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MARCH/APRIL 2014 · Volume 29 Number 2

RESEARCH REVIEW

• Floating through vintage - what's changed in 20 years • Benefits & pitfalls of field-grafting • Feeling the flavour - the wine industry gets emotional • Packaging in the US off-trade market • Tasting: 'Alternative' rosé


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Publisher: Hartley Higgins General Manager: Elizabeth Bouzoudis Editor Sonya Logan Ph (08) 8369 9502 Email

Editorial Advisory Panel Gary Baldwin Peter Dry Mark Krstic Armando Corsi Markus Herderich Editorial Assistance Lauren Jones, Write Lane CONTRIBUTING WRITERS Snow Barlow Tony Battaglene Rob Bramley Armando Corsi Randall Dunn Paul Evans Hildegarde Heymann Annet Hoek Dan Johnson Ursula Kennedy Tony Keys Mark Krstic Jacqui McRae Paul Petrie Belinda Rawnsley David Riches Richard Smart Bob White

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Sue Bastian Keren Bindon Justin Cohen Peter Dry Jacky Edwards Anne Hasted Tony Hoare Cathy Howard Trent Johnson Stella Kassara Ellena King Larry Lockshin Danni Oliver Ian Porter Mark Rowley Renata Ristic Paul Smith

Advertising Sales: Nicole Evans Ph (08) 8369 9515 Fax (08) 8369 9529 Email n.evans@winetitles.com.au Production and Design: Nathan Grant Administration: Esme Parker Subscriptions One-year subscription (6 issues) Australia $77.00 (AUD) Two-year subscription (12 issues) Australia $144.00 (AUD) To subscribe and for overseas prices, visit: www.winebiz.com.au The Wine & Viticulture Journal is published bi-monthly. Correspondence and enquiries should be directed to Sonya Logan.The views expressed in the Journal are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the Journal or its staff.

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s readers of the Wine & Viticulture Journal know only too well, one of our reasons for being is to bring to you the latest results of grape and wine industry research being done on your behalf as they come to hand. But, one thing we’ve never done – in fact, I’m not sure anyone has – is attempt a snapshot of all the research being currently conducted both in Australia and the rest of the world by the industry’s key research institutes. But, now we have! Starting in this issue, and finishing in our May/June issue, we present a round-up of the projects currently under way by Australia’s major grape and wine research institutions, such as the AWRI, NWGIC, University of Adelaide, CSIRO and the South Australian Research & Development Institute, as well as those from overseas, including Plant & Food Research (NZ), Cornell and California State universities (US), Hochschule Geisenheim University (Germany), National Institute for Agronomical Research (INRA) (France), and Stellenbosch University (South Africa), to name a few. Turn to page 15 now for a round-up of what’s being done in Australia, and see how this compares to the types of research being done in other parts of the world, to be published in our May/June issue. It makes for interesting reading and gives us a sneak peek into what our competitors are up to. Also in this issue, Cathy Howard looks at the Australian wine industry adoption of flotation for clarifying juices; some

interesting findings from a study that looked into the influence of alcohol on the sensory perception of red wines; many questions as they answer; and the AWRI highlights the progress that has been made in the area of tannin research conducted over the past few years. In viticulture, Tony Hoare presents Part 1 of a comprehensive article in which he draws on his extensive grafting experience to discuss the benefits and pitfalls of the process, while Mark Krstic and Snow Barlow provide a summary of the main messages from last year’s thought-provoking symposium ‘Vintage 2030 and beyond – producing quality wines in warmer times’, which presented climate projections for Australia’s key wine-producing regions and their implications, and discussed methods for adapting to these challenges. And be sure to head on down to the Business & Marketing section, starting on page 62, where the University of Adelaide has contributed two articles, the first of which describes a project that is now under way to determine the influence of context effects, such as the dining environment, on consumer wine and wine flavour preference ratings, and the emotions elicited by wine and wine flavours; the second summarises a study in which wine experts were put to the test to determine whether they could group Shiraz wines from the same region together. Enjoy reading these articles and more in this issue of the Journal.

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Regular features

News WFA ASVO Wine Australia Tony Keys

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AWRI Report Tony Hoare Alternative varieties Varietal report Tasting

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I n t hi s i s s u e

R EGU L A R FE ATU R ES

c o n t e n t s

W I NE M A K I NG

8 WFA (Tony Battaglene): Trade priorities and strategy – Australian wine sector

24 Floating through vintage - what’s changed in 20 years

9 ASVO (Paul Petrie): Searching for the sweet spot - the quest for optimal yield and quality 10 WINE AUSTRALIA (Andreas Clark): Protecting the reputation of Australian wine – Australia’s regulatory system 12 KEY FILES: America: for and against!

S P E C I A L FE ATU R E

15 RESEARCH REVIEW: Part 1 of a snapshot of the world’s grape and wine industry research projects 30 What’s new in closures? V I T I C U L TU R E

34 The influence of alcohol on the sensory perception of red wines

42 Benefits and pitfalls of field grafting winegrapes – Part 1

38 AWRI REPORT: Tannin: impacts and opportunities along the value chain

business & marketing

62 Strategies to improve profitability in the winery 64 Feeling the flavour: the wine industry gets emotional

46 Vineyard redevelopment - using Old World wisdom to tackle New World challenges 48 Choosing biological indicators for monitoring vineyard soil quality 52 Vintage 2030 and beyond: Producing quality wines in warmer times 57 Tasmanian wine is ripe for investment 60 ALTERNATIVE VARIETIES: Souzao

W I NE T A ST I NG

80 ‘Alternative’ Rose V2 9N 2

66 Preliminary insights into the regional characteristics of Australian Shiraz 71 ‘Writing to learn’ or ‘learning to write’: Is there a place for self-reported reviews in wine education? 74 The story behind the label 77 Packaging in the US off-trade wine market W i n e & Viticultur e Jo ur n a l MARC H /APRIL 2014

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Measure grapes objectively – ahead of defining quality

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uality is all too often described as a single entity (‘good’, ‘bad’, ‘indifferent’) or by a single measurement (baume, yield, colour, etc). It’s as pointless as seeking the Holy Grail. Instead, the Australian wine industry needs to step up a notch and focus on objective measurement of a number of winegrape attributes that serve to describe the range of characteristics in a wine that consumers seek. Through scales of expression for each measure, these sets of measures also need to describe the qualities of each different wine product. This is the view of Wine Grape Growers Australia, which is striving to bring all parties of the Australian wine industry together to agree on the value of a system of objective measurements that assess winegrape quality. Lawrie Stanford, executive director of WGGA, said that for the time being, funding directed at initiatives to identify ever-more scientifically accurate measurements of winegrape attributes was misplaced in the list of priorities for project funding. Rather, it was best to adopt those that exist. Moreover, Australia was well endowed with world-acclaimed research in this area. “We already have the necessary measurements – from Baume, acid and pH to temperature, colour and disease thresholds,” added Robin Day, winemaker,

grapegrower and proprietor of Domain Day winery and industry consultant. “What we need now is an agreed scale of these measurements that enables all parties in the buying and selling of winegrapes to understand the desired attributes, and what that is worth.” Day said such a system would dispel many existing myths about the muchsought-after but ever-elusive definition of quality in winegrapes. He insists there is no magic bullet solution, “especially to easily assess grapes in the vineyard, so maybe we have to look harder at combining collating and measuring the recordable information that we can already access”. Rather than cling to a belief that there can be one set of winegrape measurements for all circumstances, Stanford said WGGA was suggesting that each different wine have its own set of measures that describe it and can be measured both prior to harvesting and at the weighbridge. To differentiate one wine from another would require different weighted settings within the same or similar suites of measures, with each priced accordingly. “It’s an innovative step that moves ahead of current practices,” Stanford said. “Many wineries have implemented systems of field assessment based on visual checklists and berry tasting by winemakers in vineyards, but a more

transparent and objective measurement system is required to provide greater clarity of the assessment process for grapegrowers,” Winemaker Rob Hunt added that tasting grapes in the vineyard was a nice idea but at best was extremely subjective, even under the control of the most wellintentioned of tasters. WGGA is hopeful that winemakers and wine producers will support its push for using objective winegrape measurements – but, as yet, the process of change has not been embraced by other parties. “For anyone to not see the bigger picture of supporting and nurturing all sectors in the Australian wine industry through such a scheme is alarming,” said Day. “Cycles of great profitability and difficulty happen, as we know from the past, but a more balanced and equitable system will benefit all in the long run. For grape growers, those benefits need to be felt immediately. Right now, it’s about survival in some instances.” Stanford added, “Ironically, while many wine producers are resisting the idea because they are struggling to survive financially, their businesses will benefit from adopting objective measurement systems through greater access to suitable fruit and, hence, lower processing costs as well as better sales through better matching of their wines to consumers seeking them.”

Wine Sector backs government support for Export Market Development Grants The Winemakers’ Federation of Australia (WFA) has welcomed the introduction of a bill to progressively restore funding to Export Market Development Grants (EMDG). The bill, the Export Market Development Grants Amendment Bill 2014, will provide an initial boost to the EMDG scheme of $50 million. Chief executive of the WFA Paul Evans commended the government on the introduction of the legislation. “The EMDG program provides funding for the partial reimbursement of eligible export marketing expenditure for small and medium enterprise (SME) exporters. These grants have been very important for our small and medium winemakers

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to enter new export markets and become self-sustaining exporters,” said Evans. WFA launched its ‘Actions for Industry Profitability 2014-2016 to position the country’s wine sector for growth in both domestic and export markets in December 2013. The report comprises 43 specific ‘actions’ in the key issue areas for industry including capturing the demand opportunity for Australian wine internationally, the wine and health debate, and working with national wine retailers on growing the category locally among consumers. “A key recommendation of this report was to encourage government to increase support for the EMDG program and we are delighted that the Australian

Government has worked so quickly to increase funding levels,” Evans said. He also commended the change to the scheme where an exporter who has received the maximum seven grants in the past, but whose export business had dried up due to the high exchange rate, will now be eligible to apply for an eighth grant to help try and recover those markets of up to $150,000. “I urge all parties to get behind this bill and expand the EMDG scheme to help grow our export market share,” Evans said. The Australian the wine industry has had a major presence in the program, averaging around 250 recipients each year.

W i n e & V i t i c u ltur e Jo ur n a l MARC H /APRIL 2014

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Wine exporters to China urged to check manganese levels

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ine Australia has advised the nation’s wine producers to get their products analysed for manganese content before exporting them to China following reports over the past 12 months of Australian wines being challenged following analysis for manganese on arrival in the country. The organisation said it issued this advice “reluctantly” since it believes the limit of 2mg/L imposed by Chinese authorities is not absolute. “Chinese law controls the amount of manganese that can be added to wine, and Australians do not add manganese to their wine, neither do winemakers in other traditional wine-producing countries,” Wine Australia said in a statement issued on 5 March. “Manganese is, in fact an essential nutrient. So-called ‘superfoods’ like chia seeds are rich in manganese and many people take manganese supplements.

“Manganese is present naturally in wine. A wine may exceed this arbitrary limit of 2mg/L despite manganese never having been added to the wine. “Nevertheless, in the past 12 months we have reports of 14 Australian wines having been challenged after being analysed for manganese on arrival in China. We understand some of these wines may have been destroyed and some returned to Australia.” Wine Australia said it was not aware of any country other than China that imposed such a limit on manganese content. “Unfortunately, if you have a wine that exceeds this limit the safest course of action is not to send the wine to China. It is not compulsory to test the wine for manganese but doing so may provide peace of mind.” Wine Australia said that Australian wine was not being specifically targeted by the Chinese as other countries were reporting problems with this issue.

“Chinese authorities are not accepting test results from any particular laboratory. When they randomly test they are using Chinese government facilities. If you choose to test for manganese, and we recommend you do, you can use any facility capable of performing the analysis.” Wine Australia advised that the following laboratories could assist with manganese analysis: Australian Wine and Research Institute, Vintessential, Winechek and CCIC Australia. “Wine Australia continues to make representations to Chinese authorities in an attempt to overcome this obstacle to trade. There are two other metals that have absolute limits in China: iron is limited to 8mg/L and copper to 1mg/L. We have made these two limits clear in our Export Market Guide to China. Wine should not be sent to China if these limits are exceeded as they risk being rejected upon arrival,” the statement said.

Louisa Rose to chair AWRI board Yalumba and Hill-Smith Family Vineyards chief winemaker Louisa Rose has been elected the fifteenth chair of the board of the Australian Wine Research Institute (AWRI), replacing Peter Dawson. Managing director of the AWRI, Dan Johnson, welcomed the result, saying, “Louisa Rose is a highly-respected winemaker with a strong record of contribution to our industry. “I look forward to working closely with

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Louisa, as the AWRI continues its focus on delivering high-calibre research with practical outcomes for the Australian grape and wine industry.” Known for her work in pioneering Viognier in Australia, Louisa Rose has more than 20 years of wine industry experience and has been chief winemaker at Yalumba and Hill-Smith Family Vineyards since 2006. Rose has been highly awarded for her winemaking including

W i n e & Viticultur e Jo ur n a l MARC H /APRIL 2014

being named Barossa Winemaker of the Year in 1999, International Woman in Wine by the International Wine and Spirit Competition in 2004 and Winemaker of the Year by Gourmet Traveller Wine Magazine in 2008. She is an experienced wine show judge, and has chaired both Perth and Hobart wine shows. She is co-chair of the South Australian Wine Industry Council and a member of the South Australian Agribusiness council.

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Trade priorities and strategy – Australian wine sector By Tony Battaglene, General Manager - Strategy & International Affairs, Winemakers’ Federation of Australia

The fortunes of the Australian wine sector are inextricably linked with the future of its exports. The ability to compete internationally depends on the cost of production, the quality of the wine, brand strength and marketing and the ability to access markets in a competitive fashion. The following is the first in a series of articles on the latter subject. Background

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he wine sector is diverse and, internationally, there are significant variations in the regulation of winemaking and labelling that produce impediments to trade. In the wine sector, national regulations, the international network of trade agreements, treaties, inter-governmental organisations and industry organisations all contribute to the regulatory framework affecting wine. This forms an intricate and often bewildering matrix that determines domestic regulations for trade in wine. International agreements often serve as a catalyst and reference point for the formation of regional and national regulations, and often help solve trade disputes between member countries. Bilateral and multilateral agreements also play a significant role in the global regulatory framework of wine. These include: • Free Trade Agreements • commodity specific agreements e.g., World Wine Trade Group Mutual Acceptance Agreement on Oenological Practices • bilateral wine trade agreements – negotiated between European Union and principal trading partners. However, many approaches to wine regulation are deeply entrenched in the culture of the sector and the country. Others may be part of a wider set of regulations directed at consumer information or health and safety. In recent years significant progress has been made in addressing regulatory differences through a number of international agreements such as: • World Trade Organisation agreements • European Union’s Common Market Organisation for Wine • bi-lateral agreements between EU and non-EU countries

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• •

World Wine Trade Group agreements Free Trade Agreements.

The Australian Market Access System The Winemakers’ Federation of Australia (WFA) and the Australian Government (including the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade; Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry; Department of Innovation, Industry, Science and Research; and supported by the Wine Australia Corporation and the Grape and Wine Research and Development Corporation) work together to increase Australian wine exports by assisting the sector with market access issues and reducing trade barriers. Specific activities undertaken as part of the wine sector international trade strategy include: • monitoring trade issues and barriers • negotiating arrangements to improve market access and streamline importing requirements • harmonising technical requirements to facilitate trade • providing advice and information to relevant Australian Government departments including support for Free Trade Agreements and other negotiations • building relationships with regulators in our key export markets and making representations as necessary • building coalitions with other wine industry associations internationally and coordinating market access activities • providing a response capability in the event of adverse developments arising • developing a comprehensive understanding of the regulatory requirements in key export markets • assisting exporters to resolve specific market access issues. W i n e & V i t i c u ltur e Jo ur n a l MARC H /APRIL 2014

Such activities are pre-competitive, often requiring collaborative international action with the benefits accruing to the whole Australian wine industry. Our aim is to ensure that the Australian wine industry is able to respond unimpeded to customer demand for quality Australian wine exports where possible by delivering substantial and meaningful improvements in market access. We work to achieve significant new market opportunities by reducing trade distortions in the global markets. Roles and Responsibilities The Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade is tasked with leading negotiations on market access and trade issues by the Australian Government. This includes leading the delegation on the World Wine Trade Group (WWTG); coordinating input into the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) and Sanitary and Phytosanity (SPS) committees of the World Trade Organisation (WTO); leading Free Trade Agreement (FTA) negotiations on agriculture; and leading multilateral negotiations in the WTO. The Department of Agriculture (DA) through its Market Access Group contributes to multilateral and bilateral negotiations, and via its Wine Policy Unit actively participates in activities such as WWTG, OIV and bilateral negotiations with the European Commission and develops legislation and regulation when required. DA wine policy is the coordinating body for liaising with Australian posts abroad when issues arise with wine shipments. The Department of Industry is playing a key role in furthering Australia’s wine agenda in the APEC region through its leadership on the Standards and Conformance Sub-Committee. It also has responsibility for activities concerning the International Organisation of Legal Metrology (OIML). The Wine Australia Corporation plays an V29N2


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important role in providing information on regulatory requirements in export markets to exporters, assisting with technical advice to the lead government agencies, alerting the DA to any problems in external markets notified by exporters, preparing submissions on FTAs and participating in negotiations as required. The GWRDC plays an important role in funding research both as a tactical response to market access issues and for strategic positioning of the Australian sector to respond to future issues. The WFA is responsible for developing industry policy across all these areas and ensuring that the industry position is represented by government. The WFA also plays a key role in liaison with other industry groups and governments to ensure sectorial support for trade and market access initiatives. There is a key technical aspect to this, where the WFA provides technical input to the Codex Alimentarius Commission, the International Organisation of Wine and the Vine (OIV), the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the World Wine Trade Group (WWTG) etc. The WFA also liaises with other commodity groups in Australia to develop, where possible, consistent positions. The WFA has also

developed an early warning system and monitors forthcoming legislative developments in key markets, coordinates inputs to SPS and TBT notifications between like-minded countries and bilaterally seeks to lower barriers concerning, in particular, oenological practices and MRLs. Key Priorities for 2013-14 Our key objectives for 2013-14 are as follows: •

ensure consistency across the Australian government of the wine sector trade and market access strategy maintain engagement in international fora, including the OIV, WWTG, OIML, APEC and Codex Alimentarius Commission, to ensure the Australian government position reflects the Australian wine sector’s interests ensure, as far as possible, satisfactory market access outcomes for wine in the multilateral trade negotiations and bilateral Free Trade Agreement negotiations, especially with China, Japan, TPP, RCEP, Korea, Indonesia and India

• •

pursue acceptance of Australia’s corporate social responsibility regime internationally and seek collaborative activity in the field of sustainability for the international wine sector harmonise international regulatory requirements resolve any technical barriers to trade on a bilateral level as they arise.

Conclusion Industry and government are working closely together to try to reduce market access barriers to enhance export opportunities for Australian wine. For the Australian wine sector to return to sustained profitability, it is essential that we have a level playing field in major markets. Major initiatives are under way to harmonise technical barriers that affect trade including labelling, oenological practices, certification requirements and maximum residue limits. In addition, the WFA (with strong support from the WAC and GWRDC) is very active in the key international fora that determine the shape of international regulations. Subsequent articles in this series will look in more detail at some of these initiatives. WVJ

Searching for the sweet spot - the quest for optimal yield and quality By Paul Petrie, President, Australian Society of Viticulture and Oenology

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his year’s much anticipated ASVO Mildura seminar will be held from noon on Thursday 24 July to noon on Friday 25 July in the Mildura Arts Centre. Respected voices in research will join with industry names synonymous with cuttingedge wine-growing to provide comprehensive insights into techniques and innovations that lead to better practices in the vineyard, and ultimately, better quality wine. Sessions will cover new insights into the accumulation of flavour and aroma compounds in winegrapes, including speakers on flavonoid biosynthesis in grapes, optimising harvest date, and the effect of climatic/regional factors on fruit quality. In addition there will be a focus on growing and capturing quality in ultra-premium vineyards with presentations on hand and mechanised canopy management, and how to grow ultra-premium Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz. There will be an opportunity to hear about investigations into improving yield and quality in commercial and premium growing regions, and advances in using irrigation management as an option to improve quality and aligning management practices, yields and costs to achieve winery specifications. Attendees will also learn about maintaining quality in response to seasonal variation from speakers on the effects of seasonal variability of carbohydrates, in-season management of variability and practical tools to help assess and manage ‘vine balance’ in the vineyard. Keynote speakers include Professor Stefano Poni, director of V2 9N 2

the Istituto di Frutti-Viticoltura at the Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, in Italy, who will give a European insight into the effect of leaf removal and the management of crop load; Dr Martin MendezConstable, manager of wine and grape supply at E&J Gallo Winery, in Modesto, California, who will speak on understanding the effect of cultural practices on fruit quality in California; and Mike Trought, principal scientist from the New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research and an ASVO board member, who will challenge the dogma that high yields lead to inferior wine quality. Registrations are now open. The preliminary seminar program and details can be viewed online at http://asvomildura.wordpress. com/ Due to numerous requests from industry, the ASVO is looking to re-print the ‘Australian Winegrape Load Assessment – A visual guide’. The guide was published in 1998 in an industry collaboration between two major Australian wine companies, Australian Vintage and Treasury Wine Estates. It aims to provide a visual standard of what are acceptable levels of MOG (matter other than grapes), disease, and other faults and contaminants in a load of grapes received at a winery. The original issue sold out very quickly and while there are still a few very old, battered copies floating around, those interested in picking up a new copy should contact the ASVO as soon as possible, as the print run will be limited, e-mail: admin@asvo.com.au

W i n e & Viticultur e Jo ur n a l MARC H /APRIL 2014

WVJ

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Protecting the reputation of Australian wine – Australia’s regulatory system By Steve Guy, General Manager - Regulatory Services, Wine Australia

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t is now two years since Wine Australia radically overhauled its process for controlling the export of wine from Australia to help protect the strong reputation of Australian wine around the world. Since the introduction of this system two years ago, the level of compliance among the industry has been very positive. Australia’s regulatory system is focussed on auditing both exporters and producers, supplemented by analysis of random samples of their products. Prior to the introduction of this system, all wine proposed for export was required to be submitted for approval by a panel of wine experts, and all export labels had to be reviewed by Wine Australia staff. Only wines assessed to be free of faults and labels judged compliant with relevant laws were approved for export. Following a comprehensive review in consultation with the industry, this process was abandoned in 2012 in favour of the current system, which is more appropriate for a mature sector trading internationally in the 21st century. Importance of a compliance regime Fundamentally, there are two major reasons for the establishment of any wine regulatory system: 1. To protect consumers 2. To ensure a fair trading environment for producers and exporters. At another level, however, Wine Australia regards a robust and enforceable compliance regime as essential support to the sector’s promotional efforts. A scandal involving the misrepresentation of the provenance or composition of wine would potentially damage Australia’s reputation for producing quality wines with truthful labels. Not all

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wine-producing countries share the reputation enjoyed by Australia. It is critical to maintain this competitive advantage. Australia is increasingly recognised as an abundant source of regionallydistinctive wines made from an array of both traditional and recently introduced grape varieties. Maintaining the integrity of region and variety claims has never been more important than it is now. The structure of our compliance regime Compliance with the Food Standards Code, which underpins how wine is made, and the Wine Australia Corporation Act, which determines how wine can be described, is monitored through two key activities: 1. The Label Integrity Program This a legislated program requiring the making and keeping of records throughout the wine supply chain to ensure claims made about the regional, varietal or vintage provenance of wine can be substantiated. Our audit team conducted 419 audits last year, more than four times the number typically conducted prior to the introduction of the new arrangements two years ago. Findings from these audits have resulted in the suspension or cancellation of four export licences since the new arrangements were introduced. Failure to make or keep adequate records can result in prosecution with penalties including custodial sentences. Wine Australia last prosecuted a wine producer in 2010.

found to contain more than a fraction of the permitted limit. Consequences of non-compliance Wine Australia takes its regulatory responsibilities very seriously. We provide guidance to the wine sector to minimise the risk of non-compliance. When significant breaches are discovered, Wine Australia is required to take appropriate action. The response can range from instruction to relabel non-compliant product, to the cancellation of a person’s licence to export and, in extreme cases, to prosecution. The penalties for failing to comply with the Label Integrity Program, making false or misleading label claims or exporting wines in contravention of the regulations include the possibility of imprisonment. We’re here to help

2. Sampling and chemical analysis of a statistically valid sample of Australian wine. Last year 1200 samples were collected and submitted for chemical analysis to ensure compliance with the Food Standards Code, specifically with the maximum residue limits for a range of agricultural chemicals. No sample was

Fundamental to Wine Australia’s regulatory approach is our desire to assist exporters and producers to meet their legislated obligations. In the past 12 months, Wine Australia helped industry comply with international wine composition and labelling requirements by responding to more than 2000 requests for assistance. We also made formal presentations through several channels including a technical roadshow to various wine regions across Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia An effective regulatory system benefits the wider Australian wine community. Wine Australia has a range of resources to help ensure producers understand exporting and labelling requirements and ensure they are compliant. For more information on compliance and exporting requirements; guides on the wine production, composition and labelling requirements of 36 export markets; guides for labelling and the Label Integrity Program, visit www.wineaustralia.com

W i n e & V i t i c u ltur e Jo ur na l MARC H /APRIL 2014

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WVJ


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America: for and against! By Tony Keys

Despite some encouraging signs, Tony Keys remains unconvinced of the opportunities that lie ahead for Australian wine in the United States.

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All arguments were sound if somewhat naive. The American consumers were buying because they had fallen under the spell of Robert Parker. It was incredulous that one man had so much power, but was it Parker power or a weakness on behalf of consumers who appeared unable to choose and buy wine based on their own judgment? Gentlemen’s clubs, Oxbridge colleges and the aristocracy had been buying French wine and port from Portugal for centuries. Australian wine was a newish concept to the UK market and no way was it going to break tradition in a month or three. The same could be said for top London restaurants; every

winemaker or winery in the world wants a prestige listing. The winemaker in question failed in finding a London distributor where he may well have been successful in the regions. It’s not the first and I doubt it will be the last time I make the statement: having a successful wine brand is not solely reliant on quality. If it were, I’d suggest 90 percent of Australian wine would be snatched up by the world wine trade and consumers on each vintage release. The thoughts above prompted this article on the American market. It’s making a comeback, according to James Gosper, general manager of market development at Wine Australia. He was extremely positive after a recent Australia Today roadshow that travelled to San Francisco, New York, Houston, Vancouver, Montreal and Toronto throughout January and February and attracted 950 media and wine trade professionals. “There’s some really positive sentiment about Australian wine in the US and Canada and the 20 events we’ve held up there throughout the last few weeks have really helped build on this and maintain the momentum generated by last year’s Savour Australia,” said Gosper. Any sign of life has to be good but the reality is the American market is very fragile and the straw being grasped is brittle. As export manger for De Bortoli Wines, Victor De Bortoli, says, “I believe the market offers wonderful opportunities and we would like to have a greater part in it, but it is one of the toughest and most competitive markets to play in”. The export figures tell many stories depending how they are

Figure 1. Volume of Australian wine exports - 1991 to 2013 (millions of litres).

Figure 2. Value of Australian wine exports - 1991 to 2013 (millions of dollars).

ack in the day, an Australian winemaker and small winery owner visiting London berated me for how mean the English were when buying wine compared with the generous Americans who were prepared to pay the price he considered his wine was worth. It was around the same time that another Australian winemaker and small winery owner was saying he was going to sell his wine to gentlemen’s clubs, Oxbridge colleges and the English aristocracy, while a third was rejecting a regional wholesaler because he only wanted his wine sold in top London restaurants and, according to him, the only top restaurants in the UK were in central London.

California had an excellent 2013 vintage and this is expected to impinge on Australian wine exported in bulk this coming year.

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interrupted. Figures 1 and 2 demonstrate that volume and value don’t follow the same pattern because the amount of wine shipped in bulk containers has increased dramatically over the years. What is the truth of exports to the US or, indeed, to any part of the world? The old saying of truth and statistics comes into play. The truth is not in volume or in value; the truth is in profit made and when tackling companies on that aspect they become very coy. With Treasury Wine Estates having a mixed American and Australian wine portfolio, its profits for the half year to 31 December 2012 reflect combined sales, but it does give some indication of the North American market: Half year to 31 December 2013: average price per case $51.19 profit ($24.6 million) Corresponding period 2012: average price per case $44.84 profit ($34.1 million) Australian Vintage’s half-year results are also obscured as they entwine North America with Australasia: Australasia/North America: packaged wine, up 8% Australasia/North America: bulk and processed wine, down 27% Casella Wines exports around 8 million cases of Yellowtail to the US each year. Two years ago, it made its first loss of around $30 million; in 2012-13 the loss had decreased to close on $12 million. Despite the results, all three companies expect North America to improve for Australian wine in the higher price sectors this coming year. As yet, I am not fully convinced, but counter argument is growing. In a report prepared for Savour last September, Wine Australia’s North America regional director Angela Slade said the sweet spot for Australian wines was in the bottled export price $7.50-9.99/litre, which had shown a 17% increase in the March 2013 quarter. Slade pointed out the trend continued as the June quarter growth leaped to 41% over the previous year. Slade was right to be encouraged and enthusiastic as the September quarter showed a 29% increase over the corresponding period in 2012. The year ended with the sweet spot bracket up 31%. However, that has to be balanced with the bracket below ($5 to $7.99/L) and the bracket above (over $10/L); the first three quarters of the year showed a decline but the percentage was also declining. The year ended with the $5 to $7.99 bracket down just 4% and the above $10 bracket up 11%. At the bottom end of the bottled export market, it’s good to see $2.49/L and below was down 168% and the $2.50 to $4.99/L down 11%. California had an excellent 2013 vintage and this is expected to impinge on Australian wine exported in bulk this coming year. In 2013, the volume of Australian wine exported in bulk to the US totalled 59.8 million, down 24%. There is also the possibility the abundant Californian vintage of 2012-13 will prove more of a challenge to Australia in the markets that it is strong in, given Californian exports increased in 2013; the leading destinations were: • European Union’s 28-member countries - total value $617 million, up 31% on the previous year • Canada - $454 million, up 12% • Japan - $102 million, down 7% • Hong Kong - $78 million, down 12% • China - $77 million, up 6% • Mexico - $22 million, up 21% • South Korea - $18 million, up 16%

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A Rabobank report, Global Wine Industry Q4 2013, released in February, supports the Australian bulk story: “The large US harvest has driven a 25% decline in bulk wine imports [from all countries]. However, bottled wine imports [from all countries] experienced solid growth in both volume (7%) and value (9%). France and Italy emerged as the main winners.” There is no denying there are signs of the American market improving for the sector, which is probably the most profitable for Australian wine. But, overall in 2013, Australian wine exports to the US were down 10.8% in volume and just 2.5% in value with the average price per litre increasing 9% to $2.53. This was the first increase since 2007. Back then it was more than $4 a litre but that was before a great deal of wine was shipped in bulk. Treasury Wine Estates (TWE) quotes Nielsen stats for the final quarter of 2013, “Penfolds luxury showing strong growth, up 18.2% in volume and 52.7% in value. This coming spring (USA)... the company will release the entire Penfolds Bins collection with an exclusive US release of the new Bin 9 Cabernet Sauvignon (US$24), which matches with America’s love of Cabernet and is in the ‘masstige’ price range (US$10 - $25).” The Lindeman’s brand sells more than one million cases of wine and showed a slight increase in the last quarter of 2013 of 0.5% in volume. The average price is US$6 bottle. Other brands in the TWE portfolio doing well in the US are Pepperjack Barossa Red (US$25) and the 19 Crimes red blend (US$12). The company says, “Millennials are driving the fast growth behind our 19 Crimes brand. TWE introduced the 19 Crimes brand in this market in the back-half of 2013 with 25,000 cases and have tripled the forecast since the launch to approximately 75,000 cases”. This is good news if TWE can get the American market to work. Hopefully it will open doors for others to follow. Unfortunately, the good news is dulled with Penfolds wine being sold through Trader Joes in February at just US$3.99 a bottle. The question remains, with so many positive signs why am I yet to be convinced? The following provides part of the answer. A recent Wine Market Council (US) report states: “Want to identify a high-end wine drinker in the United States? Look for the guy drinking the bottle of Assyrtiko.” Most Greek wine is at the cheaper end of the market. The appeal is not the cost but the rarity. Americans into top-end wines, defined as those retailing over $20, also enjoy the interesting varieties selling below that point. There was a time when Australian Shiraz fuelled this interest but it’s passé nowadays. The report says just 5% of Americans are prepared to buy wine over $20. It’s the sector where Australia wants good representation, but what will attract those drinkers back? The report gives hints on what attracts the 5%: • They are equally likely to be male or female. • They are most happy with the quality of imported wine from France, Italy and New Zealand. • They are least happy with the quality of wine from South Africa. • They rate French wine lowest for ‘value’ of any major wineexporting country. • They rate Austria, Argentina and New Zealand as highest for value. • They are twice as likely as non-high-end buyers to purchase wines from France or Spain. • They are 60% more likely to buy wines from Italy. • They purchase domestic wine from Oregon, Washington and New York more often and believe that these wine-producing states provide as much value as any imported wine. • They believe Californian wine is just behind French and Italian wine in quality – and above every other country – but not particularly close on value. Opinions of Californian wine differ

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greatly on different sides of the Sierra Mountains. Californians are more likely than not to say California wine is of ‘excellent’ quality, while Americans in other states are more likely to stop at ‘very good’. • They believe wine reviews are still crucial: 70% of high-end buyers say reviews are very important for purchase decisions. The anti-critic movement has found greater sympathy from non-high-end buyers: only 19% of them say reviews are very important. The report also points out 67% of high-frequency wine drinkers enjoy beer at least several times a week, and it’s not surprising the preferred beer is craft brewed. They are the main readers of wine information on the internet; over half visit wine blogs compared with 11% of non-high-end buyers who read wine blogs.

“OK, the ‘5% Assyritko’ drinkers don’t instantly have Australia as their ‘go-to’. That’s because most sections here are truly awful. Old vintages, poorly kept, high alcohol, Parker points, always South Australian, store clerks who don’t know anything about them. But that means room for expansion once the message gets out. “Incidentally, I was at a store tasting recently for Greek wines...which were priced US$18-57. The winemaker and I shared some remarks about Greece and Australia having the same image problems (i.e. cheap kangaroo wine/retsina). Aussie wine needs a makeover, by bringing in the right wines to match what drinkers want. “So, here’s where Australia has the edge. In the $1540 category, we vastly over-deliver against most of what California and France offer here. The 2012 Burgundies are outrageously priced given vintage problems, and Australian Pinot in the $35-40 range is well placed, because for the same thing from California/Oregon you’d pay $60. “In terms of Shiraz, I get overwhelmingly positive reactions from consumers who say ‘I love Australian Shiraz’. What sells doesn’t have to be cheap, and it doesn’t have to be expensive, but it does have to be good. Wines with restrained alcohol, good acid, food-friendly styles are exactly what the ‘5% Assyritko drinkers’ are after. We just need to get back to the tipping point where folks will ask for Australian wines rather than require it be suggested to them.” Little is adamant that if the tipping point is to be achieved, it will require wineries to take a new look at America. He suggests starting by focusing on selected markets and it will require a lot, “of effort and support to help tell the story of the post-Yellowtail generation of Australian wine”. Again, all the positivity Little holds has the edge taken off with this statement, “They will have to be ready to accept a bit of a price cut to be competitive in the market. Most markets, NY included, are still post-recession and there isn’t the frivolous spending that there is in Sydney, Perth and Melbourne. But any price break should be seen in the context of a long-term proposition about brand building. In terms of volume (look at the sheer number of stores and restaurants), they will recoup their money and then some in the medium term.” It’s well known that to be successful in a market it needs to be supported. The brands Little represents are lucky as they have a man committed to them and are being hand sold, not sitting lost at the back of a large portfolio. Victor De Bortoli says, “Wines need to be constantly hand sold otherwise when you leave tomorrow there will be someone from California, Italy or Argentina walking the same footpath and so on. The Australian dollar has opened up a couple opportunities but if it fell a little bit further I won’t be complaining.” The dollar hasn’t fallen enough for small wineries. It needs to be closer to 70 cents, preferably below. To give the extra support of market visits costs a lot of money; cutting prices to be competitive takes away that promotional money, so again I am not convinced. Although not yet convinced of the American market for Australian wines, I recognise the signs that people are pointing out. Nothing would give me greater pleasure than WVJ being proved wrong within the next couple of years.

The US is a large country with a population put at 314 million (2012). I do not believe Australia can conquer it all; indeed there are parts that are dead for any wine product. Therefore Australia may (in time) do better in odd pockets with someone committed to the wines. The report backs the TWE statement that millennials (ages 20 to 37) are driving the quality end of the American wine market. The youngest millennials are still below the legal age in the US but will turn 21 in 2015. There is an estimated 70 million of them. According to the report, millennials make up 30% of drinkers, and purchase wine priced at more than $20 with frequency. It is worth noting there is not a mention of Australia or Australian wine in any aspect in this report and for me that also says a lot. As all are aware, the US is a large country with a population put at 314 million (2012). I do not believe Australia can conquer it all; indeed there are parts that are dead for any wine product. Therefore, Australia may (in time) do better in odd pockets with someone committed to the wines. Gordon Little is a partner in Little Peacock Imports, which imports several Australian wines into the US. Little hails from Melbourne and started his import company two years ago with Lauren Peacock. He started his company because he wanted to, “combat the lack of decent Australian wine in the market here”. He doesn’t use a distributor but imports and distributes the wines himself in New York and New Jersey. “As somebody who deals with Australian wine in the US on a full-time basis, I think the American market is a good one for Australian wine. It will never be about bulk volume again a la Yellowtail, but rather for higher priced offerings, the actual wines Australians drink at home. “Over the past two years, I have seen increased interest in Australian wine in the US, and sommeliers are beginning to look at their Australian sections (or lack of) and say ‘ok, I need to start focusing on this’. They are bored with Malbec, and the continual push to buy NZ Sauvignon Blanc and Pinot Noir (buying it for US$7/bottle wholesale and selling it for US$11/glass) is turning off the consumer who is looking for a better quality-value proposition.

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What’s the world doing in grape and wine research? Part 1 By Sonya Logan

W

e present a round-up of the projects currently being carried out in Australia followed by those from New Zealand, France, Germany, Italy, South Africa, the United States and the United Kingdom in our MayJune issue. The Australian Wine Research Institute is the only organisation in Australia devoted to grape and wine research, development and extension (RD&E) and it enjoys a reputation as a world leader in this area. Last year, the AWRI launched its latest RD&E plan for 2013-2018 that contained details of some 50 projects whose aims include the following: save costs for grape and wine producers, increase the focus on wine mouthfeel and ‘texture’, harness the power of genomics technologies to deliver practical solutions for identifying, understanding, improving and/or managing pests and diseases, bacteria and yeast strains, and grape varieties and clones; explore the grape-to-wine interface to deliver a greater understanding of the processes and compositional changes that occur as grapes are transformed into wine; and evaluate practices such as bulk shipping and off-shore bottling. The CSIRO continues to be a key provider of grapegrowing research in Australia, with the projects it is currently involved with exploring topics that address the main challenges facing the industry,

such as climate change, salinity and pests and diseases. The South Australian Research & Development Institute (SARDI) is another organisation with a strong viticultural focus, whose current projects look at topics including grapevine diseases, adapting viticulture to climate change, and salinity. SARDI’s Victorian counterpart, the Department of Environment & Primary Industries (DEPI-Vic), incorporates the Centre for Expertise in Smoke Taint Research, where work continues to provide the industry with information to minimise the incidence of smoke taint. Other areas of research at the DEPI-Vic are aimed at climate change adaptation and extracting tannin. At the Department of Agriculture and Food WA, research into clones and alternative varieties is receiving significant attention, where Chardonnay and Shiraz clones are undergoing evaluation to determine their suitability to warmer climates, the genomic basis of clonal variation in Cabernet Sauvignon is being determined and a trial block of 20 alternative winegrape varieties is being assessed. Also adding to Western Australia's grape and wine knowledge is Curtin University with its look into naturalised and indigenous yeasts, precision viticulture and smoke taint. Two organisations with many projects currently under way for the benefit of the

Australian wine industry are the National Wine & Grape Industry Centre (NWGIC) based in New South Wales, and the University of Adelaide. The NWGIC’s main focus area is in the area of viticulture, with a particular focus on grapevine diseases. It is also undertaking an interesting project aimed at finding out the reasons why those who consume alcohol on’t drink wine and using this information to create new customers. At the University of Adelaide, multiple projects across the three disciplines of grapegrowing, winemaking and wine marketing are under way looking into a number of topics, including those aimed at: measuring Australian sparkling wine styles and quality, assessing the effect of MOG on the sensory properties of red wines, understanding the nature and diversity of yeast populations present in uninoculated wine fermentations, optimising an early harvest regime to produce lower alcohol wines, and gaining knowledge about the effect of food consumption of wine sensory parameters and consumer-preferred wine and food matches. As a global leader of wine marketing research, the University of South Australia, through the Ehrenberg Bass Institute for Marketing Science, is playing a key role in providing the Australian wine industry with information to enable it to maximise the opportunities in the Chinese wine market .

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Australia Australian Wine Research Institute (drawn from the AWRI’s 2013-2018 five-year plan) GRAPEGROWING Project

Duration 2013-2018

• Assessing diversity and clonal variation of Australia’s grapevine

Aim: Determine the genetic basis of clonal variation for Chardonnay, Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon and evaluate the effect of clone on objective and measurable wine characteristics . Produce knowledge that, with time, is likely to be used as the basis to make informed decisions in germplasm breeding and selection programs, and in-the-field vineyard management decisions such as clonal identification and matching clone to site. • Understanding genetic variation in grapevine diseases and the genetic basis for pesticide resistance • Improve the consistency of description, and improve the measurement, of disease ratings

2013-2018

• Regional benchmarking of viticultural spraying practices (currently inactive) Aim: Reduce the economic and environmental impact of pests and diseases and the techniques used to manage them by improving the understanding of the genetics of pests and diseases and the basis of pesticide resistance; identify new tools for monitoring vineyard diseases. Establish objective benchmarks for grape disease, e.g. a industry-wide definition of what is meant by the term ‘2% bunch rot’, and use those objective benchmarks to develop analytical tools to measure grape disease. • Are there regional micro-organisms, and can they be harnessed to produce regionally distinct wine styles? • Enhanced winemaking outcomes and wine style diversification through provision of fit-for-purpose yeast starter cultures • Defining the nutritional drivers of yeast performance and matching yeast to must

2013-2018

• Efficient and reliable malolactic fermentation to achieve specification wine style • Safeguarding and realising the potential of the Australian wine microbial germplasm collection Aim: Optimise primary and secondary fermentation for effective production of targeted wine style. • Technologies and strategies for the production of lower-alcohol wine • Influencing wine style through management of oxygen during winemaking • Capturing and re-using aroma compounds entrained in fermentation gasses (currently inactive)

2013-2018

• D  eveloping simplified sparkling winemaking processes which reduce production costs while replicating the flavour and textural properties of wines produced using traditional methods (currently inactive) • Development and application of process analytical technologies for effective winemaking process control Aim: Evaluate existing products and practices and new products and practices recommended to aid production of wines with attributes that consumers value. • Novel products utilising existing winery capital equipment, surplus grapes and winery waste • Reducing wine movements during production • Evaluating alternatives to barrel maturation

2013-2018

• Identifying cost reduction opportunities by mapping the grape and wine value stream • Development and application of process analytical technologies for effective winemaking process control Aim: Reduce costs and/or ensure optimal outcomes from the making, storing and ageing of wine. • Fault and taint remediation strategies and technologies (currently inactive) • Ensuring the continued efficacy of Brettanomyces control strategies for avoidance of spoilage

2013-2018

• Formation and fate of positive and negative sulfur compounds Aim: Reduce the economic impact of taints and faults; develop tools to manage the likelihood and economic impact of taints and faults, allowing grapegrowers and winemakers to generate a financial return from grapes and wines that would otherwise be discarded. • Understanding and predicting the effect of transport on bulk and bottled wine

2013-2018

Aim: Identify opportunities to improve packaging operations, including optimal bottling temperatures, management of fill heights, microbial contamination and total package oxygen levels; assess the extent of quality loss throughout distribution chains and evaluating the relative importance/impact of temperature, oxygen ingress, tainting and scalping for different packaging technologies and materials; develop guidelines and tools to ensure that wine reaches its market in optimum condition.

WINE MARKETING Projects

Duration

• Identify and secure new market opportunities through consumer insights • Genetics of odour perception and wine preferences (currently inactive)

2013-2018

Aim: Identify and secure new market opportunities through consumer insights by assisting efforts to gather information regarding the intrinsic and extrinsic properties of wine in major and emerging markets for Australian wine, providing producers with information regarding desirable wine styles for target market segments.. • Origin verification and detection of counterfeit Australian wines (currently inactive)

2013-2018

Aim: Build a database (and/or validating existing databases) of wines of known origin both domestically and internationally with the aim of establishing a robust way to quickly ascertain the authenticity of an unknown wine sample. • Informing wine consumers through understanding issues of wine consumption, health and nutrition

2013-2018

Aim: Collate and disseminate credible and scientifically sound information regarding wine and health/nutrition.

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• Increasing Australia’s influence in market access, safety, regulatory and technical trade issues

2013-2018

Aim: S  erve on key national and international industry, government and other relevant boards, committees and working groups in order to maintain effective relationships with key regulatory stakeholders; provide accurate, appropriate and timely regulatory, scientific and technical position and supporting papers when required/requested; support the efforts of Wine Australia and the Winemakers’ Federation of Australia in establishing robust regulatory frameworks in domestic and export markets. • Emergency response capability

2013-2018

Aim: Develop an effective emergency response capability to anticipate and rapidly and confidentially address technical trade barriers as and when they arise.

MULTIDISIPLINARY Projects

Duration

• Improving winery energy efficiency • Capitalising on the carbon economy • Improving the environmental and economic performance of the Australian wine supply chain

2013-2018

• Assisting industry to adopt renewable energy technologies (currently inactive) Aim: Reduce inputs and environmental footprint across the value chain by reducing energy.

CSIRO GRAPEGROWING Projects

Duration

• Understanding and managing the timing of berry ripening and the flavour-ripe/sugar-ripe nexus

2010-2014

Aim: Improve our knowledge of berry ripening and the relationship between sugar levels and flavour and to develop methods to manipulate ripening to address industry issues arising from earlier, compressed seasons. • Enhanced varieties and clones to meet the challenges of climate change and deliver lower alcohol wines

2009-2014

Aim: M  eet future challenges associated with climate change and consumer expectations for lower alcohol wines, investigate the potential to exploit genetic variability of grapevine material (alternative varieties and advanced breeding selections) to broaden the genetic base of the Australian wine industry. • Improving the tannin composition of grapes

2010-2014

Aim: S  ee transgenic grapevines with altered expression of key flavonoid pathway genes as a research tool to determine the potential for improving the tannin composition of grapes and wine. • Evaluating and demonstrating new disease resistant varieties for the Riverina

2014-2017

Aim: Assess the potential of 20 new varieties for warm grapegrowing regions and provide industry with information on the suitability and adaptation of these varieties to warm irrigated wine regions including wine styles. • Delivering chloride and sodium excluding rootstocks for quality wine production

2010-2014

Aim: Compare eight rootstocks with Shiraz as scion in a moderately saline environment by assessing vine performance, wine composition and sensory attributes. Assess salty taste attribute in wines. Develop a marker for chloride exclusion for use in rapid screening for salt tolerance. • Grape quality parameters that influence wine flavour and aroma: identification, confirmation and application to industry

2013-2017

Aim: D  etermine whether measurements of targeted grape compounds and parameters can be applied as robust objective measures of grape flavour potential and evaluate the flux of important grape metabolites to understand the timing of their production in fruit development. • Improving industry capacity to manage the yield and wine quality relationship through understanding the influence of vine carbon balance on berry composition

2013-2016

Aim: Provide the Australian wine industry with the knowledge and tools to manage the yield, grape composition and wine quality relationship using vine balance, enabling growers to respond and adapt to conditions within a growing season and changing market segment demands. • Identification and marker-assisted selection of genes for reducing the susceptibility of new winegrape cultivars to fungal pathogens

2013-2017

Aim: D  evelop new breeding material containing resistance genes to powdery and downy mildew and develop genetic markers linked to berry cluster architecture for reduced susceptibility to Botrytis bunch rot • Genetic and mechanistic characterisation of rootstock traits conferring abiotic stress tolerance to grapevines

2013-2017

Aim: Increase understanding of rootstock response to abiotic stress (water use efficiency, drought tolerance, salinity tolerance and heat) and to identify new genetic markers for use in breeding programs. • Towards elite mildew resistant selections suitable for industry use

2013-2017

Aim: Further evaluate the first generation of powdery mildew-resistant vines to identify elite individuals that are high yielding and produce robust desirable wine styles under Australian conditions. • New rootstocks for Australian conditions

2013-2017

Aim: Deliver the best rootstocks for Australian conditions through stronger interactions with industry, the development of new molecular markers for resistance to phylloxera and root knot nematode and the establishment of small-scale regional rootstock trials. • Climate change ready varieties and management technologies that reduce GHGs in the vineyard

2013-2016

Aim: Provide industry with management techniques and variety selection advice to ensure the sustainability of the wine industry in the face of climate change, increasing disease pressures and rising energy costs. • Genetic transformation of grapevine to test significant abiotic stress and pest resistance genes

2013-2016

Aim: Identify the role of known and newly-discovered genes involved in pest resistance and salt tolerance using biotechnology techniques to support rootstock breeding projects. V2 9N 2

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Curtin University GRAPEGROWING Project

Duration

• Precision Viticulture

2012-2014

Aim: S  tudy the economic implications of precision viticulture versus uniform management techniques and their corresponding effects on profitability in viticulture and wine production.

WINEMAKING Project

Duration

• Naturalised yeast

2011-2014

Aim: E  mploy next generation sequencing to identify the naturalised yeast genotypes residing within Margaret River vineyards, evaluate the phenotypic characteristics of these genotypes and interpret their oenological importance. • Indigenous yeast

2010-2014

Aim: Expand our understanding of naturalised yeast populations and examine their impact on the volatile composition of spontaneously fermented wines in the Margaret River region.

MULTIDISIPLINARY Project

Duration

• Smoke Taint

2012-2014

Aim: Determine the effects of grapevine exposure to smoke with varying lignin composition using wildfire simulated pyrolysis to explore the relationships between the source of emissions and the accumulation of putative smoke taint in grapes and wine.

Department of Agriculture and Food WA (DAFWA) GRAPEGROWING Project

Duration

• Assessing clonal variability in Chardonnay and Shiraz for future climate change (multi-agency project led by SARDI)

July 2013 - June 2017

Aim: Covering the Western Australian component of this project, evaluate a range of clones of Chardonnay and Shiraz to identify differences in fruit and wine quality from a number of diverse and distinct climates within Australia; to demonstrate that clones can influence wine style and determine any preferential clones for warmer climates via comparison of performance of relevant clones across diverse geographical regions over 3 consecutive vintages. 2014 - 2017

• Genomic basis of clonal variation in Cabernet Sauvignon winegrapes

Aim: D  etermine the genomic basis of clonal identity in elite Cabernet Sauvignon clones from WA and SA improvement programs by whole genome sequencing of 12 clones from which markers will be designed to distinguish between clones. • Understanding fungicide resistance in powdery and downy mildew (led by SARDI)

2013 - 2016

Aim: Sample for botrytis, powdery and downy mildew in the viticultural regions of WA as part of determining the geographical distribution and severity of resistance to a range of key fungicide groups. • Evaluating the suitability of alternative winegrape varieties under Western Australian conditions

Ongoing

Aim: B  uild on 10 years of previous research that assessed 18 alternative varieties in the Manjimup wine region of Western Australia with a second trial block of 20 alternative winegrape varieties currently under establishment in the Geographe wine region.

Winemaking Projects

Duration

• Influence of climate and variety on the effectiveness of pre-fermentative cold maceration

March 2013 – March 2014

Aim: Investigate how climate and variety influences the effectiveness of pre-fermentative cold maceration (cold soak) for red wine production. Outcome from this work will be to demonstrate to winemakers what conditions favour the application of cold soak to produce quality red wines.

Department of Environment and Primary Industries, Victoria GRAPEGROWING Projects

Duration

• Identifying vineyard and winery management practices that impact on tannin extraction

2012-2015

Aim: Investigate how grape and wine production in warm irrigated areas will be affected by higher temperatures and elevated carbon dioxide in order to develop strategies for adapting to a changing environment. • Impact of elevated CO2 and its interaction with elevated temperature on production and physiology of Shiraz

2012-2015

Aim: Investigate how grape and wine production in warm irrigated areas will be affected by higher temperatures and elevated carbon dioxide in order to develop strategies for adapting to a changing environment.

WINEMAKING Projects

Duration

• Centre for Expertise in Smoke Taint Research

2012-2015

Aim: P  rovide the wine industry and fire management decision makers information for making evidence-based decisions to minimise the incidence of smoke taint in wine from prescribed burning and bushfires.

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National Wine & Grape Industry Centre (NWGIC) GRAPEGROWING Projects

Duration

• Practical management of grapevine trunk diseases

Feb 2013 – December 2016

Aim: Optimise practical management of trunk diseases in Australia. • Entomopathogenic fungi as potential biocontrol agents of grape phylloxera

July 13 – July 2016

Aim: Investigate the suitability of entomopathogenic fungi, particularly Beauveria bassiana, as a biocontrol agent for endemic strains of root-feeding grape phylloxera. • Understanding fungicide resistance in powdery and downy mildew

March 2013 – December 2016

• Aim: Determine the geographical distribution and the severity of resistance of populations of Eryisphe necator, Plasmopara viticola and Botrytis cinerea to at risk fungicides within Australia. • Evaluating and demonstrating new disease-resistant varieties for warm irrigated areas (collaboration with CSIRO)

July 2014 – June 2017

Aim: Assess the potential of the new white varieties for warm grapegrowing and provide the industry with information on the suitability and the adaptation of these varieties to warm irrigated wine regions and on wine styles. • Improving industry capacity to manage yield and wine quality relationship through understanding the influence of vine carbon balance and berry composition (collaboration with CSIRO)

January 2013 - June 2016

Aim: Provide a mechanistic understanding of vine carbon balance effects on berry composition and wine quality, and to assist growers with managing the relationships between berry tannin, anthocyanin and sugar accumulation. • Cell death and berry weight loss (collaboration with the University of Adelaide and CSIRO

2014-2017

Aim: Investigate the role of cell death in berry weight loss and how it is triggered • The potassium-sugar nexus (collaboration with the University of Adelaide and CSIRO)

2014-2017

Aim: Gain a better understanding of the link between sugar and K unloading into the grape berry; examine if grape sugar content can be altered by vineyard K supply. • Assessment of fungal rots of grapes and their impacts on wine quality

December 2012 – May 2014

Aim:: Explore different methods that could potentially be used to provide a rapid estimate of bunch rot type and severity. • Botrytis fungicide trial

December 2012 – May 2014

Aim: C  ompare conventional and alternative sprays [Trichoderma products (Colonizer & Antagonizer), with potassium soaps of fatty acids (Eco-Protector)] for Botrytis bunch rot. • R  iverina vineyard field experiment on the efficacy of brassica biofumigation treatments for the control of root Cylindrocarpon (Ilyonectria) on Pinot Noir

2012-2014

• Aim: Examine the efficacy of a number of different brassica biofumigation methods to decrease the severity and incidence of black-foot fungi (Ilyonectria spp.) in soil and grapevine roots. • Effects of glyphosate on grapevines and vineyard soil

2013-2014

Aim: Examine the effects on grapevine physiology and root disease of a herbicide, glyphosate, when applied to soil or adjacent weeds.

WINEMAKING Projects

Duration

• The impact of light on wine

2012-2015

Aim: Investigate the effect of light on the composition of wine and its shelf-life with particular emphasis on iron(III) organic acid photochemistry, the resulting degradation products and how such reactions are impacted by the presence of riboflavin.

WINE MARKETING Projects

Duration

• Characterisation of wine avoiders and how to transition avoiders to consumers

2012-2015

Aim: D  etermine why consumers avoid wine and how to transition a wine avoider (those who drink alcohol but do not consume wine) to a wine consumer, and determine whether there are any factors that cause consumers to become wine avoiders (e.g., a particular bad experience increase).

South Australian Research and Development Institute GRAPEGROWING Projects

Duration

• Practical management of grapevine trunk diseases

2013-2016

Aim: D  etermine appropriate pruning practices to minimise infection; optimise prevention strategies by identifying the critical time for fungicide application; determine the efficacy of remedial surgery for botryosphaeria dieback; identify disease-tolerant germplasm; examine the effect of drought and irrigation practices.. • Developing a threat-specific contingency plan for the exotic pest angular leaf scorch

2013-2016

Aim: Validate the efficacy of drastic pruning for eradicating angular leaf scorch; develop diagnostic protocol for angular leaf scorch; determine susceptibility of Vitis vinifera cultivars to angular leaf scorch; evaluate eradicant fungicides for angular leaf scorch; increase the biosecurity capability of the Australian viticulture industry. V2 9N 2

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• Sustaining vineyards through practical management of grapevine trunk diseases (New Zealand)

2013-2016

Aim: E  valuate fungicides for control of eutypa and botryosphaeria dieback; develop strategies for cost-effective spray application of pruning wound treatments; investigate the economics of managing grapevine trunk diseasess. • Understanding fungicide resistance in powdery mildew, downy mildew and botrytis

2013 – 2016

Aim: D  etermine the geographical distribution and the severity of resistant populations of E. necator, P. viticola and B. cinerea to a range of key ‘at risk‘ fungicides within Australia; develop rapid and accurate tests for detecting and quantifying resistant populations, allowing growers to be advised of the detection and distribution of resistance on their properties with sufficient time to amend spray programs and achieve effective disease control; to develop and validate effective and sustainable resistance management strategies for the ‘at risk‘ fungicides, through modelling and testing of new actives and the effect of dose, mixtures and alternations of active ingredients on resistance management. • Managing vineyard rootzone salinity and maximising water saving by sub-surface irrigation techniques

2011-2014

Aim: Q  uantify potential water and nutrients savings with subsurface irrigation compared with conventional above-ground drip irrigation; calibrate and validate water savings and soil salinity models for subsurface irrigation techniques through strategic field experimentations; develop sustainable management systems to maximise salt leaching and minimise nutrient loss from irrigated vineyards; generate underpinning knowledge to enable vineyard managers/growers to better manage periods of low supply and elevated irrigation salinity water. • Managing the effects of climate change rainfall on vine balance and root activity

2013-2016

Aim: E  xamine the effects of dormant season soil water deficit on root growth and vine storage reserves; quantify the annual and cumulative effects of reduced winter rainfall on vine balance, fruit quality and wine sensory characteristics; integrate seasonal rainfall outlook and impacts of reduced rainfall on vine balance into appropriate management strategies for growers to help minimise impacts of winter rainfall deficits. • Assessing clonal variability in Chardonnay and Shiraz for future climate change

2013-2017

Aim: D  etermine any preferential clones for warmer climates via comparison of performance of relevant clones across diverse geographical regions over 3 consecutive vintages; identify any potential advantages in disease tolerance between clones; commence sequencing of a selected number of Shiraz clones for intra varietal genotypic variations; review and tabulate the detail of clonal history of the clones involved, where possible. • Methods to increase the use of recycled wastewater in the irrigation industry by overcoming the constraint of soil salinity

2013-2015

Aim: T  est whether redirecting rain falling on the mid-row toward soils under the drip line of vines irrigated with recycled saline water reduces soil and plant salt levels; test various techniques for redirecting rainfall and identify a technique that is commercially practical; supervise and support a PhD candidate in undertaking evaluations of rootzone salt accumulation from recycled wastewater and redirection of mid-row rainfall. • Characterising mesoclimates in vineyards to better understand impacts and adaptation options for climate change

2011-2014

Aim: A  nswer the questions, do meso-climates exist within vineyards that approximate future climate projections, can we use them to explore the effect of warmer climates on grape phenology, and does phenology differ within the vineyard and can these phenology differences be related to mesoclimate?

University of Adelaide GRAPEGROWING Projects

Duration

• Development of quality assessment tools for Chardonnay in relation to grape and wine composition.

2013-2016

Aim: D  etermine the main volatile compounds that influence Chardonnay wine quality and to develop a suitable quality index for Chardonnay grapes that can be related to grape and wine composition. • Optimisation of an early harvest regime to produce lower alcohol wines

2014-2017

Aim: E  valuate the potential of a sequential harvest regime along with different fermentation and blending options for producing wines with lower alcohol and to undertake detailed sensory and chemical characterisation of these wines. • Large-scale processing of early-harvest grapes and vine biomass for the production of ethanol and delacoholised wine products

2014-2017

Aim: Investigate the viability, processes and conditions required to use excess grapes and vineyard by-products for the production of high quality ethanol, and blending material for managing wine alcohol. • Temperature effects on plant physiology, berry biophysical traits, and berry and wine sensory traits

2011-2014

 im: I A mprove understanding of increased mean temperature and its interaction with water deficit on vine physiology and berry biophysical traits, and the implications for berry and wine sensory traits. • M  cLaren Vale’s Geology and red wine sensory properties (collaboration with wineries and the McLaren Vale Grape, Wine and Tourism Association in McLaren Vale, South Australia)

2013-2015

Aim: S  tudy the effect of terroir components on the sensory perception of wines made from Cabernet Sauvignon grapes from some 18 different geological subregions; compare the results with the wine attributes sought by consumers to provide wine industry professionals information about what intrinsic characteristics will result in wines grown on certain geomorphic units in order to make wines that the public will purchase. • Organic acid metabolism and the control of grape berry acidity in a warming climate

2010-2104

Aim: Deliver enhanced understanding of processes controlling metabolism of acids during berry development by examining acid metabolism in vines grown under normal conditions and under combined heat and water stress regimes, and the consequences of extreme weather events upon berry acid composition. • New non-destructive ways to evaluate berry ripeness.

2012-2014

 im: A E  xamine the use of changes in peduncle colour and how it relates to berry ripeness with the overall goal being the development of a predictive model to determine when grapes are at their optimal ripeness..

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• Decompressing harvest and preserving wine identity (collaboration with SARDI)

2013-2016

 im: A E  valuate the extent to which late pruning can be used to cancel the effects of warming on vine development and berry composition; evaluate the feasibility of spreading harvest time and improving the balance between sugar, flavour and colour in fruit and wine using delayed pruning on commercial scale vineyards.

WINEMAKING Projects

Duration

• Objective measures of Australian sparkling wine style and quality

2013-2015

Aim: C  haracterise the relative importance of different styles of Australian sparkling wine; provide insight into consumers’ preferences for different sparkling wine styles and their sensory attributes; and develop objective measures by which sparkling wine quality can be determined. • Determination of key aroma compounds in Australian rosé wine

2012-2016

Aim: Evaluate aroma compounds in typical Australian rosé wines and to identify their characteristic aroma profiles using chemical and sensory studies. • Investigation of tropical impact odorants in Sauvignon Blanc wine

2014

Aim: Identify potential origins of tropical odorants in Sauvignon Blanc wines using fermentation studies and chemical analysis. • Influence of grape-derived CoA precursors on ester production in model systems

2014

Aim: E  xamine the effects of a number of grape metabolites on the production of volatile esters in model fermentation media. • Inclusion of material other than grape (MOG) in Vitis vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon fermentations: impacts on wine sensory profiles and chemical composition

2010 - ongoing

Aim: Analyse the effect of varying additions of MOG on Cabernet Sauvignon wines to allow winemakers to make prudent hand sorting and sorting equipment purchase decisions and manipulate red wine styles. • Linking winegrape berry sensory assessment characteristics to wine quality in a changing climate

2009 - ongoing

A i m :  Gauge the extent and types of berry sensory assessment (BSA) methods used in the Australian wine industry and understand what grape growers/winemakers believe the practicalities of using such assessments are; develop a scientific, quantitative, descriptive BSA; monitor the effects of ripening/harvest date and rootstock on grape skin, pulp and seed colour, and the aroma, flavour and textural attributes of wines to rigorously define the correlations between berry sensory and wine characteristics; compare BSA data between freshly-picked and frozen berries using the quantitative BSA method. • G  rape quality parameters that influence wine flavour and aroma: identification, confirmation and application to industry (led by the CSIRO in collaboration with the University of Adelaide)

2013 - 2017

Aim: Validate links between grape compounds and physical attributes with wine sensory properties that have been identified as drivers of consumer preference; to investigate a number of candidate grape compounds, genes and physical characteristics to determine whether measurements of these grape parameters can be applied as a robust objective measure of grape flavour potential in red varieties such as Cabernet Sauvignon; adapt this approach to Chardonnay by testing correlative measures in a large set of matching grape and wine samples; develop tools to evaluate the flux of grape metabolites through pathways in the fruit that lead to the production of important wine flavour and aroma compounds and to understand the timing of their production in fruit development. • Innovative wine production: responding to climate, water, market and economic challenges

2014-2016

Aim: P  rovide new knowledge, methods and technologies as well as highly skilled PhD and postdoctoral researchers to tackle the main challenges for industry: climate warming, water restrictions, changing consumer preferences and rising wine alcohol content, in order to help make the wines that consumers want. • Developing a fundamental understanding of the microbiological treatment of winery wastewater

2013-2016

Aim: Increase efficiency and cost effectiveness of biological treatment of winery wastewater by enhancing and improving the microbiological performance of treatment systems at the key stages of the annual treatment cycle. • What are the differences in the organoleptic properties of red and white wine made by wild yeast fermentation

2011-2014

Aim: Understand the nature and diversity of yeast populations present in uninoculated wine fermentations; characterise the dynamics (i.e., succession of individual genera and species) during fermentation and examine the feasibility and desirability of controlled inoculations of selected indigenous strains; to investigate changes in wine chemistry and attempt to relate fermentation sensory profiles to important species. • Microbiological and chemical characterisation of indigenous versus inoculated fermentations: the role of bacteria

2011-2014

Aim: Determine the diversity and dynamics of LAB populations involved in unincoculated or ‘wild’ malolactic fermentation; investigate the comparative effects of indigenous LAB in terms of fermentation reliability and the chemical modifications that influence the sensorial properties of wine. • Innovative strategies for understanding and manipulating wine mouthfeel

2012-2017

Aim: Provide a sound basis from which winemakers can work to manipulate white wine mouthfeel, including the investigation of the use of sweetness modifiers, the effects of mouthfeel enhancers such as specifically-inactivated yeast and the manipulation of mouthfeel/flavour and colour through maceration/tannin additions. • Development of Smart Bungs

2012-2015

Aim: Monitor the quality of wine by providing winemakers information about their wines through the use of remote sensors.

WINE MARKETING Projects

Duration

• Triple-C: Context and wine composition effects on Australian wine consumer emotions, mood and liking

2013-2016

Aim: Help the Australian industry co-design wines with consumers suited to specific dining experiences or seasons and that meet consumer expectations of quality and price. • Wine and food pairing preferences

V2 9N 2

2007 – ongoing

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Aim: Gain knowledge about the effect of food consumption on wine sensory parameters and consumer-preferred wine and food matches to provide knowledge to the food and wine service sector and ultimately enhance the food and wine consumer dining experience. • Anglo Australian-Mandarin Chinese Wine Lexicon: Opening the lines of wine communications between Australia and China

2011 - ongoing

Aim: P  roduce an Australian English-Chinese wine lexicon to feed the vast number of Chinese wine enthusiasts seeking knowledge, and assist industry in communicating with Chinese growers, winemakers, retailers and consumers to ameliorate the substantial cultural, custom and language differences and improve the university’s teaching/research training of its growing undergraduate/postgraduate Chinese students.

WINE & HEALTH Projects

Duration

• Grape sourced bioactives: a potential new treatment strategy for intestinal mucositis and colon cancer

2007 - ongoing

Aim: Provide insight into the potential for grape seed extract (GSE) to serve as a promising prophylactic treatment to combat intestinal mucositis (severe inflammation of the gut due to chemotherapy treatment), concomitantly expand options for superior anti-neoplastic agents against colon cancer beyond conventional chemotherapy. • Identification of new phenolic glucosides in grapes and wine

2012-2014

Aim: S  ynthesise and identify new phenolic glucosides in grapes and wine to allow us to further determine the potential health aspects to humans that consume wine in their diets.

WINE EDUCATION Projects

Duration

• Development and evaluation of an iPad application as an e-learning tool for technical wine assessment

2014-2015

Aim: Teach students to objectively assess wine sensory attributes using formal descriptive language and assessing students’ sensory experience throughout their degrees.

University of South Australia WINE MARKETING Projects

Duration

• The China Wine Barometer (CWB): a look into the future

2013-2015

Aim: C  ombines the existing Vinitrac® longitudinal consumer preference survey for China developed by Wine Intelligence with a survey developed by the Ehrenberg Bass Institute of Marketing Science to track the preferences, purchases, and usage occasions of Chinese wine consumers in a range of first and second tier cities twice a year over three years to provide Australia with improved and more accurate information concerning the Chinese wine marketing and better forecasting of developing trends in that market. • Understanding Chinese sensory preferences for varied wine styles

2013

Aim: U  nderstand both the Chinese consumer use of language to describe wines, grape varieties and flavours, and to measure the preferences existing Chinese wine drinkers have for the above to achieve a much clearer understanding of how to communicate a range of information about Australian wines to Chinese consumers. • They came, they liked, and they buy when they go home: Harnessing inbound tourists for wine export

2013-2014

Aim: D  etermine optimal touch-point(s) to maximise contacts with Chinese tourists to Australia who would otherwise have little or no contact with Australian wine during their visits, to introduce and educate them about Australian wine - effective marketing activities can then be tailored for the specific touchpoint(s); this project complements the ‘Australian Wine Export Tracker’ grant application from UniSA, which proposes a time-series index using wine consumers within China. The two projects can shed light on differences in behaviour between consumers who have versus those who have not been to Australia to aid in developing marketing initiatives to target Chinese tourists and guide collaborations between exporters and tourism bodies for mutual benefits. • Understanding Asian market demand using international students in Australia

2012-2014

Aim: Pilot an international student wine club at the University of South Australia to engage international students and grow their interest and knowledge of Australian wines with a view to rolling out a similar program out to Australian universities and perhaps other tertiary institutions. • The cellar door as a catalyst for wine consumption changes and multiplier of sales in the Australian wine market

2013-2014

Aim: Develop a better understanding of wine consumers’ purchase and consumption patterns before, during, and as a direct result of their visits to wineries, with the cellar door as the hub of their experience, to enable wineries to capitalise on their investment in marketing and improve their revenue and profit streams by findings ways to optimise direct wine sales at full margin. WVJ

Wine Industry Directory NOW ONLINE To access your Wine Industry Directory ONLINE* visit www.winebiz.com.au *Available only to those who have purchased/subscribed to the Wine Industry Directory

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Floating through vintage - what’s changed in 20 years By Cathy Howard

C

ontinuous, large-scale flotation has been used for many years in a number of larger wineries across Australia. In the mid 1990s, during my first full-time winemaking position at Orlando Wyndham’s Rowland Flat winery, in South Australia’s Barossa Valley, I observed the floating of large volumes of commercial white juices which was my first introduction to the process. Flotation is a relatively low-cost separation system for the clarification of juice. There is a potentially significant reduction in processing costs, largely due to the reduced cooling and warming requirements. With soaring power costs, the savings in energy overheads could be quite substantial over time. Musts do not need to be chilled down to the same extent during the crushing process, as temperatures coming out of the press at around 15°C are ideal for the flotation process. There is also no requirement to hold juices cold for 48 hours prior to racking, and no requirement for warming of these juices post cold settling for inoculation, leading to further savings in energy costs. Processing efficiencies are also enhanced with an orderly progression of juices through the winery from crushing to fermentation being achieved in a relatively short space of time of between 12-24 hours.

There are four basic steps in the juice flotation process: • • • •

de-pectinising the juice dosing in a clarifying agent (which commonly is gelatine along with bentonite, but gelatine could be replaced by other fining agents such as PVPP or skim milk) saturating the juice with gas bubbles of nitrogen or air at 5-6 bar removal of floating lees (‘flees’) by racking.

Batch flotation technology is now more readily accessible both in scale and in purchase cost for smaller to medium sized wineries. There are a number of wine industry suppliers with flotation units for sale including Winequip, Moog, Della Toffola, Tallarida Engineering, and Enoltech. Anecdotally, there has been an increase in the uptake of these mobile batch process flotation units in wineries of all sizes. To get a snapshot of how batch flotation is being used in wineries this vintage, I approached St Hallett Wines, in the Barossa Valley, which has been using flotation for the past four years, and Flying Fish Cove Winery, in Margaret River, which has just purchased a unit for the 2014 vintage.

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W I NE M A K I NG

Toby Barlow, Senior Winemaker, and Greg Schmidt, Cellar Manager, St Hallett Wines (Barossa Valley, SA): 4th Vintage Using Flotation The current crush at St Hallett is 3100 tonnes, with 25% of this being whites. The type of flotation unit used is a Juclas Easyfloat, capable of processing up to 30 kilolitres per hour. It is a mobile unit and is moved around to float individual tanks. The decision to purchase the machine was based on a combination of savings in fixed input costs (refrigeration and warming), improved production efficiencies, and improved juice quality due to lower SO2 requirements and minimal risk of juices fermenting while cold settling. According to Toby Barlow, the decision to go with this particular unit was based largely on word of mouth. The winery did trial a Della Toffola unit, but found that it was not well suited to St Hallett’s specific needs. “Price was not the largest factor here as I think it’s an easy payback regardless. The choice was more about sizing and suiting our needs,” he said. At the time of acquiring its flotation unit, there were not many other wineries utilising batch flotation in the Barossa, so St Hallett spent the first couple of years trialling and fine-tuning its flotation procedures in-house. Some figures from trials conducted in the 2012 vintage have been provided by Barlow in Table 1 and Table 2 (see page 26). He states, “As you can see there were still a few odd ones, and it seems not unusual every vintage to get the odd juice that doesn’t float super well. However, on balance, the averages, combined with lower SO2 levels in the juices, and the ability to rack and inoculate post juice assessment without having to cool or warm, is pretty handy. It’s also helpful for RDV efficiency as the lees haven’t been sitting around for as long and hence don’t tend to start fermenting.

The Juclas Easyfloat flotation unit being used at St Hallett Wines, in the Barossa Valley. The decision to purchase the unit was based on a combination of savings in refrigeration and warming, improved production efficiencies, and improved juice quality due to lower SO2 requirements and minimal risk of juices fermenting while cold settling We still have some work to do to get the average percentage lees down a bit, but having said that, Semillon isn’t exactly a model child for cold settling either.” St Hallett’s basic flotation procedure is four to six hours in tank pre-flotation, followed by the addition of 0.4g/L bentonite and 45ppm gelatine addition (Redoclar); nitrogen gas is injected into the outlet of the pump, providing a stream of fine bubbles. The time

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Table 1. Examples of variations in flotation trial results in the 2012 vintage using standard additions of 50ppm pectinase enzyme at press tray; 45ppm gelatine, 0.4g/L bentonite and injecting nitrogen at the front of the pump. Source: Toby Barlow, St Hallett Wines Variety

Post Press Volume

Total Time Press --> Float (hours)

Total Time Float --> Rack (hours)

Racked Volume

Racked Tank NTU

FLEES Volume

FLEES %

SBL

16364

6.00

11.00

15914

39.6

450

3%

SBL

9504

4.75

5.75

8691

36.2

813

9%

CHA

9287

6.00

10.00

8539

35

748

8%

CHA

3118

9.00

9.00

3033

50.8

85

3%

SBL

14891

5.00

6.00

13275

50

1616

11%

SBL

6992

5.00

5.00

6039

50

953

14%

SEM

11732

6.00

5.00

10680

35.4

1049

9%

Table 2. Summary from flotation trials in vintage 2012 (60 floated batches including Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc, Semillon, Chardonnay and Rose). Source: Toby Barlow, St Hallett Wines Measure Time Pre float (hrs)

Average

Minimum

Maximum

6.5

3.5

20.5

Time Float to Rack (hrs)

8.7

4.5

18.5

Juice Lees (%)

8.82

3.3

21.4

Racked Juice Turbidity (NTU)

52.5

22

189

from post float and pre-racking off the bottom is six to 12 hours. Greg Schmidt adds, “To give you an idea of how it has sped things up, we are

crushing and pressing at 6.00am, the free run and pressings are floated three to four hours after pressing is completed, the winemakers taste the juices and decide

on ferment blends, and the afternoon shift comes in and starts racking the juices into tanks for ferment. Flotation is a far better use of all of our resources, not just savings in power, but more particularly in tank turnaround. We have a dedicated flotation tank area in the winery, which is fill, float, empty and refill in a 24-hour period.” For Barlow, the key factors that affect the compaction of the ‘flees’, and therefore yield higher recovery rates from juices, are: • juice temperature • time on depectinising enzyme • time post float, prior to racking

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Perth (08) 9437 1033

Sydney (02) 9722 9400

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When asked about ullage requirement in the floating tanks, Schmidt commented that the winery works on a 20% ullage volume, but occasionally, some juices in some years do overflow due to larger ‘flees’ volumes. To manage the flees, he said, “cellar staff use squeegees to break up the foam on top and mix it in with the solids. It is mixed again while it is being pumped away, which works well”. In summarising the benefits that St Hallett Wines is achieving in using flotation, Barlow lists: • reduced total energy input requirements for both refrigeration and heating, and more importantly during vintage, greatly reducing peak load on the fridge plant • increased efficiency and time savings in tank cleaning, due to less tartrates to clean off compared with cold settling • improved production efficiencies with a reduction in labour costs to set-up lines and equipment, and the racking operation is simplified and quicker as it’s all off the bottom valve • from a winemaking process control, it facilitates faster decision making on juice allocations, and a more predictable juice lees percentage greatly assists in production allocation of tanks • juices are into the ferment phase quickly, with less monitoring of juices required by staff • from a juice quality viewpoint, there is a low risk of juice fermentation (and therefore less stress!); RDV juice lees within 24 hours of pressing (no fizzing!) • an overall reduction in total juice SO2 requirements and the ability to maintain lower free and total SO2 levels in the juice leading to further benefits downstream with quicker MLFs and better yeast acclimatisation.

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Simon Ding, Winemaker, Flying Fish Cove Winery, Margaret River, WA: A new comer to Flotation in 2014 The current crush at Flying Fish Winery is 1600 tonnes, with 50% of this being white. Flying Fish purchased a Juclas Easyfloat sized to process 10KL/hr for vintage this year. The main reasons that the contract processing winery acquired the unit were savings in input costs, labour costs and increased production efficiencies. These cost savings are not yet quantified, but could be quite substantial considering the rising cost of power alone in Western Australia. Simon Ding states, “There has been an immediate and very

Such are the efficiencies that St Hallet’s flotation unit has brought the winery it is able to fill, float, empty and refill the tanks it has dedicated to flotation in a 24-hour period.

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The first flotation results at Flying Fish Cove Winery using its new Juclas flotation unit on Margaret River Semillon from vintage 2014.

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Australia

Deltagen Australia VIC (03) 9801 7133 Email: michaelw@deltagen.com.au

noticeable increase in production efficiency. Juices move quickly through the crushing, pressing, and clarification stages, and are into ferment within 24 hours. The volume of RDV work has also been drastically reduced, freeing up cellar staff to work on other vintage cellar activities”. As with St Hallett, word of mouth has been the most important decision-making tool for Ding. After lengthy discussions with the winemakers at Credaro Wines and Howard Park Wines, who have been using a Juclas Easyfloat unit for the past two to three years, he was satisfied with their feedback and didn’t research other types of flotation units. He has received a number of handy hints from other wineries, such as Howard Park not using gelatine, to achieve higher NTUs post floating, specifically for barrel fermentation. Flying Fish has trialled flotation without gelatine, but with varying degrees of success. The key to success here seems to be linked to juice temperature and pH. For its first vintage, Flying Fish is operating the unit following the supplier’s recommendations, using 30ppm gelatine, and 100ppm bentonite. It did start off using the supplier recommended bentonite, Flottabent, but is now using Volclay without any visible difference between the performance of the two. Its basic procedure is to depectinase the juice, then float two to three hours later. Floated juices are left for approximately 12 hours (overnight) before racking off the bottom. So far, there have been no major problems, and Ding said that the winery is “generally achieving good clarity with NTUs as low as 8, and as high as 60-70NTU. These higher NTUs have been when lower rates of gelatine have been used combined with shorter times between floating and racking”. Recovery rates with Semillon, as expected, are the lowest at 90-95%, but far better than if the Semillon had been cold settled. Sauvignon Blanc, Chenin Blanc and Chardonnay are all yielding similar recovery rates of 93-97%. Ding added, “We have tried higher rates of gelatine for Semillon, up to 50ppm, but with mixed results”. Overall, Ding and the Flying Fish team are very pleased with the initial results from their first use of flotation, particularly with recovery rates in Semillon and Sauvignon Blanc, as both these varieties in Margaret River can have up to 10-15% lees volumes after 48 hours of cold settling in some years. Conclusion Flotation is another case of ‘what is old is new again’ in winemaking. A juice clarification process that has been used in Australia for at least the past two decades is being revitalised, resized and remodelled to meet the needs of smaller to medium wineries, and consequently the modified version of flotation is being taken up by an increasing number of these wineries. There are significant advantages with flotation over traditional cold settling. Process flow efficiencies are a major benefit at all levels in a winery from the team on the cellar floor to the winemaking team. There are significant savings in energy costs, particularly with reductions in cooling and warming requirements, and then there are the savings in labour costs. Flotation is not a simple ‘set and forget’ process and individual wineries will need to trial and fine-tune their flotation techniques to suit their seasonal, regional and varietal variations. Juices that are a challenge to float in some years are not a problem in others, and fine-tuning in-house is the key to success, along with the sharing of ‘handy hints’ and information, as always, among wineries in the same region. Cathy Howard is winemaker and, together with husband Neil, proprietor of Whicher Ridge Wines, near Busselton, in Western Australia, and has been making wine for the past 20 years. She also consults part time to some wineries in the Geographe region. WVJ

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MA Silva Corks Australasia Pty Ltd. | PO Box 69 - Maitland - NSW 2320 phone: 02 4932 0165 - email: info @masilva.com.au - www.masilva.com.au


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What’s new in closures? We put out an invitation to Australia’s cork and closure suppliers to tell us about their latest innovations. By Sonya Logan

T

he Australian wine industry’s acceptance of screwcaps seems more akin to a near-capitulation based on the shelves of your average bottleshop. Spotting a cork could almost be a game like parents play with young kids to help pass time on long car trips, like eye spy or ‘Spotto’, a competition a friend of mine plays with her daughter when they’re in the car to be the first to spot a yellow vehicle. But, as we know, other parts of the world aren’t quite so captivated by the screwcap, and there are still certain Australian products for which their producers still favour closures over screwcaps. Meanwhile, the cork and alternative closure companies are continuing to innovate to retain and win back their customers. Three of them are Cork Supply, Vinocor and Nomacorc, who responded to our invitation to the nation’s closure suppliers to bring their latest developments to the attention of our readers. Cork Supply Group

The Cork Supply Group (CSG) of companies is pioneering what it has described as an “evolution in the natural cork industry”. CSG is “well under way” with the development of an automated system to detect sensorial and physical defects in natural corks. The system forms part of the next stage of its DS100 program (Dry Soak 100% inspection) which the companies launched in 2011 – an inspection process in which every cork is reviewed individually and, if necessary, rejected for TCA and other sensory flaws. “As the DS100 is a labour intensive and expensive process, the next stage in this DS process is to automate the process to increase volume availability of 100% inspected corks for sensory neutrality,” explained Jochen Michalski, president of the CSG. The automated, non-destructive process, DS100+, is due for commissioning in the fourth quarter of 2014.

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In the latter half of this year, the Cork Supply Group of companies is aiming to commission an automated inspection process in which every cork will be reviewed individually and, if necessary, rejected for TCA and other sensory flaws. “This is a game changer for the cork industry and positions the Cork Supply Group well in advance of the rest of the cork industry” Michalski said. “We have a team of in-house research scientists that have been working on the development of this automated process for many years and we are in the final stages of this research, allowing for the machine build. “We are very proud of our team’s achievements in this ground-breaking technology,” Michalski said. Antonio Ferreira, product development director at CSG, explained that a laboratory prototype of the DS100+ currently existed, but it had a low throughput. With the assistance of partner companies that W i n e & V i t i c u ltur e Jo ur na l MARC H /APRIL 2014

specialise in analytics and robotics, the company was planning to unveil an industrial-level application by the end of the year, he said. CSG is also further developing the DS100+ technology to physically analyse (DSX100) corks. Ana Cristina Lopes Cardoso, CSG’s head of research and development in Porto, Portugal, said DSX100 used non-invasive analysis to provide information about the internal structure of the cork. By using the system, Cork Supply aims to be able to classify corks based on their external and internal structures. Data gleaned from the method is being run through a computer system to establish sorting parameters. “What we are finding is that each V29N2


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The Diam 30 is the first cork closure to guarantee sensorial and seal integrity for 30 years. cork has its own distinct structure or ‘fingerprint’ and there can be relevant variation between corks made from the same production lot of cork bark. The complex classification system is an attempt to take this variation, which has always been a challenge for the cork industry, to categorise it and make sense of it,” Lopes Cardoso said. She added the new system could enable CSG to offer wineries natural corks with the same uniform structure and consistent oxygen transfer rates (OTR) as alternative closures. “The ultimate goal is to develop cork screening technology that provides the most consistent closure that will surpass rival closure technologies,” Lopes Cardoso said. The patent pending system will “harness, qualify and categorically sort the variety Mother Nature already makes available”, she said. “As the computing and technology advances tremendously, it is our task to tailor-make the new technologies to the cork industry,” Lopes Cardoso said. CSG will offer more details about how the technology will be implemented in the near future. One possible application is that the company could pinpoint which type of cork would fit a specific wine. “Our vision is to do individual cork testing, and to assure bottle by bottle, because every bottle has to be assured for our customers,” she said.

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Lopes Cardoso has been studying cork production since 1998. She said it was an exciting time to be in the industry, when new technology could dramatically improve how corks are produced. “It’s very exciting and very stressful at the same time, because no-one has tried to do this individual analysis, and we produce hundreds of millions of corks a year,” she said. “We are working beyond the stateof-the-art technology for the sensory, for the visual and for the structural analysis.” Diam Describing it as “one of the most exciting developments in our industry”, Diam Bouchage, France, has released the Diam 30 - the first cork closure to guarantee sensorial and seal integrity for 30 years. The release of the Diam 30 follows many years of investment in research and quantitative testing by the team of scientists at Diam Bouchage France. The company says the Diam 30 offers low yet controlled permeability rates unrivalled by any other closure on the market, guaranteeing controlled OTR’s and a neutral sensory impact for every cork, every bottle, and every glass. “The manufacturing process assures absolute consistency, W i n e & V i t i c u ltur e Jo ur na l MARC H /APRIL 2014

giving controlled, consistent ageing throughout the wine’s entire cellaring period,” said Dominique Tourneix, chief executive of Diam Bouchage. “This innovation will help wineries avoid delicate, risky re-corking procedures after 20 years of cellaring. “In addition, the patented Diamant® process guarantees every Diam closure will be free of TCA plus more than 150 other undesirable molecules known to cause off aromas and flavour modification.” Tourneix said the Diamant process and development of the Diam 30 represented an investment of greater than AUD$80 million. “All of this adds even further peace of mind for the winemaker, marketer, distributor and consumer knowing that when choosing a wine with a Diam they are assured consistency, without exception. “In my 25 years of dedicated wine cork supply business, I had all but conceded the perfect wine seal wouldn’t eventuate in my life time. The Diam range is, however, that wine seal. Diam is truly the next generation in the sealing of wine having been developed and still today managed by a team of food and beverage scientists dedicated solely to the wine industry. “Now with literally thousands of winemakers globally confirming Diam’s long-term faultless performance, the search has ended.” Diam is distributed in Australia by Vinocor. Nomacorc Alternative wine bottle closure producer Nomacorc has become the first to create a plant-based closure, Select® Bio, using Braskem’s I’m greenTM polyethylene (PE). Braskem is the largest producer of thermoplastic resins in the Americas and a leading biopolymers producer, manufacturing ‘green’ PE from sugarcane-based ethanol, a 100 percent renewable material. I’m green PE not only removes CO2 from the atmosphere due to its renewable feedstock but also contributes to reducing the use of fossil fuel. For each tonne produced, green PE sequestrates more than two tons of CO2, a significant gain compared with traditional polyethylene. Nomacorc says its Select Bio closures are 100% recyclable and mirror the company’s current Select Series portfolio in oxygen management performance. Dr Olav Aagaard, Nomacorc’s V29N2


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principal scientist, said that as with other Select Series products, Select Bio minimised the environmental impact of wines by preventing spoilage and waste from wine faults such as oxidation and reduction. “By consistently delivering the right amount of oxygen into the bottle using a carbon neutral closure, sustainability-minded wineries will now be able to deliver their wines just as they intend,” Aagaard said. “Braskem is a strong organisation with a history of creating reliable, sustainable polymer materials for leading manufacturers around the world,” he said. “By using Braskem’s sugar-cane based green polyethylene, we can confidently offer to our customers a carbon neutral wine closure that will not only be consistent and optimal for their wines, but also now allows them to create a more sustainable packaging solution.” Select Bio was awarded the Innovation Challenge ‘New Technology’ award at SIMEI-ENOVITIS in Italy late last year. “As an industry focused around farming and ecology, we recognise the importance of developing our closures in a smart and sustainable

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Select Bio is 100 percent recyclable, made using renewable, plant-based biopolymers derived from sugar cane and mirror Nomacorc’s current Select Series portfolio in oxygen management performance. way,” said Lars von Kantzow, president and chief executive of Nomacorc. “We are extremely proud to be cited for our hard work in developing the

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The influence of alcohol on the sensory perception of red wines By Ellena S. King1, Randall L. Dunn2 and Hildegarde Heymann1* 1 Department of Viticulture & Enology, the University of California, Davis, One Shields Ave, Davis, California, United States of America 2 Dunn Vineyards, P O Box 886, Angwin, California, United States of America *Corresponding author: hheymann@ucdavis.edu

Researchers from the US assessed the effects of alcohol levels on the quality ratings of wines during professional wine assessments using 24 commercial Cabernet Sauvignon wines ranging from 12-16%v/v, revealing particular implications for wine judging. Introduction

A

lcohol is a major component of wine and is often used to categorise wine products. In the United States, a wine must have a minimum alcohol strength of 8.5%v/v, except in some cool climate areas where it can contain as low as 7%v/v; ice wine must have a minimum of 15%v/v potential alcohol strength in the must, and a final alcohol content of no less than 5.5%v/v; fortified wines must contain at least 12%v/v prior to the addition of grape spirit1. In all cases, only a minimum alcohol limit is established. This may or may not be a good thing, as there have been reports of increased alcohol strength in wines over the past 20 years around the world2-4. This is, in part, due to climate change and as a response to market demands for more fruit-forward, riper wine styles3. A ‘table wine’ in the US must be between 11-14% alcohol. Ethanol, the main component of wine alcohol, affects wine flavour in the following ways: it enhances ‘bitterness’5-8; contributes ‘hotness’9; can alter the perception of ‘sweetness’5,8; reduces ‘astringency’6 (unless in the presence of high tannin concentrations10, and has little or no effect on ‘viscosity’ or wine ‘body’9,11-13. Ethanol is also capable of suppressing ‘fruitiness’ in wines by masking the perception of esters14,15. Given that ethanol can alter the sensory profiles of wine, it was hypothesised that the order in which wines are assessed (based on alcohol level) would influence wine perception. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of wine alcohol levels on quality ratings during professional wine assessments, where there are compounding factors of palate and memory fatigue. To do this, the sensory profiles of 24 commercial Cabernet Sauvignon wines, ranging from 12-16%v/v, were assessed by trained panellists in conditions mimicking wine show judging using three wine orders: low alcohol wines (less than 14%v/v) before high alcohol wines

(greater than 14%v/v) (Lo-Hi), high alcohol wines before low alcohol wines (Hi-Lo) and randomised (Random). The results of this study were published in more detail in King (Random) et al.16 Materials and Methods Wines All wines were commercially-available, and contained a majority of Cabernet Sauvignon (minimum 56% Cabernet Sauvignon). Twenty-four wines were included in the study, 19 wines from California representing six different American Viticultural Areas (AVAs), and five wines from Washington State representing two different AVAs. The wines ranged in vintage from 2000 to 2009, in price from US$3 to US$125, and in alcohol concentrationbetween 12%v/v to 16%v/v. The wines were sorted into low alcohol concentration alcohol wines (less than 14%v/v, n=8) and high alcohol wines (greater than 14%v/v, n=16). Sensory analyses Thirty-three panellists (11 males) aged 21-73 years old undertook five 90-minute group training sessions and 12 onehour individual assessment sessions. For the formal assessment, all 24 wines were assessed in a session. Three attributes were rated: overall aroma intensity (aroma only), overall flavour intensity (in-mouth assessment) and alcohol perception (using diluted vodka as an aroma and in-mouth reference standard). The intensity of each attribute was rated using an unstructured 15cm line scale anchored by wordings of ‘low’ and ‘high’. Panellists performed this task three times, over three days, where each time the wines were presented in different orders: low alcohol wines (less than 14%v/v) before high alcohol wines (greater than 14%v/v)

Figure 1. All 24 US Cabernet Sauvignon wines assessed in the study.

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(Lo-Hi), high alcohol wines before low alcohol wine (Hi-Lo) and randomised (Random). A modified Williams Latin square was used to randomise the wine order within each wine set (or in the case of the Random group, for all wines) for all panellists. Panellists were required to wait 30 seconds between samples and cleanse their palates with water and unsalted crackers. SAS (Version 9.2, SPSS Inc. IBM, IL, USA), JMP (Version 8.0, SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA) and XLSTAT (Version 2009.3.01 Addinsoft, NY, USA) software were used for all data analyses. Results Labelled alcohol concentration All wines were analysed for alcohol concentration in triplicate using a NIR-based Alcolyzer Wine M/ME (Anton Parr, Austria) instrument. There were significant discrepancies (p<0.05) between the stated alcohol concentration on the label and the measured alcohol concentration in the wine. In general, wines below 14%v/v were usually lower than the stated label alcohol content, as opposed to wines above 14%v/v, which were usually much higher than the stated label content (Figure 3). Similar results were found by Alston et al.3, who stated that “label claims appear systematically to understate the alcohol content of Californian wines… [which] may reflect a perception that higher alcohol content diminishes the consumer value of certain wines” (p.158). Producers in the US are allowed a 1.5%v/v leeway on the label for wines less than 14%v/v, and a 1%v/v leeway for wines over 14%v/v17. However, two wines in this study exceeded the legal thresholds (Figure 3). Given that these wines were in the correct tax category, this regulation is unlikely to be enforced. No wines illegally crossed the 14%v/v tax threshold. Sensory analysis There was very high reproducibility of scores amongst the panellists in the sensory analysis. The alcohol perception of the wines was very closely related to the measured wine

Figure 3. Difference between the labelled and measured alcohol concentrations (%v/v) of 24 US Cabernet Sauvignon wines ± standard deviation (n=3). A positive value represents a higher measured alcohol concentration than what was stated on the label and a negative value represents a lower measured alcohol concentration than what was stated on the label. The solid vertical line represents the US tax threshold of 14%v/v and the dashed horizontal lines represent the US legal alcohol variance17. lalcohol concentrations (r=0.94, p<0.05), as expected (see Table 1 for more details). Given that a large number of wines were assessed in one sitting, and across the three different wine orders, this result is likely a testament to the expertise of the highly trained panel, given the high level of training. The data were analysed using a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) testing for the effects of wine and wine order. There were significant differences (p<0.05) amongst the wines for all three sensory attributes, as well as among the wine orders for alcohol perception. The mean sensory ratings for each wine in each wine order are shown in Figure 4 (see page 36) and the correlations of the sensory attributes and measured alcohol concentration for each wine order are shown in Table 1. For alcohol perception, all wine orders were significantly positively correlated with measured alcohol concentration (Table 1). Low alcohol wines were similarly rated across the wine orders (Figure 4c), however, there were significantly higher ratings of the high alcohol wines in the Lo-Hi wine order (dashed line, Figure 4c) compared with the other wine orders. Multiple regression analysis was performed using measured alcohol concentrations as the covariate. Overall aroma and flavour intensities were significantly different (p<0.05) for wine order by measured alcohol concentration interactions. Table 1. Pearson’s correllation values between the sensory attributes and measured alcohol concentration for the three wine orders based on 24 Cabernet Sauvignon wines rated by 33 trained panellists.

Figure 2. Panellists assessed 24 Cabernet Sauvignon wines in isolated, ventilated tasting booths at the J. Lohr Sensory Laboratory, UC Davis. Wines were presented at a constant volume (30mL) at room temperature, in clear, covered ISO tasting glasses with random three digit codes that differed for each panellist. FIZZ software (Version 2.1, Biosystèmes, France) was used for the collection of all data. V2 9N 2

Lo-Hi

Hi-Lo

Random

Overall aroma itensity

0.10

-0.62*

-0.36

Overall flavour intensity

0.46*

-0.45*

-0.11

Alcohol perception

0.90*

0.82*

0.88*

*Indicates significance at p<0.05. Critical r-value is -0.404 to 0.404 for degrees of freedom (n-2 = 22)

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Figure 4. Mean intensity scores of a) overall aroma intensity; b) overall flavour intensity and c) alcohol perception by measured alcohol concentration for 24 US Cabernet Sauvignon wines rated in wine show judging conditions in three wine orders: Lo-Hi (low alcohol wines [less than 14%v/v], before high alcohol wines [greater than 14%v/v]), Hi-Lo (the inverse of Lo-Hi) and Random.

This is shown in the difference in slope directions between the wine orders in Figure 4a and 4b. For overall aroma intensity, the Hi-Lo wine order was significantly negatively correlated with measured alcohol concentration (thick black line Figure 4a), whereas there was little to no relationship for the Lo-Hi and Random wine orders (Table 1, Figure 4a). For overall flavour intensity, the Hi-Lo wine order was significantly negatively correlated with measured alcohol concentration (thick black line, Figure 4b), whereas the Lo-Hi wine order was significantly positively correlated (dashed line, Figure 4 b) and the Random wine order had no relationship (Table 1, Figure 4c). In summary, the latter wines assessed in the forced wine orders (Hi-Lo and Lo-Hi) were rated significantly higher in overall aroma and flavour intensities than the earlier wines, which may indicate a carry-over effect from previous samples, despite adequate rest breaks and palate cleansers. This is somewhat contrary to the expected results because of memory and palate fatigue after assessment of 24 red wines. The intensities of the latter wines in the assessment would be expected to decrease as the assessor pays less attention to the wines and experiences sensory adaption (where a panellist’s training has reduced his or her sensitivity or responsiveness as a function of constant stimulation18). Limitations Commercial Cabernet Sauvignon wines were used in this study, with varying degrees of alcohol concentration, to encompass the range of sensory profiles exhibited by wines made from grapes with varying levels of flavour ripeness. In fact, the alcohol concentrations of the wines are most likely not indicative of the sugar levels at which the grapes were harvested. Techniques such as blending, watering back and

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dealcoholisation may have occured during the winemaking process, which would affect the flavour ripeness and balance of the grapes and resulting wine. The wines used in this study were made from grapes grown in different regions, by producers with different winemaking techniques and oak regimes. As such, it is not possible to conclude that the differences amongst the wines are solely due to alcohol concentration. Despite the variation in the included wines, the results of this study demonstrate the importance of considering alcohol levels on red wine perception in sensory analyses and wine judging competitions. The wines used in this study were skewed towards higher alcohol concentrations (mean of 14.2%v/v ± 1.1). Two-thirds of the wines were more than 14%v/v, with twice as many wines in the high alcohol set than the low alcohol set. This resulted in the accumulation of more data concerning high alcohol wines. In future, it would be beneficial to repeat the experiment with a balanced design and an equal number of low and high alcohol wines. However, the wines included in the study are representative of current market trends for red wines, particularly in California, towards higher alcohol concentrations. Despite this, the Washington State wines included in the study had a higher mean alcohol concentration (15.5%v/v ± 0.2) than those from Napa Valley (14.7%v/v ± 1.0). Conclusion Wine perception differs significantly depending on the order in which the wines are assessed, especially when a large number of wines are tasted simultaneously. These results indicate that alcohol concentration needs to be considered when professionally assessing wine quality, such as in wine judging competitions. Wine judging competitions serve as internal quality indicators for the wine industry, and, thus, it is important that all wine styles are adequately represented. Given that alcohol levels have been shown to influence sensory profiles in this study, particularly when tasted in different wine orders, the authors suggest that wine show organisers consider separating the assessment

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of wines with vastly different alcohol levels. This may involve assessing low and high alcohol wines in two sittings, or assessing them in different categories. For full-bodied red wines, a division of above or below 14%v/v is consistent with the US federal wine tax categories, and this study has demonstrated the differences in perception of Cabernet Sauvignon wines around this level. Acknowledgements Thank you to Kevin Scott and the UC Davis wine sensory team and to all sensory panellists for their time and effort. This project was funded by The University of California, Davis; George Murray Scholarship, The University of Adelaide; Beckstoffer Vineyards; Bob Egelhoff; Charles Krug, Peter Mondavi Family Winery; Cone Tech, Inc; Cathy Corison, Corison Winery; Cornerstone Cellars; Dunn Vineyards; Frog’s Leap Winery; Miner Family Winery; Raymond Vineyards and Cellars; Silver Oak Cellars; Woodward Canyon Winery, and various other wine industry donors. References 1 OIV. [Internet]. 2012. Products definition. Available at: http://www.oiv.int/oiv/ info/endefinitionproduit.

Duchêne, E. and Schneider, C. (2005) Grapevine and climatic changes: A glance at the situation in Alsace. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 25:93-99. 2

3 Alston, J.M.; Fuller, K.B., Lapsley, J.T. and Soleas, G. (2011) Too much of a good thing? Causes and consequences of increases in sugar content of California wine grapes. Journal of Wine Economics 6:135-159.

Godden, P. and Muhlack, R. (2010) Trends in the composition of Australian wine: 1984-2008. Australian and New Zealand Grapegrower & Winemaker 558:4761. 4

5 Scinska, A.; Koros, E.; Habrat, B.; Kukwa, A.; Kostowski, W. and Bienkowski, P. (2000) Bitter and sweet components of ethanol taste in humans. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 60: 199-206.

Fontoin, F.; Saucier, C.; Teissedre, P.L. and Glories, Y. (2008). Effect of ph,

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ethanol and acidity on astringency and bitterness of grape seed tannin oligomers in model wine solution. Food Quality and Preference 19, 286-291. 7 Demiglio, P. and Pickering, G.J. (2008) The influence of ethanol and pH on the taste and mouthfeel sensations elicited by red wine. Food, Agriculture & Environment 6:143-150. 8 Panovská, Z.; Šedivá, A. Jedelská M, Pokorný, J (2008) Effect of ethanol on interactions of bitter and sweet tastes in aqueous solutions. Czech Journal of Food Sciences 26:139-145. 9 Gawel, R.; van Sluyter, S. and Waters, E.J. (2007) The effects of ethanol and glycerol on the body and other sensory characteristics of Riesling wines. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research 13:38-45. 10 Obreque-Slíer, E.; Peña-Neira, A. and López-Solís, R. (2010) Enhancement of both salivary protein−enological tannin interactions and astringency perception by ethanol. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 58:3729-3735. 11 Nurgel, C. and Pickering, G. (2005) Contribution of glycerol, ethanol and sugar to the perception of viscosity and density elicited by model white wines. Journal of Texture Studies 36:303-323. 12 Pickering, G.J.; Heatherbell, D.A.; Vanhanen, L.P. and Barnes, M.F. (1998) The effect of ethanol concentration on the temporal perception of viscosity and density in white wine. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 49:306-318. 13 Runnebaum, R.C.; Boulton, R.B.; Powell, R.L. and Heymann, H. (2011) Key constituents affecting wine body – an exploratory study. Journal of Sensory Studies 26:62-70. 14 Escudero, A.; Campo, A.; Fariña, L.; Cacho, J. and Ferreira, V. (2007) Analytical characterisation of the aroma of five premium red wines. Insights into the role of odour families and the concept of fruitiness in wine. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55:4501-4510. 15 Goldner, M.C.; Zamora, M.C.; Lira, P.D.L.; Gianninoto, H. and Bandoni, A.(2009) Effect of ethanol level in the perception of aroma attributes and the detection of volatile compounds in red wine. Journal of Sensory Studies 24:243257. 16 King, E.S.; Dunn, R.L. and Heymann, H. (2013) The influence of alcohol on the sensory perception of red wines. Food Quality and Preference 28:235-243. 17 US Government Printing Office. [Internet]. 2011. Title 27 - Alcohol, tobacco products and firearms. Chapter I – Alcohol and tobacco tax and trade bureau, department of the treasury. Subchapter A – Liquors. Part 4 - Labeling and advertising of wine. Subpart D - Labeling Requirements for Wine. Section 4.36 - Alcoholic content. Available at: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title27vol1/xml/CFR-2011-title27-vol1-sec4-36.xml. 18 Lawless, H.T. and Heymann, H.(2010) Sensory evaluation of food: Principles and practices, 2nd ed. New York: Springer.

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Italian inspiration for novelPutting the sparkle in sparkling rosé Nero d’Avola making By Brad Hickey, Brash Higgins Wine Co., McLaren Vale, South Australia

In keeping with the approaching festive season, this issue’s tasting featured sparkling rosés, 28 in all, ranging from non-vintage examples through to one from the 2003 vintage. the tasting panel identified the top wine or wines from the non-vintage entries, those from the 2012 to 2009 vintages and the 2008 to 2003 vintages (see page 102-106 for the complete results), with the producers behind three of those wines revealing what went into their making.

Mclaren Vale-based Nero d’avola producer Brad hickey travelled to sicily, in Italy, in 2011 to investigate local growing and vinification of the variety. In addition to collecting ideas about how to maximise Nero d’avola’s potential on home soil, Brad was inspired to use amphorae as a winemaking technique.

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hen I moved to McLaren Vale six years ago, after a decade spent buying wine for restaurants in New York City, I started thinking about new varieties we could plant on our vineyard that would not only thrive in McLaren Vale, but make for interesting drinking as well. The drought years had been making life hard, even for our Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon plantings, and we felt we needed to find some better suited grapes to bring onboard. Nero d’Avola fitted the bill. In 2009, Brash Higgins obtained some of the first cuttings of the Sicilian red winegrape Nero d’Avola available in Australia from Binjara Vine Nursery (formerly Chalmers Nursery), in Euston, New South Wales. Nero d’Avola is drought and heat tolerant to a certain degree, ripens late and thrives in its native Mediterranean climate, so it seemed like a good fit for coastal McLaren Vale and our evermounting heat and water issues. VItICultuRE 2009-2010 In October 2009, we dedicated a halfhectare research block on our Omensetter

Vineyard to Nero d’Avola. Soils in this block are relatively shallow (40-50cm) red brown clay loam over a deep, soft marl limestone. In the winter of 2009, we asked Dr Nuredin Habili, of Plant Diagnostics, at the Waite campus of The University of Adelaide, to perform a virus test on our Shiraz rootstock, which was planted in 1997. The results came back affirmative to graft Nero d’Avola. Field grafting was conducted later, using two buds per vine on the Matura 1 clone from the Matura Group, in Italy. The clones grew exceptionally well, exhibiting great vigour and not needing any irrigation until the first week of December, followed by small amounts on a regular basis until midFebruary. Vines were trained on a single cordon trellis, and the cordon was filled by February 2010. We noted that foliage was prone to powdery mildew. 2010-11 The first fruit bearing year, we pruned the lateral growth hard from the main cordon back to basal buds. Vines grew strongly, with many double buds providing two shoots per node. These were shootthinned back to one shoot per node. A lazy ballerina trellising system was used,

Mclaren Vale’s Brash higgins obtained some of the first cuttings of Nero d’avola available in australia from Binjara Vine Nursery (formerly Chalmers Nursery) at Euston, in New south Wales in 2009 and planted half a hectare. V27N6

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Josef Chromy Wines in tasmania’s tamar Valley. Jeremy Dineen Winemaker/general manager Josef Chromy Wines tamar Valley, tasmania Wine: Pepik NV sparkling Rosé (RRP$27.00/bottle) VItICultuRE Fruit for the Pepik NV Sparkling Rosé is estate-grown from our vineyard at Relbia, 15km south of Launceston, Tasmania. The vineyard contains 61ha of vines and has an elevation of 85-170m with north and north-east facing slopes. The soils range from deep, black, selfmulching clay to shallow brown clay with high gravel content. The mean January temperature for the area is 16.7°C. It receives an average of 679mm per annum, with 94 rains days. The vines enjoy 1050 heat degree days, and 1758 sunshine hours (October-April). The average age of the vines in the vineyard is 13 years, which are on a mixture of own roots and rootstocks. The blend for the Pepik is usually Pinot dominant with some Chardonnay. The Pinot clones planting in the vineyard comprise D2V5, D5V12, G5V15, G8V3, G8V7, H7V15, 115 and 114. V 2w7wNw. 6 winebiz.com.au

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The Chardonnay clones are I10V1 and Penfolds. The vines are trained to Scott-Henry and VSP trellises and have a vine density of 3220 per hectare and 2415 per hectare, respectively. All vines are crown thinned every year. Shoot and/or bunch thinning is carried out depending on the year. The amount of drip irrigation, which is sourced from our on-farm dam and nearby river, depends on the season. A permanent sward is grown in the midrows to reduce erosion with farm-produced composts also applied. The vines are mainly hand cane-pruned with limited mechanical spur pre-pruning carried out. Botrytis is the biggest disease risk to the vines, which yield an average of 11.5 tonnes per hectare. WINEMaKINg The hand-picked Pinot Noir is whole bunch pressed, giving a free run of usually 500L/tonne and pressings of 200L/tonne. The hand-picked and/or machine-picked Chardonnay is pressed to 500L/t free run and 200L/t pressings. The pressings are fined separately while the base juices are settled and combined prior to the primary ferment. Malolactic fermentation is not carried out. W i n e & V i t i c u lt u r e J o u r n a l N O V E M B E R / D E C E M B E R 2 0 1 2

Josef Chromy Wines winemaker and general manager Jeremy Dineen. The juice is cold stabilised, partially heat stabilised and cross-flow filtered. The secondary ferment is commenced in tank and bottled when the viable cell count has reached its target (tirage ferment approximately 15°C). The wine is bottle aged for 12-18 months prior to disgorging. The dosage liqueur contains Pinot Noir table wine to ensure a consistent salmon pink colour. It is dosed to contain a final sugar content of ▶ 10-12g/L. w w w. w i n e b i z . c o m . a u

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Tannin: impacts and opportunities along the value chain By Paul Smith, Keren Bindon, Jacqui McRae, Stella Kassara and Dan Johnson

Managing director Dan Johnson

Studying tannins is challenging. Their behaviour is rarely predictable; results can be contradictory and experiments often seem to generate just as many questions as they answer. But if you step back and take a broader view of the tannin research conducted over the past few years, you can see that real progress has been made in understanding tannin at key points across the grape and wine value chain, with practical outcomes for growers and winemakers. AT A GLANCE Recent tannin research has delivered: • Simple measurement of tannin and colour in grapes and wine • Breakthroughs in understanding the extraction of grape tannin during fermentation • Knowledge of the influence of grape maturity on eventual wine colour and tannin • Practical winemaking techniques that can be used to manipulate tannin • New understanding of what happens to tannin as wine ages and the importance of tannin structure for sensory properties • Insights into factors influencing colour stability

From grape tannin to wine tannin

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• grapes with a low overall tannin concentration and grapes with a higher seed-to-skin tannin ratio were more affected by this removal of tannin by pulp • seed tannin was shown to be less extractable than skin tannin during fermentation, but this varied significantly between seasons. Influence of grape maturity The effects of grape ripening on factors affecting extractability were also investigated (Bindon et al. 2013a). Riper grapes were associated with: • increased total skin tannin concentration which could lead to higher wine tannin • higher cell wall porosity which can result in a greater amount of total skin tannin trapped in the pores • higher anthocyanin, which appears to enable the extraction of tannin • higher sugars leading to higher ethanol levels, which may increase tannin and colour extraction.

ine tannin originates from the tannin present in grapes; however, the journey from grape tannin to wine tannin is not a straightforward one. Grape tannin needs to be extracted from solid grape material into must during fermentation, and then undergoes chemical rearrangements to reach its final wine tannin form. This is why it is not a simple task to predict eventual wine tannin by measuring grape tannin – something winemakers would like to be able to do.

Results from these studies of extractability have highlighted the role of cell wall material in influencing tannin concentration during fermentation. The new understanding gained could lead to the development of methods to predict the extractability of tannin for a particular batch of grapes.

Understanding extractability The extractablity step in the process – getting the tannins out of the grape solid material and into must – has been investigated, with a focus on the role played by grape cell walls (AWRI publications #1181, #1236, #1280 and #1458). A number of factors were discovered that influence how easily tannin is extracted:

Influence of oxygen on wine tannin and colour As soon as grapes are crushed, chemical reactions start taking place that continue through fermentation and ageing and eventually determine the wine’s final colour and taste. One key example is the reactions that convert grape tannins into more complex wine tannins. Oxygen has long been known to modify the astringency of red wines, but the chemical basis of this observation was unclear. Winemaking experiments were conducted to investigate what happened when air was injected into red wine fermentations. Results showed important effects of air additions on tannin concentration and chemical structure, with accompanying sensory effects. In particular, air reduced the concentration and size of tannins, increased stable colour formation and reduced the astringency of the wines compared with the wines not treated with air (Day et al. 2013). This new knowledge provides practical options for winemakers to influence tannins during fermentation.

• skin and seed tannins were found to interact with grape cell wall material and this interaction limited the amount of tannin extracted during fermentation • cell wall material interacted more strongly with seed tannin than skin tannin, most likely due to differences in their structure • suspended flesh (pulp) material was shown to bind and remove tannin as lees during settling after the tannin had been extracted during fermentation

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Impact of novel yeasts on tannins to improve wine quality Yeasts are well known to influence wine aroma but their effect on macromolecules and texture has been less well explored. A selection of yeasts were investigated for their effects on colour and tannin and were shown to influence final tannin concentration by up to 50%, and to also significantly affect wine colour (Blazquez Rojas et al. 2012). Further studies that evaluated the effects of fermenting Shiraz and Pinot Noir (AWRI publications #1542 and #1562) with different yeast strains again showed a strong influence of yeast strain on tannin concentration. As an example, in experiments with Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon, wines made with S. bayanus strain 1375 and S. bayanus AWRI 1176 had consistently low tannin but the tannin was highly pigmented, while wines made with S. cerevisiae AWRI 1486 had generally high tannin and the tannin was highly pigmented. This work demonstrates that the colour and texture of red wines can be significantly modulated by choice of commercially-available wine yeast.

Studies of extractability have highlighted the role of grape cell wall material in influencing tannin concentration during fermentation, which could lead to the development of methods to predict the extractability of tannin for a particular batch of grapes. Tannin measurement now widely available In the past, lack of accessibility of methods to measure tannin has been a barrier for winemakers in optimising wine tannin and colour. Development of the simplified methlycellulose precipitation

(MCP) tannin assay was the first step in breaking down that barrier. This method is now published in the widely used ‘Chemical analysis of grapes and wine; techniques and concepts’ handbook by Iland et al. (2013), along with data from the Australian

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wine tannin survey that communicates what can be considered low, medium and high tannin concentrations. An even simpler option is the web-based tool offered by the AWRI that allows producers to measure and benchmark tannin and colour in both grapes and wine. This tool forms a component of the WineCloudTM. Investigation of compounds with sensory impact The importance of the structure of red wine tannin in influencing wine mouthfeel has been investigated (AWRI publication #1504). The study showed that larger and more water-soluble wine tannins are more astringent, while smaller wine tannins that are less watersoluble, more coloured and have more oxidative structures, were perceived as hotter, more bitter and less astringent. These results demonstrate that different types of tannins can influence mouthfeel and confirmed that modifying wine tannin structures during winemaking is a practical path to altering the wine mouthfeel. A higher tannin content doesn’t always result in a higher consumer liking.

Ageing Colour development and stability During red wine ageing, winemakers hope for the formation of long-term, stable, red colour. Yet in some situations, colour is inadequate from the beginning or is unstable and fades fast. While some of the factors influencing stable colour formation are known, others remain a mystery. One of the main reasons for the colour change seen in wine during ageing is the decrease in anthocyanins (red pigments derived from grapes), as well as changes to pigmented tannins (stable coloured compounds formed by reactions between anthocyanins and tannins). Analysis of 30 and 50 year vertical series of Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz wines showed that wine colour density was more strongly associated with pigmented tannins over the 30 and 50 year series than with anthocyanins (after the first two years post-bottling), clearly reinforcing the importance of pigmented tannins to wine colour. In general, by four years no coloured anthocyanins were left in red wine (AWRI publication #1488). In a separate experiment, wine colour density was tracked through three years of ageing in wines of both high phenolic potential (high anthocyanin, high tannin), and low phenolic potential (low anthocyanin, low tannin) (Bindon et al. 2013b). Higher wine tannin and anthocyanin led to enhanced wine colour density and stable non-bleachable pigments, which were retained through ageing. Formation of non-bleachable pigments was found not to increase beyond two years of ageing. The incorporation of colour with ageing was proportional to tannin concentration. Nonbleachable pigments were formed via multiple routes, such that high-tannin, high-anthocyanin wines formed greater quantities of both polymeric and non-polymeric red pigments. Further work is required to understand how these alternative mechanisms for stable pigment formation can be harnessed. To summarise, low tannin concentration doesn’t necessarily prevent the formation of stable non-bleachable pigments, but high tannin concentration maximises the likelihood of long-term colour stability. Astringency changes Analysis of the vertical series also clearly indicated that aged red wines can have similar tannin concentrations to young wines, dispelling the commonly held belief that changes in red wine astringency with ageing are due to the loss of wine tannins through precipitation. Such changes in astringency are instead due to compositional changes in tannins, although the rate of these changes is unknown. The structure of tannins isolated from older wines were analysed to try to understand the changes observed in astringency as wines age (AWRI publication #1255). The ‘aged wine tannins’ were shown

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to only weakly associate with saliva-like proteins compared with tannins from younger wines. This is consistent with observed lower astringency of old wines, as the sensation of astringency is linked with strong associations between tannins and salivary proteins. In addition, the analysis revealed a large proportion of tannin that cannot be broken apart (i.e., tannin that is non-hydrolysable), unlike grape tannin that is readily broken apart. This non-hydrolysable proportion of wine tannin has also been shown to have a very weak association with saliva-like proteins and accounts for a larger proportion of aged wine tannins than young wine tannins. These results may, at least in part, explain why red wines ‘soften’ with age. An additional experiment demonstrated that tannin structure in Shiraz wines is not influenced by storage at different pH levels (3.2, 3.5 and 3.8) or under different screwcap closures with specific oxygen transfer rates after two years of bottle ageing, even though wines of lower pH are often reported as more astringent (AWRI publication #1571). This suggests that a lower pH has a direct effect on the sensory perception of the wine examined, but doesn’t necessarily influence wine tannin evolution. These results provide improved insight into the stability of tannins in wine and underscore the importance of wine matrix influences on perceived mouthfeel. Overall, astringency has been demonstrated to depend on the type of tannin and not just the amount present. In the future by targeting the creation and retention of specific types of tannins, it should be possible to create wines that have the softer mouthfeel of an aged wine, but at a much younger age. Consumer Higher tannin doesn’t always mean higher consumer liking A major trial was conducted in which Cabernet Sauvignon wines were produced from grapes from the same vineyard harvested at five different maturity stages. The wines were found to have significant differences in tannin and colour, with lower alcohol (12%) wines having lower tannin, a lower proportion of skin-to-seed tannin, and lower colour and polymeric pigment compared with higher-alcohol wines (15%) (AWRI publication #1507). Astringency increases were correlated with higher tannin for later-harvested wines (Bindon et al. 2013d). As part of the experiment, the five wines were presented to a group of consumers who rated how much they liked the different wines. Results showed that wines of 13% alcohol or higher were preferred compared with the lower alcohol wines. However, no further increases in consumer liking were observed for the wines between 13% and 15% alcohol, despite increases in tannin (Bindon et al. 2013d).

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Importance of tannin structure on wine quality There continues to be demand from industry for understanding how wine tannin composition (not just concentration) influences quality, wine grading or price, and research has addressed the role of tannins in the quality/ grading/price nexus (AWRI publication #1188). Quality (defined as winemaker-assessed allocation gradings that ultimately relate to market price) in young red wine was positively correlated with tannin concentration, tannin size, higher proportion of skin-derived tannins and overall wine colour (AWRI publications #1254 and #1323). This suggests that maximising skin tannin concentrations and/or proportions in wines can contribute to an increase in projected wine bottle price, but this must be done in balance with the other wine components that contribute to the desired wine style. The management factors associated with increased skin tannin concentrations include: • reduced vine vigour and vine water status • increased fruit exposure • increased berry crushing prior to fermentation, combined with reduced soak time • use of enzymes.

AWRI publication #1236. Bindon, K.A.; Smith, P.A.; Holt, H.E. and Kennedy, J.A. (2010b) Interaction between grape-derived proanthocyanidins and cell wall material 2. Implications for vinification. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 58 (19): 10736-10746. AWRI publication #1280. Bindon, K.A. and Kennedy, J.A. (2011) Ripeninginduced changes in grape skin proanthocyanidins modify their interaction with cell walls. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 59(6): 2696-2707. AWRI publication #1458. Bindon, K.A.; Bacic, A. and Kennedy, J.A. (2012) Tissue-specific and developmental modification of grape cell walls influences the adsorption of proanthocyanidins. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 60: 9249-9260. Bindon, K.; Madani, S.H.; Pendleton, P.; Smith, P.A. and Kennedy, J.A. (2013a) Factors affecting skin tannin extractability in ripening grapes. Manuscript submitted. Bindon, K.; McCarthy, M. and Smith, P.A. (2013c) Development of wine color and non-bleachable pigments during the fermentation and aging of wines differing in their phenolic potential. Manuscript submitted AWRI publication #1507. Bindon, K.A.; Varela, C.A.; Kennedy, J.A.; Holt, H.E. and Herderich, M.J. (2013d) Relationships between harvest time and wine composition in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet sauvignon 1. Grape and wine chemistry. Food Chemistry 138:1696-1705. Bindon, K.; Holt, H.E.; Williamson, P.O.; Varela, C.; Herderich, M.J. and Francis, I.L. (2013e) Relationships between harvest time and wine composition in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet sauvignon 2. Wine sensory properties and consumer

Conclusions

preference. Manuscript submitted.

Effectively managing vineyards and winemaking to optimise grape and wine tannin and colour translates into increased capacity for the Australian wine industry to meet wine specification, consumer expectations and profitability. Specific areas where winemakers can now take practical steps to influence wine tannin include: • choice of yeast • management of oxygen during fermentation • viticultural and winemaking choices that aim to optimise proportions of skin tannin. Tannin research at the AWRI has provided the Australian wine industry with an improved understanding of structures, measurement, formation and function of phenolics compounds responsible for wine texture and colour, and has significantly progressed the scientific framework for improvements in winemaking. It has identified several areas with potential to return high value and knowledge gaps for future research. In particular, the importance of understanding how tannins, proteins and polysaccharides work together in wine represents a research opportunity with significant potential to support the production of desired wine styles. This work is continuing in Project 3.1.4 of the AWRI’s R,D&E plan 2013-2018.

AWRI publication #1562. Carew, A.L.; Smith, P.; Close, D.C.; Curtin, C. and Dambergs, R.G. (2013) Yeast Effects on Pinot noir Wine Phenolics, Color, and Tannin Composition. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 61:9892-9898. Day, M.P.; Viviers, M.; Kassara, S. and Smith, P.A. (2013) Post-bottling effects of early oxygen exposure during red winemaking. The 15th Australian Wine Industry Technical Conference, Sydney, New South Wales. The Australian Wine Industry Technical Conference Inc., Adelaide, South Australia. AWRI publication #1542. Holt, H.E.; Cozzolino, D.; McCarthy, J.; Abrahamse, C.; Holt, S.; Solomon, M.; Smith, P.A.; Chambers, P.J. and Curtin, C.D. (2013) Influence of yeast strain on Shiraz wine quality indicators. International Journal of Food Microbiology 165:302-311 Iland, P.; Bruer, N.; Edwards, G.; Caloghiris, S. and Wilkes, E. (2013) Chemical analysis of grapes and wine: techniques and concepts 2nd Edition. (Patrick Iland Wine Promotions Pty Ltd: Adelaide). AWRI publication #1323. Kassara, S. and Kennedy, J.A. (2011) Relationship between red wine grade and phenolics. 2. Tannin composition and size. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 59:8409-8412. AWRI publication #1254. Mercurio, M.D.; Dambergs, R.G.; Cozzolino, D.; Herderich, M.J. and Smith, P.A. (2010) Relationship between red wine grades and phenolics. 1. Tannin and total phenolics concentrations. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 58:12313-12319. AWRI publication #1255. McRae, J.M.; Falconer, R.J. and Kennedy, J.A. (2010) Thermodynamics of grape and wine tannin interaction with polyproline: Implications for red wine astringency. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 58:12510–12518. AWRI publication #1488. McRae, J.M., Dambergs, R.G.; Kassara, S.; Parker,

Acknowledgements

M.; Jeffery, D.W.; Herderich, M.J. and Smith, P.A. (2012) Phenolic compositions of

This work is funded by Australia’s grapegrowers and winemakers through their investment body, the Grape and Wine Research and Development Corporation, with matching funds from the Australian Government. The AWRI is a member of the Wine Innovation Cluster in Adelaide, South Australia. Ella Robinson is thanked for her editorial assistance.

50 and 30 year sequences of Australian red wines: the impact of wine age. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 60:10093-10102. AWRI publication #1571. McRae, J.M.; Kassara, S.; Kennedy, J.A.; Waters, E.J. and Smith, P.A. (2013a) Effect of wine pH and bottle closure on tannins. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry in press AWRI publication #1504. McRae, J.M.; Schulkin, A.; Kassara, S.; Holt, H.E. and Smith, P.A. (2013b) Sensory properties of wine tannin fractions: Implications for in-

References

mouth sensory properties. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 61: 719-727. AWRI publication #1188. Smith, P.A.; Mercurio, M.D.; Dambergs, R.G.; Francis,

AWRI publication #1181. Bindon, K.A.; Smith, P.A. and Kennedy, J.A. (2010a)

I.L. and Herderich, M.J. (2008) Grape and wine tannin - are there relationships

Interaction between grape-derived proanthocyanidins and cell wall material

between tannin concentration and variety, quality, and consumer preference? Blair,

1. Effect on proanthocyanidin composition and molecular mass. Journal of

R.J.; Williams, P.J. and Pretorius, I.S. (eds) Proceedings of the 13th Australian Wine

Agricultural and Food Chemistry 58(4): 2520-2528.

Industry Technical Conference, Adelaide, South Australia: 189-192.

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WVJ

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Benefits and pitfalls of field grafting winegrapes – Part 1 By Tony Hoare Hoare Consulting, PO Box 1106, McLaren Flat, SA 5171. Email: tony@hoareconsulting.com.au

The 2013 grafting season saw unprecedented demand for providers of field grafting services. In this two-part article, Tony Hoare draws on his extensive field-grafting experience to offer some comprehensive advice on whether the practice should be undertaken in the first place and how to get the best results. In Part 1, Tony dispels some grafting myths, explores the reasons why grafting over vines might be considered and the pros and cons of the practice versus new plantings. The second article, to be published in the May-June issue of the Wine & Viticulture Journal, will look at the risks to success of field grafting and proposes a timetable for post-grafting management.

F

ield grafting, also referred to as top working, has been in high demand in recent years as growers change varieties to keep up with market trends. Grafting over to new varieties or clones is a viable option for many Australian vineyards. The 2013 grafting season saw unprecedented demand for field grafting providers like me. While grafting works in most situations, there are many factors that growers need to be aware of before committing to reworking their vineyards. Before you graft, there are quite a few misbeliefs surrounding grafting which need to be dispelled. Grafted vines don’t last as long as a new planting From my experience, there is no evidence to suggest this theory is true. The proof is in the fact that many grafted vineyards are still producing 20-30 years after grafting.

Grafted vines don’t produce quality winegrapes Grafted vines may, in fact, produce higher quality winegrapes faster than newly-planted vines. Grafted vines have an established root system that has a greater interaction with the soil for nutritional requirements as well as a greater access to soil moisture, therefore, a greater resilience to extreme heat conditions. I have seen a low quality Merlot vineyard produce high quality Shiraz a few seasons after grafting. Grafted vines have high vigour and are prone to long internode spacing Vine vigour is site specific and it is difficult to generalise. If grafting a vigorous variety onto a vigorous rootstock, then a high vigour response is possible. Conversely, a balanced vine can be achieved when grafting a low vigour scion onto a high vigour rootstock. Vineyard management inputs are also critical in regulating vigour. On the whole,

most of the vines I have grafted seem to have a natural balance of vigour in the first season which allows for well-spaced internodes and the establishment of spur positions for the following season. I don’t think there would be a noticeable difference when compared with a newlyplanted vine on the same soil. Grafting is like getting on board a merrygo-round - if you rework, your variety will come back into demand as soon as you graft onto something else Any grafting decision should be based on your ability to sell the fruit. Some growers receive requests from wineries to graft over unwanted varieties which allows wineries the flexibility to release themselves from agreements that may be untenable. There are growers who are brave enough to predict the trends and graft ahead of the status quo. I have known winery-owned vineyards to finetune their varieties to add new clones of the same variety for some variation in the winery. The current trend is to replace

One of the advantages of grafted vines is that they have an established root system that has a greater interaction with the soil for nutritional requirements than newly-planted vines as well as a greater access to soil moisture, therefore, a greater resilience to extreme heat conditions.

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‘fringe’ varieties with core regional ‘champion’ varieties with a premium reputation and growing market. Early season is the best time to graft, otherwise the grafted shoots won’t fill the cordon wire This is a widely held belief regarding the timing of grafting, however the opposite is true. The grafting season can begin as early as late August and can run into January with successful strike rates. Depending on the region, mid season to late season has the warmer weather with greater humidity, both of which are factors that enhance vine growth, callusing and strike rates. Cooler weather early in the season has led to failures in strike rates which can only be attributed to low humidity, ambient temperature, cold, moist soils all of which reduce a vine’s growth rate. When preparing the trunks for grafting, leaving a head of foliage is better than cutting off all buds only to leave the trunk From my experience, this is true for some varieties and in some vineyards. Leaving a few spurs at the top of the trunk is beneficial to the grafting success rate. Semillon is one such variety, as are varieties planted on deep sandy sites and some cool climate/low humidity vineyard microclimates. But, of the majority of successful grafting situations that I have been associated with, the entire cordon has been removed. This is the most economical way for the grower to prepare the trunk for grafting. Watershoots always appear

and need to be managed so there is no benefit in most vineyards in leaving the ‘head’ on the vine trunk. The wound of the trunk should be treated with a wound seal as soon as possible, before any rainfall or dew can settle on the trunk. This will provide protection from Eutypa. Why consider grafting? Non-profitable vineyard – unsuitable variety/clone/yield for current market demand There are market cycles of consumer demand for particular varieties. Poor market demand for the variety, over supply of the variety, low fruit quality, low yield, inadequate vineyard management, etc., can result in what I term a ‘low value’ variety. Low value varieties that are not profitable should be looked at for reworking if it is decided that the variety is unlikely to recover in value and profitability. Some growers remember the vine pull when old vine Shiraz was considered low value and pulled out. Years later, those that didn’t were able to capitalise on having these vines when market demand returned. Whether to persist with a variety or convert is an easier decision now with a more stable market and defined varietal preferences for most Australian wine regions. The benefit of grafting is that the old variety is retained as a rootstock and in most situations can be returned to that variety within one season if required. Most rootstocks that we graft are low value varieties that have fallen out of favour with wineries. Varieties such as Chardonnay and Merlot make good rootstocks for higher value varieties such as Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon. Poorly-trained vineyard – bent trunks Cutting off trunks prior to grafting can repair bent trunks by creating a new trunk with the grafted buds. Bent trunks pose problems for vineyard machinery and have an unsightly appearance. With most varieties, cutting off trunks alone will promote watershoots to burst and these can be trained up as a new trunk. Some varieties such as Cabernet Sauvignon have been known not to produce watershoots. If the watershoots do not grow, then the trunk usually dies that season. Grafting can provide the insurance that the trunks will have a viable bud to burst and also allows for a uniform trunk height. Eutypa – loss of spurs on cordons from Eutypa; reduced fruitfulness Cutting off infected wood into healthy wood is a management option for reinvigorating Eutypa-infected vines. As with rectifying bent trunks, grafting a bud into the healthy trunk will provide added insurance that a bud will be able to burst and keep the trunk alive. Grafted vines have a tendency to be more fruitful than older cordons in the first few years after grafting and are a good way to freshen up fruiting wood and lift yield.

It is a widely held belief that early season is the best time to graft, otherwise the grafted shoots won’t fill the cordon wire. However, the opposite is true; the grafting season can begin as early as late August and can run into January with successful strike rates.

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Vineyard infrastructure is sound, e.g., trellis posts wire, irrigation system If vineyard infrastructure is in need of replacement, then replanting is most likely more cost effective than grafting. To remove the cordons for grafting can cost as little as $0.08/vine when done with a mechanical mulcher. Removing a complete vine is more expensive, therefore, if the vineyard infrastructure is in good condition, it is more cost effective to graft than replant.

W i n e & V i t i c u ltur e Jo ur na l MARC H /APRIL 2014

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Grafting onto an established trunk and root system allows for a saving in water when compared with planting a new vine or irrigating a yielding vine. Less than 5% vine misses from original planting Uniform vineyards with well-trained vines and healthy trunks are ideal for grafting. If a vineyard has a high percentage of ‘gaps’ or ‘misses’ where vines have not grown, then it may be a better option to replant and have a more uniform vineyard in the future. Expensive water – save water in the first season and the high water use in new vines The cost of water and power have become significant factors in the profitability of vineyards in recent years. A newly-planted vine requires regular irrigation to achieve growth during the first few years of establishment. Irrigation during dry weather needs to be delivered close to a young vine as the root system has a small surface area and the vine’s growth rate is directly related to soil moisture. Grafting onto an established trunk and root system allows for a saving in water when compared with planting a new vine or irrigating a yielding vine. The water requirement of a grafted vine is reduced in the first season as the vine is not bearing fruit. It is important to note that a grafted vine does still require water for healthy growth and that the success of grafting and filling the fruiting wire in the first season is directly related to soil moisture availability to the vine. The first crop after grafting is also directly related to how well vines are managed with soil moisture in the first season of grafting.

Grafted vines can yield a full crop the first year after grafting; this may take up to five years with a newlyplanted vine.

CROP PROTECTION

Field Grafting versus new planting There are some benefits to consider when comparing grafting to replanting vineyards: • Grafted vines have established root systems that allow for rapid establishment with less water. • Grafted vines can yield a full crop the first year after grafting; this may take up to five years with a newlyplanted vine. • Weediciding grafted vines is possible without vine guards and potential spray drift damage to vines compared with new plantings. • The risk of vine loss through pest and disease damage and extreme weather is lessened with grafted vines as they are more resilient than newly-planted vines and vegetative growth is up in the fruiting wire away from chewing pests that can damage new plantings. Grafted vines are easier to spray when trained along the cordon wire. • Grafted vines can be machine harvested in most instances the first year after grafting which is a significant cost saving compared with hand picking young vines.

Part 2 of this article will appear in the May-June issue of the Wine & Viticulture Journal and will explore the risks to success of field grafting and propose a timetable for postgrafting management. V2 9N 2

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V I NEY A R D DE V E L O P M ENT

Vineyard redevelopment - using Old World wisdom to tackle New World challenges By Ursula Kennedy, University of Southern Queensland. Email: Ursula.Kennedy@usq.edu.au

W

hen taking on a vineyard redevelopment and looking at the ongoing environmental and economic sustainability of a site, it may be a good idea to look back to some Old World wisdom. Such was the view that guided the recent redevelopment of a small block in Queensland’s Granite Belt region. The block on which the redevelopment was carried out, owned by Sirromet Wines, is situated at an elevation of 800m. The soils, like many in the area, are a grey brown sandy loam and at the time of redevelopment, tests showed that these soils were in the recommended range for most nutrients, although slightly low in sodium and high in calcium. Originally planted to Mataro, these vines were removed and replanted in 2006 with Chardonnay on own roots, as the vineyard had not had prior problems with nematodes. An interesting feature of this redevelopment was the vine and row spacing - unlike the rest of the vineyard, this block was narrow planted with the newly-established rows situated 1.5 metres apart and the vines spaced 1 metre apart, resulting in a vine density

of approximately 5000 vines per hectare (resulting in 1960 vines planted in total across the 0.369ha block). This close vine spacing was chosen as management was interested in the establishment of a block using more traditional European principles, with the objective of the close planting to achieve smaller bunches with

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When replanting this block of Mataro with Chardonnay on own-roots in 2006, Sirromet Wines decided to introduce narrow vine and row spacings with the aim of achieving smaller bunches and berries and increasing the vineyard’s water-use efficiency. A number of changes were made to the vine canopy structure in the years after planting, including changing the initial bilateral cordon to a unilateral configuration to achieve faster cordon establishment

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W i n e & V i t i c u ltur e Jo ur na l MARC H /APRIL 2014

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smaller berries while also increasing the vineyard’s water use efficiency. The inherently low vigour soils in the block were also conducive to the close planting system, as these soils would assist to keep vigour in check. Further, the choice of own-rooted Chardonnay would also help to avoid future vigour problems. A number of changes were made to the vine canopy structure in the years subsequent to planting. An initial bilateral cordon configuration was changed to unilateral in 2009 but the vineyard was mothballed for a season in 2010. Vines were pruned back hard in 2011 to leave two-bud spurs and to establish fresh wood, again trained in a unilateral fashion in winter 2012. Unilateral training was chosen for speed of cordon establishment. The block was also completely fenced with a kangaroo proof fence which is effective not only in keeping out the native but also other common introduced pests in the area - feral pigs and deer. Over the years since planting, the mid row has been managed with a mixture of oats, perennial rye, clover and rye grass; more recently, alternate rows of barley and oats have been established. These choices have been made for a number of reasons, including erosion prevention on the slight slope in a region that experiences frequent high summer rainfalls, and to aid soil structure and provide an additional source of organic matter. Under-vine management also addresses the need to manage the vines in an economical and sustainable manner with a layer of mushroom compost spread under-vine, topped with love grass mulch. Both these under-vine treatments are readily available from nearby suppliers in the region making this treatment costeffective. The application of under-vine treatments is done in winter and early spring to allow these to settle, as frost can be a risk in the area. The block is now in full production with the vineyard yielding a hand-harvested 2.5 tonnes per hectare in season 2014. Vines

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are managed with fungicide only as required, paying careful attention to weather conditions. Two to three foliar sprays of a seaweed fertiliser are applied per season, with regular seaweed fertilisers applied via fertigation and an application of Budmate® post-harvest to give the vines an extra nutritional supplement prior to leaf fall. Wines made from this block in 2013 are still maturing, however the Old World principles are being carried through to the winemaking with wild ferment and wild malolactic ferments WVJ permitted to proceed with extended lees contact.

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SO I L

B I O L OGY

Choosing biological indicators for monitoring vineyard soil quality By Jacky Edwards1, Ian Porter1*, David Riches1, Danni Oliver2, Rob Bramley2, Belinda Rawnsley3 and Bob White4 1 Victorian DEPI, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 2 CSIRO, Waite Campus, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, South Australia 5064 3 SARDI, GPO Box 397, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 4 The University of Melbourne, Victoria *Corresponding author email: ian.j.porter@depi.vic.gov.au

Grapegrowers are increasingly mindful of how their vineyard practices can affect the health of the soil that supports their vines. But what is the most effective means of measuring these effects? A three-year project aimed at developing a soil monitoring system for Australian viticulture is looking for answers to this question, with the following revealing the outcomes of its investigations into the effectiveness of soil biological indicators.

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oil is a valuable asset, part of the infrastructure of a vineyard. It provides physical support for the grapevines and supplies them with nutrition and water. There is increasing awareness and concern that some management practices may have detrimental effects on long-term soil quality and its ability to support growth, yet buffer the unwanted flow of viticultural inputs off-farm and into the environment. Accordingly, there is an increasing commitment by growers to modify their practices to improve

their soils, especially the biology, but how can the effects of these changes be determined? Soil monitoring systems have been developed around the world for use by agricultural industries such as grains, dairy and vegetable production to provide growers with a resource to assess the effect of their management practices on soil and to track the progress of improvements that they are trying to make. A current three-year Grape and Wine Research and Development Corporation (GWRDC) project,

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‘Setting benchmarks and recommendations for management of soil health in Australian viticulture’ is being conducted by the Victorian Department of Environment and Primary Industries (DEPI), CSIRO and the South Australian Research and Development Institute (SARDI) to develop a soil monitoring system for Australian viticulture. The quality or ‘health’ of a soil is generally measured in terms of the soil’s physical, chemical and biological properties. Some of these properties are inherent and cannot be changed. Others are dynamic and respond to changes in management practice. Soil quality and its direction of change with time are the primary indicators of sustainable soil management. Effective monitoring of soil quality requires that indicator tests are sufficiently simple and robust for routine measurement, and can provide meaningful insights into the state of a soil and any deterioration in soil functions over time. In addition, factors such as the availability of a test, its cost effectiveness, simplicity and relevance to the viticulture industry, need to be considered. The project team reviewed numerous methods of measuring soil physical, chemical and biological properties in order to choose a minimum dataset of key indicator tests for monitoring changes in soil quality in the vineyard. The minimum dataset chosen comprises tests of physical properties: aggregate stability and soil strength; chemical properties: pH, electrical conductivity (EC), exchangeable cations (sodium, magnesium, potassium, calcium) and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), total organic carbon and chloride; and biological properties: soil microbial biomass, potentially mineralisable nitrogen (PMN) and labile carbon. The rationale for choosing the minimum dataset for a soil monitoring system for Australian viticulture is detailed in two review papers published in the Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research (Oliver et al. 2013, Riches et al. 2013). This article summarises the information covered in Riches et al. (2013) which concentrates on soil biological properties. The importance of soil biology and its role in soil quality is very topical. Hence, there has been considerable interest in how and why we chose our soil biological indicators from the numerous tests that are available. Soil biological indicators

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Effective monitoring of soil quality requires that indicator tests are sufficiently simple and robust for routine measurement, and can provide meaningful insights into the state of a soil and any deterioration in soil functions over time. relate primarily to measurements of the amount, activity and diversity of soil organisms and their related biochemical processes. Our final choices were based on reviewing what has been published about soil biological indicators, their uses in various agricultural situations and subjecting this to rigorous review by expert soil biologists and key viticulture ▶ representatives in workshops.

W i n e & Viticultur e Jo ur n a l MARC H /APRIL 2014

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SO I L B I O L OGY

Biological activity is largely concentrated in the topsoil which varies in depth from a few centimetres to around 30cm. In general, soil organisms comprise microflora (archaea, bacteria and fungi) and soil fauna (protozoa, nematodes, insects, mites and earthworms). The benefits of soil organisms are considerable. They decompose plant residues and increase soil organic matter and humus. This action also produces carbon dioxide that dissolves in water to form weak carbolic acid, breaking down insoluble mineral compounds in rock. They convert nutrients from organic to mineral forms, rendering them available for uptake by roots. They stabilise soil structure, providing the ‘glue’ that holds soil aggregates together, thus improving water-holding capacity. And they can reduce disease problems by out-competing soil-borne pathogens. The diversity of the soil biota is extremely high; for example, one gram of soil may contain as many as 10 billion microorganisms and thousands of different species. Various groups of soil fauna have been evaluated as indicators of soil health, but the difficulty of sampling, isolation and identification makes many groups unsuitable for routine use. Earthworms are easy to sample and isolate and have often been used as indicators of soil quality. However, for soil monitoring purposes, earthworm counts were considered to be driven more by environmental factors (rain, temperature, etc) than by management practices, so were excluded from the minimum dataset. Nematodes, collembola and mites have commonly been considered as biological indicators of soil quality. However, they require time-consuming sampling and extraction procedures to quantify. Of these three, nematodes have been used most frequently because more information exists

about their taxonomy and feeding roles, but the time and taxonomic expertise required for assessment of nematode community composition make it an unattractive soil indicator at present. Rapid and relatively low cost methodologies, however, using nematode DNA extracted from soils to examine the nematode community structure are currently being developed

a small proportion of microorganisms (1-10%) can be isolated from soil with existing culturing techniques. There is also functional redundancy in soil biota, and a low number of a particular indicator organism may not be meaningful ecologically if other species are abundant and able to perform the same soil function. Total soil microorganisms, including those

The importance of soil biology and its role in soil quality is very topical. Hence, there has been considerable interest in how and why we chose our soil biological indicators from the numerous tests that are available. and may allow the routine use of nematode indicators for soil quality assessment in the future. Specific groups of microorganisms have traditionally been quantified by plating techniques using serial dilutions, which are currently used by several commercial laboratories. These methods, however, are laborious and interpretation can be difficult as only

that are not culturable, can be quantified by direct microscopic observation but such methods are extremely tedious and of questionable value. More rapid techniques that do not rely on the lengthy time and expertise to culture and determine soil organisms have the potential to overcome some of these limitations and include microbial biomass measurement and biochemical

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Biological activity is largely concentrated in the topsoil which varies in depth from a few centimetres to around 30cm. W i n e & V i t i c u ltur e Jo ur na l MARC H /APRIL 2014

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and nucleic acid-based fingerprinting methods. Soil microbial biomass is a measure of the living component of soil excluding plant roots and macrofauna and comprises bacteria, archaea, fungi, actinomycetes and protozoa. It is a widely used biological indicator in the assessment of soil quality around the world. At a given point in time, microbial biomass is a measure of the microbial population density and is a sensitive indicator of changes in soil quality due to changes in soil management practices. Therefore, soil microbial biomass, as measured by chloroform fumigation extraction, is included as a recommended indicator for our minimum dataset. Subsequent project activities of benchmarking viticultural regions using the minimum dataset has demonstrated, however, that this test is not readily accessed through commercial soil testing laboratories. We are hopeful that as demand increases, more laboratories will offer this test. Biochemical and nucleic acid analyses for identifying and quantifying soil organisms or populations are beginning to replace classical techniques such as culturing and microscopic examination. These new methods offer potential advantages in terms of cost, speed and sensitivity. Since these methods are cultureindependent, they can access virtually the entire soil biota, in contrast to the small proportion of organisms that can be grown in culture. At the present time, they are currently not available through commercial laboratories but a companion GWRDC-funded project, ‘Harnessing soil biological functions to improve grapevine management for a sustainable industry’, led by Dr Pauline Mele (DEPI), is exploring which of these tests should be recommended for commercial use in the future. Indirect ways of assessing the soil biology include measuring the quantity

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of carbon and nitrogen as the food sources utilised by microorganisms and measuring the biological activities of the organisms. These were examined and two were chosen for the minimum dataset: labile carbon and potentially mineralised nitrogen (PMN). Labile carbon is the component of the soil’s organic matter that can be used as a food source by soil microorganisms, has a relatively rapid turnover in soil, and plays an essential role in soil nutrient supply. Labile carbon content changes rapidly in soil in response to management practices and is widely used as an indicator in soil monitoring systems for vegetable and cereal production. Despite the relative paucity of specific benchmarks in vineyard soils, we consider labile carbon to be an essential component of the minimum dataset because of its importance to a wide array of soil functions, the ready availability of standard analytical methods, and the amount of data available for other cropping systems on a range of soil types. Similarly, PMN represents the proportion of the soil nitrogen that can be utilised by soil microorganisms. Quantifying PMN is also valuable in determining the rate of N fertiliser required to optimise crop yield and quality, but minimise the adverse effects of excess vigour in grapevines and the risk of nitrate movement into waterways. PMN is a useful biological indicator of soil quality used in several soil quality monitoring systems and, for these reasons, has been included in our minimum dataset. Other methods considered but not included were soil respiration, substrate utilisation, such as the commercially-available BIOLOG microplate method, and measures of enzyme activities. All of these have merit, but were considered either too variable for soil monitoring purposes, or too specific and more suitable for answering research questions rather

W i n e & Viticultur e Jo ur n a l MARC H /APRIL 2014

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than for routine soil monitoring. To date, four regions have been benchmarked as part of the GWRDC project: Barossa Valley, McLaren Vale, Yarra Valley and Sunraysia. This benchmark data will be hosted on the soil quality website, www. soilquality.org.au, and form the basis of a module specifically for viticulture. The regional datasets will be able to be used by growers to compare their vineyard soil properties with the averages and ranges for their region and help decision making on vineyard management practices. In time, through repeat sampling every few years, growers will be able to monitor and assess the effects of their management practices on their soil condition. It is envisaged that the benchmarking datasets will be expanded in the future to encompass new regions. Acknowledgements This research was jointly funded by the Victorian Department of Environment and Primary Industries, CSIRO, under the aegis of the Sustainable Agriculture Flagship, and Australia’s grapegrowers and winemakers through their investment body, the Grape and Wine Research and Development Corporation. References Riches, D.; Porter I.J.; Oliver, D.P.; Bramley, R.G.V.; Rawnsley, B.; Edwards, J. and White R.E. (2013) Review: soil biological properties as indicators of soil quality in Australian viticulture. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine research 19: 311-323. Oliver, D.P.; Bramley, R.G.V.; Riches, D.; Edwards, J. and Porter I.J. (2013) Review: soil physical and chemical properties as indicators of soil quality in Australian viticulture. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine research 19: 129-139. White, R.E. (2003) Soil for Fine Wines. (Oxford University Press: New York, NY, USA) 279pp. White, R.E. (2009) Understanding vineyard soils. (Oxford University Press: New York, NY, USA) 230pp. WVJ

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WARMER VITICULTURE

Vintage 2030 and beyond: Producing quality wines in warmer times By Mark Krstic1 and Snow Barlow2 1 The Australian Wine Research Institute, Victoria node, Level 1 West, 262-276 Lorimer Street, Port Melbourne, VIC 3207 2 School of Land and Environment, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010

The authors summarise the main messages delivered during last year’s symposium ‘Vintage 2030 and beyond – producing quality wines in warmer times’, held in Melbourne and jointly hosted by the Australian Wine Research Institute (AWRI) and Wine Victoria. The symposium presented climate projections for Australia’s key wine-producing regions and their implications, and discussed methods for adapting to these challenges. Introduction

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ustralia’s primary producers have always dealt with the risks associated with producing food or fibre in very variable climates. However, for grape and wine producers recent observations of warming temperatures, shifts in grapevine phenology, compression of vintage, wetter vintages and increased incidence and severity of heatwaves are hard to ignore. The wine industry will need to understand the likely effects of a changing climate and take steps now to adapt to this new future. To address the climate challenges faced by the wine industry, the Australian Wine Research Institute (AWRI) and Wine Victoria hosted a symposium ‘Vintage 2030 and beyond – producing quality wines in warmer times’ midway through 2013 at the University of Melbourne. The day was attended by 90 people, mostly from the

Victorian wine sector. The symposium brought together researchers and industry to discuss the latest original research and thinking on projections of climates for key wine-producing regions across Australia and their implications. The symposium then discussed novel ways the wine industry is adapting to these challenges both now and into the future. This article attempts to summarise the major messages from the day. The authors of this article do not in any way claim ownership of the research and original opinions presented at the event but instead have attempted to summarise their findings in a succinct way for the benefit of the broader Australian wine sector. The symposium was skilfully moderated by Professor Snow Barlow, climate change researcher and vigneron from the University of Melbourne and convener of the Primary Industries Adaptation Research Network.

Figure 1. Diagrammatic representation of the shifting climate, showing increased incidence and severity of hot weather and heatwaves (sourced and modified from IPCC 2007).

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Future challenges in 2030 and beyond Professor Will Steffen, from the Australian National University (ANU) Climate Change Institute and the recently dismantled Climate Commission, began the symposium with a very articulate and authoritative summary of the Climate Commission’s recent report ‘The critical decade 2013: climate change science risks and responses’. Steffen gave a compelling summary of recent global and national trends in climate statistics, including global mean temperatures, arctic sea ice, heatwaves, bushfires, extreme rainfall and flooding, and provided future climate projections based on a range of emission models and climate policy interventions. Few delegates were left with any doubts about the compelling evidence

Figure 2. Putting increases in global mean temperatures (ºC) into perspective with the impact of differing emission models and Government climate policies on future generations. (Developed by Professor Lesley Hughes of Macquarie University and the Climate Commission)

W i n e & V i t i c u ltur e Jo ur na l MARC H /APRIL 2014

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Figure 3. The average number of days over 35ºC and average days below 2ºC in key regions of Victoria currently (green), in 2030 (medium emissions scenario, orange), 2070 (low emissions scenario, yellow) and 2070 (high emissions scenario, red). of climate change occurring at a global level and the need for governments around the globe to act sooner rather than later. Dr Penny Whetton, from CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, presented an update on climate projections for key winegrowing regions in 2030 and beyond. Whetton was in the process of completing a climate projections project for Australia’s natural resource management regions and was able to provide up-to-date projections out to 2099. Key messages were the likelihood of a 0.61.5°C mean temperature increase by 2030 (mid emissions scenario), 1.0-2.5°C increase by 2070 (low emissions scenario) and 2.0-5.0°C increase by 2070 (high emissions scenario) for most grapegrowing areas across southern Australia. These changes would influence the suitability of growing particular varieties in particular climates. Varieties that are extremely sensitive to climate, such as Pinot Noir for premium/ultra premium wine production, would have their areas of production limited significantly within Australia under these scenarios. Whetton provided some interesting modelling data on rainfall projections in south eastern Australia. The models tend to predict drier winter and spring periods, but increased rainfall and more intense rainfall periods in the summer months. This may result in wetter ripening and vintage periods, with increased incidences and likelihood of flooding. This will prove more challenging for quality grape and wine production with more fungal pressure during this critical time in the season. Dr Peter Hayman, from the South Australian Research and Development Institute (SARDI), introduced the concept of ‘tipping points’, which are defined as the critical points at which strong non linearities appear in the relationship between a system’s attributes and its drivers. Once a tipping point threshold is crossed, the change to a new state is typically rapid and might be irreversible. Hayman said tipping points were hard to pinpoint for the Australian wine sector as some regions had benefited from improvements in temperature and growing conditions while others were challenged. The challenge will be how long some regions will be able to adapt before needing to transform to another cooler region to produce grapes and wine more sustainably and profitably or make significant changes in varieties. Dr Victor Sadras, from the South Australian Research and Development Institute (SARDI), reported on a recently completed Grape and Wine Research and Development Corporation (GWRDC) V2 9N 2

project looking into the effects of elevated temperature on wine production and quality. Sadras examined the effects of artificially imposed elevated temperatures on vine phenology, yield, berry and wine attributes on Barossa Valley Shiraz between 2009 and 2012. He examined the direct effect of temperature on vines and wines with an infield side-by-side experimental comparison of treatments involving different temperatures using vines with undervine/

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Almond Skirtes & Hedgers.

64 Bridge Road, Griffith, NSW 2680 Robert Aramini Ph 02 6964 7244 Laurence Salvestro Ph/Fax 02 6964 1318 Mobile 0427 687 431

W i n e & Viticultur e Jo ur n a l MARC H /APRIL 2014

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WARMER VITICULTURE

Figure 4. Polycarbonate chambers capable of increasing temperature in Shiraz vines at SARDI Research Station, Nuriootpa, South Australia. bunchzone polycarbonate chambers capable of achieving an average difference from the control of Tmax (0.9-2.2 °C) and Tmin (0.1-0.8 °C). Sadras showed evidence of nonlinearity of thermal effects on grapevine phenology, which may be explained by two complementary factors. First, temperature-driven shifts of sensitive events (e.g., onset of sugar accumulation in berries) moved the timing of subsequent events into cooler conditions, hence dampening warming effects. Secondly, thermal effects on phenology seemed to be modulated by the interplay between resource-driven growth and temperature-driven development. An enhanced thermal effect on berry ripening associated with a high leaf-area-to-fruit ratio supports this thinking. Measured shifts in maturity were smaller than expected from reported time series analysis. Sadras concluded that thermal sensitivities from time series (6 to 9 days per °C) over-estimate thermal effects on grapevine maturity observed in these experiments (~3 days per °C). Sadras and colleagues concluded that early maturity associated with higher temperature (and related factors including higher radiation and higher vapour pressure deficit) is primarily driven by the early onset of ripening under a wide range of production systems in south-eastern Australia. Viticultural practices aimed at delaying maturity to counteract the effect of high temperature, high radiation and high vapour pressure deficit are more likely to be successful if they are targeted prior to the onset of ripening. Robert Paul, from Vintager Winemaking Services, tried to help symposium delegates understand what all this climate change information might mean for the production of premium wine styles. Paul gave a balanced presentation, concluding that it may not be all bad news. In fact, climate change may lead to a more reliable climate in some regions with potentially better harvests, and open up opportunities for new styles and varieties within regions. However, Paul did acknowledge that for many it would mean earlier ripening, compressed harvest periods, an increased need for irrigation, potential increased frost risk and different pest and disease pressures. Also, if regions do get hotter we are likely to encounter fruit with lower total acidity (especially malic acid), lack of nitrogen in musts, fewer flavour precursors, higher potassium levels at pressing and higher sugar levels in must and juice. Paul discussed the possible adaptation dilemmas to be faced in the future, such as the increased need for canopy to cover and protect fruit from heatwaves, leading to an increase in the pest and disease risk in wetter summers that may become more frequent. Paul also discussed challenges faced in grape production in Central

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Figure 5. Explaining in arbitrary terms the non-linear thermal effects on grapevine phenology, in which thermal time is taken into consideration. Data shows heated treatments had advanced rates of phenological development prior to veraison, similar rates of development during veraison (lag period) and slower rates of development post-versaison. Anatolia, Turkey, where mean monthly maximum temperatures are 42.0 °C, 45.0 °C, 44.8 °C and 42.0°C in June, July, August and September, respectively. The mean July temperature is 31.2 °C and the mean annual rainfall is just over 100mm. Growers have adapted to this climate by choosing winegrape cultivars such as Emir, Bo˘gazkere and Öküzgözü that are able to survive and produce grapes in this climate.

Figure 6. Emir vineyard in Cappadocia, Central Anatolia, Turkey (photo courtesy Robert Paul).

W i n e & V i t i c u ltur e Jo ur na l MARC H /APRIL 2014

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Adapting to climate change now and beyond 2030 Dr Michael McCarthy, from SARDI, discussed the management of vines during heatwaves to maintain quality. The South Australian Regional Office of the Bureau of Meteorology defines a heatwave as either five consecutive days with maximum daily temperatures above 35°C, or three consecutive days with maximum daily temperatures above 40°C. But this definition can vary across other parts of Australia, and the effects will depend on how high temperatures are above the long-term average maximum temperature and for how long, as well as where and how winegrape varieties are grown. To be in a position to manage heatwaves, it is critical to ensure that irrigation infrastructure is well maintained and fully functioning, soil moisture monitoring equipment is operating correctly and plans are in place for a power failure. It’s also very important in any adaptation strategy to identify susceptible grape varieties and/or high value blocks along with particular problem areas (e.g., shallow soils) and know the current soil water status and buffering capacity of each vineyard block. Immediately prior to the onset of a forecast heatwave, McCarthy suggested managing vines in the following manner:

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Figure 7. Example of SurroundTM applied to Shiraz in the Riverland.

• apply irrigation and refill as much of the rootzone as possible to field capacity • if a deficit irrigation strategy is being used, cease immediately and resupply irrigation • consider applying a sunscreen spray, e.g., SurroundTM, however, check with your winery before application to ensure that these products are approved for use • reconsider any planned leaf removal or canopy manipulation strategy (e.g., foliage wires) that may lead to increased direct bunch/berry exposure. During a heatwave, irrigation should be applied to maintain soil moisture at a level that enables vines to recover their turgor overnight in preparation for the next hot day. If using overhead irrigation, it should be applied at night to avoid foliage burn. After the heatwave has passed, irrigation is still important to replace lost soil moisture and decrease soil temperature. Growers should also monitor for pests and diseases that may have exploited damaged berries. Andrew Weeks, from the CCW Cooperative in the Riverland, was unable to attend the symposium, but provided a presentation that highlighted some trial work undertaken in the Riverland using Particle Film Technology (PFT), in particular the use of kaolinbased products such as SurroundTM. Weeks highlighted recent work conducted by the AWRI showing no residues or effects on fermentation in wine from the use of kaolin-based products, giving many wine companies confidence in allowing their use as sunscreen protection products in the vineyard. Heat damage can cost winegrape growers in terms of both yield and quality, and some varieties are certainly more susceptible than others. There is also an increased concern about the depletion of acid levels in fruit, depletion of colour, formation of off-flavours and yield loss. In many cases simply adding irrigation water is not enough to prevent canopy and fruit damage from heatwaves. Weeks trialled SurroundTM on Shiraz and Muscat Gordo Blanco and demonstrated reductions in leaf and fruit temperatures, improvement in yields and encouraging financial returns within the Riverland region. It appears that small reductions in canopy temperature from PFT use may mean alot at or near the point of where tissue temperatures can be potentially lethal. However, PFT technology should not be treated as an alternative to supplying adequate irrigation water, rather it should be used in conjunction V2 9N 2

Figure 8. Using delayed pruning in order to delay harvest and move ripening into a cooler part of the season.

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Specially developed for the viticulture industry to provide positive wire-to-post fastening. • Clips are moulded from polyethylene UV stabilised plastic capable of resisting temperature extremes. • Screws are protected by a high durability coating for longer life. • Available in single or double ended clips. • By design, the load is carried by the screw rather than the clip. • Screw pull-out loads far exceed those of nails and staples. Cost-effective wire-to-post • Screws can be driven into softer timbers without pre-drilling. • Posts are not subjected to hammer shock when screw driving. fastening using the successful Vini Clip System. • Clips also available for nailing if preferred (recommend nailgun for best results). All Products Proudly

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W i n e & Viticultur e Jo ur n a l MARC H /APRIL 2014

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WARMER VITICULTURE

Figure 9. A comparison of Shiraz development based on either pruning on 26 May or 22 September. with irrigation to help ameliorate heat effects and offer more buffering capacity. Dr Paul Petrie, from Treasury Wine Estates (TWE), discussed using delayed pruning techniques to delay maturation in grapevines to counteract the influence of higher temperatures accelerating maturation. This technique could be used to decompress vintage in some regions, or push maturation back into a cooler ripening period. Between 1993 and 2012, TWE has observed vintage in McLaren Vale getting approximately 2.1 and 1.4 days earlier per year for Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay, respectively. This, coupled with a more compressed vintage for both varieties, creates peak demands on harvesting and crushing facilities. Delaying maturity to a cooler part of the season may lead to an improvement in grape and wine quality, improved harvest logistics, capturing of harvest at an optimal time, better use of key capital equipment (harvesters, crushers, etc) and a reduced risk of exposure to extreme events such as heatwaves. Delayed pruning is a technique that has been used for years to manipulate budburst and manage exposure to frost risk in early budburst varieties. Petrie was aiming to examine the use of delayed pruning to manipulate harvest date. He examined five pruning date treatments on Shiraz grown in McLaren Vale: 26 May (early normal), 4 August (late normal), 5 September (budburst), 22 September, 18 October. No pre-pruning was conducted on these vines. The technique did demonstrate that delayed pruning could delay ripening to 14.5 Baume. It also showed that the later-pruned treatments resulted in a greater decrease in yield and pruning weight relative to the control treatments (pruned 26 May). TWE is looking to implement this delayed pruning strategy in a range of commercial blocks in Wrattonbully (Cabernet Sauvignon) and Barossa (Shiraz). It should be noted that this

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would be implemented as part of an overall strategy, and it is unlikely that it would be done in the same vineyard every season, but in rotation with other vineyards it could offer the potential to spread out vintage within a region effectively. Roland Wahlquist, chief executive of Brown Brothers Milawa Vineyard Pty Ltd, gave a compelling presentation on business adaptation to climate change. Wahlquist discussed what Brown Brothers had observed about climate, its ‘tipping point’ and when the company started to take climate change seriously and take an integrated approach to adapting the business for the future. Brown Brothers started to notice key issues emerge from 2001 onwards, with vineyard water supply becoming less reliable, vintages getting earlier and more compressed and higher alcohol contents in wine. However, the biggest change was smoke, and smoke taint. Smoke taint was unheard of prior to the 2003 vintage. Brown Brothers threw out a lot of grapes and

wine in 2003, and again in 2007, and limited amounts in 2009. In 2008, Graeme Anderson, from the Department of Environment and Primary Industries Victoria (DEPI), was asked to present about climate change to the board and senior management team at Brown Brothers. Anderson presented all sorts of scary charts, including global average temperatures from 1850 to 2007 and temperature predictions for the rest of the century. This convinced Brown Brothers that its recent experiences were just a taste of what was to come. For Brown Brothers, this was the management team’s ‘tipping point’. It convinced the company that this was a shift, not just a couple of hot years, and that as a company it needed to accept climate change, and plan for it in the future. Brown Brothers worked on a 20-year planning horizon assuming a two degree increase in temperature across all vineyards. Wahlquist gave a very inspiring presentation to the industry members who attended and summarised by indicating that planning horizons are long, so start now! Look for the opportunities. Adaptability will win and this might be where the silver lining lies for Australia. We have a very responsive wine industry, not constrained by the tradition and regulation of much of Europe. We can change, while much of the Old World either cannot, or will not change. If we change more rapidly than the Old World, we will create opportunities for the Australian wine industry as a whole. Opportunities for the Australian wine sector in 2030 and beyond Dr Richard Smart summarised the day by looking at opportunities for the Australian wine sector in 2030 and beyond. Smart indicated that the Australian wine

Figure 10. Smoke taint is an emerging risk to grape and wine production. W i n e & V i t i c u ltur e Jo ur na l MARC H /APRIL 2014

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industry needed a makeover. He said it was sliding into furthering a reputation as a second rate bulk wine-producing nation, to the detriment of genuine fine wine production and export opportunities. He also indicated that much of Australia’s wine production was from varieties grown ‘out of place’. Smart indicated that if the climate were to shift 2°C, much of Australia’s area of production would have MJTs higher than any other current winegrape growing region in the world. Only significant table grape production occurs in regions that have an MJT above 26°C. He challenged the Australian industry to tackle this issue and develop some longer-term strategies to ensure Australia has the right ‘real estate’ to be able to produce the wines that the rest of the world will demand. Smart discussed opportunities for changing grape varieties or moving further south, but implored the industry to not think just about climate change, but to embrace climate choice. Conclusions The ‘Vintage 2030 and Beyond’ symposium assembled some of the brightest thinkers from around the world in climate change and adaptation to climate challenges. This symposium created moments of clarity for many in the industry, but most importantly, it highlighted the opportunities that industry needs to embrace if it is to move forward in a positive and sustainable way. Presentations from the symposium are available for download from: http://www.awri.com.au/industry_support/nodes/victoria/ vintage-2030-and-beyond/ Please note that some presenters have modified their presentations due to the pending release of peer-reviewed scientific papers and reports to funding bodies. Acknowledgements The authors acknowledge the excellent work and original research done by all of the symposium’s presenters, including Professor Will Steffen (ANU/previously Climate Commission), Dr Penny Whetton (CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research), Dr

Figure 11. Australia’s vineyard production area compared to that of New Zealand as a function of mean January temperature for 2008 planting data. Peter Hayman (SARDI), Dr Victor Sadras (SARDI), Robert Paul (Vintage Winemaking Services), Dr Michael McCarthy (SARDI), Andrew Weeks (CCW – absent on day – presentation delivered by Dr Mark Krstic), Dr Paul Petrie (Treasury Wine Estates), Roland Wahlquist (Brown Brothers), Darren Rathbone (Rathbone Wine Group), Dr George Mihaly (Paradigm Hill) and Dr Richard Smart (Smart Viticulture). Financial support provided by the Grape and Wine Research and Development Corporation (GWRDC) via the Regional Program funding to Greater Victoria is also acknowledged. Finally, the authors acknowledge the support provided by Ms Teena Sullivan, of the Primary Industries Adaptation Research Network at the University of Melbourne, for all her assistance in making this event possible at the University of Melbourne. WVJ

Tasmanian wine is ripe for investment By Richard Smart. Email: richard@smartvit.com.au

A

joke currently doing the rounds is about upsetting an Australian winemaker by bringing a bottle of New Zealand Sauvignon Blanc to a dinner party he or she is hosting. But, hang on. Why should this be a joke? And, why should it be upsetting? The simple fact is that a New Zealand Sauvignon Blanc (Oyster Bay) is the leading white wine sold in Australia, which is a good effort for an imported wine in a significant wineproducing country. Why should an Australian winemaker be upset? Sure, Australian white wines are being out performed on their home turf, but why? Because Australian consumers actually like the wine! So, why should Australian winemakers be churlish about V2 9N 2

this, or discourage Australian consumers from these wines, invoking patriotism as they do? Maybe an alternative and more sensible approach is to produce a wine that might woo these consumers back to the Australian fold. The question that needs to be asked, of course, is why New Zealand Sauvignon Blanc is preferred to those of Australian origin? Australia is not the only country experiencing the market success of New Zealand wines, particularly Sauvignon Blanc. These wines are of distinctive style, and they are so because they are grown in cool climates. Why might not Australian producers realise this and fight like with like? The Wallabies do not compete with the All W i n e & Viticultur e Jo ur n a l MARC H /APRIL 2014

Blacks on the rugby field by ‘taking their ball and going home’, as the Australian winemakers seem to do. The ‘wine battle’ is not confined to only Sauvignon Blanc, but in the future might also include Pinot Noir and remarkably even Shiraz. Does Australia have cool climate resources that might compete with New Zealand? The answer is yes, which has been identified in the study on Tasmania that I'm about to introduce. This is not to say that Tasmania has the only cool climates in Australia suitable for viticulture, but it does have many of them. There are also suitable places on the mainland, especially in the south, and also in elevated areas along the Great Dividing Range. ▶ www.winebiz. com . au

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TA SMA NIA

Summary of the report

Introducing a resource survey for Tasmanian wine Over recent years there has been political concern at Federal and state level about the decline in Tasmania’s forestry business. This led to the Federally-supported forest ‘peace deal’ initiative, which was finally legislated in April 2013 in Tasmania. To encourage this process, the Federal Government provided more than $100 million to support the Tasmanian economy and its diversification away from forestry. As part of this process, the Australian Innovation Research Centre, led by Professor Jonathan West, produced an analysis about diversifying Tasmania’s economy, which was published in October 2012 (http://www.regional.gov.au/regional/ tasmania/diversifying-tasmaniaseconomy/index.aspx) The report consists of 519 pages plus appendices, and identified several sectors of opportunity, being wine, dairy, horticulture, aquaculture and forestry and wood products. Of these, wine was a highly regarded sector by the authors, and there was a 60-page report of wine prospects, plus appendices. The report, which I wrote, identified Tasmania’s resources for viticulture and opportunities for expanding the wine sector.

Presently, the Tasmanian wine sector is small, producing around 0.6% of Australia’s winegrapes from 0.9% (about 1400ha) of the total area. There are many small producers, and up until recently there was little interest from larger mainland wine companies. The average growth rate of the sector was very small, at 65ha per annum from 1994 to 2011. Climate Studies have shown that Tasmania has a climate more like New Zealand than any other country in the world. In fact, close temperature homoclimes for important New Zealand wine regions can be identified in Tasmania, for example, on the east coast near Bicheno for Marlborough, and in the inland Midlands for Central Otago. Tasmania has a wide range of temperature conditions, including some that are cooler than those presently used in New Zealand. Table 1 shows a comparison of some Australian mainland wine regions, some in New Zealand and existing and potential ones in Tasmania. Tasmania already has a reputation for sparkling wine, and given the recent UK experiences, new regions for these products may well be in the cooler rather than warmer parts of the state.

Table 1. A comparison of mean January temperature (MJT) for some mainland Australia, Tasmanian and New Zealand wine-producing regions. AUSTRALIA CLASS VERY HOT HOT WARM

STATION

REGION

MJT °C

Mildura Griffith

Sunraysia MIA

23.9 23.8

Cessnock Nuriootpa

Lower Hunter Barossa Valley

22.7 21.4

Margaret River Healesville

Great Southern Yarra

20.4 19.4

Launceston Ti Tree COOL

Lower Tamar

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18.2

Heywood

Drumborg

17.7

Hobart Airport

Coal River

17.7

Ross

Midlands

17.5

Bridport

North East

17.4

Melton Mowbray

Lower Midland

17.2

Fingal

VERY COOL

NEW ZEALAND REGION

MJT °C

Napier

Hawke’s Bay

18.8

Gisborne

Poverty Bay

18.6

Auckland

Auckland

18.1

Masterton

Martinborough

17.8

Alexandra

Central

17.1

16.8

Launceston Airport

Relbia

16.7

Campbell Town

Upper Midlands

16.6

Low Head

Upper Tamar Valley

16.6

Devonport

North Central

16.5

Grove

Huon

15.9

Oatlands

Midlands

15.2

Bothwell

Central

15.0

www.w i n eb i z .c om.au

STATION

W i n e & V i t i c u ltur e Jo ur na l MARC H /APRIL 2014

As for other cool climate areas, the avoidance of spring frost is necessary, but generally there is sufficient topographic variation within Tasmania for good site selection, especially in the potential newer regions. Figure 1 shows a map of Tasmania with the south-western half of the island essentially unsuitable for viticulture because of high rainfall (more than 1300mm) and low temperatures (less than circa 700°C-days). This leaves a substantial land area potentially suitable for vineyard development. Dr Reuben Wells and I are conducting a study involving vineyards around the state, which should lead to further definition of ideal vineyard sites, especially for Pinot Noir. Figure 2 compares the production of winegrapes in mainland Australia, New Zealand and Tasmania by the temperature of the region of origin. Mainland Australia has the majority of its production in hot areas especially suited to bulk wine production; there is very little production in genuine cool climates for premium wine production. Mainland Australia’s legacy in fortified wine production from almost a century ago still dominates the climate conditions of present wine production. For Australia to regain international competitiveness, this distribution will likely need to change towards cooler climates. Water availability The Tasmanian and Federal governments are involved in developing irrigation schemes around the state. Naturally, these are in the drier parts of the state where most agriculture is practised; there are 23 such schemes proposed and 11 are operational at the moment. In 2012, the 14 schemes then proposed included some 230,000ha of irrigation and some 200,000ML of water (see http://www.tasmanianirrigation. com.au/ for more information). These schemes cover many of the regions with potential for developing viticulture. Traditionally, Tasmanian viticulture has developed using water from onfarm reservoirs, and this remains an important water source for many developments. Land prices Land prices are generally low, because predominant land use is low value grazing. The wine industry is not so developed as to push up land prices as, for example, in some mainland regions and New Zealand. Land may V29N2


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Figure 2. A comparison of vineyard area for mainland Australia, New Zealand and Tasmania plotted against the heat index mean January temperature. to improve sales of Tasmanian cool climate wines in the east coast domestic market, as well as potentially in selected export markets.

Figure 1. A map of Tasmania showing potential regions for vineyard development. The area in grey is either too wet (greater than 1300mm rainfall) or too cool (mean January temperature less than 14°C). be purchased for as little as $2500 per hectare in the Midlands, but more typically in other regions and on larger properties, prices are between $510,000/ha. Grape and wine market By and large, grapes grown in Tasmania are the most expensive in Australia, which is recognition of their quality as being grown in genuine cool climates. Somewhat as a consequence, wine prices are generally high, although small vineyard sizes also contribute. There is an effort by some of the present ‘larger’ producers to develop ‘significant size’ brands of Tasmanian Pinot Noir wine at a price point of less than $20. The report considered the opportunity for import substitution of other cool climate wines. For example, the total volume of New Zealand imports at around 50ML is equivalent to around 9000ha of vineyard, which is much greater than the present Tasmanian planted area. This is not to suggest it is realistic for Tasmania to substitute all New Zealand imports, but it is probably the best located of all Australian wine regions to provide competition. Coupled with improving tourism in Tasmania, there are increasing opportunities for cellar door sales. A scoping study of wine market potential conducted by Professor Larry Lockshin indicated the opportunity V2 9N 2

The likelihood of further vineyard development in Tasmania An important benefit of Tasmania is the present range of existing cool climates for viticulture. Importantly, these are projected to be largely buffered from climate change due to the effect of the Antarctic Ocean. Another important benefit, especially from a marketing viewpoint, is the fact that Tasmania as a whole is the appropriate Geographic Indicator under the Australian legislation for labelling purposes. Quite incredibly, there are more GI regions in Australia with smaller vineyard areas than Tasmania than there are larger, which suggests that there are too many, too small GI regions in Australia. One might ask why? Hopefully, if Tasmania develops as it might, it will avoid this disadvantage. One question addressed in the report was that of the critical wine production volume to achieve market recognition as a developing wine region. Data was presented suggesting that for Marlborough, this figure was 2700ha and around 1400ha for Margaret River. Certainly, small wine regions are more likely to remain small due to their low growth rate, and Tasmania will hopefully avoid this fate. There are four sources of potential investors in the Tasmanian wine sector. First, there are existing producers, 90 of whom are represented by the body Wine Tasmania. Other sources of investment are Tasmanian farmers wishing to diversify, Australian mainland wine producers, and international wine investors. In recent years, two larger mainland wine companies have invested in the region. W i n e & Viticultur e Jo ur n a l MARC H /APRIL 2014

For the moment, existing producers have had a major say in future development. Some are cautious about the effects on their business of wine expansion, probably because of criticism in the press by Wine Tasmania of the report discussed here, and no Federal funds were allocated to wine development from the more than $100 million flowing to sectors to help boost the economy. Subsequently, the state government through the Department of Economic Development, Tourism and the Arts (DEDTA) has allocated funds to Wine Tasmania for a financial market analysis to be undertaken by Deloitte and a confidential survey of existing wine producers of key costs and margins. DEDTA has also made planting subsidies available to encourage further plantings. Potential investors from the mainland and overseas have also been identified and encouraged by DEDTA. Future investment will depend on processors having confidence in the growth of demand for Tasmanian wine. While well-known in the domestic market, the small amount of Tasmanian wine limits international recognition. The next few years will be important to the development of wine in Tasmania. Will it achieve the growth rates hoped for by the state government to contribute to employment, regional development and value-adding processing? Hopefully so, because the present low growth rates do not indicate that Tasmania will achieve substantial size as a wine region. There is enormous potential for investment and wine in Tasmania, especially by existing mainland wine producers struggling with market issues at the moment. The resources in Tasmania for viticulture are relatively available and moderately priced and, hopefully, this might lead to increases in WVJ the size of the Tasmanian vineyard. www.winebiz. com . au

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ALTERNATIVE VARIETIES

Sensational Souzao – if not every year By Sonya Logan

I

t’s relatively easy to grow, copes well in the heat, has great colour and acid and a good tannin structure but don’t expect regular releases of Australian varietal Souzao any time soon. Although currently appreciated by a handful of winemakers in the country for its ability to boost colour and add complexity in Spanish and Portuguese blends, local experience suggests it is only in the very best years that a varietal Souzao is worth producing. d’Arenberg, in McLaren Vale, has been crushing Souzao for a couple of decades where for the last 10 years it has comprised up to 12% of its Sticks & Stones red blend of Tempranillo, Grenache, and Tinta Cao blend. After sourcing Souzao fruit from 50-year-old vines in McLaren Flat for some 10 years, the winery decided around 2003 to graft over some of its Petit Verdot in McLaren Vale to produce its own two-acre patch of the variety. d’Areberg’s chief winemaker and viticulturist Chester Osborn said Souzao ripened slowly in the vineyard, was not vigorous nor a particularly big yielder due to its production of small clusters of grapes, and coped rather well in heat. “Even in 2008, which was really knocked about by heat, it still made a really good wine,” he noted. “The wine it produces is quite black despite being a red-flushed grape. It has quite a unique earthy and sooty character. It doesn’t have much weight even though the wine is so black, but has quite a fine, mineral tannin character. It has quite a bright, almost Riesling-like tannin in a way. And I think it ages quite gracefully, although we haven’t bottle any on its own of course. “It’s quite a strange variety; a little confounding. I wouldn’t be rushing into producing a varietal wine from it but it adds an interesting length and complexity to our Sticks and Stones blend. Grenache can be quite fat in there and the Souzao helps to bring out the fragrance of the Grenache fruit.” Someone who was keen to rush in and produce a varietal Souzao when he arrived at Stanton & Killeen, along with most of the other Port-style varieties the winery was working with, was winemaker Brendan Heath. However, he soon found they produced reasonably simple and plain wines. “Souzao seems to have great colour, some nice velvety tannins and great acid

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Souzao By Peter Dry Viticulture Consultant The Australian Wine Research Institute Background Known as Souzao (and pronounced soo-ZOW) in Australia, this grape variety should probably be called Vinhão—because that is what it is known as in the Minho region of north-west Portugal where it appears to have originated. Vinhão is the main variety for red wines in the Minho. It was introduced to the Douro (where it is known as Sousão) at the end of the 18th century and the area planted has recently increased. DNA research has confirmed that Vinhão and Sousão are one and the same. The total area in Portugal is 2099ha (2010). In Spain (573ha) it is grown almost exclusively in Galicia—particularly Rias Baixas, Ribeiro and Valdeorras—where it is mainly used in blends and occasionally as a varietal. Synonyms include Espadeiro Basto, Espadeiro da Tinta, Espadeiro Preto, Negrão, Pinhão, Sousão, Souson (Galicia, Spain), Tinta Nacional, Tinta Pais (Galicia, Spain) and Tinto de Parada. In Australia it has been grown since the 1960s: there are at least nine wine producers in several regions (Margaret River, Peel, Swan District, Barossa Valley, McLaren Vale, Rutherglen, Mudgee) who mostly use it for table wines, both varietal and blends. There are small areas in South Africa and USA (California, Washington) where it is mainly used for fortified wines. There may only be one clone of Souzao in Australia at the present time—this was introduced from California in the 1960s. Viticulture Budburst and maturity are mid to late season. Vigour is moderate to high with sprawling growth habit. Bunches are small to medium, well-filled to compact with medium thick-skinned and highly coloured berries. Yield is moderate. Spur pruning can be used. Souzao has lower susceptibility to powdery and downy mildews than average but it is susceptible to sunburn. Wine Souzao is said to produce the most intensely-coloured wines in Portugal—even more intense than varieties with red flesh such as Alicante Bouschet. It is the basis of the best red table wines of the Vinho Verde. Descriptors include cherry and ‘fruits of the forest’. In the Douro it is used in blends to add both colour and acidity. For further information on this and other emerging varieties, contact Marcel Essling (viticulture@awri.com.au or 08 8313 6600) at The Australian Wine Research Institute to arrange the presentation of the Alternative Varieties Research to Practice program in your region.

but if you’re looking for a fruit bomb this is not it,” Heath admits. Stanton & Killeen has been sourcing Souzao from 30-40 year old vines since 2008 to blend into its Prince dry red – a blend of Souzao, Tinta Roriz, Touriga Nacional and Tinta Cao of which Souzao makes up about a quarter. But in 2012, it was decided that a straight Souzao would be made. “It was probably one of the better years to make it as a single varietal,” W i n e & V i t i c u ltur e Jo ur na l MARC H /APRIL 2014

Heath said. “Generally speaking, it’s best in a co-ferment.” Stanton & Killeen currently has only a smattering of Souzao vines in its Rutherglen vineyard but plans to plant some more this year to bring the total number of vines to around 350. “We’ll continue to use Souzao mainly in blends but in some years when it stands out and we have more of it we might do a straight varietal again,” Heath said. V29N2


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Stanton & Killeen made a straight Souzao in 2008, which retails for $58 at cellar door, but the winery generally utilises Souzao in its The Prince dry red - a blend of Souzao, Tinta Roriz, Touriga Nacional and Tinta Cao.

Some of d’Arenberg’s two acres of Souzao, which were grafted onto Petit Verdot in around 2003.

He said Souzao ripened reasonably early, reaching flavour ripeness at around 12.5Be. Stanton & Killeen’s vineyard manager, Ruston Prescott, added that it go up to 1415Be if need be, but shut down beyond that. “Souzao is quite an easy variety to work with,” Prescott said. “Personally, I don’t think it needs too much in the way of vineyard management. If you start hedging it too much it will very quickly throw the vines out of balance and this particular variety is very sensitive to that. “I haven’t seen it be particularly susceptible to botrytis or downy mildew – it’s probably on a par with Zinfandel and Semillon in that regard in an average year – but like any variety, if you get a particularly wet year, it can be susceptible to anything.” He added that a reasonable amount of sunlight to the fruiting area was required

at flowering onwards. “If you haven’t got a decent amount of sunlight, you’ll get poor fruitset whether it’s a cool or hot spring,” Prescott said. Over in the west, David Mazza, of Mazza Wines, agrees with Prescott’s assessment of Souzao being fairly easy to manage based on his experience with the 100 or so vines he grows in his 10-acre vineyard in Geographe. “It doesn’t need fruit or foliage thinning or hedging; you just grow it. I’ve never seen powdery in it, but it gets some sulfur spray like everything else in the vineyard.” Mazza also noted that Souzao seemingly repelled birds. “In our vineyard, the Bastardo cops the bird damage first, quickly followed by Tinta Cao. But, they don’t bother the Souzao. Perhaps it’s because the other vines are

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hitting 14Be while the Souzao is only at 12Be. Maybe the acidity is also too high.” Mazza said in his experience, Souzao started raisining beyond 12Be, although it still remained somewhat acidic. “Two years ago, we got 14Be before it started to raisin. So that year, we made a barrel full of straight Souzao. It was sensational. The acidity can be quite high in Souzao but it dropped away on this one. Unfortunately, given we only had the one barrel, we ended up blending it away in our Cinque – a blend of Sousao, Graciano, Touriga Nacional, Tinta Cao and Tempranillo – which is what we do with it every year. I could see that in a good year we might make a straight wine with it, but it would have to be a very special year to get the berries to fully ripen without raisining.” WVJ www.winebiz. com . au

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WINERY PROFITABILITY

Strategies to improve profitability in the winery By Ben Caw1 and Paul Fenn2* 1 Director, 2Senior Analyst PPB Advisory, Sydney, New South Wales *Corresponding author email: PFenn@ppbadvisory.com

Drawing on experience advising winery owners and financiers, the authors explore strategies to assist wineries improve financial performance and solvency and to address the current grape surplus. Effective inventory management and maintaining throughput in an environment of price deflation are key to alleviating cash flow constraints and improving the availability of working capital.

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ineries are, in the current environment, required to consider a raft of innovative solutions to improve performance. This article considers the challenges facing wineries and broadly identifies potential solutions and options available to winery operators. Challenges facing wineries include lower prices for bottled wine, adverse movements in foreign exchange rates (although there has been an improvement in recent months), eroding margins, a build-up of inventory, downward revaluation of grapevine assets, onerous grape supply contracts and the impairment of intangible assets. The effect of some of these challenges depends on the level of sophistication in financial reporting and size of the winery concerned, while the effect of others is common to all wineries. A recent example of the challenges facing wineries was highlighted by the US operations of Treasury Wine Estates (ASX:TWE) whose share price was slashed (down 14 percent) after it disclosed $160 million in asset write-downs. This predominantly related to the US market, where TWE has destroyed stock and provided rebates to distributors as an incentive to clear old stock. TWE also provisioned a further $85 million to exit onerous grape supply contracts. Wineries struggling with too much inventory may consider redirecting excess wine towards the bulk market. When implementing such a strategy, wineries need to consider the flow on effects which include: •a  negative impact on brand – both regionally and nationally

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• c onverting inventory to cost of goods sold (‘COGS’) •a  deterioration of gross margins Figure 1 shows the movement in inventory over the last decade. The overall level of stock is still concerning and is having a detrimental effect on the profitability and solvency of wineries and grapegrowers. The Winemakers’ Federation of Australia has identified that at current levels, inventory sits at 1.5 times the annual volume of sales, placing downward pressure on grape prices. Adverse weather conditions, including a dry winter, black frost in October 2013 and heavy rainfalls in South Australia during February 2014, have reduced production forecasts of what had initially been expected to be another large vintage in 2014 of approximately 1.8 million tonnes. Current expectations suggest that the national crop may only reach a level of between 1.5 million and 1.6 million tonnes. Large wineries should feel a sense of relief noting the adjustment in seasonal supply. The cash cycle (time taken from purchasing grapes to selling wine) is being closely monitored by financiers in the current environment. However, converting excess wine into bottled product and eventually accounts receivable is not a straightforward decision and needs to be considered along with the broader strategic market positioning of the winery. Branding considerations and consumer perceptions are critical to the direction and strategy of a winery. Many wineries are taking advantage of the bulk trade as this method of sale is an anonymous way to realise product. For example, in January 2012, bulk wine exports were, W i n e & V i t i c u ltur e Jo ur na l MARC H /APRIL 2014

for the first time, greater than bottled; a trend which has continued and increased through 2013. However, the indirect implications of this strategy can have a dramatic effect on national and regional branding and the ability to generate price premiums in future seasons. This is a particular concern as the bulk market could potentially recondition consumer psychologies downgrading perceptions of product quality. The effect of this on the profitability of any individual winery will be influenced by both the longevity and severity of the bulk market strategy employed at a national and regional level. Profitability Price deflation across the industry has placed pressure on the gross margins of wineries. A gross margin of 50% is generally considered sustainable. However, diminishing top-line growth has inhibited gross margins of wineries. Selling product into the bulk market has an adverse effect on the gross margin and profitability of a winery. In this regard, there is a counterbalancing effect of alleviating working capital on their gross margins. For wineries under financial pressure, there is an obvious benefit in unlocking inventory and selling stock on hand, even at a discount, to free up cash. However, wineries positioned at the premium end of the market, or who have a positive EBITDA, may prefer to maximise profitability rather than cash by holding onto stock and selling wine through traditional channels. Wineries attempting to adhere to bank covenants based on EBITDA (Earnings before interest tax depreciation and amortisation) need to monitor the V29N2


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Figure 1. Inventories of Australian wine held by wineries over the period 1999 to 2012. Source: ABS 2013 detrimental effect of shifting sales to the bulk market. By realising wine on the bulk market, inventories are converted to sales, hence reducing net assets and increasing the COGS. So, while realising inventories will allow wineries temporary cash relief, there will be associated reductions in the interest coverage (these sales are typically made at a loss, reducing EBITDA further). Inventory Adequate inventory turnover is a key consideration for a winery as this metric has a direct influence on the availability of working capital. Inventory turnover is calculated as COGS divided by average inventory and it measures the number of times that a winery can turn over inventory on hand. In this respect, a ratio of less than 1 indicates increasing inventory and pressure on working capital. This metric is particularly important for the SME (small or medium enterprise) winery as larger wineries are more easily able to shift sales between brands to alleviate working capital constraints. SME wineries that have a select brand offering are forced to consider innovative solutions by pursuing alternative channels or selling methods to maintain inventory turnover. COGS COGS may be calculated in one of two ways, variable costing (‘VC’) or absorption costing (‘AC’). In an environment of increasing inventory levels, AC will have a less detrimental effect on a winery’s financial performance in the short term. Using AC, costs associated with producing V2 9N 2

wine (e.g. management overheads, electricity, marketing costs, etc.) are only expensed to the profit and loss statement when the end product is sold. If wine is not sold, these costs are not expensed in the current period and are carried forward in the balance sheet as inventory, improving the entity’s net asset position and perceived solvency. Conversely, with VC all costs are expensed as costs during the period in which they are incurred. When inventory is increasing, COGS will be lower under AC and, hence, the gross margin of a winery will improve. Implementing this system of costing will improve performance. However, it will also have a consequential effect on the working capital position of a winery due to rising inventory. Grape supply contract In the current environment of surplus wine and price deflation, renegotiating grape supply contracts is critical to the viability of a winery. Wineries must recognise in their financial statements a provision for the costs associated with meeting onerous grape supply agreements.This was the case with TWE previously mentioned. The unavoidable costs forecast to be incurred in meeting a winery’s future obligations directly affect the balance sheet and solvency. Larger wineries with higher levels of market power have the ability to shift non-core grape suppliers out of contracts and onto the spot market. Some wineries are also renewing grape supply agreements for non-core growers on shorter terms or imposing yield restrictions to improve flexibility (for the winery). W i n e & Viticultur e Jo ur n a l MARC H /APRIL 2014

Biological Assets – Grapes and grapevines Vertically integrated wineries that have strategic interests in vineyards should also consider the valuation of grapes and grapevines (biological assets measured under AASB 141). Initially, and at each reporting date, grapevines and grapes are required to be measured at their fair value less costs to realise. Prior to the introduction of AASB 141, grapes and grapevines were often measured at their book values (cost less accumulated depreciation).An important consideration in the current environment of negatively trending grape prices is the variance between cost and market values. Any revaluation to the correct reporting standard by a winery will have a direct (generally downward) affect on the balance sheet. Conclusion Reporting requirements and the effectiveness of a winery’s information systems can have a significant effect on the profit or loss of a winery as well as its sustainability. Effective management of profitability drivers is critical to improving performance as well as maintaining lender support. With pressure from lenders to maintain covenants tied to financial performance, non-financial factors and asset valuations, the linkages and flow through implications of decisionmaking are critical. In an environment of difficult decision-making for wineries, the balance between short-term solvency and long-term viability must be carefully WVJ managed. www.winebiz. com . au

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C ONSU M E R I NS I G H TS

Feeling the flavour: the wine industry gets emotional By Sue Bastian1*, Renata Ristic1, Trent Johnson1 and Annet Hoek2 1 Wine Science, The University of Adelaide, School of Agriculture Food and Wine, Waite Campus, Urrbrae, South Australia 2 Faculty of Arts and Design, University of Canberra *Corresponding author: sue.bastian@adelaide.edu.au

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athering insight into what consumers want in a product has become generally accepted as being good for business. The Australian wine industry makes exceptional worldclass wine, but do wine producers hit the flavour target for their consumers often enough? Some producers may know what their consumers like to smell or taste in a wine. But do they know which wine flavours evoke certain emotions or feelings? Have winemakers also considered what flavours their consumers prefer in wines that they wish to consume on a specific occasion or time of year; whether it is with a family meal, during a special celebration, a fine dining experience or a casual barbecue, in summer or in winter? Unlocking knowledge about their consumersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; emotions evoked by wines and how these feelings change in different environments could permit production of wines that better meet consumersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; expectations of a wine in different consumption settings.

What is the difference between an emotion and a mood? An emotion is a short-term, immediate feeling in response to a specific stimulus e.g., an event or tasting a wine. A mood, on the other hand, is a more stable, longerterm feeling. If someone wakes up and feels happy for no particular reason, then that is a mood. If that person becomes quickly irritated at what was just said to him or her, that is defined as an emotion. Researchers and product makers of foods, beverages and perfumes are beginning to understand that hedonic or liking information about a product is not enough. Recent studies by Swiss researchers Porcherot et al. (2010), who worked with perfumery oils, showed that two products may have the same liking score but generate a different emotional response profile. Mandarin and jasmine oils were well liked and given similar scores on a nine-point hedonic liking scale of 7.1 and 6.9, respectively. Yet the mandarin aroma made consumers feel energetic, invigorated

and clean and more romantic, in love and desire; while jasmine evoked more relaxed, serene and reassured emotions. The same could apply for (flavours in) wines. In a highly competitive marketplace, along with consumers faced with huge choice in the wine product category, emotions evoked by wines could become more important in providing a discriminatory advantage as many products are now often similar in their characteristics, packaging and price. It is even possible that for some purchase choices, emotional responses may be the decisive factor as opposed to intrinsic sensory attributes or price. For wine producers, this differentiation takes us beyond purely hedonic liking and will provide insight into the total consumer experience that will provide guidance for product development and marketing strategy. If a productâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s emotion profile is then linked to circumstances under which certain aromas are preferred, then wines that meet those emotional profiles can be made and recommended for specific

Some of the 100 Australian Shiraz that were evaluated by an expert panel.

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situations, for example, romantic dinners versus a family dinner at home. Our preliminary findings from an online survey asking about wine aroma, emotions and liking using 3000 wine consumers from the USA (n=1000), UK (n=1000) and Australia (n=1000) have indicated that for a romantic evening consumers may wish to have aromas of rose, or if they are at a lively outdoor party they may desire zesty lemon notes or hints of vanilla at Christmas time. A complex study funded by the Grape and Wine Research and Development Corporation is now under way by University of Adelaide researchers and their collaborators, the aim of which is to determine the influence of context effects, such as the dining environment, on consumer wine and wine flavour preference ratings, and the emotions elicited by wine and wine flavours. This is a first in the Australian market and it will also define the intrinsic wine drivers behind wine consumers’ perception of wine quality, liking, consumption and purchase behaviour and whether these alter in different multi-sensory environments. Ultimately this will help the Australian industry and wine consumers co-design wines with flavours suited to specific dining experiences or seasons and that meet consumer expectations of quality and price. As a first step the study has had an expert panel evaluate 100 Australian Shiraz wines. The panel comprised Melanie Hollick, Michael Coode, Steven Frost, Hylton McLean, Mark Swann, Sue Bastian,

Nick Bulleid and Geoff Cowey. The wines were sourced from 24 wine regions across Australia as follows: Canberra (1), Central Ranges (1), Hunter Valley (3), Orange (1), Riverina (4), Adelaide Hills (6), Barossa Valley (24), Clare Valley (4), Coonawarra (5), McLaren Vale (16), Beechworth (1), Murray Darling (1), Bendigo (1), Grampians (2), Great Western (1), Heathcote (5), Pyrenees (1), Rutherglen (1), Yarra Valley (7), King Valley (1), Geographe (2), Great Southern (3), Margaret River (8) and Swan Valley (1). The vintages dated from 2009 to 2013 and the retail prices ranged from $3 to $185. The expert panel was asked to try all wines independently, rate them on a scale of 1-20, make brief notes and then as a group place them consensually in one of four quality categories based on the Australian wine show system of gold, silver and bronze medal, or no medal but of sound quality. This in itself generated some good discussion amongst the panel on the day, such as emerging style trends, and a movement away from oak dominating fruit flavours. It also produced some interesting findings particularly regarding expertperceived quality and corresponding price of the wine. The highest quality group containing the ten top wines overall included the wines from Clare Valley (2), Great Western (1), Barossa Valley (6) and McLaren Vale (1) with retail prices from $8 to $147. The highest scored wines were the Oracle Shiraz 2010, from Kilikanoon; Best’s Bin No 0 Shiraz 2012, of Best’s Great Western, and the

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Penfolds Bin 150 Marananga Shiraz 2010, from Treasury Wine Estates. The second highest quality group comprised 18 wines from McLaren Vale (4), Barossa Valley (7), Adelaide Hills (1), Margaret River (1), Grampians (1), Hunter Valley (1), Geographe (1), Yarra Valley (1) and Heathcote (1) in a price range from $9 to $70. Another 40 wines ($7 to $185) were placed in the third highest quality group while the remaining 32 wines in the fourth group ranged in price from $3 to $115. The perceived wine quality and expert-assigned wine scores were driven by wine flavours and complexity and were not, even remotely, related to the retail price of the wine (correlation coefficient R2=0.07) (Figure 1). From these 100 wines, a set of 40 wines will be selected, 10 from each quality level and with disparate sensory characters. These will be profiled for their sensory characters in detail by a trained panel. This will define the intrinsic (flavour and taste) qualities driving the wines designated to one of four quality levels by the initial expert panel. From there, consumers will be exposed to a group of 12 wines (three representing each quality level and selected to represent a range of styles). The same consumers will have the opportunity to taste the wines in different settings; in a sensory lab, a restaurant and at home to determine whether the consumption setting has an influence on consumer perceived quality, wine liking and the emotions they feel in response to consuming the wine. The insights obtained by these new and innovative consumer studies are just what the Australian wine industry needs to better understand which wine flavour complements an emotion evoked by wine consumption in different settings and events and how this can affect liking. Acknowledgements The authors would like to acknowledge Dr Herb Meiselman, of Herb Meiselman Services, Rockport, United States, for his invaluable input with regards to this research, the wine producers who donated the wines and the expert panel. This study was funded by Australian grapegrowers and winemakers through their investment body, the Grape and Wine Research and Development Corporation, with matching funds from the Australian Government.

Figure 1. Graph showing the spatial distribution of 100 Australian Shiraz wines by wine score, quality level and retail price. The wines positioned more to the right of the plot were perceived as high quality wines, while wines in the top half of the plot were more expensive. The angles between the quality category/ wine score and retail price vectors indicated there were only weak relationships between those variables. V2 9N 2

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Reference Porcherot, C.; Delplanque, S.; Raviot-Derrien, S.; Le Calvé, B.; Chrea, C.; Gaudreau N. and Cayeux, I. (2010) How do you feel when you smell this? Optimisation of a verbal measurement of odour-elicited emotions. Food WVJ Quality and Preference 21:938-947. www.winebiz. com . au

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W I NE R EG I ON A L I TY

Preliminary insights into the regional characteristics of Australian Shiraz By Trent E. Johnson1, Anne Hasted2, Renata Ristic1 and Susan E.P. Bastian1* Wine Science and Wine Business Group, The University of Adelaide, Waite Campus, PMB 1, Glen Osmond, SA, 5064, Australia 2 Qi Statistics, Ruscombe, Reading, United Kingdom *Corresponding author: sue.bastian@adelaide.edu.au 1

Researchers put a panel of wine experts to the test to determine whether they could group Shiraz wines from the same region together. Introduction

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ne of the major challenges facing the Australian wine industry is to be universally recognised as a producer of regionally distinct fine wines. At a global level, Australia is most closely associated with fruit forward, easy drinking wines made from the Shiraz grape (DFAT 2009). Shiraz is the most widely planted red grape variety in Australia, accounting for 43.7% of red grape plantings and 25.8% of all grape plantings (ABS 2009). The importance of the Shiraz variety to the Australian wine industry, Australia’s international reputation for the production of Shirazbased wines and the international push to introduce global markets to Australia’s regional wines (including Shiraz) were the catalyst for this study. There is anecdotal evidence that wines from various Australian regions may be identified by specific sensory attributes. For example, Dijkstra (2009) argued that Shiraz wines from the Barossa Valley possess dark berry and dark chocolate characters compared with the red berry, black pepper and spice characters noted in McLaren Vale Shiraz wines. Given the Wine Australia strategy to showcase Australia’s regionally distinct and unique wines and that no rigorous examination of any perceived regional differences in Australian Shiraz has been previously attempted, the aim of the study was to have a number of Australian wine experts undertake a series of sorting tasks on commercial Shiraz wine sourced from 10 Australian Shiraz producing regions. We hypothesised that if there were wines with similar attributes present then it was likely that those wines would be sorted together. We also hypothesised that wines from the same region were likely

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to be sorted together because of the presence of some distinct regional characteristics. Descriptive analysis (DA) of the wines would provide quantitative sensory measures of the differences between the wines (Stone et al. 1974). By integrating the results from the two distinct types of sensory analyses, we would attempt to identify the attributes that brought about the perceived similarities in the wines. Materials and Methods Wines The authors selected 10 Geographical Indications (GI) that represented the breadth of Shiraz wines produced in Australia. The nine GIs and sub-region GI were: Barossa Valley, Clare Valley, McLaren Vale, Langhorne Creek, Coonawarra (South Australia); Heathcote and Great Western (Victoria); Hunter Valley (New South Wales); Canberra District (Australian Capital Territory and New South Wales); and the Frankland River sub-region of the Great Southern GI (Western Australia). Twenty nine wines were secured, with three from each region (with the exception of the Hunter Valley, Heathcote and Great Southern which only had two wines), across price points ranging from commercial type wines (approximately AUD$15 retail) through to wines priced in excess of AUD$50, as well as one iconic Shiraz wine (from the Northern Rhone) and one multi-regional wine. Table 1 provides details of these wines. Sensory tasks Twenty two wine experts (13 males and nine females), all of whom met some or all of the criteria detailed in Parr et al. (2002) agreed to participate in the sorting tasks. In the first W i n e & V i t i c u ltur e Jo ur na l MARC H /APRIL 2014

instance, 30mL of the wines was poured into XL5 tasting glasses coded with three digit random numbers and covered with a Petri dish and presented to the experts in a random order. They were asked to sort the wines into groups based on their odour similarity and to write a few words to describe the odour similarity of each group (Ballester et al. 2008). After a 90-minute break, the second assignment consisted of tasting the wines that were presented in a second random order. During the experts’ initial assessment of each wine, they provided brief tasting notes and a technical and hedonic assessment. The experts then grouped the wines according to similarities of taste and provided a few words to describe each group. The wines were also evaluated by a trained panel of nine people (two females and seven males, aged between 22 and 48 years) who performed a descriptive analysis (DA) to define the sensory profiles of each wine. The panellists identified a number of sensory attributes that differentiated the wines and undertook formal assessment of the wines over four three-hour sessions in which each wine was seen three times. The agreed definitions and reference standards of the attributes that significantly differentiated the wines are shown in Table 2 (See page 69). Results Sorting task analysis The data from the two sorting tasks were aggregated and subjected to multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) analysis and a three-dimensional depiction of the data was achieved. V29N2


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Table 1. Geographical Indication, vintage and expert score details of the 29 wines used in the study. Wine Code

Vintage

Experts’ Hedonic (Liking) Score

Experts’ Technical Quality Score

MJT†

RRP‡

BV1

2005

5.7 ab

15.8 ab

21.2

30

BV2¶

2005

4.4 abc

15.1 abc

21.2

75

BV3

2005

5.7 ab

15.6 ab

21.2

14

CA1

2006

5.9 ab

15.8 ab

23.5

27

CA2

2006

4.9 abc

15.2 abc

23.5

25

CA3

2006

5.4 abc

15.3 ab

23.5

46

CO1

2004

5.1 abc

15.6 ab

16.4

28

CO2

2005

5.6 ab

15.7 ab

19.4

45

CO3

2005

5.2 abc

15.3 ab

19.4

38

COM

2005

5.8 ab

15.7 ab

22.5

13

CV1

2006

5.9 ab

15.8 ab

25.4

16

CV2

2004

3.9 abc

14.9 abc

19.0

25

CV3

2004

4.9 abc

15.2 abc

19.0

60

GS1

2005

5.2 abc

15.5 abc

20.5

17

GS2

2005

4.0 abc

14.3 bc

20.5

39

GW1§

2004

5.9 ab

15.7 ab

16.7

25

GW2

2004

5.4 abc

15.6 ab

16.7

45

GW3

2004

4.6 abc

14.8 abc

16.7

50

HE1

2006

5.6 ab

15.6 ab

23.8

17

HE2¶

2004

5.0 abc

15.2 abc

19.1

27

HV1

2006

5.3 abc

15.3 ab

25.2

70

HV2

2006

3.1 c

13.7 c

25.2

22

IC¶

2003

3.8 abc

14.3 bc

21.6*

135

LC1¶

2006

4.9 abc

15.5 ab

17.1

45

LC2

2006

5.8 ab

16.0 a

20.5

19

LC3

2006

5.6 ab

15.6 ab

20.5

45

MV1

2005

4.2 abc

14.7 abc

21.1

55

MV2

2006

6.5 a

16.0 a

21.4

20

MV3

2005

5.5 ab

15.6 ab

21.1

28

Where BV = Barossa Valley, CV = Clare Valley; IC = Icon; COM = Commercial, multi-regional wine; HE = Heathcote; GS = Great Southern (West Australia); GW = Great Western (Victoria); HV = Hunter Valley; CA = Canberra District; CO = Coonawarra; MV = McLaren Vale; LC = Langhorne Creek.The number following the initials is the unique identifier of the wine from that region. †MJT = Mean January Temperature; ‡ RRP = Recommended Retail Price in $AUD; ¶Wines were not donated; § Wines were discounted. Values sharing a letter within a column are not significantly different (one way ANOVA, p0<05, Tukey’s HSD). *this value represents the Mean July Temperature as the wine was from the Northern Hemisphere.

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Labels for each of the dimensions were established by examining the tasting notes for each wine that loaded positively onto a dimension. The following labels were therefore assigned: blackberry, plum, pepper and spice (BPPS); herbal, vanilla, cedar and berry jam (HVCBJ) and earthy, savoury, dusty and meaty (ESDM). For this latter description many of the experts noted microbiological elements that they perceived as the presence of Brettanomyces in the wines that loaded positively on that dimension. Examination of the pairwise bi-plots of the three dimensions (Figures 1a and 1b) revealed some wines from a single region occupied similar space on the plot, indicating that there were perceived similarities between these wines (Abdi et al. 2007). Wines from LC, two from CO and CA were perceived as HVCBJ driven, whilst CO, CA and two of the GW wines displayed more BPPS characters (Figure 1a). Wines from MV all displayed similar BPPS and HVCBJ characters (Figure 1a), but were distinguished by their ESDM attributes (Figure 1b). HV wines had similar HVCBJ characters and were differentiated by both BPPS and ESDM attributes (Figure 1b). The wines from the remaining regions (HE, CV, GS and BV) were not grouped together by this process and were thus differentiated across all three dimensions, appearing in different quadrants of the plots (Figures 1a and 1b). The wines are denoted by filled boxes and the notations are detailed in Table 1. Wines BV3 and CO3 had identical co-ordinates in the second and third dimensions and could not be separated on the pair wise bi-plot of those two dimensions. Descriptive analysis (DA) and principal component analysis (PCA) of the 29 Shiraz wines The mean intensity ratings of the 17 attributes that significantly differentiated the 29 wines were subjected to PCA. The MDS data were included as supplementary data in the PCA. Figure 2 details the first two principal components that accounted for 61.8% of the variation in the wines’ data and also shows the MDS vectors. Principal component PC1 separated the wines mainly on the attributes dark fruit aroma and palate, colour intensity, perceived length and mouthfeel, body and alcohol perception. PC2 contrasted the wines on savoury aroma, mouthfeel, tannin and alcohol opposed to coconut and vanillin oak and fruit sweetness on the palate. www.winebiz. com . au

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The bi-plots of the 29 wines against the PCs 1 and 2 were also projected onto Figure 2. The even distribution of wines in all four quadrants indicated that the wines occupied a varied sensory space. This bi-plot also reveals wines from the same geographical region occupying similar sensory space indicating that the DA panellists perceived them as having similar attributes Cluster analyses of the MDS and DA data To further interpret the data, both the aggregated MDS and DA data were subjected to agglomerative hierarchical cluster (AHC) analysis. The resultant five clusters from the MDS data (C1- C5) are shown in Table 3A (See page 70) and the wines from each cluster are circled in Figures 1a and 1b. Of the five distinct groups identified in the MDS data, four groups contained at least two wines that originated from single wine regions. The analysis of the DA data is displayed in Table 3B. Two wines from eight regions are grouped together in this analysis.

A

Discussion Can a true Australian regional Shiraz character be determined? The cluster analysis of the MDS and DA data revealed that wines from six and eight regions, respectively, were grouped together, perhaps indicating the presence of some similarities in wines that originated from the same delimited Australian wine region. However, trying to label the definitive character of, say, Barossa Valley Shiraz proved to be limited to very general descriptors only. We have undertaken two different cluster analyses on two very different data sets and both of these analyses suggested that regional similarities were identified by the respective judges. If these results are further analysed, we see that in the case of the sorting task data, only two (CA and LC) of the 10 regions had all three wines represented in the same cluster, but none based on the DA data set. All other regions with wines clustered together had only two wines represented. Herein lies a major issue with trying to label a region’s characteristics in any definitive way. The size and varying geographies and the subsequent plethora of mesoclimates (Smart & Dry 2004) of most of the regions defy identifying a single, all encompassing regional description. For example, White (2012) reports that the Barossa Valley may consist of up to nine sub-regions, each with its own separate sub-regional Shiraz identity. It is likely, therefore, that the regions from which all wines were grouped together may have been smaller in geography or reasonably homogenous in terms of geography, for example, CO and LC. On the other hand, the wines from CA, which has quite diverse geography, elevation and temperature

B

Figure 1. Three dimensional MDS solution of the 29 sorted wines (A = dimensions 1 and 2 – blackberry, plum, pepper and spice; and herbal, vanilla, cedar and berry jam; B = dimensions 1 and 3 – blackberry, plum, pepper and spice; and earthy, savoury, dusty and meaty). Clusters identified by AHC (Table 3A) are circled and labelled C1-C5.

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Figure 2. PCA plot of DA and MDS data with wine bi-plot scores projected. Solid squares represent the wines. Solid vectors are DA panel attributes. Dashed vectors represent MDS data and are underlined. AI = Aroma intensity; Fl I = Flavour intensity; Col I = colour intensity. MF = mouthfeel; AO = oak; aroma; T = taste; AT = aftertaste; L = length; A = Aroma; P = Palate; Dk F = dark fruit; Tan = tannin; Gr = green aroma; OH = alcohol; Van = vanilla; Ft Sw = fruit sweet; Cho = chocolate; B = body; O = oak; Ac = acid; Sav = savoury; Coc = coconut. BPPS = Blackberry, plum, pepper & spice - MDS Dimension 1; HVCBJ = Herbal, vanilla, cedar, berry jam MDS Dimension 2; ESDM = Earthy, savoury, dusty, meaty - MDS Dimension 3.

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Table 2. Colour, aroma and palate vocabulary generated by the DA panel, with agreed definitions and reference standards of the significant attributes. Attribute

Definition

Colour Colour intensity

Depth of colour from light plum to dark plum/opaque (colour patches provided)

Aroma Overall aroma intensity

Dark fruit

Green

Oak - vanilla

Oak - coconut

Chocolate Savoury Palate Overall flavour intensity Sweet fruit

Dark fruit

Oak

Overall intensity of the nose ranging from weak to strong Any dark skinned fruit including, blackberry, blueberry, blackcurrant, plum, dark cherry etc. (1 blackberry, 2 blueberries, 1 black cherry, 6 black currants, all frozen and mashed) All green attributes such as eucalyptus, mint, menthol, green capsicum. Low to high intensity 0.5 cm Low to high intensity 0.5g each medium toast French and American oak (O.C. Inc. Piketon, OH, 45661) + 2 drops vanilla essence (Queen Fine Foods Pty Ltd, Alderley QLD 4051) Low to high intensity 0.5g each medium toast French and American oak (O.C. Inc. Piketon, OH, 45661) + 1 drop coconut essence (Queen Fine Foods Pty Ltd, Alderley QLD 4051) Low to high intensity ½ square 0.5 cm Low to high intensity Low to high intensity (1/8 red plum cut into 4 pieces = high intensity) Low to high intensity (1 blackberry, 2 blueberries, 1 black cherry, 6 black currants, all frozen and mashed) Low to high intensity presence of any oak perceived on the palate

Taste Acid

Low to high 1.5g/L citric acid in distilled water

Mouthfeel Tannin Alcohol Body Aftertaste Length – the length of time the wine was experienced after expectoration

Fine grained to coarse grained tannin (touch standards provided) Low to high warmth on the palate (5mL Bacardi rum) Light bodied Shiraz to full bodied Shiraz. Short to long 0-20secs = short; 21 – 59 medium to long; >60secs = very long

Unless otherwise stipulated, all standards were presented in 40ml of a two-litre cask Shiraz wine (South Eastern Australia).

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variations (Canberra District Wines 2010), may have had some other distinguishing feature that was perceived by the various judges. In this particular case, all three wines had a small component of Viognier in their blends that may have contributed to their consistent groupings. The two regions that did not have any wines grouped together in either analysis were HV and HE. HE covers a large geographic area and has marked differences in climate from north to south (Heathcote Winegrowers Association 2010) and HV is large enough to encompass two distinct sub-regions (Hunter Valley Wine Association 2010). In both cases, only two wines from those regions were available for analysis and it is conceivable that those wines were from quite different parts of their respective regions. It is, therefore, reasonable to suggest that it would be an almost impossible task to determine an Australian Shiraz regional sensory map using commercial wines, beyond some generic descriptors, much like those offered in the popular wine press. Although all of the wines were commercially available and labelled Shiraz, up to 15% of other varieties could be present in the final blend and any presence of other varieties would complicate the identification of a definitive regional Shiraz character. Winemaking interventions like oak additions and malolactic fermentation might also complicate this matter (Parr et al. 2007). However, it would appear to be much more feasible to determine the specific Shiraz attributes of the smaller, more compact sub-regions identified within a region. An adequate sample size of wines would be required to determine these sub-regional attributes. However, if the true characteristics of the sub-regions were to show through in the wines and be identified using the technique described above, one would need to undertake a rigorously controlled trial holding variables such as vintage, clone, harvesting and processing (specifically no oak influence) constant and possibly incorporate vineyard-specific measures and climatic data. We note that both the Barossa Valley and McLaren Vale regions have taken some steps to identify any sub-regional differences in their wines. Study Limitations The most obvious limitation of this study was the small number of wines from each region. While the authors were confident that the wines chosen were a representative sample of wines from each region, a larger sample of wines would have been more ideal, as would the availability of all wines from the one vintage. Conclusion While much is written in the popular wine press espousing the regional differences in Australian Shiraz, no scientific study has been attempted to qualify or quantify those differences. This study was a first, very small step, in that direction. We showed that a cohort of wine experts, some of whom were wine writers and may well have previously written of those differences, were able to group together some wines from a number of regions in a sorting exercise. DA panel analysis also grouped some wines from a single region together; however, with such a small sample size of wines from each region, any regional attributes were only generic. The work undertaken here has emphasised the difficulty of characterising wine regionality using consensus sensory descriptors. To further this research and to provide a genuine ‘sensory map’ of each region’s Shiraz styles, research wines made under exactly the same controlled

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Table 3. Cluster analysis results of the 27 wines based on the sorting task and DA panel consensus data. All three wines of the region in the same cluster

Two wines of the region in the same cluster

One wine of the region in the same cluster

BV2, BV3; GW1, GW2

HV1; CV1; GS1,

MV2, MV3

BV1; CO3; HE1

CO1, CO2,

CV 3

A. Sorting task data Cluster 1 Cluster 2

LC1, LC2, LC3

Cluster 3 Cluster 4

CA1, CA2, CA3

Cluster 5

Matches

CV2; GW3; HV2; MV1; GS2; HE2

22%

30%

48%

Cluster 1

BV1, BV2

CO2, CV2, HV1

Cluster 2

LC2, LC3;CV1, CV3

BV3, CA3, MV2

Cluster 3

CA1, CA2; CO1, CO3;GS1, GS2;GW1, GW3

Cluster 4

MV1, MV3

B. DA panel consensus data

GW2, HE1, HV2, LC1

Cluster 5

Matches

HE2

0%

59%

41%

COM and IC were excluded as only one wine was representing a region conditions from each region/sub-region should be studied. This would then provide each region with a definitive list of attributes that genuinely differentiate their Shiraz wines from other regions, which could then aid their marketing communications. References Abdi, H.; Valentin, D.; Chollet, S. and Chrea, C. (2007) Analyzing assessors and products in sorting tasks: DISTATIS, theory and applications. Food Quality and Preference 18:627-640. Australian Bureau of Statistics (2009) 1329.0 – Australian Wine and Grape Industry, 2008. Available at http://www.abs.gov.au/Ausstats Ballester, J.; Patris, B.; Symoneaux, R. and Valentin, D. (2008) Conceptual vs. perceptual wine spaces: Does expertise matter. Food Quality and Preference 19(3):267276. Canberra District Wines 2010 Available at http://www.canberawines.com.au accessed 17/03/2010 Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (2009) Australia Now – The Australian wine industry, available at http://www.dfat.gov.au/facts/wine.html (accessed 18 June 2009)

Dijkstra, M. (2009) What’s the difference between Barossa Valley Shiraz and McLaren Vale Shiraz? Available at http://www.backvintage.com.au/blog/?p=119 Heathcote Winegrowers Association 2010 available at http://www. heathcotewinegrowers.com.au Hunter Valley Wine Association 2010 available at http://www. winehuntervalley.com.au Parr, W.V.; Heatherbell, D.A. and White, K.G. (2002) Demystifying wine expertise: Olfactory threshold, perceptual skill and semantic memory in expert and novice wine judges. Chemical Senses 27(8):747-755. Parr, W.V.; Green, J.A.; White, K.G. and Sherlock, R.R. (2007) The distinctive flavour of New Zealand Sauvignon Blanc: Sensory characterisation by wine professionals. Food Quality and Preference 18(6):849-861. Smart, R.E. and Dry, P.R. (2004) Vineyard Site Selection. In: Viticulture Volume 1 – Resources 2nd Edition Coombe, B. and Dry, P.R. (Eds.). Adelaide, Winetitles. Stone, H.; Sidel, J.; Oliver, S.; Woolsey, A. and Singleton, R.C. (1974) Sensory evaluation by quantitative descriptive analysis. Food Technology 28:25-26, 28-29, 32-22. White, P. (2012) Tasting the Barossa Grounds: Fourth annual rockfest shows vintage overwhelming geology. Available at http://drinkster.blogspot.com. au/2012/01/barossa-grounds-tasting-2012.html. WVJ

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‘Writing to learn’ or ‘learning to write’: Is there a place for self-reported reviews in wine education? By Dr Justin Cohen, Dr Armando Corsi and Professor Larry Lockshin Ehrenberg-Bass Institute for Marketing Science, University of South Australia

T

he Grape and Wine Research and Development Corporation (GWRDC) agreed in 2012 to support an Ehrenberg-Bass Institute for Marketing Science initiative to develop a program to engage Asian international students to help develop their interest, knowledge and preferences for Australian wine styles. This ongoing program continues to scientifically investigate learning techniques and psychological framing

The purpose of this next phase is to understand if self-reported wine reviews can be used as an indicator of the effectiveness of wine education on novice wine drinkers. A peculiarity of these students and their compatriots back home is their usage of social media and the internet. There is growing evidence that young people in China not only participate in social media at a higher rate than other countries, but also engage more often

There is growing evidence that young people in China not only participate in social media at a higher rate than other countries, but also engage more often and pay more attention to product reviews effects in order to optimise the wine education protocol for novice Asian wine drinkers. The September/October 2013 issue of this journal published an article on previous research from this program, which looked at the effect that different types of educational techniques (i.e., learning by region of origin or learning by grape variety) have in increasing likability, willingness to buy and perceived price point of tasted wines.

and pay more attention to product reviews (Chiu et al. 2012). The authors wondered if the shifting landscape might proffer another approach to train novice wine drinkers and measure the effectiveness of wine education. Three groups of Asian international students, the majority Chinese, were recruited for this study: one control group and two experimental groups. All groups of respondents were asked to participate in a blind tasting of six red

wines, 20 days apart, and asked to do a number of tasks related to rating their preferences, identifying the various generic and specific taste terms they could notice and writing a wine review (this was not forced) of each wine tasted. The control group received no wine education, while the two experimental groups attended three one-hour wine education classes and tastings between the blind tastings. There were functional differences in the method of education. The data analysed for this article was drawn from the before and after blind tasting sessions by comparing the control group with the two experimental groups. The focus of the analysis for this article was only the wine reviews. A total of 112 students were recruited and 103 students completed the research program. Various descriptive statistics on the size and complexity of the reviews are reported. Leximancer software is used to content analyse the reviews and generate frequency counts of the concepts discussed (Leximancer 2007). The results are compared between sessions for each group and between groups for each session using an independent sample t-test. Summary statistics are presented in Table 1. The slight increase in number of reviews and the drop in word count for the control group (G1) are

Table 1. Summary statistics for the three groups.

G1 Before

G1 After

No. of participants

37

No. of potential reviews

G2 Before

G2 After

35

40

222

210

Total no. of reviews written

161

Reviews (%) Total no. of words used Avg. no. of words (excluding blank reviews) V2 9N 2

Diff (%)

G3 Before

G3 After

36

35

32

240

216

210

192

181

192

216

123

185

73

86

80

100

59

96

1448

1525

1762

2755

1151

2659

8.9

8.4

9.2

12.8

9.4

14.4

-6

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Diff (%)

40

Diff (%)

54

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Table 2. Comparison of frequencies of mentions between sessions - by group. G1 CONCEPTS

BEFORE

AFTER

Alcohol

11

0

Aroma

4

0

Colour

0

Dark

G2 CONCEPTS

G3

BEFORE

AFTER

CONCEPTS

BEFORE

AFTER

Alcohol

0

23

Alcohol

0

20

Bold

3

0

Bitter

11

0

8

Dark

0

36

Dark

4

0

0

7

Drinking

10

0

Dates

0

10

Drink

24

11

Feeling

2

0

Drink

7

21

Flavours

4

10

Food

4

0

Dry

5

0

Grape

5

0

Fruity

0

24

Fruity

13

33

Heavy

0

9

Light

0

35

Light

12

20

Left

0

5

Mouth

0

17

Long

0

17

Light

10

0

Oaky

4

0

Mouth

0

21

Mild

3

0

Purple

0

11

Smell

16

28

Smell

0

13

Rough

0

23

Sour

9

0

Sour

0

7

Smell

0

28

Spicy

9

38

Strong

13

0

Smooth

0

22

Star

0

8

Sweet

15

0

Spicy

0

46

Strong

23

21

Taste

24

31

Strong

0

17

Sweet

16

25

Time

3

0

Taste

49

63

Taste

15

82

Wine

26

26

Wine

25

39

Wine

21

36

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Table 3. Concept counts and comparisons between groups and sessions. No. of Concepts

Count of No. of concepts

No. of Concepts

Count of No. of concepts

T-test sig.

Group 1 - Before

16

147

Group 1 - After

15

163

0.715

Group 2 - Before

16

97

Group 2 - After

16

355

0.001

Group 3 - Before

15

121

Group 3 - After

16

376

0.002

Group 1 - Before

16

147

Group 2 - Before

16

97

0.252

Group 1 - Before

16

147

Group 3 - Before

15

121

0.482

Group 2 - Before

16

97

Group 3 - Before

15

121

0.541

Group 1 - After

15

163

Group 2 - After

16

355

0.005

Group 1 - After

15

163

Group 3- After

16

376

0.011

Group 2 - After

16

355

Group 3- After

16

376

0.815

minimal and most likely due to random effects. However, the increased magnitude of the metrics reported in both groups that received education (G2 and G3) is notable and this is where attention should be focussed. A qualitative analysis of the concepts elicited by the participants demonstrated that there are a few concepts mentioned across all groups and sessions. The variability among the other concepts listed is more interesting, particularly among the before and after sessions of G2 and G3. There is a notable aspect in this shift in concepts elicited. The key words related to how to taste wines that were presented to the cohort during their three wine education sessions appeared in higher frequency at the final tasting (Table 2). Finally, the number of times each concept emerged in each of the three groups and each of the two sessions was analysed. The results were compared for each pair of before-after conditions, and across each of the three pairs of groups before and after the education sessions. Table 3 shows that the number of concepts identified in each of three sessions are fairly similar. In the control group, there was stability of the total frequency of mentions across all reported concepts, showing no statistical significant difference. The number of times each concept was mentioned in the reviews significantly increased only for the groups (G2 and G3) that received educational sessions. In G2, the number of concept mentions increased from a frequency of 97 to 355 (+265%), and from 121 to 376 (+210%) for G3. It is also interesting to note that no significant difference was reported between groups in the first session, a result that signals that the three groups are suitable for comparison. Conversely, the results are significantly different in the second session between the control group

and the two groups who received a form of wine education. This result illustrates that education has a positive effect on the respondentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; ability to craft a wine review. However, the differences in the educational delivery to each group do not have a significant impact on the frequency of concepts reported. Despite the exploratory nature of this research, the findings are useful. This research illustrates that the effect of education can be measured through the evolution of wine reviews. Managerially, it can be expected that new or novice wine drinkers who are formally educated will be able to communicate more effectively about their wine experiences. The increased breadth in conceptual description will be useful, as these people not only communicate online with their friends and family, but through social media and review websites where strangers will have the ability to access their opinions (Chiu et al. 2012). Future research should be directed at the effect of social network discussions and product reviews on product choice. This research is ongoing, and further results from this program will appear in a future issue of this journal. Hopefully, those interested in marketing wine in China might one day read positive product reviews by Australian wine ambassadors created here in Adelaide by the EhrenbergBass Institute, through the support of the GWRDC. References Chiu, C.; Ip, C. and Silverman, A. (2012) Understanding social media in China, available at http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/marketing_sales/ understanding_social_media_in_china Leximancer (2007) Leximancer Manual v. 2.23, available at https://www. leximancer.com/wiki/images/archive/7/77/20080826071142!Leximancer_V2_ Manual.pdf WVJ

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DES I GN

The story behind the label Although probably akin to asking a parent to nominate their favourite child, we invited two leading wine label design companies to highlight a label they’ve designed over the past 12 months of which they are particularly proud and to share the story behind its development Nina Chalmers Director/Designer Graphic Language Design Pty Ltd Adelaide, South Australia The Anarchist Shiraz, Coonawarra Background on the wine Anarchist is a new brand from Sam Brand, one of the new generation of Coonawarra winemakers who believe they need to “shake things up a bit”. Promoting disorder and rejecting authority, Anarchist is positioned in opposition to the old guard of wine producers in both imagery, wine style and marketing. The contemporary design and edgy labelling is eyecatching and provides an instantly recognisable and memorable brand image.

Graphic Language DESIGN

Production run of wine 800 Dozen Distribution: Independent retail and online in Australia Price point $16.99 Target market for wine The inner anarchist in every wine drinker Bottle type Premium glass Claret Did the producer already have a glass bottle it wished to use in mind? Although the brand development was well under way, the wine was bottled and had won its first award by the time the label came to light.

Is your brand working for you? Need a new private label? Exporting wine to China, USA or EU? We have vast experience in tailoring brands to suit the target market. Let us help boost your profit margins with effective memorable label design. Call us or visit our new studio, we’d love to talk to you! Tel +61 8 8232 3577.

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Did this ultimately present any limitations to the label design at all? Luckily, the bottle selected was a premium Claret which has less limitations than a Bordeaux, for example. The bottle height obviously always needs to be taken into consideration when planning a total label height. Did the producer already have a name for the wine when he came to you? Sam had a related brand idea, but not the name when he first met with us. The Anarchist was one of our brand concepts, and Sam was immediately drawn to it. What ideas did the producer have in mind for the label at the outset? The idea behind Sam Brand’s Anarchist was that the brand broke with convention and tradition. This story had to be told through the look and feel of the design. How did the producer’s ideas evolve over time? The name and palette of our original Anarchist brand concept inspired Sam to provide us with his own hand scribbled visuals of how he wanted it to evolve. Thereafter, we collaborated with him on a number of proof designs to bring his vision of the brand to life.

This included cutting out the label proofs and placing them on the selected bottle for size, which evolved into the unconventional and distinctive angled split label, which at least one bottling line rejected entirely! What ideas did the producer have for the back label and how did they evolve over time? As expected, very non-conformist; the bare minimum of mandatories and no tasting notes for the wine at all. The initial idea was to have a single wrap label - which would have made the angled application easier to achieve. However, why have a single label for the convenience of it. It simply didn’t work for this concept and we pushed the boundaries of the application process by working closely with the bottling line and printers, because it added to the story behind the brand. Ultimately, the narrow ‘back’ label carries a punchy definition for The Anarchist, flanked on the left by an iconic representation of the winemaker as The Anarchist, which says it all. What sort of label stock, printing techniques etc were used in the final design? The Anarchist label was digitally

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printed on Killer White uncoated paper stock. A gloss varnish was added to the scribble, the ‘A’ within the wine stain and the brand name itself. Further tactile impact is added to the brand name and the ‘A’ with the application of a high build. Damian Hamilton Brand Designer Cornershop Design Pty Ltd Adelaide, South Australia Hawksdrift, Marlborough, New Zealand Background on the wine Hawksdrift is a boutique producer of premium, hand-crafted wines. The hawk effortlessly glides above Hawksdrift’s vineyards and inspires the grapegrower as he tends to the vines in solitude. Their power and finesse, as they drift peacefully, are attributes that Hawksdrift strives for in itswines. Whilst briefing us, winemaker David Tyney noted that although his wines were being praised by distributors, they were reluctant to stock them because their original packaging was ineffective. Our goal was to add value by repositioning the brand;

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to appeal to its target consumer, increase distribution and sell at its recommended price point. Production run of wine The first print run was only a small production of 2000 sets of labels for three wines (Pinot Noir, Sauvignon Blanc and Chardonnay) produced during the 2011 and 2012 vintages. Distribution Large liquor stores/chains, independent retailers and wine bars/ restaurants Price point AUS$36.99 RRP Target market for wine Young professionals aged in their late 20s to 40s. New Zealand and Australia is the primary market, but they wish to expand their distribution in Asia and Europe. Bottle type Antique Green ‘Grande Burgundy’ with screwcap Did the winery already have a glass bottle it wished to use in mind? Yes

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Did this ultimately present any limitations to the label design at all? No. The bottle they selected represented their premium positioning. Did the producer already have a name for the wine when it came to you? The winery already had a name for the brand so we were not involved in naming it. What ideas did the producer have in mind for the label at the outset? The client had relatively conventional views on wine packaging, but was willing to explore new ideas if it added value. Initially, they wished to evolve their existing label and retain elements like their ‘HD’ symbol, the gliding hawk and gold.

and feathers. We also recommended that they remove the ‘HD’ symbol because their name was ‘Hawksdrift’, not divided into two words - ‘Hawks’ and ‘Drift’. We also recommended that they consider other embellishments that were more distinctive than gold. What ideas did the producer have for the back label and how did these evolve over time? They wished to retain the existing copy and add elements like the winemaker’s signature and a QR code. We believed the addition of the signature and QR code would add value, but recommended that they remove some irrelevant copy about their history.

How did the producer’s ideas evolve over time? After carrying out research, we discovered that there are many ‘hawk’ and ‘eagle’ brands and labels in New Zealand, Australia and other parts of the globe. To tell Hawksdrift’s unique story and stand out from the crowd, we developed a contemporary solution inspired by the hawk’s unique characteristic - its striped markings

What sort of label stock, printing techniques etc were used in the final design? The pattern is finished in a gun metal foil on uncoated, textured label paper. Cigar bands printed in a metallic ink and finished with a tinted spot gloss varnish add to the premium statement. This attention to detail not only reflects the quality of the wine, but is a testament to the grapegrower’s/winemaker’s craft. WVJ

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business & marketing

Packaging in the US off-trade wine market By Mark Rowley, Industry Analyst, Wine Australia

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n light of this issue’s look at the topic of packaging, this article provides a profile of Australia’s second biggest export market, the US, by container type, comparing the Australian category with the total market. The type of container in which wine is sold in the US off-trade wine market is highly dependent on which market segment the wine is targeted to. Similar to Australia, boxed wine (soft-packs) is the cheapest way to buy wine. Then, as the consumer trades up, glass bottles are used. The 1.5 litre glass bottle is also regularly targeted at the entry level, while the 750mL bottle can cater for anywhere along the price spectrum, but accounts for nearly all premium wine sales. Alternative packaging also plays a role in the market, but with a much lower share. However, the sheer size of the market renders results in significant volumes of this niche market being sold. Figure 1 illustrates the profile of the US off-trade wine market by container type in 2013. Glass bottles accounted for more than four-fifths of wine sales in the States. The 750mL bottle accounted for almost half of all wine sales, while the larger 1.5L glass bottle accounted for a further quarter of sales. The market segment targets of these

Figure 1. Table wine sales by container type (volume share).

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two sizes are polar opposites on the price spectrum. At an average of $9.90 per bottle, the 750mL is on average priced at nearly double that of the 1.5L bottle ($5.02 per 750mL bottle equivalent). Typically, the 1.5L bottle is sold below $8 per 750mL equivalent, with 98% of 1.5L sales sold below this level. Conversely, just 39% of 750mL bottles were purchased below the $8 per bottle level. In the boxed wine segment, a 77% share of sales are packaged in 5L boxes, while the 3L boxes account for a further 23% share. The vast majority (a 95% share) of the boxed wine segment is sourced from domestic product, while Chile supplies a further 4% share. The remaining 1% of boxed wine sales is shared by all other source countries. Australia supplies barely any wine in boxed formto the US market. Australia’s profile also differs to the market because the 1.5L bottle has a much greater presence elsewhere, with sales exceeding those packaged in 750mL bottles. At $7.19 per 750mL equivalent, the average price for Australian wine in 1.5L bottles is higher than the 1.5L market average of $5.02. In contrast, the average price of Australian wine in 750mL bottles ($7.23 per bottle) is far below the average of $9.90 for all wine sales in 750mL bottles. The reason is that Australia’s sales are predominately located in the $5.00 to $7.99 per bottle segment and are massively underrepresented in all price segments above $8 per bottle. Figure 3 illustrates the share of each container type for each of the top 16 varietals, and demonstrates that the amount of wine that is sold in boxed form can depend on the varietal. The majority of Pinot Noir, Sauvignon Blanc, Moscato, Riesling and Zinfandel is sold in glass bottles. Conversely, relatively large amounts of Chardonnay, Merlot and White Zinfandel are sold as boxed wine.

In conclusion, it is clear that premium wine is mainly packaged in 750mL bottles, while cheaper wine is packaged in larger containers such as 1.5L bottles and boxed wine. To learn more about the US market, download the ‘United States Sales Trend Detailed Reports’ report from Winefacts on the Wine Australia website, www.wineaustralia.com/winefacts WVJ

Figure 2. Australia table wine sales by container type.

Figure 3. Total wine sales by container type and varietal.

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Developments in education and research in the English wine industry By Tony Milanowski, Lecturer in Winemaking, Plumpton College, United Kingdom. Email: tony.milanowski@plumpton.ac.uk

The English wine industry is currently booming, and with it the need for skilled workers and local research to further the industryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s development. Helping to meet this demand is Plumpton College.

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ver since Roman invaders introduced viticulture to the British Isles, wine has been an important feature of life in England. The people of Britain have a long history of importing wines, and have played an important role in the history of important wine regions such as Bordeaux, Oporto and Marsala. Today, the UK wine trade accounts for 143 million cases and, with an annual consumption of 25.9 litres per capita, the UK is the biggest retail wine-importing country by value. Alongside this continuing strong position in the global wine trade, English (and Welsh) wine production is booming. Recent years have seen a rapid increase in the number of vineyards to 432, bring the total planted area to 1438 hectares (2012 DEFRA statistics). Although led by the production of traditional methode sparkling wines, there has been growth in all wine styles due to improvements in quality and a strong interest in local produce. One of the major stimulants of this growth has been the increased recognition of the quality of English wines, with wine awards being won in international competitions, including Ridgeview Wine Estate winning the Decanter Sparkling Wine & Champagne Trophy, Gusbourne Estate winning the International Wine Spirit Competition Bottle-Fermented Sparkling Wine Trophy and Camel Valley taking the Bollicini Del Mondo World Sparkling Wine Championships. Another factor for the success of our industry has been the high quality of the education and training offered by Plumpton College. Located in the South Downs National Park, just outside the popular resort town of Brighton, Plumpton has a history of land-based education stretching back to 1926, working with the farming community of the South East of England. It was well placed to capitalise on the growth of vineyard plantings in Kent, Sussex and Hampshire, and has been involved in training students in grape and wine production since 1988. Initial education was focussed on short courses and vocational training, but, in association with the University of Brighton,

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the very first BSc Honours Viticulture & Oenology degree in the UK was launched there in 1997. To this day it remains the only undergraduate wine production degree in Europe that is taught solely in English. In 2010, Plumpton launched an industrytraining initiative, supported by EU funding, known as WineSkills, which includes regional workshops, mentoring by worldrenowned consultants and masterclasses from leading international academics, supported by comprehensive resources found on the WineSkills website (www. wineskills.co.uk). This was supplemented by the recent launch of the vineyard apprenticeship scheme, where young workers train on the job in vineyards, supported by teaching by the wine and horticultural departments at Plumpton College. Plumpton College works with other UK education providers such as the Wine and Spirits Education Trust (WSET) and provides technical seminars as part of the Institute of Masters of Wine education program. September 2014 will see the launch of the Master of Science (MSc) course specialising in Viticulture and Oenology. This program, led by Dr Matteo Marangon, formerly of the Australian Wine Research Institute (AWRI), will allow post-graduate study of wine in England for the first time. It will cover new developments in the science of grapegrowing and winemaking, as well as providing specialist education in the important fields of sparkling wine production, terroir and climate change. There is a strong expectation that the significant and important Masters project will drive research activity for UK wine industry. As a new and still relatively small wine industry, improvements to wine quality have been largely realised through education leading to increased skills and knowledge of grape-growers and winemakers. However, now that a critical mass has been achieved, the industry is looking towards research to fuel further developments. In March, the launch of the UK Wine Research Centre at Plumpton College will provide the facilities, professional staff and co-operation with W i n e & Viticultur e Jo ur n a l MARC H /APRIL 2014

In September 2014, Plumpton College will launch a Master of Science in Viticulture & Oenology â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the first in the UK - which will be led by former senior research scientist with the Australian Wine Research Institute, Dr Matteo Marangon. the wider science community to enable this to happen. This state-of-the-art facility, integrating the Rathfinny research winery, IOC tasting theatre and Jack Ward laboratories, will allow experimentation in many areas of grapegrowing and winemaking. Working in the new facilities, with cooperation from national and international partners, are staff who are investigating a diverse set of areas such as cool-climate lactic acid bacteria, laccase enzyme, and the effect of climate change on UK viticulture. Outside the centre, experimental vineyard plantings have been established to investigate the effects of varying inter-row vine plant densities and different clone/ rootstock combinations and to assess the performance of emerging cool-climate varietals. We believe that the English wine industry is at a similar turning point to where the Australian wine was 50 years ago and New Zealand 20 years ago; a rapidly-growing sector establishing its own styles with a great future, supported by an excellent centre of training, education and research. The UK wine industry will be hosting the International Cool Climate Wine Symposium WVJ in Brighton in May 2016. www.winebiz. com . au

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Exploring the options for ‘alternative’ rosé Our recent tasting of roses made from alternative varieties demonstrated the diverse offering in the current marketplace in Australia, with the wineries behind the top three providing the following background on their production. SImon Gilbert Winemaker/Managing Director Gilbert by Simon Gilbert Mudgee, New South Wales Wine: 2013 Gilbert by Simon Gilbert Saignee Rose (RRP$24.00/bottle)

Sangiovese (85%) – Mudgee (Apple Tree Flat) This site has an elevation of 520 metres and has a north facing aspect. The top soils comprise a loam/clay soil base and subsurface and underlying shattered rock and quartz. The mean January temperature at the site is 23.5°C, while the average rainfall is 600mm per annum. The incidence of early frosts in the area is common, but as a result of careful site selection this is not the case here. The H6V9 vines were planted in 1999 and are on 101-14 rootstocks.

The vines are trained to VSP, with a cordon at 1.1m. The row and vine spacing is 2.6m and 1.5m, respectively. Canopy management practices include vertical shoot positioning with selective shoot thinning as required. Minimal irrigation measures were employed in 2013 due to a heavierthan-normal rain during the growing season. Irrigation water is sourced from the adjacent Cudgegong River. Cover crops have been historically used, but more recently grass swards have been slashed and maintained throughout the growing season. Selective pruning is done by hand with an average of 30 buds per vine. Disease concerns include the potential incidence of downy and powdery mildew, and botrytis, but we’re able to mitigate damage by meticulous spraying of fungicides. Also, the topography provides excellent drainage and airflow throughout the vineyard. In the future, greater emphasis shall be placed on wood selection at pruning, together with shoot positioning and shoot/bunch thinning.

Winemaker Simon Gilbert.

The vineyard from which the in the Sangiovese Gilbert by Simon Gilbert Saignee Rose is sourced, located in the foothills of Mudgee.

The 2013 Gilbert by Simon Gilbert Saignee Rose is a blend of Sangiovese (85%) from Mudgee, Shiraz (14%) from Orange and Barbera (1%) from Mudgee VITICULTURE

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The analysis at harvest was: pH 3.23 Baume 11.28 TA 5.49 The yield was approximately eight tonnes/hectare. Shiraz (14%) – Orange, 125 Nashdale Lane This property is located in the foothills of Mt Canobolas at an altitude of 880 meters above sea level with an average rainfall of approximately 875mm per annum. Vin de Vie is a boutique vineyard supplying high quality cool climate winegrapes since 2003. The development of the vineyard commenced in 2001 with Chardonnay and Shiraz. The vineyard now has total plantings of 13.77 hectare with seven different varieties achieved through a combination of new plantings and grafting. Clonal selection, block orientation and soil type have played a key role in the development strategy. All trellising is VSP with a trellis height of 1.8m and a cordon wire set at 1.2m and 1.0m. VSP is well suited to the Orange region as it maximises light

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penetration and airflow - critical issues for cool climate viticulture. Ninety percent of the planting is at 2m spacing in 3m rows, with the remainder having a vine spacing of 1.75m and 2.75m row widths. This allows maximum light penetration to assist with ripening. The entire vineyard is irrigated with pressure compensated dripper line with drippers spaced at 0.75m, rated at 1.6 litres per minute capacity. All blocks are divided into a maximum of 2.5ha irrigation blocks. The property is well watered with 41ML of water storage spread over two dams with an additional 34ML diversion license. Temperatures in Orange are heavily influenced by its altitude, with a mean January temperature of 19.15°C and a difference of 15°C between summer and winter temperatures. All the Shiraz is clone PT23 which is spur pruned to two buds. The Orange Region Terroir guide classifies the soil as: “Deep, welldrained clay loam red and brown Ferrosol soils derived from basalt that change from red brown on hill tops to more grey brown in less well-drained areas. Wind-blown fine silt has added a silty texture to hill-top sites. These soils surround Mt Canobolas around 800-1000m elevation and provide the fertile soil for many orchards and vineyards” WINEMAKING Sangiovese (85%) – Mudgee (Apple Tree Flat) Fruit was machine harvested, destemmed only and must chilled. The juice was held on skins for approximately six hours, partially drained, enzyme treated, fined and acid adjusted. The settled juice was racked, warmed to 15OC and inoculated with a selected yeast culture. Fermentation took place in stainless steel only, with the fermentation temperature between 14-16°C, subject to change in Baume. The winemaking process has been similar to our practices in 2012, including analysis at harvest, and subsequent treatment following ferment. There was no malolactic fermentation. The wine was racked off gross lees, while taking some light lees during racking, and sulfured to 25PPM free SO2. The temperature was maintained at a cool 10-12°C to allow the mid palate to build and flesh out in texture, after which, subject to assessment, the juice was cooled to 2°C to hold the wine in a suspended V2 9N 2

Hahndorf Hill Winery’s Larry Jacobs in the winery’s biodynamically-managed Blaufrankisch, fruit from which makes up 35% of the Hahndorf Hill Rosé. state until blending with the other components. Shiraz (14%) – Orange, 125 Nashdale Lane Grapes were machine harvested then held on skins for 12 hours after destemming. After which, the juice was treated in the same manner as the Sangiovese. Barberra (1%) - Mudgee Apple Tree Flat) The Barbera was fermented as a dry red table wine, and added back at blending to enhance palate flavour, texture, and colour. All fruit/juice for this wine are fermented to dryness. Once the components are all blended, they are fined with skim milk, and acid adjusted if required. The yeasts used are Zymaflore, QA23 and Enoferm Syrah, with the emphasis on displaying natural fruit aromas and flavours. Marketing The wine is marketed to premium off-premise liquor stores throughout the eastern seaboard. It is also available through direct order online from the winery: www. gilbertfamilywines.com.au, as well as on site, and at a variety of mid to high end Sydney and surrounding area restaurants. The goal has never been to produce a sweet, red rose that is historically so common in the Australian market place W i n e & Viticultur e Jo ur n a l MARC H /APRIL 2014

but for a dry, salmon colour wine that has defined aromatics and is elegant and refined. Larry Jacobs Director Hahndorf Hill Winery Adelaide Hills, South Australia Wine: 2013 Hahndorf Hill Rosé (RRP$23.00/bottle) VITICULTURE The Hahndorf Hill rosé is uniquely made from two extremely unusual varieties, namely Trollinger (65%) and Blaufrankisch (35%), which are native to Germany and Austria. We are the only producers of these two varieties in Australia and they are grown in single vineyards at our Hahndorf Hill property. The two blocks are on a welldrained, south-western slope with topsoils comprising a mix of sandy loam, ironstone and slate, and subsoils of deep, red clay. The Adelaide Hills is a cool-climate wine region with mean January temperatures of around 19°C and less, depending on location. The vines were planted about 25 years ago by the original owner who emigrated from Germany, hence the unusual nature of the varieties. He was unable to give me information on the clones and rootstocks of the vines he had planted. Both varieties are planted in rows that are 2.5 metres wide with 1.5m between vines. A VSP system of www.winebiz. com . au

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and crushed and then allowed a period of skin contact varying between 8-16 hours, depending on the vintage and the anthocyanin and tannin extraction. Fermentation is done cool in stainless steel tanks with cultured yeast. Hahndorf Hill has been making this dry, textural rosĂŠ for 12 years now and it has developed its own loyal following at the cellar door. It is also marketed predominantly at on-premise venues on the eastern seaboard and in South Australia, largely because of its extraordinary food-friendly nature. Alex Trescowthick Winemaker Nepenthe (Australian Vintage) Wine: 2013 Nepenthe Winemaker Select Zinfandel Rose (RRP$20.00/ bottle Blaufrankisch vines beneath the Hahndorf Hill Winery cellar door in the Adelaide Hills. trellising is used and both winter and summer pruning is designed to restrict the crop levels to approximately three tonnes per acre. The vines are irrigated from borehole water with decisions to irrigate made by a combination of vine inspection and soil auger inspection of the soils. The vines are farmed biodynamically and have a full-cover undergrowth of mixed weeds and herbs, which is maintained by sheep during the winter months and undervine mowing in summer. Winter pruning is done by hand and the vines spur-pruned to 10 spurs per vine, each with two buds.

The two varieties are hand harvested together at a point when the correct flavour development has been achieved. For the Trollinger, this is generally at a fresher, less ripe stage when the quince flavours start developing; the Blaufrankisch is usually at a riper stage with cherry flavours and good colour development. WINEMAKING The fruit is hand-harvested on the same day and processed together so that it can be co-fermented for good integration of the flavour and textural components. The fruit is destemmed

VITICULTURE This wine is made from 100% Zinfandel which sourced from a single vineyard at our Lenswood site. The vines were planted in 1994. The site is 510m above sea level and features soil of shallow clay loam over quartz and schist. The clone planted is C11V7. The vines are mechanically pre-pruned followed by hand spur pruning. They are also shoot-thinned and the fruit netted pre verasion. The vines yield an average of 4-5t/ acre. WINEMAKING Fruit is machined picked and left in contact with the skins for approximately six hours. It is then crushed, de-stemmed and pressed in a bag press, then cold settled for four days. The juice is then racked and fermented in a stainless tank to retain freshness and vibrancy. MARKETING The Winemakers Select label allows me to experiment with alternative styles and varieties and push the boundaries under the Nepenthe label without affecting our established core range of wines. These single vineyard wines are a great way to try new things in the winery that in turn help us to better understand our vineyards and region. Most importantly, they are giving our consumers the opportunity to see unique, fresh and interesting small batch wines that are only available through cellar door, giving people another reason to visit the Adelaide Hills. WVJ

Nepenthe winemaker Alex Trescowthick.

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‘Alternative’ rosés – don’t judge them by their colour Following our tasting of sparkling rosés just over 12 months ago, we decided to throw the spotlight on Australian-made rosès from varieties considered ‘alternative’ by the local market, with those showing minimal winemaking influence appealing most to our tasting panel. To be eligible for inclusion in our recent ‘alternative’ rosé tasting, wines had to meet the conditions of entry for the Alternative Varieties Wine Show, namely, they had to comprise a minimum of 85% of varieties other than Pinot Noir, Shiraz, Grenache, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon, or in the case of a blend, a minimum of 51% of the wine must have been made from varieties other than these. Following our invitation to producers to submit wines to the tasting via our sister e-newsletter Daily Wine News, we received 15 wines, as well as a sparkling example, which we decided to throw in for interest. Making up the tasting panel were Bryn Richards, winemaker at Chapel Hill Winery, in McLaren Vale; Shane Harris, winemaker for Wine by Geoff Hardy; and Sam Scott, of Scott Winemaking. Richards said one of the most significant observations he’d take home from the tasting was that the quality of the wines couldn’t always be judged by their colour. “With some of the wines, you expected them to taste a certain way because of the colour, but upon tasting them they were often very different – for better or worse,” Richards said. He added that the good wines in the line-up stood out for their vibrancy, freshness, balance and spiciness. “It’s good to see these producers are using spiciness and tannin to structure their wines rather than just using acidity and trying to balance that with sugar; the soft phenolics and tannin are really attractive,” Richards said. Scott agreed, saying the more subtle rosés had the greatest appeal. “The common denominator in the better wines is the savouriness that the alternative varieties are delivering, along with tannin, briar herbs and darker fruits. Part of the attraction of some of these wines is their savoury nature

and the dry palates with softer acids - that combination is quite lovely,” Scott said. He added that the wines that stood out the most were those with minimal winemaking influence, such as longer maceration. “Some of these wines have had the winemaking textbook thrown at them which I don’t think is suited to all the styles,” Harris added. “It would be an interesting exercise to taste all these wines again after the winemaking artefacts were stripped back to see what natural flavours some of the alternative varieties produce.” The panellists agreed the top wines were the following: Simon Gilbert 2013 Saignee Rose (a blend of Sangiovese, Shiraz and Barbera), Hahndorf Hill 2013 Rose (a blend of Trollinger and Blaufrankisch) and Nepenthe 2013 Winemaker’s Selection Zinfandel Rose. ▶

The tasting panellists working their way through the line-up of ‘alternative’ rosés (from left), Shane Harris, Bryn Richards and Sam Scott. V2 9N 2

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Simon Gilbert 2013 Saignee RosÉ

Hahndorf Hill 2013 RosÉ

(85% Sangiovese, 14% Shiraz, 1% Barbera) Mudgee, New South Wales 12.5% v/v - screwcap RRP $24.00/bottle

(65% Trollinger, 36% Blaufrankisch) Adelaide Hills, South Australia 12.0% v/v – screwcap RRP $23.00/bottle

Best of tasting: Mid-salmon in colour. Bright and clean nose with red fruits, including cherry and strawberry. Subtle palate with soft acid, spicy tannin and savoury notes on the dry and persistent finish. “A great style,” noted one taster. “Delicate, bright, clean and interesting. Probably one of the most well put-together, balanced wines in the line-up,” noted another.

Best of tasting: Vibrant salmon pink in colour. Aromas of strawberries, cherries, florals, Turkish Delight and spearmint. Nose is fresh and clean with a good lift. Juicy sweetness on the palate initially, filling the mouth with strawberries and other red fruits, followed by a spicy and slightly sweet finish. One taster thought it finished a bit short. Well-made, consumer-friendly.

Best of tasting: Bright mid-pink colour. Blackberry leaf, cassis, a mixture of red and dark berries, and white pepper on the nose; almost ‘Cabernet-esque’, noted one taster. Light, delicate, dry and textural palate featuring fresh fruit, and a spicy grip.

Smidge Wines 2013 Mourvedre RosÉ

Bago Vineyards 2013 Jazz Red

Barossa Valley, South Australia 13.8% v/v – screwcap RRP $18.00/bottle

(100% Chambourcin) Hastings River, New South Wales 12.4% v/v – screwcap RRP $15.00/bottle (cellar door)

Box Grove 2013 Primitivo Saignee RosÉ

Bright, light pale red in colour; looking a little dull for its age. Sarsaparilla and candied cherry on the nose, and perhaps a hint of old oak. Palate has a soft, slippery, glycerol feel and is initially sweet, but then becomes drying and finishes slightly bitter. Quite tannic compared with the other wines in the tasting.

Artwine 2013 Polkadot Temp-Ress Tempranillo RosÉ Adelaide Hills, South Australia 12.5%v/v – screwcap RRP $18.00/bottle Pale pink in colour with some orange tints. Complex and lifted nose featuring Turkish Delight, citrus and roses, as well as banana and ester characters which look a bit out of place in rose style. Tight, bright, complex and creamy palate that is spicy, grippy and drying and has great length.

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Nepenthe 2013 Winemaker’s Selection Zinfandel RosÉ Adelaide Hills, South Australia 13.5%v/v – screwcap RRP $25.00/bottle

Goulburn Valley, Victoria 12.5% v/v - screwcap RRP $22.00/bottle

Deep pale red in colour. Overt aromatics on the nose which features raspberries, sour plums, vanilla bean and candied fruits and a slight geranium and green character. Sweet, luscious, creamy palate which is sweet and sour. A good commercial style for people looking for full flavours and sweetness, noted one taster.

Medium pale red in colour with brown tinges. Turkish delight and floral notes on the nose which is very appealing and vibrant. Hints of premature ageing adds some interest to the nose. Palate doesn’t quite live up to the expectations of the nose; it’s a little disjointed and a touch too sweet, but vibrant with a touch of spice. One taster noted that if served with the right food, the sweetness might not be noticed.

Rowsley Fault 2013 Sangiovese RosÉ

Annie’s Lane 2013 RosÉ

Geelong, Victoria 12.5% v/v - screwcap RRP $24.00/bottle

(47.6% Mataro, 34.3% Grenache, 18.1% Sangiovese) Clare Valley, South Australia 12.5%v/v - screwcap RRP $20.00/bottle

Light pink with orange hues in colour. Oxidative and fino-like on the nose with mandarin and orange peel and briary notes and some nice ferment characters. Full, round and textural medium palate which is dry, savoury and well balanced; lacks some fruitfulness.

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Pale salmon in colour. Pink grapefruit, citrus, Turkish Delight, roses and passionfruit on the nose. Supple, long and succulent palate, with a citrus tang and savoury grip. Good balance of fruit, complexity and savouriness, said one taster. Acid a bit hard, noted another, adding that he thought the wine was a bit shy.

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Quattro Mano 2013 Duende Nina Tempranillo RosÉ

Born & Raised 2012 Sangiovese RosÉ

Hugh Hamilton 2012 The Floozie Sangiovese RosÉ

Barossa Valley, South Australia 13.7%v/v - screwcap RRP $18.00/bottle

Heathcote, Victoria 13.0%v/v – screwcap RRP $24.00/bottle

McLaren Vale, South Australia 13.0% v/v - screwcap RRP $19.50/bottle

Mid-pink in colour. Overt and lifted nose comprising intense red berries, candied fruits and fairyfloss. Sweet and soft palate which is barely medium weight; good length, featuring confectionary and candy apple notes. A good commercial style.

Mid-salmon in colour. Developed tropical notes on the nose as well as some herbal and lime characters and some confectionary fruit. Sweet and rich red berriers on the palate which has bright acid; lacks some fruit freshness.

Dark salmon with a pink hue. Fresh and vibrant nose of cherries, strawberries, rose petals and Turkish Delight. An off-dry palate featuring strawberries, pomegranate and some savouriness; good acid balance with a dry, delicate finish. Probably a little dark for a rose but the rest of the wine makes up for it.

Willoughby Park 2013 Tempranillo RosÉ

Hahndorf Hill 2013 Zsa Zsa Zweigelt RosÉ

Bethany 2013 Cabernet Franc RosÉ

Denmark, Western Australia 13.0% v/v – screwcap RRP $22.00/bottle

Adelaide Hills, South Australia 12.0% v/v - screwcap RRP $25.00/bottle

Barossa Valley, South Australia 13.5% v/v - screwcap RRP $18.00/bottle

Pale orange in colour. A savoury, herbal and lifted nose which is somewhat oak-dominant; tight savoury palate which is fruit-sweet; good acid balance with some low residual sugar. Spicy finish.

Pale salmon in colour – the lightest in the tasting. Candied orange peel, peach, gum leaf, compost, earth and spice on the nose; lees and ferment characters evident. Nose is interesting but would benefit from some fruit support. Soft and creamy palate with some slight residual sugar, oak sweetness, generous body and good finish. Shows plenty of promise but seems to be a little over-worked.

Pale red in colour with orange tinges. Briary, spicy, earthy and leafy notes on the nose. Hints of white strawberry, violets and prunes. Light to medium weight savoury palate with good complexity through the midpalate; good acid without being searing; nice texture and mouthfeel; finishes dry. Good savoury wine.

Bago Vineyards 2013 Spritzy RosÉ Hastings River, New South Wales 12.4% v/v – crown seal RRP $16.00/bottle (cellar door) Bright pale red. Biscuity nose showing time on lees and strawberry, cranberry and red berry notes. A little foxy, a couple of tasters noted. Sweet red berries on the palate which is creamy, balanced and has a soft, oak-dominant finish.

Alternative Ro sé


PRODUCTS & SERVICES

New faster, lighter Felcotronic promises productivity

T

he new Felco 801 electric pruning shear has just been released in Australia. Designed and made in Switzerland, this model extends the range from the powerful Felco 820 released in 2013. The light, ergonomic design and manoeuvrability of the Felco 801 makes it particularly suited to vineyard and horticultural pruning. A major benefit of the new Felco 801 is its light weight. At just 745g, Felco claims the handpiece is the lightest on the market. It sits comfortably in the hand while the trigger gives highly accurate control of blade movement for maximum precision, efficient cutting and safety. Another innovative feature is the triggeractivated shutdown. The cutting cycle is extremely fast, due to the combination of the mechanical engineering system and a high-technology motor. The power pack is another significant advance in the design of the Felco 801. A

lithium polymer battery is housed in a light and comfortable backpack that sits close to the user’s body for optimum freedom of movement. The new model uses the same battery pack as the larger capacity Felco 820. The harness is compact and light at 920g with battery. The power pack is compatible with other models in the Felcotronic range. The unit is activated by a control box attached to the users belt. A digital display shows battery life, number of cuts and service intervals. A USB port allows charging of a mobile phone or media player. Blaise Vinot, director of Felco Australia Pty Ltd, is delighted at the feedback from trials to date. “The new model has undergone extensive trials in Australia over the past two years. Reports from users indicate an improvement in productivity of 1015 percent. We believe productivity has

become a very important criterion for assessment of new pruning tools and are confident that the new Felco 801 will deliver a significant improvement in this area,” concluded Vinot. Model variants include the Felco 801G, especially designed for left-handers, while optional cutting heads are available for cutting small diameters (Felco 800F) and sheep and goat hoof trimming (Felco 800M). The Felco 801 is supported in Australia by a national network of sales and service agents to ensure prompt, reliable service and parts availability.

Oenotools Blends - the iPad application designed to make blending work easier Oenobrands has launched a new, free iPad tablet application to make wine blending easier for wine producers. Building on the worldwide success of Oenotools®, the free calculator used by almost 10,000 oenologists throughout the world, Oenobrands Blends designed to make life easier for oenologists during wine blending sessions. Oenotools Blends has been developed by Oenobrands in partnership with Nyseos and Olivier Zebic. The iPad application is a highly intuitive, easy-to-use decision-making tool. It enables oenologists and wine producers to: • manage test tube volumes more easily during tasting sessions • instantly extrapolate volumes used for tasting with volumes available in the cellar • decide on analytical and quantitative parameters that determine the blends produced • instantly calculate likely analytical

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parameters of wine batches created during blending sessions • calculate the remaining available volume of each wine batch, and the volume of the blend created The Oenotools Blends application can be downloaded free from the App Store in five languages: English, Spanish, French, Italian and German. Meanwhile, Oenobrands has celebrated the anniversary of its In-Line Ready® system which was officially launched in November 2012 at the Vinitech exhibition in Bordeaux. Over the last year, it has been widely promoted at fairs around the world, including the Australian Wine Industry Technical Conference in Sydney last year. In-Line Ready consists of two inseparable components: In-Line Ready yeasts and the In-Line Ready® FMY45 machine: In-Line Ready yeasts are produced using a unique process that enables them to be added directly to the must W i n e & V i t i c u ltur e Jo ur na l MARC H /APRIL 2014

with no risk of loss in viability, growth capacity or fermentation ability In-Line Ready FMY45 machine is a high-shear solid–liquid mixer that provides instant dispersal and activation of dry yeast. The In-Line Ready system is increasingly being recognised by winemakers and other professionals in the wine industry as a consistent, simple and fast solution for yeast addition. Its advantages include: • speed and ease of use (a thousand hectolitre tank can be yeasted in two minutes) • reproducibility of yeast inoculation • limitation of human error due to pressure and time constraints • flexibility during peak season • labor, water and energy savings • a machine that is multipurpose, robust and simple to maintain

For further information visit www.oenobrands.com V29N2


Where can I find wine business solutions online?

www.winebiz.com.au • latest wine industry news • leading industry journals & books • classifieds • job postings • vintage reports & statistics • Buyers’ Guide of wine services & equipment • local weather • article archive • directory of wineries, wine shows, events, education courses & so much more T: +618 8369 9500 F: +618 8369 9501 E: info@winetitles.com.au W: www.winebiz.com.au


Melbourne

Adelaide

New Zealand

Great Range of Quality

Bottling Equipment

Borelli monoblocs Automatic monobloc ďŹ llers with Filling, rinsing, corking and screwcapping options available. Fillers available from 6 to 40 heads with capacity of 1000 to 16000 bottles per hour

Enos Euro Labellers Automatic labelling systems for up to 2500 bottles per hour, suitable for adhesive labels for front and back label and year sticker, both on round and square bottles.

Bottle Rinsers Tardito 20 head automatic â&#x20AC;&#x201C; up to 1500 bottles per hour Smaller 2 head units also available

Screw Cappers

S/Steel Bottle Fillers

Bench Units Electric or Electric/Pneumatic

4 & 6 head Bench or Freestanding Units Available as Gravity Fed or with Electronic Float for Pump Control

For further details, contact us on: Melbourne 59 Banbury Rd, Reservoir Ph. 1300 882 850 Adelaide 12 Hamilton Tce, Newton Ph. 08 8365 0044 New Zealand 4C Titoki Place, Albany, Auckland Ph. 0800 699 599 E. sales@winequip.com.au www.winequip.com.au www.winequip.co.nz

Wine & Viticulture Journal  

March/April 2014 Edition

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