (DSD) with specific aims and targets that can then be passed down to TLBs with clear authorities against which progress can be assessed. This ‘top down’ comprehensive planning process – the SDSR – is now conducted at least every five years in line with the electoral cycle. The SDSR should ensure that National Security Strategy (NSS) is reflected in DSD which in turn is used to inform delivery plans


at the command level – the Command Plan (CP). This link from policy, to strategy, to direction and ultimately to plans is often referred to as the ‘Golden Thread’ of strategic alignment. Each Command is now responsible for managing its own ‘sub-portfolio’ of investment with a CP that is matched to policy, affordable and supported by analysis that informs decisions and reduces the risk associated with any future decisions. This highlights a key point: it is the Commands that hold and allocate their budgets against the delivery of prioritised requirements for which defence business leaders – the Single Service Chiefs – are accountable. Each CP essentially forms a contract between the respective Chief and PUS. This is important, because in the event that a Command considers policy or DSD to be unaffordable, then it is incumbent on that Service Chief to challenge the underlying policy, or alternatively, seek additional resources and / or make clear the risks that are being taken: easier said than done, no doubt, requiring as it does a tide change in behaviours, which of course takes time. Moreover, in addition to the five-year comprehensive planning cycle, there is an annual budgeting cycle (ABC) during which Command budget allocations may be challenged, and for example, savings required. In this case, money that was previously allocated to spend on meeting the strategic requirements coming from head office may no longer be available and a change is needed. The operating model makes clear that major changes should only take place at the time of an SDSR, and changes in the intervening

DEFENCE REFORM period should not be significant and only made on an exceptional basis. Nevertheless, the Commands’ management systems must be capable of informing, and Command governance structures capable of making, evidencedbased decisions on priorities in light of these annual disruptions to plans. Commands must therefore have the means to ‘veer and haul’ resources as and when circumstances change, in order to both create and maintain a set of balanced and affordable plans. Treasury rules, however, often frustrate this objective, as highlighted by Levene in his 2015 update. Some of the requirements coming from head office may require changes to the way in which a TLB runs its business. Others may involve the need for new military capability. So, to take Navy as an example, the strategic security objective of a continuous at sea deterrent has led to a major submarine programme, within which each boat is treated as a project. In the same way, the security objective of power projection has led to a carrier strike programme comprising ships, aircraft and sustainment vessel projects. These ‘strategic’ requirements involve long term investments (and therefore contracts) and as a result, the capacity to veer and haul funds on a short term basis is again hampered. Even so, the principle of prioritisation remains and the opportunity for a Command to at least recommend an investment that had previously been approved to be stopped, exists. Again, implementing that option is inevitably easier to say, than to do.

THE INTRODUCTION OF A PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT APPROACH HAS RESULTED IN GREATER TRANSPARENCY AND BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF STRATEGIC INTENT GOVERNMENT MAJOR PROJECT PORTFOLIO The detailed ‘user’ requirements for new equipment projects (boats, ships, planes) are defined by the customers, the Commands, but delivered on their behalf by Defence Equipment and Support (DE&S). Levene found the relationship between ‘customer’ and ‘enabler’ to be ‘sloppy’ and a more ‘robust’ commercial arrangement (tantamount to a contract of sorts) between the parties involved has been implemented as part of defence reform. Equipment projects are supplemented by projects in other ‘lines of development’ (e.g. infrastructure, training) that collectively results in a coherent military capability programme managed by the lead Command. The drive towards better governance and genuine accountability for programme delivery has led to a more systematic process for the appointment and training of Senior Responsible Owners (SROs), individuals that lead these programmes and are personally accountable to Government under the so-called Osmotherly Rules. Where a programme (or indeed project) is of national importance or interest, it may find itself part of the Government Major Project Portfolio (GMPP) with an SRO whose letter of appointment is in the public domain. If a change is of particular significance to defence, but not necessarily to government, the SRO may be required to report as part of the Defence Major Programmes Portfolio (DMPP) managed by a central function within MOD Head Office. The introduction of a portfolio management approach across government and within MOD has therefore resulted in greater transparency and better understanding of strategic intent, and the size, scale and shape of investments that MOD needs to make in the form of projects and programmes to support that intent. In managing their sub-portfolios (and not surprisingly given the differences that exist in that nature of each command’s business) the commands have adopted different governance structures but with a number of common features. For example, each has a portfolio direction group (PDG), a portfolio progress group (PPG) and a portfolio office function (PfO) with programme boards, sponsoring groups and SROs. Some of these features are new, whilst others are adaptations of prior existing structures taking on board specific P3M requirements. For example, the Executive Committee of the Army Board (ECAB) now also acts as the Army PDG supported by a newly formed Army PfO

and employing a recently implemented Portfolio Decision Support System. Similarly, in Air Command, the Air Force Capability Group provides direction, with a supporting PPG and a newly formed Programme Management Support Function using the MOD’s Portfolio Management Report System (PMRS). The adoption and adaptation of P3M within defence has inevitably resulted in a significant upskilling requirement. In addition to the considerable investment in APM and AXELOS qualifications, P3M topics are now an integral part of military education and training. This is reflected in the range of master’s programmes and short courses available at the Defence Academy, ranging from acquisition training for Army Major (and other Command equivalents) to executive courses for 2* SROs. Since 2015, these topics have also formed part of the international Advanced Command and Staff Course delivered at the Joint Services Command and Staff College, and serving 1*, 2* and even 3* officers now regularly undertake training aimed at equipping them with an understanding of project, programme and portfolio management principles, processes, standards and structures. Some of this work is supported by Cranfield University, the ‘academic provider’ at the Defence Academy, but others including Kings College, SAID Business School and Civil Service Learning are also heavily involved. The Major Projects Leadership Academy (MPLA) delivered by SAID is aimed specifically at SROs responsible for GMPP projects and programmes. These changes have resulted in greater demands on an already pressured organisation. Not surprisingly, therefore, despite the progress made, challenges remain, a number of which have been alluded to here. The nature of these challenges, and actions required to address them is a theme we will return to in Part 3: looking to the future.L

This is the second of three papers (the first was published in Defence Business issue 17.2) that traces the journey of defence reform in the UK, one that has involved fundamental changes to how the MOD is structured and operates and drawing on project, programme and portfolio management principles in delivering the defence contribution to national security.





The Commercial UAV Show: presenting new applications and opportunities for UAVs The Commercial UAV Show is two events: a world-class conference focused on the progression of the UAV industry, and a technology exhibition showcasing the latest hardware and software innovations from the mega tech companies to the latest start-ups. NASA will discuss ‘Developing an autonomous ATM system and defining the future of the drone industry’ and BP will give a snapshot view into how UAVs have revolutionised the oil industry. The UK Ministry of Defence will also be at the event, giving insight into‘Building the case for the safe use of UAS in international airspace’, while, the Global UTM Association, NATS, BAE Systems, Airman and the German Aerospace will be analysing how to manage public and private airspace. Many other industry leaders including Cisco, SenseFly, Danish National Police, Insitu, Costain Group plc, UNICEF and Laing O’Rourke Infrastructure will also be in attendance. Attendees will hear from over 75 speakers from the UK, Malaysia, Canada, The United States, Germany, Ireland, India, Mongolia, France, Netherlands, Spain, Slovenia, Czech Republic, New Zealand,

Italy, Switzerland, Japan, Belgium and more. Future orientated, high-end content from early adopters of UAVs and prolific end-users including DHL, Plowman Craven, BP, Serco UK, National Prisons Intelligence Coordination Centre, RNLI, Costain Group plc, and Laing O’Rourke, among others will inspire attendees, as will key observations as innovative manufacturers shared by Lockheed Martin, Yuneec, Insitu and many more. Attendees will also be invited to enjoy fascinating case-studies, including Martin Jetpack on building and using the world’s largest unmanned UAV, and the UK Ministry of Defence on safely using UAVs in national airspace. They will leave understanding the latest in regulation from The UK Department

for Transport, the German Air Traffic Authority (DFS) and more, and will have joined a community and network with over 3500 attendees at the fourth annual show. Attendees will also experience a thriving exhibition floor with on-floor content, including theatres dedicated to Emergency Services, Mapping and GIS, UAV Innovation, and Data and Analytics, and will come away from the event with the key takeaways of over 50 sessions ready to be implemented tomorrow.

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