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hang su university of minnesota master of landscape architecture Capstone project

“42NYC: Beyond the Thoroughfare�


Contents part 1

introduction

5

part 2

RESEARCH ISSUES AND STUDIES

8

research issues street and context

site conditions

part 3

opportunitIEs and DESIGN

30

precedents for infrastructures design steps design envisions goal statement programing custom design systems

part 4

SOURCES

88

online information bibliography

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photo taken by Hang Su

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Capestone Committee Members: Matthew Tucker, Capstone Committee, Chair Maura Rockcastle, Capstone Committee Joe Favour, Capstone Committee Rebecca Krinke, Studio instructor

Hang Su 18 June 2015

Introduction

In this capstone book, I supplied a proposal of a critical investigation of one of the busiest street in the world – 42nd street of Manhattan in its core, through the lens of infrastructure reinvestment and reimagined programmatic norms of the street as experiential destination. Born in a culture where people physically see each other quite often, I have been always interested in people’s daily behaviors and experiences when they are in an urban street. When I got a chance walking in Manhattan, the diverse flavor and livability of streets stroke me a lot. However through different street observations in the year 2014, I believe there was something could still be altered to make an unbelievable change for the people’s experience on such busy streets, the experience that seems very common but absolutely neglected by daily street users, or replaced by cars. During exploration process I found sustainability and livability are two big topics that always aroused my interests and also makes me feel headache, such as what are these means exactly to New York City in particular. Fortunately with helps of Capstone committees, I found a way to reprogram the 42nd street in its core. That is, carefully incorporate new societal and ecological programs that is New York City based with a variety of furnishings, material strategies that further defines what these new programs means to people. Keeping this design strategy in mind, I found there are quite potentials to somehow reinvent the 4 blocks in the core of 42nd street. By reinventing this current overwhelming busy street, pedestrians, no matter who they are, will have unique experience where they can rethink of where they are and what they can do on the street. With this big goal, some of the obstacles arises itself as subsurface condition need to be changed for a new street structure. However, by carefully calculations from the potential construction of street car, as well as consolation of subsurface electronic facilities, the overall economic benefits are way more than the expenses for the project, which in my project was a support to reinvent the street.

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As a potential role of design scheme supplier, the proposal aims to maximize the street value through the design perspective – which provides a skeleton on how people could enjoy a more meaningful street. However there is room to adjust the design due to the technical requirements such as street cars, subsurface conditions, etc. The design leaves open discussion with technician to make it happen.

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PART 2 Research Issues and studies

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research ISSUES

-8-

No.1

No.2

No.3

LIMITED STREET DIVERSITY

WATER INFRASTRUCTURE

STREET GARBAGE

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LIMITED STREET DIVERSITY “The ballet of the good city sidewalk never repeats itself from place to place, and in any once place is always replete with new improvisations.” ---- Jane Jacobs “the death and life of great american cities” Photos taken by Hang Su

Limitation of Sidewalk for Pedestrian

Limitation of Sidewalk for Commuters Overcrowding Bryant Park

Time Square Residential Area

Grand Central Station

Residential Area

United Nation Building

42nd street Port Authority Bus Station

- 10 -

Bryant Park

- 11 -


Existing street condition 24’

5% 95% 74%

US population only 5% of world population

26% 5% 95%

62’

27’

26% US population only 5% of world population

2-3 inches asphalt layers

US oil consumption 26% of world oil consumption

US oil consumption 26% of world oil consumption

Concrete layer facilities

NYC Sewer

facilities

Soil layer

74%

US population only 5% of world population

- 12 -

US oil consumption 26% of world oil consumption

- 13 -


CLIMATE CHANGE and INFRASTRUCTURE

Waste water backup

Close of subways

Time Square station inundation

These two maps show the tendency of a high temperature and a more flood due to higher precipapitation. Based on a climate risk study, “Climate change is extremely likely to bring warmer temperature to New York City. Heat waves are very likely to be very frequent, intense…. intense rain storms are likely to increase.”(Radley Horton, Climate risk information, climate change scenarios and implications for NYC infrastructure. 2012.). However, the existing water infrastructure in the New York City has limited capacity for handling excess stormwater, as a result, “a variety of urban water has to combined together and will be discharged by combined sewage overflow(CSO), untreated, into river.”

- 14 -

Image from Google http://nickyskye.blogspot.com/2012/10/pre-hurricane-sandy-sunday-october-28th.html

- 15 -


Mapping of coastal storm impact zones and the site Coastal storm impact zones

“During dry weather, the combined system poses no problems: the treatment plants handle waste from the sanitary sewers. However, if rain results in run-off significant enough to more than double the “dry-weather flow” into the plant, the system risks backing up a mix of storm water and raw sewage into homes and streets. To avoid this, all excess flow—above the level that the plant can handle—is diverted to a combined sewer overflow (CSO) outfall and discharged, untreated, into the harbor.

Focal part on 42nd street: spaces under coastal storm impact zones

cat.1 (wind74-95mph)

cat.2 (wind96-110mph)

cat.3 (wind111-130mph)

Current land use

cat.4 (wind131+mph)

There are over 700 CSO outfalls in the harbor, about 450 of them in New York City alone. And they are used frequently: overflow occurs about half the time it rains, leading to an estimated 40 billion gallons of untreated waste (20 percent of which is raw sewage) pouring into the city’s waterways. To combat the problem, the city is currently building three underground reservoirs—two in Queens and one in Brooklyn—that can hold excess water until water levels subside and the overflow can be pumped to treatment plants.” -Kate Ascher, The Works, anatomy of a city, p.170

1&2 family residential multi-family residential mixed use open space & recreation

- 16 -

commercial institutions industrial

parking transportation/ utilities vacant lots

- 17 -


STREET GARBAGE

“If we don’t see the garbage of our culture, both literally and metaphorically, then we are not confronting the reality of what garbage actually says about us.” —(Mostafavi 2010, 36)

It is obvious to see the garbage are put on many of Manhattan Street. Specifically, on the 42nd street, local store or restaurant throw their bags of garbage on the street awaiting for daily recycle. In a certain time (afternoon), the garbage even dominate the parking and pedestrian area; the dirtiest areas on sidewalk is the places has garbage bin. This issue need to be discussed in future design since it affected the street experience.

Photos taken by Hang Su

Retail Store Doorway

Restaurant Doorway

Typical Garbage Bin Pollution

Time Square Residential Area

Grand Central Station

Residential Area

United Nation Building

42nd street Port Authority Bus Station

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Bryant Park

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42nd street and the context CSO

Zone A

Zone B

Flood risk from ANY hurricane

Flood risk from category 2 or higher

CSO

Zone C Flood risk from category 3

scale:

- 20 -

0 100ft

500ft

1000ft

- 21 -


site phisical CONDITIONS - building entrances

Photos taken by Hang Su

residential 12th Ave

11th Ave New residential

10th Ave theatre

Dyer Ave Parking structure

9th Ave Residential

9th Ave

8th Ave Parking lot

6th Ave

5th Ave

Madison Ave

Lexington Ave

3rd Ave

1st Ave

1st Ave

12th Ave Residential

11th Ave UPS office

10th Ave

10th Ave Theater

9th Ave

Port Authority Bus Station

Bryant Park

Central Library

Madison Ave

Lexington Ave

3rd Ave

1st Ave

1st Ave

42nd street

12th Ave Retail

- 22 -

- 23 -


site phisical CONDITIONS - pavement & street edges

Photos taken by Hang Su

residential 12th Ave

11th Ave New residential

10th Ave theatre

Dyer Ave Parking structure

9th Ave Residential

9th Ave

8th Ave Parking lot

6th Ave

5th Ave

Madison Ave

Lexington Ave

3rd Ave

1st Ave

1st Ave

12th Ave Residential

11th Ave UPS office

10th Ave

10th Ave Theater

9th Ave

Port Authority Bus Station

Bryant Park

Central Library

Madison Ave

Lexington Ave

3rd Ave

1st Ave

1st Ave

42nd street

12th Ave Retail

- 24 -

- 25 -


site phisical CONDITIONS - critical street junctions

Photos taken by Hang Su

Bikepath 12th Ave

11th Ave

10th Ave

Dyer Ave

9th Ave

9th Ave

8th Ave Parking lot

12th Ave Residential Plaza

11th Ave UPS office

10th Ave

10th Ave

Junction on 8th Ave Time Square Port Authority

6th Ave

5th Ave

Madison Ave

Lexington Ave

3rd Ave

2nd Ave

1st Ave

Bryant Park

Central Library

Madison Ave

Grand centre

3rd Ave

2nd Ave

1st Ave

42nd street

12th Ave Dock

- 26 -

- 27 -


site phisical CONDITIONS - road surfaces and street vegetations STREET CUTS

Photos taken by Hang Su

residential 12th Ave

11th Ave New residential

10th Ave theatre

Dyer Ave Parking structure

9th Ave Residential

9th Ave

8th Ave Parking lot

6th Ave

5th Ave

Madison Ave

Lexington Ave

3rd Ave

1st Ave

1st Ave

12th Ave Residential

11th Ave UPS office

10th Ave

10th Ave Theater

9th Ave

Port Authority Bus Station

Bryant Park

Central Library

Madison Ave

Lexington Ave

3rd Ave

1st Ave

1st Ave

42nd street

12th Aveplants existing Retail

- 28 -

- 29 -


opportunitIEs and DESIGN

- 30 -

- 31 -


opportunity for an infrastuctural reinvestment

Con Edison’s expenses on operations and maintenance in recent years Electic

Gas

Steam

Millions of dollars

Millions of dollars

Millions of dollars

Expense

Expense

Expense

2300

2270

450

2273

2200

2180

200

400

2100 2,014

2000

366 350

1,963

1900

300

1,734

http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/03/23/nyregion/the-network-of-pipes-under-manhattans-streets.html?_r=0

160

250 2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

Year

Many of these bundled wires, including wires for Verizon and Time Warner, are encased in concrete blocks. Workers chip away the concrete by hand, careful not to damage lines. The rubble is loaded into bags and hauled out.

This new plastic Con Edison gas pipe replaced a line that was at least 50 years old. Forty-three percent of Con Edison’s gas mains were installed before 1940, federal records show.

Strings, straps and beams create temporary supports for these pipes while crews make room for the new 48-inch-wide water main.

2008

2010

2009

2011

2012

2010/ $2,007 gas $358

steam $154

2011/ $2,002 eletric $1,471

gas $358

steam $173

2012/ $1,986 eletric $1,366

gas $342

steam $278

2013/ $2,030 eletric $1,447

gas $473

steam $110

2014/ $2,077 eletric $1,496

158 154

150

conEdison’s critical infrastructure investments eletric $1,495

171

170

Millions of dollars

PVC pipes encase Con Edison electric lines.

180

261

1500 1518

gas $497

steam $84

2013

185

185

184

330

281

1600

2008

190 351

346

1800 1700

204

210

418

2014

Year

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

Year

“Distribution cable consolidation – Con Edison and Orange and Rockland have developed a joint strategy to consolidate their distribution cable specifications where they serve the same purpose. This initiative will reduce capital costs by limiting the total cable inventory of the two companies. With consolidation, we believe that more manufacturers will bid on our cable contracts, which will increase competition and drive down unit costs.”

2015/ $2,291 eletric $1,650

gas $545

steam $96

- Con Edison’s Integrated Long-range Plan, April 2012 information above are all based on conEdison’s annual report

- 32 -

- 33 -


Precedent Study #1 street car SELECTION self-propelled Infrastructure

Angers ‘Avrillé-La Roseraie’ line (also ‘Le tramway angevin’)

The new system uses twin 1,435mm (standard gauge) tracks mostly with a 750V DC overhead power supply, as with other French second-generation tramways. The entire route is built on reserved trams-only trackbed and 70% of the route is to be grassed over, giving it an attractive appearance and helping to dampen noise. The most distinctive component will be the use of Alstom’s Alimentation Par le Sol (APS) – ground power supply – which avoids the need to install obstructive overhead line equipment on selected streets. This technology was pioneered over 14km on the Bordeaux three line network opened in 2003. Angers is likely to be the second such application to become operational. It is also specified as a partial application for the forthcoming Reims and Orléans systems in France and will be fitted throughout on the Dubai Al Safooh light rail project due for operation in 2014. “The biggest engineering feature is the new 271m crossing of the River Maine in the city centre.” Using APS, power is supplied via a third rail positioned centrally between the running lines. It is made up of 8m-long sections separated by 3m long insulating sections, with energy supplied to the rail by underground boxes every 22m. http://www.railway-technology.com/projects/angers/

Angers ‘Avrillé-La Roseraie’ line (also ‘Le tramway angevin’) http://www.railway-technology.com/projects/angers/ - 34 -

- 35 -


Precedent Study #2 green/blue infrastructure

Cloudburst Creek Gasvaerksvej DRY

Blue/Green infrastructure in reducing combined sewer overflows & improving water quality

Potsdamer Platz

combined sewer outflows

Cloudburst Creek

The New York City Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) recently unveiled two innovative stormwater management projects intended to reduce the amount of runoff entering the city’s overburdened combined sewer system.

Gasvaerksvej Cloudburst Level 1+2

The two projects—an integrated “blue and green” rooftop system in the Bronx and a planned bioretention area adjacent to the Gowanus Canal in Brooklyn—may end up serving as templates for the DEP as it seeks to carry out its ambitious plans for decreasing combined sewer overflows and improving water and air quality throughout the city.

- 36 -

Blue and green infracture as sponge for climate change Cloudburst Creek project, Copenhagen

- 37 -


design strategy Total: 541700 sf 14% 23.4% 41% 59%

existing

hudson river

- 38 -

62.6%

proposed

east river

- 39 -


step1: street car boulevard transformation

? ?

Two top layers, each consisting of 2-3 inches asphalt.

? ?

A layer of concrete, occasionally wood or clay is found.

Scale 0 Scale 0

24’ existing street section

- 40 -

10 feet

62’

20 feet

30 feet

27’

24’

10 feet

62’

20 feet

30 feet

27’

street car street section

- 41 -


step2: design considerations Jane Jacobs: “The ballet of the good city sidewalk never repeats itself from place to place, and in any once place is always replete with new improvisations.”

Entertainment

Art programs/ street performance

Residential Area Time Square

Commercial

Port Authority Bus Station

flexible design new pavement

LIVE

Bryant Park

Grand Central

exercise rain gardens

Live exercise spaces

Cultural

art exhibition

42nd Street as Manhattan’s artery - Improve pedestiran movement as a major thoroughfare - 42 -

42nd Street as Manhattan’s palette -Merge & activate street diversity with Manhattan’s flavour - 43 -


- 44 -

- 45 -


Design Goal: Redefine how people exist on the 42nd street by reshaping the street structure. why? There is a potential to transform overwhelmed 42nd street into a new experiental destination so that street users will benefit from a variety of fitted social and ecological programs. - 46 -

- 47 -


proposed Programs urban lawn system Infrastructural wildnesS

infiltration structure

vegetation structure

botanic garden

URBAN PASTORAL

URBAN OASIS

MUSIC/ NAPPING EXPERIENCING HUTS

WATER FEATURE

waiting HUTS

fountain

Theater street

fountain

WORK+ SHOP

relax

water pool

SHOP+ PLAY

custom systems seating system

vegetation structure Pavingting system

performance + GATHER

performance

outdoor movie

DAYLIGHT THE SUBWAY GARBAGE COLLECTION

light rail SAFEguard facilities

- 48 -

PLAY

celebration area (200 people gathering) DAYLIGHT THE SUB-TIMESQUARE

DAYLIGHT THE BRYANT PARK climbing turnel (KIDS PLAYING)

INTERACTIVE PAVINGS

meditatE

SILENT GARDEN

ART EAT

fountain plaza grand plaza ( 46 people gathering)

mOMA ART SHOW

FLORAL GARDEN

FLORAL GARDEN SCULPTURE EXHIBITION

SHADED TABLES SHADED TABLES

- 49 -


relevant custom design

vegetation structure

seating system

Pavingting system

GARBAGE COLLECTION

street car SAFEguard facilities

single units types VEGETATION STRUCTURE TYPE#1

VEGETATION STRUCTURE TYPE#2

SEATING

leaning

SEATING type 2

play

rumble strips

GABAGE TANK

gather + performance

planting + playing

combination

combination

lampstandard

illuminated markings

units combination

combination

- 50 -

street car station

WATER FEATURE + SEATING

SEATING + gATHERING

fancing & rumble strips

landscaping

- 51 -


Shop + Play

Diversify programs + Functional green space

Maximize Conveniency + Increase small scale green space

Unify Program + Maximize green space

Combination of relax + play

light rail 20’

platform

sidewalk

sidewalk

20’

vegetation

20’

vegetation

sidewalk

sidewalk

23’

light rail

themed garderns 34’

Bryant Park

Theater

light rail

24’

6’

20’

sidewalk buffer light rail

sidewalk 3’

20’

2-3 inches asphalt layers

buffer area programs 18’

20’

sidewalk 3’ Historical building

18’

Commercial

playground

Scale 0

10 feet

20 feet

30 feet

NYC sewer Electricity

Office

sidewalk 27’

Office

62’

Relax: Park EXTENSION

Theater

24’

Shop + Work

Commercial

Existing street condition

Play: Theater street

Water suply Telphone

Concrete layer

Gas

Soil layer

Time Square

Commercial

Office

Office

Madison ave

Theater

5 th ave

Theater

6 th ave

Commercial

7 th ave

8 th ave

ADAPTIVE STRATEGIES

NODE

Commercial

Commercial

Theater

Commercial

Theater

Time Square

Theater

Commercial

Commercial

Office

Office

Commercial

Bryant Park

Office

Madison ave

SITE PROGRAMS

Office

Commercial

5 th ave

Theater

6 th ave

Commercial

7 th ave

8 th ave

Commercial

Commercial

5 th ave

Madison ave

5 th ave

Madison ave

Vanderbilt ave

6 th ave 6 th ave

Sq Time

7 th ave 7 th ave

uare

8 th ave 8 th ave

- 52 -

9 th ave

9 th ave

Bryant Park

- 53 -


Play: Theater street Diversify programs + Functional green space

sidewalk

playground

20’

platform

sidewalk

20’

Commercial

Commercial

- 54 -

Theater

Commercial

Theater

Commercial

Commercial

Commercial

Theater

Commercial

TI

QU ME S

ARE Commercial

Theater

7 th ave

TI

8 th ave

QU ME S

8 th ave

7 th ave

ARE

Theater

Theater

18’

light rail

Theater

Theater

- 55 -


Play: Theater street com

mer cial

com

mer cial

MULTIPLE USES

com

7th

av e

mer cial

- 56 -

MARKET

DAILY

NIGHT

PARADE - 57 -


Play: Theater street

- 58 -

- 59 -


Play: time square

- 60 -

- 61 -


Commercial

sidewalk

- 62 -

20’

vegetation

sidewalk

23’

TI

Commercial

Office

Commercial

6 th ave

QU ME S

6 th ave Commercial

Office

7 th ave

UAR SQ TIME

7 th ave

Commercial

Commercial

24’

light rail

ARE

E

Maximize Conveniency + Increase small scale green space

vegetation

Office

Shop + Work

Office

Commercial

Commercial

Office

Office

Commercial Commercial

Office

- 63 -


6th

av

e

TI

M

E

SQ UA

RE

Shop + Work

- 64 -

- 65 -


Shop + Work

- 66 -

- 67 -


relax: park extension

sidewalk

34’

Commercial

Commercial

NYC Library

3’

Office

20’

Office

Commercial

Commercial

5 th ave

5 th ave

7 th ave Bryant Park

- 68 -

Commercial

6’

sidewalk

6 th ave

Office

6 th ave

Commercial

Bryant Park

Unify Program + Maximize green space

light rail

themed garderns

Bryant Park

NYC Library

- 69 -


5t ha

ve

6

th

av

e

relax: park extension

- 70 -

- 71 -


relax: park extension

- 72 -

- 73 -


SHOP + PLAy

sidewalk buffer light rail 20’

Commercial

Bank office

Commercial Commercial

- 74 -

18’

Commercial

Commercial

20’

sidewalk 3’ Historical building

Commercial

Commercial

Grand Central Station

5 th ave

5 th ave

COMBINATION OF RELAX + PLAY

buffer area programs

Bank office

Commercial

Commercial

Grand Central Station

Commercial

Commercial

- 75 -


SHOP + PLAy

5

- 76 -

th

e

av

- 77 -


SHOP + PLAy

- 78 -

- 79 -


5th ave

6th ave

time square

7th ave

8th ave

site systems

hudson river

east riverv

increased green area

udson river

east river

Vegetation structures

- 80 -

Infrastructural wildness

Tree

Lawn

Impervious/ Other

- 81 -


5th ave

6th ave

time square

7th ave

8th ave

stormwater collection

stormwater direction

- 82 -

water pipe waterpool

- 83 -


5th ave

6th ave

time square

7th ave

8th ave

seating system

seats/platforms/benches

- 84 -

- 85 -


5th ave

6th ave

time square

7th ave

8th ave

utilities consolidation

facilities corridor

- 86 -

- 87 -


5th ave

6th ave

special marks and hedges

lampstandard

- 88 -

time square

7th ave

8th ave

life safety protection

illuminated markings

- 89 -


5th ave

special marks and hedges

landscaping,pedestrian fencing,etc

- 90 -

6th ave

time square

7th ave

8th ave

life safety protection

rumble strips, pavement marking, texturing

- 91 -


5th ave

6th ave

time square

7th ave

8th ave

life safety protection

special marks and hedges

landscaping,pedestrian fencing,etc illuminated marking systems rumble strips, pavement marking, texturing protected cross-street traverse

- 92 -

- 93 -


PART 4 SOURCES online information http://gis.ny.gov/ http://www.nyc.gov/html/records/html/archives/archives.shtml http://www.davidrumsey.com/luna/servlet/detail/RUMSEY~8~1~2289~180029:Sanitary-&-Topographical-Map-of-the http://www.davidrumsey.com/maps6128.html http://www.dec.ny.gov/chemical/77733.html NYC Oasis (map) http://www.oasisnyc.net/map.aspx precedents http://resilient-cities.iclei.org/fileadmin/sites/resilient-cities/files/Resilient_Cities_2013/Presentations/C3_Rasmussen_Hauber_RC2013.pdf Angers ‘Avrillé-La Roseraie’ line (also ‘Le tramway angevin’) http://www.railway-technology.com/projects/angers/ vision42 http://www.vision42.org/ Image from Google http://nickyskye.blogspot.com/2012/10/pre-hurricane-sandy-sunday-october-28th.html

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Bibliography: Hardcover, 2004, Ghosts of 42nd Street: A History of America’s Most Infamous Block Kate Ascher, 2005, The Works-Anatomy of a City matthew gandy, 2003, Concrete and Clay: Reworking Nature in New York City jane jacobs,1992, The Death and Life of Great American Cities Bill de Blasio, 2013 NYC Green Infrastructure annual report university of manchester, 2010, Adaptation to climate change using green and blue infrastructure charles waldheim, 2005, the landscape urbanism reader Sam Bass Warner, Jr, 1993.The Public Settings of Everyday Life, [Journal of Urban History], 20:133, DOI: 10.1177/009614429302000108 Judith Kenny, 2014, Review of Concrete and Clay: Reworking Nature in New York City by Matthew Gandy, [Annals of the Association of American Geographers], Vol. 93, No. 3 (Sep., 2003), pp. 780-781 Published Kevin Thwaites, 2010. Open Space People Space, [Journal of Urban Design], 15:2, 285-287, DOI: 10.1080/13574801003638087 Landers, Jay, November 2013. Storm Water Management, New York City Explores ‘Green’ Infrastructure Approaches to Reduce Sewer Overflows. Civil Engineering, 2013, Vol.83 (11), pp.23-25 [Peer Reviewed Journal] Rob MacKenzie, Tom Pugh Lancaster University, UK; Chris Rogers University of Birmingham, UK. December 9, 2010. Sustainable cities: seeing past the trees [Nature] Lesley Bain, Barbara Gray, Dave Rodgers. Living streets, strategies for crafting public space, p .18 Colin Jefferson, Sustainable Street, 2001, p. 2. Calvin Sims, New York Times, 1990. Roberte Mestdagh, Manhattan, People and Their Space, 1981 Lee sproull, John f. Patterson, Making Information Cities Livable, 2004 Landers, Jay, Storm Water Management, New York City Explores ‘Green’ Infrastructure Approaches to Reduce Sewer Overflows.2013. Kate Ascher, The works, anatomy of a city, p.170 Charles Waldheim, The Landscape Urbanism Reader,2006, g 16Kevin Thwaites, 2010. Open Space People Space, [Journal of Urban Design], 15:2, 285-287 Rob MacKenzie, Tom Pugh, Nature, Sustainable cities: seeing past the trees, 2010 Baibing Li, A model of pedestrians’ intended waiting times for street crossings at signalized intersections, 2013 Valerie Vandermeulen, The use of economic valuation to create public support for green infrastructure investments in urban areas,2011 Page, Max, THE CREATIVE DESTRUCTION OF MANHATTAN, 1900-1940, 1999 Nathan Cherry, Grid/ Street/ Place: Essential Elements of Sustainable Urban Districts, 2009

- 95 -


hang su suxxx273@umn.edu phone:612-804-3927

- 96 -

Profile for Matthew Tucker

2015 UMN MLA capstone- Hang Su: 42NYC: Beyond the Thoroughfare  

Mr. Hang Su UMN MLA 2015

2015 UMN MLA capstone- Hang Su: 42NYC: Beyond the Thoroughfare  

Mr. Hang Su UMN MLA 2015

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