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NEW URBAN RIVER PARADIGM Rejuvenate Urban River Foodplain Hydro-Social Space

Han Zhang Master of Landscape Architecture 13 College of Design University of Minnesota


THANKS

Sincerest thanks to my committe members and studio professors who help me to reveal my capstone dream. Committee Member Matthew Tucker Patrick Nunnally Christine Arle Baeumler Studio Professor Vince deBritto Rebecca Krinke Gina Bonsignore Thanks to all the professors that have participated and have helped me through my study in landscape architecture. Thanks to Kristine Miller, David Pitt, Joe Favour, John Koepke, Laura Musacchio, Andrea Wedul, Egle Vanagaite, Ozayr Saloojee, Jamuna Golden. Special Thanks to Josh Egge for all his understanding and support.


CONTENT

PROJECT BRIEF AND CONCEPT DEFINITION THEORETICAL DEVELOPMENT I. URBAN RIVER PARADIGM II. RESEARCH FOCUS AND SITE CONTEXT III. PROJECT SCOPE AND PROGRAM RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS I. EXISTING URBAN RIVER PARADIGM ON WESTSIDE RIVER VALLEY II. EXISTING URBAN RIVER PARADIGM ISSUES III. URBAN RIVER PARADIGM TRANSITION IV. EXISTING RIVER CHANNEL HYDROLOGICAL ANALYSIS SITE PLANNING AND DESIGN PHASE I. WESTSIDE VISIONARY PLAN PHASE II. AIRFIELD PARK DESIGN PHASE III. AIRFIELD PARK SITE DESIGN APPRENDIX: I. PRECEDENCTS II. SITE DESIGN KEYSTONE SPECIES BIBLIOGRAPHY

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The new paradigm highlights a water-centric urban future by providing a comprehensive flexible water system to rejuvenate urban river floodplain hydro-social space and to drive urban development configuration. Rejuvenating urban river floodplain hydro-social space is one of the main goals of the new urban river paradigm. This hydro-social space reestablishes the natural connection between people and water by designing for hydrological changes, ecological habitat and new public spaces.

Water Centric Urban River Paradigm This is a human-natural holistic urban river paradigm. The value of water is highly and completely recognised . Ecological, economic, and socio-cultural values of the river are weighted and balanced as a co-product toward sustainable resilient urban development. Urban (green) infrastructure, resilient and functional landscape, and water resources combine to form to one comprehensive flexible water system. By restoring and developing a hydrologically and ecologically functioning water system and its related landscape, the Metro area will become resilient to flooding and provide a controlled floodable river edge. This floodable river edge becomes the center for public recreation and socialization which creates the hydro-social space. The hydro-social space also brings public attention to the water which drives subtle change in behavior and thinking. Comprehensive Flexible Water System This water system drives comprehensive water usage including groundwater, stormwater, and river channel water. It restores the water resource and water quality through ecolgocial processes. With controlled hydrological and ecological landscape infrastructures, flooding is considered a natural process for the river system rather than a risk to the city. The hydrology and flooding nature of the river are carefully integrated into the water system design to provide a water stratum for hydro-social space.

NEW URBAN RIVER PARADIGM

This Capstone project is meant to envision a new urban river paradigm through a research and analysis based site planning and design. The project summarizes the existing urban river pardigm and its issues on Westside St.Paul River Valley, and then proposes a new paradigm and its approach strategies through changing scale planning and design.

Urban river paradigm Urban River Paradigm is a typical pattern and model which drives the relationship between river management, urban development and public river connection in a certain time period. It is a product of interaction between urban development, public desires and natrual river environment. Urban River Paradigm is influenced by the urban development, but in turn has a great impact on urban land use and distribution, urban morphology and urban grid. Urban River Paradigm also includes the common concepts regarding the relationship between urban life and river among the public. It decides the relationship between the public and the river.

Rejuvenate Urban River Foodplain Hydro-Social Space

NEW URBAN RIVER PARADIGM

Rejuvenate Urban River Foodplain Hydro-Social Space

Concept Definition

Hydro-Social Connection This is the interaction between public social activities and water with hydrologcial changes through human-natural holistic urban river system. This interaction can not only reflect in physical formats such as public recreation activities and river accessibility, but also in mental formats through social culture and awareness. In this connection, the hydrological changes of the water body are highlighted and often lead to different public reactions. For example, the hydrological changes the of river may result in different recreation activities in and along the river, and an increased perception of value of that space by the public. Hydro-Social Space The space that supports hydro-social connection. It is accessed by the public and helps draw people's attention to the water. Urban Development Configuration It includes urban develop strategy and zoning function, urban land use and its distribution, urban morphology and urban grid. 1

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Urban River Paradigm Transition As we have seen the importance of river in urban development, the paradigm of urban river relationships has shiftted a lot along the civilization history. Reverence water 200 to 300 years ago, people held holistic feelings about rivers and water. They treated water as a wealthy gift from the god. The city or tribe development is totally dominated by the natural environment and river hydrological conditions. People tend to settle on the place near the delta for water resource but with a certain distance from the river to avoid flooding. At that time, people can’t see the value of wetland or swamp. They are afraid that swamp will harm them both physically and mentally. Fight against river Since industrial revolution, people have asserted more control over the rivers. They dredge and fill the river depending on their economical, transportation, and land use requirement. Because there is no clear concept about the function of whole hydrological system, people dump dirt and pollutants in to the water to “let them dissapear”. In this paradigm, huge infrastructures such as levees and flood gateways were built. Control the river In the past 50 years, people show more respect to nature and rivers. We notice the nature process of river and fluvial hydrology, but for the urgent needs of urban development, we still see flooding as a problem and try to avoid flooding and other river issue by engineering work. We built up a whole system to calculate, predict, control certain standards, and try to control river in the channel. However, as the climate change and other disturbing factors become more obvious, the prediction, expectation and manmade control seems hard to sustain. Adaptive urban river management Adopted from integrated water resource management, the adaptive urban river management design integrates ecological, hydrological, economic and socio-cultural water functions (Brugge & Rotmans, 2007) and adapts to the uncertain complex river flooding through a series of sustainable and resilient approaches.

On going new paradigm shift lead by Dutch and other European countries The Netherlands is leading the new paradigm shift by providing the “room for the river” flood management strategy. Since 2007, several projects have been enacted to help the Dutch to give room back to the river. The dredging and filling is based on the dynamic expectations of river flooding. At the same time, the Netherlands also noticed the requirement of management transition to this new adaptive river flood management, which they call transition river management. In this management system, one important part is the hydro-culture transtion to enhance public concept shift, which greatly inspires my capstone research and framework. Other European countries have also begun down the trail of floodplain restoration along the Rhine River since late 1990s. The effort is to give back floodplain to nature and restore natural habitats in the floodplain. The restored floodplains have started to provide ecological service and recreational amenities to the cities. With close post project monitoring and follow up projects, this approach provides valuable experience and practical data toward the new urban river paradigm.

NEW URBAN RIVER PARADIGM

The relationship of river and urban development There is a close relationship between the river and urban development. Rivers or water bodies in general bring huge benefits to a city. The river is the potential clean drinking water resource as well as an important transportation corridor which directly links to economic value and city growth. Other recreation values also have become more noticable. The abundant natural resources in floodplain areas also provide an ideal settlement environment for human beings. No matter the natural river or manmade channel, the urban and river relationship is an important factor in urban development. The Urban River management paradigm directly influences the urban development, and like the butterfly effect, has a serious impact on economical, ecological and social systems.

Rejuvenate Urban River Foodplain Hydro-Social Space

NEW URBAN RIVER PARADIGM

Rejuvenate Urban River Foodplain Hydro-Social Space 3

Urban River Paradigm

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The Mississippi River is the fourth biggest river in the world and the main interior river system in United States. Along the 2350 miles of main Mississippi River Channel, there are 30 million acres of floodplain. 24 Metropolitian areas settle along the main river channel. For centuries, people have harvested river floodplain for urban development. It is here that water meets land, here that social systems meets natural systems, and here that generates the urban river paradigm.

Because the urban river paradigm issues are not all easily noticeable, the project has to start from a research and analysis angle to establish the question and summarize the exisintg urban river paradigm and its issues. There are two research phases: 1. Existing urban river paradigm on westside river floodplain. 2. Urban river paradigm issues on the westside river floodplain context. and two analysis phases: 1. Urban River Paradigm Transition 2. Existing River Channel Hydrological Analysis

The research into the urban river paradigm focuses on the urban river management strategy, and explore its effects on urban development and human-river connecttion under urban context, and thus the hydro-social space. The Twin Cities Metro area is one of four super Metropolitian areas among the 24 noted above. The unique location and wide impact of the Twin Cities along the Mississippi River provide a proper research case for the urban river paradigm and potential paradigm transition. My final project site is the Westside St.Paul Mississippi river floodplain with a total are of 3,800 acres. This area sits on the Mississippi river natural floodplain, which has seen several severe floods throughout the site's history. In the past 150 years, it is also heavily urbalized to provide industrial and other urban land use function. This interesting conflict brings a historical hydrological angle to the urban river paradigm research and new proposal. This site is also prepared for the potential changes, as attention has been given from the city congress and developers to consolidate the westside urban land use by providing residential houses and to create new urban riverfront. Therefore, this capstone project's intent is to envision a possible approach for the ongoing transition.

As for the complexity of the urban river paradigm, it needs to be discussed in multiple scales and design levels. Therefore, the proposed new urban river paradigm will run through the westside visionary master plan to detail site design strategy. Thus, there are three main design phases for this project. Phase one: Westside visionary master plan Aiming to envision new urban river paradigm through visionary plan and general design stretegy. Phase two: Airfield Design Design on the field which causes the main urban river conflicts. Provide a new land use potential by extablishing a hydro-social system based on existing airfield runway facilities. Phase three: Airfield Detail Site Design Select three sites in the arifield to illustrate design streategy and details for new paradigm.

NEW URBAN RIVER PARADIGM

Project Scope And Program

Rejuvenate Urban River Foodplain Hydro-Social Space

NEW URBAN RIVER PARADIGM

Rejuvenate Urban River Foodplain Hydro-Social Space

Research Focus And Site Context

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1. Levee Harvest Floodplain 2. Levee Control = River Management 3. Urbanlized Industrial Land And River Channel 4. Industrialized River Channel

In conclusion, the site is still in a paradigm trying to "control the water".

Levee Control

Industrialized River Channel

PARADIGM

Urbanlized Land Use 9

In the boundary of the MNRRA corridor, the project site is generally flat floodplain. A levee is built around the floodplain interface with the water and the airport area to prevent flood issues from the river. This levee system creates a heavily artificial river channel and significantly divides the water from the land. On the outside of the levee system, the river channel is dredged to fit for the navigation requirement. Navigation industry occupies the river surface with barge fleet and terminals. On the otherside of the levee, urban floodplain is raised up by dredged materials and loses its natural flood habitat. With the dominant existing land use as industrial and commercial, the site is considered totally urbanized.

Rejuvenate Urban River Foodplain Hydro-Social Space

NEW URBAN RIVER PARADIGM

Rejuvenate Urban River Foodplain Hydro-Social Space

Existing Urban River Paradigm

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Land Form And River System 11

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To solve these issues and recover from the negative impacts, a new urban river management paradigm needs to be addressed.

Inaccessible River 13

The existing Urban River Management causes a series of issues on the site. First, the levee system and flood wall cut the public connection to the river, creating a physical barrier between the land and the water. The industrial terminals and barge fleet along the river edge also make it an visually unpleasent space for public recreation. Second, because the levee controls the river flood, the floodplain inside the levee system loses the chance of natural intermittent flood. Floodplain habitat has declined. More than that, industrial land use adds to heavy metal pollution and organic compounds contaminate the site, which leads to dramatic habitat loss. Third, althought the whole site is strongly disturbed by urban development, the development isn't utilized. Large areas are undeveloped for urban function with poor habitat and heavy pollution. Vacancy rate on site is relatively high. Most land is simply used as warehouse, which wastes the treasure as a river floodplain and even can't compare to general urban land value. And fourth, the downtown airport becomes a main obstacle for regional furture development. It creates noise impact and land restrictions around the airport site. Moreover, it poses a threat to Mississippi River corridor bird navigation which will potentially bring faliure to most of the habitat resotration projects around the site.

Pollution & Habitat Lose

Underutilized Urban Land

NEW URBAN RIVER PARADIGM

1. Inaccessible River 2. Pollution & Habitat Lose 3. Underutilized Urban Land 4. Airport Ecological And Economical Impact

Rejuvenate Urban River Foodplain Hydro-Social Space

NEW URBAN RIVER PARADIGM

Rejuvenate Urban River Foodplain Hydro-Social Space

Existing Urban River Paradigm Issues

Airport Ecological And Economical Impact 14


Inaccessible River

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According to the river edge accessibility study, only 1/3rd of the existing river edge is public accessible. However, even in the 1/3rd accessible river edge, most of that has unpleasent visual or auditory factors which make it hard to appeal to the public. Most of the access also can't provide access to the water surface. Only two location in the whole site provide stairs to the river surface.

2/3 of the existing river edge is inaccessable to the public. These are either dominanted by private industrial terminals and facilities, or barriered by flood wall. In general, people's connection to the river is quite weak.

1/3 Accessible River Edge

2/3 Inaccessible River Edge 16


Pollution & Habitat Loss On the site, the original habitat is floodplain forest and wetland with river bottom forest, big woods and oak opening. But now the original habitat is extinct, and the whole site is high intensity urban land with sparsely distributed grassland. This habitat loss along 5 river miles has become a very large gap in the natural Mississippi River navigation corridor. Because of the industrial development, there are two main categories of pollution on site. The heavy metal pollution includes mercury, manganese, lead, chromium, zinc, and copper. The organic componds contaminants inclde total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) , chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHC), and polychorinated biphenyl (PCB). Meanwhile, the site is right under the confluence of Minnesota river, which carries large amount of polluted sedimentation to the site. As the pollutant condition from upstream can not be changed in a short period, how to clean and locate these sediments is another challenge for new urban river paradigm.

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Mississippi River is an important natural navigation corridor. The floodplain supports numerous lifeforms, provides nesting, food, and breeding environment for birds and fish. It also provide nusery for native mussels, which help support the health of the ecosystem by filtering the water waste. With the habitat loss on the westside river valley, large number of native species are threatened.

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Underutilized Urban Land The enormous river control and floodplain urbanization did not bring the expected value and urban development to the site. The site has a relatively high vacancy rate. Most of the site is simply used as warehousing with low land value. The site also lost normal urban grid in large warehouse blocks and large area of undeveloped land.

According to the land value study, westside area average land value is nearly 8 times lower than the downtown area cross the river. With a potential to develp new riverfront complex on the westside, its land value can increase to at least 5 times.

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Airport Ecological And Economical Impact

Airport Economical Impact

Downtown Airport wass built by filling a natural wetland, and covers an area of 540 acres . The airport has three runways and serves aircraft operated by corporations in the local area, a flight training school, and the Minnesota Army National Guard aviation unit, as well as transient general aviation aircraft. In 1993, 1997, and 2001, the airport was flooded due to its proximity to the Mississippi River. In 2009, a removable flood wall was installed.

Noise Impact According to 2007 airport noise contours, there are 132 single-family homes and 160 multi-family units located in the 60 DNL contour around St. Paul Downtown Airport. The total area affected by airport noise is 2316.8 acres. Among it, 1740.8 acres is out of airport property, 3 times than the size of airport, which makes the surrounding area unsuitable for new residential development. Land use constrains According to the MNDOT regulation on runway ends safety zones, land use under these safety zones may be constrained to public gathering and permenant building structure, which limites the potential land use around airport area. the land use restriction affects total 624.3 acres out of airport property and water. Affected areas are Lowertown, Bruce Vento Nature Sanctuary, Swede Hollow Park, Pig's Eye Regional Park. and St. Paul westside adjunct areas.

Although airport brings revenue to local economy, it also has negative impact on air pollution, biodiversity, climate change, noise, water pollution and so on. Because of its unique location adjuct to Downtown and Mississippi River corridor, the negetive ecological and economical impacts of downtown airport are amplified and will show more and more confilicts with future urban river management. Considering these facts, I suggest considering the possibility of relocating the downtown airport or combining it with the Minneapolis-St. Paul International Airpot to better suit for future urban river paradigm.

In conclusion, the existence of airport has a negative impact on a large area around it, and this greately limits the urban development around the airport. The existence of airport may potentially affect the future expansion of downtown and new residential development plan. Swedee Hollow Park Lowertown Bruce Vento

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Commercial

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Airport Ecological Impact The airport also has a hiden ecological impact on Mississippi River natural navigation corridor. The main flight tour comes accross several bird navigation tour and disturb main bird nesting/resting locations. In 2012, two bald eagle bird strikes happened in the downtown airport. Although Bruce Vento is trying to bring bald eagles back to the site, with the threat from airport flights, the future of this effort seems bleak.

Bruce Vento

Park Recreational or Preserve

Flight Tour

Bird Navigation Tour Water

Flight Tour Bird Nesting/Resting Bird Navigation Tour Bird Nesting/Resting

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Noticing existing urban river paradigm and its issues, this project tries to solve the issues by providing a new urban river paradigm. As the project site is generally transfered from a river floodplain to industrial urban area, there are obviously different paradigms along the development changes. A study on historical hydrology condition will help to understand the site condition and historical hydro-social connection. Meanwhile, further study on the historical paradigm and hydro-social connection on different time period will highlight the paradigm transition and inspire valuable historical hydro-social relationship to a new paradigm. Except the historical analysis angle, it is also important to stress that the site has gone through dramatic artifical changes. The site hydrological and societal conditions are so different than before that simply applying historical hydrology resoration for the new paradigm won't work in this case. This requires an analysis on existing river channel hydrological conditions and combine the valuable historical hydro-social spirits with the existing conditions to rejuvenate hydro-social spaces and to envision a water centric urban river paradigm.

NEW URBAN RIVER PARADIGM

1. Urban River Paradigm Transition 2. Existing River Channel Hydrological Analysis

Rejuvenate Urban River Foodplain Hydro-Social Space

NEW URBAN RIVER PARADIGM

Rejuvenate Urban River Foodplain Hydro-Social Space 25

Westside Design Inspiration

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Urban River Paradigm Transition Through the time in St.Paul's 150 year history, natural wetland and streams were generally replaced by new urban construction. Along with the loss of these natural wetlands and streams also disappeared the natural hydro-social connection. The river edge and adjacent floodplain are dredged through time and gradually lose their natural habitat and beauty.

The images and descriptions of historical hydro-social connection illustate the deep meaning of the river among the river edge communities and the hydro-social impact on urban daily life and recreation activities. Inspired by the historical map of St. Paul with back Channel and wetland, this design tries to reconstruct the "side channel+wetland" water system and based on this stratum to rejuvenate hydro-social space.

Hydro-siocial Connection

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“We lived on the West Side. The Italian boys who lived on the levee across the river from us used to row over and we became friends […] I learned to swim and skate on the river on our side of the island […] under the High Bridge there was a beautiful sandbar where the levee girls used to sun themselves and we West siders would swim over to visit them” (Narrator: James W. Kennedy. Ramsey County Historical Society)

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Reconstruct Side Channel + Wetland =Rejuvenate Hydro Social Space Water Channel Water/ Wetland

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Design Inspiration

Urban River Paradigm Transition 27

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Existing River Channel Hydrological Analysis The Analysis of water stage and water discharge on the existing river channel shows that the river level has large fluctuations at different water events. Overlaying these hydrological data on existing topography, we can see that the site is rised by pervious year's dredging material, and lose the respond to seasonal flood. But still maintain the potential to respond to 100 year flood, and the levee system is to constrain the 100 year flood in airport area.

According to the analysis of levee failure mood, most of the site area is under 100 year flood. This provides a chance to reconstruct streams and wetlands with modified levee system,and to bring the controlled fluctuating hydro-social space to the site. Because the airport is under 100 year flood with existing levee condition and has experienced several severe flood before, it becoms a potential site to start the design movement. 36

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Comprehensive flexible water system will restore water resource and water quality, which will relieve the pollution issues. The flexible water system also brings intermittent flooding back to the site, which helps to establish floodplain habitat. Streching the water edge on flexible water system creates more water access possibilities to the public. These hydro-social spaces support multiple recreation activities with hydrological and ecological changes, which provides high quality river access experience. Rather than blind urbanization leading to underutilized urban land, new urban land use and function will be reconfigured according to the water system to provide a sustainable, suitable urban future. As the comprehensive flexible water system brings more high quality hydro-social spaces and amenties to the site, the land values are expected to greatly increase, and new urban function will fill in and brings vigour to the site. Downtown airport will be relocated, and be replaced with an airfield park which fullfill the principle of new urban river paradigm.

PARADIGM

Water Centric Urban River Paradigm Strategies: 1. Comprehensive Felixble Water System 2. Strech The Water Edge To Create Hydro-Social Space 3. Base On Water System To Reconfigure Urban Land Use And Function Typical Sections And Perspective 1. Geomorphological Hydro-Social Space 2. Public Hydro-Social Space 3. Neighborhood Hydro-Social Space

The Westside master plan envisions a water centric urban river paradigm. This new paradigm is a human-natural holistic urban river paradigm. The value of water is highly and completely recognised. Ecological, economic, and socio-cultural values of river are weighted and balanced as a co-product toward sustainable resilient urban development. Responding to the four main issues of existing urban river paradigm, new paradigm stresses three general strategies to solve the existing issues as well as establishing new urban river management model.

Rejuvenate Urban River Foodplain Hydro-Social Space

NEW URBAN RIVER PARADIGM

Rejuvenate Urban River Foodplain Hydro-Social Space 31

Westside Visionary Plan

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Comprehensive Flexible Water System

Westside Visionary Plan (Mean Water Stage) 1"=1,500'

This water system drives comprehensive water usage including groundwater, stormwater, and river channel water. It restores the water resource and water quality through phytoremediation and stormwater treatment. Streams and Wetlands are constructed to bring water back to the site. With controlled hydrological and ecological landscape infrastructures, flooding is considered a natural process for the river system rather than a risk to the city. The hydrology and flooding nature of the river are carefully integrated into the water system design to provide a water stratum for hydro-social space.

Urban Green Infrastructure Water System

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Land Form And River System

Historical River System Main River Channel Water Ground Water

Existing Urban River Paradigm And Issues

33

Urban River Paradigm Transition And Existing Hydrological Analysis

Storm Water

Proposed Comprehensive Water System

Phytoremediation

water Quality High

Stormwater Treatment Main Channel Water Treatment

Low

Improved Water Quality

34


Strech The Water Edge To Create Hydro-Social Space The comprehensive flexible water system provides the stratum with hydrologically and ecologically functioning streams wetlands and adjucting urban green infrustructures. All these spaces are counted to strech the water edges to create hydro-social space. Instead of the existing paradigm cutting water and land with a hard straight edge, the new paradigm develops a sequence of spaces depending on the land form and topography. This series of spaces which include water space, slope space, flat space, and linear space, will help to control the flood conditions on the site. Intermittent seasonal and less than 1% flood is welcomed and integrated to the slope space and flat space design to reveal hydrological and ecological function. Over 100 year flood is controlled with several linear space facilities.

4.2 stream

4.4 wetland

4.3 rocky stream

1.2 lay down lawn

flood watching 1.3 bioengineered bank

Flat Space

bird watching

2.2 floodplain forest

2.3 plaza

marina

boat lunching

touching water

2.4 sunken garden

canoeing

fishing

climbing

cave adventure

general recreation program

swiming sunbathe

1.4 terrace

boating

2.1 overlook

flood control

landform related program

water related program

Slope Space 1.1 back cliff

water related facilities

automobile transporting

Water Space 4.1 pool

Abundant water edge spaces provide facilities for various recreational activities. These programs will help further establish hydro-social spaces and draw people's attention to river related hydrological and ecolgocial changes. Eventually, recreation activities on the hydro-social space becomes the core of urban daily life and societal communication.

water hiking

walking

biking

overlook

show

sitting

picnic

gathering

lunch

flying kite

playing

water slide

2.5 sand beach

Linear Space 3.1 rail bridge

35

3.2 bioswale

3.3 dam bridge

3.4 piers

3.5 levee promenade

3.6 floating deck

36


BACK STREAM

Geomorphologic Hydro-Social Space Unique river valley geomorphology and regional biome section enlighten design for hydro-social space. They also give local identity to the spaces.

The back stream is right under the cherokee bluff, where exists a deep cliff with natural caves. This area also retains a relatively higher ecological habitat with less urban disturbence. This design takes full advantage of the geomorphology to create stormwater water falls over the existing bluff edge as well as hiking trails with cave adventure destinations. As the water from the stream is mainly groudwater with cleaned river water, the site is a perfect choice for lot of water related recreation programs.

B A C K S T R E A M RECREATION HIGHLIGHTS

A rocky stream is constructed to mimic a local biome section. As the stream is designed mainly for seasonal flooding from the main channel, these rocks with floodplain forest help keep the site interesting all the year round. It connects to surrounding neighborhood green infrustracture to provide convenient access and continuous recreation program.

R O C K Y S T R E A M RECREATION HIGHLIGHTS

new residential

lay down lawn

rocky stream

new residential

100 year flood Seasonal flood

Rocky Stream Hydro Social Space 37

38


lay down lawn

river promenade

sucken plaza

commercial entrance

Public Hydro-Social Space Public hydro-social space adjuncts to commerical and institutional land use. A series of overlook stages, a levee promenade, a floating deck, a sinking plaza and outdoor patio are well orgnized in the regional pedestrian and biking trail to create a typical urban riverfront. Lots of public social activities will occur on site.

100 year flood

100 year flood

Seasonal flood

Seasonal flood

Mean stage

Mean stage

Overlook Hydro Social Space river edge levee promenade

lay down lawn

river promenade

outdoor patio

commercial entrance

floating deck floating cabin

100 year flood Seasonal flood

100 year flood

Mean stage

Seasonal flood

underground parking

Mean stage

Commercial River Edge Promenade Hydro Social Space 39

Institutional/ Commercial Hydro Social Space 40


Public Hydro-Social Space This perspective illustrates how river system becomes the center of social life. Along the commercial areas, stream and adjunct wetland not only drives the ecosystem reconciliation from preindustry pollution, but also provides great gathering space for the public.

41

42


overlook

wood steps

water stage

Neighborhood Hydro-Social Space Here is illustrated the area along the interaction between residential areas and the water system. Some hydrosocial spaces are ampified to fulfill community recreation requirements. Sections illustrate community wetland garden and swimming beach on site. These spaces provide amenities for the public in water- centric urban river paradigm.

COMMUNITY WETLAND G A R D E N RECREATION HIGHLIGHTS

100 year flood Seasonal flood Mean stage Community Wetland Garden Hydro Social Space

new residential

vegetation buffer

sand beach

sand island

SWIMMING B E A C H RECREATION HIGHLIGHTS

100 year flood Seasonal flood Mean stage Swimming Beach Hydro Social Space 43

45 44


y

g

g

g

Neighborhood Hydro-Social Space On the left is the typical residential hydro-social section. New residential housing is built along the river edge with balconey facing the river scenery. People have easy access to the river through regional pedestrain and biking trails along biovegetated river bank. The distribution and design of trail system will respond to river hydrological condition to provide year round interests and accessibility on various water stage. Neighborhood hydro-social space also intergrates stormwater infrastructure to support comprehensive water system and to provide landscape scenery along main residential corridors.

100 year flood

underground parking

seasonal flood Mean stage

New Residential Hydro Social Space

new residential

bio-swale

new residential

T Y P I C A L RESIDENTIAL RECREATION HIGHLIGHTS

STORMWATER B O U L E VA R D RECREATION HIGHLIGHTS

45

100 year flood

Stormwater Boulevard Hydro Social Space

46


Neighborhood Hydro-Social Space Perspective illustrates that flooded water system integrates with community environment and provides hydro-social spaces to support neighborhood daily activities.

47

48


Base On The Water System To Reconfigurate Urban Land Use And Function Comprehensive flexible water systems and various hydro-social spaces bring amenities to the public and turn the westside to a fun place and a destination for living. This will accelerate the reconfiguration of land use and zone function. As the site becomes more and more attractive for living and recreation, new residential and commercial will dominate the future water-centric land use.

49

Residential Green Corridor

Office

Park Recreational Or Preserve

Retail And Other Commercial

Water

Single Family Residential

Trasportation

Multi-Family Residential

Proposed Land Use

Institutional

50


Airfield Park Site Design: 1. Design For Hydrological Changes 2. Design For Ecological Hydro-Social Space 3. Design For New Residential Outdoor Space

The downtown airport has caused serious economical and ecological issues under existing urban river paradigm. At the same time, because the airport is built on natural wetland and is still responding to large flood event. This situation gives the practical potential and logic for hydrological changes. Therefore, I have chosen the airfield area as a pilot project to extablish water-centric urban river paradigm. The whole area will mainly function as an urban ecological park with several new residential areas to increase land value and fulfill landuse requirements.

NEW URBAN RIVER PARADIGM

Airfield Park Design: 1. Water System Toward Airfield Park 2. Airfield Park Master Plan 3. Airfield Park Hydro-Social System 4. Topo Design And Study Model

Rejuvenate Urban River Foodplain Hydro-Social Space

NEW URBAN RIVER PARADIGM

Rejuvenate Urban River Foodplain Hydro-Social Space 51

Airfield Park Design

52


Water System Toward Airfield Park

Airfield Park Design Concept

Airfield Park is the main hydro-social space on site. It connects to the main stream starting from railroad park. This stream and surrounding green infrastructures meander through urban river front, large public open space, neighborhood open space and urban floodplain forest, finally reaching the airfield park.

Inspired by the huge flat landform on site and airfield redevelopment around the world, this design seeks to keep the runway facilities as a land mark, and to create concise earth forms suited for the airfield scale.

Urban Floodplain forest

Airfield Park Main HydroSocial Space

Habitat

Rail Road Park Phytoremeditation

Stream Confluence Open Space

Neighborhood Recreation Open Space

Water Reservoir Water Storage

53

4.2 stream

Slope Space

Linear Space

Water Space 4.1 pool

4.3 rocky stream

4.4 wetland

3.1 rail bridge

3.2 bioswale

3.3 dam bridge

3.4 piers

3.5 levee promenade

3.6 floating deck

1.1 back cliff

1.2 lay down lawn

Flat Space 1.3 bioengineered bank

1.4 terrace

2.1 overlook

2.2 floodplain forest

2.3 plaza

2.4 sunken garden

2.5 sand beach

54


Water Reservoir

Airfield Park Master Plan I"=700' am

Main Stream

Swiming Beach

Water Reservoir

Wildrice Wetland

Water Reservoir

ie ra r

dR

sP

e ain

Gr as

m

Re

e

d Si

End of Runway

nd tla ation e W get Ve

Seasonal Flooded Wetland

am

re

St

Sediment Deposition

W orm et w lan at d er

St

ra r Gr as

m

ain

sP

ed e

Str

Re

Wetland Vegetation

am

River Research Center

ie

Ru

nw ay s

Remained Runways

ys wa n u

Ta ll

e Sid

Tall Grass Prarie

Visit Center Residential Development

Foolplain Forest

Balloon Ride

Ta ll

ck Ba

Aviation Museum

Residential Development

re St

Marina

Water Reservoir

Residential Development

Mississippi River

55

56


Airfield Park HydroSocial System Based on the remaining runway, the comprehensive water system and plant community are established. On top of that comes the ecosystem and the eco services. At the same time, the circulation system is studied to fullfill recreation program requirements. The integration of abundant habitat and human social activities forms the highest of hydro-social space.

biking

show

sitting

overlook

picnic

playing

lunch

flying kite

General Recreation Program Stormwater Wetland

Water Reservoir Pool

Tall Grass Prairie

Deciduous Birds

Short Grass

Wetland Birds

Bike Trail Side streams

water hiking

touching water

bird watching

swiming

boating

sunbathe

canoeing

water slide

fishing

automobile transporting

Wetland Vegetation

flood control

Vegetation

marina

Native Mussels Main streams

flood watching

Water Related Program

Fishes

57

gathering

Tree

Regional Trail

Remained Airfield Runway

walking

Habitat

Automobile

Water Related Facilities

Circulation

Hydro-Social Space

boat lunching

Airfield Water System 58


Airfield Park Topo Model Existing levee system on the north and west of the site remains with biovegetated levee banks to provide protection to inner land from more than 300 year flood event. The main automobile entry to the site is through the rode built on the levee system

+ 710 + 710

+ 700 + 710

+ 694

+ 730 + 730

The dredging depth of the water system varies with the water body types and hydrological, ecological, recreational functions.

+ 730

+ 694 + 688

+ 730

+ 690 Dredging materials from creating main stream and wetland will be used on site to fill the landform and to raise the ground level on some spot to control 100 year flood.

+ 688

+ 710

+ 688

+ 710

All the new residential housing and permenant institutional housing will be built above 300 year flood event as a respond to more and more frequent flooding.

+ 691 + 697

+ 688 59

+ 702 60


Design For Hydrological Changes

A main topic in this new paradigm design is how to reuse existing facilities. Here the design follows the fluvial geomorphology and creates structures to amplify the hydrological changes. These repurposed facilities will call the public's attention and educate them with the new urban river paradigm, starting with subtle changes on behavior and thinking. Because of the sediment pollution issues in the Mississippi River main channel, understanding the water nature and fluvial geomophology becomes crucial to successiful design. As a example, a drive way along the river edge is converted to a flood control bridge, which brings controlled intermittent flood to the adjunct wetland and provides a spectacular river scenery to the public.

Airport Concrete Road Sediment Deposit From High Water Wetland

River Flood Erosion

Wetland Sediment Deposit

Reinforce The Base Of The Road Deposit

Sediment Deposit Ice Surface

Recycled Rail Trak And Sleepers

Navigation

“Edge Of The River�

Flood Over The Edge Relife Mian Channel Flood Event

Flood Inlet Flood Inlet Flood Inlet

Mean Water Stage

61

Cut Out Slices

Seasonal Flood Stage

Low Water Stage In Winter

100 Year Flood

62


FLOODING SPRING

CONCRETE SLAB SURFACE

REUSE SITE DEMOLISHED RAILROAD TRACK AND SLEEPER AS WALKING PANELS FOR ADA

MISSISSIPPI RIVER MAIN CHANNEL

20'- 0"

64 63

10'- 0"

SEASONAL FLOODED WETLAND

30'- 0"


WINTER

30'- 0"

BRIDGE ILLUSTRATIVE DETAILPLAN

65

BRIDGE ILLUSTRATIVE DETAIL SECTION

66


67 STORMWATER WETLAND

WETLAND VEGETATION

TALL GRASS PRAIRIE

RUNWAY PAROMENADE

FLOODPLAIN FOREST

TALL GRASS PRAIRIE

UPLAND FOREST

TALL GRASS PRAIRIE

RUNWAY PAROMENADE

UPLAND SHORT GRASS

STROMWATER WETLAND

WETLAND VEGETATION

STROMWATER WETLAND

RIVER PROMENADE

STROMWATER WETLAND

FLOATING WETLAND

STROMWATER WETLAND

FLOATING WETLAND

STORMWATER WETLAND

WETLAND VEGETATION

HABITAT PHYTOREMEDIATION STORMWATER TREATMENT

RECREATION

MODEL

Design For Ecological Hydro-Social Space

Design not only would create interesting landform and spaces for people, but also provides various habitats which gear the healing of ecosystem. The integration of ecological benefits and hydro-social programs fully embody the principle of new paradigms.

Perspective Runway Perspective FromFrom Runway Landform AndAnd Various Habitat Landform Various Habitat

68


Deciduous Forest Bird Species 1. Northern Cardinal Cardinalis cardinalis 2. Tufted Titmouse Baeolophus bicolor 3.Red-bellied Woodpecker Melanerpes carolinus 4.Ruffed Grouse Bonasa umbellus

Wetland Bird Species

Contaminant

1. Bald Eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus p 2. Common Loon Gavia immer 3.Mallard Anas platyrhynchos 4.Canada Goose Branta canadensis 5.Great Blue Heron Ardea herodias

Fish Species

Greater Straw Sedge Carex normalis

Prairie Cordgrass Spartina pectinata

UPLAND FOREST

Red Pine Pinus resinosa

Eastern White Pine Pinus strobus L.

FLOODPLAIN FOREST

Eastern Junipers Juniperus virginiana

Mercury

Manganese

STORMWATER WETLAND

Lead

Spreading Yellow Cress Rorippa sinuata

Bog Yellow Cress Rorippa palustris

Pennsylvania Bittercress Cardamine pensylvanica

Peachleaf willow Salix amygdaloides

Black Willow Salix nigra

Sunflower Helianthus annuus

Pennywort Hydrocotyle umbellata

Duckweed Lemna minor

Tape Grass Vallisneria americana

Peachleaf willow Salix amygdaloides

Black Willow Salix nigra

Mexican Mosquito Fern Azolla microphylla Kaulf.

Mosquito Fern Azolla Lam.

Tape Grass Vallisneria americana

Peachleaf willow Salix amygdaloides

Black Willow Salix nigra

Giant Duckweed Spirodela polyrhiza

Quaking Aspen Populus tremuloides

Bigtooth Aspen Populus grandidentata

Eastern Cottonwood Populus deltoides

Sunflower Helianthus annuus

Peachleaf willow Salix amygdaloides

Sunflower Helianthus annuus

Pennywort Hydrocotyle umbellata

Duckweed Lemna minor

Tape Grass Vallisneria americana

Quaking Aspen Populus tremuloides

Bigtooth Aspen Populus grandidentata

Eastern Cottonwood Populus deltoides

Quaking Aspen Populus tremuloides

Bigtooth Aspen Populus grandidentata

Prairie Cordgrass Spartina pectinata

Greater Straw Sedge Carex normalis

Sunflower Helianthus annuus

Mexican Mosquito Fern Azolla microphylla Kaulf.

Mosquito Fern Azolla Lam.

Giant Duckweed Spirodela polyrhiza

Ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia

Common Wheat Triticum aestivum

Black Willow Salix nigra

Giant Duckweed Spirodela polyrhiza

Duckweed Lemna minor

Red Clover Trifolium pratense

Spreading Yellow Cress Rorippa sinuata

Bog Yellow Cress Rorippa palustris

Pennsylvania Bittercress Cardamine pensylvanica

Cutleaf Toothwort Cardamine concatenata

Spring Cress Cardamine bulbosa

Alfalfa Medicago sativa

Eastern Junipers Juniperus virginiana

Peachleaf willow Salix amygdaloides

Black Willow Salix nigra

Red Pine Pinus resinosa

Eastern White Pine Pinus strobus L.

Eastern Cottonwood Populus deltoides

Alfalfa Medicago sativa

Red Pine Pinus resinosa

Eastern White Pine Pinus strobus L.

Zuchini Cucurbita pepo

Pumpkin Cucurbita pepo

Cr

chromium

Zn Zinc

Eastern Cottonwood Populus deltoides

Duckweed Lemna minor

Pb

4.Pimpleback osa Quadrula pustulosa 5.Mapleleaf la Quadrula quadrula 6.Wabash pigtoe Fusconaia flava

WETLAND VEGETATION

Pennywort Hydrocotyle umbellata

Mn

HEAVY METAL HE

TALL GRASS PRAIRIE

Hg

1. Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieui 2. Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides 3.Walleye Stizostedion vitreum 4.Catfish Disambiguation Native Mussel Species 1. Plain pocketbook Lampsilis cardium 2. Giant floater Pyganodon grandis 3.White heelsplitter Lasmigona complanata

Plant list

Mosquito Fern Azolla Lam.

Cu Alfalfa Medicago sativa

Quaking Aspen Populus tremuloides

Bigtooth Aspen Populus grandidentata

Black Willow Salix nigra

Peachleaf willow Salix amygdaloides

Spring Cress Cardamine bulbosa

Cutleaf Toothwort Cardamine concatenata

Ragweed Ambrosia artemisiifolia

Common Wheat Triticum aestivum

Pennywort Hydrocotyle umbellata

Giant Duckweed Spirodela polyrhiza

Duckweed Lemna minor

Copper

Tape Grass Vallisneria americana

ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

Red Clover Trifolium pratense

69

TPH

Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons

CHC

Chlorinated hydrocarbons

PCB

polychlorinated biphenyl

70


Design For New Residential Outdoor Space

As the new urban river paradigm streches to the water edge, the residential outdoor space will expand beyond the traditional neighbourhood block, meandering through various hydro-social spaces with rich hydrologcial and ecological changes. Community members have convenient access to the water through back yard, open lawn, residential green corridor, river promenade and other urban green infrustractors. Multiple societal and recreational activities will be rejuvenated along these spaces. Water system becomes the center element of community social life. This drives a new living style of "living on the water".

Seasonal Flooded Wetland

Neighborhood Gathering Space Prarie Neighbohood Gathering Space

Seasonal Flooded Wetland

River Promenade Bridge

Wetland

Laydown Lawn River Promenade

FLOODPLAIN F O R E S T

FLOODPLAIN FOREST

MAIN STREAMS

Residential Area

TALL GRASS PRAIRIE WITH TREE

SHORT GRASS WITH TREE

TRADITION RESIDENTIAL A R E A

RIVER PROMENADE

SHORT GRASS WITH TREE

MAIN STREAMS

OVERLOOK PLAZA

RIVER PROMENADE

SIDE STREAMS TALL GRASS PRAIRIE WITH TREE

TALL GRASS PRAIRIE WITH TREE

TALL GRASS PRAIRIE WITH TREE

RIVER PROMENADE

PA R O M E N A D E

SHORT GRASS WITH TREE

R I V E R

G AT H E R I N G S P A C E

TALL GRASS PRAIRIE WITH TREE

WETLAND VEGETATION TALL GRASS PRAIRIE WITH TREE

SIDE STREAMS

WETLAND VEGETATION

STORMWATER WETLAND

RIVER EDGE G AT H E R I N G S P A C E

menade

River Pro

71

NEIGHBORHOOD

Residential Greencorridor

SEASONAL FLOODED WETLAND

Residential Greencorridor

River Promenade Lead to Neighbohood Gathering Space

Bio-vegetated Bank

Back Stream Back Stream Floodplain And Bio-vegetated Bank

72


APPENDIX Precedents Floodplain Side Channel Restoration Ijssel

Floodplain Side Channel Restoration Waal

Airfield Restoration Orange County Great Park

Airfield Restoration Riem Park

Vreugderijkerwarrd, 1999

Gamerense Waard Flood Plain Renaturation, 1999. 2009 WaalWeelde Programme, since 2010

Irvine, California

Munchen, Germania

July 14, 2007

2005

Slow-flowing, sand and clay-dominated lowland rivers Mean discharge: 8122c.f.s 100 year flood discharge: 100,050 c.f.s Width of riverbed 525 ft Width of flood plain: 1640-3937 ft

Gameren, the Netherlands

Area: 27.5 acres (eventually 1,347 acres )

Area: 560 hectare Land form, Runway reuse

Wetland Restoration Tiengemeten

Wetland Restoration London Wetland Center

Airfield Restoration Crissy Field park

1997

2000

2001

Holland, the Netherlands

London, England

San Francisco, California

Original land use: Agriculture, Industry Area:3460 acres

Original land use: water reservior Area: 100 acres

Area: 130 acres Earth work, land form, runway reuse

Zwolle, the Netherlands

Wetland Restoration Trempealeau National Wildlife Refuge

Landform Chattanooga Renaissance Park

Land form Byxbee Park

1936,1979

2008

Palo Alto, California

Trempealeau County, Wisconsin

St, Chattanooga, TN

Original land use: Agriculture Area: 6226 acres

Area: 23.5 acres

Earth work, land form

Ecological Clean Process Oyster-Tecture: Reviving New York's rivers

Riverfront Eastbank Esplanade Waterfront Park

MoMA Rising Currents Exhibition, 2010 Kate Orff @ SCAPE Studio

73

Slow-flowing, sand and clay-dominated lowland rivers Mean discharge: 54,420c.f.s 100 year flood discharge: 287,140c.f.s Width of riverbed 984ft-1312ft Width of flood plain: 2625-3937 ft

Portland, Oregon

Floating deck, Urban Riverfront

74


APPENDIX Site Design Keystone Species Mussel Species

Bird Species Common Name

Scientific Name

Habitat

Canada Goose

Branta canadensis

wetland

Common Name Plain pocketbook

Scientific Name Lampsilis cardium

Wood Duck

Aix sponsa

wetland

Giant floater

Mallard Ring-necked Pheasant

Anas platyrhynchos Aythya collaris

wetland wetland

Ruffed Grouse

Bonasa umbellus

Wild Turkey Common Loon

Common Name

Scientific Name

Contaminat Treatment

Pyganodon grandis

Pennywort Duckweed

Hydrocotyle umbellata Lemna minor

Hg,Pb,Cu Hg,Pb,Zn,Cu

White heelsplitter Pimpleback

Lasmigona complanata Quadrula pustulosa

Peachleaf willow

Salix amygdaloides

Hg,Pb,Cr,Zn,Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons

deciduous forest

Black Willow

Salix nigra

Hg,Pb,Cr,Zn,Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons

Mapleleaf

Quadrula quadrula

Meleagris gallopavo Gavia immer

deciduous forest wetland

Wabash pigtoe

Fusconaia flava

Sunflower

Helianthus annuus

Mn,Pb,Zn,Cu

Pied-billed Grebe

Podilymbus

wetland

Fish Species

Tape Grass Giant Duckweed

Vallisneria americana Spirodela polyrhiza

Pb,Cr,Cu Pb,Cr,Zn

Great Blue Heron American Coot Belted Kingfisher

Ardea herodias Fulica americana Megaceryle alcyon Haliaeetus

wetland wetland wetland

Ragweed

Ambrosia artemisiifolia

Pb

Common Wheat

Triticum aestivum

Pb

Mexican Mosquito Fern

Azolla microphylla Kaulf.

Cr

wetland

Melanerpes carolinus Picoides villosus Baeolophus bicolor

deciduous forest deciduous forest deciduous forest

Mosquito Fern Quaking Aspen

Azolla Lam. Populus tremuloides

Cr Zn,Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated hydrocarbons

Bigtooth Aspen Eastern Cottonwood

Populus grandidentata Populus deltoides

Zn,Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated hydrocarbons Zn,Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated hydrocarbons

Sitta carolinensis

deciduous forest

Red Clover

Trifolium pratense

Zn

Cardinalis cardinalis

deciduous forest

Bald Eagle Red-bellied W k HairydWoodpecker Tufted Titmouse White-breasted N th t h Northern Cardinal

75

Plant Species For Phytoremediation On Site

Common Name Walleye Sauger

Scientific Name Sander vitreus ander canadensis

Smallmouth Bass

Micropterus dolomieu

Largemouth Bass White Bass Bluegill Crappie Northern Pike Catfish

Micropterus salmoides Morone chrysops Lepomis macrochirus Pomoxis annularis Esox lucius Ictalurus punctatus

Spreading Yellow Cress

Rorippa sinuata

Cu

Bog Yellow Cress

Rorippa palustris

Cu

Pennsylvania Bittercress Cutleaf Toothwort

Cardamine pensylvanica Cardamine concatenata

Cu Cu

Spring Cress Alfalfa

Cardamine bulbosa Medicago sativa

Cu Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated hydrocarbons

Eastern Junipers

Juniperus virginiana

Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons

Red Pine

Pinus resinosa

Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated hydrocarbons

Eastern White Pine Prairie Cordgrass

Pinus strobus L. Spartina pectinata

Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated hydrocarbons Polychlorinated biphenyl

Greater Straw Sedge

Carex normalis

Polychlorinated biphenyl

Zuchini Pumpkin

Cucurbita pepo Cucurbita pepo

Polychlorinated biphenyl Polychlorinated biphenyl

76


SITE HISTORY 1. Clark. Minnesota in a century of change : the state and its people since 1900. 2. Renwick, Mary E. Minnesota rivers : a primer 3. Zellie, Carole. The Mississippi and St. Paul : a planning study of interpretive potentials : final report. 4. Kunz, Virginia B. The Mississippi and St. Paul : a short history of the city's 150-year love affair with its river. 5. Kane, Lucile M. Twin Cities : a pictorial history of St. Paul and Minneapolis. 6. Anfinson, John O. River of history : a historic resources study of the Mississippi National River and Recreation Area 7. Minnesota Historical Society. 8. Ramsey County Historical Society. 9. John R. Borchert Map library, Featured Minnesota Collections, University of Minnesota 10. Tour St Paul westside history site.pdf

THEORY BUILD UP 1. Prominski. River, space, design : planning strategies, methods and projects for urban rivers. 2. Tracy Metz. Sweet & Salt: Water and the Dutch 3. Marq De Villiers. Water: The Fate of 0ur Most Precious Resource. 4. Herbert Dreiseitl, Doeter Grau, Karl H.C Ludwig. Waterscape: Planning, Building and Designing with Water. 5. Herbert Dreiseitl. 2009. Recent waterscapes : Planning, building and designing with water. 6. Herbert Dreiseitl. 2007. New Waterscapes for singapore. Topos 59 Water: Design and Management 7. Hester, Randotph T. 2006. “Design for Ecologicat Democracy.� 8. Zevenbergen, C., Veerbeek, W., Gersonius, B., and Van Herk, S. 2008. Challenges in urban flood management: travelling across spatial and temporal scales. Journal of Flood Risk Management, 1(2), 81-88. 9. Brugge, R. V. D., and Rotmans, J. 2007. Towards transition management of European water resources. Water resources management, 21(1), 249-267. 10. Van der Brugge, R., Rotmans, J., and Loorbach, D. 2005. The transition in Dutch water management. Regional Environmental Change, 5(4), 164-176. 11. Topos 64: Growing Cities 12. Topos 63: Transformation 13. Topos 68 water: Resource and Threat. 14. Room for the River Offical website. http://www.ruimtevoorderivier.nl/hoe-lossen-we-dit-op/hoe-lossen-we-dit-op/

SITE CONTEXT 1. FEMA. ftp://ftp.dnr.state.mn.us/pub/waters/floodplain/County_data/Ramsey/ 2. The DNR Data Deli. http://deli.dnr.state.mn.us/data_search.html 3. Rasmey County soil and wate. https://maps.co.ramsey.mn.us/SilverlightViewer_1_3/index.html?Viewer=MapRamsey 4. RiverGages.com. water levels of Rivers and Lakes, US Army Corps of Engineers. http://www2.mvr.usace.army.mil/WaterControl/stationinfo2.cfm?sid=STPM5&fid=STPM5&dt=S 5. National Weather Service, Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service. http://water.weather.gov/ahps2/hydrograph.php?wfo=mpx&gage=stpm5 6. USGS National Water Information System: web Interface. http://waterdata.usgs.gov/mn/nwis/uv/?site_no=05331000 7. US Army Corps of Engineers, St paul district. http://www.mvp-wc.usace.army.mil/ 8. Ramsey County GIS Mapping Website. https://maps.co.ramsey.mn.us/SilverlightViewer_1_9/index.html?Viewer=MapRamsey 9. St. Paul city comprehensive plan 2010 10. Mississippi River Corridor Plan_st Paul 2001 11. Westside community develop plan 2012 12. Great river passenger 2012 13. 2011 Lower Mississippi River WMO adopted plan 14. St. Paul trends report_economy, demography development trends 15. Fish And Wildlife Work Group River Resources Forum.2004. Environmental pool plans Mississippi River Pools 1-10 16. Trevor A. Russell, Lark Weller. State of the River Report: Water Quality and River Health in the Metro Mississippi River. 17. US Army Corps of Engineers, St. Louis district. 2006. Sedimentation in the upper Mississippi River basin.

NEW URBAN RIVER PARADIGM

Bibiography

Rejuvenate Urban River Foodplain Hydro-Social Space

NEW URBAN RIVER PARADIGM

Rejuvenate Urban River Foodplain Hydro-Social Space 77

Bibliography

DESIGN REFERENCE 1. Alan Jones.Hydrology & Fluvial Geomorphology.pdf 2. Sustainable Development of Floodplains(SDF).Space for River, Nature and People: Sustainable Floodplains along the Rhine

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2013_UMN MLA Capstone- Zhang: NEW URBAN RIVER PARADIGM, St. Paul, MN  

Han Zhang MLA 2013 University of Minnesota Matthew Tucker Committee Chair Assistant Professor UMN|LA

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