Page 1 | ISSUE 28





TRUSTING OUR INTELLIGENCE What will a British Firewall mean for our cyber safety? DIGITAL SERVICES

DEALING WITH EMERGENCIES Mapping how the emergency services are adapting to the digital age



The speed at which UAV technology is advancing is changing the drone playing field. But is this a help or hindrance to UK security?







Is Prevent averting terrorism? Last month, Alastair Carmichael laid out his party’s plans to scrap the counter extremism Prevent strategy due to it proving ‘counter-productive’. The Liberal Democrat home affairs spokesman said his party, which worked to revise the programme while in government, had reached the stage where it now acknowledges that ‘its not working, it’s not achieving what we set out to achieve and it’s counter-productive’.


TRUSTING OUR INTELLIGENCE What will a British Firewall mean for our cyber safety? DIGITAL SERVICES

DEALING WITH EMERGENCIES Mapping how the emergency services are adapting to the digital age



The speed at which UAV technology is advancing is changing the drone playing field. But is this a help or hindrance to UK security?

The programme pinpoints people vulnerable to the influence of extremism, and places a statutory duty on schools, prisons, local authorities and NHS trusts to report concerns. The Liberal Democrats also propose moving the control of the programme from the Home Office to the Department for Communities and Local Government. Any official opposition is unlikely to yield results. As part of the first wave of the Building a Stronger Britain Together programme, the Home Office is encouraging organisations to bid for the support in challenging extremism – a move that compliments Prevent rather than challenges it.

Follow and interact with us on Twitter: @CTBNews

Investment in community programmes is all well and good, but a wider, global strategy to defeat terrorism is much needed. It would be unwise to scrap the Prevent strategy, but to enhance its ambition and range would do much to challenge radicalisation and change the perception that it is not working. Michael Lyons, editor

P ONLINE P IN PRINT P MOBILE P FACE TO FACE If you would like to receive 4 issues of Counter Terror Business magazine for £100 a year, please contact Public Sector Information, 226 High Road, Loughton, Essex IG10 1ET. Tel: 020 8532 0055, fax: 020 8532 0066, or visit: PUBLISHED BY PUBLIC SECTOR INFORMATION LIMITED

226 High Rd, Loughton, Essex IG10 1ET. Tel: 020 8532 0055 Fax: 020 8532 0066 Web: EDITOR Michael Lyons ASSISTANT EDITOR Rachel Brooks PRODUCTION EDITOR Richard Gooding PRODUCTION DESIGN Jacqueline Lawford, Jo Golding PRODUCTION CONTROL Sofie Owen WEB PRODUCTION Victoria Leftwich ADVERTISEMENT SALES Rachael McGahern, Harry Harris BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT MANAGER Martin Freedman ADMINISTRATION Vickie Hopkins, Charlotte Cassar REPRODUCTION & PRINT Argent Media

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© 2016 Public Sector Information Limited. No part of this publication can be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any other means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise) without the prior written permission of the publisher. Whilst every care has been taken to ensure the accuracy of the editorial content the publisher cannot be held responsible for errors or omissions. The views expressed are not necessarily those of the publisher. ISSN 1362-2541



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Muslims view Prevent scheme as ‘spying’; US suspends talks with Russia; NCA warns on prevention measures post Brexit


The UK Security Expo will be opening its doors on 30 November. Counter Terror Business previews the show


Alex Veitch, of the Freight Industry Association, outlines the current threats facing the logistics industry from terrorism


Following GCHQ’s plans to create a protective British firewall, Counter Terror Business asks whether sharing cyber strength is a weakness waiting to be exploited?



The Cyber Security Expo is a one-day recruitment event aimed at candidates working within the cyber security industry


The British Security Industry Association discuss the importance of CCTV and other surveillance systems enhancing security and keeping terrorism at bay


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When it comes to terrorist threats, is social media a help or hindrance? Bob Wade, of the Emergency Planning Society, discusses crisis communications as a security aid in the digital age





Gary Clayton, of the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems Association, addresses current regulation of the UAV industry and whether the speed of technology advances is helping security services


All those involved in emergency prevention, response and recovery descended upon Birmingham’s NEC for the Emergency Services Show. Counter Terror Business looks at what the industry gained from the show


Mike White revisits the state of event security and crowd protection at this summer’s European football Championships


British APCO launched the 999 App Certification scheme earlier this year. Here, Counter Terror Business looks at the scheme and how others can become involved in its development and use


Steve Green examines the current threats posed to physical security and what measures would be most suitable in controlling access to buildings or other populated areas when threatened with a terrorist or security threat


Construction begins on UK nuclear submarines; Government to protect troops from ‘vexation claims’









Tur for th n to page 7 e la 3 b u s i n test defen c ess n ews e

Counter Terror Business Issue 28 | COUNTER TERROR BUSINESS MAGAZINE




Protection from ‘vexatious’ legal claims for troops The Conservative conference has heard how the government will unveil a legal measure it says will protect UK troops from ‘vexatious’ legal claims. Defence Secretary Michael Fallon said the legal system had been ‘abused’, with the change in policy likely to see parts of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) suspended during future conflicts. As an ‘important step towards putting that right’, the change, subject to a vote of both Houses of Parliament, would see the UK ‘derogate’ from Article two (right to life) and Article five (right to liberty) of the ECHR in future conflicts. The Ministry of Defence said it had spent over £100 million on Iraq‑related investigations,

inquiries and compensation since 2004. Speaking to BBC Breakfast, Prime Minister Theresa May said: “What we’ve seen is a whole industry of lawyers chasing after our troops and trying to bring claims against them, many of which are vexatious claims, and we want to put an end to that.”



US suspends talks with Russia The US has claimed it is suspending talks with Russia over Syria, accusing Moscow of having ‘failed to live up’ to its commitments under a ceasefire deal. Following intensified attacks against civilians, the US recently warned that it would halt the talks unless Moscow stopped bombing the city of Aleppo. Approximately 250,000 people are trapped in eastern Aleppo, with hundreds of people, including children, having died since government forces launched an offensive to take full control of Aleppo after the week-long truce lapsed. In a statement, John Kirby, state department spokesman, said: “The United States is suspending its participation in bilateral channels with Russia that were established

to sustain the cessation of hostilities. Unfortunately, Russia failed to live up to its own commitments, and was also either unwilling or unable to ensure Syrian regime adherence to the arrangements to which Moscow agreed. “Rather, Russia and the Syrian regime have chosen to pursue a military course. This is not a decision that was taken lightly.” Russia and the US were due to convene in Geneva to try to co-ordinate air strikes against jihadist groups, but American officials were told to return home. The two sides would keep talking about counter terrorism operations in Syria to avoid unnecessary clashes. READ MORE:


NCA warns on prevention measures post Brexit The National Crime Agency (NCA) has urged the government to ensure cross‑border crime prevention measures are not jeopardised by Brexit negotiations. Britain’s arrangements with Europe, including European arrest warrant and membership of Europol, face uncertainty following the UK’s decision to leave the EU last June. Membership of the EU allows the NCA and UK police forces to share intelligence quickly and efficiently with European counterparts. Europol, the EU’s law enforcement agency, helps member states fight serious international crime and terrorism. Lynne Owens, the NCA’s director

general, said: “We’ve been describing what we need to be in place post‑Brexit. We’re absolutely clear the policy decisions are not for us but we need to be spelling out the operational case. “In bluntest form, we must be able to continue to exchange intelligence and we must be able to understand the movement of criminals and criminal behaviour across international borders. We are supplying that information to the Home Office and it’s for them to make the policy negotiation.” READ MORE:


CTB News


National Cyber Security Centre HQ operational The UK’s new National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC) has officially opened for business as a public‑facing part of GCHQ that will act as the focal point for the government to deliver authoritative advice on tackling cyber security issues. Based in the Nova office and shopping complex near Victoria Station in London, the NCSC will have 700 staff, more than half of whom will be based in the new HQ, moving in to the building later this year and in early 2017. Remaining part of GCHQ, NCSC will bring together CESG – the Information Security arm of GCHQ – the Centre for the Protection of National Infrastructure, CERT-UK and the Centre for Cyber Assessment, to form one organisation that will simplify the current cyber security landscape. While the operational centre will mainly focus on defensive work, it will be able to call on offensive capabilities developed by GCHQ and the Ministry of Defence. It will have specialist teams for the City, Whitehall, intelligence and security services, energy, telecoms and other parts of the critical national infrastructure. Ciaran Martin, former director of general cyber at GCHQ, will head up operations and will be supported by Dr Ian Levy, former technical director of cyber security at GCHQ. Martin said: “I’d like to thank everyone who has been involved in shaping this new exciting organisation. Our role is helping to make the UK the safest place to live and do business online. So we’re going to tackle the major threats from hostile states and criminal gangs. “But we’re also going to work tirelessly to automatically protect people from those smaller scale and deeply damaging attacks that cause so much disruption and frustration. We’ll also continue our work helping people and businesses understand better what they need to do to protect themselves.”

For more on The NCSC, turn to page 31. READ MORE:



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France begins air strikes against IS It has been reported by news agency AFP on 30 September that France had begun air strikes against so-called Islamic State in Iraq from the aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle. A number of Rafale fighter planes took off from the carrier early on Friday (30 September). Reports quoted an officer on board, who said the planes would take part in an attack on Mosul, an IS stronghold in Iraq. The Charles de Gaulle, France’s only aircraft carrier, was sent to the region earlier in the month. The news comes as Iraqi forces have gained significant ground in the battle for Mosul, which was occupied by IS in June 2014, and are expected to launch an offensive to retake the city soon. French radio station RTL has also reported that 24 aircraft will take part

in the operation, with a sortie taking place every three minutes, on average. The Charles de Gaulle is a 38,000‑tonne ship powered by two nuclear reactors. It has more than 1,900 crew, and is 260 metres (850ft) long. Charles de Gaulle aircraft carrier



No link between poverty and radicalisation Recruits to Islamic militant groups are likely to be well educated and relatively wealthy, with those aspiring to be suicide bombers among the best off, a study by the World Bank has found. Based on internal records leaked from the Islamic State group in March, the research opposes the understanding, and misconception, that there is a link between poverty, educational levels and radicalisation. The leaked data contains basic information on 3,803 foreign recruits from all over the Islamic world and Europe who joined the organisation between early 2013 and late 2014, when the flow of volunteers

to the organisation reached a peak. The World Bank study found that 69 per cent of recruits reported at least a secondary level education while ’15 per cent left school before high school and less than two per cent are illiterate’. The report also highlighted that wealthier countries were more likely to supply foreign recruits for ISIL, and the proportion of those recruited who wanted to be administrators and ‘suicide fighters’ increased with education.


CTB News


Several terror plots foiled following Bastille Day attacks According to Jean-Michel Prêtre, the city of Nice’s prosecutor, several serious terror attacks have been hindered, since the Bastille Day lorry attack which left 84 people dead, thanks to counter‑terrorism forces in the region. During an interview for a French documentary titled ‘Deradicalisation’, Prêtre disclosed that as many as five serious plots targeting sporting events, schools or places of worship across the city had been foiled in the past three months. The prosecutor said: “Several cases were handed over to the specialist counter-terrorist judges in Paris. They involved plots to attack places of worship or certain gatherings, sporting events, stadiums, schools, which are recurrent themes on the communication published on the internet.” Prêtre added that the case involved individuals who were ready to act and had ‘began to articulate quite specific things about a specific target’. It was also reported earlier in the week that Prêtre told a court in Nice that around ’70 cases related to terrorism or violent radicalisation’ had been investigated by police since the attack in July. Last week French police confirmed they had made eight more arrests in connection with the Bastille Day attack.



ISIL holds less than 10 per cent of Iraq territory Defence Secretary Michael Fallon has announced, on the second anniversary of UK operations, that ISIL now holds a small fraction of Iraq’s territory, with Iraqi forces currently preparing to encircle the city of Mosul. Fallon made the comment after visiting Baghdad and the northern city of Erbil, to meet Iraqi officials and UK personnel who have been training over 25,000 Iraqi security forces. In the time that since air operations have began, Daesh has been forced to retreat from a number of towns and cities, from Tikrit and

Sinjar City to Hit, Ramadi and Fallujah. Fallon commented: “Daesh (ISIL) is being defeated. It is being driven back. It now occupies less than ten per cent of Iraqi territory. So two years on we’re making significant progress. This remains a hard fight. Yet Britain will not waver in our efforts to defeat the evil of our age.” READ MORE:




CTB News


EVENTS DIARY Defence Communications

20-21 September 2016 Rome, Italy Defence Communications 2016 offers a platform for senior military operators, expert researchers and capability directors from leading defence agencies to meet with a host of solution providers from leading companies to assist in shaping the future of defence communications.

Naval Damage Control

3-5 October 2016 Portsmouth, UK europe Naval Damage Control is the premier community gathering for naval, civilian and industry stakeholders. With the conversation surrounding Naval Damage Control is intensifying, this event provides a forum for the international community to come together and share their experiences and ideas for the future.

Combat Engineer

1-3 November 2016 Prague, Czech Republic Now in its third year, Combat Engineer hosts a variety of high‑ranking Military Engineers whilst allowing leading solution providers to display their expertise. It serves as the premier platform for both industry and military experts to network and shape the future of military engineering.

Combat Helicopter

15–17 November 2016 Prague, Czech Republic Combat Helicopter is the premier international gathering for armed forces and industry, providing the tri-services community with the unique opportunity to gain a clear understanding of future requirements and capabilities for next generation, multi-role rotary platforms.




Metropolitan Police commissioner to retire After five years as the commissioner of the Metropolitan Police, the force has announced that Sir Bernard Hogan-Howe is to retire. Having been appointed to the role in September 2011, Hogan-Howe oversaw the policing of the London riots and the Olympic Games, and stated that it was a ‘great privilege’ to serve in the role. He said: “I have loved my time in the role and I have loved being a police officer. It’s the most rewarding of jobs to protect good people and lock up the bad guys.” He will remain in post until February to allow for his successor to be appointed. Hogan-Howe denies that his resignation has anything to do with tensions with new chiefs, namely London Mayor Sadiq Khan, or the awaited publication of the Met’s handling of historic sex abuse cases. The leading figures expected to apply for the position include Mark Rowley, an assistant commissioner of the Metropolitan Police who oversees counter terrorism. Sara Thornton, chair of the National Police Chiefs’ Council and former head of the Thames Valley force, is also expected to content for the vacancy. The Home Secretary will announce the appointment in February.

Sir Bernard Hogan-Howe, Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police



Record number of terrorist prisoners According to figures from the Home Office, there are 125 inmates in UK jails who have been convicted of terror-related offences. The data also shows there are a further 27 convicts on remand or awaiting trial, making a total of 152 convicted individuals, 50 higher than the figure five years ago and a record high. The news comes after the recent publication of the Acheson review, which warned of the growing instances of radicalisation in jails, and the government’s decision to push ahead with specialist high-security units designed to separate the most dangerous inmates. An additional 13 prisoners are serving time for domestic extremism, such as Irish republicanism. The quarterly numbers show that arrests for terror-related offences in the UK had fallen by a third in the year

leading to June 2016, from 330 to 222. Of the 62 terrorist trials which took place in the 12 months to June 2016, 54 resulted in a conviction. Data also highlighted that the number of people stopped and searched by the Metropolitan police under counter-terror powers rose by 26 per cent to 552, of which 12 per cent resulted in an arrest. However, despite the increase, this is still half the level of 1,154 ‘section 43’ anti-terror stop and searches carried out by the Met in 2010/11, but with a far lower arrest rate. The number of people stopped and examined at airports and ports on their way in and out of the UK has fallen by 23 per cent in the year to June 2016 to 23,300 examinations under the Terrorism Act 2000. READ MORE:



Muslims view Prevent as ‘spying programme’ Muslim communities see the government’s anti-extremism strategy as a ‘spying programme’, according to David Anderson QC who has called for it to be reviewed and overhauled. The Independent is reporting that the terror watchdog has urged government ministers to conduct an independent review of the programme and argued that there should be more transparency, a better system for judging the scheme’s success and a far greater level of contact between government and Muslim communities. He said: “There is a strong feeling in Muslim communities that I visit, that Prevent is, if not a spying programme, at least a programme that is targeted on them. “In some cases, it is even felt it is targeted not just at Islamist terrorism or extremism, but at the practice of Islam. People who

Countering Drones

6-8 December 2016 Copthorne Tara, London, UK

pray or who wear the veil, for example, are sometimes felt to be under suspicion. “It is frustrating for me to see a programme whose ideals are so obviously good, falling down on the delivery to the point where it is not trusted in the community where it principally applies.” Security Minister Ben Wallace maintains that the programme is making a positive difference. He said: “Prevent works best when delivered in partnership with communities. That is why Prevent co-ordinators and civil society groups are working around the country to build close relationships with families and consult communities on how best to respond to the threat to inform local Prevent programmes.”

Estimated at around $127 billion, the ‘drone revolution’ is booming. But amongst the optimism is a creeping concern about the security and safety threat that this technology presents to critical national infrastructure, homeland security and a range of commercial sectors. In response to this threat, attend the Countering Drones conference this December.

Electronic Warfare

17-18 January 2017 Warsaw, Poland



Contingent threats have led to a resurgence in the development of Electronic Warfare (EW) strategies, technology and equipment. EW 2016 will host an international audience looking to reinvigorate their EW tactics, training and procedures (TTPs) to discuss methods of wresting the initiative away from the enemy.

SDW 2017 – Security Document World

Tougher penalties proposed for knife possession The Sentencing Council for England and Wales says it wants tougher sentences for people caught carrying knives, with longer jail sentences proposed. Police recorded almost 29,000 crimes involving knives in the 12 months to March 2016 – a 10 per cent rise on the year before. Additionally, possession of knives or other bladed weapons rose 16 per cent from almost 10,000 to 11,500. In 2015 alone, 7,800 adults and 1,400 young offenders were sentenced for knife‑related crimes, with the majority of sentences leading to jail time of six months.  Aggravating factors that would lead to extra prison time under the new proposals include

CTB News


Carter Cutlery

26-28 June 2017 QEIICC, London, UK

carrying a knife while in a group, attempts to hide identity, targeting someone because they are vulnerable, terrorist motives and evidence of wider community impact. Justice Minister Sam Gyimah said: “Our crackdown is working – under this government more people are being sent to jail for carrying a knife, and for longer. I want those who carry knives to feel the full force of the law. These new guidelines will help ensure sentences reflect the devastation caused to families and communities.”

SDW is the world‑leading event providing a global showcase for next-generation human identity solutions, focusing on intrinsic document security and on the new cutting-edge secure infrastructure required to produce and use advanced documents in live situations. For the latest counter terror and defence event listings, visit events




The UK showcase of global security

UK Security Expo


UK Security Expo is the UK’s flagship event for over 8,000 global end-users of security. Taking place on 30 November – 1 December, Counter Terror Business previews the show Fresh and unique in its offering, UK Security Expo is the only UK based show to truly showcase ‘end-to-end’ security, attracting an audience of government, transport, intelligence, defence, law enforcement, emergency services, critical national infrastructure and the private sector. Confirmed speakers include Lord Evans of Weardale, former director-general of the British Security Service (MI5), who will be the events keynote speaker. On top of this, delegates will hear from: Peter Drissell, director of aviation security at the Civil Aviation Authority; Nick Murdoch, Border Force, assistant director of detection, Heathrow Airport; Lorraine Homer, former head of communication, Olympic Security, The Home Office; Robert Missen, Land and Maritime Security, European Commission; and Tim Cutbill, assistant commissioner, London Fire Brigade. The UK is now widely recognised as a ‘centre of excellence’ for security and one of the UK government’s primary objectives is to increase the UK’s security exports. This presents a number of exciting opportunities for UK companies looking to meet and do business with overseas buyers who are looking to benefit from the UK’s wealth of security expertise. UK Security Expo invites over 30 overseas government delegations and are working with British Embassies all over the world – with the support of the Home Office, the Department for Transport and the Department for International

Trade – to provide targeted programmes for these important delegations. DESIGNING OUT TERRORISM Taking place within UK Security Expo is the Designing Out Terrorism Conference. This one-day conference will specifically target and attract an important new audience that influence and specify security from the outset – whether that be planning a new airport, power station or a stadium. For maximum

operational effectiveness and also cost management, security needs to be designed in at concept stage. Targeting project management consultants, master planners; designers; civil engineers and architects, the Designing Out Terrorism Conference will cover crime prevention, building security, the role of BIM in designing out terrorism and security assessment and certification for the built environment. In addition to this, the conference will explore current technologies and schemes to ensure building security, the importance of cyber securing the built environment, and physical security and counter terrorist measures. In addition to this, the Global Counter Terrorism Conference will take place featuring a series of world renowned experts, including heads of authorities and government speakers from across the globe. E

Securi challen ty faced b ges y infrastr critical operato ucture with at rs are varied tack , from th vectors on e world o cyber n increas the e


UK Security Expo

SHOW PREVIEW Anti UAV defence system

 Dramatic recent attacks including those witnessed in Paris, the downing of Russian MetroJet and more recently the armed assaults in Jakarta, have reshaped the threat horizon and forced authorities to reassess their counter terrorism strategies. Topics covered in this conference will include: the strategic security implications of Brexit; the UK security strategy; terrorism and the media; the implications of new technology for the media, law enforcement and terrorist organisations; development and countering violent extremism; defusing radical islam – strategies, experiences and solutions; countering lone‑actor terrorism; and the forgotten terrorists. CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROTECTION Security challenges faced by critical infrastructure operators are varied, with attack vectors emerging not only from the physical world but, increasingly, the cyber one as well. Threats can come in many forms, whether it be terrorists intent on directly targeting critical infrastructure – with transport hubs such as airports and railways stations very much in their sights; criminals engaged in metal theft – a particular challenge for the electricity grid; or hackers breaking into specific control systems to disrupt day-to-day operations. The cyber security deficit that is often flagged up for power and water plants is certainly not helped by the fact that vital control systems may need to be kept up and running around-the-clock – over years in some cases – with any unplanned downtime impacting, potentially, on millions of people. Mike O’Neill, managing director at Optimal Risk Management Limited, agrees that the challenge for critical infrastructure today is

The UK is now widely recognised as a ‘centre for excellence’ for security with a government objective to increase the UK’s security exports cyber related, especially where industrial control or SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) systems are concerned: “That is the big threat for highly industrialised infrastructure such as the water industry, the power industry, and railways.” The reality on the ground is that many SCADA systems are relatively old which means it is more difficult to patch them up software‑wise or to implement layered security. Drilling down to how cyber attacks evidence themselves, one of the most high profile examples – relates to the use of Stuxnet malware. Designed to target industrial control systems, allegedly with the intention of disrupting Iran’s nuclear facilities, Stuxnet first came to the world’s attention back in 2010. This was followed by hacks deploying a range of computer viruses, aimed at, amongst other things, the Bandar Abbas electricity supply company and the Kharg Island oil terminal – essential to the country’s oil exports. Putting the repercussions of a utility provider’s cyber defences being breached into a national perspective, Mike O’Neill stresses that the very nature of CNI means that the impact of any incident is greatly magnified: “The way that CPNI [Centre for the Protection of National Infrastructure] categorises this, you have got the criticality of an asset and

the impact of its loss. If you wipe out the generation capability in a region, for example, the National Grid is going to be hugely challenged to get power back into that area.” CYBER RESILIENCY For those seeking to quantify the economic ramifications of a cyber attack, a new ‘Integrated Infrastructure: Cyber Resiliency in Society’ study, undertaken by the University of Cambridge’s Centre for Risk Studies and Lockheed Martin, makes for interesting reading. The rationale behind the study was to estimate the short and long-term economic impact of a coordinated, and sustained, cyber attack on the UK’s critical infrastructure. To achieve this researchers modelled an attack on a regional power distribution network. The ‘fictional’ scenario envisaged a cyber attack being executed by a disgruntled employee, leading to the installation of rogue hardware in a minimum of 65 vulnerable substations across South East England, ultimately triggering rolling blackouts. In the most conservative scenario, the immediate impact to the UK’s economic output was estimated by the report’s authors as being a massive £12 billion. Simon Ruffle, director of Technology and E






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SHOW PREVIEW  Innovation at the University of Cambridge’s Centre for Risk Studies, believes there are lessons to be learned from this: “By better understanding the consequences, both economic and societal, of a severe cyber hazard on our country’s critical infrastructure, we underline the level of

responsibility amongst each of the key stakeholders in this value chain.” Ruffle goes on to say that through ‘hyper-connectivity’ we have created fantastic opportunities for smarter infrastructure use that, crucially, also bring with them a complex set of cyber risks.

There is little doubt that effective critical infrastructure security calls for a wide range of protective measures to deal with current and evolving security issues from cyber attacks to terrorism

DRONE DILEMMAS Moving away from the cyber security arena to physical security measures that can help to protect critical infrastructure, the landscape for security operators is ever changing as new technologies and methods come into view. A security aspect that has gained more traction over the last year relates to systems to deal with the soaring number of drones in our skies which accidentally, or deliberately, are venturing close to, or even over, critical infrastructure areas where they simply should not be. Examples that have given cause for concern range from the multiple reports of unidentified drones flying near French nuclear power stations to near misses with civilian aircraft. In terms of responses to the drone or UAV dilemma, we have witnessed a number of approaches taking-off. One answer is a multi‑sensor drone warning system which reflects the reality that the size, speed, and shape of drones make identification extremely difficult for a single monitoring method. This utilises a system of interacting sensors to reliably detect all types of drones based on multiple parameters such as noise, shape, and movement patterns, with the processing done in the device itself or via cloud computing. A built-in HD camera allows the saving of images and video so there is evidence of the intrusion. Another, potential, solution to combat drones is built around an integrated detect‑track‑disrupt system. Here an electronic scanning air security radar, stabilised electro-optic director, infrared and daylight cameras and target tracking software, and a directional radio frequency inhibitor are brought together to detect, track, classify, disrupt and neutralise UAVs. Interestingly, the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is to about to evaluate this type of anti-UAV system at US airports as part of its Pathfinder programme and others are sure to follow. On a smaller scale, portable drone jammers are designed to disable commercial and domestic drones at ranges from several kilometres down to several hundred metres by disrupting R/C control signals and GPS navigation. At an even more basic, and affordable level, hand-held solutions can be adopted by security personnel at critical infrastructure sites as a physical method to thwart unwanted drone incursions. One such model – that looks, essentially, like a heavy duty torch – is able to fire two types of capture net. The first provides a barrier which a drone, hopefully, cannot penetrate whilst the second is designed to allow the operator to attempt to capture the drone in flight. Turn to page 43 to read Gary Clayton’s editorial on unmanned aerial vehicle systems. Gary is chairman of the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems Association. E


UK Security Expo




It is not just about detecting potential security challenges, there is a recognition that physical solutions are needed at the perimeter of sites to put the brakes on hostile vehicle threats through bollards, blockers and barriers  RAPID RESPONSE Rapidly deployable CCTV systems are also finding favour in the battle to secure critical infrastructure such as railway and electricity substations. Thanks to recent advances in surveillance, providers argue that such systems make for an extremely cost effective, and flexible way, of ramming-up security in response to emerging threats. The beauty is that they can be put in place without major works and then, be re-deployed should circumstances change, whether we are talking about a spate of metal thefts, trespassers on railway lines, or terrorist activity. A good example of this type of fast‑track solution comes in the shape of CCTV towers, with variants available that support remote monitoring, multiple camera and sensor options, and can be powered by mains, wind, and solar or even fuel cell technology. Of course it is not just about detecting potential security challenges, there is a recognition that physical solutions are needed at the perimeter of sites to put the brakes on hostile vehicle threats through bollards,

blockers and barriers. A case in point is the way that the newly refurbished Birmingham New Street Station is being safeguarded thanks to the installation of 20 bespoke PAS 68 blocks and three PAS 68 planters from Townscape Products. The intention was to provide a perimeter protection solution that was aesthetically pleasing, open to the public yet secure from vehicles. Iain Moran, High Security Manager at ATG Access, says much more awareness is needed to design hostile vehicle mitigation into projects from the start. He adds that slimmer profile and shallower products, which are less obtrusive, are meeting ever higher performance criteria: “You can stop seven-and-a-half tonnes at 80 kph in as shallow as 150 mm without using any reinforced concrete or re-bar in the excavation so it is much quicker to install and more practical in city centres where there are services under the ground.” For critical infrastructure like airports, Moran feels that to minimise disruption in front of terminal buildings going shallower definitely makes sense.

INTELLIGENT INTEGRATION For critical infrastructure today greater attention is also being paid to solutions that can operate in an integrated way rather than, simply, being confined to disparate and unconnected silos. Underlining this trend, Synectics – which is exhibiting at the forthcoming UK Security Expo – has produced a critical infrastructure whitepaper which stresses the value of unlocking wide-area situational awareness, through a more intelligent approach to integration. David Aindow, product and technology director at Synectics, states: “There is a big emphasis on integration and bringing not just alerts of events but situational data into a command and control platform. It is about how people assess the levels of threats that might be coming from different sources and then driving operators through procedures to make sure that they are handling all of the events in the most efficient way.” There is little doubt that effective critical infrastructure security calls for a wide range of protective measures to deal with current and evolving security issues from cyber attacks to terrorism. Given the ramifications if such infrastructure is disrupted, or put out of action completely, the pressure on governments and operators to make the right security choices is very high.

UK Security Expo


LIVE RESPONSE AND CROWDED PLACES Brand new for 2016 is the exciting Live Response Theatre, where delegates can E



A radically faster solution for forensic video analysis The UK is one of the most filmed nations in the world with an estimated 5.9 million CCTV cameras in operation. However, police forces and other agencies responsible for gathering or processing evidence are struggling to handle the sheer volume of footage available to them. The proliferation of the CCTV network means that reviewing and analysing the recorded material is very arduous work. Police and security services rely on teams of specially trained officers watching thousands of hours of footage waiting for that one crucial second of evidence. Typically, one hour of footage requires one hour of viewing using current technology. Video is extracted from a muddle of more than a thousand formats, poor quality images and manual formatting. SeeQuestor combines powerful purpose designed hardware with intelligent software to address the challenge of

analysing video data. The VIA (Video Importer Application) When trying to gather evidence, investigators first have to discover if the footage they have collected can be viewed. There are no guarantees that footage can be accessed, or that it will be of suitable quality to be used in evidence. There were 1.4 trillion hours of CCTV footage worldwide last year and in London up to 84% of the available footage remained unused in criminal investigations. SeeQuestor’s new hardware solution allows police and security services to quickly process and format footage to create more opportunities to gain valuable evidence. By converting any footage into MPEG4, SeeQuestor delivers a significant service improvement that immediately eliminates the problem of trying to review footage from more than 1,000 different video formats. The increased

amount of available footage can then be analysed more quickly and efficiently by trained officers with the SeeQuestor software tools. The platform Once video has been converted, SeeQuestor’s new software platform delivers a more powerful analytical tool than anything else currently available. Trained officers can apply tools to sift through any footage, enabling face and body shape detection as well as motion sensor filters which eliminate periods of inactivity. Combining maps, geo location and camera angles, the software creates a timeline that identifies any footage where a person of interest appears, or when activity has been detected in a defined area. This powerful analytical tool allows investigators to eliminate irrelevant sections of footage, and significantly reduces the hours spent watching redundant images. Trained

investigators can use SeeQuestor to extract a series of thumbnail images, matching the features of the person of interest. This enables comparison and tracking of a person across a number of different pieces of footage. Each thumbnail of a facial image selected takes the investigator straight to the section of footage in which it appears. SeeQuestor has been designed to improve and enhance the efficiency and performance of investigators and evidence gatherers. SeeQuestor has been developed with leading Law Enforcement Agencies, thought leaders in person re-identification and expert users of video analytics and is launching at the Royal Institution on October 6, 2016. The technology is a revolutionary piece of innovation at a time when the security environment is becoming ever more challenging.

prospect of impact beyond the loss of life alone. The one-day Protecting Crowded Places Conference will examine innovative design considerations, effective surveillance, target hardening, pioneering policing methodologies and incident response. Headline topics explored will include: blasts and their effects on buildings and crowded places; design, planning and management of crowded spaces; securing soft targets – lessons from Paris and Brussels; the reality of integrated, inter-agency, joined-up security; and emergency services major incident and event response.

UK Security Expo


There is litt doubt t le effectiv hat e infrastr critical security ucture a wide calls for of proterange c measur tive es  watch how agencies work in collaboration to respond to a range of simulated attack scenarios. Scenarios will focus on: firearms and weapons attack; IED disposal; suicide bomber; chemical attack; and command and control. Crowded places include transport hubs,

TRANSPORT SECURITY EXPO Now in its 14th year, Transport Security Expo (Transec) 2016 will take place onsite at the new UK Security Expo, focusing on the secure movement of people and goods in aviation, maritime, public and commercial transportation. Transec 2015 was a huge success receiving a record breaking attendance of 4,778 international security professionals, 128 leading brand name global exhibitors, 36 official government hosted country delegations and 20 UK stakeholder agency delegations. E

shopping centres, sports stadia, bars, pubs and clubs which are easily accessible to the public and attractive to terrorists. Crowded places remain an attractive target for terrorists who have demonstrated they are likely to attack places that offer the

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Brand new for 2016 is the exciting Live Response Theatre, where delegates can watch how agencies work in collaboration to respond to a range of simulated attack scenarios  When it comes to aviation security the past year has thrown up its fair share of challenges with airports and aircraft in the terrorists’ sights like never before – the downing of Metrojet Flight 9268 over Sinai; suicide bombers at Brussels Zaventem International airport; and a drone hitting a British Airways Airbus aircraft coming in to land at Heathrow. With aviation security the main sector represented at Transec, the conference will discuss hoot plan, react and respond to aviation threats. Other areas covered on the conference include achieving security assurances, behavioural detection and deterrents, future borders and high-risk flights from overseas and movement of terrorists. On the second day of the UK Security Expo, leading experts will discuss the cyber threat to transport security, maritime security, cash in transit and securing cash, valuables and assets. For more on transport security, read our article from the Freight Transport Association on page 23.

UK Security Expo


CRISIS MANAGEMENT The Crisis Management Training Workshop will introduce the concepts of crisis management and communications, familiarising participants with the necessary tools to structure their organisation’s own planning and training needs. Delivered by NYA’s crisis management and communications specialists, attendees will be able to put learning into action via a table-top simulated incident. The seminar will cover: crisis management principles and processes; categorising incidents and crises; crisis management team roles and responsibilities; and crisis communications. L

UK Security Expo opening times – 30 November 2016: 09.00 – 17.00. 1 December 2016: 09.00 – 16.30. FURTHER INFORMATION





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Alex Veitch, of the Freight Industry Association, discusses the current challenges the logistics industry faces from terrorism Ensuring safety while minimising disruption is a huge challenge for the logistics industry when moving goods between countries. The nature of these operations offers opportunities for terrorist activity – and indeed other criminal behaviour such as smuggling – so it is vital that security is tailored to the specific operation and level of risk without compromising viability. The spotlight has been firmly on air cargo in recent years and it is clear that security and safety issues will continue to dominate the air transport agenda for the foreseeable future. Airport security systems are regularly assessed for their efficacy and those that fall below standard have sanctions

put in place against them. This is currently the case with Bangladesh, which illustrates the complex interactions between security and the international logistics chain. BANGLADESH On 8 March, the UK Department for Transport (DfT) announced that security assessments of Dhaka International Airport had found that some international security requirements were not being met. As part of a set of interim measures, cargo is no longer permitted on direct flights from Dhaka to the UK until further notice. Airlines carrying cargo between Bangladesh and the UK on indirect routes are being asked to ensure that it is re-screened before the final leg into the UK. Following contact by the

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Written by Alex Veitch, head of Global Policy,The Freight Industry Association

Securing the safe passage of freight to the UK

Global Shippers’ Forum, the DfT clarified the measures and stressed that trade impact should be minimal. There is currently only one carrier flying cargo on direct flights – Biman – which is likely to be a minority of the air cargo that comes from Bangladesh to the UK, although detailed figures are not known. Most of the rest will go via Dubai, Qatar and Istanbul, with some going via Malaysia, Kuwait and Uzbekistan. All will need to be re-screened before the last leg into the UK. It may be the case that Biman’s cargo will now be redirected to one of the indirect routes, however this is unclear. The UK government view is that while there will inevitably be some disruption to the flow of cargo, carriers should be able to apply the requested processes without too much difficulty. In addition, as most of this cargo is travelling in passenger aircraft, the clear expectation from DfT is that carriers will want to take extra care given the current circumstances. The Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association (BGMEA) has called for action on all sides to enable the ban to be lifted as soon as possible. According to BGMEA, the UK is the second biggest garment export destination for Bangladesh among the EU countries after Germany. While the majority of goods are transported by sea, air cargo also plays a key role in the logistics chain and – by extension – the economic development of Bangladesh. At the other end of the logistics chain, UK importers are concerned over the trade impacts of the decision, while fully supporting improved security measures. E

Transport Security



connecting the world of travel

Historical and forward airline schedules

Enhancing national security with trusted air travel intelligence

Passenger flows from security hotspots

Live and historical flight status

• Effective deployment and allocation of checkpoints • Understand point of entry into a country’s airspace • Evaluate connections & indirect routes for high-risk travellers

CARGO  Both sides want to see direct cargo flights resume as soon as practically possible. In addition to announcing the temporary ban on cargo transported on direct flights, the DfT announced that it is working with the government of Bangladesh to support improvements in standards for all aspects of aviation security. UK-based Redline Assured Security has signed a two-year contract with the Bangladesh government to provide aviation security services at Dhaka Airport. Hopefully this is the first step to resolving the security to enable the interim ban to be lifted. SECURITY CLEARANCE Looking beyond Bangladesh, there are a number of other parts of the world with security challenges which will create issues for international supply chains. However, it is not always possible to know where the next major risk, and therefore supply chain disruption, is likely to be. There is, understandably, a limit to the information that governments are able to share with external stakeholders – trade associations like ours, and individual companies. The information we receive tends to be in the public domain, and it provides more of a general view of terrorist threats in different regions rather than specific intelligence related to airports. That said, the UK government does provide regular security briefings and meetings with stakeholders, allowing a two-way conversation to ensure the needs of both sides are understood. For example, the UK government is currently reviewing whether the type of security clearance required for cargo handlers is appropriate, and is consulting with the trade to understand the business impacts under different options. Recent information indicates, for example, that the terror threat remains high from ISIL/ DAESH and is now considered ‘emerged’ rather than ‘emerging’. The levels of security at Cairo and Sharm-el-Sheik airports are also still under close observation. Though EgyptAir MS804, which crashed last month on a flight from Paris to Cairo amid terror fears, was carrying no cargo there are still major concerns about security of freight operations at Cairo and Sharm-el-Sheik airports. Somalia, where a laptop device was found in a small regional airport, and Kenya are areas of particular concern, and a common theme is insider threats (airport staff carrying out terror attacks) and low-sophistication devices. A further challenge, and one that is extremely difficult to predict and to deal with, is when airport terminals are targeted simply because they are areas where large numbers of people congregate. This was, tragically, the case at Brussels Airport where the terrorists attacked in the departure area outside the security zone. How these attacks can be prevented in the future is outside the scope of this piece, and the air cargo trade in general. On the air cargo side, there

Transport Security


Railway stations, like airports, are areas of high concentration of people and, as such, are potential terrorist targets. Any such event here in the UK would cause immense disruption to rail freight supply chains are very tight security restrictions around cargo arriving into the on-site area, and equally tight restrictions on cargo handling in terms of staff security clearance and the inspection of the cargo itself. It would be disruptive to introduce security arrangements for passengers at the airport perimeter, however this is a matter for airports and security services to discuss. Regrettably such controls may be required in the future. OTHER MODES OF TRANSPORT Moving on from air cargo, there are some terrorism concerns in other transport modes. Container shipping, for example, which moves approximately 90 per cent of British goods by volume has far fewer terrorist issues than air cargo. There are serious concerns over marine piracy, but relatively few examples of attacks at major ports or vessels. That said, this sector must remain vigilant and alert to the possibilities, given the strategic importance of the large container ports. It is highly likely that security arrangements will remain tight for the long term. Railways are also potential terror targets, with the tragic bombing of passenger trains in Madrid in 2004 a clear example. The attack, which killed 192 people and injured around 2,000, was attributed to an al-Qaeda-inspired

terrorist cell. Backpack devices were used to set explosions in several carriages on the busy trains just days before Spain’s general election, bringing the whole network to a standstill. In addition, there was a close call on the Thalys passenger service between Paris, Brussels and Cologne in 2015 when a heavily armed, Paris-style attacker boarded a train only to be thwarted by off-duty military personnel who happened to be on board at the time. Railway stations, like airports, are areas of high concentration of people and, as such, are potential terrorist targets. Any such event here in the UK would cause immense disruption to rail freight supply chains. Goods carried by rail are often heavy and rail‑specific loads which would take considerable time and effort to move by road instead. In conclusion, balancing security with cost and practicality are great challenges for the logistics industry – particularly in the air freight sector where there are inconsistencies in security standards across the world and many opportunities for criminal behaviour throughout the chain. The importance of sharing information and working together cannot be underestimated. L FURTHER INFORMATION



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IT-SECURITY GOES MOBILE Whenever we communicate, there is always a risk of information falling into the hands of third parties. While companies are increasingly taking measures to protect their networks against attacks, when it comes to telephone calls, they tend to be sloppy: only one in six companies actually takes measures to protect their calls, with emails and smartphones also vulnerable to being intercepted A study by the Cologne Institute for Economic Research shows that 6.3 per cent of economic growth in Germany over

the past three years can be attributed to the rising availability of mobile phones. Faster response times for customer

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enquiries, combined with an increasingly interconnected working environment, are significantly boosting corporate productivity. However, eavesdropping of sales – and development‑related telephone calls can have a major impact because the loss of trade secrets is associated with lasting competitive disadvantages. In addition, emails sent through tablets or smart-phones can easily be intercepted, and transmission via radio is time‑consuming and often inaccurate. In many cases, the people in charge have no idea what expertise they need to protect. “Companies should start by determining what information could be attractive to other parties”, explained Peter Rost, head of Marketing at the leading security expert Rohde & Schwarz Cybersecurity. “The first question is: What are the crown jewels among all of our corporate data? Then, any routes used to communicate this information must be analysed since this is where eavesdropping could occur. Now, the company can decide how to prevent unauthorised access.” Of course, the top priority should go to innovations and information that is not in the public domain. Any company that does not invest in targeted measures to protect its private information exposes a weakness competitors can potentially exploit. The ‘Bring your own device’ (BYOD) trend is also making things easier for attackers; top managers typically prefer to use their own smartphone instead of a business phone. MOBILE IT SECURITY ON PATROL The police force in the German state of Lower Saxony is the first police department to integrate a mobile yet secure solution into their workflow. 500 tablet computers secured by ‘BizzTrust’ are now available to support the patrol officers’ work, allowing them to access the police server securely and quickly from anywhere. During work, patrol officers need constant access to information that is stored on the police server. They now use specialised tablet computers developed by the German IT security provider Rohde & Schwarz Cybersecurity. These ‘BizzTrust Tablets’ allow police



officers to access data on the police department’s server securely from anywhere and help reduce their error rates. BizzTrust Tablets are secured by a hardened security kernel with particularly powerful security mechanisms. The devices include a ‘personal’ and a ‘business’ area which provide further protection: applications and data are strictly separated from each other. Responses to the tablets are extremely positive because the system can be operated easily and without prior training. What is more, the police officers can save a lot of time because they can enter and upload data while on the road. Therefore, transferring the data laboriously by hand at the police station is a thing of the past. In the near future, all police officers will have their own, personalised tablet. News of this technology has spread: “Representatives of several police and administration departments as well as German Customs have visited us to see a live demonstration of BizzTrust,” says Mark-Stephan Röhrig, police chief inspector and sub-project manager. BizzTrust can be used wherever it is critical for businesses to protect information that is available on mobile devices. This includes authorities as well as companies. One final word of caution: Don’t forget to raise awareness among colleagues and employees about security. For example, if they choose to broadcast company secrets at an airport gate or in a train compartment, even the best encryption technology cannot help. ROHDE & SCHWARZ CYBERSECURITY Rohde & Schwarz continues to be a reliable and innovative partner of governments and security forces around the world with its strong portfolio of radio-frequency based test and measurement and monitoring solutions, as well as government-grade encryption products. To effectively prevent, analyse and contain criminal and terrorist activities, cyber defense and cyber measurement solutions are required. The stability and resilience of IT systems used by public security forces must be ensured in order to enable coordinated activity. The analysis of network traffic is essential to establishing situational awareness in real time. Rohde & Schwarz has invested in the corresponding portfolio of endpoint and network protection and analysis solutions. The newly built Rohde & Schwarz Cybersecurity unit combines former in‑house activities with recent acquisitions into an IT-focused security specialist. Rohde & Schwarz Cybersecurity protects companies and public institutions worldwide against espionage and cyber attacks. The company develops and produces high‑end encryption products, next-generation firewalls, network traffic analytics and endpoint security software as leading‑edge technical solutions for information and network security requirements.

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secure browsing and secure desktops with comprehensive protection against advanced persistent threats to secure mobile devices and voice encryption to hard disks, device encryption and encryption for cloud – based memory and file shares. Rohde & Schwarz Cybersecurity also offers smart card and identity management and a trustworthy networked infrastructure with information flow control. An easily administered, standardized and centralised system to manage your devices and security guidelines ensures seamless integration into existing network infrastructures and directory services. L FURTHER INFORMATION



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Hiding behind the Great British Firewall Following GCHQ’s plans to create a protective British firewall, Counter Terror Business asks whether sharing cyber strength is a weakness waiting to be exploited? The 2015 National Security Strategy (NSS) reaffirmed cyber threat as one of the most significant risks to UK interests. The NSS set out the government’s determination to address cyber threats and put in place tough and innovative measures as a world leader in cyber security. Part of GCHQ, the newly formed National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC) became operational on 3 October after first being brought to public attention by George Osborne in November

last year. Speaking to the Billington Cyber Security Summit in Washington DC, Ciaran Martin, director general of cyber at GCHQ and head of the newly formed NCSC, announced a proposal to create a British firewall offering protection against malicious hackers. GCHQ maintains a mission statement to protect government sites and industries regarded as central to national security from cyber related threats. The new proposal,

The newould lw proposa widen its Q see GCHinclude major reach tote companies, priva s internet such a rs BT, Sky provide Virgin and

Cyber Security


although still largely in the thought process, would see the agency widen its reach to include major private companies, such as internet providers BT, Sky and Virgin. Likely to be disputable anyway, it would be interesting to hear Martin’s thoughts when a few weeks later it was revealed that telecommunications company and internet provider TalkTalk has been fined a record £400,000 for poor website security which led to the theft of the personal data of nearly 157,000 customers. Dubbed by many as the UK’s answer to ‘the Great Firewall of China’, the ‘flagship project’ will centre on the controversial topic of domain name system (DNS) filtering. Writing in the Guardian, Heather Brooke, author of The Revolution Will be Digitised, claims that this creates a ‘dangerous norm’ that would see the government have control over the information that citizens can access and view online. A centralised system would likely fuel calls for banned or suspected sites to be publicly listed – an issue that the UK based Internet Watch Foundation has faced. So is it a good idea? PRIVACY VERSUS PROTECTION There is no doubt that the vulnerability of the UK must be protected, and most agree that such vulnerability lies in the digital space where criminals can gather information that should be unavailable to them. Attacks in the last few years – TalkTalk, Ashley Maddison, the White House and even the UK rail E



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Cyber Security

INTELLIGENCE  network – demonstrate that vulnerabilities exist, meaning that signals intelligence is even more integral to national security. Martin estimates that there are approximately 200 cyber security incidents recorded every month, and predicts that number will grow faster than the increase seen in incidents over the last year, where figures have doubled. The exposure disseminated by Edward Snowden in 2013, however, led to revelations and reservations over the scope of the government’s intelligence reach. Snowden, a National Security Agency (NSA) whistleblower, revealed that the UK and US governments were engaging in the mass surveillance of their citizens, making public the existence of a range of programmes that were gathering and analysing our private communications. The bulk collection of communication data relating to everyone’s online activities is a topic that not only aggravates public opinion, but divides parliamentary discussion. In her time as Home Secretary, Theresa May had to strongly defend the surveillance powers announced in the government’s Investigatory Powers Bill, which will force the storage of internet browsing records for 12 months and authorise the bulk collection of personal data. The Bill is still slowly and contentiously passing its way through the House of Lords, following a long drawn out struggle between MPs in the House of Commons. Outside of Westminster, campaign groups such as the Don’t Spy On Us coalition, argue for transparent laws regarding surveillance, a secure web for all, and judicial, not political, authorisation over the topic. Their view of the need to reject authority over democracy remains the largest obstacle to government. FORCE BEHIND THE FIREWALL Firewalls are standard tools for computer defence, controlling what traffic enters and leaves a network. They can, when activated to do so, reject particular traffic on the grounds that is potentially harmful to the network - whether that be a untrustworthy connection request, a suspicious file or the transfer of potential viruses. Most workplaces and domestic internet connections will have this in place, with an IT manager of internet service provider managing the permissions and restrictions. The proposal put forward by Martin and the NCSC would see organisations considered central to Britain’s national security operate behind this firewall, whereby GCHQ manages what can and can’t interact with the network. There would also be the option for other large and small organisations to opt in. Importantly, the mentioning of such a plan, so far, has indicated that the choice to enter a relationship with GCHQ would be open and unconditional. There is little argument, as of yet, from those in the security industry that questions whether such a move would increase security. But the grumbles of trust, or lack of in regards to company privacy, leaves

Firewalls are standard tools for computer defence, controlling what traffic enters and leaves a network. They can, when activated to do so, reject particular traffic on the grounds that is potentially harmful to the network the debate open to contention and opposition. GCHQ, and the new NCSC within it, employ specialists to ensure that cyber expertise runs throughout the organisation. Close relationships with industry, academia and international partners enable the agency to amplify the intelligence it gathers from cyber incidents, and share with those who need it. As things stand, and with the little information that has been vocalised, the idea of a national firewall seems rational – and the government‑company relationship worth attempting. However, internet governance will always be a topic that distorts rationality, and personal privacy quite regularly overpowers protection. EMPLOYMENT What cannot be contended is the priority that UK government is putting on cyber security and digital intelligence. MI6, the UK’s overseas intelligence agency, currently employs 2,500 people to deal with intelligence-gathering and operations abroad. The intelligence branch has recently, and publicly, revealed that it is to recruit hundreds more staff over the next four years in response to the pace of change in digital technology. Following announcements in 2015 that the government would provide the security services with 1,900 additional staff, it appears that MI6 will be the main beneficiary as the government responds to the increasing change afoot in intelligence operations. While many associate MI6 with James Bond like secret agents (see David Mitchell’s 25 September Guardian article ‘Why do our spies keep telling us everything?’), the truth of the matter is that agents, as we know them, are

of less importance nowadays than those who lead internet intelligence and access. Access to information, hacking and tracking are all tools that MI6 operate, but are also threats that can readily be used against them. To be ahead of the game, you certainly must first have a strong presence in the game. Alex Younger, the head of MI6, acknowledged this point by admitting that opponents who are ‘unconstrained by conditions of lawfulness’ are leaving the agency with no option but to ‘change the way that we do stuff’. Speaking at the same Washington conference, Younger said: “The information revolution fundamentally changes our operating environment. In five years’ time there will be two sorts of intelligence services: those that understand this fact and have prospered, and those that don’t and haven’t. And I’m determined that MI6 will be in the former category. “The third and most important part of British intelligence is the surveillance agency GCHQ, which in partnership with the US National Security Agency, is responsible for scooping up most of the intelligence through tracking phone calls, emails, chat lines and other communications.” Firewall or no firewall, the UK is rightly acting to make sure that it’s digital defence is as robust as need be. Central surveillance will divide opinion, but securing cyber activity, with more specialists weakening the likelihood of cyber risk, is certainly a direction worth pursuing. L FURTHER INFORMATION



Cyber Security Expo


Detecting candidates at the Cyber Security Expo The Cyber Security Expo is a one-day recruitment event aimed at candidates working within the cyber security industry. Here, Counter Terror Business looks ahead to October’s London event The Cyber Security Expo attracts more than 1,500 candidates from a cyber security or security cleared background. Companies that attend are looking to recruit new employees at the event. The Expo is held in tandem with the Security Cleared Expo twice a year, once in London at the QEII Centre in Westminster and then again at the UWE Centre in Bristol. The events have a busy and professional atmosphere giving candidates the opportunity to meet with clients. Recruiters and clients have direct access to candidates who are actively looking to further their careers across the various industries represented on the day. The Expo was created for candidates that operate within the cyber security industry or who hold a level of security clearance. Candidates sometimes experience difficulty having their CV advertised on mainstream social networking sites, with certain information being classified or not appropriate to declare on their CV. The event is an ideal platform where candidates and clients can interact more intimately. The Expo caters for candidates who are actively looking to meet with companies and specialist recruitment agencies that are operating within the cyber space, on a face‑to-face basis. It is an event that works for both parties (individuals and business). It also allows companies and agencies to showcase their company and define what kind of candidates they are looking for and it gives candidates a chance to show their technical skills and what they bring to the table. RESPONDING TO THREAT The cyber security industry is one of the fastest growing sectors within the UK. With the growing rate of cyber crime and cyber terrorism becoming a major threat to the UK economy with one-eighth of the UK’s gross domestic product coming from the digital economy. The government has recently increased its spending from £860 million in 2011 to £1.9 billion in late 2015. There is currently a shortage of skilled professionals within the field. Increasingly the threat to government, infrastructure and private business from cybercrime and security breaches means that

the government now treats cyber security as seriously as terrorism. There is an enormous amount of resources being put in place to safeguard the future of the UK economy and to make sure there is the next generation of skilled cyber security professionals to protect it. Companies like the Cyber Security Challenge have set out to guarantee that cyber skills are being taught to our schools with the introduction of GCSE’s. Additionally, they are working closely with a number of companies to create games and challenges to test prospective candidates that are looking to work within the industry. Future investment and training is important as so much of the UK economy relies on the confidence of digital transactions to warrant growth. The London Expo on 27 October 2016 will have over 30 exhibitors all looking to hire on the day, with a vast array of jobs such as IT security manager, information security consultant, network security and penetration testers. With the Cyber Security Expo we have made it easier for companies and agencies to match with the right candidates face-to‑face. This is now a must attend event for previous clients, with the Expo having an 85 per cent re-book rate year on year which is testament to results that it delivers. The adjoining Security Cleared Expo will have 50 stands with a number of exhibitors that will also be looking for candidates with IT security skills. The London event is popular with a number of central government departments, police authorities, IT consultancies, defence companies, and more recently, a number of specialist cyber security consultancies that are emerging as the industry grows.

security related courses, with a high number of students and graduates who attend, along with the more technically skilled attendees that have been working within the industry for a number of years. The Expo provides the setting for exhibitors to meet 100s of potential candidates with cyber security experience or graduates entering the market. With the events growing year on year we are expecting London to be our busiest event to date with increased numbers of candidates and exhibitors. The team behind the Expo works closely with a number of other events throughout the year to ensure that we have a good cross section of candidate and exhibitors on the day. This includes partnering with the Cyber Security show in March, the Telegraph Cyber Security conference in May, InfoSecurity Europe in June, and the Cyber Security Summit in June. Scheduled for later in the year we will be attending: the ACI’s Cyber Security – Oil, Gas, Power Conference; the second annual summit Cyber Security Leaders; CISO BFSI Summit Europe; Cyber Security for Critical Assets; and the UK Heath Cyber Security Summit in the month of November. Partnerships like this guarantee that the Expo will maintain a high diversity in this niche market. The last London Expo had over 3,000 pre‑registered attendees with more expected in 2016. We want clients and candidates to have the chance to experience something new and meet new people, but at the same time be able to rely on the Expo familiarity of years before that have made it a positive experience. If you are interested in hiring candidates within the cyber security space and your usual resourcing channels are not working, then the job board Cyber Security Jobsite or the Cyber Security Expo may be the next option for you. L

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EXHIBITORS The exhibitors that we have at the Expo are looking for a broad range of skills. We work closely with the universities providing IT




Surveillance Written by The British Security Industry Association


Keeping an eye on our nation in times of trouble The British Security Industry Association discuss the vital role that CCTV plays in keeping threats at bay 2016 has proved to be a challenging year for the world, with horrific acts of terrorism affecting nations around the globe. Pakistan has faced the aftermath of multiple devastating bomb blasts in recent months, countries in Europe, including France and Germany, have seen themselves at the centre of danger and just recently Australia found themselves threatened by extremist terror group ISIL, with the release of a document encouraging followers to attack iconic landmarks around the country. Therefore, it is understandable that the general public may feel a sense of concern when attending major public events, or even just walking down the street. Major events have already been the targets of terrorism. In 2015, 130 people were killed in Paris when extremists attacked multiple venues across the city including a music venue and sports stadium. More recently, 85 people were murdered whilst attending a Bastille Day fireworks celebration in Nice. Following that, a suicide bomber thought to be as young as 12, destroyed a wedding celebration in Turkey, killing 51 people. The repercussions of these attacks have been felt internationally, with the Metropolitan Police placing music and sporting venues on high alert at an anti-terrorism briefing at Wembley Stadium earlier this year. However, as these threats continue to rise, technology also continues to develop, and security within the United Kingdom has been at an all-time high. RAISING THE STANDARD CCTV already plays a pivotal role in protecting the nation from terrorism, not just at major events but in day to day life. CCTV offers around the clock protection and advances in technology such as HD resolution, facial recognition software and body worn cameras are raising the bar in providing comprehensive



the amount of cameras now on the market, it can be difficult to determine what type of camera is best for the specification of the job. With this in mind, the BSIA’s CCTV section has been working with the International Electrotechnical Commission to develop IEC 62676-5, a standard for video surveillance systems for use in security applications. The standard is aiming to be a de-facto standard by 2017 and consists of two key parts, the first being requirements for the description of Video Surveillance Camera specification items and the second being the requirements for measurement methods of those specification items. The standard will define recommendations and requirements for the way representation and measurement methods of performance values are described in materials such as instruction manuals, brochures and specifications of Video Surveillance Camera equipment. It will apply to both analogue cameras, such as composite video like NTSC or PAL, and digital cameras such as compressed IP output or serial digital output. Discussing how the standard relates to image resolution, Simon Adcock, chairman of the BSIA’s CCTV Section, explains it in context: “At the moment, some of the information in camera data sheets is largely meaningless. For example, it is common to see the minimum illumination level for a 30 megapixel camera as 0.1lux. At that light level you get what is referred to as a usable image, which often contains much less detail than necessary and is especially problematic when you’ve paid a big chunk of cash for a very high resolution camera having seen it in broad daylight. “As a system designer committed to using the operational requirement model, the only way to get around this is to test every candidate camera. In theory, this leaves every installer testing every camera. In practice, it means that end users are often disappointed with results in low light or challenging lighting conditions. “IEC 62676-5 seeks to define a standard method for testing cameras and specifying camera performance. The hope is that by making the designer’s job easier, by providing them with accurate information with which to choose the right camera, more systems will meet their operational requirement.”

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surveillance. Video analytics have also been an integral part of counter terrorism, with capabilities such as object left/ object removed helping to identify any potential terror threats in heavily populated areas. Facial recognition software is also crucial, not only in identifying known terror threats in real time, but also aiding in the identification and prosecution process should a crime be committed. With the heightened need for high quality technology, not only in the modern era but also for the war on terror, it is essential that the CCTV technology in use is of the highest standard. Whether a CCTV camera is used for something smaller scale, such as home security, or for large scale counter terrorism measures, ensuring the image is as high quality as possible is absolutely crucial. Jacques Lombard, vice chairman of the BSIA’s CCTV Section, said: “The main improvement in CCTV technology is the quality of images as we move into the HD and UHD (Ultra-High-Definition) era. The days of watching grainy, distorted images is a thing of the past, as individuals, businesses and governments have realised the numerous benefits afforded by today’s technology. Higher resolution megapixel cameras mean that the cameras can cover a large area without compromising the picture quality.” Adding to this, the implementation of HD and UHD ‘could have a positive impact on crime figures, as the picture quality being captured is much more superior, making the process for identification much easier and more reliable’. With the evolution of HD cameras and

CYBER CRIME – A NEW AGE TERRORISM While CCTV can be essential to identify and stop physical terror threats, such as suspicious objects or the terrorists themselves, in today’s technological era there is a new kind of threat – cyber terrorism. The increasing risk of cyber-crime has become more widely recognised in recent years, with the former Chancellor George Osborne announcing last

November that security, and cyber security in particular, would be a main priority in his spending review. This was emphasised by the fact that spending on cyber security would be increased to £1.9 billion by 2020, along with the launch of the nation’s first National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC), showcasing the government’s commitment to effectively preparing for the possibility of cyber warfare. Cyber criminals are regularly finding new ways to hack networks and this can be a worry for surveillance systems that rely on IT technology. Talking on the topic of IT, Lombard explains: “IT technology has played a major part in driving innovation and change within the CCTV sector with HD, UHD, H264 and Power over Ethernet being notable examples. With this in mind, the Internet of Things (IoT) is also set to have a profound impact on the security and video surveillance industry. As more IP based surveillance devices are installed, we will see a wider use of security systems that integrate information generated by the IoT. This integration will not only be used for information for security purposes but will also be applied to other applications and uses.” While the internet has been a positive influence in the development of CCTV, it can also leave the surveillance systems vulnerable to cyber criminals. Recently it was reported that cyber criminals had been hacking CCTV cameras in order to form a ‘botnet’ and launch



Cyber criminals are regularly finding new ways to hack networks and this can be a worry for surveillance systems that rely on IT technology Distributed Denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks. The attack completely overwhelmed web servers of various businesses, taking over their resources and consequently crashing their websites. After days, researchers found that the source of the attacks were actually coming from inter-connected CCTV cameras that had been remotely hijacked in an attempt to attack other services. As such, it is essential that the importance of protecting against cyber crime is taken into account through every aspect of the CCTV supply chain, from design to installation. Manufacturers should be sure that accidental design or implementation errors are minimised, with systems being regularly scanned for vulnerabilities. They should also demonstrate proficiency in secure coding and testing procedures, with their products showing capabilities of being able to support the stringent controls necessary for secure network communications. Such controls could include encrypted database communication, system auditing, alerting and management, denial of service protection, restriction of ports, protocols and services and highly customisable user access and permissions.

Talking on the topic, Adcock explains: “Responsible installers and integrators will conduct a risk-based approach to any system design, taking into account the origin of the hardware in the design and whether this presents potential risk to the customer. Anyone who is designing a system or making decisions on behalf of an end user should be considering the security of the hardware they are installing, ensuring that it is robust and manufactured responsibly. Responsible installers will also ensure that the system they have installed is protected from cyber-attacks by changing manufacturer’s default system credentials. “Ultimately, an end user must take responsibility for the security of their network. When procuring an IP connected surveillance system, end users must use the services of a reputable installer/ integrator that is fully committed to best practice. They should also ensure that they have comprehensive cyber security and information security policies in place.” L FURTHER INFORMATION




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Is social media a help or hindrance? Bob Wade, of the Emergency Planning Society, discusses crisis communications as a security aid in the digital age

We now live in a transparent society. We are all walking communications systems, and if something happens we know about it instantly. When I first became involved in disaster management back in the 1980s, we spoke of the ‘Golden Hour’ – that is, you usually had an hour or so from the start of an incident to when the media found out about it. This gave you a short breather to get your ducks in line and agree the immediate key messages to be issued to the public. This ‘Golden Hour’ was continually squeezed with the advent of Satellite TV, and then disappeared altogether with the digital revolution. As I write this I am watching police officers in Dallas being shot and killed – a woman is using the ‘Periscope’ platform to stream live images and commentary on her iPhone. The day before, another woman streamed pictures on Facebook of her husband dying in their car, with a police officer still brandishing his gun over him. News is now instant. There is no hiding place. A CALL TO SAFETY This new transparency does have positives for emergency responders. Facebook, for example, has its ‘Safety Check’ system which was used during the terror attacks in March 2016 in Brussels. When a disaster strikes and someone logs into Facebook while being in the affected location, a screen pops up, saying that you are in the area affected by the incident. It then asks if you are safe and offers two buttons. The green one says ‘I’m Safe’; when clicked, a notification then goes out to friends and relatives and a post is published on your timeline, letting people know you are safe. Facebook Japan introduced the forerunner of Safety Check, called Disaster Message Board, after the Japan earthquake and tsunami in March 2011. Due to its popularity, the technology was then sent for full development

to an Israeli R&D team, who came up with the simpler Safety Check system. It was very effective during the terror attacks on Paris in November 2015: some 4.1 million people checked in with friends and relatives using the Safety Check feature, and around 360 million people received automatic messages through it from friends in Paris who had marked themselves as safe. The system has been praised by the Emergency Planning Society. Our Chair, Tony Thompson, formerly of the British Transport Police, said: “A problem in horrific events such as the Brussels and Paris attacks, is that – understandably – millions of people flood the land line and mobile phone sphere trying to check if loved ones are OK. In 7/7 in London for example, there was enormous pressure on the mobile phone system which in some cases collapsed. “Facebook’s initiative enables millions to be given a quick ‘I’m safe’ to all their family and contacts with one click. It is a rapid reassurance tool that takes a huge burden off the phone networks, Casualty Bureaux and the emergency responders.”

public. It was forced to set up a 40 strong unit that monitored all the material – what the media call ‘User Generated Content’ or UGC – being sent in. That unit has now dispersed as all reporters are trained to have use of UGC embedded in their day to day practice. Disaster managers woke up to the impact of social media – in that it could actually cause an incident – after the Love Parade disaster in Germany in 2010. This electronic music festival was rapidly becoming overcrowded and the authorities began to shut the 16 gates that gave access to the festival site. While both police and the fire service had problems with their analogue radios in communicating what was happening, the young people were immediately tweeting and texting each other that side gates were being closed so they should head for the main entrance tunnel to ensure their place inside. The sudden overcrowding caused ‘crowd oscillation’ (rather than a stampede) and 21 people were crushed to death, with a further 500 injured. The authorities should have been monitoring and intervening on social media. Organisations that learnt the lessons of this and implemented it soon found advantages. In the riots that swept England in 2011, much of the disturbances were mitigated in the West Midlands because West Midlands Police had already ‘empowered’ over 400 officers from Police Constables upwards to engage freely on social media to assist with community policing. This network became invaluable in not only monitoring where the rioters were planning to hit next, but also to ‘myth-bust’ and deter further incidents occurring.

Written by Bob Wade, Emergency Planning Society

Crisis communications in the digital age



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THE WEIGHT OF SOCIAL MEDIA Since the Noughties, the mainstream media itself has been driven by social media. In the past it was the mainstream media that bombarded the switchboards of the organisation in the eye of the storm during a major incident. Now it is the mainstream media that gets swamped by digital images and reports from their audience – during the 7/7 bombings in London, the BBC received over 20,000 images from members of the

TRANSMEDIA The need to intervene was demonstrated by some important research called City Evacuations: preparedness, warning, action and recovery, led by Professor John Preston of the University of East London. It had a particular focus on the impact of social media. As they point out: “Social E



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SOCIAL MEDIA  media and mobile communications have revolutionised emergency management and evacuation policy and this was foremost in our minds when conducting the project.” The complex findings are of vital importance to emergency planners. The project points out that there is an increasing cross-over between social media and traditional media, with media organisations increasingly reliant on User Generated Content. This cross-over and the mix and match from where the public get their information is termed ‘Transmedia’. One of the case studies they examined was the Manx2 air crash at Cork Airport in 2011 in which six people died. Demonstrating the speed with which social media can accelerate information exchange, the project found that the first entry on social media came within one minute of the crash. More importantly they found that tweets about the air crash peaked within the first hour of the incident, in the scramble for information – once the correct information was being circulated by the ‘trusted source’ of the mainstream media news bulletins, the number of tweets began to decrease. The lesson here is that emergency responders need to ‘join the conversation’ on the social networks as soon as possible with correct information, to avoid public confusion or alarm. The project’s main finding however was that emergency planners should be careful in the use of social media for incidents such as city evacuations. During the project they created various models which demonstrated that if people ‘are over-informed it may result in congestion and jamming’. They found that social media has ‘a selective demographic effect: it is less effective than old media as a mechanism for an initial warning’. They concluded that ‘old media’ – that is, the broadcast media – is still the most effective way at this stage to warn and inform the public. That said, engaging with social media during a major incident is still essential. But how do you ride this tiger? The sheer volume of social media traffic is overwhelming. During the Japanese tsunami in 2011, there were 5,500 related tweets per second. Every day, three billion videos are viewed on YouTube. A survey from the US Red Cross found that one third of the population of the USA would contact their loved ones to say they were safe during an incident via social media. The point is, you can’t. It’s just too big. But that doesn’t mean you just ignore it. And there are many valuable and free tools out there that you can use. THE STATE OF SOCIAL MEDIA In the preparatory stage, include role play social media in any exercises you are running. This will galvanise your team into keeping an eye on the social media networks, making them realise what the social media networks are saying now will shortly be driving the mainstream media.

The lesson here is that emergency responders need to ‘join the conversation’ on the social networks as soon as possible with correct information, to avoid public confusion or alarm There are various systems available to role play social media but they can be expensive. Or, if you are a large organisation, you can utilise internal comms to recreate a social media stream. That aside, social media role play does not need to be that sophisticated. For a desk top exercise for example, you can just have one individual on a lap top with an overhead projector pumping out a stream of mock tweets for all the exercise players to see. Also, when you risk access the likely incidents you may face, you can draw up draft templates of your likely messages to the public in response, in advance, ready for a quick tweak and use if the incident occurs. Having statements immediately ‘fit for purpose’ and ready – and cleared in advance by Chief Officers of the organisation – will keep you one step ahead on social media when the networks begin to ‘thunder’. When the incident happens, co-ordinating your public responses should not just be with your partner organisations – check what your own organisation is still saying. A bad case study in this area is the experience of Ethiopian Airways in 2014. One of their copilots hijacked his plane, demanding to land and claim asylum in Geneva, where it landed accompanied by French and Italian jet fighters. No doubt the airline’s crisis team dealt with the incident admirably, but clearly no one had told their marketing department which was still pumping out gushing tweets about the airline. One declared: “Today, life is a bed of roses!”. Not for the passengers on their hijacked aircraft, it wasn’t. MONITORING ACTIVITY Monitoring social media is not as complex as it may sound. There are social media platforms called ‘Aggregators’, popular examples being Addict-o-matic or NetVibes. The basic functions they provide are free – you put your key topic in their search engine, and it will show across the main social networks – whether Facebook, Twitter, Flickr etc as well as the mainstream media – what these sites are saying, all on one screen. Another useful tool is ‘One Million Tweets’. This takes a snapshot of Tweets around the world and their volume at a given moment, regularly updated. You can zoom into the geographical area of your incident – anywhere in the world – right down to street level. You can see where the clusters of tweets are (which may be useful in indicating something is developing in that area) and then click on them and read what they are saying. So monitoring is not difficult at a superficial level, which is probably all you have time



for when a major incident is kicking off. But how do you respond? To attempt to answer thousands of issues and questions thundering away on the networks is an impossibility. You have to go back to a bit of ‘old technology’ – the website. ENGAGING WITH WEBSITES Websites are still very important. I have been involved in the communications response for two air crashes. The first – a Boeing 737 crashing at Coventry Airport in 1994 – was before the advent of the website. Our press office was bombarded with over 300 calls from the media trying to find out details in the first few hours. The second – a Bombardier Challenger executive jet crashing at Birmingham International Airport in 2002 – came when this airport had already established a new website. All the details of the crash were hosted on it, and calls from the media were greatly reduced because the basic facts they wanted were there for them to access. Our crisis response job was made a lot easier. Equally, websites can still be used when engaging social media. You don’t try to answer all those individual tweets or Facebook comments – you herd them to your website to where all the information they may need is carried. You just keep pumping out the link to your website on as many social media platforms as is physically possible. And keep the mainstream media up to date with your latest messages who still have the authority in the eyes of the public (at least so far in the UK) and the trusted source of accurate information. In 2011, I led the media and social media role play team for Exercise Watermark, the largest civilian exercise ever held in the UK, involving around 30,000 participants from government ministers and departments to emergency responders at local level. The four-day exercise replicated widespread flooding across the UK. We found that half of the organisations involved – including some lead government departments – did not engage with the social media role play aspect of the exercise. They said simply they ‘didn’t do social media’. Fortunately, after our post-exercise report, this changed dramatically for the better. In the digital age, opting out is not an option. Engaging social media during a crisis is not as intimidating as many think, or as sophisticated – and there are plenty of free tools out there to help you do it. L FURTHER INFORMATION



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THREATS FROM THE SKY Originally a pastime for avid hobbyists, today radio-controlled microdrones are widely available and threatening the safety of the general public, meaning countermeasures are more necessary than ever Radio-controlled microdrones quickly caught the imagination of the general public and entrepreneurs who imagined many peaceful uses for them. Now, the tables are about to be turned. Microdrone technology is widely available and is almost certainly on its way to being incorporated into the weapons arsenal of the terrorists as well as other actors with criminal intent. Relatively small, radio-controlled aircraft have the ability to breach security fences or police cordons simply by flying over them. Its mission might be the delivery of weapons that endanger large numbers of people by employing chemical, explosive, biological or incendiary agents. Other scenarios include trafficking of drugs, weapons or money; disrupting aircraft at airports; and a variety of uses related to industrial espionage. Stopping a microdrone is not trivial – particularly when the safety of the general public is a high priority. Early countermeasures have fallen short. Visual and sound detection can be subject to impaired performance and errors from environmental interference. To be effective, detection systems must provide a high level of sensitivity, give an early warning, and create no false alarms. A complete countermeasure system also requires a safe, reliable means of stopping the threat. Early technologies include microdrone catchers, laser weapons, and even high‑energy EMP (electromagnetic pulse) effectors. Although these countermeasures can be useful in some scenarios, they fall short in other ways. Most technologies intended to destroy microdrones, for example, can have unintended consequences such as destroying or disrupting non-targets in the vicinity. Perhaps their most crucial shortcoming is that they need a communications link to the microdrone detection system. Immediate, seamless interaction between detection and countermeasures is essential to attain high levels of success. Rohde & Schwarz’s R&S ARDRONIS radio monitoring solution combines detection, identification and threat mitigation in a single, portable, highly reliable system.Its advantages over competing technologies include: detection and identification of the target microdrone remote control signal/downlink signal and determination of its direction; technology expandability and integration due



to open interfaces – selective deployment of other sensor systems such as infrared is enabled; full-spectrum awareness – all relevant frequencies are tracked within a 360° scanning angle; and selective and reactive threat mitigation. R&S ARDRONIS’ countermeasures do not interfere with other communication technologies such as Wi-Fi or Bluetooth. It also boasts deployment flexibility – the system can operate stand‑alone, as transportable unit, or it may be integrated into larger security centers. COUNTERMEASURE EFFICIENCY In addition to the features just mentioned, an effective microdrone countermeasure system should be able to alert security personnel of a potential threat even before the microdrone’s take-off. Ideally, it should also be able to identify the specific microdrone type and pinpoint the pilot’s location to enable target-oriented intervention. Rohde & Schwarz’s R&S ARDRONIS radio monitoring solution meets these criteria as well. Because microdrones are controlled by radio communications, a system that exploits the radio link has inherent advantages. Remote controls for microdrones usually operate in the 2.4 GHz or 5.8 GHz ISM band

but also in other frequency bands such as 433 MHz or 4.3 GHz. Monitoring these bands and knowing the electronic ‘fingerprints’ of every microdrone can be very useful. R&S ARDRONIS uses an extensive library of control signal profiles to detect and classify the microdrone. Among other advantages, knowing the microdrone’s profile allows other microdrones to operate safely in the same area. Security personnel can implement electronic countermeasures immediately – and therefore safely – to terminate intrusions. R&S ARDRONIS disrupts the microdrone’s control signals to prevent it from performing a safety-critical manoeuvre without any impact on the neighbouring communications. R&S ARDRONIS technology has already proven itself acceptable for the highest levels of security. At the G7 Economic Summit held at Elmau Castle, Germany, and again during U.S. President Barack Obama’s visit to Hanover Trade Fair in 2016, the system’s underlying technologies were used to secure the sites from unauthorized, remote-controlled microdrones. L FURTHER INFORMATION

Gary Clayton, of the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems Association, addresses current regulation of the UAV industry and whether the speed of technology advances is helping security services This is the second article in a series about Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) or even ‘Drones’, as they have unfortunately become known, where we explore the moral and philosophical debate around their introduction in to every aspect of daily life and how this helps or hinders law enforcement. The first article entitled ‘Drones – a tool for both sides in the race’ (Counter Terror Business 24) explored whether the security services had the same opportunity to use the advances in unmanned technology and analysis of the data collected as the terrorist. It also explored if the technology was responsible for the intentions of the user. This article attempts to widen the debate in to what could be, should be, will be, and is being done to address regulation of the industry and if this will help balance the situation explored previously. We all too often see headline stories of ‘Drones’ hitting aircraft at London Heathrow Airport but nobody finds the small retrospective insight, placed on the inner pages, passing comment that no evidence of a ‘Drone’ was found and the pilot that reported it was mistaken. When ‘Drones’ are involved in an incident it is important to ask whether it is a recreational user out of control or a terrorist with intent – friend or foe? The problem is that the law enforcement officers can’t determine the intent at the time of the incident and it is only later that the pundits debate the facts utilising their customary 20/20 hindsight. The problem is that the outcome could have the same devastating effect despite differing initial user intent. NEW DRONES Regulation can never keep up with the technology. New ‘Drones’ are released on to the market every day with more and more capability. Research projects are pushing the boundaries and the limitations initially posed by Visual and Radio Line of Sight (VLOS and RLOS) are being challenged. Operators

of small ‘Drones’ want to fly faster and further and the possibility of on‑board video processing and decision making has fuelled a relentless drive to more and more autonomy. The availability of modern communications makes connectivity within the urban environment possible meaning the RLOS is not an issue and image processing has provided autonomous navigation and sense and avoid technology meaning that VLOS is not an issue. However this brings an interesting paradox. Present regulation restricts flight in the urban environment whereas flight in the country environment is far less restricted. However as we have seen it is in the urban areas that future systems will be safer and able to maintain communications compared with the rural environment where RLOS and VLOS will continue to restrict activities. However all this will change and ‘Drone’ flight in the urban environment will become commonplace. I’m not even sure if pilots will be involved, or even allowed, for this explosion of urban activity but I feel confident that in the rural environment pilots will be necessary and desirable. I see that the tasks undertaken will be different with delivery, measurement and monitoring in urban areas to mapping, and observation in the countryside. The question is how will this brave new world be controlled and how will law enforcement agencies determine friend or foe quickly and accurately? The European Commission convened a conference in Riga in 2014 which filled me with optimism and hope. I travelled home sure that the industry had taken a big step

to a safer future, and moreover, I was proud that I had been invited there to witness it. There was talk of a European CE mark centred on technical compliance rather than build quality. For a device to be sold in the European Union it would have to have a registration that could be interrogated remotely, ‘Drones’ were to be registered to the user, a geo-fencing solution was to be compulsory, computer based user training would be necessary before a ‘Drone’ would be activated, and there were many more. This was a comprehensive set of mutually consistent measures designed to restrict flight to allowed areas, educate the operators and build public confidence. Riga also debated that, with the technical measures in place, the regulation could then be updated to a risk based rather than the weight based, one size fits all, philosophy that existed at the time. With the knowledge that the recreational user could not fly in restricted areas, that they would have registered the air vehicle and proven their understanding of the regulations – and therefore the owner could be traced – meant that the regulations for the smaller systems could be relaxed. This is a perfectly reasonable assumption and mirrors (close enough for the sake of argument) that of the automotive industry – you learn to drive, you pass a test, buy a vehicle which has performance limitations imposed by the manufacturer, register it with the authorities, insure it and finally start to drive safely along city streets and country lanes with everybody else. However reality has taken another turn. The European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) is changing the regulations without any of the prerequisite technical measures being in place. In the UK; the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA), the body responsible for setting and E

Written by Gary Clayton, chairman, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Systems Association

Drone regulations – a help or hindrance to security?

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles


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PROX DYNAMICS PD-100 PRS WITH THE BLACK HORNET 2/2T SENSORS The PD-100 Personal Reconnaissance System (PRS) with the Black Hornet 2 sensors (nano-UAV) is the smallest operational unmanned system in the world. The system is manufactured by Prox Dynamics, and the current version consists of two optional sensors, the Black Hornet 2 and the Black Hornet 2T The Black Hornet 2 is a further development and improvement of the combat-proven Black Hornet 1 (also known as the Block I PRS). The Black Hornet 2 utilises the same base station, controller and display as the Black Hornet 1 System, whilst both the system software and UAVs have become re-designed to deliver significant enhancements. The most significant enhancements associated with the Black Hornet 2 are in the sensors which boast improved endurance, ground speed and wind tolerance. The sensor payload incorporates three cameras producing highquality video and high definition ‘Snapshots’ (still images). Black Hornet 2 sensors can operate effectively in stronger wind/gust levels, withstanding sustained winds of up to 8m/s and gusts up to 12m/s. The flight time of the sensor is also increased to up to 25 minutes. The sensor is now able to fly to an area 1.6km from the operator, transmit real-time video and ‘Snapshots’ (still images) from that area (whilst remaining undetected) for almost 15 minutes and recover to the operator on a single charge. The sensor is automatically re-charged when placed into the Base Station. The PD-100 PRS carries enough power for a total operational time of approximately 2.5 hours before the PRS will require recharging. The PRS can be connected to a variety of power sources for re-charging and/or continuous operations. PD-100 PRS The PD-100 PRS is a service-ready, out of the box system which gives users an immediate airborne Intelligence, Surveillance & Reconnaissance (ISR) sensor. The PD-100 PRS enhances situational awareness and reduces risks when used in a variety of situations and complex operating environments. The system provides imagery from different aspect views utilising live full motion video and ‘Snapshots’. This enables the operator to get ‘eyes on’ areas and objects that are beyond the user’s visual range (view from above, behind buildings and other obstacles, areas at different height from user and/or with overhead cover). All user information is displayed on the screen and system inputs are conducted using the control



buttons found on the controller which is designed so that the operator only needs to use one hand to control the sensor. With a complete system weight of 1.3kg the PD-100 PRS is a system that can easily be integrated on the Operator’s personal equipment. Due to the sensor’s very low visual and audible signature, the PD-100 PRS provides significant utility for covert use as it is virtually inaudible (beyond seven metres) and invisible (beyond 15 metres). This fact has continued to impress all those who have had access to the system. Furthermore, due to its extremely small size and light weight, the sensor can be regarded as ‘inherently safe’ as it poses virtually no risk to neither personnel nor other air vehicles. This provides a compelling argument that negates the need for airspace clearance and allowing the user to launch a sensor immediately and operate with maximum freedom of operation in all types of airspace. By the launching of the Black Hornet 2T, Prox Dynamics has introduced another significant upgrade to the PD-100 PRS. The inclusion of a complete, digitally enhanced thermal sensor from FLIR Systems Inc., paired with an EO camera into an 18 gram nano-UAV, enables unprecedented mission flexibility and situational awareness in night operations allowing fused live video and still images to be viewed by the operator.

Today’s modern warfighters demand a 24‑hour solution and Prox Dynamics is proud to offer the first nano-UAV system for a 24‑hour, Cargo Pocket ISR capability, combining the PD-100 PRS and Black Hornet 2T. The PD-100 PRS has utility beyond that of purely the modern warfighter and both the Black Hornet 2 and the Black Hornet 2T are used to good effect in police and fire/rescue organisations today. DEVELOPMENT ADD-ON Prox Dynamics has also developed an add-on for use with the Virtual Battlespace 3 (VBS3) Simulator. This low-cost software solution enables the operator to fulfill the full spectrum of PRS operator training, from basic system operation procedures through to extremely realistic simulations involving the most complex and demanding scenarios. The benefits associated with simulator training are numerous, enhancing user effectiveness and saving time and costs at the same time. This enables users to conduct virtual missions for training purposes. The simulated PRS and UAV behave exactly as they would for real, utilising the same Graphical User Interface (GUI), functions and UAV characteristics as with a live mission. L FURTHER INFORMATION

REGULATION  enforcing all UK national aviation regulations, didn’t want to be left behind and started opening up the regulations with an updated issue of CAP722, the CAA UAS guidance/regulation, with little or no consultation in March 2015. There were a number of reasons given by the CAA for this course of action and even more suspected by the industry. However the CAA did state, at a National Air Traffic Management Advisory Council (NATMAC) meeting earlier in the year, that the ‘UK aviation regulations will continue to be aligned with those of EASA irrespective of the Brexit vote’. This is an eminently sensible step but should we pre-empt EASA? THE CHALLENGES A year ago I was asked by Air International magazine ‘what would you say are the key challenges facing the industry going forward?’ My response, published in October 2015, was: “Self-interest distorting the business, regulation or even public acceptance; EASA, ICAO, ITU, EUROCAE, JARUS regulation being tipped from the entirety to a particular interest; and that UAS are the ‘sexy topic’ of the day and newcomers to the industry are extremely welcome, but they often arrive with lots of energy and don’t take the time to research the topic. This can slew regulatory debate and with 2016 being such a pivotal year this poses a risk.” I would have been delighted to look back at my miss-placed pessimism and declared that logic was in charge, decisions were being made in a rational way and that a systems approach to the new technology introduction was being taken – but I can’t! However, despite that, the technological advances do continue to excite me. I see the goodwill, positive discussions and energy from the Riga conference being distorted and watered down in the interests of political expediency. Just because it is difficult it doesn’t mean we shouldn’t do it. It is not the introduction of technical measures themselves that are important but their inclusion brings two distinct and significant benefits. To the recreational user it would mean that they understand the airspace environment they are entering and that they cannot transgress their allowed operational areas and are therefore less likely to be prosecuted for an incident. Secondly, to the authorities it would mean that they have a clear and instant insight in to the fundamental security questions of friend or foe. If a ‘Drone’ was somewhere it shouldn’t be then the geo-fencing will have been deliberately subverted, if it didn’t respond to a registration request it is unlikely to be on a legitimate task or have a registered user – its intentions can be assumed to be malicious and appropriate action taken. A clear decision concerning how to react can be taken. Another confusing distinction is that training and CAA registration is only required if you are undertaking commercial activity but

is not necessary for recreational use. That means that there is no training, no testing of individual capability and no knowledge of the airspace environment necessary for most of the ‘Drone’ owners in the UK. A BBC ‘Skies Above Britain’ programme (episode 2) aired this summer showed an ‘amateur’ that wanted to fly a ‘Drone’ around London. He was informed that he needed training and that regulations applied. Despite his amazement he then underwent basic training and achieved a basic licence, even though the programme left out the class room training elements, and emphasised that this was still not enough to fly in London. This was a laudable attempt to educate that there are regulations and restrictions that need to be understood – albeit through a small entertainment segment of a wider programme topic. The significance of this is that most people don’t know. The technical measure discussed at Riga would have meant that not only would you know that regulation applied but you will have demonstrated that you understand them before the vehicle (or hand held controller) would have been activated. RISK REGULATIONS Following Riga the regulators have decided to develop the regulations along the basis of risk. They have devised three categories; Open, Specific and Certified. The Open category applies to a vehicle or operation, has little or no risk to people or property and has little or no regulation. This has limits on vehicle mass and guidelines as to distance, height and proximity to other people and property but other than that you can enjoy recreational activities. Conversely the Certified category means full compliance with EASA operational and design regulations, including airworthiness, that apply to any other type of aircraft of that size and weight – manned or unmanned. This category is primarily intended for the larger systems anticipated in the near future that will operate in national airspace alongside manned aviation and therefore the same rules apply.

the CAA to handle so the Open category is to be controlled by the police and covers at least 95 per cent of all ‘Drone’ flights. Having planned, trained and practiced under the radar of the authorities a vehicle can just appear somewhere it shouldn’t be and do anything it wants. No one knows if it is a father losing control while playing with the kids on an adjacent piece of wasteland or a terrorist. Furthermore, the police on the street are not clear of the regulations. The changes have been pushed through for expediency without the bigger picture, and no consideration of the wider security consequences, being assessed. This is not a CAA issue. Yes they decided to move earlier than they needed to in order to manage the workload, but, the EASA consultation in 2015, and the EU draft regulation in consultation in Q4 or 2016 has signalled that the change is coming anyway. In conclusion, we must see hope that the Riga conference decided, at EC ministerial level, upon a holistic approach and proposed a comprehensive balanced set of technical and regulatory measures to take the introduction of this new technology in to the future. However, although the regulatory changes are well underway there has been no sign of drafting the legislation necessary to introduce the technical measures needed to underpin them. The original vision would have finally introduced something to help the authorities but the present incomplete implementation makes the situation worse. UAVS will continue to support the regulators, the industry and the public as we chart our way through the situation in which we find ourselves. However in 10 years I’m optimistic that common sense will have prevailed, the situation will be back under control, we will have a complementary and balanced set of technical measures to underpin the regulations and as a consequence the authorities will have a clear method of determining risk. Irrespective of the regulatory position and how long it takes to develop the balanced approach discussed; I do recommend that anyone buying a ‘Drone’ invests in a training

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles


“With the technical measures in place, regulation should not be a block to innovation and no regulation should be introduced for regulations sake” Between these extremes is the Specific category. This is for operations that fall outside the limited restrictions of the Open category or for vehicle weights above the Open category limits. This change of regulation is sensible when built upon the foundation of the technical measures discussed but, in isolation, fails to make the situation safer. They also fail to help in protecting sensitive sites such as airports, events, public buildings. The numbers are becoming too large for

course from a reputable supplier with an established track record. You will not only learn how to fly but also airspace rules, regulations and how to remain safe. L

Gary Clayton is director of Wyenor Limited providing independent UAS consultancy as well as chairman of UAVS. FURTHER INFORMATION





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The Commercial UAV Show: providing new applications and opportunities for the UAV value chain Terrapinn is delighted to announce the return of The Commercial UAV Show to London this October. As the industry grows, so does The Commercial UAV Show, which is now established as the biggest and best event for this industry in Europe. Why is it the best? It attracts the most influential end-users, manufacturers and regulatory bodies in the industry, and the show is an opportunity for you to join them. This year’s show features a thriving exhibition floor and an exclusive con‑ ference. The conference will be the most high-level to date, with over 60 speakers coming from across the globe and from many industry sectors. Visiting this year’s show will see you reaping a number of benefits. Hear from over 80 speakers from across the UK, Australia, Canada, the United States, Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands, the Czech Republic, New Zealand, Italy, Switzerland, Japan, Belgium, France and more  Be inspired by future orientated, highend content from early adopters of UAVs and prolific end-users includ‑ ing: DHL; EE; Rakuten; BP; Areva Mines;

and T-Mobile Netherlands.  Aeryon, Insitu, Yuneec, and Airbus share key observations as innovative manufacturers.  Enjoy fascinating case-studies, from Facebook on how drones are connecting the unconnected world to the internet, and shipping giant Maersk on the future of drones in the maritime world.  Leave the show with a deeper understanding of the latest in regulations from the UK Department for Transport, FAA, European Commission, CAA

Event Previews


and German Air Traffic Authority (DFS). Join a community and network with over 3,000 attendees at the third annual show. Experience a thriving exhibition floor with on-floor content, including a dedicated Emergency Se rvices Theatre, Mapping and GIS  Theatre, UAV Innovation Theatre, and Data and Analytics Theatre.  Come away with the key take‑ aways of over 30 sessions ready to be implemented tomorrow. More than 3000 attendees are expected at the show. Those with passes to the high-level conference will have access to presentations from current users, see the technology available and understand the latest regulatory framework. If you are unsure as to whether UAVs are relevant to your business, need to upgrade the systems you are currently using, or are curious about new opportunities across multiple industries, The Commercial UAV Show is a must attend! FURTHER INFORMATION Tel: 020 7092 1245

Calling on all security professionals to book a stand at Security & Counter Terror Expo, 3-4 May, Olympia For nearly a decade, Security & Counter Terror Expo has been the event for any professional tasked with protecting assets, businesses, people and nations from serious security threats. The show will once again be supported by The Home Office and is firmly aligned with their strategy for increasing exports of UK security products and services. The event will be an international platform to showcase the latest services, solutions and technologies. Over 10,000 attendees from across the globe will come together in May 2017 to see the latest technology and capabilities to protect critical assets. Over recent years, the event has seen a significant rise in international attendees – in 2016 there was a 17 per cent increase in the number of international attendees. Visitors came from 109 different countries. There will also be the opportunity for exhibitors to demonstrate their latest products at the Advanced Technologies Live stage to an audience of senior buyers, opening the door to hard-toreach professionals from government, critical national infrastructure, police,

military and the private sector. Leading experts are set to come together to learn about the latest technology. What sets SCTX apart from other events is its high-level education programme. The free-to-attend conference programme attracts over 5,000 senior heads of security from across the world, acting as a key meeting place for professionals to network and discuss the most pressing topics surrounding international security. New for 2017 will be the Security Design conference, appealing to architects, project

managers, system integrators and senior developers. In addition, the Military Conference aims to bringing together military and homeland security professionals to explore developments in national security and the capabilities needed to protect them. Security & Counter Terror Expo is co-located with leading emergency preparedness, resilience and response event, Ambition, and Forensics Europe Expo, the only dedicated international exhibition and conference for the entire forensic sector and supply chain. Security & Counter Terror Expo is the ideal opportunity to showcase your services and products to the most influential purchasers and specifiers. If you would like to become an exhibitor, please contact us today. For more information on exhibiting or to register your interest to attend as a visitor, please visit the website. FURTHER INFORMATION Tel: +44 (0)20 7384 7894



Emergency Services Show


Putting public safety firmly on the agenda All those involved in emergency prevention, response and recovery descended upon Birmingham’s NEC for the Emergency Services Show. Counter Terror Business looks at what the industry gained from the show September’s Emergency Services Show was the biggest in its 10-year history and provided a fascinating insight to the UK’s fast-evolving emergency services industry. The move to the larger Hall 5 at the NEC enabled the event organisers to offer more free learning and networking opportunities than ever before, with over 80 free seminar sessions, numerous CPD workshops and skills stations, live demonstrations and water rescue displays on the Pendigo Lake directly outside the exhibition hall. A record number of 6,433 visitors were attracted which included a 45 per cent increase in overseas visitors. Additionally, the event broke new ground with features dedicated to drones and ICT innovation, and a new ‘show within a show’ which showcased the work of the fire and rescue services in the areas of health, well-being and prevention for the first time. David Brown, event director for The

Emergency Services Show, said: “The Emergency Services Show represents the UK’s largest multi-agency gathering, and it continues to grow. This year’s event perfectly captured the spirit of collaboration between the emergency services and the vital role played by new technologies. We were delighted with the way in which our new features and exhibitors were received and are grateful for the support of the many organisations and sponsors who have helped us to ensure

the show evolves each year. We are already brimming with ideas of how we can further build on this for next year’s event.”

HOME SAFETY A recor Supported by the Fire Kills d number campaign and Chief Fire Officers of 6,433 v Association (CFOA), Home isitors w attracte ere Safety 2016 comprised a free two-day seminar programme show th d to the and a dedicated exhibition is year, which include showcasing specialist d a 45 p equipment for the safe home. er cent inc As a new event within the r e a s e show, Home Safety 2016 looked in overs e at new products on the market visitors as and the approaches being taken by emergency services to help people live safely in their homes. For the fire and rescue service, the move from response to prevention is nothing new, but one area of safety in the home that fire and rescue E



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SHOW REVIEW  services have looked at is the hazards to older people around slips, trips and falls. The impact on an older person of a fall in the home can be substantial and puts pressure on ambulance and other health services, which are already experiencing increasing levels of demand. Anything fire and rescue service staff can do to prevent falls happening in the first place is a real benefit. Fire and rescue services are increasingly working with the NHS through Clinical Commissioning Groups. This partnership working has in part led to the development of the concept of the Safe and Well visit. Much of the work between fire and health is underpinned by data, with one new dataset available to fire and rescue services being Exeter Data. The CFOA and NHS England have an information sharing agreement that means that all fire and rescue services can now identify people over 65 who are registered with a GP. The Centre of Excellence for Information Sharing recently published a case study setting out Cheshire Fire and Rescue Service’s ‘Innovative use of the Exeter Health Data’. It looks at how an organisation can deal with a large quantity of data – in the case of Cheshire, this amounted to 206,000 records. Through a process of strategic intelligence analysis, Cheshire was able to create its own categories of risk using four indices: personal risk, geo‑demographic risk, lone person risk and response risk. As a result it was able to hone in on the data and get that large dataset down to lists closer to 20,000.

ICT INNOVATION THEATRE In the ICT Innovation Theatre, the session on the Emergency Services Mobile Communications Programme (ESMCP) presented by the Home Office, Motorola and EE attracted a great deal of interest. ESMCP is the programme to replace Airwave and provide integrated critical voice and broadband data services for the three emergency services.

the work of the programmes’ related projects. For more information on ESN, turn to page 65. THE COLLABORATION ZONE Aimed at developing relationships and partnerships between voluntary organisations and the bluelight services, The Collaboration Zone formed the networking focus of the show. With around 80 companies, government bodies, charities and other organisations

Emergency Services Show


The event broke new ground with features dedicated to drones and ICT innovation, and a new ‘show within a show’ which showcased the work of the fire and rescue services in the areas of health, well-being and prevention Designed to provide a more capable, flexible and cost effective communication system for the emergency services, by the end of 2019, all 300,000 users across the 3ES in Britain are scheduled to have moved over to the new network. Officials from the Home Office, EE, Motorola Solutions and KBR discussed issues such as enrolment, coverage and devices. Simon Frumkin, who leads the Emergency Services Network within EE, addressed what EE will be delivering for the programme and will provide an update on progress made so far. Meanwhile Richard Hewlett, deputy programme director at the Home Office, discussed an overview of the programme’s work and progress so far and an update on

exhibiting in this area alone, the Collaboration Zone provided a wealth of opportunities to share and catch up with new developments. Exhibitors in this zone included: Airport Fire Officers Association; British Arco; British Transport Police; CBRN Centre; Emergency Planning Society; Fire Officers’ Association; Flood Advisory Service; Home Office; Independent Ambulance Association; Mind Blue Light Programme; RSPCA; St John Ambulance; and the UK Government Decontamination Service. Independent research from mental health charity Mind shows that members of the emergency services are even more at risk of experiencing a mental health problem E


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As well as showcasing drone suppliers, the new Drone Zone brought together industry specialists and end-users who will be making presentations on unmanned aerial vehicle technology and sharing their experiences with delegates  than the general population, but are less likely to seek support. On top of this, 71 per cent of emergency services staff and volunteers, surveyed by Mind, feel that their organisation does not encourage them to talk about mental health. Evidence shows that changing the way we all think and act about mental health in the workplace can reduce sickness absence, increase staff and volunteer engagement and help keep them well in work. The Blue Light Time to Change pledge is one way that emergency services can work to achieve this and 63 blue light services have signed so far. Mind’s Blue Light Programme saw discussions on: seven ways to better

employee mental health; speaking up about mental health in the emergency services; and managing mental health in the emergency services. SERVICES IN THE SKIES The Drone Zone proved the area to meet the suppliers of the latest kit. As well as showcasing drone suppliers, the new Drone Zone brought together industry specialists and end-users who will be making presentations on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology and sharing their experiences with delegates. The programme included a presentation on risk management for Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) and the factors affecting RPAS

Emergency Services Show


operational safety in both civil airspace and commercial space. Other sessions covered privacy, security implications and legislation. Elsewhere, water rescue demonstrations took place on the Pendigo Lake, adjacent to the outdoor exhibition area outside Hall 5. For more information on unmanned aerial vehicles, turn to page 43. TRAUMA CARE The College of Paramedics area was expanded this year enabling over 700 people to attend the CPD sessions on the first day alone. Workshops covered: Emergency Childbirth – Breech Birth; Decisions in Trauma Care within the Pre-Hospital Environment; What’s new in Sepsis?; Trauma in Pregnancy; Positive Mental Health; Emergency Childbirth : Antepartum haemorrhage; Decisions in Trauma Care within the Pre-Hospital Environment; and The hidden killer – sepsis in obstetrics. Elsewhere the new Trauma Care & Education Zone offered further CPD opportunities through four skills stations covering: airway management and ventilation; catastrophic haemorrhage control, explaining how to E




Independent research from mental health charity Mind shows that members of the emergency services are even more at risk of experiencing a mental health problem than the general population, but are less likely to seek support  control a full spectrum of bleeding; splinting and immobilisation, which took place in a simulated car, looking at pelvic stabilisation; and burns, examining a wide variety of dressings and techniques to address a full spectrum of burns. Each skills station provided the opportunity to learn and get hands-on with the latest techniques, products and technology. Over the two days of the show, teams competed for prizes in the inaugural Trauma Care Skills Challenge. The scenario-based test, which took place in a fully immersive suite featuring world-leading technology with highly realistic, high-fidelity manikins and role models, was streamed live to visitors on screens outside the suite. Physio Control’s own Learning Centre also proved very popular. THE LEARNING ZONE Successful partnerships between the emergency services and other agencies

were showcased within the seminar programmes and on the exhibition stands. In the Learning Zone (curated and inspired by JESIP and the National Operational Guidance Programme) senior figures from the fire, police and ambulance services shared their experiences of co-responding to incidents including the Bosley Mill fire, Christmas 2015 floods and Shoreham air crash. Meanwhile at the entrance to the show, Excelerate handed over a joint command unit to Northamptonshire Police and Fire and Rescue Service. The new command unit will provide a base for commanders when in attendance at large scale or major incidents. All of Excelerate’s integrated technologies have been designed to facilitate joint working, while enhancing operational efficiency and further supporting resilience for Northamptonshire’s incident response capability. With the government’s drive towards greater

Metropolitan Police commissioner to retire After five years as the commissioner of the Metropolitan Police, the force has announced that Sir Bernard Hogan-Howe is to retire. Having been appointed to the role in September 2011, Hogan‑Howe oversaw the policing of the London riots and the Olympic Games, and stated that it was a ‘great privilege’ to serve in the role. He said: “I have loved my time in the role and I have loved being a police officer. It’s the most rewarding of jobs to protect good people and lock up the bad guys.” He will remain in post until February to allow for his successor to be appointed.

Emergency Services Show


collaboration and sharing of resources across the emergency services, this new joint command unit is at the forefront of this transition. EXHIBITION Over 20 per cent of the 460 exhibition stands were taken by new exhibitors, including WASP Rescue. The Warning Alarm for Stability E



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Interim Fire Commissioner appointed

“It’s a great gateway to the emergency services sector. You are covering everything from coastguards to the police to the military. There’s a wide range of buyers here including emergency services from abroad”  Protection (WASP) was most recently deployed on the high profile bridge collapse on the M20 to monitor the remaining pier to ensure rescue workers were protected during the recovery and clean up phase. Co-founder of WASP Rescue, Matt Keogh said: “This was our first ever show. There were a lot of people there who need this equipment and I could spend six months travelling the country to speak to all the people I have spoken to in the last two days – fire services from all over the UK. It’s money well spent in my opinion.” Another company making its UK debut was Dechoker. Alan Walton, director of European Operations, said: “The Emergency Services Show was an outstanding success for us at Dechoker Europe Ltd and our distributors, Pro-Trainings Europe and Community Heartbeat Trust. The level

of interest in our life-saving Dechoker Anti‑Choking Device was phenomenal! We will certainly be present at the 2017 show.” Exhibiting at the event, Alex Creamer, head of business development at Steroplast Healthcare Ltd, said: “It’s a great gateway to the emergency services sector. You are covering everything from coastguards to the police to the military. There’s a wide range of buyers here including emergency services from abroad.” Companies exhibiting vehicles and vehicle equipment for the ambulance sector were Baus, O+H, Terberg DTS, Cartwright, Volvo, Allied Fleet, BMW, Mercedes-Benz and Ferno. This included the Police Ford Mustang and Police Vauxhall Astra, proving popular with police orders. Vauxhall is one of many companies with a comprehensive

The London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority have appointed Dany Cotton as Interim London Fire Commissioner. Dany, who is currently Director of Safety and Assurance at London Fire Brigade, will take over the running of London’s fire and rescue service from 1 January 2017, after London Fire Commissioner Ron Dobson leaves the Brigade at the end of December 2016, following 37 years of service. In doing so, Cotton will become the first woman to ever lead London Fire Brigade. Cotton said: “I am delighted to be appointed the Brigade’s Interim London Fire Commissioner at such an important time in the Brigade’s history and am looking forward to continuing all of the hard work we have been doing that has had such an impact on reducing fires and improving fire safety across the capital.” Fiona Twycross, chair of the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority, added: ”I am very pleased that we have appointed such an experienced and well respected fire and rescue officer, who can take on the challenge of protecting Londoners, and maintain the exceptionally high standards of service Ron Dobson has built up during his nine years as London Fire Commissioner. “I think it’s also worth celebrating that on the anniversary of its 150th year, the Brigade has been able to appoint the first woman Fire Commissioner to serve the capital.”

Emergency Services Show


special-build department catering for the needs of the emergency services. Moreover, the undercover police Land Rover Discovery Sport and the undercover police Nissan Navara were popular with exhibitors. Other models present were the BMW 2 Series ambulance, the BMW i3 fire service, Volvo fire engine, the Oshkosh airport fire truck, the Mercedes-Benz Unimog fire truck, the British Red Cross Mercedes-Benz Unimog, and the Land Rover Defender ambulance. L

The Emergency Services Show will return to Hall 5 at the NEC from 20-21 September 2017. Entry to the exhibition and seminars and parking will continue to be free of charge. FURTHER INFORMATION



BAM Construction Case Study

Problem For the completion of a modern glass fronted shopping, retail and leisure park, Marshalls were approached by the client to supply physical perimeter protection in fitting with the aesthetics of the project. A key consideration for the product specification was a 200mm depth restriction in the landscape due to underground services. What’s more, the client also required a range of other street furniture products such as cycle stands and motorcycle stands. Solution By working closely with the client, Marshalls were able to find a solution to satisfy a number of issues outlaid in the initial brief. The depth restriction was overcome with the recommendation of the RhinoGuard 25/40 Shallow Mount bollards which require a foundation depth of only 152mm. To avoid delays, Marshalls worked closely with BAM to ensure that they could excavate foundations prior to the products being delivered to site to enable them to move on to other areas of the project. The client opted for Stainless Steel Sleeves, which offer a sleek and modern aesthetic to the products. All of the chosen products are PAS68 rated, reassuring clients and space users of the safeguarding of the space, people and infrastructure. Benefit Marshalls worked closely with the client to overcome a number of restrictions throughout the project to ensure a high quality result. The chosen bollards offer the required level of protection whilst also allowing for shallow installation and enhancing the aesthetics of the project.

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Department of Disaster Prevention & Mitigation

Ministry of Interior

Today’s modern economies and improving living standards rely more and more on the development and security of a country’s critical infrastructure. How would a country stand should there be an attack, from natural or man-made disasters, on its key infrastructure? Opening Keynote: - Dr. Uttama Savanayana, Minister of Information and Communication Technology, Thailand Confirmed speakers include: - Peter O’Neill, Chief of Transport Policy and Development Division, UNESCAP - Thomas Wuchte, Head of Transnational Threats Department/Action Against Terrorism Unit, OSCE - Kamal Thalib, Head of Financial Crime & Security Services, PT Bank DBS Indonesia - Shamika Sirimanne, Chief of Division, Information and Communications Technology and Disaster Risk Reduction Division, UNESCAP - Dr. Peeranan Towashiraporn, Director, Asian Disaster Preparedness Center - Florian Haacke, CSO / Head of Group Security, RWE AG, Germany - Thongchai Sangsiri, Technical Manager, Digital Forensics Center, Electronic Transaction Development Agency, MICT, Thailand - Senior Representative, Department for Disaster Prevention & Mitigation, Ministry of Interior, Thailand - Kumpol Sontanarat, Director, Information and Communication Technology Department , Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), Thailand - Air Chief Marshal Somneuk Swatteuk, Senior Expert, National Disaster Warning Center, Thailand - Zahri Yunos, Chief Operating Officer, Cybersecurity Malaysia - Dr. Mohammad Shahir, Senior Consultant, THALES E-Security, Malaysia - Hansen Chan, Product Marketing Manager, Nokia, USA For further details and speaker line up visit

Register Today and Save with the Early Bird at Discover the latest challenges, stratgies and solutions for protecting ASEANs critical national infrastructure Critical Infrastructure Protection and Resilience Asia will bring together leading stakeholders from industry, operators, agencies and governments to collaborate on securing Asia. Book your delegate place today and save with the Early Bird delegate rate - book your place online at

Securing ASEANs critical national infrastructure

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Critical Infrastructure Protection & Resilience Asia is for: • National government agencies responsible for national security and emergency/contingency planning • Police and Security Agencies • Emergency Services • Local Government • Facilities Managers – Nuclear, Power, Oil and Gas, Chemicals, Telecommunications, Banking and Financial, ISP’s, water supply • IT, Cyber Security and Information Managers • Port Security Managers • Airport Security Managers • Transport Security Managers • Event Security Managers • Architects • Civil Engineers • ASEAN • NATO / OSCE • UN / UNESCAP / UNDP / UNOCHA • Military • Border Officials

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Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University

Crowd Control

EVENT SECURITY inevitably occur with thousands of people in a relatively small area. Whilst I’m sure that some venue operators are better than others, we might need to consider what measures need to be considered to protect departing crowds (or those congregating locally before an event) from a possible marauding, person‑borne or vehicle-borne bomb attack.

Mike White, immediate past chairman of the International Professional Security Association, and current director of the Security Institute, revisits the state of event security at this summer’s European Championships Back in March (Counter Terror Business 25) I wrote about the challenges facing those charged with the responsibility of securing major events in the light of the November 2015 Paris and Belgian terrorist events. Whilst Paris and Brussels were, broadly speaking, what has been described as ‘ideologically based terrorism’, we did see an attempt at the time to generate mass casualties at a sporting event (France v Germany at The Stade de France). Since then we have watched Euro 2016 delight the Welsh fans, frustrate the French and send most English fans into a deep pit of despair. But what about the security? What worked and what might have been done differently? Well, watching the BBC news back on 11 June you could be forgiven for thinking that security had failed. England versus Russia in Marseilles probably won’t be remembered for the football but may well be remembered for flares going off, fighting between fans, some fans trying to climb barriers to escape the violence and all against a backdrop of water cannon, tear gas and serious disorder in the city itself in the two days leading up to the match during which one English fan had to be resuscitated. There are claims and counter claims about ultra right wing Russian hooligans hell bent on violence, groups of French fans stirring the mix and the usual tales of drunken English fans. UEFA took action and threatened England and Russia with expulsion from the tournament if their fans continued to misbehave and fined the national federations of Croatia, Hungary, Portugal and Turkey for crowd trouble relating

to flares and pitch invasions. So, does this point to a failure of security, a clash of cultures or something else?

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INCONSISTENCY NEEDS ADDRESSING Well, there seems little doubt that stadium security could best be described as inconsistent or patchy with multiple instances of flares (in contravention of the UEFA Stadium Rules) and instances of poorly policed fan segregation within stadiums (which might suggest issues with ticket sale management). However, there is also a lengthy list of security statistics that one can only speculate on as to the total cost for including 90,000 security staff (42,000 national police, 30,000 local Gendarmes, 10,000 military and 8,000 private security officers), 42 kms of temporary fencing (just over 26 miles) and in the case of the Stade de France, 1,200 stewards on match days. There were layers of security around grounds that started several hundred metres away from the ground where initial body and bag searches took place. Closer in was a second search point staffed by armed police and at the grounds stadium stewards did it all again to confiscate any remaining banned items (although clearly not all which suggests search protocols and/ or search training wasn’t good enough). Interestingly enough, barriers are usually removed or repositioned at the end of events to allow fans to leave venues quickly and with minimal delays, although crowding and delays

Written by Mike White, past chairman, International Professional Security Association

Euro 2016 – a summer of security success?

ASSESSING EACH EVENT So how can we meaningfully compare the security operation in France with other events (and to what events) to benchmark it? London 2012? The Rugby World Cup? The Tour de France? All these events have a security operation associated with them but I would argue that there is no like‑for‑like comparison between any of them. Arguably, we should be breaking down the constituent elements of a major event, assessing each individual element utilising a risk based approach and then allocate proportionate resources to mitigate the confirmed risks before revisiting this in the days and weeks leading up to the event. Let’s return to the Euros. Have we learned anything meaningful about security that we didn’t know beforehand? Certainly we already knew that rival football fans from certain clubs and countries make for a combustible mix when introduced to virtually any other fans (there is a reason why we have a UK Football Policing Unit after all) and there are numerous studies and examples where warm sunshine and alcohol adds a certain fuel to the fire. We also know that football seems to generate more fan violence than almost any other sport (if mass media reporting is to be believed). THE POWER OF PARTNERSHIP The College of Policing website football policing pages tells us that effective football policing is underpinned by: partnership and cooperation between the police service and football clubs; and the police service’s engagement with supporters. It goes on to state that: the European Union provides the following definitions for risk and non-risk supporters (see Council Resolution OJC/322): risk supporter – a person, known or not, who can be regarded as posing a possible risk to public order or antisocial behaviour, whether planned or spontaneous, at or in connection with a football event; non-risk supporter – a person, known or not, who can be regarded as posing no risk to the cause of or contribution to violence or E



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EVENT SECURITY  disorder, whether planned or spontaneous, at or in connection with a football event. It is essential that the risk in relation to individuals and groups is quantifiable and dynamically assessed. The description of a group or individual as ‘risk’ is not sufficient on its own, there must be a specific reference to the actual risk posed by individuals or groups. The risk supporter checklist provides three specific categories (public order, public safety and criminal activity) that are further subdivided in order to give a specific indication of the risk posed. It is important that this template is used in the compilation of pre‑match intelligence reports so that informed decisions can be made in the planning process. It’s fairly clear from this that there needs to be efficient, effective and robust two‑way communication established between the public and private sectors and that transcends football and other sporting events into any large scale ticketed event. I would argue that the key to effective security at any large scale public event can be distilled down to one thing – communication. GOLDEN THREAD COMMUNICATION Bad communication can encourage poor decision making at strategic and tactical levels, lead to confusion on the ground and result in irate, uncooperative and belligerent ticket holders having a really bad day and the higher the threat level and the greater the intensity of the security operation then the greater the absolute need for good communication between all stakeholders. I would argue that communication should be the ‘golden thread’ running through every aspect of an event. From the earliest aspects of the planning stages, through the specification and delivery of training for

stewards and all other staff, the marketing of events, the procurement of goods and services and right through to the event delivery and post event evaluation. That’s communicating with planners, transport providers, local residents, all emergency services, supporters groups (if applicable), private security providers and licensing bodies. It’s about managing expectations, understanding requirements, gauging all risks, understanding where there might be service delivery obstructions (what that might look like and how to resolve them) and, equally importantly, the roles and responsibilities of all stakeholders in the event that something does go wrong (business continuity planning). But let’s not forget that it’s never just about the venue (or venues) in isolation hosting a sporting event. There are fan zones and organised screenings of large events and these could be virtually anywhere in the country that is hosting the tournament. The same excellence in communication model must apply to the planning, organisation and operational running of all of these side events and to the mass transportation of fans to and from both a host venue(s) and the side event locations. Consider the example of London 2012 and the outstanding Games Makers who were relentlessly cheerful at every event, in every venue and at transport hubs. I was

Crowd Control


lucky enough to attend several events, including the Closing Ceremony, and despite all the spectators knowing that there was a strong security operation in place and airport style queues no one that I observed was grumpy or complained. Everyone had been communicated with from an early stage as they travelled to their respective event, knew what to expect and was processed quickly and effectively. In fact, the tri-service military staffing of the x-ray searching procedures at the Olympic Park, with individuals cheerfully engaging with the public, were some of the finest examples of this work I’ve ever seen, anywhere in the world. There will inevitably be discussions around the difference between intelligence and information, what can be shared, with whom and to what level of detail but, I remain convinced that if all sides “dare to share” and actively refuse to compartmentalise information to enhance their own standing (or to deflect blame elsewhere in the event that something does go wrong) then the results should be well informed executives, staff and volunteers at every level, trained to deliver a five star customer experience from start to finish that not only enhances the event but helps to ensure it is safe and secure for all. L FURTHER INFORMATION

At the London 2012 Olympic Games, everyone had been communicated with from an early stage as they travelled to their respective event, knew what to expect and was processed quickly and effectively

IOC/John Huet


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Digital Services



Emergency services fit for the digital age British APCO launched the 999 App Certification scheme earlier this year. Here, Counter Terror Business looks at the scheme and how others can become involved in its development and use There is no doubt that smartphone technology is embedded in our daily lives. A huge percentage of the UK population owns a smartphone and doesn’t leave home without it, and this number increases every day. Over 25 per cent of users report they ‘never’ make a voice call. The technology packed into the phones is huge and increases with each new model released. Yet, until now, the UK Emergency Call, 999, service has remained resolutely voice centric. On behalf of the Government 999 Liaison Committee, British APCO (the Association of Public Safety Communications Officials) launched its 999 App Certification scheme at the British APCO Conference earlier this year. The scheme provides a route for developers to propose apps that will automatically and directly link to the relevant Emergency Service via the 999 system in a time of need. The move by The Department of Culture, Media and Sport, which chairs the 999 Liaison Committee, follows reports last year which called for emergency services to reflect ‘the digital age.’ The scheme enables both the developers and Certification Panel to work to consistent

and measurable standards. For an app to be considered for interfacing directly to a BT’s Public Safety Answering Points (PSAP) it is imperative that it must be able to demonstrate that it is appropriate for use in an emergency situation, will provide assistance in immediate external notification of a developing situation, and meets the criteria defined within the 999 App Certification Scheme. The Certification Panel will only consider apps for certification where the developer can present convincing evidence that the app has the potential to save lives or personal injury and has been developed to the point where a working version of the app can be demonstrated. The Scheme is designed to enable app developers to have a single point of contact into the relevant Emergency Service in

order to assist the developer with refining the operational aspects of the app. Once both host and developer are satisfied with the performance of the app, they will return to the 999 App Certification Panel for approval. Next stages will be technical testing with BT, briefing of the rest of the UK emergency service(s) for when the app goes live – and final sign off by the UK 999 Liaison Committee. A British APCO certificate will be awarded and the app will be publicly endorsed for its suitability to be integrated with the 999 service. When a certified app activates in the ‘real world’, relevant data will delivered (via EISEC) directly into the Command and Control software of the appropriate emergency service. An annual re-certification process will ensure that the app continues to perform to its required standard. E

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APP CERTIFICATION  Ed Vaizey, the Digital Economy Minister, said: “The digital age presents us with new opportunities to improve the ways in which emergency telephone calls to the emergency authorities are handled. Together with B-APCO, we’re making sure that mobile apps aimed at keeping us safe meet with appropriately high performance, reliability, and customer service requirements.” REALRIDER MOTORCYCLE SAFETY Developed by Realsafe Technologies, Realrider motorcycle safety app became the first to be certified under the new 999 scheme. Realrider responds to motorcycle collisions by sending crash alerts, which include the rider’s medical details and his or her last known GPS location, to the nearest ambulance service. In the last two years, the North East Ambulance Service has been operating a UK wide pilot of the technology, while in the last year, Realrider has recorded a 0.01 per cent false positive crash alert activation across 50,000 usage sessions. Zoe Farrington, Realsafe Technologies CEO, commented earlier this year: ”We are delighted to be the first and only app in the UK to link our users directly to the nearest ambulance control room via BT’s 999 service. We have worked tirelessly with the team at British APCO, North East Ambulance Service and BT to ensure the process is simple and seamless, and more importantly does not pose a hindrance to any party involved.” John Rowland Control Systems and Resilience Specialist at the North East Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust, added: “It’s important that we try to find new methods for people to communicate with the emergency services. “If new technologies can help us to reach someone in need faster, that can only be a good thing. In order for the public to have confidence in using an app like Realrider, it’s important that organisations such as ours, help support the development journey, because without it, innovation like this simply wouldn’t be possible.”

is estimated that the emergency services spends 30 minutes or more searching for the location in roughly 36,000 critical incidents. With the Emergency Location Service, the source of a mobile phone emergency call is identified to within 0.003 square kilometres. The phone automatically activates its location service and sends its position by text message to the 999 service, without charging the phone. Keith Phillips, president of the British APCO, said: “I’m delighted to see this development. The 999 service has remained voice-centric since 1937 – whilst multimedia technology has developed around it. In the 21st century it is hard to believe that the UK

emergency services are unable to receive good location data – they are reliant on the caller to tell them. Invariably during a 999 call, the caller will be distressed, so trying to pinpoint their location adds unnecessary time before resources can be deployed. “This is the first of a number of steps that need to be taken to bring our 999 technology up to date with society. Well done to BT and Google for working so hard to achieve this – lives will be saved as a result.”

Digital Services


THE EMERGENCY SERVICES NETWORK Modern emergency services rely on communications between control rooms and personnel in the field. These communications E

The digital age presents us with new opportunities to improve the ways in which emergency telephone calls to the emergency authorities are handled

OTHER TECHNOLOGIES BT and Google have joined forces to create a new location service for Android users that accurately pinpoints a user’s location so that the emergency services can find them more quickly. The Emergency Location Service uses a combination of cell towers, Wi-Fi and GPS to pinpoint the user’s location 4,000 times more accurately than the current system, saving valuable time during emergency calls. Currently, emergency services can only identify approximate locations of callers, to within 12 square kilometres on average, using mobile networks’ cell coverage information. Figures show that approximately 60 per cent of emergency calls in the UK, 999 or 112, are made from a mobile device, equating nearly 17 million calls a year. Alarmingly, it


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The National Audit Office has released a report which assesses the risks associated with the delivery of the Emergency Services Network, the government’s chosen option to replace the Airwave service  are currently provided by Airwave Solutions Limited (Airwave) through a series of contracts, due to expire in 2019. The Emergency Services Mobile Communications Programme (ESMCP), set up in 2011, looks at the options available to replace Airwave that can make high-speed data more readily available to the emergency services to improve their performance while saving money. The National Audit Office (NAO) has released a report which assesses the risks associated with the delivery of the Emergency Services Network (ESN), the government’s chosen option to replace the Airwave service, by the ESMCP and its commercial partners. While the Airwave network is fully dedicated to public sector use, ESN will seek to save money by sharing an existing commercial 4G network. The report, titled ‘Upgrading emergency service communications: the Emergency Services Network’, claims that ESN is inherently high risk with no such approach having yet been used, nationwide, anywhere

in the world. The risks – based around technical problems, user take-up and commercial arrangements – are exaggerated due to the ambitious nature of the timeline adopted by the programme. The report warns that a 12-month delay to ESN could cost up to £475 million so the programme has put in place commercial and funding mechanisms that are designed to manage this risk. The programme is not intending to force the emergency services to transition to ESN but has instead assured them that they can stay on Airwave until ESN is ‘at least as good as Airwave’. Moreover, if a small number of the emergency services and other users choose to delay transition, this will reduce benefits compared to the full business case. The report also contends that the commercial arrangements for ESN have separated the operational responsibilities of the emergency services from the commercial levers, which are held by the programme and therefore the Home Office.

The programme expects to spend £1.2 billion setting up ESN by March 2020 before it starts to realise benefits. After this time, ESN will cost an estimated £500 less than Airwave per device per year and will have better data capabilities, allowing the emergency services to operate more effectively. Amyas Morse, head of the National Audit Office, commented: “The need to save money and get out of a difficult commercial relationship has led the government to try and move to an approach that is not yet used nationwide anywhere in the world. “The programme remains inherently high risk and while steps have been taken to manage these risks we are concerned that these are under-rated in the Home Office and elsewhere. The programme needs to put in place more independent testing and assurance regimes for its technical solution and urgently improve its approach to engaging with the emergency services.” L

Digital Services


For more information on the latest developments in emergency services, turn to page 49 for the Counter Terror Business review of 2016’s Emergency Services Show. FURTHER INFORMATION



Physical Security Written by Steve Green, member, The Security Institute



How hard is hard enough when securing perimeters? Steve Green examines the current threats posed to physical security and what measures would be most suitable in controlling access to buildings or other populated areas when threatened with a terrorist or security threat Since time immemorial, one of the basic tenets of security has been the principle of ‘Defence in Depth’; the establishment of multiple, concentric, secure perimeters around a critical asset, each of increasing resilience, to filter authorised friend from unauthorised foe. Assets, in this regard, may include property, people and information. The object of the exercise is to ensure that any actual or perceived weaknesses in a perimeter layer are reinforced and neutralised by strengths in the next, such that a coincidence of gaps cannot occur which might allow an assailant passage to the asset. This ‘hardens’ the target, increasing the perceived risk to the attacker of being caught and sanctioned, and thus providing a powerful psychological, as well as physical, deterrent factor. Both Roman castra marching camps and Norman motte‑and-bailey castles employed this simple but effective design philosophy, and it serves equally well in every conceivable operational theatre in the modern world. Such perimeter control can be designed to segregate and filter people, vehicles or goods, according to the type of risks being addressed. But herein lies the security practitioner’s dilemma; how many layers, and of what size and granularity, is optimal in a given situation? Or to put it more simply, when hardening a target, just how hard is hard enough?

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ACCESS LEVELS Unfortunately, as with much else in the risk management domain, the answer is entirely


subjective. It is a complex function of personal and collective risk appetites, assessment and interpretation of the security risks faced, the nature of the site being protected and, of course, the available budget. In the simplest case of a fixed, highly-valued asset, for example, where the risk perceived is one of access by unauthorised persons, a solution might be appropriate in which the types and number of authentication factors varies and becomes more individually specific the closer you approach, thus creating a number of ‘access levels’. So whilst a notional outer perimeter might feature proximity card readers and CCTV cameras, the next might include PIN keypad & proximity card readers and video motion detection, while the inner perimeter could comprise biometric authentication and volumetric intruder detection. Coupled with appropriate levels of personnel and baggage screening, with effective security vetting of staff matched closely to the required level of clearance required for each access level, a robust yet flexible architecture begins to form. Similarly, where motorised access into a site needs to be controlled, this may be achieved by fencing or otherwise demarcating secure areas, providing vehicle control points for authorised access into these areas, whilst anti-impact protection on vulnerable parts of the boundary prevents unauthorised access. However, if operating in the counter terror domain, the security risk is not merely

unauthorised access which might lead to theft of information or property, but rather a scenario in which the perpetrator aims to damage, destroy or otherwise harm the asset itself, including personnel. In this case the equation changes. Now, access control regimes need to take into account the concept that the assailant no longer needs necessarily to be in immediate proximity to the asset to achieve the required impact. Instead, force may be projected and applied from afar, or the infrastructure supporting the asset may be compromised. In the former case, where explosive attack is anticipated, the guiding light for designers remains the venerable Hopkinson’s Inverse Cube Rule. Simply put, this 100 year old model suggests that, with all else being equal, the effect of an explosion reduces by the cube of the distance of the blast from the target. In other words, a similar impulse force as might be generated by a 100kg explosion at a specific distance would require an 800kg device at twice this distance. It is therefore possible to calculate the maximum theoretical blast load that a structure can support, equate this to a notional device size at a range of distances, and design access control measures to restrict the size of explosive device that can be delivered by a perpetrator at these distances. Thus sequential perimeters would filter out trucks, cars and a person with baggage respectively as the distance to the asset reduces. Conversely, where space is limited and perimeters must be placed at less than optimal distances, the standoff achieved can be used to calculate the residual blast load which is likely to be applied to the asset. The structure can then be reinforced to meet this requirement, or additional

Where a terrorist’s targets include organisational reputation, an attack on an outer perimeter may be just as damaging as one that reaches the centre of the site – creating an ‘arms race’ of crime displacement intervening mitigation can be provided, such as hard landscaping or screening walls. Such screening can also support hostile vehicle mitigation to prevent explosive devices being forcefully delivered through the perimeter. The major failing of this simplistic model is that, where a terrorist’s targets include organisational reputation, an attack on an outer perimeter may be just as damaging as one that reaches the centre of the site. It also creates an ‘arms race’ of crime displacement, where the response to hardening of a specific target leads the assailant simply to seek out new weaknesses to exploit. Recent bitter experience in aviation security, in London, Glasgow, Brussels and Istanbul, has demonstrated this all too clearly. As a result of attempted attacks on aircraft, enhanced security between landside and airside was introduced. However, this simply pushed the point of attack to the check-in hall, both on foot and by vehicle through the glass facade. Subsequent enhancement of hostile vehicle mitigation measures, and the creation of search areas prior to check-in, has resulted in the terminal entrances becoming targets. These advances

in counter-measures have limited successfully the damage to the terminal building, and thus aided early return to service, but the resultant publicity demonstrates that the fear caused remains the same no matter how far away you push the point of attack. The terrorist goal is still, in the main, achieved. NEW RISK SCENARIOS Indeed, we have to face the unpleasant reality that it may never be possible to deflect the problem far enough away. The interconnected nature of the modern world has benefitted society in innumerable ways, allowing us to contemplate lifestyles and business processes inestimably more complex than our forefathers could imagine. However, such systemic interdependency comes at a price, not least of which is that both our critical assets, and those security systems that we put in place to protect them, now depend inevitably on various elements of supporting infrastructure. This introduces a whole new set of risk scenarios in which it becomes attractive for an assailant to attack dependent infrastructure and thus either deny the use of the asset to its owner, or to negate the

Physical Security

security counter-measures protecting it. Our notional perimeter protection must therefore become multi-nodal, with protection being provided across multiple smaller, isolated, geographically-dispersed infrastructure assets. This is a challenge faced by the owners of very large facilities, such as air and sea ports. The cost of protecting the entire outer perimeter of an extensive site rapidly becomes prohibitive. In such cases, an alternative ‘Citadel’ approach may be more appropriate, in which a semi-permeable outer boundary is drawn around discrete clusters of critical assets which are then individually hardened. Thus, rather than preventing access through the huge outer layers, these are provided simply with detection capability, such as ground radar, to provide notification of a breach. The asset clusters are then designed to delay the intruder long enough for intervention forces to arrive. A similar model can be applied on a national basis, where protection of the entire border against security risks is impractical, but protection of specific critical national infrastructure, such as water, fuel, electricity and telecommunications facilities, is adopted. DIGITAL VULNERABILITIES Here is where we start to rub up against the limits of what physical security alone can achieve, as we have arrived at the point where infrastructure can be compromised not by the application of direct physical intervention, but rather remotely via telecommunications media. Quite correctly, international governments have recognised that the myriad benefits arising from the internet are accompanied by a new set of vulnerabilities which allow an assailant to attack corporate and national infrastructure systems without ever setting foot in the country. Judging by the priorities being set in national security expenditure across the world, the adversaries that governments are losing sleep over today are less likely to be balaclava-clad insurgents or sinister Mafia gangsters, but rather acne-ridden ITC students, living with their mums. The motivations, however, are often identical; greed, naïve ideology or a misplaced sense of challenge. Ironically the solution, in both physical and virtual versions of reality, is simply to close the circle, returning once more to the simple principles of Defence in Depth. Information is just an asset as any other, and can be protected using perimeter protection following the same basic rules of access control and intruder detection as in the physical world. Fences and firewalls, card readers and passwords, logical and physical security are two sides of the same coin. The modern converged world, it turns out, is not that different from Roman Britain. L FURTHER INFORMATION



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Construction begins on UK nuclear submarines Defence Secretary Michael Fallon has announced that construction is set to start on the UK’s new nuclear submarines, as the government pledges almost £1.3 billion of new investment with BAE Systems. Delivery Phase 1 will involve beginning manufacturing work on structural steel for the ‘auxiliary machine space’ of the first submarine: this contains switchboards and control panels for the reactor. The money will also be spent furthering the design of the submarine, purchasing materials and long lead items, and investing in facilities at the BAE Systems yard in Barrow-in‑Furness where the submarines will be built. Fallon commented: “Britain’s ballistic missile submarines are the ultimate guarantee of our nation’s safety – we use them every day to deter the most extreme threats. We cannot know what new dangers we might face in the 2030s, 2040s and 2050s

so we are acting now to replace them. Along with increasing the defence budget to buy new ships, planes and armoured vehicles, this shows that this government will never gamble with our national security.” Tony Douglas, chief executive officer of the MOD’s Defence Equipment and Support organisation, said: “A central part of this nation’s defence, the Successor submarines will protect each and every one of us, as well as future generations. “The Successor programme is the MOD’s biggest project and it will require team work, tremendous skill, commitment from our industrial partners and the UK supply chain, and close collaboration with our US allies to deliver it successfully.” READ MORE:


Government to protect troops from ‘vexation claims’ The government has announced new legal measures to protect UK troops from ‘vexatious claims’. The change in policy will mean parts of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) could be suspended during future conflicts. Commenting on the use of the ECHR legal system, Defence Secretary Michael Fallon said: “It has caused significant distress to people who risked their lives to protect us, it has cost the taxpayer millions and there is a real risk it will stop our armed forces doing their job. “This is not about putting our armed forces above the law, they wouldn’t want that. They have to comply with the criminal law of this country and of course with the Geneva conventions. “Serious claims must be investigated but spurious claims will be stopped and our armed forces will now be able to do their job fighting the enemy and not the lawyers.” If voted through in Houses of Parliament, the UK would ‘derogate’ from Article two and Article five, the right to live and the right to liberty. The Ministry of Defence has said it has spent in excess of £100 million on Iraq-related investigations, inquiries and compensation since 2004.

Fallon added: “Our legal system has been abused to level false charges against our troops on an industrial scale. It has caused significant distress to people who risked their lives to protect us, it has cost the taxpayer millions and there is a real risk it will stop our Armed Forces doing their job. “It will help to protect our troops from vexatious claims, ensuring they can confidently take difficult decisions on the battlefield. And it will enable us to spend more of our growing defence budget on equipment for them rather than fees for lawyers.” READ MORE:


DB News


Fallon to oppose any EU army plans Defence Secretary Michael Fallon has said that the UK will oppose any attempts to create an EU army because it could ‘undermine’ the role and the ongoing work of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO). The news follows reports that France and Germany are set to make the case for increased military co‑operation at an informal meeting in the Slovakian capital of Bratislava. However, Fallon maintained that the UK remains committed to Europe’s security despite the vote to leave the EU. He said: “We’re going to continue to oppose any idea of an EU army, or an EU army headquarters which would simply undermine NATO. “NATO must remain the cornerstone of our defence and the defence of Europe. There is no majority here for an EU army. There are a number of other countries who believe with us that cuts across the sovereignty of individual nation states. “We agree that Europe needs to do more, it’s facing terrorism, it’s facing migration, but simply duplicating or undermining NATO is the wrong way to do it.” READ MORE:

UK-US security partnership During a visit to Washington D.C. Minister for Defence Procurement Harriett Baldwin met with the US Deputy Secretary of Defence Robert Work to discuss global security challenges, and identify opportunities to deepen bilateral defence collaboration. Commenting on the close partnership, Baldwin said: “The UK’s relationship with the US, our pre-eminent ally, is at the heart of our national security. It was a pleasure to meet Deputy Secretary Work and business leaders to discuss the ways in which our two countries can continue to innovate, cooperate, and build mutual security and prosperity with defence projects like the F-35B Lightning and P-8A Maritime Patrol Aircraft.” The US-UK security partnership is the deepest and most advanced of any two countries. As close allies in NATO, permanent members of the UN Security Council and leading nuclear powers, close co-operation is vital to international peace and security. READ MORE:



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Warwick Test Supplies, through its division is a specialist provider of Thermal Imaging equipment and Training for multiple imaging applications. The company, appearing at ESS for the first time, will be displaying Opgal’s thermal imager - the Therm-App device (as featured on BBC ‘Click’, WIRED and Sky Television). Aimed at the outdoor/survival/ rescue and security markets, this low cost thermal Imager works with your smart phone or tablet to provide a communication network integrated solution for operatives on the ground to detect an object through its thermal signature up to 500m away – as well as offering the ability to instantaneously share visual data, it provides full thermal recording technology. In addition to the Therm-App, will be the only company at ESS to showcase the new FLIR Drone

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The publishers accept no responsibility for errors or omissions in this free service Adani Systems 12 Advanced Glass Technology 24 Armour Communications 21 Bluescreenit 34 Clarion Events 46, 47 Cognitec Systems 32 Cranfield Defence and Security 72 Domo Tactical 40 Ex Mil Recruitment 18 Frontier Pitts 23 Genetec Europe 30 Getac 56 GM Techtronics IBC Holmatro Rescue Equipment 62 Issee 22 L3 Security and Detection 16 Managed Connections 66 Marshalls OBC, 58, 59 Mercian Labels IFC Moore Fencing 74



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Counter Terror Business 28  

The Business Magazine for Security Technology

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