Page 1

Who grows there?

Planting design using urban novel ecosystems

Jonathan Fillmore Masters of Landscape Architecture Candidate, 2016 Department of Landscape Architecture University of Minnesota - Twin Cities

1


Table of contents Acknowledgments Preface Introduction 001: An exploration of urban novel ecosystems 002: Background research

Planting in urban areas

The reality of urban planting design

4 5

6-7

8-23

24-39

Step 5: Establish plantings

Step 4: Plant selection Step 6: Maintenance

004: Context & analysis

Regional context

The views of urban ecosystems in the Warehouse District

Urban novel ecosystems are...

The cultural context of urban novel ecosystems

Methods to improve “weedy� appearance: Vernacular cues of care 40-55

Site context & analysis Users and program Site systems

Novel ecosystem planting applications

Conclusion

Overview of planting design with urban novel ecosystems

Bibliography

Step 2: Document urban novel ecosystems

2

Step 1: Document existing conditions

70-115

Schematic plan

56-69

Warehouse District history

005: Design applications of urban novel ecosystems

Conservation of urban novel ecosystems

003: A Methodology for Planting Design with Urban Novel Ecosystems

Step 3: Deconstruct site conditions to establish growing substrate

Traditional planting establishment

The need for an activator of urban novel ecosystems

116-117 118-121

3


Acknowledgments

Preface

This project would not have been possible without the support and advice of my capstone committee members, studio professors, and fellow classmates.

My interest in spontaneous vegetation found in urban novel ecosystem stems from a graduate seminar that focused on nature in the Anthropocene. The readings and discussions of the seminar changed the way I saw “weeds” that emerge from sidewalk cracks, on rooftops, and in unmaintained pavement sites. After the seminar, I no longer viewed plants that grew spontaneously in urban areas as “weeds”, but as species that have evolved with anthropogenic disturbance.

Committee Matthew Tucker: Department of Landscape Architecture David Pitt: Department of Landscape Architecture Gary Johnson: Department of Forestry Capstone Studio Professors Rebecca Krinke: Department of Landscape Architecture Joseph Favour: Department of Landscape Architecture

My new perspective on the “weeds” of the city revealed the potential ecological and design opportunities urban spontaneous vegetation could provide. The book Urban and Wild Plants of the Northeast: A Field Guide by Peter Del Tredici offered an in depth field guide to wild plants of the city. However, Del Tredici’s book lacked information on planting design applications of urban spontaneous vegetation. The primary goal of this project is to develop urban planting designs that utilize often forgotten and overlooked spontaneous vegetation. The project aims to inspire other designers to re-examine potential design roles for plants that grow spontaneously in our cities.

Key definitions Novel Ecosystems: Ecosystems that contain specie compositions that have previously not occurred in biomes due to human influences (Hobbs et al., 2006). Urban Ecology: The study of plants and animals in the urban areas (Gilbert, 1989).

Spontaneous Vegetation: Vegetation that survives without human intention or care (Kühn, 2006).

Ecosystem Services: “The capacity of natural processes and components to provide goods and services that satisfy human needs” (Robinson & Lundholm, 2012).

4

5


Introduction Plants that emerge spontaneously in urban areas are remarkable for their ability to grow in harsh urban conditions. Often, the interaction of natural and anthropogenic processes, as typically found in urban growing conditions, generates dynamic plant compositions. Ecologists define such plant compositions as novel ecosystems because they are not found in any native biome (Hobbs et al., 2006). Furthermore, spontaneous vegetation found in urban novel ecosystems often exhibits striking aesthetics. Examples include cottonwood emerging out of pavement cracks, cattails forming on top of concrete, prairies forming on rubble soils after demolition, or mosses and lichens creeping across unmaintained concrete surfaces. Despite spontaneous vegetation’s unique aesthetic and its striking resilience in an urban environment, negative cultural perceptions often cause these plants to be forgotten and ignored as viable species for urban planting designs. (Del Tredici, 2010). Who Grows There? investigates urban planting design methods that capitalize on the beauty, ecological benefits, and resilience of spontaneous vegetation found in urban novel ecosystems.

Early colonizing annuals, biennials, and mosses found creeping across an unmaintained concrete drum 6

7


001: an exploration of urban novel ecosystems

8

While spontaneous vegetation found in urban novel ecosystems emerge right in our backyards and everyday places, they often go unrecognized. This section of Who Grows There? explores the ecological processes of several urban novel ecosystems. The diagrams are based on a combination of literature and field observations collected during the summer of 2015.

9


Urban Sidewalk

Spotted Spurge

Urban sidewalks are characterized by high salt levels, trampling, and perpetual disturbance. The species that establish on sidewalks are often annual species with high drought tolerance. The most common location for sidewalk plant communities to form is in degrading expansion joints between the sidewalk and curb. Sidewalk plant communities also form when sediment collects on top of a concrete sidewalk due to uneven, faulted slabs. Formation 1: Construction of sidewalk & curb

Formation 2: Degrading of joints from freeze thaw cycle

Foxtail Prostrate knotweed

Sediment & debris accumulates in degraded joints and uneven pavements.

Phase 3: Deposition of seed

Annual species often produce thousands of seeds within one season that can germinate the following spring or during the same season.

10

Phase 2: Emergence/colonization

Annual seeds germinate in sediment and debris collected in pavement openings in late spring. The successful annual species are drought & heat tolerant.

Phase 4: Winter die back

Perpetual state of early succession due to plowing & de-icing salt

Phase 1: Sediment accumulation

Process of plowing, salting, sanding, and trampling cause high plant mortality over winter. Sand adds to sedimentation of joints.

11


Unmaintained Asphalt

Moss

Minimal soil availability and warmer temperatures characterize the unmaintained asphalt plant community. Plants typically establish on unmaintained asphalt where pavement cracks, moisture, and sediment collects. A mosaic of plant establishment density is seen when looking across an unmaintained asphalt landscape due to varying moisture regimes, types of substrate, and crack widths. Formation 1: Construction of asphalt surface

Formation 2: Longitudinal cracking

Formation 3: Crocodile cracking

Caused by overloading, freeze thaw cycle, and poorly drained, degraded aggregate base.

Caused by overloading, freeze thaw cycle, and poorly drained, degraded, aggregate base

Annual Fleabane

birdsfoot trefoil

Phase 1: Pioneers

Minimal soil and moisture is present between crocodiling asphalt for plant life. Plants that colonize the harsh growing conditions are typically mosses and drought tolerant annuals.

Phase 2: Grasses & flowering plants emerge

Widening pavement cracks and increased organic matter provided by pioneers allow for annual, biennials, and perennial vascular plant emergence. Woody seedlings are present but hidden by fast growing herbaceous plants.

Eastern Cottonwood

Phase 3: Appearance of woody material

The relatively slow growing woody plants are now tall enough to become a predominate part of the plant community. The dominance of woody and herbaceous plants has for the most part shaded out original pioneering species.

Sweet Clover

Sweet Clover

Phase 4: Pavement breaking by roots

Maturing trees and shrubs break paved surface as they seek moisture near the surface. During strong storms, trees fall and lift pavement providing bare substrate for further colonization.

Horseweed

White heath aster Common mullein

12

(Secondary Succession in an Abandoned Car Park, 2009)

13


Unmaintained Concrete Unmaintained concrete lacks the salt and human trampling found on urban sidewalks. This allows for a more robust plant community to form in the small concrete joints and cracks. The spontaneous plant communities that form in degrading expansion joints create stunning patterns of lines and repetition. Formation 1: Construction of concrete slabs

Formation 2: Faulting & degrading joints Movement of slabs create uneven surface. Sediment and debris fill joints and collect along faulting slabs.

Formation 3: Longitudinal cracking & spalling Caused by pavement movement due to frost, and degrading aggregate base.

Trail Rush Eastern Cottonwood

Phase 1: Pioneers

The small amount of soil and moisture present between cracks and degraded joints favors mosses and drought tolerant annuals.

Phase 3: Appearance of woody material

The relatively slow growing woody plants are now tall enough to become a predominate part of the plant community. The dominance of woody and herbaceous plants has for the most part shaded out original pioneering species.

14

Phase 2: Grasses & flowering plants emerge

Widening pavement cracks and increased organic matter provide enough moisture and soil for annual, biennials, and perennial species to emerge. Woody seedlings are present but hidden by fast growing herbaceous plants.

Annual Fleabane

birdsfoot trefoil

Sweet Clover

Phase 4: Pavement breaking by roots

Maturing trees and shrubs break paved surface as they seek moisture near the surface. During strong storms, trees fall and lift pavement providing bare substrate for further colonization.

15


Pavement wetland Pavement wetlands form in areas where water and sediment collect on concrete surfaces. First, sediment is carried in water flowing across concrete surfaces. Then, the sediment is deposited when water velocity slows down in low spots of concrete. The poor drainage of the concrete causes the collected sediment to remain saturated for long periods of time, thus forming a wetland novel ecosystem. Formation 1: Construction of concrete slabs & wall

Phase 1: Emergence/colonization Emergence of cattails and sedges.

Phase 3: Dominance and growth

Wetland community continues to develop and expand.

Willow spp.

Formation 2: Faulting concrete slabs

Formation 3: Sediment accumulation

Caused by frost, and degrading aggregate base.

Sediment carried in water is deposited along the wall.

Hybrid Cattail

Phase 2: Dominance and growth

Wetland community develops and expands. A few willows emerge in the soggy soils.

Phase 4: Dominance and growth

Wetland community continues to develop and expand.

Foxtail Barley

16

17


Rubble Prairie on pavement

Curly Dock

Rubble prairie on pavement results when site rubble is deposited over a slab of concrete or asphalt. The ecosystem is characterized by thin soil profiles consisting of rubble, gravel, sand, and organic matter. The species that form on the rubble have the ability to withstand low nutrient and moisture levels. The stressed site conditions create an attractive patchy composition of plants.

Cottonwood

Ragweed

Formation 1: Deposition of rubble

Brick and concrete rubble combined with gritty soil composed of fines lay over concrete surfaces (Gilbert, 1990).

Phase 1: pH adjustment

The pH of freshly broken concrete is typically between 11-9. Such high pH inhibits most plant growth. After 5 years exposed to elements, soil pH decreases to around 7-8 (Gilbert, 1990).

Phase 2: Pioneers

Pioneering mosses and annuals colonize the rubble material.

Common Milkweed Ox-eye daisy Foxtail Barley

Phase 3: Annual plants emerge

The soil formed by mosses is colonized by annual and biennials plants that are able to complete life cycle in 1 to 2 years.

18

Phase 4: Woody & perennial plants emerge Perennial and woody species are found colonizing the rubble as the annual and biennials species further build the soil. The pioneering mosses are shaded out by longer lived perennial and woody plants.

19


Rubble Prairie The rubble prairie is typically seen in wastelands where crushed brick, concrete, and aggregate from past land uses form rubble substrates. The species that form on rubble prairies are known for their ability to thrive in drought, low nutrient, and highly disturbed sites. Rubble prairies often contain attractive textures and color combinations.

Horseweed

Queens Ann Lace

Formation 1: Wasteland

Wastelands can be characterized as young sites previously occupied by buildings, or some other form of hard landscape that has recently been demolished (Gilbert, 1990).

Phase 1: pH adjustment

The pH of freshly broken concrete is typically between 11-9. Such high pH inhibits most plant growth. After 5 years exposed to elements, soil pH decreases to around 7-8 (Gilbert, 1990).

Phase 2: Pioneers

Pioneering mosses and annuals colonize the rubble material.

Annual fleabane

Phase 3: Annual plants emerge

The soil formed by mosses is colonized by annual and biennials plants that are able to complete life cycle in 1 to 2 years.

20

Curly Dock

Burdock

Phase 4: Woody & perennial plants emerge

As the annual and biennials species further build and break compacted soil, perennial and woody species are found colonizing the rubble. The pioneering mosses are shaded out by longer lived perennial and woody plants.

(Clemens, Bradley, and Gilbert, 1981; Gilbert, 1990; Gilbert 1993; Grime, 2001)

21


Urban Prairie The urban prairie is typically found on sites where topsoil, subsoil, and foreign material are mixed together. Examples include roadsides and areas around buildings. The relatively nutrient rich soil is quickly colonized by short-lived annuals and biennials. The urban prairie often contains a range of colorful wildflowers such as Sweet Clover, Goldenrod, and Spotted Knapweed.

White Sweet Clover

Formation 1: Urban disturb soils

Urban soils are often compacted and mixed with foreign material. Road banks and vacant lots are typical example. Gumweed

Phase 1: Pioneers

Rapid colonization of bare soil by early colonizing, annual species. Annuals can complete life cycle in one year and typically disperse many seeds.

Phase 2: Woody & perennial plants emerge

Longer lived perennials, biennials, and woody species eventually out-compete most annuals established earlier.

Curly dock

Spotted knapweed

Canadian Goldenrod

Annual Fleabane Stiff goldenrod

Phase 3: Woody shrubs & trees emerge Woody shrubs and trees mature and become predominate vegetation on site.

22

Phase 4: Woody shrubs & trees dominate

Woody shrubs and trees dominate site

23


002: BACKGROUND Research

24

25


PLANTING IN urban areas

TRADITIONAL planting design approach

Although urban novel ecosystems have evolved with human activities in cities, such plant communities are regularly ignored for planting designs. The plant palette used by landscape architects typically consists of horticulturally available exotic plants or native species (Hitchmough, 2011). Although designers are comfortable with these species and are trained to use them, these species commonly struggle to survive the harsh growing conditions of cities.

As a result of the altered growing conditions of cities, designers need to manipulate site conditions to support status quo planting designs (Hitchmough, 2011). When designing a planting in an urban area, the typical process for landscape architects and garden designers commonly involves removing the existing spontaneous vegetation on site, amending the existing rubble like soil, and planting a desired mix of native and/or exotic horticultural plants (Hitchmough, 2011). Most often, some level of soil amending is needed to re-establish soil to a normative range that can support traditional plantings (Hitchmough, 2008). Furthermore, after establishment, many plantings in urban areas require irrigation, fertilization, and weeding to survive the harsh urban conditions.

The urban environment can be characterized as having significantly different growing conditions than the countryside. Altered site conditions typical of urban areas include altered soil composition, altered hydrologic systems, increased temperature, high salt levels, and frequent disturbance (Sukopp, 2008; Costanza, 2008). These conditions often cause high mortality and failure of both native and exotic ornamental plants found in typical planting designs (Del Tredici, 2007). Often, even native plantings are outcompeted by robust, urban spontaneous vegetation that has adapted to anthropogenic disturbance (Choi, 2004). Consider for example, the High Bridge Dog Park in St. Paul, where a former rail yard and coal storage was converted to a dog park. The soil of the site was highly compacted from years of rail cars rolling over the site. In addition, the soil had significant levels of coal slag left over from the past land use. Despite these site conditions, the vegetation plan for the park proposed a native prairie seed mix for the un-programed spaces. The city did not have money in the budget to constantly weed the native prairie nor spend thousands of dollars to adequately amend the soil. Ultimately, therefore, the desired native prairie turned into a field of Ragweed and Sweet Clover.

26

Failing prairie restoration at High Bridge Dog Park

27


Research question The challenges of planting in urban areas due to harsh growing conditions suggests that a new approach is needed. Often, plantings do not meet design expectations due to the interaction of insufficient budgets and harsh growing conditions (Hitchmough, 2011). Intentionally planted ornamental or native landscapes are almost always invaded by an array of well-suited spontaneous vegetation after budgets run out and maintenance discontinues. The reality of planting in urban areas is that their altered conditions favor the robust early colonizing spontaneous vegetation typically found in urban novel ecosystems (Gilbert 1992). While landscape management is focused on eradicating spontaneous vegetation, spontaneous vegetation is so well suited to urban conditions, it is impossible to suppress them (Gilbert 1989; Choi, 2004). Although many are uncomfortable with a changing ecological order, urban novel ecosystems are simply evolutionary responses to a human dominated, globalized world (Del Tredici, 2010; Hobbs et al., 2006). Rather than continuing a discourse that ignores the flora of cities, Who Grows There? asks how spontaneous vegetation found in urban novel ecosystems can be utilized to create resilient, ecological, and handsome urban planting designs.

28

29


Urban novel ecosystems are... Resilient to the urban environment and favored by human presence Spontaneous vegetation found in urban novel ecosystems is remarkable for its ability to grow in some of the most unexpected growing conditions of the city. Spontaneous vegetation grows in landscapes where some native plants would struggle to survive (Del Tredici, 2010). Sites such as rail corridors, road medians, parking lots, walls, and various paved areas favor the aggressive nature typical of urban spontaneous plants (Gilbert 1992). Plant composition studies have found that areas with high levels of human disturbance rely more heavily on non-native stress tolerant species to contribute to species richness compared to landscapes with lower disturbance levels (Kowarik, 1990; Kowarik, 2011). The remarkable adaptability to urban stresses and disturbances exhibited by spontaneous vegetation suggests that it may be uniquely well-suited for use in urban planting designs. Jens Jensen’s philosophy of utilizing plant species adapted to the soil and climate implies that in the altered environment of cities, the best fitted species will often be an array of non-native, stress tolerant, early colonizing species. As Jensen put it, “To try to force plants to grow in soil or climate unfitted for them and against nature’s methods will sooner or later spell ruin” (Little & Morrison, 1990). If spontaneous vegetation found in urban novel ecosystems is often the vegetation most adapted to cities, then to avoid “ruin”, designers should explore planting design techniques that utilize it.

30

Authentic aesthetic Urban novel ecosystems offer an oddly attractive aesthetic. The mix between clearly human-made elements combined with wild spontaneous vegetation creates a compelling aesthetic. For example, the sparse vegetative cover of a rubble pile or the striking linear lines of plants growing out of concrete joints form handsome aesthetics. Furthermore, plant compositions of urban novel ecosystems offer an authentic aesthetic that expresses the history of a site (Kühn, 2006). The plant compositions found in urban novel ecosystems do not occur outside the city and each city expresses its own unique character (Gilbert, 1992). Often, urban novel ecosystems are filled with colorful flowers and striking textures throughout the summer. “To try to force plants to grow in soil or climate unfitted for them and against nature’s methods will sooner or later spell ruin.” Jens Jensen

Siberian Elm emerging out of a demolished building’s toilet drain. The resilient growing characteristic of Siberian Elm is capable of growing in places some native species would struggle to survive.

31


Urban novel ecosystems are... Ecologically significant to urban areas Urban novel ecosystems often provide more ecological benefits to the city than one might first think. Spontaneous vegetation found in urban novel ecosystems provides significant ecological and environmental services to the city (Hobbs, et al, 2013; KĂźhn, 2006). Urban novel ecosystems mitigate heat island effect, provide habitat for pollinators, slow the flow of rainwater, build soils, sequester carbon, and provide food for humans and birds (Pickett et al., 2008). The ecological benefits novel ecosystems provide for urban areas have prompted urban ecologists to advocate their conservation (Kunick, 1990; Kowarik, 2011). Novel ecosystems establishing on walls, sidewalks, and wastelands have been found to form distinct plant communities with valuable ecological benefits worthy of conservation (Bates, 1935; Jim, 1998; Jim & Chen, 2010; Westbrooks, 1981). While some ecologists are beginning to recognize the ecosystem services novel ecosystems offer at no cost, they still are often overlooked and unrecognized.

A bee collecting the nectar from a Spotted Knapweed flower

Important for urban biodiversity The common perception of cities as ecologically void concrete jungles is quickly broken upon close examination of urban ecosystems (Gilbert, 1989). Research has found surprisingly rich biodiversity in cities. In some cases, cities can be richer in plant species compared to rural areas (Bonthoux, et al., 2014). The habitat heterogeneity typical of urban areas rationalizes the species richness found in cities (Kowarik, 2011). For example, brownfield sites consisting of a mixture of pavement, rubble, and exposed soil offer a wide variety of ecosystems. Furthermore, novel ecosystems often provide important habitat for rare invertebrates and birds (Gedge, et al).

32

Spontaneous vegetation found established in the expansion joint of a roadway curb and gutter act as a sediment trap at no cost to the city

The substrate complexity found on highly disturbed sites, such as this abandoned flour mill in Minneapolis, creates a mosaic of plant communities.

33


Conservation of urban novel ecosystems The ecological value urban novel ecosystems provide has prompted ecologists to put them into conservation. Novel ecosystem conservation case studies include Natur-Park Südgelande, brown roof systems in Great Britain, and Canvey Wick Bug Reserve. Natur-Park Südgelande, Berlin, Germany: Natur-Park Südgelande was originally a rail yard used during World War II. Shortly after the war, in 1952, the rail yard was shut down. After years of minimal maintenance, compelling novel ecosystems began to arise. The novel ecosystem that formed on the site was put into conservation for urban biodiversity when the site was converted to a park. The clean lines of the designed walking paths and simple alterations to the spontaneous vegetation on the site helped make the messy novel ecosystem fit the cultural aesthetics (Kowarik & Langer, 2005).

Brown Roof Systems: Black Redstart, a rare bird species, began breeding on World War II bomb sites and vacant industrial lots in Great Britain. Conservationists desired to create a new approach to protect the habitat of Black Redstart as these wasteland sites were being developed. Rooftops were identified as a potential space to recreate the habitat conditions of wastelands that were being removed due to development. The brown roof concept re-creates the conditions of wasteland sites that support Black Redstart by using recycled crushed concrete and brick aggregate as the brown roof substrate. Spontaneous vegetation is then allowed to colonize the rubble substrate placed on the roof (Grant & Lane, 2006). Canvey Wick Bug Reserve, Great Britain: Canvey Wick Bug Reserve is located on an abandoned oil refinery site located in Great Britain. The landscape contains a variety of novel ecosystems associated with ditches, gravel pits, sandy banks, and bare concrete. The varied site conditions provided prime habitat for invertebrates. The site was put into conservation to protect the rare bee and invertebrate species recorded in the post industrial site. Today, Canvey Wick supports over 1,400 species of invertebrates including some rare and endangered ones. The site contains such high biodiversity that it was described as a “brownfield rainforest” (Canvey Wick - Britain’s Rainforest... and Buglife’s first Nature Reserve!”, 2016). 34

Elevated path and overlook at Natur-Park Südgelande

Brown roof after 3 years of establishment

Canvey Wick Bug Reserve located in Great Britain

35


THE CULTURAL CONTEXT OF NOVEL ECOSYSTEMS

Methods to improve “weedy” appearance: Vernacular cues of care

Negative cultural perceptions of urban novel ecosystems make using them for urban planting design unpopular. While the benefits of spontaneous vegetation found in urban novel ecosystems are scientifically apparent, its appearance is seen by some to lack desirable aesthetic characteristics (Del Tredici, 2010b). Dominant landscape aesthetic trends in the United States favor neat and tidy landscapes with turf and shade trees (Nassauer, 1995). As a result, many view spontaneous vegetation found growing in cities as weeds, or as a sign of derelict and poor land management (Page and Weaver, 1970). Furthermore, spontaneous vegetation is falsely viewed by many as a detriment to biodiversity and the environment (Kowarik, 2011). Finally, species found in urban novel ecosystems often fall under the obnoxious weed and invasive species list developed by local and federal laws (“Terrestrial Invasive Species - Laws and Regulations (Land-based Species)”).

Several methods have been developed to help “weedy” landscapes, such as novel ecosystems, be more acceptable and legible by the public. Studies have found landscape maintenance and cues to care must be obviously present for messy ecosystems to be appreciated by the public (Nassauer, 1995). Common cues of care that improve cultural acceptance of messy ecosystems in the urban landscape include planting frames, paths, clean lines, mowed strips, and informative signs (Nassauer, 1995; Dunnett & Hichmough, 2004). Furthermore, adding species with attractive flowers and subtracting species with unattractive characteristics can improve the aesthetic of existing spontaneous plant communities (Kühn, 2006; Del Tredici, 2010).

Orderly frame

Formalized paths

Informative signs

Add and subtract species

Caution tape surrounds Wild Parsnip to warn the public of the recently applied herbicide used to control the invasive specie. 36

37


The need for an activator of urban novel ecosystems While cues to care are valid and important methods to gain public approval of urban novel ecosystems, ultimately, a landscape is accepted when the public understands its purpose and value. A weed is only a weed because the viewer lacks appreciation for it. As Ralph Waldo Emerson stated, a weed is “…a plant whose virtues have not yet been discovered” (Emerson, 1879). This phenomenon is also seen in other contexts. For example, people typically do not buy a product unless they understand its value and purpose. Similarly, an ecologist might perceive a prairie landscape in a boulevard as attractive, because she understands its value and purpose, whereas a local resident who lacks this understanding sees a pile of weeds (Nassauer, 1993). In order for urban novel ecosystems to be embraced by residents, designers need to activate them by creating performative purposes for them. Then, designers and ecologist need to educate residents on the value so created to aid public appreciation of urban novel ecosystem plantings. A good example of a landscape that was activated out of weed status is the native prairie, activated by Jens Jensen. In Jensen’s time, the prairie was seen as a valueless, weedy landscape (Woudstra, 2004). Jensen activated the prairie by taking people on nature walks where he described the prairie’s ecological benefits and conservation value. Jensen’s ability to activate the prairie landscape through design and education helped people see beauty in a landscape they previously viewed as weeds. Eventually, Jensen popularized the prairie style garden, which used local materials and predominantly native prairie plants (Little & Morrison, 1990). Other examples where plants shifted out of weed status are rain gardens and green roofs. Like the prairie, the public viewed the plantings as weeds until they understood the ecological performative objective.

The native prairie: Activated by Jens Jensen

The rain garden: Activated to infiltrate rainwater

The two key takeaways from these three examples are as follows: 1. Plants do not change, but the cultural perception towards them shifts when they are framed for a functional and ecological purpose. 2. Understanding the value of a plant or planting leads to an appreciation of its aesthetic. The sedum green roof: Activated to mitigate heat island 38

39


003: A methodology for planting design with urban novel ecosystems

40

41


Document the natural flora of cities

Asphalt or concrete novel ecosystem

YE

Does the soil contain coarse rubble?

NO

Establish plant mix by researching comprable urban novel ecosystems to site conditions

6

Edit spontaneous plant mix to meet spatail and aesthetic needs

Manage successional change to achieve design intent

42

5

6

S

YE

Establish plant mix by researching comprable urban novel ecosystems to site conditions

+

Edit spontaneous plant mix to meet spatail and aesthetic needs

Are the soils wet?

Pavement wetland, pavement pond, or urban wetland.

Dry prairie

Shade loving plants

Is deicing salt present?

Salt tolerant species or annuals that complete their life cycle in one year

NO

5

Is Trampling present?

Rosette, grass, or prostrate form. Suitable species found along paths or compacted lawns

-

+

Urban fill prairie wide range available

Rubble prairie novel ecosystem

NO

-

4

Strategicaly deconstruct site conditions

S

4

Strategicaly deconstruct site conditions

3

Shade to part shade plants

NO

3

Full sun plants

S

2

S

Document the natural flora of cities

NO

NO

2

Is there full sun? S

Are the soils paved?

Existing paved soil

YE

1

Existing rubble soil

After programs are organized on the site and spatial requirements for each space are established, an inventory of existing site conditions affecting plant growth are inventoried to assess which urban novel ecosystems are most suited and adapted to the site condition. The inventory information is used to help decide which novel ecosystem is used for a planting. The diagram below summarizes how an urban novel ecosystem can be selected. S

1

Inventory site conditions of each planting in schematic plan

YE

EMERGENT PLANTING APPROACH

Schematic plan development Before a planting plan can be created, a basic spatial design framework is needed. Just like a typical planting design process, a space massing plan is created that identifies spaces needed to meet programmatic needs of the site users. The spaces are established with a variety of spatial enclosures created using different vegetation types, topography, and structure.

YE

oils

Planting design using spontaneous vegetation found in urban novel ecosystems is created by first defining the spatial enclosure desired for a given site program. Planting substrate is then specified by using existing urban soils and paved surfaces. Simple deconstruction techniques are utilized to establish plantable zones within existing paved soils. Rubble and urban soils are simply reorganized into landforms that establish spatial definition. Plant selection is derived by studying the natural flora of cities. Then, a base species list well suited to the existing site condition is created by using spontaneous vegetation found in urban novel ecosystems with similar site conditions to the one being planted. The base species list is then edited by adding and subtracting species based on aesthetic and spatial needs of the design. Finally, a range of disturbance regimes are established to maintain a desired design aesthetic and species composition.

Step 1: Document existing conditions

YE

ROACH

Overview of planting design with urban novel ecosystems

No need to worry.

Manage successional change to achieve design intent

43


Step 2: Study urban novel ecosystems

The second step for planting design using spontaneous vegetation found in urban novel ecosystems is to simply study them. The goal of studying spontaneous vegetation found in urban novel ecosystems is to gain an understanding of their ecological processes, species composition, aesthetic beauty, and spatial qualities. Urban novel ecosystems can be easily studied because they occur all around the city if one simply begins to recognize them. The notion of studying a natural landscape for planting design inspiration is not a new idea. Often, native landscapes far from the city and heavy human disturbance are studied to develop species compositions for urban planting designs (Robinson, 2004). Ecosystems such as the boreal forest, oak savanna, or native prairie are regularly used as precedents for developing urban planting palettes. However, because most precedent sites studied for native landscape plantings do not contain influences of heavy human disturbances, they often struggle to survive in urban sites. Studying spontaneous vegetation found in urban novel ecosystems typically creates a plant palette better suited to urban site conditions because the palette was created based on species found in an analogous urban condition. For example, one can study the natural flora found in a street novel ecosystem to develop a plant list for a boulevard planting. Utilizing analogous sites to select plant palettes will create resilient urban plantings because the species used have naturally evolved with the disturbance of the site being planted. In addition, studying urban novel ecosystems can generate plantings in non-traditional spaces. For example, the species found growing spontaneously in cracks of parking lot can be used to spark inspiration for a planting design strategy where half-inch saw cuts are used to provide space for plantings and rainwater infiltration in parking lots. During the summer of 2015, I obsessively observed, researched and collected field notes of spontaneous vegetation found in urban novel ecosystems of the Twin Cities. The field notes were collected to aid a projected novel ecosystem planting design capstone project to be conducted during the Spring 2016 semester during my third year in the Masters of Landscape Architecture program at the University of Minnesota. Urban novel ecosystems that were studied included bridge underpasses, freeway banks, boulevards, sidewalks, storm drains, curb and gutters, parking lot medians, asphalt parking lots, drainage ditches, abandoned railways, active railways, bike trail right of ways, vacant sites with building rubble, vacant paved sites, and various marginalized urban sites. 44

45


Novel ecosystem study sites

Fairview Ave

ty Rd

Coun

c

Fruen Mill Glenwood Ave

Penn ave

46

Twin Lakes pkwy

Prior ave

The second study site, Fruen Mill, is located near the intersection of Glenwood Avenue and Penn Avenue in Minneapolis. Fruen Mill started grinding grain in 1894 using the water power from the adjacent Bassett Creek. In 1971, the site was sold to ConAgra and has since laid vacant and largely unmaintained. The majority of the site is paved with concrete. Some portions of the concrete are still exposed with vegetation emerging from cracks and degrading expansion joints. In other locations of the site, rubble deposited on top of the concrete supports prairies with lovely textures and flowers. Fruen Mill field notes informed the rubble prairie, sparse meadow, four-inch pavement crack forest, and forest thicket novel ecosystem plantings.

Cleveland ave

Although field research was conducted at various urban ecologies in the Twin Cities, two sites were regularly visited throughout the summer to understand seasonal change of urban novel ecosystems. The first field study site was a vacant warehouse and distribution center located at the intersection of Twin Lakes Parkway and Prior Avenue in Roseville, Minnesota. The site transitioned from field crop production to light industry starting in the 1950s as suburban growth expanded. The study site was a warehouse and distribution center that operated on the site since the 1980s. The site has laid vacant and unmaintained since 2006 when the warehouse closed. Today, the majority of the site remains paved with vegetation emerging from the cracking asphalt that once was used to store semi trailers for the warehouse industry. While the majority of the landscape is covered in asphalt plant communities, portions of the site are paved with concrete slabs with vegetation growing out of degrading half-inch expansion joints. The Twin Lakes Parkway study site offered valuable field notes on untrampled paved urban novel ecosystems. The field notes from the site informed the pavement wetland, pavement pond, asphalt prairie, asphalt moss prairie, cottonwood savanna, and four-inch crack prairie urban novel ecosystem plantings.

Vacant warehouse

47


Methods to document urban novel ecosystems To document each urban novel ecosystem, photography, measurements, and anecdotal field notes were used. Photography was used to visually document the context of an urban novel ecosystem and the attractive details of individual plants found within the ecosystem. Photographs are useful when designing plantings to remind the designer of the growth and aesthetic characteristics of a particular novel ecosystem. Furthermore, photography can reveal to others the beauty of the often overlooked plant life of cities. In addition to photographs, anecdotal notes were taken on site condition such as soil type, sun exposure, hydrology, and moisture. In some instances, field measurements on soil depth and pavement crack widths were taken to help further understand the growing conditions of pavement ecosystems. Ultimately, the notes collected helped better understand the ecological process that lead to the development of the found urban novel ecosystem. To understand potential aesthetic qualities of urban novel ecosystems, notes were taken on attractive species combination and species characteristics such as flower, texture, and form. Office time was spent identifying and researching growing characteristics of plants found in the field. The primary plant field guides used to identify unknown vegetation was Urban and Wild Plants of the Northeast: A Field Guide by Peter Del Tredici, Weeds of North America by Richard Dickinson and France Royer, and a variety of online sources.

Half-inch longitudinal crack in asphalt with one-inch of soil on top of pavement

Four inches of sediment found on top of a two-inch pavement core

Vegetation width of six inches with approximately four inches of soil on top of half-inch concrete expansion joint.

48

Half-inch expansion joint found under above photo’s vegetation and soil.

49


Step 3: deconstruct site conditions to Establish growing substrate The resilience of spontaneous vegetation found in urban novel ecosystems allows planting designs that utilizes them to favor paved surfaces and rubble soils typical of urban sites. Standard construction pavement modification techniques are used to mimic a range of urban novel ecosystem habitats that occur spontaneously in an orderly design context. Step 3: Seed desired plants or manage natural colonization

Step 2: Backfill with rubble material or substrate of choice

Step 3: Seed desired plants or manage natural colonization

Step 2: Place hydraulic splitter in drilled hole to expand and split pavement

Step 3: Seed desired plants or manage natural colonization

50

Step 3: Seed desired plants or manage natural colonization

Step 1: Pour slabs at different heights or use

mud jack on existing slabs to aid sedimentation. Texture or groove to aid sediment deposition

Step 2: Allow sediment to deposit

Step 3: Seed desired plants or manage natural colonization

Step 1: Pile sediment or rubble on top of paved surface

Step 2: Seed desired plants or manage natural colonization

Pile

Split

Step 1: Saw cut frame to control splitting. Drill hole to receive hydraulic splitter

Step 2: Break pavement with demolition hammer

Tilt

core

Step 1: Diamond core pavement. Core diameter range from 1/2� - 60�

Step 1: Saw cut frame to control breaking edge.

Break

Step 2: Backfill with rubble material or substrate of choice

cut

Step 1: Saw cut & remove cut pavement with demolition hammer

51


Step 4: plant selection Select an urban novel ecosystem analogous to site conditions that fit desired spatial enclosure Once site conditions are understood and a schematic plan is created with desired spatial characteristics for each program use, an urban novel ecosystem is selected to use as the basis for a planting design plant list. The urban novel ecosystem used as the basis for a planting design is selected to best fit the design intent and site conditions. Selecting an urban novel ecosystem that fits the design intent and site condition is rooted in field observations and research. It is useful to use existing urban novel ecosystem plant compositions as the foundation for planting designs. The rationale for doing so is that species that occur naturally together in a given plant community tolerate similar conditions. They are also likely to be compatible with one another (Hitchmough 2004).

List species found in selected urban novel ecosystem Next, the spontaneous vegetation found in the selected urban novel ecosystems are listed to create the base plant list for a planting design. Each specie within the urban novel ecosystem plant community are documented on their aesthetic characteristics (flower, form, texture, and height) and ecological services they provide. Species that are very aggressive are used only when other species in the mix are equally aggressive to ensure one species does not completely dominate the entire planting (Hitchmough 2004). Edit spontaneous plant mix

Next, the plant list based on species composition of a found urban novel ecosystem are edited to meet design and aesthetic needs by subtracting and adding species (Kuen, 2006). The editing process placed the highest weight on species adaptation to site conditions, ecological functions, and aesthetic qualities. Editing the plant mix to create a florist display at least one time during the year was also an important criteria. Adding a striking florist display to the planting during a season will help people appreciate and enjoy the novel ecosystem planting (Hitchmough, 2004). The editing processes does not take into account the species place of origin. Native or non-native, invasive or non-invasive, are not deciding factor for editing the specie list. The altered anthropogenic 52

conditions of cities changes historic environmental conditions and therefore species compositions. Often the species best suited to the new ecological order of cities consist of non-native, and culturally considered invasive species. A well suited specie is subtracted from the planting mix if it contained serious human health ramifications such as rashes or allergenic reactions. For example, species such as Ragweed were subtracted from plant mixes because they cause many to have terrible allergic reactions.

PLANT ESTABLISHMENT TECHNIQUES

Step 5: ESTABLISH Plantings

Direct planting of plugs, controlled colonization (seeding), and spontaneous colonization are the three techniques used to establish 1 2 urban novel ecosystem plantings. The direct plug planting establishment Seed Spontaneous approach is a standard process for establishing plantings where every colonization plant is meticulously planted and organized on a site. Direct planting allows for controlled and predictable plant compositions but cost the most money and energy. The second technique, seeding, allows selected PLANT ESTABLISHMENT STRATAGIES PLANT ESTABLISHMENT TECHNIQUES species to randomly colonize a planting. Seed mix plantings have random organization that produce a naturalistic aesthetic. Seed mixes + not only create a spontaneous effect but also produce a very close fit to site conditions (Dunnett et al, 2006). The final establishment technique used is spontaneous colonization. The spontaneous colonization 1 technique designs a site condition that is allowed to vegetate 1 2 Modify species 3 spontaneously. Spontaneous colonization establishment method creates Seed Plug composition of found novel ecosystem Spontaneous plant compositions that are always well suited to the site conditions (Kühn 2006) colonization (Kuen 2006). When seeding or spontaneous colonization is combined with directPLANT planting, a hybrid approach isTECHNIQUES established (Dunnett et al, ESTABLISHMENT 2006). The hybrid approach uses a low density of directly planted PLANT ESTABLISHMENT STRATAGIES two-inch plugs to create a planting framework. In between the directly planted plugs, seed mixes or spontaneous colonization are used to fill+ in the gaps. 1 2 Plug planting framework Plug p Spontaneous colonization Seed The seeds1for all species are collected from local plant communities to 2 3 1 ensure the phenology is acclimated to the site conditions. Seed In the case Plug Spontaneous Modify species of plug planting, the seeds are started in a greenhouse/nursery for one colonization composition of found novel ecosystem growing season before being planted. (Kühn 2006)

-

-

PLANT ESTABLISHMENT STRATAGIES

-

1

+ 1

Plug planting framework Spontaneous colonization Modify species composition of found novel ecosystem (Kühn 2006)

2

Plug planting framework Seed desired speceis 53


Step 6: maintenance While planting design using urban novel ecosystems requires less maintenance than standard landscape practices, it should not be thought of as management free (Hitchmough, 2004). A range of maintenance strategies are used that alter the ecological successional outcome by strategically disturbing a planting. The disturbance regime are used to maintain the desired aesthetic and spatial enclosure. The maintenance strategy used for novel ecosystem plantings falls under one of three categories: 1. Allowing succession to proceed (no management); 2. Modify succession though disturbance; 3. Selective weeding (Kuen, 2006).

Perpetual Cycle of early succession

No management specified. The end outcome is unknown but will most likely turn into an urban forest (Kuen 2006). Used when a variety of spatial enclosure fit design intent.

Soil built by mosses and annuals is removed every ten-years from pavement planting to maintain an early successional plant community (Dunnett 2004). Topsoiling is used when low spatial enclosure is desired.

Found when site conditions produce a perpetual cycle of early succession. This is often a result of heavy trampling, winter snow removal, or de-icing salt.

Spontaneous colonization

Topsoiling

coppicing

Seasonal spring mowing

Trees are cut to the ground every ten-years to generate a multi-stem thicket (Dunnett 2004). Copicing trees can be used to establish full spatial enclosed.

Planting is mowed every season to suppress woody species from emerging (Dunnett 2004). Seasonal spring mowing is used when medium spatial enclosure is desired.

Crown raising Pruning

Periodic weeding - status quo

Crown raising prunes off lower branches of trees. Crown raising can be used to create an open grove or to improve visibly (Dunnett 2004; Kuen 2006).

Periodic weeding consists of selectively removing undesirable plants to maintain a particular plant composition (Dunnett 2004; Kuen 2006). Periodic weeding is used when a specific plant composition is critical to design intent.

54

55


004: Site Context & analysis

56

57


Site context

Warehouse district

The project site is located in the North Loop neighborhood. The North Loop is located north of downtown Minneapolis along the Mississippi River.

The North Loop is divided into two distinct zones based on the historic character of the neighborhood. The project site is located in the historic Warehouse District zone along the neighborhood’s main commercial corridor, Washington Avenue. The West River Parkway is three blocks from the site. However, large super blocks of buildings hinder easy pedestrian access to the river

North loop neighborhood

I-94

Theodore Wirth Park

Downtown Minneapolis

I - 394

University of Minnesota

Lake Of The Isle

Mississippi River

Lake Calhoun

I 35E

Olson Memorial Highway

Downtown St. Paul

Lake Harriet

North Loop Neighborhood

58

59


Warehouse District: history & Green space The Warehouse District was historically the city’s shipping hub. The historic buildings today are protected by the Warehouse Historic District listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The warehouses that characterize the district are six to eight story high brick buildings. Source: North Loop Neighborhood Association

1945

Source: Minnesota Historical Society

Thousands of people have moved into the North Loop since the 1990s revitalization of the neighborhood. Increasing green space in the North Loop neighborhood is a key priority for the neighborhood as it transitions from industry to residential. Like many neighborhoods in the city, planting is associated with expensive soil amending, watering, and high energy expense. The industrial history of the North Loop makes planting trees difficult and expensive. Neighborhood efforts to green the streets via tree trenches typically cost nearly $2,000 per tree (Lindeke, 2015) Source: skylinescenes.com

60

Rail yard and numerous warehouses and factories dominate the Warehouse District in 1921

Present day Warehouse District with residential, office, and commercial land use dominating the landscape 61


A planner’s view of THE URBAN ECOSYSTEM

A local resident’s view of THE uRBAN ECOSYSTEM

When planners view the urban ecosystem of the Warehouse District, they see a dire landscape completely void of ecological life. Planners view the urban ecosystem as parks and open space which represents a small strip along the Mississippi River associated with the West River Parkway.

When local residents view the urban ecosystem of the Warehouse District, they see an array of managed green space including raised planters, street trees, courtyard gardens, and parks. A view of urban ecosystems from the local resident that includes managed green space offers a view with greater landscape diversity than a planner, but still ignores the majority of the landscape.

Plymouth Ave

Plymouth Ave

M

IS

M

SI

IS

SS

IP

PI

RI

VE

R

SI

SS

IP

PI

RI

VE

R

d

d

2n

2n

e Av

e Av n

n

to

to

ng

ng

hi

hi

as W

as W

e Av

e Av I-

I-

94

94

Olson Memorial Highway

Olson Memorial Highway

in

ep

e Av

in

ep

n en

e Av

n en

H

H

Maintained vegetation

62

Public parks

Public parks

Warehouse District

Warehouse District

North Loop Neighborhood

North Loop Neighborhood

0

.125

0.25 miles

0

.125

0.25 miles

63


Plymouth Ave

A view of THE URBAN ECOSYSTEM with novel ecosystems

W. Riv er P ark wa y

SI

SS

IP

PI

RI

VE

R

d e Av to

ng

hi as W n e Av

I94

What would our urban landscape structure look like if we were to realize the capacity novel ecosystems contain to inhabit anthropogenic geologic landforms?

IS

2n

When spontaneous vegetation found in urban novel ecosystems are viewed as part of the ecosystem and green space network, the Warehouse District no longer looks like a concrete jungle. For example, when spontaneous vegetation found in parking lots are valued as part of the urban ecosystem, parking lots can be reimagined as asphalt prairies able to provide ecosystem services to the neighborhood as opposed to a detriment. This paradigm shift implies a need to both understand the components that make up these urban ecologies and develop new design tools and techniques that utilize and embrace the ignored flora of cities.

M

Olson Memorial Highway

n

i ep

e Av

nn

He

Parking lots Asphalt prairies? Local streets - streams

Streets

Low maintenance areas

Rivers & ecological corridors?

High quality ecological patches?

Through streets - streams Railroad - regional ecological corridor Surface parking lots - habitat patches Alleys - local ecological corridors Minimally maintained vegetation Maintained vegetation

64

Alleys

Railroads

Local ecological corridors?

Regional ecological corridors?

Public parks Warehouse District North Loop Neighborhood 0

.125

0.25 miles

65


Proposed Novel ecosystem nature walk

Site context

To raise awareness and appreciation of the forgotten flora of cities, an urban novel ecosystem nature walk corridor system is proposed. The nature walk will allow residents and school children to explore the natural history of their city. Nature walks are a historically effective concept to promote overlooked landscapes, as seen previously with Jensen and the prairie. A section of the nature walk system is explored in further design detail to offer a case study of how urban novel ecosystems can be used in urban planting design.

The project site is located on Washington Avenue between 8th and 7th Avenue. The block currently is dominated by large parking lots surrounded by historic buildings occupied by office, residential, and commercial land uses. Neighborhood plans for the site include a ten story residential building with a restaurant/coffee shop and a new public park.

Plymouth Ave

W. Riv er P ark wa y

M

IS

SI

SS

IP

PI

RI

VE

R

d

2n e Av n

to

ng

hi

as W e Av

I94

Olson Memorial Highway

n

pi

ne

n He

e Av

Local streets - streams Through streets - streams Railroad - regional ecological corridor Novel ecosystem walks Parking lot prairie Alley prairie High quality ecological patches Rubble prairie Site boundary Warehouse District North Loop Neighborhood

66

0

.125

0.25 miles

67


Site circulation EXISTING CONDITION

The existing site circulation is informal with poor circulation across large surface parking lots. Residents living in high-density apartments on the south side of the site routinely wander across the parking lots to the Washington Avenue commercial corridor. Washington Avenue has large block sizes and lacks safe pedestrian crossings.

Site soils & geology Asphalt: bedrock

The asphalt parking lot geologic formation dominates the site.

Concrete Sidewalks: bedrock Located adjacent to the asphalt roads lies slabs of concrete sidewalks.

Design Response

The project design focuses on creating a central pedestrian spine across the site to improve pedestrian circulation.

de-icing salt & sand: Glacier outwash

During the winter months, deicing salt and sand collect in the curb gutter and sidewalk edges forming an anthropogenic glacier outwash.

Courtyards with Turf and trees

A small portion of the site contains traditional green space with turf and trees.

68

69


005: Design applications of urban novel ecosystems

70

71


Users

Program

25-34 year old resident without children

37% of population

Local resident with children

5% of population

The local office worker

~9,000 jobs 2010 Census

The site program focuses on providing a place for community members to connect, gather, and reflect. The site is organized around a central pedestrian walkway that provides a connection across the large block. The design provides a community event space for neighborhood movies, music events, and various community gatherings. Surrounding the event space lies small reflective spaces programed with fire rings. The design accommodates the two restaurants on site by providing patio seating in close proximity to the restaurant buildings. In addition, a medium size gathering space is centrally located between them.

The Socializer

Goals 1

reflect.

2

Celebrate and conserve the natural flora of cities.

3

Reveal to site users the value and beauty of urban novel ecosystems.

72

Create space for the community to connect, gather, and

73


8t

h

av

e

Apartments building with restaurant Public dog park Parking garage entrance

S2

S1

Schematic Plan

Entrance plaza

Apartments Pavement pond

S3

Private courtyard

Pavement wetland overlook seating

P1

Event stage Bench

P2 as W n to

ng

Restaurant patio

e

av

Sumac gathering grove

hi

Food truck market space

Event Space

P6

Seat wall

Restaurant patio

d 3r st

The Freehouse restaurant/taproom Loading dock

P7 Fire ring seating Dog park promenade Apartments

P3

Fire ring seating

Office building

Entrance Plaza

Parking lot prairie:

4� diamond core

P5

Private courtyard

Parking lot prairie: 1/2� saw cut

Brick pavers

Apartments

Concrete Asphalt

Private courtyard

7t h

Cuts & cores

av

e

y

le Al

Wetland

Core lawn

P4

y

le Al

Planting beds Forest thicket Canopy trees Apartments 0

74

15

30

60 ft

Office

75


Site Systems: Pavement types The majority of the existing site consists of asphalt surface parking lots with concrete sidewalks. The existing asphalt is used for walking surfaces in areas with low pedestrian movement and planting substrate. Main paths and plazas are paved with new concrete to provide a smooth walking surface and intentionality amongst the decaying asphalt.

Concrete Concrete pavers Existing asphalt 0

76

15

30

60 ft

77


Site Systems: Pavement modifications A series of pavement modifications are conducted to establish planting zones within the existing asphalt. Pavement modifications used include removal, scoring, coring, breaking, splitting, and piling.

Cut Core Remove Pile Break Split Fault/sink 0

78

15

30

60 ft

79


Site Systems: Plantings A variety of plantings inspired by urban novel ecosystems are established in modified pavements to create desired spatial qualities. The plants are selected by matching the site condition of a planting area to an existing urban novel ecosystem. The species found in the slected novel ecosystem are used as the base specie lsit for a given planting. The base specie list is then modified to meet aesthetic and design needs.

Parking lot prairie: cascading meadow Parking lot prairie: 4” core Parking lot prairie: 1/2” saw cut Sediment curb Fence vine wall Core prairie Asphalt lawn 1.5’ crack forest thicket 4” crack prairie Asphalt savanna Asphalt moss prairie Rubble prairie Rubble prairie mound Forest thicket Sumac grove Asphalt forest grove Pavement wetland Pavement pond

0

15

80

30

60 ft

81


Site Systems: Plant establishment The plantings are established using either spontaneous colonization, seeding, or direct plug planting. Often a combination of the three methods are used to create a planting.

Spontaneous colonization Seeding Direct plug planting 0

15

82

30

60 ft

83


Site Systems: Maintenance The maintenance strategy used for urban novel ecosystem plantings falls under one of three categorize. 1. Allow succession to proceed (no management); 2. Modify succession though disturbance; 3. Selective weeding (Kuen, 2006). In areas of the design that are less formal, succession is allowed to take its place. Other spaces allow succession to occur but intervene periodically to maintain a particular spatial enclosure or aesthetic quality.

Prune lower branches to 15’ 10 year coppicing cycle Spontaneous - unmaintained - trees Spontaneous - unmaintained - ground plane Perpetual state of early succession Spring seasonal mow 5 year topsoiling cycle Selective weeding 0

15

84

30

60 ft

85


Site Systems: INTERPRETIVE THEMES The natural history of cities interpretive walk was created to aid public acceptance of the non traditional landscape. Interpretive themes along the walk were created to reveal the beauty of urban novel ecosystems to the site users. The goal of the interpretive walk is to teach visitors the value of each planting by educating the visitor about the ecological processes and benefits of individual urban novel ecosystem plantings. Connecting visitors with the meaning of the plantings will teach them about the resources value. Through their increased knowledge and understanding, they will more likely recognize why it should be protected and used in urban planting design.

Interpretive Themes

0. Interpretive walk starting point.

8. Effects of trampling and salt

1. Wet thin substrates on top of pavement

9. Spontaneous vegetation’s ability to provide rainwater infiltration and sediment collection

2. The urban forest 3. Effects of shade, trampling and pruning

10. Pavement as substrate: successional patterns of unmaintained asphalt

4. Pavement as substrate: role of rubble on top of pavement

11. Role of “invasive species” for pollinator habitat

5. Pavement as substrate: colonization of small cracks and crevices

12. Pavement as substrate: vegetating plazas and walking surfaces

6. Rubble as substrate

13. Vegetation response to substrate depth on top of pavement

7. Infiltration rate of paved surfaces 14. Climbing urban plants 15. Ecology of curbs and parking lots 0

15

86

30

60 ft

16. Rainwater infiltration of alleys

87


Restaurant patio and pavement wetland overlook

The patio and pavement wetland overlook design responds to adjacent building programs of restaurants, offices, and residential buildings. The design uses the forest thicket novel ecosystem to buffer and enclose the restaurant patio spaces. The pavement wetland, located centrally between the two buildings, offers a medium size gathering space. The pavement wetland draws inspiration from spontaneous plant communities that form where water and sediment collect over pavement. Users can gather on the terraced seat wall with food and drinks from the adjacent restaurants or simply explore and learn about the pavement wetland.

Freehouse taproom & office space

S1 88

Freehouse outdoor patio

Forest Thicket

Pedestrian spine

Pavement wetland overlook gathering

Pedestrian spine

Forest Thicket

Restaurant patio

Future restaurant & Apartment building

10 ft

89


Pavement wetland overlook gathering space Forest understory

Design intent: Divide, enclose, and buffer space Ecosystem service: Shelter for habitat Pavement modification: Remove Planting method: Seed Maintenance: Spontaneous Creeping Bellflower Campanula rapunculoides Motherwort Leonurus cardiaca Burdock Arctium minus Black Raspberry Rubus occidentalis

Forest Thicket

Design intent: Divide, enclose, and buffer space Ecosystem service: Shelter for habitat Pavement modification: Remove Planting method: 2” plug Maintenance: Crown pruning American Elm Ulmus americana Boxelder Acer negundo Black Locust Robinia pseudoacacia Black Cherry Prunus serotina

Crack Prairie

Pavement crack forest

Design intent: Divide, enclose, and buffer space Ecosystem service: Shelter for habitat Pavement modification: 1.5’ cut Planting method: 2” plug Maintenance: Coppice every 10 years Eastern Cottonwood Populus deltoides Queens Anne Lace Daucus carota Sweet Clover Melilotus officinalis Yellow Wood Sorrel Oxalis stricta Black Medic Medicago lupulina

Design intent: Divide space yet provide clear views Ecosystem service: Pollinators, soil building Pavement modification: 4” cut Planting method: Seed Maintenance: Seasonal spring mowing Canada Goldenrod Solidago canadensis White Heath Aster Symphyotrichum ericoides Path Rush Juncus tenuis Devil’s Beggarticks Bidens frondosa

Pavement wetland

Design intent: Reflective space, effective along wall bases and edges Ecosystem service: Rainwater infiltration Pavement modification: Fault - new construction Planting method: Seed Maintenance: Topsoil every 10 years Foxtail Barley Hordum jubatum Hybrid Cattail Typha x glauca

P1 90

1.5 inch expansion joint Concrete 2 inches of sediment on top of concrete Aggregate

91


Novel ecosystem pedestrian spine The novel ecosystem pedestrian spine is designed to enhance pedestrian connection across the site. The pedestrian spine design allows urban naturalist groups to learn and explore a variety urban novel ecosystems. Benches are scattered throughout the spine to provide users a place to rest and observe the plantings. Starting at Washington Avenue, users are welcomed by the forest thicket raised planters that act as a threshold into the pedestrian spine. The heart of the spine includes the pavement wetland, sumac grove, and asphalt moss prairie. The rubble prairie mound functions as a threshold that transitions users from the main pedestrian spine to 3rd Street. Users experience vegetation emerging out of sediment curbs and adjacent saw cut parking lot prairies as they walk along 3rd Street. Crossing 3rd Street, users can walk their dogs along the pavement pond and through the asphalt forest grove. The pedestrian spine terminates at the parking lot prairie where the existing parking stalls are cored and planted with a variety of low growing summer annuals.

Sumac seating grove

Pavement wetland overlook gathering

Forest thicket raised planter

Food truck Market space

Forest thicket raised planter

Sumac seating grove

Path

Rubble Prairie mound

Asphalt moss prairie with Small seating space

Path

92

3rd st

Park entrance Plaza

Path

S2

Sidewalk

Dog walk Pond/forest

Parking lot prairie

Park entrance Washington ave Plaza

30 ft

93


Sumac gathering Grove The sumac gathering grove serves as seating space for users either buying food at the adjacent food truck market space or for those who simply want to relax during the lunch hour or after a long day of work. The sumac gathering grove forms a fully enclosed space with a low canopy. The Staghorn Sumac trees that are planted in three-foot asphalt cores create a cozy patio seating space. The patio surface is created by breaking the existing asphalt. The broken asphalt surface is seeded with trampling tolerant species to soften the hard surface. The broken asphalt is then framed by new concrete paths. The sumac gathering grove also acts as a space where naturalists can learn about the vegetation responses to trampling and shade.

Asphalt patio

Design intent: Soften paved patio surface with vegetation Ecosystem service: Rainwater infiltration Pavement modification: Break Planting method: Seed Maintenance: Perpetual state of early succession Broadleaf Plantain Plantago major Wild Violet Viola papilionacea Ground-ivy Glechoma hederacea

Sumac grove understory

Design intent: Increase spatial definition of seating space. Ecosystem service: Shelter and food for small animals Pavement modification: 3’ core with steel ring Planting method: 2” plug Maintenance: Spontaneous Motherwort Leonurus cardiaca Bittersweet Nightshade Solanum dulcamara

Sumac Grove

Design intent: Overhead enclosure Ecosystem service: Nesting for birds Pavement modification: 3’ core with steel ring Planting method: Bare root Maintenance: Crown pruning Staghorn Sumac Rhus typhina

P3 P2 94

95


Asphalt moss prairie The asphalt moss prairie integrates the early successional stage typically found on unmaintained asphalt surfaces. The asphalt is broken to establish cracks and crevices for moss and lichens to colonize. To maintain a moss and lichen successional stage, the planting is disturbed every ten years by removing soil built by mosses. A four-inch saw cut crack prairie planted with knee high vegetation is inserted every four feet to add rhythm to the pedestrian spine, soften the path edge, and improve legibility of the asphalt moss prairie. Finally, 1.5 foot crack forests are used along the pedestrian spine to provide spatial enclosure and provide a backdrop for users sitting on benches located in the asphalt moss prairie. The asphalt moss prairie is used to teach naturalists about early colonization of asphalt novel ecosystems.

Asphalt moss prairie

Design intent: Divides space yet offer clear views Ecosystem service: Habitat for invertebrates Pavement modification: Break Planting method: Spontaneous colonization Maintenance: Topsoil every 10 years Moss spp. Lichen spp.

Pavement crack prairie

Pavement crack forest

Design intent: Subdivide divide space, provide full spatial enclosure Ecosystem service: Nesting for birds Pavement modification: 1.5’ saw cut Planting method: 2” plug Maintenance: Coppice every 10 years Eastern Cottonwood Populus deltoides Boxelder Acer negundo

Design intent: Soften path edge, create rhythm to path, add order to asphalt moss prairie Ecosystem service: Pollinators, soil building Pavement modification: 4” saw cut Planting method: Seed Maintenance: Seasonal spring mowing White Heath Aster Annual Fleabane Path Rush Scentless Chamomile White Campion Birdsfoot Trefoil

Symphyotrichum ericoides Erigeron annuus Juncus tenuis Tripleurospermum inodorum Silene latifolia Lotus corniculatus

P3 96

97


Pavement crack prairie

Pavement crack Forest

The four-inch crack prairie was derived by measuring a half-inch expansion joint found in a concrete novel ecosystem that created a striking linear pattern of spontaneous vegetation. Above the half-inch expansion joint on top of the pavement was four-inches of sediment. Rather than relying on sediment to collect on top of the pavement over time, the design of the fourinch crack prairie expedited the process by creating a four-inch saw cut in the existing asphalt. The pavement crack forest was designed with a larger saw cut to allow space for a thicket of trees to emerge.

Asphalt crack prairie

Pavement crack forest

Asphalt moss prairie Existing asphalt

Existing asphalt

4� saw cut

1.5’ saw cut

Compacted aggregate

Compacted aggregate

98

99


Asphalt moss prairie Maintenance cycles The asphalt moss prairie maintains the early successional stage typically found on unmaintained asphalt surfaces of vacant properties by coppicing trees and topsoiling the soil built by mosses and annuals every ten years.

Immediately After disturbance

Five years After disturbance

Exposed asphalt after Moss and organic matter is removed Mowed 4� crack prairie

Moss covers entire asphalt surface

One year after disturbance

Ten years after disturbance Sparse moss covers asphalt Crack prairie matures

100

Multi-stem regeneration

Exposed Cottonwood stump after coppicing

Multi-stem regeneration

Moss transitions to summer annuals and biennials

Multi-stem regeneration

Taller perennials colonize 4� crack prairie

101


3rd street Parking lot prairie & sediment curb As one walks along the 3rd Street sidewalk, they experience vegetation emerging out of the sediment curb and adjacent parking lot prairie. The sediment curb is planted with a variety of low growing upright species to enhance sediment collection and spatial definition of the sidewalk edge. The sidewalk carriage walk is designed with one-inch saw cuts seeded with low growing flowering species to add spring interest. The carriage walk saw cuts protrude into the sidewalk walking lane to soften the concrete edge. Like traditional urban boulevard plantings, periodic breaks are designed to allow ADA access to parked cars on the street. The cascading meadow along the sidewalk edge adjacent to the parking utilize salt torrent species with mounding form to blur the paved edge. The upright form of Curly Dock is used to add rhythm and contrasting textures to the planting. Finally, the parking lot prairie is designed by creating half-inch saw cuts in the existing asphalt parking stalls. The parking lot prairie is seeded with trampling resistant, drought tolerant, annual species able to withstand high foot traffic. Annual species are selected because they regenerate via seeds produced during the summer. This characteristic helps them persist after they are torn out by winter snow removal.

Cascading meadow

Sediment curb

Design intent: Choreograph pedestrian movement, capture sediment from street and sidewalk. Ecosystem service: Rainwater retention, sediment collection Pavement modification: New construction Planting method: Seed Maintenance: Perpetual state of early succession Foxtail Spotted Ladysthumb Goose Grass Black Medic

Setaria spp. Polygonum persicaria Eleusine indica Medicago lupulina

Carriage walk forbs

Design intent: Soften sidewalk edge Ecosystem service: Rainwater retention Pavement modification: 1” saw cut Planting method: Seed Maintenance: Perpetual state of early succession Ground-Ivy Glechoma hederacea Wild Violet Viola papilionacea White Clover Trifolium repens Pineapple Weed Matricaria discoidea Common Dandelion Taraxacum officinale Broadleaf Plantain Plantago major

Design intent: Soften paved edge Ecosystem service: Pollinators, soil building, rainwater retention Pavement modification: 3’ saw cut Planting method: 2” plug Maintenance: Perpetual state of early succession Birdsfoot Trefoil Red Clover Alfalfa Annual Fleabane Curly Dock

Lotus corniculatus Trifolium hybridum Medicago sativa Erigeron annuus Rumex crispus

Inverted Truncated dome

Design intent: Alternative to painted parking stripe Ecosystem service: Rainwater retention Pavement modification: Press or saw cut and epoxy inverted truncated dome into asphalt Planting method: Seed Maintenance: Perpetual state of early succession Prostrate Knotweed Spotted Spurge Common Purslane Carpetweed

Polygonum aviculare Matricaria discoidea Portulaca oleracea Mollugo Verticillata

Saw cut parking lot prairie

Design intent: Choreographs movement, infiltrate rainwater Ecosystem service: Rainwater retention Pavement modification: 1/2” saw cut Planting method: Seed Maintenance: Perpetual state of early succession Prostrate Knotweed Spotted Spurge Common Purslane Carpetweed

Polygonum aviculare Matricaria discoidea Portulaca oleracea Mollugo Verticillata

P4 102

103


Sediment curb typologies

Parking lot prairie typologies

The sediment curb typologies are designed to act as an urban stream buffer that slows rainwater velocity and captures sediment. The design is inspired by found novel ecosystems that grow spontaneously out of degrading curbs and sidewalk expansion joints. The sediment curb design captures sediment that is deposited on sidewalks and roadways during winter snow removal.

Sediment deposition and pedestrian trampling

Water flow Pedestrian trampling Sediment deposition

Sediment trench Curb with 1.5” sediment joint

The parking lot prairie typologies were developed by asking what a parking lot would look like that served both as a place to park cars and a place where spontaneous vegetation, adapted to parking lot conditions, could be used to infiltrate rainwater and mitigate heat island effect. The designs accommodate pedestrian and car movement by placing vegetation in areas where least trampling occurs. The parking lot prairie stalls will degrade within ten years as water penetrates the compacted aggregate base. However, the degrading pavement will provide prime conditions for the designed novel ecosystem to thrive. The driving and walking lane between parked cars is maintained normally with regular crack sealant maintenance to provide a smooth surface for safe movement.

Suitable areas for plantings

1/2” saw cut on 1/2” grid

4” core on 2’ grid

Suitability based on areas with least amount of trampling Lowest suitability

Highest suitability

4.5’

Sediment trench curb Collected sediment Standard curb

2’

Inverted truncated dome

Sediment joint Sediment trench

4”

1/2” saw cut

4” core

2’ saw cut

2’ saw cut

1.5” Plant spread

1.5” sediment joint Sediment trench curb

1.5” 4.5’

1.5” sediment curb joint & raised curb

Plant spread

1/2”

Raised curb Curb raised 1” above sidewalk to aid sediment collection

2’

4”

Asphalt

Asphalt

Compacted Aggregate

Compacted Aggregate

Inverted truncated dome

1” Collected sediment 1.5” sediment curb joint

1.5” sediment Curb joint 1.5” curb joint Collected sediment

Curb raised 1” above sidewalk to aid sediment collection

104 1.5”

The inverted truncated dome is inspired by the tactile warning strips found on sidewalk ramps. The design detail inverts the domes of the standard tactile strip to provide a place for prostrate species to grow in collected sediment. The inverted truncated dome is pressed into freshly laid asphalt or saw cut and epoxied into existing asphalt. The inverted dome functions as an alternative to paint striping.

105


Pavement pond and asphalt forest grove dog walk The pavement pond and asphalt forest grove dog walk provides a linear walking space near the parking lot edge along 3rd Street for dog walkers to walk or run their dogs. The design depresses the asphalt to create a space for rainwater from the adjacent parking lots to collect on top of the pavement. The pond functions as a reflective space for users to sit by and as a space where dogs can splash and play. The space also creates an interpretive naturalists theme that teaches users about trees adapted to salt and drought as well as urban rainwater retention of pavement wetlands.

Asphalt forest

Design intent: Divide, enclose, and buffer space Ecosystem service: Shelter for habitat Pavement modification: 3’ core Planting method: 2” plug Maintenance: Crown pruning American Elm Ulmus americana Russian Olive Elaeagnus angustifoli Black Locust Robinia pseudoacacia

Pavement crack wetland

Design intent: Establish order to pavement pond Ecosystem service: Infiltrate rainwater Pavement modification: 4” cut Planting method: Seed Maintenance: Spontaneous Foxtail Barley Hordum jubatum Yellow Nutsedge Cyperus esculentus Hybrid Cattail Typha x glauca

Pavement pond

Design intent: Reflective space, effective along edges and site low points Ecosystem service: Rainwater storage Pavement modification: Sink Planting method: Spontaneous colonization Maintenance: Spontaneous

P5 106

107


Community Event space and asphalt savanna The community event space represents the anchoring program of the site. The event space is created with four planting types. The rubble prairie, the core prairie, the fence vine wall, and the asphalt savanna.

Asphalt Savanna fire ring space

Path

3rd st

Sidewalk

108

Sidewalk

S3

Dog walk Pond/forest

Parking lot prairie

Event space with 4� core

Event Stage

Rubble Prairie

Food truck Market space & alley

Future restaurant & Apartment building

30 ft

109


Core Prairie

Community Event Space The community event space is used for movie nights, music events, weddings, and other medium-sized events. In the absence of an event, the space can be used as lounging and dog walking space. Benches are nestled into the core prairie to provide small seating spaces where users can overlook the event space asphalt lawn. The event space asphalt lawn is designed by drilling four-inch cores on a three-foot grid into the existing asphalt. The cores are planted with a combination of low growing flowering and prostrate species that can tolerate trampling and compaction. Users can comfortably walk on top of the four-inch cores and set up chairs in between them for events.

Rubble Prairie

Design intent: Provide full enclosure, buffer between programs. Ecosystem service: Pollinator habitat, builds soil, shelter for habitat Pavement modification: Pile Planting method: Seed & 2” plug Maintenance: Seasonal spring mowing Forest thicket Boxelder White Mulberry

Acer negundo Morus rubra

Rubble prairie Burdock White Sweet Clover Yellow Sweet Clover Timothy Grass Annual Fleabane Evening Primrose Curly Dock

Arctium minus Melilotus albus Melilotus officinalis Phleum pretense Erigeron annuus Oenothera biennis Rumex crispus

Sparse Meadow Birdsfoot Trefoil Sulfur Cinquefoil White Campion Common Yarrow Black Medic Yellow Woodsorrel

Lotus corniculatus Potentilla recta Silene latifolia Achillea millefolium Medicago lupulina Oxalis stricta

Design intent: Provide partial enclosure. Smooths transition between program types Ecosystem service: Pollinator habitat, builds soil Pavement modification: Core with steel ring Planting method: 2” plug Maintenance: Selective weeding 36” core Queens Anne Lace Daucus carota Spotted Knapweed Centaurea maculosa Cichorium intybus Chicory Evening Primrose Oenothera Biennis Curly Dock Rumex crispus 16” core Scentless Chamoile Tripleurospermum inodorum Tragopogon dubius Goats Beard 8” core Toadflax

Linaria vulgaris

Core forest

Design intent: Divides space, provides overhead canopy Ecosystem service: Nesting for birds Pavement modification: Core with steel ring Planting method: 2” plug Maintenance: Crown pruning Boxelder Acer negundo Mulberry Morus rubra

Asphalt lawn

Design intent: Vegetated walking/ gathering surface Ecosystem service: Rainwater infiltration Pavement modification: 4”core Planting method: Seed Maintenance: Perpetual state of early succession Ground-Ivy Glechoma hederacea Wild Violet Viola papilionacea White Clover Trifolium repens Black Medic Medicago lupulina Common Dandelion Taraxacum officinale Broadleaf Plantain Plantago major Spotted Spurge Matricaria discoidea

Fence vine wall

Design intent: Divides spaces, offers full enclosure Ecosystem service: Food for habitat Pavement modification: 1’ cut Planting method: 2” plug Maintenance: Selective weeding Virginia Creeper Parthenocissus quinquefolia Wild Cucumber Echinocystis lobata Toadflax Linaria vulgaris

P6 110

111


Core Prairie

Rubble Prairie

The core prairie is designed with three sizes of asphalt cores surrounded by a steel ring. The plantings of all three sizes select upright species to highlight the steel ring detail. The larger cores are planted with species reaching four to five feet tall to provide full enclosure for users sitting on benches nestled in the core prairie. The eight and sixteen inch cores are planted with shorter plants reaching a height of one to two feet tall to provide smooth transition into the core lawn. The core prairie offers naturalist programs where users can learn about pollinator benefits of the natural flora of cities.

The rubble prairie is created by piling rubble on top of broken asphalt. The rubble is placed with varying depths to provide microclimates that support different vegetation heights. The rubble prairie is designed with six-inches of rubble to support a variety of scrubby tree species that provide spatial enclosure. The rubble then tapers down to three-inches where the planting is seeded with a variety of species reaching three to five feet tall. Finally, sparse vegetative cover established on one inch of rubble helps blend the planting into the event space. The naturalist interpretive theme of the rubble prairie exposes users to the effects of substrate depth on species composition Forest thicket

Rubble Prairie

6 ft

Sparse meadow

5 ft

4 ft

3 ft

Design intent: Provide full enclosure, buffer between programs. Ecosystem service: Pollinator habitat, builds soil, shelter for habitat Pavement modification: Pile Planting method: Seed & 2” plug Maintenance: Seasonal spring mowing Forest thicket Boxelder White Mulberry

Acer negundo Morus rubra

Rubble prairie Burdock White Sweet Clover Yellow Sweet Clover Timothy Grass Annual Fleabane Evening Primrose Curly Dock

Arctium minus Melilotus albus Melilotus officinalis Phleum pretense Erigeron annuus Oenothera biennis Rumex crispus

Sparse meadow Birdsfoot Trefoil Sulfur Cinquefoil White Campion Common Yarrow Black medic Yellow woodsorrel

Lotus corniculatus Potentilla recta Silene latifolia Achillea millefolium Medicago lupulina Oxalis stricta

6” rubble pile 2 ft

Broken asphalt

1 ft

Fence vine wall 4”

8”

CORE SIZES USED FOR CORE PRAIRIE Asphalt Lawn 8” Core Prairie

Asphalt lawn species list Ground-Ivy Wild Violet White Clover Black Medic Common Dandelion Broadleaf Plantain

Glechoma hederacea Viola papilionacea Trifolium repens Medicago lupulina Taraxacum officinale Plantago major

16”

16” Core Prairie

Core Prairie species list 8” core prairie Toadflax

Linaria vulgaris

4” core16” core prairie 12” core Scentless Chamoile Tripleurospermum inodorum Goats Beard Tragopogon dubius

36”

36” Core Prairie

36” core prairie Queens Anne Lace Spotted Knapweed Chicory Evening Primrose Curly Dock

Daucus carota Centaurea maculosa Cichorium3’intybus core Oenothera Biennis Rumex crispus

The fence vine wall is planted with Virginia Creeper and Wild Cucumber. At the base of the fence, Toadflax is planted. The yellow flowers of Toadflax, yellow-green fall color of Wild Cucumber, and bright red fall color of Virginia Creeper creates a vibrant color combination.

Design intent: divides spaces, offers full enclosure Ecosystem service: Food for habitat Pavement modification: 1’ cut Planting method: 2” plug Maintenance: Selective weeding Virginia Creeper Parthenocissus quinquefolia Wild Cucumber Echinocystis lobata Toadflax Linaria vulgaris

Core prairie with steel ring detail DETAIL OF STEEL CORE 2” Varies

3/8” 4”

Steel ring Asphalt Gravel loam

112

113


Asphalt Savanna Fire ring seating space The asphalt savanna is created by hydraulic splitting the asphalt to create cracks for sparse vegetative cover to colonize. Four-inch cores drilled on a five-foot grid, connected by half-inch saw cuts order the space. Cores are planted with Common Mullein and Gumweed to create strong vertical lines. Select cores are planted with Eastern Cottonwoods to establish spatial definition for the fire ring seating areas. The fire ring surfaces are raised four inches above the asphalt savanna to enhance legibility between the path and planting. The space also establishes an area where naturalist groups can learn about succession patterns of asphalt novel ecosystems. 4” core prairie

Design intent: Establish order to planting amongst splitting asphalt Ecosystem service: Food for habitat Pavement modification: 4” core Planting method: Seed Maintenance: Spontaneous Gumweed Grindelia squarrosa Common Mullein Verbascum thapsus

4” core Forest

Design intent: Spatial enclosure, overhead canopy Ecosystem service: Habitat for birds, increases infiltration as roots break pavement Pavement modification: 4” core Planting method: Plug Maintenance: Spontaneous

1/2” saw cut

Eastern Cottonwood Populus deltoides

Asphalt prairie

Design intent: Sparse spatial enclosure with wild aesthetic Ecosystem service: Habitat for invertebrates Pavement modification: 1/2” saw cut & hydraulic split Planting method: Seed Maintenance: Spontaneous Horseweed Conyza canadensis Yellow Sweet Clover Meliotus officinalis White Sweet Clover Meliotus alba Annual Fleabane Erigeron annuus Moss and Lichens

Asphalt prairie growing in hydraulic split cracks Existing asphalt 4” core

Compacted aggregate

P7 114

115


Conclusion The harsh urban conditions that most landscape architects design in today suggest the need to re-examine the species that have adapted to their conditions. The plant palettes landscape architects are comfortable with today often struggle to survive the altered conditions of urban areas without regular maintenance and high inputs. The critical question designers should ask in light of the altered urban conditions is not how spontaneous vegetation found in urban novel ecosystems can be eradicated, but rather how they can be integrated and utilized in design. The uncomfortable reality that non-native spontaneous vegetation found in urban novel ecosystems are the species most suited to town life make many ecologist and community members uncomfortable. The uncomfortable feeling towards the ecological role spontaneous vegetation found in urban novel ecosystems provide for cities is the first symptom of a paradigm shift in how these plants are viewed and utilized in urban planting designs. An exciting range of resilient urban planting design typologies will emerge as more learn to embrace the resilience and ecological value spontaneous vegetation found in urban novel ecosystems provide for cities. This project has offered a glimpse of new urban planting design typologies that will be created as a result of increased knowledge and acceptance of the species best adapted to the new ecological order of cities.

116

117


Bibliography Bates, G. H. 1935. “The Vegetation of Footpaths, Sidewalks, Cart-Tracks and Gateways.” Journal of Ecology 23 (2): 470–87. Bonthoux, S., Marion B., Francesca D., Sabine G., and Sabine B. 2014. “How Can Wastelands Promote Biodiversity in Cities? A Review”. Landscape and Urban Planning 132 (0). Elsevier B.V.: 79–88. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2014.08.010.

“Canvey Wickv-Britain’s Rainforest... and Buglife’s First Nature Reserve!”. 2016. Bug Life Saving the small things that run the planet. Accessed April 24, 2016 https://www.buglife.org.uk/campaigns-and-our work/habitat-projects/canvey-wick-britains-rainforest Choi, Y. 2004. “Theories For Ecological Restoration in Changing Environment: Toward ‘Futuristic’ Restoration.” Ecological Research, 19(1), 75–81. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1703.2003.00594.x

Costanza, R. 2008. “Urban Ecological Systems : Linking Terrestrial Ecological , Physical , and Socioeconomic Components of Metropolitan Areas Introduction: Justification for Urban Ecological Studies,” 99–122. Clemens, J Bradley, C Gilbert, O. 1981. “Early Development of Vegetation on Urban Demolition Sites in Sheffield, England.” Urban Ecology. 8(1), 139-147.

Emerson Ralph Waldo. 1879. “Fortune of the Republic Sampson in George (1905) The Works of Ralph Waldo Emerson Vol. IV Miscellaneous Pieces.” London George Bell and Sons Del Tredici, P. 2007. “The Role of Horticulture in a Changing World.” Botanical Progress, Horticultural Innovation and Cultural Change. 28(259-256).

Del Tredici, P. 2010. “Wild Urban Plants of the Northeast. A Field Guide.“ Comstock Publishing Associates.

Del Tredici, P. 2010. “Spontaneous Urban Vegetation: Reflections of Change in a Globalized World.” Nature and Culture, 5(3), 299–315. http://doi.org/10.3167/nc.2010.050305 Diboll, N. “Transcending the Garden : The American Prairie Experience Ecological Gardening with Native North American Flowers and Grasses.” Accessed December 20, 2015 http://www.prairienursery. com/prairie-nursery/neil-diboll/documents/transcending-the-garden-the-american-prairie experience.pdf Dunnett N, Kircher W, and Kingsbury N. 2004 “Communicating Naturalistic Plantings: Plans and Specifications” in “The Dynamic Landscape” edited by Dunnet N and Hitchmough J. Spon Press

Dunnett N. and Hitchmough, J. 2004. “Design Ecology and Management of Naturalistic Urban Planting.” In “The Dynamic Landscape” edited by Dunnet N and Hitchmough J. Spon Press

118

Gilbert, O. 1989. “The Ecology of Urban Habitats.” Champman and Hall.

Gilbert, O. 1993. “The Flowering of the Cities. The Natural Flora of ‘Urban Commons’”. Peterborough: English Nature. Gilbert, O. 1990. “The Lichen Flora of Urban Wasteland”. The Lichenologist. 22(1), 87. http://doi. org/10.1017/S0024282990000056

Gilbert, O. 1992. “Rooted in Stone: The Natural Flora of Urban Walls.” Peterborough : English Nature.

Grime, J. 2001. “Plant Strategies, Vegetation Processes, and Ecosystem Properties”. John Wiley & Sons Ltd Grant, G., and Lane, C. 2006. “Extensive Green Roofs in London”. Urban Habitats, 4(1), 51–65.

Gedge, D., Grant, G., Kadas, G., Dinham, C “Creating Green Roofs for Invertebrates Best Practice Guidance” Buglife – The Invertebrate Conservation Trust Hitchmough, J. 2008. “Designed Urban Plant Communities” Urban Ecology. 1(2), 1–15.

Hitchmough, J. 2011. “Exotic Plants and Plantings in the Sustainable, Designed Urban Landscape”. Landscape and Urban Planning, 100(4), 380–382. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2011.02.017

Hitchmough, J. 2004. “Naturalistic Herbaceous Vegetation for Urban Landscapes” in “The Dynamic Landscape” edited by Dunnet N and Hitchmough J. Spon Press Hobbs, R., Arico, S., Aronson, J., Baron, S., Bridgewater, P., Cramer, V. and, Zobel, M. 2006. “Novel Ecosystems: Theoretical and Management Aspects of the New ecological World Order”. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 15(1), 1–7. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1466-822X.2006.00212.x

Jim, C. 1998. “Old Stone Walls as an Ecological Habitat for Urban Trees in Hong Kong.” Landscape and Urban Planning. 42 (1): 29–43. doi:10.1016/S0169-2046(98)00072-3. Jim, C., and Wendy Y. Chen. 2010. “Habitat Effect on Vegetation Ecology and Occurrence on Urban Masonry Walls.” Urban Forestry and Urban Greening. 9(3): 169–178. doi:10.1016/j.ufug.2010.02.004

Kowarik, I. 1990. “Some Responses of Flora and Vegetation to Urbanization in Central Europe” in “Urban Ecology Plants and Plant Communities in Urban Environments” edited by Sukopp H. and Hejny S. Co Editor Kowarik I. SPB Academic Publishing

Kowarik, I. 2011. “Novel Urban Ecosystems, Biodiversity, and Conservation”. Environmental Pollution, 159(8 9), 1974–1983. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2011.02.022

119


Kowarik, I. and Langer, A. 2005. “Natur-Park Südgelände : Linking Conservation and Recreation in an Abandoned Railyard in Berlin”, in “Wild Urban Woodlands”. Edited by Kowarik I. 287–299. Springer

Kühn, N. 2006. “Intentions for the Unintentional - Spontaneous Vegetation as the Basis for Innovative Planting Design in Urban Areas”. Journal of Landscape Architecture, Autumn 2006, 46–53. Kunick W. 1990. “Spontaneous Woody Vegetation in Cities” in “Urban Ecology Plants and Plant Communities in Urban Environments”. Edited by Sukopp H. and Hejny S. Co-Editor Kowarik I. SPB Academic Publishing Little, Charles, Morrison, and Darrel. 1990. “Siftings by Jens Jensen” The John Hopikins University Press Baltimore and London Lindeke, B. 2015. “Minneapolis’ New Downtown Residents Struggle to Plant Post-industrial Trees.” MinnPost. Accessed March 1, 2016. https://www.minnpost.com/cityscape/2015/07/minneapolis- new-downtown-residents-struggle-plant-post-industrial-trees. Nassauer, J. 1993. “Ecological Function and the Perception of Suburban Residential Landscapes”. USDA Forest Service North Central Forest Experiment Station. 55-60

“Secondary Succession in an Abandoned Allotment Plot.” 2009. FSC (Field Studies Council) - Urban ecosystems. Accessed February 3, 2016. http://www.field-studies-council.org/urbaneco/urbanecowasteland/ allotment.htm. Sukopp H. 2008. “The City as a Subject for Ecological Research”. Urban Ecology: An International Perspective on the Interaction Between Humans and Nature, 281–298. http://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387 73412-5_17 “Terrestrial Invasive Species - Laws and Regulations (Land-based Species).” Terrestrial Invasive Species. Accessed December 18, 2015. http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/invasives/terrestrial/laws.html.

Westbrooks, R. 1981. “Vascular Flora of Sidewalk Crevices in Orangeburg, South Carolina”. Castanea, 64(3), 615–631. http://doi.org/10.1002/jwmg.l48 Woudstra, J. 2004 “The Changing Nature of Ecology: A History of Ecological Planting (1800-1980)” in “The Dynamic Landscape”. Edited by Dunnet N and Hitchmough J. Spon Press

Nassauer, J. 1995. “Messy Ecosystems, Orderly Frames”. Landscape Journal, 14(2), 161–170. http://doi. org/10.3368/lj.14.2.161 Page, N. and Weaver, R. 1975. “Wild Plants in the City”. Quadrangle/The New York Times Book Co.

Pickett, S., Cadenasso, M, Grove, J., Groffman, P., Band, L., Boone, C., Wilson, M. 2008. “Beyond Urban Legends: An Emerging Framework of Urban Ecology, as Illustrated by the Baltimore Ecosystem Study”. BioScience. 58(2), 139. http://doi.org/10.1641/B580208 Robinson, S., and Lundholm, J. 2012. “Ecosystem Services Provided by Urban Spontaneous Vegetation”. Urban Ecosystems. 15(3), 545–557. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-012-0225-8 Robinson, N. 2004. “The Planting Design Handbook”. Ashgate Publishing Company.

“Secondary Succession in an Abandoned Car Park”. 2009. FSC (Field Studies Council) - Urban ecosystems. Accessed February 3, 2016. http://www.field-studies-council.org/urbaneco/urbaneco/wasteland/ carpark.htm

120

121


122

Profile for Matthew Tucker

2016 UMN Capstone- Fillmore: Who Grows There?  

Mr. Jonathan Fillmore MLA 2016 Who grows there?: Planting design using urban novel ecosystems Minneapolis, MN

2016 UMN Capstone- Fillmore: Who Grows There?  

Mr. Jonathan Fillmore MLA 2016 Who grows there?: Planting design using urban novel ecosystems Minneapolis, MN

Advertisement