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KI NETI C

ARCHI TECTURE ON SUSTAI NABLEMEANS

DESERTATI ON BY PragyaBharati


KINETIC ARCHITECTURE IN SUSTAINABLE MEANS

A.INTRODUCTION During these years a vast amount of ideas concerning flexible Kinetic architecture have been produced. The term flexible architecture has been generally understood as an architecture that responds to change, as a “fluid architecture that becomes complete once people inhabit it and use it.” The outside world of today affects us in the most intense and disparate ways, our way of life is changing more rapidly than in previous times. It goes without saying that our surroundings will undergo corresponding changes. This leads us to layouts, spaces, and buildings of which every part can be altered, which are flexible, and which can be combined in different fashions. “It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most Intelligent that survives. It is the one that is most adaptable to change”.

A.1 AIM The aim is to study how the buildings could be flexible to adapt to the changes happening in the surrounding environment in order to make it sustainable and also providing a comfortable shelter for the people.

A.2 OBJECTIVE Kinetic Architecture in terms of sustainability produces buildings that adapt to changes happening to the surrounding thus reducing the cost and also providing a comfortable shelter in every harsh situations for the people.

A.3 HYPOTHESIS Cities and towns around the world are composed of static dwellings, which are the dominant model for societies and based on the principle that dwellings should be stationary. BUT, Kinetic Architecture on the other hand refers to the idea of accommodating change over time.  Some of the strategies to make the building flexible in terms of sustainability relate to building orientation and location, building envelope- insulation and materials-, shading devices, openings, etc.  The heat and the light from the sun can be controlled with external and internal shading or integrated overhang.  The location of the building is creating the fundamental design parameters for exploiting the natural resources of wind and sun.  Kinetic buildings- modular, light, transformable,  Adaptive- can have a big part to play when it comes to respond the never steady environment we live in: It is not static, rather, it is movable, and it is flexible, “it is a sustainable product.”

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A.4 METHADOLOGY  Human beings are incredibly flexible. They move about at will, they manipulate objects, they operate in a wide range of environments, determined to fulfil their desires. People adapt and adopt spaces, and they long for buildings to be adaptable as well.  Their custom-made space is changing from space to place, from dwelling to home. And the period of use generates the unique essence of place that is necessary for established architecture to exist.  Adaptation, Mobility, Transformation, Interaction  To overcome a need to be flexible and adapt to change, architecture should redraw inspiration from  History tents, primitive shelters, portable and movable solutions and nomads. In order to understand and study the human’s most basic needs and the adaption to specific conditions such as climatic or natural human growth, examples are described.  Among them, the North African tent, a big sealed and closed element, turns itself to its inside and shades for sun protection;  The North American tipi with its peculiar pointy shape works as a wind shield and last, the Asian yurt representing modular solutions existing among us and being used a long time ago.

A.5 LIMITATION Flexible Architecture in terms of Sustainability  

The research is limited to Kinetic Architecture in terms of sustainability How the buildings are flexible to adapt to the changes in surrounding environment.

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CHAPTER 1

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1. WHAT IS KINETIC ARCHITECTURE? Through this chapter, the research introduces "Kinetic Architecture" by covering three different areas. First, the definitions of the term "Kinetic Architecture" will be presented. Next the research will go through the history of "Kinetic Architecture". Last, different kinetic trends that can be found in architectural environments are going to be examined by explaining each supported by examples.

1.1 KINETIC ARCHITECTURE DEFINATION The term "Kinetic" is an adjective that refers to everything produced by movement. The term "Architecture" is a noun that refers to the design or style of a building or buildings (Hornby, 2010).When combined together, the term "Kinetic Architecture" refers to the design of buildings that are produced by movement. It has been stated that, "If a building could mediate our needs and the environment outside: its demand on physical resources could be slashed. If it could transform to facilitate multi-uses; its function would be optimized. If a building could adapt to our desires: It would shape our experience"(Fox, 2003). The previous statement emphasizes the importance of kinetics in architecture and how it could be used. Historically, a building's success has been judged depending on the ability to survive time and nature ravages but not by satisfying changing human needs and desires as well as the changing surrounding environments. To start with the term "Kinetic Architecture" it should be mentioned that the Pop Art – a visual arts movement in the 1950's and 1960's in Britain and the United States of America – had a great influence on the first formal definition by Zuc and Clark in 1970. Thus, Zuc and Clark coined the term "Kinetic Architecture" as "a form should react to the set of pressures establishing an equilibrium, it should not be stable with reference to time Another definition was offered later by Chuck Hoberman describing it as "the possibility of movement", to create "transforming environments, responsive building elements, or interactive public spaces" (Sanchez-del-Valle, 2005). Hoberman structures are inspirations by the geometries found in nature. When he described his structure – the Retractable Dome – for the German Pavilion at Expo 2000 in Hannover, Germany, he said "I see this dome as a kinetic architectural element", and "Such elements can make spaces that change from indoors to outdoors, allow walls and roofs to disappear when not needed, and create portable shelters that may be quickly unfolded"(Whitehead, 2000). Kinetic architecture was also defined by Kostas Terzidis (2008) as "The integration of motion into the built environment, and the impact such results has upon the aesthetics, design, and performance of buildings may be of great importance to the field of architecture. While the aesthetic value of virtual motion may always be a source of inspiration, its physical implementation in buildings and structures may challenge the very nature of what architecture really is". In addition, Robert Kortenberg (2007) said that "A building becoming kinetic at the touch of a button can introduce a potent reinvention of something inanimate, giving it the quality of being alive". PRAGYA BHARATI (2014-2019)

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To conclude all definitions listed above, "Kinetic Architecture" can refer to buildings or building components that act in respond to surrounding changes whether changes are indoor and/or outdoor and whether they are forced by environmental factors and/or human ever-changing demands.

1.2 HISTORICAL REVIEW By analogy to biological evolution, architectural adaptation was low compared to higher biological or technological developments, although some exceptions were found (Zuk, 1970). The invention of the wheel was the motive of using kineticism in architecture. Adaption and mobility were first seen architecturally as movable stones, logs, or skins covering cave or hut openings. Wooden pivots or hinges of leather and even stone pivots were used. "Mention should be made of the removable rope and canvas roof over the Roman Colosseum (circa 70 A.D.), spanning the oval form 620 feet by 513 feet. Sailors were assigned the task of erecting and dismantling this vast early flexible roof supported by poles around the edge of the colosseum’. Also, wooden sliding doors and windows' covers were developed in the same era. Moreover, pivots and hinges made of iron and brass were used after the introduction of metals. The use of metal helped increasing the efficiency of both doors and window-shutters as well as enhancing their appearance for the better these adaptive devices were used for both security and weather protection.

(a)

(b)

(a) The Colosseum represented the first kinetic retractable roof covering the seating area around the arena (Pepe, 2001). (b) An intriguingly simple device invented by Thomas Jefferson for his home to allow both doors to open simultaneously whenever any is opened. As the device was concealed beneath the floor, its principle was not known until it was uncovered in 1953 (Zuk, 1970, P. 29). The start of using movable bridges was earlier than the Middle Ages; as there is evidence of using this type of structures in Egypt in the fourteenth century B.C. as well as in Babylon. “According to Herodotus, Queen Nitocris of Babylon built a form of retractile bridge, for protective purpose, across the Euphrates at about 460 B.C" (Koglin, 2003). These ancient movable spans and bridges were used for military purposes as well as water traffic. PRAGYA BHARATI (2014-2019)

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(a)

(b)

(a) A sketch showing how a drawbridge at medieval castle worked, typical of such structures that were precursors of modern bascule bridges ( (b) A view of the entrance door and the drawbridge to Rocca Gradara – one of the best preserved medieval structures in Italy – which was built in 12th to the 15th centuries . As mentioned before, movable bridges were first used for protective purposes. They were used in medieval castles and forts over moats. The drawbridge, which was usually a bascule type that pivoted upward on trunnions, was commonly used in that era, .These bridges were used for protective purposes not only while lowered by acting as simple bridges located over moats, but also when raised the floor of their leafs acted as strong doors impeding entry as well as providing resistance to projectiles fired from catapults. The mechanism of these bridges' movement was by the direct pull of chains near one end, assisted by winches and levers. Bascule bridges were developed in the sixteenth century by Leonardo da Vinci. Lifting became much easier because of the counterweight located on the opposite side of the pivot from the bridge, which also provided against sudden falling from the raised position (Zuk, 1970). The rotation in modern bascule bridges is accomplished by motor driven gears about horizontal pintle, no longer chain hoists. Whenever movable bridges' dead weight was kept to a minimum, the amount of counterweight, bearings, machinery, and foundations needed would be reduced. Steel is commonly used in such bridges, although few are of aluminium which reduced the dead weight by one-half. For that, it is of a paramount importance to minimize the weight of any kinetic structure. Moreover, kinetic structures will differ from conventional static structures in both shape and material.

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(a) (a) A sketch shows how a typical drawbridge works (Hall, N/D).

(b)

(b) A sketch shows how a typical trunnion bascule bridge works Movable bridges may be classified into several types. Some are employed occasionally such as: bobtailed swing spans, double rotating cantilever draws, transporter bridges, and floating bridges .But the movable bridges which are frequently used till today are: ordinary swing spans, trunnion bascule bridges, rolling bascule bridges, and vertical-lift bridges For a long time, kinetic architecture had never advanced beyond the using of movable doors, windows, or temporary roof. However, few exceptions began to appear in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. One of the dining rooms in the PRAGYA BHARATI (2014-2019)

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Palace of Versailles in France was constructed with a floor part of it could be lowered to another level where servants could set the banquet table and then raised again to the room level. Modern revolving stages took place at several theatres in Europe and the United States at the beginning of the twentieth century .Ye Liberty Playhouse was probably the first permanently revolving stage built in the United States, in Oakland, California, in 1903. Harry Bishop, the manager who designed the stage, had reportedly seen revolving Kabuki stages during a trip to Japan.

(a)

(b)

(a) The construction of the Santa Barbara County bowl revolving stage in 1936 which was destroyed by El-Nino floods during 1939 in the United States of America (SantaBarbaraBowlFoundation, N/D). (b) Architect M. Engere Pettit and physician Lucien Pellegrine “heliotropic house" 1903 In 1903 the rotating "heliotropic house" was exhibited by famous French architect M. Engere Pettit in consultation with physician Lucien Pellegrine at the Exposition de habitation in Paris. The model was based on a building called Villa Tournesol Pattit which was constructed in south France. It was often referred to as a "family Sanatoruim", because the physician's belief that the sun was the cure for most diseases. For a maximum benefit of daylight in different rooms at different times, the house had a cross-shaped plan with large window openings on most walls. Also, it was set on a turntable with ground-level ball-bearing raceway, which helped rotating the house to follow the sun by moving a lever once an hour for a rotation of a few inches. A larger version with a gasoline engine, to rotate the house once per day, was proposed. In 1929 Jean Saidman, an early expert in the field of actinology, which is a branch of science that explored the chemical effects of light, designed and patented a new type of solarium to improve upon existing ultraviolet light treatments with the assistance of architect Andre Farde. The first version was constructed in the French spa community Aix Les-Bains the following year, and it didn't look like any other building ever constructed. Examination and waiting rooms were featured in the design's base (or pillar) ground floor. Its roof was steeply pitched conical covered with diamond-shaped tiles. PRAGYA BHARATI (2014-2019)

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The ground floor was connected to the rotating platform above with an elevator and a spiral staircase, which were located in the reinforced concrete base. The eighty-ton steel platform was rotated by an electric motor located in the basement.

A view for Saidman's revolving solarium, Aix Les-Bains, France (Petit, N/D). The platform consisted of a monitoring and control room in the centre and four glass-fronted treatment cabins at each side. The cabin platform was situated high in the air for better ventilation as well as trees clearance. A small changing room could be found at the back of each cabin. Also, an adjustable bed could be found in these cabins, with a motorized assembly of nickel oxide or cobalt glass screens, which helps blocking specific wavelengths, as well as lenses and lamps that could be moved into various positions above the patient, connected it. Moreover, lens panel and bed could be configured to direct the sun's ray depending upon the illness and its prescribed treatment. Likewise, the rotation helped keeping all the cabins in sunlight throughout the day. At last, the solarium was used to treat various forms of rheumatism, dermatosis, tuberculosis, rickets, and cancer. Rotating designs were developed to articulate new artistic, political, and philosophical ideas, while inventors and thinkers saw their rotating designs as an engineered, rational means to regulate sunlight, maximize space, or vary the view. Revolving designs signalled a dramatic break with the past by overturning traditional assumptions about buildings that were stable and static. As well, they announced an allegiance between architecture and machinery and made explicit the modern faith in progress through technology and movement, which reflected dynamic mobility and hope for the future. “Light-kinetic-principles" were experimented by architects such as Bruno Taut, Erich Mendelsohn, and others to demonstrate the triumph of time and mobility over space. Biomorphic motifs and inspiration from geologic forms were featured and drawn in some designs.

Villa Girasole As rotation was symbolic and the challenges of creating kinetic structures seemed of little interest to the architects of that time, the designs of Taut, Tatlin, and others were utopian dreams that steeped in avant-garde artistic currents. PRAGYA BHARATI (2014-2019)

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As Girasole means sunflower, the villa traces the movement of the sun by rotating so that its front will always face the sun. At the centre of Villa Girasole, a spiral staircase rises in the 42.35 meters tall tower topped by an elegant lantern, a sort of conning tower or lighthouse, which the rotating movement hinges on. The two storey (L) shaped villa rests on a 44 meter in diameter circular masonry base where the track that it revolves on is located .Sewer and water connections are made through pipes that lead down from the mobile core to collection containers. These collection containers are hanged off the underside of the house and are the architectural equivalent of colostomy bags. As the rotating part of the house contains all the standard elements of a home, it is functionally independent from the base

Villa Girasole from the air, with the courtyard of the rotating section facing uphill

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Structural frame showing the spiral staircase as well as the tracks

Lower floor plan where the villa can rotate 360 degrees over rail tracks PRAGYA BHARATI (2014-2019)

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The construction of the building

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CHAPTER 2

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2. KINETIC TRENDS IN ARCHITECTURE Kinetic trends in architectural environments currently address pragmatic or humanistic conditions or even both, and are divided into four categories:    

Spatial optimization systems Multi-function design Contextual adaptability Mobility

Responsive building skin designed for MACBA, Barcelona, by rat [LAB] – Sushant Verma & Pradeep Devadass in research adaptive [skins]

Kinetics is divided into two categories: pragmatic and humanistic. On one hand, pragmatic applications concerned with solving problems, optimizing solutions, and implying space efficiency, shelter, security, transportation, safety, and economics. On the other hand, humanistic are concerned with the physical and psychological effect of the architectural environments' changes upon their users (Fox, 2009). Kinetic trends in architectural environments are dissected into four categories addressing the pragmatic or humanistic considerations, or both. 2.1 SPACIAL OPTIMIZATION SYSTEM Spatial optimization systems are most common in large open spaces that may accommodate many different activities. Such spaces have a built-in transformable infrastructure that can provide differing configurations limited by it; for example banquet halls, convention centres, and school gymnasiums. Spatial optimization is defined as, "…Kinetic architecture that can, from a practical standpoint serve as a means for adjusting spatial configurations based on changing stimuli triggered by environmental and/or human actions". Movable objects creating transformable systems will open an exponential layer of adaptability. Applications in this category may range from multi-use interior reorganization to complete structure transformability. The goal is creating spaces that are capable of adapting, reconfiguring, and customizing both by their inhabitants and by the changing surrounding environments as well as needs, thus reducing both social and environmental costs. The inhabitants' desires and needs may range from privacy to publicity, so it is important to understand and accommodate humanistic considerations on top of the pragmatic spatial optimization of the space. PRAGYA BHARATI (2014-2019)

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Examples An example could be the second prize winner project "Interlocking Transformation" for the "Domus BBJ Design Competition" (Domus, 2008). This project aimed to create a responsive interior space configured by the users of a specific flight and could be partially reconfigured in-flight. The interior is divided into three resizable sectors equipped with the technical and the physical apparatus necessary for various parts of the program.

Interlocking Transformation

2.2 MULTI FUNCTIONAL DESIGN Although multi-function design is commonly used in many products, most architectural spaces are designed to accommodate a single function. Architectural spaces are not limited to the function they were designed to accommodate, for example how a kitchen is used to prepare food for a few hours of the day, and also used for eating or watching TV and sometimes for discussions although it is not designed to accommodate such activities. Another example could be a living room which could be used by a group of people, a couple or even a single person each to accommodate different activities with different lighting and acoustic needs. That also may happen not only within residential spaces but within work spaces as well. As a result, it is important to involve multi-function design in the architectural field in order to create spaces that can determine their configurations quickly and spatially to truly accommodate each particular function when needed. Kinetic elements should not be only integrated into the system of the building but also should be flexibly embedded into the fabric of that building. The change could be in walls that might disappear to turn several smaller rooms into a bigger one, or reconfigurable floor and ceiling that could divide a space psychologically.

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Moreover, it could be through the adjustable fenestration that changes the connection with the outside environments depending on the changing desires of the inhabitants. In the architectural scale, the multi-function design is commonly used as a secondary system integrated within the space as furniture, and little has been achieved integrally with the building as a whole. At last, multi-function design was defined as moving physical architectural objects that can share a common physical space to provide the means for a plurality of uses (Fox, 2009).

Examples The Bloomframe designed by Hofman Dujardin Architects, is an example of a multifunctional system integrated within the architectural space. The Bloomframe is a window frame that can be transformed into a balcony. This system provides additional outdoor space for compact apartments, offices as well as hotel units (HurksGeveltechniek, N/D). This system is made of steel, glass and aluminium. It consists of three components which are technique, frame and electronic control. The size, materials and colour can be changed upon request, although the maximum width is 3 meters. The faรงade element can be produced in several transparent and opaque materials. This system can be installed to new as well as existing facades. The Bloomframe can be automatically operated and single control that can open it in just 15 seconds. To achieve maximum safety and security requirements, the system includes provisions to guarantee against collapse during opening and closing, the fully open position is limited mechanically, and an optional infrared detection during electrical movements is installed. The first models are for an apartment building in Arnhem, The Netherlands (Brownell, 2008)

In window state.

In balcony state

The turn-on house, designed by the Austrian design studio Alles Wird Gut in 2002, is an example of the multi-function design .This design is tracking the idea of astronauts' capsules. The turn-on house is divided into individual ring zones that could be connected to each other and that accommodate different functions. By rotating these ring zones different needs could be achieved according to the users' needs, for example, in a kitchen ring unit a stove could be rotated up and out of the way when not used, or a sofa and a bed could be built into the same ring unit also rotated according to what is needed (Kapfinger, N/D).

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The turn-on house

A diagram shows different ring units connected to each other while in use

2.3 CONTEXTUAL ADAPTABILITY Contextual issues in architecture are categorized into three areas: form (space, shape, scale, and materials), activity patterns, and climatic patterns. Contextual adaptability will focus upon form and climatic patterns as active patterns have been considered in spatial optimization systems and multi-function design. Architects are skilled and intelligent in developing solutions for contextual response and flexible adaptability, yet they rarely combine the two into a single system within buildings. As contextual architecture confirms the continuity of the present with the past while rarely considering the future, buildings should have the built-in life-cycle ability to adapt to long-term changes that occur over time such as changes in the built environment, traffic patterns, wind currents, etc. Natural environments should be considered in buildings equal to the architecture of historic buildings already present in an area through a comprehensive contextual approach. The aim of contextual adaptability is creating buildings that can deal with changes in site conditions that occur beyond codes and regulations and through flexibility built into the architecture itself.

Examples The Wind Veil The Wind Veil, by Ned Kahn, is 79.248 meter (260 feet) long by 6 storey tall faรงade for the largest parking garage in Charlotte, North Carolina, USA This dynamic faรงade consists of 80000 small aluminium panels that are hinged to move freely in the wind (Kahn, 2000). The faรงade transforms the invisible wind waves into visible metallic grass waves. On the other hand, these waves create never ending patterns of light and shade inside the building. This system was designed to provide ventilation and shade for the interior of the parking building (Margolis, 2008). PRAGYA BHARATI (2014-2019)

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An exterior view for the Wind Veil, aluminium panels of the Wind Veil

The convertible umbrellas The convertible umbrellas for the courts of the Prophet's Holy Mosque in ElMadinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (K.S.A), are an example for the contextual adaptability. These twelve 17x18 m umbrellas are used as a convertible shade roof for the two large inner courts of the mosque. They are designed to blend in harmoniously with the traditional stone architecture of the mosque. These umbrellas created a translucent vault spanning between the columns and the arcades surrounding the courts, thus making for clear and expansive spaces. These convertible umbrellas are designed in consideration of the extreme seasonal changes in climate so that the internal climate of the building could be radically influenced and at mean time keeping the energy consumption to a minimum. The opening and closing of these structures are controlled by computer systems that recalculate different factors such as seasons, sun position, external temperature, wind speed, and clouds.

Convertible umbrellas for the courts of the Prophet's Holy Mosque in an opened and closed state PRAGYA BHARATI (2014-2019)

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The Bengt Snowstorm/Starlight Theatre The Bengt Snowstorm/Starlight Theatre , designed by Studio Gang Architects and completed in 2003, is another example of the contextual adaptability. This building was designed to replace a popular outdoor venue by ensuring the proceeding of the shows that took place within the building regardless of the weather as well as maintaining the open-air atmosphere. The roof created an origami-like transformable element that looked like a flower petals, and consisted of six identical triangular panels hinged along the bottom edge (StudioGangArchitects, N/D, Galindo, 2005).

An inner view for the kinetic roof while opened (Galindo, 2005, P. 78). PRAGYA BHARATI (2014-2019)

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2.4 MOBILITY Since old days people used mobile buildings to move from place to another to follow food or due to seasonal changes. Nowadays, such buildings are being used for political as well as climatic reasons. Although mobile architecture is used in wars for encampments and hospitals, it is also used for world expositions, concerts, and street fairs where function is greatly needed. Mobile buildings are characterized by their ability to be easily constructed, deconstructed, moved from place to place, reassembled, and stored. Mobile architecture can take on a variety of scales that range from entire buildings to small single person enclosures. Mobile architecture is also designed and implemented for a diverse range of life-cycles, which has implications on everything from materials to connections and ultimately the costs.

Examples The Mobile Dwelling Unit The Mobile Dwelling Unit (MDU is an example of mobility. it was designed by LOTEK in 2002. This mobile unit is a container that acts as a space to live, work or even store. Cuts in the metal walls of the container allow for extruded sub-volumes that contain different facilities. When these sub-volumes are pushed out from the sides, they free up the inner space creating a general living area. When they are pushed in, they fill the entire container, interlocking with each other and leaving the container's outer skin flush to allow worldwide standardized shipping. The MDUs were not only designed as individual units but also as ever changing colonies when gathered

(a)

(b)

(a) Mobile Dwelling Unit. An exterior view while MDU in an opened state (b) Mobile Dwelling Unit, the container plan while sub-volumes pushed out

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CHAPTER 3

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3 KINETIC DESIGN KEY ELEMENTS This chapter "Kinetic Design Key Elements" will cover the main three principles in kinetic design which are structural innovation and materials advancement, embedded computation, and at last adaptable architecture. Each o these principles will be explained separately, listing its main points and supporting it with examples. To go through intelligent kinetic design in architecture, some general mechanical and technological principles should be mentioned and explained. These principles are divided into three general categories which are: structural innovation and materials advancement, embedded computation, and recently adaptable architecture.

3.1 Structural Innovation and Materials Advancement In developing kinetic systems, dealing with structures should not be independently but rather as a part of the whole system. For best structural solutions, ways and means are highly considered. The ways of kinetic structural solutions may include folding, sliding, expanding, and transforming in both size and shape, among others. While the means of kinetic structural solutions may include pneumatic, chemical, magnetic, natural or mechanical means (Fox, 1999). As a result of recent technological innovation, manufacturing technologies have evolved to the degree where creating intelligent kinetic architectural solutions became effective and feasible. These kinetic systems depend upon advanced computer control technology as well as high quality manufactured kinetic parts. New materials may include ceramics, polymers and gels, fabrics, metal compounds and composites, Nano materials, and plastics, which can help creating highly intelligent responsive kinetic systems. Developing materials technology helped in facilitating creative solutions not only for kinetic structural systems but also for membrane systems, tensegrity systems, as well as thermal and acoustic systems. Kinetic Structures Typologies Kinetic structures are classified into three main categories, which are embedded, deployable, and dynamic kinetic structures

Embedded

Deployable

Dynamic

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3.1.I Embedded Kinetic Structures Embedded kinetic structures are defined by Michael A. Fox as "systems that exist within a larger architectural whole in a fixed location". The main function is controlling the architectural system as a whole in response to changing factors such as environmental changes especially seismic and wind conditions. Embedded kinetic structures are the most developed of the three categories and are always coupled with computational control. The Muscles Tower is an example of embedded kinetic structures that could be installed in a larger architectural whole.

Examples The project was the winner of the MIT's first mini-skyscraper competition in 2006. The Muscles Tower is a 35 feet skyscraper consisting of an articulated spine controlled by a series of pneumatic muscles that allow the structure to bend in different directions by twisting the jointed core. When the muscles are not active, the tower's rigid core keeps the entire structure straight. By activating several muscles one could cause the tower to curve making it appear to bow. In a full-scale tower, such systems could help stabilize the structure against changing forces such as wind and earthquakes. Hygroskin wood-composite’s undulating concave panels incorporates clusters of intricate, floral-shaped outlets. These channels are in conversation with the surrounding environment, adjusting to changes in relative humidity. The climatic shifts trigger a silent, material-innate movement translated through the porosity of the medium, resulting in continual fluctuations of enclosure and illumination of the internal space.

(a)

(b)

(a) The Muscles Tower while activated (b) A climate responsive kinetic structure Hygroskin PRAGYA BHARATI (2014-2019)

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3.1.II Deployable Kinetic Structures While embedded kinetic structures are fixed in their locations, deployable kinetic structures are described by Michael A. Fox as "structures that typically exist in a temporary location and are easily transportable". These systems are characterized by their ability of being constructed and deconstructed in reverse which afford mobility rather than motion within a fixed structure. They are commonly used in exhibit design as well as pavilion and stage design which are driven by the need to be easily and quickly assembled and disassembled. Unlike embedded kinetic structures, deployable kinetic structures are rarely coupled with computational control. The Carlos Moseley Music Pavilion is a state-of-the-art performance facility that creates an example for a deployable kinetic structure. The design of the Carlos Moseley Music Pavilion allows the structure to be easily constructed and deconstructed, then moved to the next performance location. The pavilion consists of seven semi-trucks that carry the entire facility to any open site. One trailer is for the stage and rear truss, two trailers are for the structural trusses, one truck for the fabric and lighting, one trailer for sound towers, one truck for electrical distribution, and the last truck for props. The centre trailer contains folding beams when opened; it provides a structure for the stage. On the same trailer, hydraulic pistons unfold hinged panels that serve as the stage surface. In its final position, the stage rests upon the two front corner trailers and the two rear corner cabs, and the entire assembly is joined together to form one continuous rigid structure

The Carlos Moseley Music Pavilion while being transported to its location and being assembled PRAGYA BHARATI (2014-2019)

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3.1.III Dynamic Kinetic Structures "Dynamic kinetic structures exist within a larger architectural whole but act independently with respect to control of the larger context" (Fox & Kemp 2009). Dynamic systems are the most commonly used of the three listed categories. They include small architectural elements as well as large ones, such as doors, windows, movable partitions, furniture, and ceilings. As they act independently, it is quite common to have dynamic kinetic systems within a building that has an embedded kinetic system as well. They are becoming increasingly automated and intelligent as a result of the technological innovation nowadays. Dynamic kinetic systems are sub-categorized into:  Mobile systems: are those that could be physically moved within an architectural space to different locations.  Transformable systems: are those capable of changing shape to take on a different spatial configuration and can be used for space-saving or utilitarian needs.  Incremental kinetic systems: are those that can be added to or subtracted from a building like LEGO pieces (Fox & Kemp 2009).

Examples The Flare-façade system is a modular dynamic system that can be installed on building's façades or any wall surface. This system creates a living skin allowing the building to express, communicate and interact with its environments (WHITE void, N/D). The Flare-façade system consists of a number of tiltable metal flake bodies. These units are controlled by computer to form any kind of surface animation. Sensor systems inside and outside the building communicate the buildings activity directly to the Flare-system which acts as the building lateral line. Each of the units reflects the bright sky or sunlight when in vertical standby position. On the other hand, when it is tilted downwards, its face is shaded from the sky light and appears darker

The Flare-façade system

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3.2 EMBEDDED COMPUTATION As Guy Nordenson mentioned, "A kinetic environment without the computation is like a body without a brain – incapable of moving". In this statement, computation is the brain that can control the required change and motion. Users and inhabitants of architectural space can have environments that change and adapt according to information gathered by means of computation and sensing technologies. This is the importance of kinetics as well as embedded computation. The importance of embedded computation is not only for the ability to sense change in the environment but also for its ability to control the response to this change. Embedded computation is the combination of computational processors and information gatherers such as sensors, cameras, and microphones.

Trends in Embedded Computation Ubiquitous computation is the combination of embedding hardware and software, information processors and coded intelligence. Creating networks of information and computers is the trigger behind the development of computational devices. The wireless architectural world is becoming cheap, effective, and standardized. Architectural projects that involve embedded computation range from being purely pragmatic environmentally responsive to adaptive intelligence that understands human behaviours. Trends in embedded computation consist of four categories:

3.2.I Active Control Research Active control is the most applicable research in designing intelligent systems that focus on modifying the structural behaviour depending on the changing demands. Changing variables in buildings may include wind loads, seismic conditions, and temperature, light and live mechanical loads. Active control systems are defined as structures that are affected by an externally activated device to change the response. In these systems sensors are used for measurements and computers are used to activate the required external force by digital signals. Active control research is a system that solves purely pragmatic although often unpredictable environmental changes (Fox & Kemp 2009).. Active control technology includes seismic base isolation systems, passive (tuned) mass dampers and energy dissipation devices for buildings and other structures, and seismic floor isolation systems for critical spaces that house computers or medical equipment. Such systems employ numerous members to provide control through a very specific response for suppressing forces either by cables used as active tendons or by hydraulics used as muscles

Examples The Taipei 101 building is an example for such active control research systems. It consists of 101 floors above the ground and 5 floors underground. It is 508m height from the ground to the structural top. The tower has the world's largest passive tuned mass wind damper that is 5.5 meters in diameter and weights 660 metric tons. The Tuned Mass Damper (TMD) is designed to reduce the wind movement in the building. The TMD is located between the 87th level and the 92nd floor (Taipei101, N/D).

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The Taipei 101 building

A diagram shows where the Tuned Mass Damper is located in Taipei 101 Building

3.2. II Adaptive control Adaptive control system is computer controlled automation whereby an architectural control system actually programs itself through observing both the user needs and changing environmental conditions. These systems have the ability to learn what the best preference is in just three or four user settings. Such systems can respond to many environmental conditions by installing temperature detectors or thermostats. For example, on cold days heating systems will switch on preventing pipes from freezing, and on hot days motorized windows will open. Also, scheduled timed programs can be used such as switching the heating or air conditioning on and off, controlling the thermostat, or operating garden sprinklers on regular times. Adaptive control is highly developed in manufacturing industries although recent applications are based on users' behaviour within a home environment. Adaptive control used in buildings can range from fire safety to security system solutions to energy efficiency. Such systems that are able to learn how to adapt will make buildings more comfortable, safe, productive, efficient and therefore less costly to operate while at the same time minimizing errors. These systems help a contently growing dialogue to take place between the space and its users.

Examples This matrix acts as an interactive geotextile. This system is capable of mechanical empathy and consists of a network of mechanisms that reacts to human occupants. The system responds to human presence by subtle grasping and sucking motions, ingesting organic materials and incorporating them into a new hybrid entity. The matrix's interactive systems employ capacitance sensors, shape-memory alloy wire actuators and distributed microprocessors.

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3.3 Level of Control Mechanisms As kinetic in the architectural context is the application of objects which could be set in motion by having mechanical parts, several levels of machines may exist simultaneously in different kinetic architecture typologies. Computer controlled systems help observing the users' needs as well as the changing environmental conditions by reprogramming themselves as they learn what the perfect setting for each condition is. Many examples of such systems could be found in the area of "Home Automation". And it may include systems that control heating or air conditioning, lighting, garden sprinklers, and motorized openings. These systems could act independently or as a part of a whole by operating cooperatively to optimize conditions .Levels of machines could be listed by their ability to adapt to different needs as: 1. Singly variable-man control Singly variable man control was the first category developed by man, which was the extension of the tool which in turn was extension of the hand. This category of machines was designed to perform a repetitive operation. Increasing and decreasing speed as well as starting and stopping of these machines were done by human control and in some machines even the motive power was supplied by humans (Zuk, 1970). 2. Multivariable-man control This category of machines was more developed than the first one not only by their complexity degree but also by their ability to perform several functions in sequence or simultaneously, although they were still controlled by humans. 3. Multivariable automatic control These machines differ by their ability of partial or full control of multivariable operations. Sensors are essential in this category of machines which help in detecting different tangible and intangible factors such as velocity, acceleration, light, heat, pressure, odour, sound, radiation, weight, voltage, current, magnetism, length, and size. In this category computers replace the human functions by carrying out only those specific instructions and operations early predicted by human programmer in anticipation of certain specific data and reactions. These computer controls are coupled with backup systems or human control ability for emergencies (Zuk, 1970) 4. Multivariable heuristic control Technology, computers, and the science of cybernetics that deals with manmade systems performing functions like those of a human brain have become more developed. As a result, creating computers and systems that are capable of learning from their previous actions and experiences become more reasonable. In this category, machines are not only multivariable and automatically controlled but also coupled with heuristic and learning capability. This kind of machines is well known as "Robot Machines". This type is developed to perform adaption, ranging from machines that construct whole buildings automatically and completely to those that repair and reproduce themselves automatically (Zuk, 1970).

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3.4 Ways and Means of Embedded Computation The relationship between users and programmable embedded intelligence ultimately dictates the intensity of the ever changing dialogue between bodies in space and the space itself. Understanding the behaviour of an architectural space or object will make it possible to not only monitor but also control environments even remotely. Ways and means are defined as the controlled source of actuation addressing embedded computation that controls mechanism for kinetic function which accommodates and responds to changing demands. These systems are used to interpret functional circumstances and direct physical movements and data sets in order to suit changing demands and needs. Controlling kinetic motion is affected by design and construction techniques, kinetic operability and maintenance, as well as human and environmental interaction. Embedded computation in the materials that make up the space allows users to control the type of information the space receives through communication methods similar to those used to communicate with people. While designing interactive kinetic architecture, the structure of the information hierarchy that governs the relationship between users and space must be considered. Sensors technology is one of the most important means that are used to actively control kinetic objects in the built environment in response to change. 1. Sensors Sensors are devices that gather information from the real physical environments such as light, motion, temperature ‌etc. They have dramatically developed from the most simple being an invisible infrared beam that is broken to detect motion to more sophisticated ones that can detect colour definition, motion directionality, voice and facial characteristics, gain ‌etc. More detailed information is provided when combining sensors with processing software to track bodily movements, which will help providing information of individual users' behaviours to the building. Web cams and other optical input devices as well as conventional sound/text input devices are used as means of gathering information.

Typologies of Controlling Change It is important to consider the amount of information dialogue between users and computation. Understanding the possible relationship between computation and response will help controlling the desired change. Creating subsystems that act independently can be incorporated into kinetic design (Fox, 2009). Means of controlling space are categorized into five general types: 1. Direct Control In this type of controlling change the information is directly translated into an outcome. Direct control involves an information exchange that is usually an "on" or "off" state. The movement is actuated directly by any of numerous energy sources including electrical motors, human energy or biomechanical change in response to an adjacent exchange of information between users and the computer.

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2. In-Direct Control This type of controlling change involves a level of decision making embedded into the system itself. In-direct control systems depends on a sensor to detect change and then send a message to a control device which in return relays an on/off operating instruction to an energy source for the actuation of movement. This controlling system has the ability to both constantly monitor incoming information and update the response of the system. 3. Responsive In-Direct Control The difference between in-direct control and responsive in-direct control systems is that in the second one the control device receives input information from numerous sensors and then makes an optimized decision to send to the requires a governing hierarchical computational system to interpret information from multiple sources and act accordingly. 4. Ubiquitous Responsive In-Direct Control This system depends on many autonomous sensor/motor (actuator) pairs acting together as a networked whole to actuate movement. 5. Heuristic Responsive In-Direct Control This system differs from responsive in-direct control and ubiquitous indirect control systems with its ability to learn through successful experiential adaptation to optimize a system in an environment in response to change. The computation that is embedded in a system can be written or programmed in a way that can build upon the system's prior experiences. This is achieved by rewriting previous methods of making decisions. An example could be a skylight system that records the weather patterns and associates behaviour patterns while being operated. Such a system can use gathered information to respond accurately to changing climate patterns while learning the most efficient response for individual parts the system consists of. Connecting this system to other intelligence systems in the building will achieve similar goals.

3.5Adaptable Architecture Kinetic architecture is built on both embedded computation (intelligence) and the physical counterpart (structural engineering and kinetics), which satisfies adaptation within human and environmental interaction. The combination of these two areas will make it possible for any environment to reconfigure itself, to automate physical change, to respond, react, adapt, and interact. Adaptability is defined as the flexibility of space to face changing demands on the system.

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Adaptability in built projects was either embedded in the logic of the creation of a system such as manually adjustable modular panels and structure systems by Fuller, or embedded in the logic of the kinematics such as manually adjustable awnings and domes by Calatrava and Hoberman. Past kinetic projects were adaptable although they relied on their user to manually change the size, colour, shape, or location of an object that made up the space in respect to the new demands. The difference between those past kinetic projects and new ones is that in new projects spaces are being interactive with their ability to sense information from the users or the environment and then adapt themselves. Adaptable architecture may range from interior organizational disposition to external environmental mediation to complete structure transformability/transformation. Adaptable architecture is divided into four Categories which are living, working, entertainment, and public environments.

Living Environments Interface design is important as a way in which users interact in a living environment. There is a direct relationship between the amount of information a system can gather and the usefulness of that system. Privacy becomes a major issue according to the balance between the gathered information and the amount of privacy one has to give up. Home automation systems are the most developed area of living environments. These systems are fully automated and are capable of controlling all systems in a home such as lighting, climate, security, and entertainment. The user is able share information with one or more users, either in the same location or in remote ones, which can be made feasible via videoconferencing.

Working Environments Many work environments are being constantly changed by upsizing and downsizing the space according to the number of occupants needed for the commissioned work. Desks and worktables are being moved around to make room for the additional number of employees needed, or are being moved back after the work is done. For weekly meetings, a large conference room set for fourteen to twenty users is needed, and yet for all other meetings the room may only be used by four to six users at a time. Also, some office spaces are being used sporadically during the day. For instance, a person's desk - while not in use - may be transformed to be used by another person while satisfying the specific needs of its new user such as lighting, privacy, acoustics ...etc.

Entertainment Environments Entertainment environments that embrace interactivity either provide leisure, social engagement, or educational benefits. In order to capture an audience, elements that adopt interactivity such as sculpture, fountains, and building facades have been enormously used. Museums, as entertainment environments, have adopted interactivity in presenting and viewing exhibits and artifacts. Collaboration between interactivity and adaptability can positively affect the temporal nature of changing displays and the way visitors interact with those.

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Public Environments Interactive adaptive systems can be employed immensely in the public sphere. Also, achieving commercial benefits through specific consumer trends instead of individual basis is an important point in designing such public systems. Moreover, the interactive adaptive design in the public sphere engages both the social and cultural dimensions of space. Spatial defining interaction is commonly used as a mechanism to understand and promote social interaction. The physical architecture can be used to include or exclude people from one another, to facilitate, dissipate, or focus crowds of people. Public environments are used in testing both the durability of materials and the time frame of particular interactive strategies within the context of unpredictable participants. For example, commercial outlets and grocery stores could make an active inventory that moves itself to the forefront to either target a particular customer or show specific items when they are more desirable during parts of the day. Restaurants as well could use all of their seating more efficiently rather than seating a party of two at a table designed for four (Fox, 2009). The Interactive Restaurant (i-Dining) project by Art Centre College of design is an example of such environments. This project consists of six major systems which are floors cape, ceilings cape, tables, vanity/faรงade, acoustics (walls), and bar. Each of these systems aims to create an environment with behaviours. The floors cape aims to create constantly evolving and forming groups of any size or shape or number of users. In that case the seating is one element that will influence other systems to further interact with customers (RobotectureInteractiveArchitecture, N/D).

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CHAPTER 4

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4.1 CJR&D Centre Kinetic Facade

FAÇADE DETAIL

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FAÇADE DETAIL

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KINETIC FAÇADE DETAIL SECTION

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4.2 AL BAHAR, Abu Dhabi, Kinetic Facade

AL BAHAR FAÇADE DETAIL

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4.3 THE WIND VEIL, Kinetic Facade

THE WIND VEIL DETAIL

A 260’ long by 6-story tall facade of a new parking garage in Charlotte, North Carolina was covered with 80,000 small aluminium panels that are hinged to move freely in the wind. Viewed from the outside, the entire wall of the building appears to move in the wind and creates the impression of waves in a field of metallic grass. Inside the building, intricate patterns of light and shadow, similar to the way light filters through the leaves of trees, are projected onto the walls and floor as sunlight passes through this kinetic membrane. In addition to revealing the ever-changing patterns of the invisible wind.

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4.4 KIEFER TECHNIC SHOWROOM

The shell construction of the facade consists of solid brick walls, reinforced concrete ceilings and floors, and steel encased concrete columns. The facade consist of aluminium posts and transoms with protruding bridges for maintenance, with an EIFS-facade in white plaster. The sun screen operates on electronic shutters of preformatted aluminium panels.

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THE KINETIC MOVEMENT OF FACADES

THE KINETIC MOVEMENT OF FACADES

THE KINETIC MOVEMENT OF FACADES

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4.5 THE FLARE FAÇADE SYSTEM

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CHAPTER 5

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5. SUSTAINABLE VISION OF KINETIC ARCHITECTURE Architecture has always been part design and part science, but, once again, we are in an era where the two have great potential to help one another. A designscience marriage will be key as both scientists and designers strive to push their respective fields forward. Each can provide insight into the other as designers can help scientists think ‘outside of the box’ while scientists bring newfound technologies and theories to design disciplines – including the architecture process. By incorporating motion into architecture, designers give occupants another dimension by which to interact with their surroundings. Architects can not only communicate motion, but can also engage occupants in what it means to have transition and morphing states of architecture. When done properly, kinetic architecture can inspire, surprise and even touch the soul. This introduction to kinetic architecture highlights its purposes and benefits, and provides strategies for designing and constructing moving building elements that optimize sustainability in architecture. This article proposes an initial conceptual framework for the exploration of the sustainable engaging attributes of kinetic architectural structures. It will serve as one of the first attempts to understand, define and frame kinetic architecture from a complex adaptive environmental approach. The article also attempts to bring together the camps of performative, responsive and adaptive environments under the rubric of kinetic architecture. Since the early twentieth century, artists and architects alike have been incorporating movement into design to explore its possibilities to introduce the element of time, to reflect the importance of machine and technology in the modern world and to explore the nature of the vision. In this way, movement has either been produced mechanically by motors or by exploiting the movements of people, air, water, and other kinetic forces in space Kinetic architecture relies on the design of buildings in which transformative and mechanized structures aim to change the shape of buildings so as to match the needs of people on the inside and adapt to the elements on the outside. Although a considerable amount of time and effort has been spent on building ‘intelligent homes’ in recent years, the emphasis has now shifted on developing computerized systems and electronics to adapt the interiors of a building to the needs of its residents, while responding and adapting to its external surroundings and communicating to the outside world.

DILEMA OF THE STUDY Architecture evolved in the belief that the static, permanent forms of traditional architecture were no longer suitable for use in times of major change. Kinetic architecture was supposed to be dynamic, adaptable and capable of being added to, reduced, or even being disposable

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The notion of motion in architecture has to be examined through virtual and physical methods, to investigate, explore and propose how motion can be suggested, depicted or physically incorporated into buildings or structures. The goal is to link past practices related to kinetic form with motion-based emerging technologies in a meaningful way and project into the inherent architectural possibilities (Kostas, 2008). The area of kinetic architecture, that is the integration of motion into the built environment, and the impact such results have upon the aesthetics, design and performance of buildings may be of great importance to the field of architecture. Although the aesthetic value of virtual motion may always be a source of inspiration, its physical implementation in buildings and structures may challenge the very nature of what architecture really is interactive forces in architecture. Kinetic interaction within architecture can greatly impact one's experience. A designer embedding kinetics can often provide for a new kind of awareness Buildings are confronted with many forces during their life cycle starting from the design phase extending to the operating system. The final project involves the design of a building in which motion is an essential part of the program. There are methods through which kinetic architecture can influence building form as a result of forces either during the design process or during the operating of the building.

KINETIC ARCHITECTURE FOR SUSTAIBILITY This section will focus on dealing with sustainability through the applications of a kinetic system in architecture. Vernacular architecture must react with the forces modifying their forms. These forces can be enhanced, either during the design process that relies on static movement, or during the life of the building offering dynamic movement. Such examples improve the impact of kinetic forces in dealing with sustainability:

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5.1 Moving building facades Moving building facades are more about interior debility than exterior choreography. Anyone who has attended a tennis match at Wimbledon’s Centre Court in recent years appreciates the stadium roof, especially when rain is in the forecast. Unlike most football stadiums where there is little protection from the elements, the Centre Court roof can close in less than 10 minutes, providing a comfortable atmosphere for tennis spectators and players. Retractable stadium roofs are becoming more common, so much so that we are used to them. Think of Cardiff’s Principality Stadium, Toronto’s Rogers Centre or Toyota Stadium in Japan. If the roofs of buildings can move, what about their facades? We’re familiar with interior partitions sliding into place, dividing large spaces into intimate smaller ones, but not so much with kinetic exterior facades that twist, slide or even fold. As with the stadiums, it all has to do with comfort. In 2008, Berlin-based design studio WHITE void presented their first prototype of FLARE – a kinetic ambient reflection membrane – that would allow a building to have a living skin. Suitable for any building or wall surface, it was meant as a facade that could breathe and communicate with its environment. The FLARE system consists of stainless steel flakes that are tilted by pneumatic cylinders, reflecting natural light away from the building thereby keeping the interior cool during the summer. WHITE void even created a video animation portraying how the FLARE system could be implemented on the Berlin-Buch Laboratory Building for medical genome research.

One ocean Kinetic Façade PRAGYA BHARATI (2014-2019)

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Architecture is kinetic instead of being steady. Almost like a creature that never sleeps, it moves, it Changes. Flexible architecture is form and shape that is innovation, multi-disciplinary and it is on the Edge of nowadays-contemporary matters and questions. By understanding the way it is visualized and apprehended, drawn and delineated, produced and experienced by users, enables us to understand the potential it has when talking to solving problems, both nowadays and future, which are related to social, economic and environmental changes.

Sliding house Sliding house: creating a movable sleeve the house is able to adapt along the seasons changes and benefit From the sun as a heating source. The covering sleeve, slides along tracks to allow the sun to penetrate through warming the building in cooler months. In warmer periods, the sleeve can be positioned to enclose the space, creating cooler conditions inside the space. The process takes around 6 minutes and it moves with a small motor.

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5.2 Flexibility 

Flexibility is the capability of changing in the constructed space or the capability of changing in it to achieve new needs and uses. In other words, when we have a physical system without changing its basic elements in the original or derived, allowing the space to suit the needs exist, we have flexibility. Since the elements of space are defining that space, to have more flexible spaces, these factors should be flexible.

Flexibility is related to social performance of psychological, economic factors and over time, with changes in the urban and rural, family, and daily and seasonal habits of people and changes in the activity of the population becomes the most important principle

So the physical space of the building must conform to the cultural, natural and man-made environment, and environmental, economic, social, political and community livelihoods.

The most important feature of flexible architecture includes:  Ability to use a longer time.  Compliance with the intervention of the user experience. Benefits of technical innovation.  Economic and ecological sustainability.  Reuse of all or part of the structure and components of a building  Non-wasteful and non-polluting.  Sustainable design that helps minimizes broad environmental impacts (e.g. ozone depletion).  Highly flexible and adaptable for long-term functionality.  Easy to operate and maintain (lower running costs). Supportive of the productivity and well-being of the occupants

In the flexible designing of sustainable architecture and spaces of modular systems, the use of green building materials is of particular importance. Green materials are the materials in which the material is said to be renewable rather than non-renewable materials or materials that are made from recycled materials or materials that are made from nature and returns to nature.

The use of green materials building is done to increase the efficiency of resource use and conservation of natural resources, public health and the health of the residents of the building, environmental and public interest. Green materials bring efficiency by increasing the efficiency of manufacturing processes, recycling and reduction or elimination of toxic components, thereby reducing the adverse effects of short-term and longterm environmental and economic sustainability in the industry. The combined use of raw materials and Recycled materials can increase the adaptability of the environment. PRAGYA BHARATI (2014-2019)

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5.3 Adaptability 



The capacity of the built environment to support multiple functions without altering the architecture is called adaptability. Different processes are accommodated through movable partitions, repositionable furniture, and other aspects of the environment that are able to change to accommodate the user or occupant. The changes do not result in a permanent change to the space, and therefore the space can flex between the start-state and end-state with ease. The function changes, but the container does not.

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5.4 Transformability 

Through transformability, the interior or exterior space can be altered in response to external or internal stimuli without construction. Although this type seems to be the most common in general architecture, it is the least utilized in healthcare environments. Transformability is both permanent and temporary. The ability to go back and forth between a defined start-state and end-state is permanent, but the states themselves are not. This type of flexibility does not require construction, although some user interaction might be involved. Within transformability, two subsets exist: moveable and responsive. Movable structures are capable of being repositioned within the environment. The structure or object is not changed, but may be taken to entirely new surroundings. The resulting change is not permanent, but may require a greater effort or cost than other types of flexibility. Also a subset of transformability, responsiveness addresses a facility’s ability to react to an outside condition, such as a weather emergency or viral outbreak. The changes often are temporary and perhaps more labour-intensive than adaptable solutions, but allow for a greater scope of change

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5.5 Convertibility 

 

This last flexibility type addresses a much broader scope than any other type and, as a result, is becoming increasingly used in the healthcare sector. Convertibility accommodates changing functions through a certain amount of construction. It reduces construction cost and time by anticipating the potential future needs. Changes to the built environment that occur under convertibility responded to larger time and spatial scales. The resulting change is, more often than not, permanent. Acuity-adaptable rooms use convertibility to facilitate change from regular inpatient rooms to intensive care rooms. The rooms are designed with the appropriate clearances for medical equipment and the ability to access additional medical gases and electricity, although not initially utilized. When the facility identifies the need, the rooms can be converted with minimal construction effort, reduced time, and lower cost.

SOME EXAMPLES OF SUSTAINABLE KINETIC STRUCTURES RESPONSIVE SKYLIGHTS Through this chapter, the research introduces "Kinetic Architecture" by covering three different areas. First, the definitions of the term "Kinetic Architecture" will be presented. Next the research will go through the history of "Kinetic Architecture". Last, different kinetic trends that can be found in architectural environments are going to be examined by explaining each supported by examples.

DEPLOYABLE Teleconferencing Station PRAGYA BHARATI (2014-2019)

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5.6 Exploration of Eco-Kinetic Systems in Architecture

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UNStudio the 92 metre-tall building has a facade covered in horizontal fins to provide shade and reduce the need for artificial cooling.

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UNStudio the 92 metre-tall building has a facade covered in horizontal fins provide shade and reduce the need for artificial cooling.

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10%-30% of Daylight

The solar shading kinetic faรงade mechanism

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CHAPTER 6

CASE STUDIES , AND BUILDING ANALYSIS

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6.1 Institute du Monde Arabe

An external view for Institut du Monde Arabe (WikiArquitectura, 2010).

  

Completion Year: Architect: Building Cost:

Construction completed in 1987. The project is designed by Jean Nouvel. 47,500,00 USD (52,000,000 Euro) Approx

INTRODUCTION Institut du Monde Arabe is built in Paris, France. It is conceived as one of the new architectural landmarks of the capital. Situated in the center of the capital the building provides a meeting place for the two cultures which have produced it: France and twenty Arab countries. It provides a place for continuing artistic, technical and scientific exchange between two old civilizations which have continuously enriched each other. In 1981 a site was selected for Institut du Monde Arabe. The site was allocated at the 15 arondissement, on rue de la Federation near the Boulevard Grenelle, located in a residential district not far from the Eiffel Tower. The residents of that neighborhood protested against building on a site that was used as a sports area. A first project had been prepared for that site for Institut du Monde Arabe and was designed by architect Henry Bernard.

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Later a new site was selected at the arondissement. Culturally and historically the new site had a higher value located on the oldest part of Paris and facing Notre-Dame. To encourage new architects a competition was held for a new project cancelling the old one and seven architects were invited. A pre-selection was made by an Evaluation Committee and the final selection was by the President Mitterand. The winning project was designed by Jean Nouvel. LOCATION The Institut du Monde Arabe is situated at the historical heart of Paris, France. The building site is surrounded by the Seine and St. Bernard quay on the north while facing l'Ile St. Louis and la cite the old settlement of Lutece. CONCEPT In the Institut du Monde Arabe, Jean Nouvel used Mashrabiya units to represent the Arabic culture. Mashrabiya is a type of a window cover that consists of combinations of backdrop of cut wood and latticework patterns Mashrabiya characterized the Islamic architecture of the Middle Ages and was popular in many Islamic countries such as Egypt and Iraq. The architect combined the need for sun shading with a "Mashrabiya" pattern and the idea of a light controlling diaphragm in a camera lens .This resulted in a gigantic Islamic pierced screen, which makes this modern high- tech building a permanent reference to traditional Islamic architecture (Heylighen, 2004)

a) The Mashrabiya diaphragm used at Institut du Monde Arabe (Osmers, 2007). b) Mashrabiya unit sketch (Prisse d’Avennes, 2007, P. 137). c) Mashrabiya used in an Ottoman residential building near Khan El-Khalili, Cairo, Egypt (a.allegretti, 2012).

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An external view for the flat southern façade of Institut du Monde Arabe shows the “Mashrabiya Diaphragms" that were used (IMA, 2001).

Building Components: The usable floor area was estimated to cover 13000 m2 and the whole built-up area 20000 m2, to be consisted of: • The Museum of Arab Art and Civilization (permanent and temporary exhibition space). • The Library, Documentation Centre and Actualities Hall. • The Auditorium and Conference Hall. • The High Council Hall and related offices. • Hall. • Restaurant and Cafeteria. • Public services. • Other administrative, technical and service spaces including the parking area.

Kineticism in the Building: Kinetic Elements: The mashrabiya diaphragms were influenced by the orientation and are aiming at aesthetic and connotative architectural expressions rather than solutions to climatic constraints in a high-tech air-conditioned building context. The flat southern facade is composed of 240 squares panels, reproducing vertically the horizontal pattern of the parvis. Constituted of 16320 kinetic modules, these diaphragms consist of lozenges, squares, hexagons, circles and combination of them whose reflection matches the mosaic patterns on the Institut's floors. Each kinetic panel consists of one large diaphragm in the center, surrounded by sixteen medium sized diaphragms and fifty-five small diaphragms PRAGYA BHARATI (2014-2019)

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(a) A view for a group of the mashrabiya diaphragms while functioning (b)A detail of the medium sized diaphragm). (c) A detail of small diaphragm.

Reason for Motion:

10%-30% of Daylight

The mashrabiya unites are functioning as diaphragms of a camera shutter. These metallic irises filter the sunlight through the glazed surface, allowing 10% to 30% of the light to be kept.

A diagram showing reason for installing mashrabiya diaphragms on the southern façade

Kinetic Design Key Elements: 

Structural Innovation & Materials Advancement: 1) Structural Systems: The structural system is a steel frame with different spans according to the general shape of the building. Steel columns, beams, trusses and secondary supporting elements for the curtainwall facades were used. 2) Used Materials: Stainless steel, aluminium, tempered glass, plastics, marble and finally the mashrabiya diaphragms.

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6.2 GucklHupf

An external view for GucklHupf while being opened a.

Completion Year: The GucklHupf was completed in 1993.

b.

Architect: WĂśrndl.

Building was designed by Hans Peter

c.

Building Cost:

No information available.

INTRODUCTION The building’s name is related to the neighboring Guglhupfberg. The Gucklhupf (Figure 38) is a walk-in sculpture an exploration of architecture and art. It was built to mark "The Festival of the Regions" on a private lake property on Lake Mondsee. The theme of the festival was "The Stranger". LOCATION The GucklHupf was built on 1500 m2 of private grounds. The structure is surrounded by nature, at the Mondsee in Innerschwand / Upper Austria. Under public pressure the building is now removed from the site. CONCEPT As the theme of "The Festival of the Regions" was "The Stranger", the architect tried to create a relation between strangers and intimacy, relaxation and exercise as well as living and traveling. As a result, the out coming building was a structure that does not tend toward an absolutely final state but allows a progressive deviation from its initial state of stereo metric object. The building issued by its owners during the six week long summer opening as a contemplative space, stage for small performances, music pieces and poetry readings with clear reference to the Arcadian myth.

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It is also being used as a house on the lake or as a temporary shelter during the rest of the year, while in winter it is transformed into a storage place for boats "boat-house".

Building Components: The building consists of 2 floors By moving the individual cube by half the storey height results in the interior of 4 different levels and a terrace on the roof For the development of the upper floors a ladder was installed. The building is 7m height and the enclosed space is of 4m x 6m x 7m.

The GucklHupf plans where the red coloured rectangular is the main area while the other parts are those being opened, slided or folded

The GucklHupf section where the red colour indicates the accurate area when the structures closed. Also this section shows the four different levels inside the structure

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Kineticism in the Building: Kinetic Elements: The movable wood panels creating the GucklHupf can be rotated, pulled, tilted and folded. These wooden panels act as a wrapping that can be peeled away or pulled up to open and close the space according to its users desires. Reason for Motion: The GucklHupf movable panels create a multi-purpose structure. The structure is used as a lake house that can hold different activities from being a shelter in summer days to a contemplative space with a small stage or even as storage in winter days when closed Also, the movable panels helped the users to control views and the amount of light according to their needs and desires. This transformation creates a communicative interiorexterior space object that provides a shaded, ventilated, temporary location in the landscape while controlling the level of connectivity with the nature and landscape around.

Transformation in GucklHupf starting from the closed state

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Kinetic Design Key Elements: 

Structural Innovation & Materials Advancement:  Structural Systems: The building was constructed in frame construction, a frame construction consisting of a linear structural skeleton of squared timber and an outer cladding stabilizing the support frame is formed. 

Used Materials: Plywood, wood, aluminum, glass and silk screen printing.

Embedded Computation / Control Mechanism: All moving parts of the GucklHupf are being controlled through an automated system that is comprised of automatic devices and retracing panels. This system is connected to the structure through dowels, flaps and stainless steel cables. Adaptive Architecture: The GucklHupf is a multi-purpose private property that creates an experimental living environment. The building is being used all year long, while its uses vary from being a lake house to a performances stage and storage. Indoor Environment Quality: When inside the structure, the user has the ability to edit and frame views of the surrounding landscape. The user has a control over their relationship with the surrounding landscape, while hiding within the protection of the small, contorting structure. Building Visual Quality: The Guklhupf guides the eyes and the movements of its inhabitants as everyone is free to choose a visual sequence and the number of openings, generating an intimate or visually permeable space. Externally, the facade re- creates the interior losing its role of wrapping skin. The structure creates a continuous relationship with its surrounding landscape as well as its users. The GucklHupf is in harmony with its surrounding even when not in use and close. The structure when closed looks like a large wooden box that was erected in the landscape. But once one begins to open the many wooden panels that can rotate in different directions, pull, tilt and fold: There are ramps, doors, windows, terraces and hatches

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6.3 Floirac House "Maison Ă Bordeaux"

General Information a. Completion Year: The house was designed in 1994-1996 and was built in 1996-1998. b.

Architect: Rem Koolhaas.

The

Floirac

House is

c.

Building Cost:

No information available.

designed by

INTRODUCTION This house was built for a wealthy publisher and his family whose dream was to have a simpler life. Dreams changed after a fatal car accident the husband barely survived and resulted in being confined to a wheel chair. Years later, the dream of having a new house was still there but this time with a new context. Simplicity was no more wanted, this time the client sought complexity to define his life. As a result, the Floirac House (Figure 42) was built as a monumental accommodation to this fact (Vanstphout, 2005). LOCATION The house is located on a hill overlooking Bordeaux, in France. CONCEPT The architect imagined the architectural potential in this family's life as a special case that differs from any other families. Rem Koolhaas imagined the lower body of the publisher with its whole arsenal of trusses, carts and belts for support as the architecture. The complexity of the building can be experienced immediately through the links between the different zones and levels, between inside and outside, and finally between the house and the city. There are several ways to go across the various zones and . staircases provoke the inhabitants to select their routes and an elevator platform located in the middle of the house "A machine is its heart"

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The movement of the elevator platform continuously changes the architecture of the house. By creating a relation between small, private, painful and sad fact of the husband and the architecture of the house itself resulted in a beautiful place for living the Floirac House "Maison à Bordeaux “There are several ways to go across the various zones and levels Three staircases provoke the inhabitants to select their routes and an elevator platform located in the middle of the house "A machine is its heart" The movement of the elevator platform continuously changes the architecture of the house. By creating a relation between small, private, painful and sad fact of the husband and the architecture of the house itself resulted in a beautiful place for living the Floirac House "Maison à Bordeaux"

Plans for the Floirac House showing different ways to access levels (Beck, N/D). The Blue color indicates the elevator platform, the red color indicates the main staircase, the green color indicates the service staircase and the yellow color indicates a staircase connecting two levels.

(a) (b) Long section though the Floirac House, where the blue colour indicates the elevator platform (Beck, N/D). (a) The elevator platform reaches the second floor. (b) The elevator platform is on the ground floor. PRAGYA BHARATI (2014-2019)

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Kinetic Elements: The heart of the house is a 3x3.5m elevator platform (Figure 45) that moves freely up and down alongside a tall book-stack connecting the three levels together, while becoming part of the living space or kitchen or transforming itself into an intimate office space. Reason for Motion: The elevator platform was designed to connect different levels together in an easy accessible way that allows the owner to move around as he is now confined to a wheelchair after surviving a car accident. The elevator platform was not only designed to function as a vertical connector but also to be a living space in the middle of the house The platform grantees husband's access to books, art work and the wine cellar

Different views for the elevator platform while functioning (OMA, N/D). (a) The elevator platform when settled in the upper level. (b) The elevator platform while moving between different levels. Kinetic Design Key Elements: Structural Innovation & Materials Advancement:  Structural Systems: Although the uppermost floor appears as if held down from floating away by a rod attached to large steel I-beam across its roof and anchored into the ground of the courtyard, this concrete box is supported in three places: the cylinder of the circular staircase, the L-shape structure that is propped by a steel stanchion rising from the kitchen below  Used Materials: Although the uppermost floor appears as if held down from floating away by a rod attached to large steel I-beam across its roof and anchored into the ground of the courtyard, this concrete box is supported in three places: the cylinder of the circular staircase, the L-shape structure that is propped by a steel stanchion rising from the kitchen below

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6.4The Naked House

a.

Completion Year: Building was completed in 2000.

b.

Architect:

c.

Building Cost: The owners of the house wanted to spend only 250 million yen, or about $225.000 which was a challenge for the architect.

Design is by Shigeru Ban.

INTRODUCTION The client didn't want the family to live separated each in his/her own room, so Shigeru Ban was asked to create a communal space with the ability to find privacy when needed. BUILDING COMPONENTS The building consists of a simple, rectangular, shed-like space of two story high and four cubicle mobile room units. The internal main space is bordered on one side by the kitchen, the bathroom and the wardrobes which are the only permanent installations in the house and are separated from the open space with a half-height wall or white curtains . while on the other side it is bordered by a translucent and opaque wall. Four movable cardboard boxes form the family's private accommodation. Kinetic Elements: In the Naked House, the cubical room units can be moved about on wheels to any location. The rooms can be moved around in different configurations. The character of the home's space can be dramatically reconfigured in a moment by moving the rooms around to create or openings Reason for movement: Kineticism was involved in the design in order to provide flexibility. Using movable rooms allowed residents to control privacy level as well as activities taking place within these rooms. These rooms can be grouped together or stay separated and the family can choose whether to sit inside or on the top, outside these rooms or in the main space. Also, they can be moved around the open spaced or moved to the outside

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(a) (b) (a) A 3D modelling for the Naked House showing the rectangular open space, the permanent installations as well as the movable rooms (boxes(b) An interior

view for the half-height wall separating the wardrobes as well as the bathroom from the rest of the open space (a) (b) (a) Different arrangements for the mobile room units (Guzowski, 2007, P. 2). (b) A close view for the moveable units

 

Structural Systems: The design of the structure was basic with its double-height rectangular shell. The shell is made of wooden frame with corrugated plastic panels affixed to it. Used materials : While the exterior walls are made of corrugated fiber- reinforced plastic panels, the interior is lined with nylon attached with Velcro strips. Clear plastic bags filled with polyethylene foam are used for insulation .The mobile units are made of paper honeycomb panels on timber frames

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6.5 Milwaukee Art Museum "Quadracci Pavilion"

a. b. c.

General Information: Completion Year: Building was completed in 2001. Architect: Extension is designed by Santiago Calatrava. Building Cost: Construction cost approximately 122 million

The Milwaukee Art Museum (MAM) project features the new Santiago Calatrava designed Quadracci pavilion renovated and reinstalled galleries in existing Museum buildings designed by Eero Saarinen (1957) and David Kahler (1975), and an elegant network of gardens, hedges, plazas and fountains designed by landscape architect Dan Kiley. Kineticism in the Building: Kinetic Elements: The Museum’s signature wings, the Burke Brisa Soleil, form a moveable sunscreen with a 217-foot wingspan. The brise solei is made up of 72 steel fins, ranging in length from 26 to 105 feet. The entire structure weighs 90 tons. It takes 3.5 minutes for the wings to open or close. Reason for Motion: The movable wings – the Burke Brisa Soleil – are used to control the temperature and light in the reception hall. But it is hard to deny that their primary purpose is to endow the museum with a landmark presence it never had underneath the war memorial

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The Burke Brise Soleil, the moveable wings of the museum ranging in motion from totally closed to completely opened

Building Components: The Quadracci Pavilion incorporates three major components: a central building, the Burke Brise-Soleil – an immense movable wing-like structure – and a cable-stayed pedestrian bridge. The 142,050-square-foot Quadracci Pavilion was planned to primarily contain public spaces—a reception hall, auditorium, café, store, and parking, plus 10,000 square feet of flexible space for temporary exhibitions.

Kinetic Design Key Elements: Structural Innovation & Materials Advancement  Structural Systems: A reinforced concrete structural system is used for the 142000 square foot building with mat foundation. The Burke-solei is composed of a central spine of cylindrical cross- section and located above the central building of the pavilion. 

Used materials: The hand-built structure was made largely by pouring concrete into one-of-a-kind wooden forms. Steel fins are used for the movable wings.

(a) (b) (c) (a) An interior view of the structural frame of the parabolic-shaped skylight in the Quadracci Pavilion (b) The arched promenade at the Quadracci Pavilion. (c) The unique shapes of the arched support concrete structures.

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6.6 Gemini Haus

General Information:  Completion Year: Structure was completed in 2001.  Architect: This house is designed by Roland Mösl.  Building Cost: No information available

INTRODUCTION The innovative residential solar application was devised by Roland Mösl who detailed the concept in the 1992 book Aufstieg zum Solarzeitalter (Advance to the solar age). The idea received attention in 1993 when Mösl won a prize at the prestigious World Exhibition of Innovation, Research and

Kineticism in the Building: Kinetic Elements: The house turns around and tracks the sun. And for more efficiency the equipment can rotate independently from the house.

solar

Reason for Motion: The house can rotate 360 degrees maximizing the use of solar energy. The energy radiation from the sun can be optimally used through the rotation of the house. At night, all means of automatically controlled sliding glass panels are hidden, so that the energy radiated at night can be as low as possible. Solar panels installed on the exterior skin for the house moves around the sun providing better efficiency, extreme thermal insulation, efficient design and heat recovery system. The solar equipment attached to the exterior of the Gemini Haus can turn independently allowing its users to control the indoor environment not only through rotating the house.

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(a) (b) (c) (a) Utility lines that are transferred to the rotating house through the firm basement (b) Glass and aluminium fixes (c) Vertical solar panels attached to the house

Kinetic Design Key Elements: Structural Innovation & Materials Advancement: 

Structural Systems: The building is a tilt structure. The two-storey house can rotate over the firm basement where all fixtures and cables are located



Used materials: Organic materials were used such as wood, recycling paper well as glass and aluminium.

as

(a) (b) (a) A detail for connection between dynamic solar panels and the structure (b) A detail for the track on which the house moves.

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6.7 Dragspelhuset

General Information: a. Completion Year: The house was completed in 2004 b. Architect: This project is by 24H<architecture. c. Building Cost: Construction cost 80000 â&#x201A;Ź.

INTRODUCTION This is an extension to a cabin that dates from late 1800's. Although the Swedish building regulations doesn't allow building along the lake shore, an exception is made for existing building's extension. Also, there are restrictions for maximum floor area. As a stream forms part of the cabin site boundaries, another restriction that states a distance of 4.5 m to the stream should be followed .

Kineticism in the Building: Kinetic Elements: The added extension involves a movable cantilever that can be pushed out Over the stream.

(a) (b) (a) A view for the cabin while the retractable cantilever is pushed in (b) A view for the cabin while the retractable cantilever is pushed out

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Reason for Motion: Kineticism was installed to the building in order to make it flexible to meet different conditions varying from changing weather conditions to different seasons and number of occupants .In winter, pushing the moving cantilever inside the extension will compact it with a double skin against the cold weather. In summer-time wings, can be unfolded for extra shelter during rainy days, and windows on the cabin head can be open wide

(a) (b) Dragspelhuset plan (a) Plan drawing for the extension where the orange color indicates the area of extension when the retractable cantilever is pushed in. (b) Plan drawing for the extension where the red color indicates the added area after pushing the retractable cantilever out.

Structural Systems: The extension is a rotproof timber frame structure.

A section showing the extension while the retractable cantilever is pushed in creating a double ski Used materials: Red cedar wood is used as a cladding for exterior walls while the interior walls are finished with pine lattice

A section showing the extension while the retractable cantilever is pushed out over the stream

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CHAPTER 7

CONCLUSION AND ANALYSIS

KINETIC ELEMENTS AND REASONS FOR MOTION: PRAGYA BHARATI (2014-2019)

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7.1 Kinetic Elements and Reasons for Motion Kinetics are being used in buildings by different ways. In buildings under study kineticism is used in six different ways; as kinetic elevation elements, interior elements, roof elements, kinetic walls, kinetic part of the structure itself or as the building as a whole Sometimes a building can adopt different types of kineticism. The most common kineticism used in the buildings under study are kinetic elevation and roof elements.

a. b. c. d. e. f.

Institute du Monde Arabe – 1987 The Naked House – 2000 The Olympic Tennis Center The Leaf Chapel – 2004 The Sliding House – 2009 The Dynamic Tower

Ways kinetics were installed in buildings. PRAGYA BHARATI (2014-2019)

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7.2 Some Reasons behind using Kinetics They may vary from environmental reasons, design concepts, creating flexible spaces and luxury. In some cases there are more than one reason for using kinetics. The most common reason for using kinetics is controlling and filtering the incoming light.

Reasons for using kinetics, such as: a. Institute du Monde Arabe – 1987 b. GucklHupf – 1993 c. Maison à Bordeaux – 1998 d. The Naked House – 2000 e. Magnolia Stadium – 2005 f. The Leaf Chapel – 2004 g. Cherokee Studios Lofts – 2010 h. Dynamic Tower

Reasons in which kinetic systems are applied.

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7.3Relations of Kinetics

Relation between structure systems and materials share.

Structure systems effect on the way kineticism is installed.

Relation between the different architectural environments and ways kinetics are installed.

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Relation between different architectural environments and the reason kinetics are used.

Ways kinetics were installed in buildings

Different architectural environments in which kinetics were used.

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7.4 CONCLUSION The analysis criteria incorporated means and reasons for including kineticism in the design as well as the effect of using such kinetic solution on both the indoor environment quality and the building visual quality. Based on this study the following is concluded: 

When kinetic systems are installed in buildings, they can be controlled by different means. Controlling kinetic systems may range from simple means by manual control to complicated automatic control. Automatic control complexity can vary from just allowing users to take a certain action by turning the system on and off to more complicated preprogrammed automatic systems. These systems can be fully automated while being connected to a set of sensors and detectors to realize any changes that occur allowing these kinetic systems to respond according to pre-programmed settings in which buildings' users can't interfere or change. Also, some pre-programmed automated kinetic systems may be set to allow users to interact with systems adding changes and modifications even when connected to sensors. Moreover, kineticism can be installed in buildings without using any kind of embedded computation and/or automated systems allowing buildings users to manually fold, slide or even push different parts creating the environments they desire. There are many ways where kineticism can be used in the architectural field representing a wide range of solutions. Kinetic systems can be used as indoor elements ranging from small elements such as furniture to larger elements such as walls/partitions, floors and ceilings. Kinetic systems can be used to create the building's envelope represented by walls and roof elements or even kinetic systems that can be attached to the building's outer-skin. Kineticism can appear as a part of the building's structure or as the structure as a whole allowing it to transform. Kinetic systems will allow users to control the relation with the surroundings by allowing for more privacy or transparency. These systems will allow users to change how they are connected to other parts of the building or even how they are open to the outdoors. Kinetic buildings' users may be able to reconfigure space by changing its size to bigger or smaller depending on their needs and desires. Installing kinetic systems in buildings will increase costs, on the other hand, if those systems are employed to maximize the use of sunlight, natural ventilation and energy efficiency, which will result in reducing buildings' running costs on the long run. The cost of using such kinetic systems is affected by the materials used as low-cost materials can be used as well as those environment-friendly and high- tech materials.

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There are many reasons to involve kineticism in the architectural design. Kineticism can be used to achieve environmental goals. Such systems can be used to increase the efficiency of natural light and ventilation as well as to save energy. Using kineticism can achieve space efficiency by not only increasing the indoor environment quality but also by allowing it to transform in size and shape. Kinetic systems can be used for conceptual reasons in order to attract audience and represent cultural as well as social dimensions. Energy Saving: Despite the fact that Egypt is being characterized by its sunny weather most of the day all year round, solar energy is still in its infancy. Kinetic systems can be applied to the Egyptian architectural environment to maximize the use of solar energy. These systems will include solar panels/photovoltaic cells, sensors and/or detectors. They can be designed not only to act as source for renewable energy but also as means of thermal insulation and energy radiation controller. Such kinetic systems can be suitable for different types of environments varying from living environments to work, entertainment and public environments

(a)

(b)

(c)

(a) These systems can be designed to create kinetic skin for the whole building. The kinetic system used for the Kiefer Technic Showroom (a) is an example of such systems where it can be modified to involve solar panels as well as perforated panels depending on the design and need. Also, they can be designed whether to be attached to the static exterior walls of the building while only solar panels are able to fold, rotate or even slide, or allow the structure to revolve as a whole in order to follow the sun. (b) The kinetic system used at the Gemini Haus ( b ) e x a mple where movable solar panels are attached to the exterior walls of the house. (c) Systems such as the FLARE-façade system ( c) can be installed to existing building facades while the FLARE units are modified to allow photovoltaic cells to be added on top of them. Such addition will turn the building from its static form to a dynamic one by adding motion to it, at the same time photovoltaic cells will increase the energy efficiency for the building by utilizing the power of solar energy.

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ď&#x201A;ˇ

Natural Light and Ventilation Efficiency: Kinetic systems can be used in order to control the natural light and ventilation whether for major projects like museums, cultural centers and sports facilities or for residential projects varying from single family housing to high-rise residential buildings. Such systems can be designed to be manually controlled or automated. Also, a wide range of materials can be used in such systems varying from low-cost materials to high-tech materials. These systems can also allow users to control their privacy level and their relation to the outdoor environment especially in residential projects.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(a) These kinetic systems can be designed to be able to move freely by wind such as the Wind Veil (a). This system needs to be controlled neither manually nor automatically. As wind blows all over Egypt, there are several regions that are promising to be high source for wind energy such as the Gulfs of Suez and Aqaba as well as Western Desert. Yet that system will not be used as an energy source. This system turns the building façade from a static condition to an ever changing dynamic condition depending on wind direction and currents. (b) The perforated aluminum screen used for the Cherokee Studios Lofts (b) represents another kinetic system used to improve the use of natural light and ventilation that can be applied to the Egyptian environment using local materials. The previously mentioned systems can be applied to residential buildings allowing users not only to control the natural light and ventilation but also to control their relation with the outdoor environment by improving privacy level and decrease noise level. (c) The Mashrabiyas Diaphragms (c) used for the Institute du Monde Arabe is an example of complicated kinetic systems that are automatically controlled through pre-programmed settings. Such system represents solutions to be applied to major project not only in order to control daylight but also to attract audience. It is recommended when using automated kinetic systems to be accompanied with renewable energy feeding source in order to reduce energy consumption.

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Space Efficiency: Kinetic systems can be applied in the Egyptian environment in order to improve space efficiency whether by allowing it to transform in size and/or shape or by allowing its users to reconfigure it depending on their needs and desires. Such systems can be efficiently used for temporary buildings, multi- purpose buildings as well as residential and work environments. Although it is better to involve kinetic systems into the design since its early stages, some kinetic systems can be solution for existing buildings. These systems can be used not only to improve space efficiency but also to control the relation with different parts of the building as well as the outdoor environment. The cost of such systems can vary depending on the level of technology applied, materials used and controlling systems used.

(a)The Bloom frame

(b) the Dragspelhuset

(c) the GucklHupf

Based on the analytical study for various architectural projects, the following is proposed:  Although the Middle-East is well known for its sunny and hot

 

weather and can greatly benefit for kinetic architecture, most of the buildings understudy are located in Europe, while only one building is planned to be located in the Middle-East. As kinetic systems are installed in/on different structural systems, it is important to mention that frame structures present more flexible solutions for interiors. Also, frame structures allow a wide range of kinetic systems to be applied. While a wide range of kinetic materials varying from fabricated/industrialized to natural materials, almost all used kinetic materials are light weight. Kineticism is applied to different environments, but it is most commonly used in living environments whether they are part of multifamily housing, private houses or even residential sky-scrapers.

 There are different ways for kinetic systems to be installed in/on a building. These systems can allow the whole building to be in motion or just a part of it, whether indoor or outdoor. The most common kinetic systems used in buildings examined are kinetic roof elements.

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 Kineticism is applied to buildings in order to adapt to weather

changing patterns, save energy as well as allow for environmentfriendly energy sources, allow for natural ventilation and control light. There are many other reasons to adopt kinetic systems in buildings, but as previously mentioned environmental reasons are the most common. There are different factors that affect how kineticism is applied to analysed architectural projects which include used structure systems, used materials, reason behind applying these types of systems as well as other factors. Each of these factors is affected by the rest. When frame structures are used that reflected on used materials which varied from steel, to wood and paper. Also, using other structure systems affected the materials used. The used structure system affected the installed type of kineticism. The most common structure system used in the analysed projects is frame structure. This type of structure system allows for many types of kinetic systems to be installed, such as elevation kinetic elements, kinetic walls and other systems. Structure systems are not the only factor that affected the used type of kineticism, the environment within the building equally affects the type of kineticism. Using kinetic facades, or walls as well as interior elements is suitable to living environments. The reason behind applying kinetic systems is affected by the nature of the environment that the building creates. When a kinetic system is installed to a living environment that is to allow for more privacy, create more flexible living spaces, to add luxury as well as other environmental reasons.

7.5 RECOMMENDATIONS Although architecture has an influence on the environment it creates, it is affected by different factors that include technology, users and environment whether natural or built. In order to improve the quality of the architectural environment, kinetic architecture can be the solution to create environmental- friendly, safe, organized, enjoyable and adaptable environments. To achieve extremely useful results, architects should work in teams to improve research with collaboration with specialists from different fields. These fields may range from engineering such as information technology, communications, mechanical and structural engineering to social as well as environmental science. Planners should work hard in order to look for means and ways to invent and implement ideas at the rate requested for keeping up with the rest of the world. It is of great importance to carry out researches in order to understand how kinetic architecture will affect urban planning. Kinetic design will provide planners with creative means for problem solving using technological advancements that facilitate decision making and collaboration between different interest groups during the process. If urban planners will consider events, activities and changes rather than buildings and structures, they can provide greater comfort and safety for all residents. PRAGYA BHARATI (2014-2019)

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