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Vol 31 No 4 July • August 2017

CHIPS

Die enigste tydskrif vir die aartappelbedryf • The only magazine for the potato industry

16

Potato Research Symposium – 2017

36

Optimisering van energiegebruik in die Sandveld

76

Potatoes….potato industry….Potatoes South Africa CHIPS • July/August 2017

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in aartappels

- Dr. Erik Eksteen, Syngenta

Halmvernietiging of doodspuit is ’n praktyk wat baie algemeen is in die verbouing van aartappels. Dit word gedoen aan die einde van die seisoen om die groei te stop en die oesproses te vergemalik. Om die beste resultate te verkry tydens doodspuit is dit belangrik dat die mees geskikte produk gebruik word in terme van effektiwiteit sowel as veiligheid vir die omgewing, die toediener en die verbruiker. REGLONE® is ’n nie-selektiewe kontak onkruiddoder wat ideaal geskik is vir halmvernietiging in aartappels. Dit is vinnig werkend, nie-vlugtig en droog groen materiaal uit binne dae na toediening. Dikwat, die aktiewe bestanddeel in die produk REGLONE, is tans die enigste aktief wat in Suid-Afrika geregistreer is vir halmvernietiging in aartappels. Daar is verskeie goeie redes hoekom REGLONE met die aktiewe bestanddeel dikwat, en nie ander verwante produkte (parakwat) uit dieselfde onkruiddodergroep, gebruik moet word vir halmvernietiging: • REGLONE word nie so geredelik deur die vel opgeneem soos ander onkruiddoders in dieselfde onkruiddodergroep nie en is dus veiliger om te hanteer. • REGLONE is immobiel in die grond en bou nie op nie in die omgewing of die grond nie. • Die effektiewe werking van REGLONE is nie afhanklik van aktiewe plantgroei nie. • REGLONE is reënvas binne 10 minute na toediening. • REGLONE het geen wagperiode op aartappels nie. • Die gebruik van REGLONE vir doodspuit versnel skilset wat skade aan die knolle tydens die oesproses aansienlik verminder. • REGLONE sal ook laat onkruid wat in die land staan en die oesproses kan bemoeilik, beheer. Waarskuwing: Moet nie REGLONE gebruik vir halmvernietiging in bewolkte toestande of in die aand nie, aangesien lae ligintensiteit kan veroorsaak dat die produk in die plant beweeg en skade aan die knolle mag veroorsaak. Vir verdere inligting raadpleeg die REGLONE® etiket op www.syngenta.co.za

LEES DIE ETIKET VIR VOLLEDIGE BESONDERHEDE REGLONE® bevat dikwat-ioon 200 g/l (Reg. nr. L1115, Wet nr. 36 van 1947). SKADELIK. REGLONE® is die geregistreerde handelsmerk van ’n Syngenta Groep Maatskappy. Syngenta Suid-Afrika (Edms) Beperk, Privaatsak X60, Halfway House, 1685. Tel. (011) 541 4000.

@SyngentaSA

@SyngentaSA

@SyngentaSA

16234/A IDEA ENGINEE ® S

Halmvernietiging


CHIPS CHIPS is die amptelike tydskrif van Aartappels Suid-Afrika. CHIPS is the official magazine of Potatoes South Africa. Redakteur/Editor Gawie Geyer

COVER | VOORBLAD

Advertensies/Advertisements Gawie Geyer Sel/Cell: 082 388 0524 gawie@potatoes.co.za E-faks/E-fax: 086 685 6524 Aartappels Suid-Afrika, De Havillandsingel 6, Persequor Technopark, Persequor Park, Pretoria, 0020. Tel: 012 349 1906. Faks: 012 349 2641 Potatoes South Africa, 6 De Havilland Crescent, Persequor Technopark, Persequor Park, Pretoria, 0020. Tel: 012 349 1906. Fax: 012 349 2641 Ontwerp en uitleg: Henco Schoeman (HJ Ontwerp) Gedruk deur BusinessPrint vir die eienaar en uitgewer: Aartappels Suid-Afrika, Privaatsak X135, Pretoria, 0001. Design and layout: Henco Schoeman (HJ Design) Printed by BusinessPrint for the owner and publisher: Potatoes South Africa, Private Bag X135, Pretoria, 0001. Die menings wat uitgespreek word is die menings van die skrywers en verteenwoordig nie noodwendig die mening van die redaksie van CHIPS of die mening van Aartappels Suid-Afrika nie. Aartappels Suid-Afrika aanvaar geen verantwoordelikheid vir aansprake wat in advertensies en artikels gemaak word nie. The opinions expressed are the opinions of the writers and do not necessarily portray the opinion of the editorial staff of CHIPS or that of Potatoes South Africa. Potatoes South Africa does not accept any responsibility for claims made in advertisements and articles. Alle regte voorbehou. Geen gedeelte van hierdie publikasie mag op enige wyse gereproduseer word nie. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form.

16

Potato Research Symposium – 2017

36

Optimisering van energiegebruik in die Sandveld

76

Potatoes….potato industry…. Potatoes South Africa

www.potatoes.co.za CHIPS • July/August 2017

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110

Persentasie

105

16

36

100

95 90 85

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

48 Mei

2000 tot 2003

INHOUD | CONTENT ARTIKELS | ARTICLES • JULY | AUGUST 2017

GESPREK / CONVERSATION

6

KOMMUNIKASIE / COMMUNICATION Potatoes….potato industry….Potatoes South Africa

NUUS / NEWS

International news 8 KONTREINUUS / REGIONAL NEWS KwaZulu-Natal Annual General Meeting TEGNIESE NUUS / TECHNICAL NEWS Wesgrow Potatoes will aartappels sexy maak Potato Research Symposium – 2017 16 Van moerkweker tot skrywer Besproeiing onder droogtetoestande – Jakkie Mellet, 3de in die 2017 Mongol Derby ‘n boer se persperktief 30 Stappe vir effektiewe byvoegmiddelkeuse 32 AARTAPPELSERTIFISERINGSDIENS /

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82 84 86 86

POTATO CERTIFICATION SERVICE

EKONOMIESE NUUS / ECONOMIC NEWS Optimisering van energiegebruik vir aartappelproduksie in die Sandveld Seisoenale tendense in hektare geplant asook verkope en pryse op markte

36 48

BEDRYFSDIENSTE / INDUSTRY SERVICES Sandveld kultivarproef onder besproeiing op Aurora in 2016/2017 Ceres kultivarproef onder besproeiing in die Koue Bokkeveld in 2016/2017

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CHIPS • Julie/Augustus 2017

Seed Grower of the Year finalists announced

PROKON Aartappellewerings aan varsproduktemarkte – Mei / Junie 2017

66

96

ALGEMEEN Potato Industry Forum Werktyd, oortyd, korttyd, rustyd

54

88

100 106

AARTAPPELRESEP / POTATO RECIPE Resepte uit die boek Sandveldkos: Kosnostalgie en stories van gister

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Jun

Jul

A

2013 tot


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88

100

ADVERTENSIES ADVERTISEMENTS Syngenta

UIT DIE ARGIEWE – FROM THE ARCHIVES 109 SKYFIE SÊ – SKYFIE SAYS 109 DAGBOEK – DIARY 109 APAC Markagente – Market agents

110

Binneblad - voor

Haifa

9

ANSA

9

Top Crop

11

Wesgrow 12 Arysta

15

Villa

33

RSA Saad Beurs

35

Uniekum 35 Nexus

47

DOW AgroSciences

53

Moerhandelaarsforum 64 DOW AgroSciences

65

DOW AgroSciences

75

Africa Transport Solutions

81

Ivanhoe 81 Buckle Packaging

81

Kynoch

83

SA Exporters Forum

83

Philagro 87 Bayer

95

LWO

107

CHIPS (Advertensietariewe)

111

GWK

Agterblad

CHIPS • July/August 2017

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Success in the value chain depends on team work

We are already halfway through 2017 and, as expected, up to date the year has yielded its unique problems and challenges. South Africa is privileged to have a free market system, and the market has once again proved the important role it plays in balancing supply and demand in order to determine prices. As expected prices on the fresh produce markets were not on the same levels as a year ago when drought and extremely hot conditions led to a significant drop in the availability of potatoes, and consequently higher prices. Up to now this year’s potato crop was much more normal compared to the previous two years, although since March record potato sales were recorded on markets. This is good news, especially in view of the fact that consumers’ purchase power is under immense pressure as a result of the sluggish economy. If it wasn’t for the strong demand for potatoes, prices would have been under severe pressure; something potato producers cannot afford in the high production cost situation we are experiencing. Potato producers would have to continuously endeavour to manage the price-cost squeeze as best as possible. The production and marketing aspects over which the producer has direct control will have to receive special attention in order to improve productivity. An example is the pack house effectivity project that is being conducted by Potatoes South Africa. This project endeavours to measure the effectivity in pack houses and thereby identify those areas that require attention. This includes, inter alia, the classification of potatoes and how effective labour is utilised. It simultaneously offers the producer the opportunity to compare himself / herself with other producers (on an anonymous basis). The pilot phase of the quality index project is well under way. This project is a consequence of the pack house effectivity project and endeavours to evaluate the potatoes of consenting producers on markets on the basis of various criteria, where after feedback is given to the relevant producers. The feedback offers the producer the opportunity the compare his/her potato farming operation with that of other producers (anonymously), as well as information as to where, if necessary, adjustments/alterations should be made in order to realise a better market price. Page 6 |

CHIPS • Julie/Augustus 2017

In addition to the producer’s contribution to market his/her potatoes as a value proposition (i.e. excellent grading, high quality and packaging), the industry as a whole should progressively add impetus to position the potato as a consumable of choice. In other words it must be a team effort by producers, other value chain role players (e.g. agents, processors and retailers) and Potatoes South Africa. During its previous financial year the latter used the theme #WTP in its generic promotion campaign to promote potatoes on television, radio and social media and in magazines. #WTP stands for “Where is the potato”, “Who is the potato” and “What is the potato”. Potatoes South Africa understands the importance of continuous activations and initiatives aimed at increasing the demand for potatoes. As a result additional innovative activations and initiatives will be launched in the new financial year in support of previous efforts to cement top of mind awareness with consumers in respect of the value proposition the potato offers. Actions relevant to market access are becoming increasingly important, and as a result Potatoes South Africa is working closely with other role players to improve the management and trading environment on fresh produce markets, to protect the local market against the dumping of foreign products and to identify export opportunities. 2017 is Congress Year, and the theme for this year’s Congress is “Do value chains really matter …. If so, where is the value? This theme links-up with the abovementioned aspects and I am convinced that the presentations and discussions at Congress will shed new light on how we should position ourselves in future to ensure sustainability. I am looking forward to see you at Congress! Potato greetings Dr André Jooste Chief Executive Officer


Gesprek • Conversation

Sukses in die waardeketting is afhanklik van spanwerk

Ons is reeds halfpad deur 2017 en, soos verwag, het die jaar tot dusver sy eiesoortige probleme en uitdagings opgelewer. Suid-Afrika is bevoorreg om ’n vryemarkstelsel te hê en het die mark weereens bewys watter belangrike rol dit speel om vraag en aanbod te balanseer ten einde pryse te bepaal. Soos verwag was pryse op varsproduktemarkte nie op dieselfde vlakke as ’n jaar gelede nie toe droogte- en hittetoestande gelei het tot ’n aansienlike daling in die beskikbaarheid van aartappels, en gevolglik hoër pryse. Tot op hede was hierdie jaar se aartappeloes baie meer normaal vergeleke met die vorige twee jare, terwyl daar sedert Maart rekordverkope van aartappels op markte was. Dit is goeie nuus, veral in die lig dat verbruikers se koopkrag onder geweldige druk is as gevolg van die trae ekonomie. Indien die vraag na aartappels nie sterk was nie sou pryse onder geweldige druk gewees het; iets wat aartappelprodusente nie kan bekostig in die hoë produksiekoste-situasie wat ons beleef nie. Produsente gaan voortdurend moet poog om die pryskoste-knyptang so goed moontlik te bestuur. Die produksie- en bemarkingsaspekte waaroor die produsent direkte beheer het sal spesifiek aandag moet geniet om sodoende produktiwiteit te verbeter. ’n Voorbeeld is die pakhuiseffektiwiteitsprojek wat deur Aartappels Suid-Afrika onderneem word. Hierdie projek poog om die effektiwiteit in pakhuise te meet en sodoende areas te identifiseer wat aandag moet geniet. Dit sluit onder andere in die klassifikasie van aartappels en hoe doeltreffend arbeid aangewend word, terwyl die produsent homself/haarself ook kan vergelyk met ander produsente (op ’n anonieme basis). Die loodsfase van die kwaliteitsindeksprojek is goed op dreef. Hierdie projek is ’n uitvloeisel van die pakhuiseffektiwiteitsprojek en poog om instemmende produsente se aartappels op markte te beoordeel aan die hand van verskeie kriteria waarna daar terugvoer aan hulle verskaf word. Hierdie terugvoer gee aan die produsent die geleentheid om homself/haarself met ander produsente te vergelyk (anoniem), en waar nodig, aanpassings/verstellings te maak ten einde ’n beter markprys te realiseer.

Bo-en-behalwe vir die produsent se bydrae om sy/ haar aartappels as ’n waardeproposisie te bemark (i.e. goeie gradering, hoë kwaliteit en verpakking), moet die bedryf as geheel toenemend stukrag verleen om aartappels as ’n produk van voorkeur te posisioneer. Dit moet dus ’n spanpoging wees tussen produsente, ander waardeketting-rolspelers (bv. agente, verwerkers en kleinhandelaars) en Aartappels Suid-Afrika. Laasgenoemde het tydens die vorige finansiële jaar die tema #WTP gebruik om aartappels te promoveer op televisie, radio en sosiale media asook in tydskrifte. #WTP staan vir “Where is the potato”, “Who is the potato” en “What is the potato”. Aartappels Suid-Afrika besef die belangrikheid van deurlopende aktiwiteite en inisiatiewe wat daarop gemik is om die vraag na aartappels te verhoog. Gevolglik sal daar in die huidige finansiële jaar weer innoverende aksies van stapel gestuur word ter ondersteuning van vorige pogings om die waardeproposisie wat aartappels bied in die bewussyn van verbruikers te sementeer. Aksies van toepassing op marktoegang word toenemend belangrik, en gevolglik werk Aartappels Suid-Afrika nou saam met ander rolspelers om die situasie ten opsigte van die bestuur en verhandelingsomgewing op varsproduktemarkte te verbeter, die plaaslike mark te beskerm teen die storting van buitelandse produkte en om uitvoergeleenthede te identifiseer. 2017 is Kongres Jaar, en die tema van die kongres is “Maak waardekettings werklik saak…. Indien wel, waar is die waarde? Hierdie tema sluit aan by die kwessies wat bovermeld word en is ek seker dat die besprekings en aanbiedings tydens kongres nuwe lig sal werp op hoe ons onself in die toekoms sal moet posisioneer om volhoubaarheid te verseker. Ek sien daarna uit om u by Kongres te sien! Aartappelgroete Dr. André Jooste Hoofuitvoerende Beampte

CHIPS • July/August 2017

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international

NEWS

Survey finds potato cyst infestation reaching 80% in some areas of Kenya Infestation of potatoes by the Potato Cyst Nematode (PCN), a deadly pest that was discovered in Kenya two years ago, has reached alarming levels. A survey done in 20 counties, through support from the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO), whose results were released recently, shows that PCN infestation has reached 80 to 100% in some of the potato growing areas. The study shows that the future of potato production is bleak unless the government takes emergency measures to stem the rapid spread of the devastating pest. This include a ban on potato production and transport to other growing regions, and even other countries, to stop the spread. The pest can remain in the soil for up to 30 years. Infested potatoes usually show early maturity, produce Page 8 |

CHIPS • Julie/Augustus 2017

tiny tubers and are usually stunted. Up to now, there is no known chemical or biological agent that can control the pest. Source: nation.co.ke

Netherlands contributes $4m towards potato development centre in Tanzania A new potato centre in the southern Tanzanian town of Mbeya will be co-financed by the Dutch ministry of Economic affairs (USD4m) and a group of nine companies to help Tanzanian farmers to improve their yields. The Netherlands is the world leader in the potato sector, with Dutch seed potatoes accounting for 60% of worldwide potato production. Over 500 different varieties of potato are grown in the Netherlands, whereas in Tanzania only four varieties are used and farmers often harvest no more that 7- 8 tons per hectare, well below the 30 tons that could be reached with high quality seed potatoes and improved farming techniques.


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CHIPS • July/August 2017

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“This centre can have a great impact on research and training. With this great initiative, the potato business can finally take off,” says Mathew Mtigumwe, Permanent Secretary at the Tanzanian Ministry of Agriculture.

GMO potatoes, with the approval process expected to be completed next year at the earliest. However, concerns are being raised about the potential health impacts of GMO food products and the adverse effects of these imports on domestic potato farmers.

Source: potatobusiness.com

The Council of Agriculture said it would monitor future imports and call for proper labelling of foreign GMO potatoes. If approved for import, the GMO potatoes would be used in potato chips, French fries and other processed food products.

New techniques catch potato pests on Kangaroo Island Seed potato growers on Kangaroo Island are adopting a new strategy to manage the aphids and thrips pestering their crops, taking on expert advice from Dr Paul Horne and Angelica Cameron from IPM Technologies to help them improve their integrated pest management (IPM) and control the most important pests of seed potato crops: the aphids and thrips that vector potato leafroll virus and tomato spotted wilt virus. IPM is a broad-based approach that brings together biological, cultural and chemical controls to manage plant pests in a sustainable manner that minimizes the unnecessary use of chemical interventions on crops. Following a successful trial by several growers that achieved control of insect pests with only minimal use of soft selective insecticides, and no application of broad-spectrum products during the life of the crops, the technique spread in popularity among the island’s industry. In the 2016/2017 season, the majority of the island’s seed potato growers implemented some form of IPM across their farms to some extent. The extension model used on Kangaroo Island is now going to be promoted in major potato and onion production regions around Australia, including field training and one-on-one support, as part of a Hort Innovation industry levy and Federal Government funded project. Source: FreshPlaza

Taiwan prepared to control US GMO potato imports

source: chinapost.com.tw

Scottish scientists identify gene to create more heat tolerant potatoes Potatoes are particularly vulnerable to increased temperature, which is considered to be the most important uncontrollable factor affecting growth and yield. This is important in the context of Global Food Security as well as being particularly relevant to the Scottish potato seed industry. To meet this challenge, scientists at the James Hutton Institute and the University of St Andrews have developed a technique to engineer heat tolerance in potato crops, potentially providing potato breeders with a valuable tool in their quest to create varieties suited to the requirements of growers, industry and retailers. By comparing many different types of potato, scientists at the Institute have found a version of a gene involved in the heat stress response that is more active in potato types that can tolerate high temperature. The team went on to show that the switch that turns the protective gene on is different in the heat tolerant types. Their results identify a novel version of a gene that codes for a heat shock protein as a significant factor influencing yield stability under moderately elevated temperature. The challenge now is to introduce this version of the gene to potato breeding programs for the development of a more resilient crop.

Agriculture authorities in Taiwan say they're prepared to implement controls to prevent the possible import of U.S. genetically modified (GMO) potatoes from affecting domestic growers.

Once realised this research will offer huge humanitarian and economic opportunities, and should ultimately ensure supply in a changing environment for subsistence farmers through to the large commercial potato processing operations.

The United States of America recently applied with the Taiwanese Health and Welfare Ministry to import

Source: potatopro.com

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CHIPS • Julie/Augustus 2017

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CHIPS • July/August 2017

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CHIPS • Julie/Augustus 2017


Nuus • News

CHIPS • July/August 2017

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PREMIER HOTEL

OR TAMBO Gladiatorstr 73, Rhodesfield

Navrae tov al drie funksies: Monica vd Merwe

Dagboek die Datum! 28 SEP 2017

Aartappels Suid-Afrika

Kongres

“Verbruik is die enigste einddoel van alle produksie� - Adam Smith (1789)

Dagboek die Datums!

Dit is noodsaaklik dat belanghebbendes in die voedselwaardeketting dit produseer wat die smake en voorkeure van verbruikers teen bekostigbare pryse bevredig. Hul smake en voorkeure verander voortdurend as gevolg van verskeie faktore, wat insluit, maar nie beperk is nie tot veranderinge in per capita inkomste, sosiale invloede en veranderinge in lewenstyl. Die belanghebbendes in die voedselwaardeketting moet na verbruikers luister om te verstaan en te antisipeer hoe die smake en voorkeure van verbruikers oor tyd gaan verander om sodoende te kan aanpas en relevant te bly. Dit geld net so vir die aartappelbedryf. Tydens hierdie Kongres sal kundiges in verskillende aartappelwaardekettings dit bespreek wat belangrik is vir die aartappelbedryf om relevant te bly en die vraag na aartappels en aartapppelprodukte te laat groei.

Moerhandelaarsforum

Maak waardekettings werklik saak... indien wel, waar is die waarde?

monica@potatoes.co.za

www.potatoes.co.za

26 Sep 2017

Moerkwekersforum

27 Sep 2017

Registrasies open

02 Mei 2017

www.potatoes.co.za H Design March 2017 | www.hdesign.co.za


Azur Opti 660 SC

SWAMDODER

(Asoksistrobien + Chlorotalonil)

Vroeë Roes op aartappels se doodsteek

‘n Suspensie konsentraat Vroeë Roes swamdoder met sistemiese, translaminêre en kontak werking. §

Vir die voorkomende gebruik, met die aanvang van die Vroeë Roes spuitprogram, in aartappels.

§

Dien toe in blokke van 2 bespuitings, 7-10 dae uitmekaar.

§

Azur Opti kan in 'n spuitprogram met ander Vroeë-en Laat Roes middels gebruik word soos Azur Top, Defender, Mycoguard, Mancozeb, Crater MX of Brilliant SL.

§

Azur Opti moet verkieslik afgewissel word met ander Vroeë Roes middels van 'n ander chemiese groep volgens die “FRAC” Weerstands Bestuurs Riglyne.

§

Azur Opti is verenigbaar met meeste geregistreerde Insek- Swam- en Mytdoders.

§

Indien Vroeë Roes simptome reeds sigbaar is met die aanvang van die Vroeë Roes program, word aanbeveel dat daar begin word met 'n enkele bespuiting van Azur Top, waarna voort gegaan kan word met die beplande spuitprogram.

Arysta LifeScience

AZUR OPTI 660 SC Reg. Nr. L10021, Act/Wet No./Nr. 36 of/van 1947 Swamdodergroepkodes 11 & M5 VERSIGTIG Aktiewe Bestandele: Asoksistrobien (strobilurien) 60 g/ℓ Chlorotalonil (chloronitriel) 600 g/ ℓ Registrasiehouer Almond Agro Chemicals (Edms.) Bpk. (Mpy.Reg. Nr. 1997/006442/07) Posbus 783703, Sandton, 2146 Produkinligting (012) 460 2576 Produk van: Almandine Corporation S.A. Gotthardstrasse 3, 6300 Zug Switzerland AZUR TOP 325 SC Reg Nr. L9867 Act/Wet No./Nr. 36 of/van 1947 Swamdodergroepkodes 11 & 3 VERSIGTIG Aktiewe bestanddele: Asoksistrobien(strobilurien) 200 g/ℓ 600 Difenokonasool (triasool) 125 g/ ℓ Registrasiehouer Almond Agro Chemicals (Edms.) Bpk. (Mpy.Reg. Nr. 1997/006442/07) Posbus 783703, Sandton, 2146 Produkinligting (012) 460 2576 Produk van: Almandine Corporation S.A. Gotthardstrasse 3, 6300 Zug Switzerland DEFENDER 250 EC Reg. Nr.: L 8471 Act /Wet Nr. 36 van 1947 FRAC SWAMDODERGROEP KODE: 3 VERSIGTIG AKTIEWE BESTANDDEEL: Difenokonasool (triasool) 250 g/ℓ Registrasiehouer: Arysta LifeScience South Africa (Pty) Ltd Mpy. Reg. Nr. 2009/019713/07, 7 Sunbury Office Park, Off Douglas Saunders Drive, La Lucia Ridge, South Africa, 4019 Tel: 031514 5600 MYCOGUARD 720SC Reg. Nr.: L 8417 Act /Wet Nr. 36 van 1947 FRAC SWAMDODERGROEP KODE:M5 VERSIGTIG AKTIEWE BESTANDDEEL: Chlorotalonil (phthalonitriel) 720 g/ℓRegistrasiehouer: Arysta LifeScience South Africa (Pty) Ltd Mpy. Reg. Nr. 2009/019713/07, 7 Sunbury Office Park, Off Douglas Saunders Drive, La Lucia Ridge, South Africa, 4019 Tel: 031514 5600 MANCOZEB WP Reg. Nr.: L3517 Act /Wet Nr. 36 van 1947 FRAC SWAMDODERGROEP KODE: VERSIGTIG AKTIEWE BESTANDDEEL: Mankoseb [ditiokarbamaat] 800 g/kg Registrasiehouer: Kempton Chemicals (Pty) Ltd trading as Mpy. Reg. Nr.: 82/01497/07 Arysta LifeScience South Africa (Pty) Ltd Mpy. Reg. Nr. 2009/019713/07 CRATER MX 700 WP Reg. Nr.: L 8427 Act /Wet Nr. 36 van 1947 FRAC SWAMDODERGROEP KODE: 4 + M3 VERSIGTIG AKTIEWE BESTANDDELE: Metalaksil (fenielamied) 100 g/kg, Mankoseb (ditiokarbamaat) 600 g/kg Geregistreer deur: Volcano Agroscience d./(Edms) Bpk Co. Reg Nr. 2000/004551/07

www.arystalifescience.co.za

BRILLIANT SL Reg. Nr.: L 7225 Act /Wet Nr. 36 van 1947 FRAC SWAMDODERGROEP KODE: 33 VERSIGTIG AKTIEWE BESTANDDELE: ammoniumfos�et 386 g/ℓ (fosforigsuur ekwivalent 300 g/ℓ) Registrasiehouer: Arysta LifeScience South Africa (Pty) Ltd Versprei deur: Arysta LifeScience South Africa (Pty) Ltd Mpy. Reg. Nr. 2009/019713/07, 7 Sunbury Office Park, Off Douglas Saunders Drive, La Lucia Ridge, South Africa, 4019 Tel: 031 514 5600


Potato Research Symposium – 2017 at Club Mykonos Gawie Geyer Mr Johan van den Heever, Chairperson of Potatoes South Africa's Research Committee said in his welcoming address that the annual Potato Research Symposium is a platform for technology transfer and networking in the potato industry. It is also year on year growing in stature and in the number of attendees who represent the full spectrum of Page 16 |

CHIPS • Julie/Augustus 2017

stakeholders in the potato industry. To add some spice three invited speakers addressed the symposium. Dr Denise Altenbach from BIOREBA AG in Switzerland spoke on the development, manufacturing and quality assurance of phytodiagnostic products, Dr Brian de Villiers of Villa Crop Protection SA, addressed the issue of adjuvants spray mixtures and water quality, and Mr Chris Barnard of the Fertigation Academy provided a farmer’s perspective on irrigation under drought conditions.


Tegniese Nuus • Technical News

The development, manufacturing and quality assurance of phytodiagnostic products: Dr Denise Altenbach, BIOREBA AG in Switzerland “BIOREBA was the first independent company worldwide to produce and commercialize ELISA reagents for plant virus diagnostics in 1980 and is certified according to the international recognized quality management system ISO 9001 and our testing service laboratory is accredited according to ISO/IEC 17025. Today the research community and diagnostic and/or certification-laboratories around the world rely on our products for testing potatoes, grapevines, fruit trees, small fruit, vegetables, ornamentals and field crops”, Dr Denise Altenbach said in her introduction. She added that in the field of potatoes they are collaborating and exchanging knowhow and virus isolates with designated research institutes and potato certification laboratories such as Plantovita. “As accredited testing laboratory, we regularly participate in international ring tests. In the last year all our test systems ELISA, qPCR and PCR macroarray passed ring tests with 100 % success. This type of ring testing ensures that all, or most pathogen variation is considered in certification laboratories and consequently in our diagnostic products”, Dr Altenbach said. Currently BIOREBA offers three diagnostic test systems for the detection of viruses of potato: DAS-ELISA, quantitative PCR and PCR macroarray, all of which have been approved for the certification of seed potatoes. In view of the fact that the sensitivity of the methods differ, appropriate sampling is necessary to provide comparable sensitivity result outputs. “DAS-ELISA is widely used all over the world for seed potato certification. The recommended sample tissue is sprouted tubers or leafs. In dormant tuber samples the virus concentration can be too low for detection by ELISA. With the process of dormancy breaking and sprout production, viruses undergo a natural multiplication process and accumulate to a significant concentration. ELISA is a very cost effective and robust method and therefore suitable for high-throughput testing. The high-throughput testing allows analysis

of single tuber samples if so chosen. The potential infection of a seed potato lot can be precisely determined in percentage”, she explained. She further mentioned that quantitative PCR is a very sensitive method that allows testing for viral infection in dormant tuber samples. Due to the relatively high costs for RNA extraction and PCR reagents, pooling of samples is therefore unavoidable. “The PCR technology is usually chosen if there is no possibility for sprout and/or leaf production. Dormant tuber samples lack the natural accumulation of viruses during the process of dormancy breaking. Our validation data show that appropriate sampling provides comparable sensitivity output of ELISA and qPCR.” She also referred to PCR macro-array and said that it is a PCR based technology with subsequent hybridisation that allows multiplex detection of seven viruses in one test. “Its sensitivity is in-between ELISA and qPCR and is recommended for the analysis of dormant tuber samples in pools of up to ten tubers. It is mainly used for testing pre-basic material where the analysis of many viruses is needed.” Dr Altenbach concluded by stressing the importance of choosing the appropriate testing method, taking into account the infrastructure (e.g. availability of greenhouses), climatic conditions and most importantly the sampling procedure in place. Dr Brian de Villiers, Villa Crop Protection SA: Adjuvants, spray mixtures and water quality See separate article by Dr De Villiers Stappe vir effektiewe byvoegmiddelkeuse. Mr Chris Barnard, Fertigation Academy: A farmer’s perspective on irrigation under drought conditions See separate article by Mr Chris Barnard - Besproeiing onder droogtetoestande, 'n boer se perspektief. CHIPS • July/August 2017

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DIE WAARDE VAN DIE ELISA-TOETS / THE VALUE OF THE ELISA TEST

Validasie van die ELISA-toets in die sertifisering van moere / Validation of the ELISA test in the certification of seed potatoes

Marieta Botha

GRONDGEDRAAGDE SIEKTES / SOIL-BORNE DISEASES Oorsig, biologie en beheer van Pectobacterium spp: Die Suid-Afrikaanse perspektief / Overview, biology and control of Pectobacterium spp: The South African perspective

Dr Lucy Moleleki

Die aggressiewe aard van Pectobacterium brasiliensis in die Suid-Afrikaanse aartappelproduksiesektor/ Understanding the aggressive nature of Pectobacterium brasiliensis in the South African potato production sector

Alessandro Gracia

Hoe ondermyn Pectobacterium spp vyandige plant-antimikrobiese verdediging? / How does Pectobacterium spp undermine hostile plant antimicrobial defences?

Ntombi Nkomo

Bestryding van biofilmvorming met antimikrobiese peptiede en dispersiene / Combating biofilm formation with antimicrobial peptides and dispersins

Nikki Miguel

Opsporing van sagtevrot Enterobacteriaceae in besproeiingswater wat in aartappelproduksiestelsels in Suid-Afrika gebruik word / Detection of soft rotting Enterobacteriaceae in irrigation water used in potato production systems in South Africa

Natalie Laughton

Epidemiologie en bevolkingstudies van Rhizoctonia op aartappels in Suid-Afrika: Implikasies vir siektebestuur/ Epidemiology and population studies of Rhizoctonia on potatoes in South Africa: Implications for disease management

Bevestiging van die biotiese oorsake van kurkagtige krake op knolle in Suid-Afrika / Confirmation of the biotic causes of corky cracks on tubers in South Africa

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CHIPS • Julie/Augustus 2017

Prof Jacquie van der Waals


Tegniese Nuus • Technical News

Evaluering van aartappelvariëteite vir bruinskurf wat veroorsaak word deur Streptomyces scabiei / Screening of potato varieties for common scab caused by Streptomyces scabiei

Dr René Sutherland

VOLHOUBARE WATERGEBRUIK & AARTAPPELKWALITEIT / WATER USE EFFICIENCY & POTATO QUALITY Watervoetspoor-assessering van aartappelproduksie in Suid-Afrika en innoverende hulpmiddels om waterverbruiksdoeltreffendheid te verbeter / Assessment of the water footprints of South African potato production and innovative tools to improve water use efficiency

Prof Martin Steyn

Die Sandveld grondwater moniteringsprogram: 2004-2018 / The Sandveld groundwater monitoring programme: 2004 - 2018

Julian Conrad

Die impak van klimaatsverandering op aartappelopbrengs en watergebruiksdoeltreffendheid in Suid-Afrika, asook opsies vir aanpassing / The impact of climate change on potato yield and water use efficiency in South Africa, and options for adaptation

Lutendo Muelelwa

Die potensiaal van organiese boerdery op die produktiwiteit en kwaliteit van aartappels / The potential of organic farming on the productivity and quality of potato

Sifiso Mhlongo

INSEKPESTE, NEMATODES, AARTAPPELKLASSIFIKASIE & BESTUURSPRAKTYKE / INSECT PESTS, NEMATODES, POTATO CLASSIFICATION & MANAGEMENT PRACTICES Plantluismonitering op moere in Suid-Afrika / Aphid monitoring in seed potatoes in South Africa

Prof Kerstin Krüger

Ondersoek na die invloed van klimaat op die aktiwiteit en intensiteit van aartappelvirusvektore in die winterreënvalstreek/ Investigation into the influence of climate on the activity and intensity of potato viral vectors in the winter rainfall region

Dr Kobus Laubscher

Evaluering van alternatiewe sistemiese onkruiddoders vir die beheer van opslagaartappelplante / Evaluation of alternative systemic herbicides for control of volunteer potato plants

Dr James Allemann

CHIPS • July/August 2017

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Ondersoek na beheerstrategieë van die aartappelblaarmyner op aartappels / Investigation into control strategies of the potato leafminer on potatoes Dr Diedrich Visser Ondersoek na die plaagstatus van die tamatieblaarmyner, Tuta absoluta, op aartappel in SA / Investigations into the pest status of the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta, on potato in SA

Tekstuurklassifikasie van aartappels deur gebruik van ’n kooktoets/ Textural classification of potatoes using a boiling test

Carmen Muller

Identifisering en gebruik van knoleienskappe om aartappel- kwaliteit te voorspel: 2016-2017 / Identifying and using tuber characteristics to predict potato quality: 2016-2017

Rian Gericke

Effek van paclobutrazol en spasiëring op groei en opbrengs van aartappels (Solanum tuberosum) in subtropiese streek: Oos-Kaap Provinsie / Effect of paclobutrazol and spacing on growth and yield of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) in subtropical region: Eastern Cape Province

Xola Ngceni

In vitro aartappel-genebank instandhouding van oopen sub-lisensie aartappelkultivars / In vitro potato genebank maintenance of open and sub-licence potato cultivars

Nokuthula Myeza

GRONDGEDRAAGDE SIEKTES & BAKTERIESE PATOGENE / SOIL-BORNE DISEASES & BACTERIAL PATHOGENS Vatbaarheid van aartappelkultivars vir Spongospora subterranea f.sp. subterranea / Susceptibility of potato cultivars to Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea

Spongospora in my grond: Wat kan ek plant? / Spongospora in my soil: What can I plant?

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CHIPS • Julie/Augustus 2017

Prof Jacquie van der Waals

Moleboheng Lekota


Tegniese Nuus • Technical News

Spleetskurf op aartappels in Suid-Afrika / Fissure scab on potatoes in South Africa

Dr Michelle Cloete

Aspekte van die bestuur van bakteriese verwelk van aartappels – oorlewing en sterilisasie van toerusting / Aspects of management of bacterial wilt of potatoes – survival and sterilization of equipment

Dr René Sutherland

‘n Ondersoek na die etiologie en patogenisiteit van Verticillium verwelk in die Sandveld / An investigation into the etiology and pathogenicity of Verticillium wilt in the Sandveld

Estianne Retief

Die effek van plantekstrakte, essensiële olies en chemiese behandelings op na-oes sagtevrot en kultivarvatbaarheid / The effect of plant extracts, essential oils and chemical treatments on post-harvest potato soft rot incidence and cultivar susceptibility

Tlangelani Nghondzweni

Evaluering van aartappelkultivars vir Alternaria alternata toleransie / Screening potato varieties for Alternaria alternata tolerance

Shirley Mathelemuse

Doeltreffendheid van Lantana camara en Melia azedarach L. botaniese ekstrakte teen belangrike aartappelbakteriese patogene / Effectiveness of Lantana camara and Melia azedarach L. bontanical extracts against important potato bacterial pathogens

Lerato Matsaunyane

Kalsiumsianamied: Potensiaal vir die bestuur van Spongospora subterranea f.sp. subterranea? / Calcium cyanamide: Potential for management of Spongospora subterranea f.sp. subterranea?

Prof Jacquie van der Waals

PLANTBESKERMINGSMIDDELS & WISSELBOUPROGRAMME / PLANT PROTECTION PRODUCTS & CROP ROTATION PROGRAMMES Bewaringsboerderypraktyke vir aartappelproduksie in die Sandveld / Conservation farming practices for potato production in the Sandveld

Dr Jacques van Zyl

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Ontwikkeling van streekspesifieke wisselbouprogramme vir die Oos-Vrystaat / Development of region-specific crop rotation programmes for the Eastern Free State

Joel Dube

Die opvolging van aalwurms in ‘n Vrystaatse aartappelrotasiestelsel / The succession of nematodes in a Free State potato rotation system

Dr Mariette Marais

Invloed van kortermyn-aartappelgewasrotasies op die bestuur van bevolkingsdigtheid van knopwortelaalwurms / Influence of short-term potato crop rotations on the management of population densities of root-knot nematodes

Dr Kgabo Pofu

KLIMAAT & PLANTVOEDING / CLIMATE & PLANT NUTRITION

Ontwikkeling van bemestingsriglyne vir geselekteerde nuwe aartappelkultivars / Development of fertiliser guidelines for selected new potato cultivars

Prof Martin Steyn

LYS VAN KULTIVARPROEWE / LIST OF CULTIVAR TRIALS

KwaZulu-Natal kultivarevaluasieproef op Weenen / KwaZulu Natal cultivar evaluation trial at Weenen

Louis Pretorius

Noordoos-Kaap kultivarevaluasieproef op Ugie / North Eastern Cape cultivar evaluation trial at Ugie

Chantel du Raan

Limpopo kultivarevaluasieproef op Tom Burke / Limpopo cultivar evaluation trial at Tom Burke

Schalk Grobbelaar

Limpopo kultivarevaluasieproef op Polokwane (Pietersburg) / Limpopo cultivar evaluation trial at Polokwane (Pietersburg)

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CHIPS • Julie/Augustus 2017

Albert Boneschans


Tegniese Nuus • Technical News

Wes-Vrystaat kultivarevaluasieproef op Bultfontein / Western Free State cultivar evaluation trial at Bultfontein Wes-Vrystaat kultivarevaluasieproef op Kroonstad / Western Free Sate cultivar evaluation trial at Kroonstad

Herman Haak

Chantel du Raan

Oos-Vrystaat kultivarproef op Warden / Eastern Free State cultivar evaluation trial at Warden Suidwes-Vrystaat kultivarevaluasieproef op Petrusburg / South Western Free State cultivar evaluation trial at Petrusburg

Fanus van Zyl

Ceres kultivarevaluasieproef in die Koue Bokkeveld / Ceres cultivar evaluation trial in the Koue Bokkeveld

Hano Dreyer

Mpumalanga kultivarevaluasieproef op Middelburg / Mpumalanga cultivar evaluation trial at Middelburg

Enrike Verster

Oos-Kaap kultivarevaluasieproef op Hankey / Eastern Cape cultivar evaluation trial at Hankey

Retief Cilliers

Noord-Kaap kultivarevaluasieproef op Douglas / Northern Cape cultivar evaluation trial at Douglas

André Prins

Sandveld kultivarevaluasieproef op Aurora / Sandveld cultivar evaluation trial at Aurora

Piet Brink

CHIPS • July/August 2017

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Dr Fienie Niederwieser in her wrap-up said that the Potato Research Symposium – 2017 was attended by 221 persons, the highest number of attendees ever. “We had three guest speakers whose presentations added value to the proceedings. The 48 presentations covered a wide variety of topics relevant to potato production and the core business activities of Potatoes South Africa’s Department: Research and Development such as soil-borne diseases, long-term aphid and ground

water quality monitoring and soil conservation. 35 presentations were of a scientific nature of which 12 were presented by students. If compared to last year that the students presentations spoke of development and underlined the importance that students remain part of the symposium. 13 presentations were in respect of the cultivar trials conducted by the potato workgroups in the different production regions.” She did put emphasis on the gathering long term data to reach conclusions in order to find solutions. “In my opinion this will become the trend for the future if we wish to successfully manage potato diseases and protect the soil to ensure the future and viability of the potato industry ”, she said in conclusion. C

And the Awards go to........ At Awards Evening hosted by Bayer recognition was given to those individuals and potato workgroup, who performed best in the eyes of the adjudicators.

Prof Martin Steyn receiving the Bayer trophy from Mr Dirk Uys for the best presentation by a researcher for his presentation on the assessment of the water footprints of South African potato production and innovative tools to improve water use efficiency.

Mr Piet Brink receiving the Bayer trophy from Mr Dirk Uys for the best presentation by a potato workgroup.

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CHIPS • Julie/Augustus 2017

Mr Joel Dube receiving the Potato Industry Development Trust prize from Dr Freek du Plooy for the best presentation by a post graduate student for his presentation on the development of region-specific crop rotation programmes for the Eastern Free State

The Ceres Potato Workgroup walked away with the trophy for the best attendance by a potato workgroup. Mr Pieter du Toit jr accepted the trophy from Dr Fienie Niederwieser and Dr André Jooste on behalf of the workgroup.


Tegniese Nuus • Technical News

Farm Visit - Now that’s

how potatoes are sorted The Potato Research Symposium included a visit to the state of the art, fully-automated potato packaging facility on the farm of Stephan & Seun Farming Trust, near Elandsbaai in the Sandveld. The plant is equipped with optical sorting equipment supplied by Compac in New Zealand, multi-head scales supplied by Manter in Holland and a bunker/ selection system locally built by Uniekum in South Africa. According to Mr Stef Stephan the facility makes it possible to sort and pack 18 tons of washed potatoes per hour. Every tuber gets individually photographed and weighed before it is dumped into one of nine bunkers. “On an average quality crop, the equipment makes it possible to select 75% of the blemishes electronically, with the remaining 25% being handsorted. On a good quality crop, the Compac is able to do a 100% job on both quality and weight. We

have three packaging stations which are our only real labour intensive part of the operation.” He also said that they are presently only working one shift, but is considering a second one to accommodate other growers in the Sandveld, therefore optimising the capacity of the plant. C

Jong navorsers wie hulle merk maak Sedert die PIDT-prys vir die beste aanbieding deur ‘n student die eerste keer in 2014 toegeken is, is dit deur drie jong navorsers verower.

Studente vind dit gewoonlik ongelooflik intimiderend om vir die eerste keer voor ‘n hele bedryf se verteenwoordigers te staan en hul resultate aan te bied. Die simposium speel in hierdie verband ‘n belangrike rol om nagraadse studente op lei om die bedryf se probleme beter te verstaan, om te leer om met selfvertroue oor hulle resultate te kan praat en te luister wat die is wat en hoe die boodskap oorgedra moet word.

The extracts of all the presentations will be made available on the Potatoes South Africa’s website www.potatoes. 2014 en 2015: Chantel du Raan (heel links) 2016: Carmen Muller (middel langs dr. André Jooste) en in 2017, Joel Dube (middel langs Chantel du Raan)

co.za and the cultivar trial reports have been published or will be published in CHIPS.

CHIPS • July/August 2017

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CHIPS • Julie/Augustus 2017


Tegniese Nuus • Technical News

Hoofborg / Main sponsor

Goueborg / Gold sponsor

Silverborg / Silver sponsor

Kristalborg / Crystal sponsor

CHIPS • July/August 2017

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CHIPS • Julie/Augustus 2017


Publikasies

2017 TIPE

Titel Handleiding vir Aartappelproduksie in Suid-Afrika @ R300

Handleidings

Beskrywing van 16 aartappelplae in Suid-Afrika

(BTW ingesluit en posgeld uitgesluit)

Junie 2017

Beskrywing van 16 aartappelpeste in Suid-Afrika (2017)

Beste praktyke-reeks

Bundel CHIPS-artikels

Beste praktyke vir die hantering van moere (2015) Verantwoordelike gebruik van gewasbeskermingsprodukte (2016) Na-oesverrotting van aartappels / Post harvest decay of potatoes (2015).

ALTERNARIA-SIEKTES

Opslagaartappels / Volunteer potatoes (2017). Plakkaat

Intene kwaliteit (2016)

Saamgestel en gepubliseer deur Aartappels Suid-Afrika (Departement: Navorsing en Ontwikkeling) September 2016 Kopiereg. Die inligting vervat in hierdie publikasie mag slegs vir eie gebruik, navorsing of studie gebruik word. Die kopiereg (geheel of gedeeltelik) van hierdie publikasie mag nie vir enige kommersiĂŤle of ander doelwit gekopieer, gereproduseer, oorgedra of gewysig word, sonder die uitdruklike geskrewe toestemming van Aartappels Suid-Afrika nie en dit mag slegs gedoen word onderhewig aan die voorwaardes ingevolge waarvan sodanige toestemming verleen word. Voorgestelde verwysing: Aartappels Suid-Afrika. 2016. Feiteblad: Alternaria-siektes. http://www.potatoes.co.za/research/factsheets.aspx Vrywaring ten opsigte van publikasies. http://www.potatoes.co.za/contact/disclaimer.aspx

Aartappelblaarmyner (2015) Aartappelmot (2015) Alternaria siektes (2017) Bakteriese verwelk (2015) Bruinskurf (2015) Feiteblaaie

Fisiologiese knolafwykings (2016) Na-oesverlies (2017) Interne kwaliteit (2016)

Verantwoordelike gebruik van gewasbeskermingsprodukte Junie 2016

Poeierskurf (2016) Sagtevrot-swartstam (2015) Silwerskurf en swartspikkel (2015) Virussiektes en plantluise (2016) Beskikbaar by kantore van Aartappels Suid-Afrika. Met die uitsondering van die Handleiding vir Aartappelproduksie in Suid-Afrika, is al die publikasies elektronies beskikbaar op www.potatoes.co.za/research Opslagaartappels Volunteer potatoes

2017 CHIPS

www.potatoes.co.za/research


Besproeiing onder droogtetoestande,

ʼn boer se perspektief Mnr. Chris Barnard, Fertigation Academy

Aartappelverbouing in Suid-Afrika is meeste van die tyd nie maklik nie, veral as die omgewing waarin en toestande waaronder dit geskied in ag geneem word; of jy nou in die Sandveld boer of in Dendron, elke gebied het sy eie unieke uitdagings óf dit nou die tipe grond is óf waterkwaliteit óf wat ook al. Wat egter van kardinale belang is, is dat as die aartappelprodusent moet besef dat hy/sy nie met aartappels boer nie, maar in werklikheid met wortels – as hy/sy dit besef sal hulle die lewe vir hulself baie makliker Page 30 |

CHIPS • Julie/Augustus 2017

maak. Dit onderstreep ook die belangrikheid van grondgesondheid. In die lig van bogenoemde is dit belangrik om grondmonsters dieper as 20 cm te trek aangesien wortels heelwat dieper as dit groei en dit noodsaaklik is om te weet wat in die ondergrond aan die gang is. Grondregstelling is uiters belangrik, maar dit sal moeilik wees om die grondstatus reg te stel as die produsent nie weet wat daar aangaan nie.


Tegniese Nuus • Technical News

Verseker dat die kalium / kalsium / magnesium en natrium verhouding reg is, maar waak teen oormaat magnesium omdat dit die grond hard maak en wortelontwikkeling bemoeilik. Dit moet aanvaar word dat 'n aartappelland verskillende grondtipes mag hê en is dit moeilik is om die grondregstelling daarby aan te pas te einde eweredige wortelontwikkeling te verseker. Grondregstelling is egter uiters noodsaaklik om ideale verbouingstoestande te skep om optimale opbrengs te verseker. Ten einde die optimale verhouding tussen wortelvolume en blaarbedekking te verkry, moet daar verseker word dat die grond gesond is en dat al die nodige komponente (water/suurstof/plantvoeding/ grondlewe) in die regte verhouding teenwoordig is. Die hoofrede vir 'n suurstof tekort in die grond is oorbesproeiing omdat daar van gerekenariseerde besproeiingstelsels gebruik gemaak word sonder om te gaan kyk wat in die land aan die gang is. Om maksimum hoeveelheid groot aartappels en opbrengs te verseker moet faktore soos transpirasie, fotosintese, koolhidrate, lig en die omgewing in ag geneem word aangesien dit groei verseker en dat konstante groei, grootte verseker en grootte, opbrengs bepaal. Dit is dus noodsaaklik om die belangrikheid van optimale transpirasie vir plantontwikkeling te besef want hoe nader die werklike transpirasie aan die potensiële transpirasie is hoe hoër die opbrengs.

gereeld die grondwaterstatus in die profiel te monitor en besproeiingspraktyke deurlopend aan te pas om die grondwaterstatus op die gewenste vlakke te handhaaf. Wat grondwater betref is “probes” 'n wonderlike hulpmiddel, maar aangesien die volpunt en hervulpunt verander soos wat gronddigtheid oor tyd in die groeiperiode van die plant verander is dit belangrik om beide punte gereeld aan te pas om optimale watervoorsiening regdeur die plant se groeiseisoen te verseker. Daarmee saam moet nie net die boonste 40 cm van die profiel gemonitor word nie, maar ook dieper dieptes om die beskikbaarheid van water in die grondreservoir te kwantifiseer. Kennis moet ook geneem word van huidmondjieweerstand, veral in warm tye want dit is gemik op selfbeskerming. Vermy dan om te veel water te wil gee aangesien dit tot versuiping van die plante lei. Onthou die ideale besproeiingsprogram is om die korrekte hoeveelheid water te gee as die grond droog is en vermy om water gee as dit grond nat is. C

Wat omgewingsbehoeftes betref is korrekte dampdruk, wat uit temperatuur, relatiewe humiditeit, straling en wind bestaan, noodsaaklik aangesien dit die tempo van transpirasie bepaal. Van die vier is wind se bydrae die belangrikste, maar tog is dit temperatuur wat gemeet word alhoewel dit die mins belangrikste van die vier faktore is. Huidmondjieweerstand sal ook toeneem (dehidrasie-meganisme van ’n plant) sodra die temperatuur hoër as 24°C is en relatiewe humiditeit (lugvog) onder 40% daal. In die geval van aartappelverbouing is dit belangrik dat die operdwal (aktiewe bewortelingsarea) ten minste 75% van die blaaroppervlakte moet wees omrede 90% van die wortelontwikkeling daar plaasvind en die wortels 'n sleutelrol vervul in die ontwikkeling van die plant en die aartappels. Dit is dus belangrik dat die blaardekking en wortelvolume in die korrekte verhouding moet wees. Nog 'n aspek wat die aartappelprodusente in ag moet neem is plantdatums en is dit gewens dat aanplantings nie met die produksiegebied se uiterste klimaatstoestande bots nie, veral in gebiede waar langdurige droë winde ondervind word. Dit is ook belangrik om CHIPS • July/August 2017

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Stappe vir effektiewe byvoegmiddelkeuse Brian de Villiers, Produkbestuurder: Byvoegmiddels, Villa Crop Protection SA Plaagdoders word aan ’n klomp effektiwiteitsbeperkende faktore blootgestel vandat hulle in die spuitoplossing gevoeg word, totdat die opname proses voltooi is. Hierdie beperkende faktore sluit swak waterkwaliteit, tenkmengsel onverenigbaarheid, swak bedekking en die uiteindelike verlaagde opname deur die wasagtige lae op die blaaroppervlak in. Byvoegmiddels is dus ontwerp om plaagdoders te help om hierdie faktore te oorkom, en sodoende optimale beheer te verseker. As daar een ding is wat ons die afgelope paar

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seisoene geleer het, is dit dat die korrekte byvoegmiddelkeuse ‘n verskil maak. Die eerste stap in byvoegmiddelkeuse is natuurlik om seker te maak dat die byvoegmiddel geregistreer is. Die volgende vrae is dan nodig voordat ’n produkkeuse gemaak word. Word die plaagdoder deur ’n hoë pH beïnvloed? pH-verlagende byvoegmiddels word dikwels as ’n standaard praktyk gebruik. Die korrekte proses om eerder te volg is om te bepaal of die spesifieke


Koste-effektiewe, omvattende gewasbeskerming. Onkruiddoders Insekdoders Swamdoders Plantgroeireguleerders Byvoegmiddels Blaarvoedingsmiddels

• Toonaangewende verskaffer van kwaliteit plaaslik- en internasionaal-geformuleerde produkte • Jaarlikse multimiljoen rand-beleggings in navorsing en ontwikkeling • Meer as 350 geregistreerde produkte, spesifiek ontwikkel vir plaaslike omstandighede • Vir twee dekades u bondgenoot in suksesvolle gewasproduksie • Bykans 900 navorsings- en ontwikkelingsproewe • ISO-akkreditasie Villa Crop Protection het in ‘n nuwe vennootskap met Land O’Lakes, Inc., ‘n Fortune 250-maatskappy van die VSA getree. Land O’Lakes se gewasinsetbesigheid, Winfield United, sal deur middel van hul personeel en produkte, kundigheid en ondersteuning aan bestaande plaaslike bedrywe bring.

Yielding a better tomorrow. Villa Crop Protection (Pty) Ltd | Reg no 1992/002474/07 65 Botes Avenue, Glen Marais, Kempton Park, South Africa Tel: +27 11 396 2233 Tel: +27 87 740 3490 Fax: +27 86 677 3175 KEMPTON PARK DEPOT: 69 Fried Avenue, Glen Marais, 1619 Tel: +27 11 396 2233 Tel: +27 87 740 3490 Fax: +27 11 396 1943 CAPE TOWN DEPOT: 3 Marchand Street, Wellington, 7655 Tel: +27 21 873 6892 Fax: +27 21 873 6173

villacrop.co.za CHIPS • July/August 2017

Page 33


Tegniese Nuus • Technical News

plaagdoder wel deur ’n hoë pH beïnvloed word. Daar moet eers vasgetel word of die plaagdoder deur alkaliese hidroliese afgebreek word, en of ’n lae pH voordelig vir plaagdoder-opname is. Indien die antwoord op hierdie vrae positief is, dan behoort ’n pH-verlagende produk gebruik te word. Daar moet egter in gedagte gehou word dat die betrokke byvoegmiddel die pH genoegsaam in alle waterkwaliteite moet verlaag. Dit moet nie die pH te min in sekere waterkwaliteite verlaag, en dan weer te veel in ander nie. Indien die antwoord op hierdie vrae egter negatief is, moet pH-verlagende byvoegmiddels onder geen omstandighede gebruik word nie! Hou ook in gedagte dat verskillende buffers verskillende buffervermoëns het en ook ander formulasie-bestanddele bevat wat voor- of nadelig vir spesifieke plaagdoders kan wees. Word die plaagdoder deur antagonistiese ione in water benadeel? Verskeie onkruiddoders word deur harde en brak spuitwater benadeel. In hierdie gevalle is soutneutraliserende byvoegmiddels soos ammoniumsulfaat voordelig. Wees egter versigtig om nie sulke byvoegmiddels as ’n standaard praktyk met alle onkruiddoders te gebruik nie. Sekere onkruiddoders word nie deur opgeloste soute in spuitwater benadeel nie, en die gebruik van hierdie byvoegmiddels is in dié geval ’n mors van geld. Hou ook in gedagte dat geregistreerde ammoniumsulfaat byvoegmiddels in Suid-Afrika geweldig ten opsigte van formulasiebestanddele verskil. Sekere produkte bevat slegs ammoniumsulfaat, terwyl ander ook ’n beperkte hoeveelheid benatter en/of suur en/of herbenatter bevat. Maak seker dat hierdie ander komponente wel

Page 34 |

CHIPS • Julie/Augustus 2017

nodig is en dat dit die effektiwiteit verhoog. Sal die plaagdoder bevoordeel word deur verhoogde bedekking? Die meeste plaagdoders sal wel deur verhoogde bedekking bevorder word. Die korrekte benatter, olie byvoegmiddel of neerslag hulpmiddel is krities om verhoogde bedekking en effektiewe druppel verspreiding te verseker. Die teendeel hiervan is dat verhoogde bedekking van ’n plaagdoder wat alreeds geweldig effektief is, gewasskade kan veroorsaak. Kies ’n byvoegmiddel wat wyd getoets is en ’n geskiedenis het van verhoogde plaagbeheer met geen gewasskade. Sal die byvoegmiddel die opname van sistemiese plaagdoders verhoog? ’n Mens kan al die bogenoemde stappe volg en ’n groot hoeveelheid plaagdoder op die teiken kry, maar indien die benatter of olie byvoegmiddel ’n swak penetreerder is, sal die plaagdoder nie effektief presteer nie! Dit word dikwels aangeneem dat verskillende benatters en olies almal dieselfde is en soortgelyk gaan presteer. Ongelukkig is dit nie die geval nie en die verkeerde byvoegmiddelkeuses kan al bogenoemde stappe kelder. Villa aanbeveling Gebruik asseblief wyd getoetse byvoegmiddelprodukte waar die aansprake op kwaliteit navorsing gebaseer is. Die verkeerde byvoegmiddelkeuse kan rampspoedige gevolge inhou! C


CHIPS • July/August 2017

Page 35


Optimisering van energieverbruik vir aartappelproduksie in die Sandveld Isobel van der Stoep, Bioresources Consulting BK; Prof. Martin Steyn, Departement van Plant-en Grondwetenskappe, Universiteit van Pretoria; Prof. Bennie Grové, Departement Landbou-ekonomie, Universiteit van die Vrystaat; Danie Snyman, Eskom en Pieter van Zyl, Aartappels Suid-Afrika

Energiekoste bly een van die duurste insette benodig vir die produksie van aartappels onder besproeiing, en na aanleiding van ‘n ondersoek wat in 2015/2016 in Limpopo uitgevoer is, het Aartappels Suid-Afrika ’n soortgelyke projek in die Sandveld van stapel gestuur. Die doelwit van die projek was die ekonomiese evaluasie van alternatiewe strategieë om elektrisiteitskostes te verminder, waterverbruiksproduktiwiteit te verbeter en winsgewendheid te verhoog, en het plaasgevind tydens die someraanplanting (September) van aartappels in die Sandveld.

Page 36 |

CHIPS • Julie/Augustus 2017

Die volgende aktiwiteite het tydens die projek plaasgevind: • Energie-oudits is deur Eskom by elf medewerkers uitgevoer om ’n oorsig te kry van tipiese energieverbruik op plase in die Sandveld. • Besproeiingstelsel-evaluasies is uitgevoer op vyf spilpunte om die doetreffendheid en toedieningseenvormigheid van die besproeiingstelsels te bepaal. • Dieselfde vyf spilpunte se besproeiings-ure en -toedienings is gedurende die seisoen gemoniteer om die werklike waterverbruik te bepaal. • Die gemete inligting is gebruik om die energie- en waterverbruiksdoeltreffendhede van die stelsels te bepaal.


Ekonomiese Nuus • Economic News

Verbouing ander 16% Pakstore 4%

Energie-oudits

Behuising 7%

Verkoeling 1%

Spilpunt 4%

Besproeiing Aartappels 68%

Figuur 1: Gemiddelde verspreiding van elektrisiteitsverbruik (kWh/jaar) by 11 medewerkers

Hektaar aartappels

250

200 150

114

100

50 0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

Gem

Medewerkers

Figuur 2: Hektare aartappels besproei deur 11 medewerkers

80 70

Ton per ha

60

49,9

50

40 30 20 10 0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Medewerkers

Figuur 3: Aartappelopbrengste (ton/ha) vir 11 medewerkers

9

10

11

Gem

Die totale jaarlikse energieverbruik van elf produsente in die Sandveld is deur ’n adviseur van Eskom vir 2016 bepaal. Die verspreiding van energieverbruik deur die verskillende komponente wat op ’n plaas aangetref word, as gemiddeld vir die elf medewerkers, word in Figuur 1 aangetoon. Sowat 68% van die jaarlikse elektrisiteitsverbruik op ’n Sandveld plaas word aangewend vir die besproeiing van aartappels. Spilpunte en pakstore gebruik elk net 4% van die jaarlikse verbruik van elektrisiteit (kWh). Die areas van aartappels wat besproei is het gewissel van 23 ha tot 232 ha per produsent, met ’n gemiddeld van 114 ha (Figuur 2), terwyl die opbrengste onder die elf medewerkers gewissel het van 40 tot 67 ton/ ha, met ‘n gemiddeld van 49.9 ton/ha (Figuur 3). Die gemiddelde berekende elektrisiteitstariewe vir die elf medewerkers was R1.14/kWh (Figuur 4), terwyl die gemiddelde elektrisiteitskoste vir die verbouing van aartappels in die Sandveld bereken is as R7 272/ha (Figuur 5). Die groot variasies wat waargeneem kan word CHIPS • July/August 2017

Page 37


R 1,50

Gem tarief (R/kWh)

R 1,40 R 1,30 R 1,20

1,14

R 1,10 R 1,00

R 0,90 R 0,80

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

Gem

Medewerkers

Figuur 4: Gemiddelde elektrisiteitstariewe (R/kWh) vir 11 medewerkers

in die tariewe en kostes kan toegeskryf word aan die verskillende omstandighede by die elf medewerkers. Daar was verskillende kombinasies van Landrate en Ruraflex kragpunte, sowel as verskillende groottes transformators en verbruiksprofiele, wat die totale koste op elke plaas beïnvloed het. Eskom adviseurs het elke medewerker besoek, sy data bespreek en aanbevelings gemaak.

R 15 000

Besproeiingstelselevaluasies

Rand per ha

R 13 000 R 11 000 R 9 000 R 7 272 R 7 000 R 5 000 R 3 000

1

2

3

4

5

6 7 8 Mederwerkers

9

10

11

Gem

Figuur 5: Elektrisiteitskoste per hektaar vir besproeiing van aartappels vir die 11 medewerkers

Figuur 6: Gebruik van ‘n draagbare vloeimeter om die vloeitempo van ‘n spilpunt te bepaal Page 38 |

CHIPS • Julie/Augustus 2017

Die volgende fase van die projek het behels dat die werkverrigting van vyf spilpunte ondersoek word deur die doeltreffendheid en uniformiteit van water toegedien deur die stelsels te meet. Die evaluasie van ’n spilpunt behels dat die vloeitempo van die spilpunt by die spil met ‘n draagbare vloeimeter gemeet word (Figuur 6), en die verspreiding van die water gemeet word deur ‘n stel reënmeters uit te pak oor die lengte van die masjien (Figuur 7), volgens riglyne van die Landbounavorsingsraad se Instituut vir Landbou-ingenieurswese (LNR-ILI). Die loopspoed van die masjien en maksimum toedieningstempo onder die oorhang


Ekonomiese Nuus • Economic News

By SV 3 beteken dit dat 22% van die water wat by die spuit uitspuit, verlore raak tussen die spuit en die grondoppervlak. By SV 4 gaan slegs 3% van die water verlore. Die totale pompdruk wat in Tabel 1 getoon word, is die som van al die werksdrukke waaraan die water wat na die spilpunt vervoer word, blootgestel word. Byvoorbeeld as die water eers uit ’n boorgat gepomp is na ’n dam en dan uit die dam na die spilpunt, is die totale pompdruk die som van die boorgatpomp en die dampomp se drukke, insluitend enige benaderde wrywingsverliese en topografiese hoogteverskille (10 m pompdruk is ekwivalent aan ongeveer 100 kPa of 1 bar waterdruk). Monitering van waterverbruik Figuur 7: Verspreidingstoets onder ‘n spilpunt deur reënmeters uit te pak

word ook gemeet. Tydens die evaluasie word daar ook algemene waarnemings gemaak aangaande die toestand van die stelsel (van byvoorbeeld enige lekkasies wat waargeneem word en die diepte van die wielspore). Die heersende weersomstandighede (temperatuur, humiditeit, windspoed en -rigting) word gemeet. Die resultate van die vyf evaluasies word in Tabel 1 aangetoon. Die stelsels se uniformiteite soos aangedui deur die Heerman & Hein uniformiteitskoëffisiënt (CUHH) en die verspreidings-uniformiteit van die laagste kwart (DUlq) was oor die algemeen goed (almal is beter as die norm, behalwe SV 5), veral as die omstandighede waartydens die toetse uitgevoer is, in ag geneem word. Tydens drie van die gevallestudies (SV 2, SV 3 en SV 5) was die windspoed baie hoog (17-18 km/h), en by SV 3 was die temperatuur ook baie hoog (39˚C). Uniformiteit verwys na die eweredigheid van watertoediening oor die lengte van die spilpunt, met ander woorde of al die plante dieselfde hoeveelheid water kry tydens besproeiing. Die toedieningsdoeltreffendheid (AE = “Application Efficiency”) van die stelsels was ook almal hoër as die minimumvereiste van 80%, behalwe vir SV 3 met 78%, waar daar hoë windspoed en temperature voorgekom het, wat dus die humiditeit verlaag het en sodoende tot hoër verdampingsverliese gelei het. Die toedieningsdoeltreffendheid is die verhouding tussen die hoeveelheid water wat die spilpunt lewer en die hoeveelheid water wat in die reënmeters gemeet word, met ander woorde daardie persentasie van die water uit die spuite wat die grondoppervlak bereik.

Vorige studies in die Sandveld het getoon dat daar groot verskille is tussen die hoeveelhede water wat deur verskillende produsente toegedien word. Hierdie projek het dit ook ten doel gestel om die besproeiingstoedienings akkuraat te meet sodat die werklike elektrisiteitsverbruik en -kostes akkuraat bepaal kan word. Die monitering het plaasgevind deur die tyd wat die elektriese motor op die laaste toring van elke spilpunt loop, te meet met behulp van ‘n sensor wat die elektromagnetiese veld van die motor registreer as dit aanskakel. ‘n Foto van die sensor se installasie word getoon in Figuur 8. Die inligting wat bekom is, kon dan ontleed word om te bepaal presies wanneer en teen watter tempo elke spilpunt gedurende die seisoen geloop het. Die vyf gevallestudies se plantdatums het gewissel tussen 30 Augustus en 11 Oktober 2016, en die werklike en berekende besproeiingsbehoeftes word

Figuur 8: Montering van elektromagnetiese sensor om spilpunt-looptyd te moniteer CHIPS • July/August 2017

Page 39


Tabel 1: Opsomming van stelsel-evaluasie resultate by vyf gevallestudies

Gevallestudie nommer

SV 1

SV 2

SV 3

SV 4

SV 5

Boorgate en Dam

Boorgat en Aanjaerpomp

Boorgat

Dam en/of Boorgat

Boorgate en Dam

Vloeitempo by spil, m3/h

71,3

57

46,5

61

88

Spilpunt area, ha

11,2

11,0

11,9

12,6

25,0

Helling, %

3,4

3,5

0,5

0

1,7

Totale pompdruk, m

171

76

57

90

151

Drywing, kW

55

15

10.8

31.2

55.8

Nee

Ja

Nee

Nee

Nee (wel met “soft starter”)

Landrate

Landrate

Ruraflex

Ruraflex

Landrate

14

13,5

8,4

12

8

Vaste spuit (“Fixed spray”)

Vaste spuit (“Fixed spray”)

Wankelspuit (“i-Wob”)

Wankelspuit (“i-Wob”)

Vaste spuit (“Fixed spray”)

Spoed gestel, %

50

55

39

50

80

Spoed gemeet, %

50

57

40

49

70

Pomp opstelling

VSD in gebruik? (Veranderlike spoed aandrywing) Eskom tariefplan Spuit pakket, mm/dag Spuite

Uniformiteit: CUHH (>85%), %

89

89

87

86

83

DUlq (>75%), %

86

83

76

76

84

Toedieningsdoeltreffendheid: AE (>80%), %

83

90

78

97

94

Wind tydens toets, km/h

12

18

17

11

18

Temperatuur, ˚C

32

21

39

24

27

Humiditeit, %

43

70

27

71

51

getoon in Tabel 2. Die gemete besproeiingsdata sluit die water toegedien vir afkoeling aan die einde van die seisoen in. Die gemiddelde werklike besproeiing toegedien (705 mm) was net sowat 7% hoër as die berekende netto besproeiingsbehoefte van 661 mm. Die besproeiingsbehoefte verteenwoordig die hoeveelheid water wat die grond moet infiltreer ten einde te verseker dat die gewas geen waterstremming ondervind nie. Dit is ’n teoretiese syfer wat met ’n model bereken word en hang af van die heersende weerstoestande en die gewas se groeistadium. Ongelukkig is besproeiingstelsels nie 100% effektief nie, en moet meer water toegedien word om vir Page 40 |

CHIPS • Julie/Augustus 2017

verliese voorsiening te maak. Die werklike bruto besproeiingshoeveelheid is dus altyd hoër as die netto behoefte. Die berekende besproeiingsbehoefte en werklike besproeiing as ’n funksie van die verskillende plantdatums word in Figuur 9 aangetoon. Die medewerker SV 4 het die verste afgewyk van die berekende besproeiingsbehoeftes, met 'n 30% hoër toediening as die berekende behoefte. In die praktyk is dit toelaatbaar dat werklike besproeiingshoeveelhede 15-20% hoër is as die berekende netto behoefte om vir stelselverliese en ongunstige weerstoestande (byvoorbeeld wind en lae humiditeit) voorsiening te maak. Verder is dit


Ekonomiese Nuus • Economic News

Tabel 2: Opsomming van moniteringsresultate by vyf gevallestudies

Gevallestudie nommer

SV 1

SV 2

SV 3

SV 4

SV 5

11 Okt

26 Sept

30 Aug

27 Sept

10 Sept

Werklike besproeiing (mm): A

864

737

505

901

516

705

Berekende besproeiingsbehoefte (mm): B

723

673

598

693

619

661

% van behoefte (A/B x 100)

120

110

84

130

83

105

Werklike opbrengs (t/ha): C

68

75

35

73

58

59

Berekende opbrengspotensiaal (t/ ha): D

104

104

108

106

105

106

% van potensiaal (C/D X 100)

65

72

32

69

55

57

Werklike WVD (kg/ha/mm)

79

102

69

81

112

91

Potensiële WVD (kg/ha/mm)

144

155

181

153

170

161

Plantdatum (2016)

duidelik dat vroeër plantdatums ’n heelwat laer waterbehoefte teweeg gebring het as gevolg van laer atmosferiese verdampingsaanvraag tydens die koeler maande. Dit sal ook weerspieël word in elektrisiteitsbesparings. Die data toon aan dat by SV 3 en SV 5 onderskeidelik slegs 84% en 83% van die besproeiingsbehoeftes toegedien is. In die geval van SV 3 is probleme ondervind met die moere wat geplant is, wat die plante se groei en opbrengs negatief beïnvloed het. Dit het ook daartoe gelei dat die gewas se waterbehoeftes heelwat laer was. By SV 5 was die maksimum stelselontwerp van 8 mm / dag onvoldoende om aan die gewas se behoeftes te voldoen. Dit het waarskynlik gelei tot laer totale waterverbruik en finale opbrengs. Figuur 10 en Tabel 2 toon die werklike opbrengste wat elke produsent behaal het versus die berekende opbrengspotensiaal. Die opbrengspotensiaal word met ’n model bereken en dui die teoretiese maksimum opbrengs aan wat vir ’n spesifieke omgewing, klimaat en kultivar behaal kan word. Produsente wat die beskikbare omgewing en hul insette doeltreffend benut, behoort minstens 65% van die omgewingspotensiaal te behaal. Drie van die gevallestudies se opbrengste was 65% of hoër, terwyl SV 3 en SV 5 laer opbrengste behaal het, vir die redes soos reeds bespreek. Figuur 11 en Tabel 2 toon die waterverbruiksdoeltreffendheid (WVD) aan van die vyf gevallestudies as ’n funksie van plantdatum. WVD gee 'n aanduiding van hoe doeltreffend water na

Gem.

aartappels omgeskakel word (d.w.s hoeveel kg aartappels daar met 1 mm water geproduseer is). SV 5 het die beste WVD gehad, terwyl SV 2 se opbrengs die hoogste was en ook ’n goeie WVD gehad het. WVD syfers beter as 80 kg/ha/mm (8 x 10 kg sakkies/mm besproei) word as aanvaarbaar beskou, terwyl waardes van 100 kg/ha/mm en hoër maklik met goeie bestuur en onder gunstige klimaatstoestande behaal kan word. Te veel water wat op die verkeerde tyd toegedien word dra nie by tot opbrengs nie, verhoog elektrisiteitskostes en dra by tot siektes en dikwels ook tot verlaagde kwaliteit van die aartappeloes. Skeduleringshulpmiddels en watermeting kan ingespan word om water meer akkuraat toe te dien (sien die reeks oor skeduleringshulpmiddels in vorige uitgawes van CHIPS) om sodoende water te bespaar en WVD te verhoog. Uit Figure 9 en 10 is dit duidelik dat opbrengspotensiaal afneem en waterbehoeftes toeneem hoe later in die somer daar geplant word. Waterverbruiksdoeltreffendheid daal gevolglik ook al hoe meer soos plantdatums later aangeskuif word (Figuur 11). Monitering van spilpunte se energieverbruik Die data vanaf die elektromagnetiese sensore kon ook ontleed word om die total pomp-ure van elke spilpunt te bekom, soos getoon in Tabel 3. Die gemiddelde pomp-ure was 1 379 ure oor die seisoen. Die data kon ook ontleed word om te bepaal hoe die tydprofiele van die spilpunte se looptyd lyk volgens CHIPS • July/August 2017

Page 41


Tabel 3: Opsomming van spilpuntbestuur by 5 gevallestudies

Gevallestudie nommer

SV 1

SV 2

SV 3

SV 4

SV 5

Eskom tariefplan

Landrate

Landrate

Ruraflex

Ruraflex

Landrate

Totale pomp-ure

1 357

1 357

1 291

1 414

1 475

14:35:51

16:28:56

14:34:52

14:33:53

15:35:50

Sept (2016)

0

66

36

172

33

Okt

80

137

186

77

349

Nov

414

437

571

503

492

Des

624

563

474

551

538

Jan (2017)

105

74

24

111

63

Feb

55

81

0

0

0

Maart

81

0

0

0

0

Ure verdeling volgens Eskom tydsgroeperinge, %(Spits: Standaard: Buitespits) Ure verdeling per maand:

die spits-, standaard- en buitespits- groepering vir Ruraflex gebruik (Figuur 12). Hoewel slegs SV 3 en SV 4 aan Ruraflex tariewe onderhewig is, is die inligting later gebruik om optimiseringsberekeninge vir al vyf stelsels uit te voer. Tabel 3 wys ook hoe die totale pomp-ure versprei was oor die verskillende maande waartydens besproeiing plaasgevind het, en hierdie inligting kon omgeskakel word na mm besproeiing toegedien per maand, soos grafies aangetoon in Figuur 13. Die maandelikse waterverbruik-hoeveelhede het ’n tipiese patroon van die gewas se groeikurwe gevolg; meet laer behoeftes vroeg in die seisoen wat 'n piek bereik teen die middel van die seisoen en dan later weer daal met rypwording. Uit die figuur is dit ook duidelik dat maandelikse waterverbruik toeneem hoe later daar in die somer geplant is. Elektrisiteitskoste-berekeninge Die inligting wat deur monitering bekom is, is verder gebruik om die elektrisiteitskostes vir die produksiestelsels in die vyf gevallestudies te bereken deur gebruik te maak van die kosteberekeningsprosedures wat vir die projek vir die Limpopo-streek ontwikkel is. Die resultate word getoon in Tabel 4. Vir elke Page 42 |

CHIPS • Julie/Augustus 2017

gevallestudie is daar ondersoek ingestel na wat die kostes sal wees vir beide Landrate en Ruraflex, aangesien die tariefplan-keuse die grootste geleenthede bied vir elektrisiteitskostebesparings. By gevallestudies SV 3 en SV 4 word daar reeds van Ruraflex gebruik gemaak. By gevallestudie SV 2 is daar ook gekyk na die kostebesparing wat teweeggebring sou kon word deur die gebruik van ’n VSD. Die gemiddeldes getoon in die laaste kolom is die geweegde gemiddeldes bereken vir die insette van die huidige situasies, soos aangedui by elke gevallestudie. Die gemiddelde vaste koste van elektrisiteit was R582/ha. Soos gesien kan word is die vaste elektrisiteitskoste van stelsels waar Ruraflex gebruik word, in alle gevalle goedkoper as wanneer Landrate gebruik word. Die veranderlike kostes om water aan die spilpunte te voorsien het gewissel van R1.92/mm tot R9.16/ mm, met ‘n gemiddeld van R5.40/mm. Die rede vir die groot verskille is die topografiese verskille by die stelsels – by SV 1 en SV 5 is daar groot hoogteverskille wat oorkom moet word vanaf die waterbronne tot by die stelsels, terwyl in die geval van SV 3 die water direk uit ’n boorgat aan die spilpunt voorsien is. Die produsent by SV 1 kan die veranderlike koste van R9.16 per mm na R6.40


Ekonomiese Nuus • Economic News

1000 900

Besproeiing, mm

800 700 600

SV4

SV1

27-Sep-16

07-Oct-16

SV2

500

SV3

400

SV5

300

200 100 0

28-Aug-16

07-Sep-16

17-Sep-16

Werklike besproeiing (mm)

Berekende besproeiingsbehoefte (mm)

Figuur 9: Berekende behoefte en werklike besproeiing as ‘n funksie van die plantdatums

120

Opbrengs, ton/ha

100 80

SV2

60

SV4

SV1

SV5

40

SV3

20 0

28-Aug-16

07-Sep-16

17-Sep-16

Werklike opbrengs (t/ha)

27-Sep-16

07-Oct-16

Berekende opbrengspotensiaal (t/ha)

Waterverbruiksdoeltreffendheid, kg/ha/mm

Figuur 10: Berekende en werklike opbrengste as ’n funksie van plantdatum

200

180 160

140 120

100

SV5

80

60

SV2

40

SV1

SV4

SV3

20 0

28-Aug-16

07-Sep-16

Werklike WVD (kg/ha/mm)

17-Sep-16

27-Sep-16

07-Oct-16

Potensiële WVD (kg/ha/mm)

Figuur 11: Berekende en potensiële waterverbruiksdoeltreffendheid as ‘n funksie van plantdatum

verlaag deur van Landrate na Ruraflex om te skakel. As daar na die gemiddelde totale elektrisiteitskostes gekyk word (vaste koste plus veranderlike koste), dan is dit R6.42/mm of R1.26 per kiloWattuur (kWh), wat redelik goed vergelyk met die R1.14/kWh wat deur die energie-oudits bepaal is. Die rede vir die effense hoër waardes wat hier bereken is, kan toegeskryf word daaraan dat die totale vaste koste aan die aartappelproduksie toegeken is. Let daarop dat die totale koste van die Ruraflex opsies deurgaans goedkoper is by die onderskeie gevallestudies as die Landrate opsies. Die omskakelingskoste (Landrate na Ruraflex) word later in die berekeninge in ag geneem. ’n Interessante indeks om te bestudeer is die elektrisiteitskoste per ton, wat gewissel het van R29/ ton tot R134/ton, met ‘n gemiddeld van R67/ ton. Weereens het die laagste koste voorgekom by ’n stelsel wat huidig op Ruraflex bedryf word (SV 3), en die hoogste koste by ’n stelsel op Landrate. Die elektrisiteitsverbruik was gemiddeld 3 283 kWh/ha of 53 kWh/ ton, in vergelyking met 2 277 kWh/ha of 42 kWh/ton wat gemeet is in Limpopo. Dit was egter ’n winter-aanplanting wat in Limpopo gemonitor is, en die gemiddelde besproeiingstoediening CHIPS • July/August 2017

Page 43


Tabel 4: Resultate van elektrisiteitskoste berekeninge

SV 1

SV 2 Geen VSD

VSD

Landrate

Ruraflex

Landrate

Ruraflex

Landrate

Ruraflex

Huidig

Alternat.

Alternat.

Alternat.

Huidig

Alternat.

Landrate opsie

3

Vaste elektrisiteitskoste, R

13 323

9 049

7 557

5 268

7 557

4 813

1 190

808

687

479

687

438

R/ha

7 922

5 531

2 479

1 716

2 200

1 523

R/mm

9,16

6,40

3,36

2,33

2,98

2,07

R/kWh

1,19

0,83

1,19

0,82

1,19

0,82

R/ha

9 112

6 339

3 166

2 195

2 887

1 961

R/mm

10,54

7,33

4,29

2,98

3,92

2,66

R/kWh

1,37

0,95

1,52

1,05

1,56

1,06

R/ton

134

93

42

29

38

26

kW/ha

4,9

4,9

1,5

1,5

1,4

1,4

Totale kWh

74 630

74 630

22 938

22 938

20 359

20 359

kWh/ha

6 663

6 663

2 085

2 085

1 851

1 851

kWh/ton

98

98

28

28

25

25

Per hektaar, R/ha

1

1

Veranderlike elektrisiteitskoste:

Totale elektrisiteitskoste:

Energie-verbruiksdoeltreffendheid: kg/ha/kWh

0,91

3,27

3,68

Besparing met Ruraflex, R/jaar

31 057

10 192

Omskakelingskoste, R

13 675

10 597

Besparing met VSD, R/jaar

3 066

Omskakelingskoste, R

±16 500

was slegs sowat 520 mm, teenoor die 705 mm toegedien in die Sandveld. Verder was daar ook groter topografiese hoogteverskille wat oorkom moes word met pompdruk by twee van die Sandveld gevallestudies wat die kWh gebruik verhoog het.

Tabel 4 toon ook die besparings wat by SV 1, SV 2 en SV 5 behaal kan word deur van Landrate na Ruraflex om te skakel. Volgens die berekeninge sal al drie die produsente die belegging wat vereis word om die omskakeling te doen, binne ’n jaar kan herwin.

Die energie-verbruiksdoeltreffendheid by die vyf gevallestudies het gewissel van 0.7 tot 3.68 kg/ha/ kWh met ’n gemiddeld van 1.66 kg/ha/kWh, wat effens hoër is as die EVD wat in Limpopo gemeet is (1.63 kg/ha/kWh).

Daar kan ook gesien word dat die besparing van R3 066/ha behaal met die gebruik van die VSD by SV 2, relatief klein is in vergelyking met die besparings behaal deur die omskakeling van kragpunte van Landrate na Ruraflex.

Page 44 |

CHIPS • Julie/Augustus 2017


Ekonomiese Nuus • Economic News

SV 3

SV 4

SV 5

Gem (huidig)

Landrate

Ruraflex

Landrate

Ruraflex

Landrate

Ruraflex

Alternat.

Huidig

Alternat.

Huidig

Huidig

Alternat.

1

2

2

5 285

3 209

8 934

6 396

11 241

7 698

444

270

709

508

450

308

582

1 393

969

4 163

2 885

3 914

2 751

3 608

2,76

1,92

4,62

3,20

7,53

5,29

5,40

1,19

0,83

1,19

0,82

1,19

0,84

1,06

1 837

1 238

4 872

3 392

4 364

3 059

4 190

3,64

2,45

5,41

3,77

8,40

5,88

6,24

1,57

1,06

1,39

0,97

1,33

0,93

1,26

52

35

67

46

75

53

67

0,9

0,9

2,5

2,5

2,2

2,2

2,3

13 944

13 944

44 119

44 119

82 312

82 312

1 172

1 172

3 501

3 501

3 292

3 292

3 283

33

33

48

48

57

57

53

2,51

1,65

0,70

7 128

18 643

32 638

Reeds op Ruraflex

Reeds op Ruraflex

10 597

1,66

Figuur 12: Eskom se spits (“peak”), standaard en buitespits (“off-peak”) tydgroeperings CHIPS • July/August 2017

Page 45


Werklike besproeiing, mm/maand

Ekonomiese Nuus • Economic News

450 400 350

300 250 200

150 100 50

0

Sept (2016)

Okt SV 1

Nov SV 2

Des SV 3

Jan (2017) SV 4

Feb

Mar

SV 5

Figuur 13: Grafiese voorstelling van die mm besproeiing toegedien per maand per gevallestudie

Gevolgtrekkings en aanbevelings • Die werkverrigting van besproeiingstelsels gevind by die vyf gevallestudies in die Sandveld was oor die algemeen goed, met die gemete uniformiteite en toedieningsdoeltreffendhede by vyf spilpunte bokant die minimum vereiste waardes, ten spyte van hoë temperature en windsnelhede wat in hierdie gebied kan voorkom en ook teenwoordig was tydens die evaluasies wat uitgevoer is. • Opbrengste behaal was oor die algemeen goed en waterverbruiksdoeltreffendhede het gewissel van redelik tot goed. In die drie gevallestudies waar WVD laer as 100 kg/ha/mm was, was daar 'n geleentheid om water en energie te bespaar deur besproeiingshoeveelhede by gewasbehoefte aan te pas. • Besproeiingshoeveelhede was oor die algemeen hoog as gevolg van die baie hoë verdampings aanvraag gedurende die spesifieke somerseisoen. Daar was met enkele uitsonderings 'n redelike goeie ooreenstemming tussen berekende besproeiingsbehoefte en die werklike hoeveelhede besproei. • Opbrengspotensiaal het gedaal, waterbehoef tes het toegeneem en gevolglik het waterverbruiksdoeltreffendhede

Page 46 |

CHIPS • Julie/Augustus 2017

gedaal hoe later in die somer daar geplant is. Energiekoste per mm water besproei het gevolglik ook gestyg soos planttye later aangeskuif het. • Alhoewel die elektrisiteitsverbruik per ton en hektaar hoër was as vir die Limpopo-studie, was die energieverbruiksdoeltreffendheid effens hoër in die Sandveld teen 1.66 kg/ha/kWh. • Die grootste geleenthede vir besparing van elektrisiteitskoste lê by die gebruik van Ruraflex eerder as die Landrate-tariefplan en die keuse van plantdatum (vroeër plantdatums veroorsaak laer waterbehoeftes), terwyl die gebruik van VSD tegnologie ook besparings teweegbring, maar die toepassing daarvan sal afhang van die topografie van die omgewing. • Die studie behoort vir 'n herfs (Maart – April) aanplanting herhaal te word om die effek van seisoen op besproeiingsbehoeftes en energiekostes te evalueer. Bedankings: • Aartappel Suid-Afrika vir befondsing en Pieter van Zyl vir projekleiding. • Produsente in die Sandveld wat deelgeneem het aan die opnames en gevallestudies. • Danie Snyman, Senior Energie Adviseur, Eskom. C


CHIPS • July/August 2017

Page 47


Seisoenale tendense in hektare geplant asook verkope en pryse op markte Pieter van Zyl, Aartappels Suid-Afrika Produsente plant tussen 50 000 en 54 000 hektaar aartappels elke jaar. Volgens Figuur 1 word die meeste hektare gedurende September en Oktober geplant. ’n Aantal streke plant dan, soos die Oos-Vrystaat, Mpumalanga, Noordwes, SuidwesVrystaat, Sandveld en Gauteng. Volgens Figuur 2 wil dit voorkom asof daar nie groot verskuiwings plaasgevind het in aanplantingsmaande oor tyd nie. Die seisoenale tendens binne ’n kalenderjaar word aangedui en word uitgedruk as ’n indeks waar 100 die gemiddelde maandelikse aanplanting vir die Page 48 |

CHIPS • Julie/Augustus 2017

jaar verteenwoordig. Vir die vier jaar tydperk, 2013 tot 2016, is September se aanplantings amper 60% meer as die gemiddelde maandelikse aanplanting oor tyd. Maart se aanplantings is weer 40% laer as die maandelikse gemiddelde aanplantings, aldus Figuur 2. Dit wil ook voorkom asof daar van Januarie tot Maart effens minder geplant word (2013 tot 2016), terwyl September en Oktober weer meer geplant word. Die maand met die minste aanplantings was altyd April, maar dit het verskuif na Maart.


Ekonomiese Nuus • Economic News

8 500 7 500 6 500 5 500 4 500 3 500 2 500 1 500 500

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

Mei

2013

Jun

Jul

2014

Aug

2015

Sep

Okt

Nov

Des

Okt

Nov

Des

2016

Figuur 1: RSA: Hektaar aartappels per maand geplant E:\HJ Design\ASA\CHIPS\2017\Chips 4 Jul Aug\Korreksies\Tendense oor tyd.xlsx

160

Persentasie

140 120 100 80 60

40

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

Mei

Jun

2007 tot 2010

Jul

Aug

Sep

2013 tot 2016

Figuur 2: Seisoenale tendens: RSA hektare geplant per maand

Figuur 3 dui die seisoenale tendens aan vir verkope op markte in ’n kalenderjaar en word uitgedruk as ’n indeks waar 100 die gemiddelde maandelikse verkope vir die jaar verteenwoordig. Vir die vier jaar tydperk, 2013 tot 2016, was November die maand met die meeste verkope op markte, terwyl Januarie, Februarie en Maart die laagste verkoopsyfers toon.

Dit verskil effens met die tydperk 2000 tot 2003 toe Maart en Julie die maande met die meeste verkope was. Let op September se daling in volumes vir die twee tydperke. Pryse begin dan gewoonlik ook positief reageer (sien Figuur 4 waar prystendense binne ’n kalenderjaar aangetoon word).

CHIPS • July/August 2017

Page 49


110

Persentasie

105 100

95 90 85

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

Mei

Jun

2000 tot 2003

Jul

Aug

Sep

Okt

Nov

Des

2013 tot 2016

Figuur 3: Seisoenale tendens: Maandelikse verkope op markte

130% 120% 110% 100%

90% 80% 70%

Jan

Feb

Mrt

Apr

2000 tot 2003

Mei

Jun

Jul

2011 tot 2014

Aug

Sept

Okt

Nov

Des

2013 tot 2016*

Figuur 4: Seisoenale tendens: Gemiddelde markpryse per maand

Die tydperke 2000 tot 2003 en 2011 tot 2014 se seisoenale tendens in prysbewegings gedurende ’n kalenderjaar is feitlik dieselfde, aldus Figuur 4. Dit toon dat pryse gewoonlik gedurende Maart die laagste is en gedurende Oktober die hoogste is. Gedurende Oktober is pryse amper 30% hoër as die maandelikse gemiddelde prys vir die jaar. Die seisoenale tendens vir die tydperk 2013 tot 2016 Page 50 |

CHIPS • Julie/Augustus 2017

wyk af van die tendens in die ander twee tydperke. Die rede is dat 2015 (verreweg die grootste oes tot dusver) en 2016 (baie droogte- en hitteskade) abnormale jare was. Die laer neigende pryse vanaf Januarie tot Maart elk jaar (eerste twee genoemde tydperke) kan hoofsaaklik in natuurtoestande gevind word. Dit is somer en wanneer temperature hoog is, veral tesame met hoë reënval in die produksiestreke,


Ekonomiese Nuus • Economic News

50 000 000

48 286 996

10 500

45 000 000

10 000

Hektare

40 000 000

37 266 609

9 500 9 000

32 769 138

31 183 519

8 500

25 871 122

8 000

22 882 224

22 431 149

18 479 246

7 500

35 000 000 30 000 000 25 000 000 20 000 000 15 000 000

7 000 6 500

10 000 000

6 000

5 000 000

5 500

0

Oos-Vrystaat

Wes-Vrystaat

Limpopo

Hektaar gemiddeld (2000 - 2003) Oesgrootte gemiddeld (2000 - 2003)

Oesgroottes (miljoen sakkies)

11 000

Sandveld

Hektaar gemiddeld (2013 - 2016) Oesgrootte gemiddeld (2013 - 2016)

Figuur 5: Gemiddelde hektaar geplant en oesgroottes oor 4 jaar tydperke

1 000 000 900 000

Sakkies per week

800 000 700 000 600 000 500 000 400 000 300 000 200 000 100 000 0

J

J

F

M

M

A

M

J

2000 tot 2003

J

J

A

A

S

O

O

N

D

D

2013 tot 2016

Figuur 6: Oos-Vrystaat: 4 jaar gemiddelde verkope per week op markte

kom pryse onder druk weens swakker kwaliteit/ houvermoë van aartappels. Einde Maart / begin April wanneer die eerste herfskoue gewoonlik ervaar word, verbeter die kwaliteit/houvermoë van die aartappels (sien Figuur 4 wat aandui pryse begin dan gewoonlik opwaartse druk ervaar). Figuur 5 toon sekere tendense aan vir die vier grootste

produksiestreke. Wat hektare geplant betref, is dit duidelik dat die Wes-Vrystaat, en veral Limpopo, heelwat meer hektare die laaste jare aanplant (sien die ooreenstemmende blou- en groen kolomme vir die twee tydperke soos aangedui). Die rooi vierkante en die swart kolle in Figuur 5 dui op die streke se onderskeie gemiddelde oesgroottes vir die twee tydperke. Die Wes-Vrystaat en Limpopo se CHIPS • July/August 2017

Page 51


Ekonomiese Nuus • Economic News

gemiddelde oesgroottes het elk met sowat 20 miljoen sakkies toegeneem tussen die twee tydperke. Selfs die Sandveld se gemiddelde oesgrootte het met tien miljoen sakkies toegeneem, ongeag die feit dat min of meer dieselfde hektare aangeplant is. In Figure 6 tot 8 word drie produksiestreke se weeklikse markverkope tendense oor tyd aangedui. Uiteraard word daar nou meer sakkies verkoop as in die verlede (sien die rooi lyne). Dit is duidelik dat die Oos-Vrystaat produsente nou effens vroeër in die

mark kom en weer effens langer bemark as in die verlede (Figuur 6). Die Wes-Vrystaat produsente begin egter nou heelwat vroeër met bemarking as in die verlede. Indien die hektare per maand geplant oor tyd bestudeer word, kan nie gesien word dat produsente noodwendig vroeër begin plant het nie. Dieselfde geld vir Limpopo. Produsente het eenvoudig net meer hektare per maand geplant. Sien ook Limpopo se verkooptendense oor tyd in Figuur 8. Produsente kom vroeër in bemarking, maar net omdat meer geplant is en nie noodwendig vroeër nie. C

900 000 800 000

Sakkies per week

700 000 600 000 500 000 400 000 300 000 200 000 100 000 0

J

J

F

M

M

A

M

J

J

2000 tot 2003

J

A

A

S

O

O

N

D

D

2013 tot 2016

Figuur 7: Wes-Vrystaat: 4 jaar gemiddelde verkope per week op markte

C:\Users\User\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\INetCache\Content.Outlook\UBR11HO5\Tendense oor tyd.xlsx

1 800 000 1 600 000

Sakkies per week

1 400 000 1 200 000 1 000 000

800 000 600 000 400 000 200 000 0

J

J

F

M

M

A

M

J

2000 tot 2003

J

J

2013 tot 2016

Figuur 8: Limpopo: 4 jaar gemiddelde verkope per week op markte

Page 52 |

CHIPS • Julie/Augustus 2017

A

A

S

O

O

N

D

D


Sandveld kultivarproef onder besproeiing op Aurora in 2016/2017 Piet Brink (Sandveld Aartappelwerkgroep), Albert de Villiers (Produsent), Chantel du Raan en Terence Brown (Aartappels Suid-Afrika) Die Sandveld produksiestreek produseer sowat 15% van die totale aartappelproduksie in Suid-Afrika. Hierdie streek voorsien aartappels aan die totale spektrum van die voorsieningsketting (uitvoere, moere, tafel- en verwerkingsaartappels). Uitvoere van tafelaartappels geskied hoofsaaklik na Angola en moere na Mosambiek. Die streek se bydrae tot die Page 54 |

CHIPS • Julie/Augustus 2017

verwerkingbedryf beloop ongeveer 11%. Die hoof tafel- en verwerkingsaartappels sluit in Mondial, BP1 en Avalanche in die someraanplanting en Mondial, BP1 en Sifra in die winteraanplanting. Proewe is op Aurora op die plaas Rietfontein uitgevoer wat aan die voet van die westelike kant van die Piketberg lê, 'n tipiese Sandveldse dorpie. Dit is geleë in 'n


Bedryfsdienste • Industry Services

Figuur 1: Ligging van die Aurora in die Sandveld produksiegebied winterreënval-gebied met 'n jaarlikse gemiddelde reënval van tussen 249 en 271 mm (Figuur 1). 'n Mediterreense klimaat met warm somers kom voor terwyl die winters weer koud en nat is. Die aanplantingstydperk vir die produksiegebied is uniek aangesien aartappels regdeur die jaar geplant kan

word. Die meeste aartappels word egter in Februarie en Junie geplant. Die proefperseel het bestaan uit 'n sandgrond en die proef is geplant in 'n ewekansige blokontwerp met drie herhalings. Verdere tegniese inligting rakende die proefperseel en uitleg is opgesom in Tabel 1.

Totale reënval per maand 2016/2017

Langtermyn gemiddelde reënval

Kumulatiewe reënval 2016/2017

Langtermyn kumulatiewe reënval

90 80

Reënval (mm)

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Okt

Nov

Des

Jan

Feb

Mrt

Datum Figuur 2: Reënval gedurende die groeiseisoen (2016/2017) asook die langtermyn gemiddelde reënval. CHIPS • July/August 2017

Page 55


Tabel 1: Opsomming van tegniese inligting rakende proefperseel en uitleg. Plaas:

Rietfontein

Boer:

Mnr. Albert de Villiers

Plantdatum:

18 Oktober 2016

Oesdatum:

14 Maart 2017

Besproeiing / Droëland:

Besproeiing

Dubbel- of enkelrye:

Dubbelrye

Tussen-ryspasiëring:

0.75 m

In-ryspasiëring:

0.30 m

Proefperseel per eenheid:

17.5 m2

Plantestand:

41 666 plante/hektaar Bemestingsprogram: Voedingswaarde: N (kg/ha)

P (kg/ha)

K (kg/ha)

Ca (kg/ha)

Mg (kg/ha)

S (kg/ha)

Voor plant

55.5

134

137.8

222

24.7

161

Week 1

26.39

4.14

27.43

0

1.55

0

Week 2

26.39

4.14

27.43

0

1.55

0

Week 3

26.39

4.14

27.43

0

1.55

0

Week 4

27.79

4.48

26.88

18.1

1.34

0

Week 5

18.19

6.272

37.63

0

1.88

0

Week 6

27.79

4.48

26.88

18.1

1.34

0

Week 7

18.19

6.272

37.63

0

1.88

0

Week 8

27.79

4.48

26.88

18.1

1.34

0

Week 9

14.62

5.04

30.24

0

1.51

0

Week 10

14.62

5.04

30.24

0

1.51

0

Week 11

14.62

5.04

30.24

0

1.51

0

Week 12

14.62

5.04

30.24

0

1.51

0

Totaal

312.9

192.6

496.9

276

43.2

161

Dit is belangrik om daarop te let dat groeiperiodes die oesopbrengs van kultivars kan beïnvloed. Groeiperiodes word gedefinieer as die aantal dae vanaf opkoms tot natuurlike loofafsterwing, afhangend van die seisoen. Die presiese tydsberekening van die vyf groeifases (spruitontwikkeling, vegetatiewe groei, knolinisiasie, knolvulling en volwassenheid) hang af van die omgewing en die bestuurspraktyke wat wissel tussen lokaliteite, kultivars en groeiperiodes. Die Page 56 |

CHIPS • Julie/Augustus 2017

kultivars betrokke in werkgroepproewe gedurende 2016/2017 word in Tabel 2 weergegee. Oesopbrengs en knolgrootte word onder andere beïnvloed deur die aantal halms per area, dus die aantal moere geplant asook die aantal halms per moer. Die aantal halms per moer is afhanklik van die aantal ogies per knol, die aantal spruite per ogie en die aantal stamme per spruit. Die aantal ogies per


Bedryfsdienste • Industry Services

Tabel 2: Karaktereienskappe rakende groeiperiode, plantgereedheid, stand (%) en halmtellings vir elke kultivar in 2016/2017. Kultivar

Groeiperiode (Dae)1

Plantgereedheid

Stand (%)

Halms per plant

Halms per hektaar

Almera

Kort

(85)

1

65

1.6

43 333

Arizona

Kort tot medium

(100)

2

82

4.5

153 748

Challenger

Medium

(110)

2

100

3.4

141 664

Electra

Medium

(110)

2

100

3.7

154 164

Fandango

Medium

(110)

2

100

3.8

158 331

Farida

Medium

(110)

2

100

2.8

116 665

Fianna

Medium tot lank

(120)

1

100

2.8

116 665

Infinity

Medium

(110)

2

100

2.7

112 498

Ivory Russet

Medium

(110)

2

97

2.3

92 957

Lanorma

Kort

(80-90)

3

100

3.9

162 497

Laperla

Kort

(70-80)

3

100

3.9

162 497

Markies

Medium tot lank

(120)

1

100

2.9

120 831

Mondial

Medium

(110)

2

100

4.4

183 330

Navigator

Medium

(110)

3

100

2.3

95 832

Panamera

Medium tot lank

120

2

65

3.1

83 957

Sagitta

Medium

(110)

3

100

4.0

166 664

Savanna

Medium

(110)

3

100

2.6

108 332

Sifra

Kort tot medium

(90-100)

2

100

3.3

137 498

Taisiya

Kort tot Medium

(100)

3

100

3.2

133 331

Algemene riglyne en kategorieë (dae van opkoms tot natuurlike loofafsterwing, afhangend van die seisoen): Kort = 70-90 dae; Kort tot Medium = 80-100 dae; Medium = 90-110 dae; Medium tot Lank = 90-120; Lank = 90-140 dae. 2 Plantgereedheid van moere 1 – Vars; 2 – Effens vars; 3 – Plantgereed; 4 – Effens oud; 5 – Oud. 1

knol is kultivar-afhanklik, terwyl die aantal halms per knol beïnvloed word deur die moergrootte en die plantgereedheid van die moere. Dit is belangrik om daarop te let dat hierdie eienskappe tussen kultivars varieer. Die plantgereedheid, stand (%) en halmtelling van kultivars wat in die 2016/2017-proewe geplant is, word aangedui in Tabel 2. Verteenwoordigende grondmonsters is ook voor plant geneem en ontleed om die grondvoedingstatus van

die geselekteerde perseel te bepaal. Die resultate van die grondontleding vir hierdie proef word aangedui in Tabel 3. Temperatuur, dagliglengte en water is die belangrikste abiotiese faktore wat die groeipatroon, opbrengs en kwaliteit van aartappels beïnvloed. Om te bepaal wat die aanpassingsvermoë van nuwe kultivars in die Aurora-omgewing is, is dit belangrik om hierdie faktore in aanmerking te neem wanneer die prestasie CHIPS • July/August 2017

Page 57


P-Bray I

Tabel 3: Grondontledingresultate vir Aurora kultivarproef (2016/2017) voor plant.

1

Mg

Na

K

Ca

Mg

Na

(mg/kg)

Ca

(mg/kg)

K

(mg/kg)

P

(mg/kg)

pH (KCl)

% of KUK1

(mg/kg)

Monster

Ammonium asetaat

%

1

4.2

5

12

81

11

7

3.2

42.1

9.5

3.4

2

4.3

6

12

71

9

6

3.8

42.0

9.3

3.0

%

%

%

KUK = Katioon-uitruilkapasiteit

van verskillende kultivars geëvalueer word. Dit is ook belangrik dat die kultivars vir 'n aantal seisoene geëvalueer word omdat klimaat van seisoen tot seisoen verskil. Die daaglikse weerdata is verkry vanaf die weerstasie wat op die perseel geleë is. Die langtermyn-weerdata is verkry vanaf die LNR se Sandweerstasie (-32.55974, 18.5168). Volgens die gemete reënval gedurende die 2016/2017-groeiseisoen is geen reën gedurende die 2016/2017-groeiseisoen ontvang nie (Figuur 2).

Die minimum- en maksimumtemperature (Figuur 3) vir die 2016/2017-groeiseisoen het dieselfde patroon as vorige jare gevolg met die uitsondering dat vanaf Oktober tot Januarie hoër maksimum- en minimumtemperature geheers het in vergelyking met die langtermyn-gemiddelde temperature. Gedurende die hele groeiseisoen het die maksimumtemperature deurlopend tussen 30-41°C gewissel. Wanneer die temperatuur bo 29°C styg, sal min of selfs geen knolgroei voorkom nie as gevolg van die feit dat

Maksimum temperatuur 2016/2017

Minimum temperatuur 2016/2017

Langtermyn gemiddelde maksimum temperatuur

Langtermyn gemiddelde minimum temperatuur

50

Temperatuur (°C)

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 0

2016-10-12 2016-10-17 2016-10-22 2016-10-27 2016-11-01 2016-11-06 2016-11-11 2016-11-16 2016-11-21 2016-11-26 2016-12-01 2016-12-06 2016-12-12 2016-12-17 2016-12-22 2016-12-27 2017-01-01 2017-01-07 2017-01-12 2017-01-17 2017-01-22 2017-01-28 2017-02-02 2017-02-08 2017-02-13 2017-02-18 2017-02-23 2017-02-28 2017-03-05 2017-03-10

5

Plant

Datum Figuur 3: Minimum- en maksimumtemperatuur (°C) gedurende die groeiseisoen (2016/2017) asook langtermyn. Page 58 |

CHIPS • Julie/Augustus 2017


Bedryfsdienste • Industry Services

Totale hitte-eenhede 2016/2017

Langtermyn gemiddelde hitte-eenhede

Kumulatiewe hitte-eenhede 2016/2017

Langtermyn kumulatiewe hitte-eenhede

3000

Hitte-eenhede

2500 23.6%

2000

32.1% 33.4%

1500 1000 500 0 Okt

Nov

Des

Maand

Jan

Feb

Mrt

Figuur 4: Hitte-eenhede gedurende die groeiseisoen (2016/2017) asook langtermyn.

Opbrengsindeks (%)

Bemarkingsindeks (%) 132.7 abc

Fandango

129.8 a-d Opbrengs verskil nie statisties nie

Savanna Electra Sifra Taisiya

Kultivar

Mondial

129.8 a-e 127.8 a-f 118.2 a-g 113.3 a-h

Laperla

110.7 a-i

Farida

109.6 b-j 108.8 c-k

Panamera

107.9 c-l

Sagitta

103.7 c-l

Challenger

97.6 c-l

Lanorma Opbrengs verskil nie statisties nie

Markies

81.3 c-l

Fianna Infinity Arizona

Proefgemiddeld = 99.5t/ha

76.0 d-l 74.9 i-l 72.8 i-l 72.0 i-l

Ivory Russet

p < 0.01 KBV = 25.2 KV% = 11.3

69.7 i-l

Navigator

63.4 j-l

Almera 0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

Opbrengs- en bemarkingsindeks as persentasie van die proefgemiddeld (%)

160

*Waardes gevolg deur dieselfde letter is nie beduidend verskillend van mekaar nie. Figuur 5: Totale opbrengs- en bemarkingsindeks per kultivar vir 2016/2017 as persentasie van die proefgemiddeld. CHIPS â&#x20AC;˘ July/August 2017

Page 59


die koolhidrate vir respirasie gebruik word. Hierdie uiterste weersomstandighede kon die opbrengs asook kwaliteit van kultivars negatief beïnvloed het. Geen rypskade het gedurende die groeiseisoen plaasgevind nie. Hitte-eenhede is ook 'n belangrike faktor om in ag te neem aangesien die ontwikkeling van die plant hoofsaaklik gebaseer is op die versameling van hitte-eenhede. Daar word dus aanvaar dat die plant 'n sekere aantal hitte-eenhede moet versamel om 'n ontwikkelingsfase te voltooi. Die hitte-eenhede vir die 2016/2017-groeiseisoen was regdeur die seisoen aansienlik hoër (tot en met 23.6% hoër) as die langtermyn-gemiddelde hitte-eenhede en word aangedui in Figuur 4. Moontlike effekte as gevolg van ongunstige temperature (=hoë hitte-eenhede) sluit in die verlenging van die tyd wat nodig is vir ontwikkelingfases om te voltooi wat opbrengs asook kwaliteit negatief kon beïnvloed het. Ongeag die feit dat die hitte-eenhede hoër as normaal was en geen reën ontvangs in die seisoen ontvang is nie, was die opbrengs 23.9 t/ha hoër as die gemiddelde opbrengs van die vorige twee jaar. Die opbrengsdata is statisties verwerk met behulp van die GenStat® program en die gemiddelde was

Baby

Klein

Medium

geskei deur gebruik te maak van die Tukey KBV-toets. Die kultivar-effek vir die 2016-proef (Figuur 5) was statisties hoogs beduidendend (p<0. 01) ten opsigte van opbrengs terwyl die koëffisiënt van variasie laag (11.3%) was. Dit dui aan dat die proef goed uitgevoer en die resultate betroubaar is. Die proefgemiddeld van al die kultivars word as 100% geneem. Die opbrengs van die individuele kultivars word dan deur die proefgemiddeld gedeel en elke kultivar se opbrengsprestasie word as 'n persentasie van die proefgemiddeld uitgedruk (opbrengsindeks). Die gemiddelde opbrengs (99.5 t/ha) vir die 2016/2017-seisoen was heelwat hoër vergeleke met die proefgemiddelde van die vorige twee jaar (75.6 t/ha). Gedurende die 2016/2017-proef (Figuur 5) het die kultivar Fandango, wat nie statisties verskil het van Savanna, Electra, Sifra, Taisiya, Mondial en Laperla nie, die hoogste opbrengs behaal. Almera wat die laagste stand (65%) getoon het en nie statisties verskil het van Navigator, Ivory Russet, Arizona, Infinity, Fianna, Markies, Lanorma, Challenger en Sagitta nie, het die swakste opbrengste gelewer. Hoër opbrengste as die proefgemiddeld (99.5 t/ha) was behaal deur die kultivars Fandango, Savanna, Electra, Sifra, Taisiya, Mondial, Laperla, Farida, Panamera, Sagitta en Challenger.

Groot medium

Groot

Proefgemiddeld

140

Grootteverspreiding (t/ha)

120 100

2016/2017 = 99.5 t/ha Proefgemiddeld van vorige 3 jaar = 75.6 t/ha

80 60 40 20 0

Kultivar

Figuur 6: Groottegroepverspreiding van elke kultivar tydens die 2016/2017 finale oes. Page 60 |

CHIPS • Julie/Augustus 2017


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Ten einde die prestasie van die kultivars in terme van opbrengs en kwaliteit te bepaal, is die opbrengs, groottegroepverspreiding en klas gebruik om teen die gemiddelde markpryse vir die betrokke dag 'n bemarkingsindeks te bereken. Die opbrengs, vermenigvuldig met die heersende prys wat bepaal word deur die groottegroepverspreiding en gradering, gee die bemarkingsindeks (Figuur 5). Ongeag die feit dat Savanna en Sifra nie die hoogste opbrengste getoon het nie het die kultivars die hoogste bemarkingsindeks behaal, hoofsaaklik as gevolg van 'n kombinasie van ’n hoë persentasie groot- en klas 1 aartappels. Electra het die tweede hoogste bemarkingsindeks behaal gevolg deur Farida wat toegeskryf kan word aan 'n hoë klas 1 gradering (Figuur 7) wat die kultivar gelewer het, asook 'n hoë persentasie groot aartappels (Figuur 6). Fianna het die laagste bemarkingsindeks getoon, hoofsaaklik omdat die kultivar 'n groot persentasie klein en klas 2 en 3 aartappels gelewer het. Die hoofredes vir afgradering het los skil en Fusarium ingesluit. Groottegroepverspreiding en gradering is ook van die faktore wat gebruik word om aartappels te klas, daarom is dit belangrike faktore om in ag te neem om optimale ekonomies-bemarkbare opbrengs te verseker. In Figuur 6 word die groottegroepverspreiding, in

140

Klas 2 & 3

Figuur 7 die gradering van die opbrengs en in Tabel 4 die hoofredes vir afmerking van die onderskeie kultivars aangetoon. Dit is ook belangrik om te let op die kultivars se vermoë om konsekwent te presteer, ongeag fluktuasies in klimaat oor tyd. In Figuur 8 word die drie-jaar data aangetoon vir die kultivarproewe in die Aurora produksie-area. Dit blyk dat kultivar Lanorma die minste variasie toon vir hierdie area. Verder is dit ook belangrik om op die kwaliteit van die produk te fokus ten einde ’n optimale ekonomiesbemarkbare opbrengs, en dus winsgewendheid te verseker. Dit sluit belangrike faktore in soos die kook- en prosesseringseienskappe, soortlike gewig (SG) asook inwendige eienskappe (holhart, bruinvlek en vaatbundelverkleuring) wat opgesom is in Tabel 5. Gedurende die 2016/2017-groeiseisoen het al die kultivars, behalwe Almera, Laperla en Sifra, aan die skyfiekleurnorm van >50 voldoen. Wat soortlike gewig (SG) betref het net die kultivars Challenger, Fianna, Infinity, Markies en Panamera aan die norm van ≥1.075 voldoen. Die kultivars Electra, Fandango, Markies en Sagitta het ’n holhart-persentasie van 20% getoon. Infinity het ’n 80% bruinvlek-voorkoms aangeteken.

Klas 1

Proefgemiddeld

120

Gradering (t/ha)

100

2016/2017 = 99.5 t/ha Proefgemiddeld van vorige 3 jaar = 75.6 t/ha

80 60 40 20 0

Kultivar

Figuur 7: Gradering van elke kultivar tydens die 2016/2017 finale oes. CHIPS • July/August 2017

Page 61


Tabel 4: Hoofredes vir afmerking tydens die 2016/2017 Aurora oes.

Challenger

X

Electra

X

Fandango

X

Farida

X

Fianna

X

Lanorma

80% X

X

80% X

X

98% X

Markies

X

Mondial

X

Navigator

80% X

X

X 3% X X 80% X

Savanna

X

X X X

Taisiya

X

X X

X

X

Bruinvlek word veroorsaak deur gelokaliseerde tekorte aan kalsium (Ca) wat onder strestoestande veroorsaak dat die integriteit van selmembrane en selwande verlore raak. Dit het tot gevolg dat die inhoud van die sitoplasma en die vakuool vermeng en selle afsterf. Die uitermatige hoë temperature wat regdeur die seisoen voorgekom het kon baie hoë grondtemperatuur tot gevolg gehad het wat die funksionering van wortels negatief beïnvloed het, met

CHIPS • Julie/Augustus 2017

X

70% X X

X

X

X

X

Sifra

X X

X 80% X

Sekondêre groei

X

X

Laperla

Page 62 |

X

X

X

Ivory Russet

Sagitta

X

X

Infinity

Panamera

X

Fusarium

X

X

Misvorming

Arizona

Aalwurm

Almera

Sandpleet

Rhizoctonia

Poeierskurf

Vergroening

Los skil

Kultivar

Hoofrede vir afgradering

X

X

die gevolg dat onvoldoende water en Ca opgeneem is. Aanplantings in sandgrond is geneig tot bruinvlek aangesien die waterhouvermoë van sandgrond laag is, en grondtemperature geneig is om vinnig te styg. Holhart word ook geassosieer met variërende grondvog en somtyds met hoëvlak-toediening van stikstof en/of 'n tekort aan Ca. C


Bedryfsdienste • Industry Services

Tabel 5. Kook- en prosesseringseienskappe en interne kwaliteit van opbrengs vir 2016 (Uitgevoer deur LNR-Roodeplaat). Kultivar

Vleeskleur

Kooktipe1

Struktuur

Verkleur na kook

Skyfiekleur2

SG3

Holhart (%)

Bruinvlek (%)

Almera

Donker geel

EM

Medium

Geen

48.6

1.056

-

-

Arizona

Room

EM

Medium

Geen

50.1

1.054

-

-

Challenger

Geel

NM

Ferm

Geen

56.1

1.075

-

-

Electra

Geel

EM

Medium

Geen

52.7

1.050

20%

-

Fandango

Geel

EM

Medium

Geen

56.5

1.067

20%

-

Farida

Geel

EM

Medium

Geen

51.2

1.063

-

-

Fianna

Room

NM

Ferm

Geen

57.9

1.080

-

-

Infinity

Room

EM

Ferm

Geen

54.4

1.078

-

80%

Ivory Russet

Room

EM

Ferm

Geen

57.9

1.072

-

-

Lanorma

Geel

EM

Medium

Geen

56.8

1.064

-

-

Laperla

Geel

EM

Medium

Geen

41.5

1.054

-

-

Markies

Geel

NM

Ferm

Geen

56.2

1.080

20%

-

Mondial

Geel

EM

Medium

Geen

52.1

1.065

-

-

Navigator

Geel

EM

Medium

Geen

55.1

1.064

-

-

Panamera

Geel

EM

Medium

Geen

57.5

1.078

-

-

Sagitta

Geel

EM

Medium

Geen

56.1

1.068

20%

-

Savanna

Room

EM

Medium

Geen

51.1

1.067

-

-

Sifra

Room

EM

Medium

Geen

45.2

1.065

-

-

Geel

EM

Medium

Geen

51.8

1.064

-

-

Taisiya

BM – Baie melerige tot losse tekstuur; M – Melerig, krummelrige tot los aartappel; EM – Effens melerige, vry ferm aartappel met fyn tot taamlike fyn tekstuur; NM – Nie melerige, ferm aartappel met ʼn fyn tekstuur. 2 Skyfiekleur met waarde >50 en sonder defekte is aanvaarbaar vir die droëskyfiebedryf. 3 Soortlike gewig van >1.075 is aanvaarbaar vir die prosesseringsbedryf. 1

≥ Norm (Aanvaarbaar vir prosessering) < Norm (Onaanvaarbaar vir prosessering)

CHIPS • July/August 2017

Page 63


Bedryfsdienste â&#x20AC;˘ Industry Services

2016/2017

2015/2016

2014/2015

Opbrengs as persentasie van die proefgemiddeld (%)

160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Almera

Electra

Lanorma

Mondial

Navigator

Panamera

Savanna

Sifra

Kultivar

Figuur 8. Prestasie van kultivars oor drie jaar uitgedruk as persentasie van die proefgemiddeld.

Page 64 |

CHIPS â&#x20AC;˘ Julie/Augustus 2017

Taisiya


Bedryfsdienste • Industry Services

CHIPS • July/August 2017

Page 65


Ceres kultivarproef onder besproeiing in die Koue Bokkeveld in 2016/2017 Inus Oosthuizen (Ceres Aartappelwerkgroep en Produsent), Hano Dreyer, Sivuyiseni Gatya, Bennie Visagie (Medewerkers), Chantel du Raan en Terence Brown (Aartappels Suid-Afrika) Die Ceres-produksiestreek produseer sowat 3% van die totale aartappelproduksie in Suid-Afrika. Hierdie streek plant hoofsaaklik aartappels (967 ha) vir die tafel- en verwerkingsmark onder besproeiing terwyl 160 ha vir moerdoeleindes geplant word. Die streek se bydrae tot die verwerkingbedryf beloop sowat 7%. Die hoofkultivars vir tafel- en verwekingsaartappels sluit in Fianna, Sifra en VanderPlank. Proewe is in die Koue Bokkeveld op die plaas Donkerbos Page 66 |

CHIPS • Julie/Augustus 2017

uitgevoer wat in 'n winterreënval gebied geleë is met 'n jaarlikse gemiddelde reënval van 599-700 mm (Figuur 1). Warm somers kom voor aangesien dit in die binneland geleë is terwyl die winters weer baie koud en nat is met gereelde sneeu op die hoër liggende gedeeltes. Die hoofaanplantingstydperk vir die produksie-area is tussen Oktober en November. Aanplantings wat vroeër of later geskied, het 'n hoër risiko vir reënskade. Die proefperseel het bestaan uit 'n


Bedryfsdienste • Industry Services

sandgrond en is geplant in 'n ewekansige blokontwerp met drie herhalings. Verdere tegniese inligting rakende die proefperseel en uitleg is opgesom in Tabel 1.

Figuur 1: Ligging van die Koue Bokkeveld in die Ceres- produksiestreek

Tabel 1: Opsomming van tegniese inligting rakende proefperseel en uitleg. Plaas:

Donkerbos

Boer:

Mnr. Inus Oosthuizen

Plantdatum:

8 November 2016

Oesdatum:

29 Maart 2017

Besproeiing / Droëland:

Besproeiing

Dubbel- of enkelrye:

Dubbelrye

Tussen-ryspasiëring:

0.9 m

In-ryspasiëring:

0.215m

Proefperseel per eenheid:

18 m2

Plantepopulasie:

51 680 plante/hektaar Bemestingsprogram: Voedingswaarde:

Totaal

N (kg/ha)

P (kg/ha)

K (kg/ha)

363

146

449

Dit is belangrik om daarop te let dat groeiperiodes die oesopbrengs van kultivars kan beïnvloed. Groeiperiodes word gedefinieer as die aantal dae vanaf opkoms tot natuurlike loofafsterwing, afhangend van die seisoen. Die presiese tydsberekening van die vyf groeifases (spruitontwikkeling, vegetatiewe groei, knolinisiasie, knolvulling en volwassenheid) hang af van die omgewing en die bestuurspraktyke wat wissel tussen lokaliteite, kultivars en groeiperiodes. Die kultivars betrokke in werksgroepproewe gedurende 2016/2017 word in Tabel 2 weergegee. Oesopbrengs en knolgrootte word ook beïnvloed deur die aantal halms per area, dus die aantal moere geplant asook die aantal halms per moer. Die aantal halms per moer is afhanklik van die aantal ogies per knol, die aantal spruite per ogie en die aantal stamme per spruit. Die aantal ogies per knol is kultivar-afhanklik, terwyl die aantal halms per knol beïnvloed word deur die moergrootte en die plantgereedheid van die moere. Dit is belangrik om daarop te CHIPS • July/August 2017

Page 67


Tabel 2: Karaktereienskappe rakende groeiperiode, plantgereedheid, stand (%) en halmtellings vir elke kultivar. Kultivar

Groeiperiode (Dae)1

Plantgereedheid2

Stand (%)

Halms per hektaar

Almera

Kort

(85)

1

64

68 450

Arizona

Kort tot medium

(100)

2

54

62 900

Avalanche

Kort tot medium

(100)

3

47

129 500

Challenger

Medium

(110)

2

89

212 750

Electra

Kort tot medium

(100)

1

79

200 022

Fandango

Medium

(110)

3

93

200 033

Farida

Medium

(110)

1/2

89

149 850

Fianna

Medium tot lank

(120)

1

82

157 250

Infinity

Medium

(110)

1/2

100

190 550

Ivory Russet

Medium

(110)

2

97

190 550

Lanorma

Kort

(80-90)

5

93

144 300

Laperla

Kort

(70-80)

5

89

190 550

Markies

Medium tot lank

(120)

1

93

227 550

Mondial

Medium

(110)

3

86

190 550

Navigator

Medium

(110)

3

93

168 350

Panamera

Medium tot lank

(120)

1

82

129 500

Sagitta

Medium

(110)

2

89

234 500

Savanna

Medium

(110)

3

97

207 200

Sifra

Kort tot medium

(90-100)

3

89

220 150

Taisiya

Kort tot medium

(100)

5

86

186 850

Algemene riglyne en kategorieë (dae van opkoms tot natuurlike loofafsterwing, afhangend van die seisoen): Kort = 70-90 dae; Kort tot Medium = 80-100 dae; Medium = 90-110 dae; Medium tot Lank = 90-120; Lank = 90-140 dae. 2 Plantgereedheid van moere 1 – Vars; 2 – Effens vars; 3 – Plantgereed; 4 – Effens oud; 5 – Oud. 1

let dat hierdie eienskappe tussen kultivars varieer. Die plantgereedheid, stand (%) en halmtelling van kultivars wat in die 2016/2017-proewe geplant is, word aangedui in Tabel 2. Temperatuur, dagliglengte en water is die belangrikste abiotiese faktore wat die groeipatroon, opbrengs en kwaliteit van aartappels beïnvloed. Om te bepaal wat die aanpassingsvermoë van nuwe kultivars in die Koue Bokkeveld-omgewing is, is dit belangrik om hierdie faktore in aanmerking te neem wanneer die prestasie van verskillende kultivars geëvalueer word. Dit is ook belangrik dat die kultivars vir 'n aantal seisoene Page 68 |

CHIPS • Julie/Augustus 2017

geëvalueer word omdat klimaat van seisoen tot seisoen verskil. Die daaglikse en langtermyn-weerdata is verkry vanaf die LNR se De Keur-stasie (-32.98865, 19.30354). Die kumulatiewe reënval gedurende die 2016/2017-groeiseisoen was deurentyd aansienlik laer as die normale (langtermyn gemiddelde) (Figuur 2). Die minimum- en maksimumtemperature (Figuur 3) vir die 2016/2017-groeiseisoen het dieselfde patroon as vorige jare gevolg met die uitsondering dat in November en Januarie laer minimum-temperature geheers het. Wat die maksimumtemperature betref


Bedryfsdienste • Industry Services

Totale reënval per maand 2016/2017

Langtermyn gemiddelde reënval

Kumulatiewe reënval 2016/2017

Langtermyn kumulatiewe reënval

100 90 80

Reënval (mm)

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 November

Plant

Desember

Januarie

Februarie

Maart

2016/2017

Oes

Datum Figuur 2: Reënval gedurende die groeiseisoen (2016/2017) asook die langtermyn-gemiddelde reënval.

was dit hoër in November en begin Januarie in vergelyking met die langtermyn-gemiddelde temperature. Gedurende Desember tot Maart het die maksimumtemperatuur gedurig tussen 30-35°C gewissel. Wanneer die temperatuur bo 29°C styg, sal min of selfs geen knolgroei voorkom nie as gevolg van die feit dat die koolhidrate gebruik word vir respirasie. Hierdie uitermatige weersomstandighede kon die opbrengs asook kwaliteit van kultivars negatief beïnvloed het. Geen rypskade het gedurende die groeiseisoen plaasgevind nie. Hitte-eenhede is 'n verdere belangrike faktor om in ag te neem aangesien die ontwikkeling van die plant hoofsaaklik gebaseer is op die versameling van hitte-eenhede. Daar word dus aanvaar dat die plant 'n sekere aantal hitte-eenhede moet versamel om 'n ontwikkelingsfase te voltooi. Die hitte-eenhede vir die 2016/2017-groeiseisoen was regdeur die seisoen effens hoër (tot en met 12.9% hoër) as die langtermyn-gemiddelde hitte-eenhede en word aangedui in Figuur 4. Moontlike effekte as gevolg van ongunstige temperature (=hoë hitte-eenhede) sluit in die verlenging van die tyd wat nodig is vir ontwikkelingfases om te voltooi wat opbrengs asook kwaliteit negatief kon beïnvloed het. Ongeag die feit dat die hitte-eenhede effens hoër as normaal regdeur die seisoen was, was die opbrengs 9.77 t/ha hoër as

die gemiddelde opbrengs van die vorige twee jare. Die opbrengsdata is statisties verwerk met behulp van die GenStat® program en die gemiddelde was geskei deur gebruik te maak van die Tukey KBV-toets. Die kultivareffek vir die 2016/2017-proewe (Figuur 5) was statisties hoogsbeduidend (p<0. 01) ten opsigte van opbrengs terwyl die koëffisiënt van variasie baie laag (10.2%) was. Dit dui aan dat die proewe goed uitgevoer was en die resultate betroubaar is. Die proefgemiddeld van al die kultivars word as 100% geneem. Die opbrengs van die individuele kultivars word dan deur die proefgemiddeld gedeel en elke kultivar se opbrengsprestasie word as 'n persentasie van die proefgemiddeld uitgedruk (opbrengsindeks). Die gemiddelde opbrengs (90.3 t/ha) vir die 2016/2017-seisoen was hoër in vergelyking met die proefgemiddeld van die vorige twee jare (80.53 t/ ha). Gedurende die 2016/2017-proewe (Figuur 5) het die kultivar Markies, wat statisties verskil het van Challenger, Fianna, Infinity, Farida, Ivory Russet en Arizona, die hoogste opbrengs behaal. Arizona wat nie statisties verskil het van Infinity, Farida en Ivory Russet nie, het die swakste opbrengste gelewer. Hoër opbrengste as die proefgemiddeld (90.3 t/ha) was behaal deur die kultivars Markies, Laperla, Fandango, Panamera, Taisiya, Sagitta, Sifra, Lanorma, Electra, Almera, Savanna en Navigator. CHIPS • July/August 2017

Page 69


Maksimum temperatuur 2016/2017

Minimum temperatuur 2016/2017

Langtermyn gemiddelde maksimum temperatuur

Langtermyn gemiddelde minimum temperatuur

40

Temperatuur (°C)

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 01-Nov-17 06-Nov-17 11-Nov-17 16-Nov-17 21-Nov-17 26-Nov-17 01-Dec-17 06-Dec-17 11-Dec-17 16-Dec-17 21-Dec-17 26-Dec-17 31-Dec-17 05-Jan-18 10-Jan-18 15-Jan-18 20-Jan-18 25-Jan-18 30-Jan-18 04-Feb-18 09-Feb-18 14-Feb-18 19-Feb-18 24-Feb-18 01-Mar-18 06-Mar-18 11-Mar-18 16-Mar-18 21-Mar-18 26-Mar-18 31-Mar-18

0

Plant

Oes

2016/2017

Datum

Figuur 3: Minimum- en maksimumtemperatuur (°C) gedurende die groeiseisoen (2016/2017) asook langtermyn.

Totale hitte-eenhede 2016/2017

Langtermyn gemiddelde hitte-eenhede

Kumulatiewe hitte-eenhede 2016/2017

Langtermyn kumulatiewe hitte-eenhede

1600

Hitte-eenhede

1400

12.9%

1200

12.9%

1000 800 600 400 200 0 November

Desember

Januarie

Maand

Februarie

Figuur 4: Hitte-eenhede gedurende die groeiseisoen (2016/2017) asook langtermyn.

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CHIPS • Julie/Augustus 2017

Maart


Bedryfsdienste â&#x20AC;˘ Industry Services

Opbrengsindeks (%)

Bemarkingsindeks (%)

121.5 a 118.7 ab 114.0 a-c 113.6 a-d 112.5 a-e 108.1 a-f 107.8 a-g 106.8 a-h 106.7 a-i

103.4 a-j 102.5 a-k 100.9 a-l 99.8 a-m 99.6 a-n 90.7 e-o 85.6 f-p 84.3 h-q 81.2 j-q 79.5 l-q

Opbrengs verskil nie statisties nie

Kultivar

Opbrengs verskil nie statisties nie

Markies Laperla Fandango Panamera Taisiya Sagitta Sifra Lanorma Electra Almera Savanna Navigator Avalanche Mondial Challenger Fianna Infinity Farida Ivory Russet Arizona

0

62.9 q

Proefgemiddeld = 90.3 t/ha

p < 0.01 KBV = 22.7 KV% = 10.2

20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Opbrengs- en bemarkingsindeks as persentasie van die proefgemiddeld (%) vir 2016

*Waardes gevolg deur dieselfde letter is nie beduidend verskillend van mekaar nie.

Figuur 5: Totale opbrengs- en bemarkingsindeks per kultivar vir 2016/2017 as persentasie van die proefgemiddeld. Baby

Klein

Medium

Groot medium

Groot

Proefgemiddeld

120

Grootteverspreiding (t/ha) in 2017

100

2017 = 90.3 t/ha

Proefgemiddeld van vorige 3 jaar = 80.53 t/ha

80

60

40

20

0

Kultivar

Figuur 6: Groottegroepverspreiding van elke kultivar tydens die 2016/2017 finale oes.

CHIPS â&#x20AC;˘ July/August 2017

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Uitskot

120

Klas 3

Klas 2

Klas 1

Proefgemiddeld

100

Gradering (t/ha) vir 2017

2017 = 90.3 t/ha

Proefgemiddeld van vorige 3 jaar = 80.53 t/ha

80

60

40

20

0

Kultivar

Figuur 7: Gradering van elke kultivar tydens die 2016/2017 finale oes. 2016/2017

2015/2016

2014/2015

Opbrengs as persentasie van die proefgemiddeld (%)

140.0

120.0

100.0

80.0

60.0

40.0

20.0

0.0 Almera

Avalanche

Electra

Markies

Mondial

Panamera

Savanna

Sifra

Kultivar

Figuur 8. Prestasie van kultivars oor drie jaar uitgedruk as persentasie van die proefgemiddeld.

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CHIPS â&#x20AC;˘ Julie/Augustus 2017


Bedryfsdienste • Industry Services

Tabel 3: Hoofredes vir afmerking tydens die 2016/2017 Koue Bokkeveld oes.

x

Challenger Electra x

Farida

x

x

x

x x x

x

Fianna

x x

x x

Ivory Russet

x

x x

x

Lanorma

x

Laperla

x

Markies

x

x

Mondial

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

Navigator

x

x x

x

Panamera

Los skil x

x x

Los skil

x

x

Fandango

Sekondêre groei

x x

Avalanche

Infinity

Fusarium

x

Misvorming

Arizona

Aalwurm

x

Sandpleet

x

Rhizoctonia

Poeierskurf

Almera

Los skil

Vergroening

Kultivar

Hoofrede vir afgradering

x x x

x

Sagitta

x

x

Savanna

x

Sifra

x

x

Taisiya

x

x

x

x

Ten einde die prestasie van die kultivars in terme van opbrengs en kwaliteit te bepaal, is die opbrengs, groottegroepverspreiding en klas gebruik om teen die gemiddelde markpryse vir die betrokke dag 'n bemarkingsindeks te bereken. Die opbrengs, vermenigvuldig met die heersende prys wat bepaal word deur die groottegroepverspreiding en gradering, gee die bemarkingsindeks (Figuur 5). Ongeag die feit dat Laperla nie die hoogste opbrengs getoon het nie het die kultivar die hoogste bemarkingsindeks behaal, hoofsaaklik as gevolg van 'n kombinasie van ’n hoë persentasie groot en klas 1 aartappels. Electra (wat meganiese beskadiging getoon het) en Almera het die tweede hoogste bemarkingsindeks

x behaal gevlog deur Navigator wat toegeskryf kan word aan 'n hoë persentasie klas 1 gradering (Figuur 7) wat die kultivars gelewer het. Savanna is een van die kultivars wat 'n lae bemarkingsindeks getoon het, hoofsaaklik omdat dit geen groot knolle geproduseer het nie, asook 'n hoë persentasie klas 3 knolle. Groottegroepverspreiding en gradering is ook van die faktore wat gebruik word om aartappels te klas, daarom is dit belangrike faktore om in ag te neem om optimale ekonomies-bemarkbare opbrengs te verseker. In Figuur 6 word die groottegroepverspreiding, in Figuur 7 die gradering van die opbrengs en in Tabel 3 die hoofredes vir afmerking van die onderskeie kultivars aangetoon.

CHIPS • July/August 2017

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Bedryfsdienste • Industry Services Tabel 4. Kook- en prosesseringseienskappe en interne kwaliteit van opbrengs vir 2016/2017 (Uitgevoer deur LNR-Roodeplaat). Kultivar

Vleeskleur

Kooktipe1

Struktuur

Verkleur na kook

Skyfiekleur2

SG3

Almera

Geel

NM

Ferm

Geen

50.7

1.067

Arizona

Geel

EM

Medium

Geen

46.3

1.058

Avalanche

Room

M

Medium

Geen

56.1

1.075

Challenger

Geel

EM

Medium

Geen

57.2

1.080

Electra

Geel

M

Medium

Geen

55.8

1.068

Fandango

Geel

EM

Medium

Geen

55.1

1.070

Farida

Geel

EM

Medium

Geen

55.8

1.070

Fianna

Room

M

Medium

Geen

54.9

1.082

Infinity

Room

M

Medium

Geen

53.6

1.097

Ivory Russet

Wit

EM

Medium

Geen

55.9

1.080

Lanorma

Geel

M

Medium

Geen

55.6

1.081

Laperla

Geel

EM

Medium

Geen

58.5

1.055

Markies

Geel

M

Medium

Geen

48.9

1.085

Mondial

Geel

M

Medium

Geen

54.2

1.069

Navigator

Geel

M

Medium

Geen

55.7

1.080

Panamera

Geel

EM

Medium

Geen

57.4

1.072

Sagitta

Geel

EM

Medium

Geen

56.6

1.081

Savanna

Room

EM

Medium

Geen

52.8

1.068

Sifra

Room

EM

Medium

Geen

51.7

1.076

Geel

EM

Medium

Geen

51.8

1.070

Taisiya

BM – Baie melerige tot losse tekstuur; M – Melerig, krummelrige tot los aartappel; EM – Effens melerige, vry ferm aartappel met fyn tot taamlike fyn tekstuur; NM – Nie melerige, ferm aartappel met `n fyn tekstuur. 2 Skyfiekleur met waarde >50 en sonder defekte is aanvaarbaar vir die droëskyfiebedryf. 3 Soortlike gewig van >1.075 is aanvaarbaar vir die prosesseringsbedryf. 1

Dit is ook belangrik om te let op die kultivars se vermoë om konsekwent te presteer, ongeag fluktuasies in klimaat oor tyd. In Figuur 8 word die drie-jaar data aangetoon vir die kultivarproewe in die Koue Bokkeveld produksie-area. Dit blyk dat die kultivars Electra en Panamera die minste variasie toon vir die area. Dit is verder belangrik om op die kwaliteit van die produk te fokus om ’n optimale ekonomiesbemarkbare opbrengs, en dus winsgewendheid

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CHIPS • Julie/Augustus 2017

≥ Norm (Aanvaarbaar vir prosessering) < Norm (Onaanvaarbaar vir prosessering)

te verseker. Dit sluit belangrike faktore in soos die kook- en prosesseringseienskappe en soortlike gewig (SG) wat opgesom word in Tabel 3. Gedurende die 2016/2017-groeiseisoen het al die kultivars, met die uitsondering van Arizona en Markies, aan die skyfiekleurnorm van >50 voldoen. Wat die soortlike gewig (SG) betref het die kultivars Almera, Arizona, Electra, Fandango, Farida, Laperla, Mondial, Panamera, Savanna en Taisiya nie aan die norm van ≥1.075 voldoen nie. C


Bedryfsdienste • Industry Services

CHIPS • July/August 2017

Page 75


Potatoes …. potato industry …. Potatoes South Africa At the meeting of the Potato Industry Forum Dr André Jooste, Potatoes South Africa’s Chief Executive Officer, presented an informative overview of the South African potato industry and the role of Potatoes South Africa. CHIPS had an interview with him in order to share his views with potato producers and other stakeholders in the potato industry.

The South Africa potato industry CHIPS – What determines the market price the consumer has to pay for his potatoes? Jooste – The potato market operates on free market principles and the fresh produce market is the ideal platform where sellers and buyers meet, i.e. the potato farmer delivers his potatoes to the market agent who sells it on his behalf to buyers which will include informal traders, green grocers and smaller processors. So, supply and demand determines the potato price – if large volumes are available on the market floor prices drop and if potatoes are in short supply the price will naturally go up. CHIPS – Are there other factors that impact on the potato prices fetched on the fresh produce markets? Jooste – Definitely. With the South African consumer Page 76 |

CHIPS • Julie/Augustus 2017

Appearance is King which means that skin finish is of cardinal importance. An ugly looking potato therefore has no chance of fetching a premium price. Potatoes and heat are also no close friends and as a result lasting quality takes a bad knock during extremely hot spells. Money in the pocket equates to buying power and in our experience sales are down after the festive season and during that part of the month furthest away from payday. CHIPS – According to available statistics the equivalent of about 215 187 525 10 kg bags of potatoes were produced on 52 994 hectares in 2016. Where do all this potatoes go? Jooste – The potato market is divided into five segments. In terms of distribution 35% is taken up by the formal market, 29% by the informal market, 20% goes for processing, 8% is exported and 8% is earmarked for the production of seed potatoes.


Kommunikasie • Communication

CHIPS – Based on projections, can you give us a snapshot of what the future holds? Jooste – According to the BFAP’s projections until 2024, the area planted with potatoes will remain within the 52 000 – 55 000 hectare band, but the yields will improve to 52 t/ha on average and total production will reach 280 million 10 kg bags. However, because potatoes are produced in a high input cost environment it would be foolish not to include the financial realities facing the potato producer in the snapshot. As far as production costs under irrigation are concerned it ranges between R160 000 and R220 000/ha and under dryland conditions between R70 000 and R90 000/ha. If that is not enough it would cost the producer between R2.5 to R5 million to erect a pack house and if mechanisation starts to figure costs skyrockets even further. On the flip-side of the coin the industry is known for being risky laden with uncertainty. Examples of this include an array of pests and diseases, changing climatic conditions especially under dryland cultivation, highly volatile market prices, finance access challenges, inputs availability and prices as well as regulatory compliance with the emphasis on environmental compliance. Furthermore the high demand for land because of rotational requirements and the need for good management skills to successfully convert all the challenges, muddle entry into the potato industry even further. CHIPS – Earlier you made reference to the BFAB projections until 2024 which paint a glossy picture, but what it the actual growth pattern over the time?

packaging cost and marketing commission. The following figures for the period 2000 to 2015 give an indication of the predicament the potato producer, and more so a new entrant, is facing: the producer price index the compounded annual growth rate was 7.7% (2014-2015, 16.2%), the fertiliser price index was 10% (2014-2015, 3.4%), the fuel price index was 9.3% (2014-2015, 3.8%) and the chemical price index was 6.4% (2014-2015, 4%). Back to your question – yes profit margins are shrinking but potato production is still a viable proposition, but producers will increasingly have to add value to the product, and with the assistance of Potatoes South Africa, through it marketing efforts, increase the per capita consumption. CHIPS – You touched on the importance of an increase in the per capita consumption – what elements need should be leveraged to achieve this? Jooste – In the opinion of Potatoes South Africa the four primary elements are population growth (the compounded annual population growth rate was about 1.5% for the period 2002 to 2015 population and we were fortunate to grow the potato market by 2.9%), the increase in income levels (the compounded annual income growth rate rose by nearly 3.3% for the same period in respect of all Living Standards Measurement [LSM] groups), buyer behaviour driven by changes in tastes and preferences primarily because of urbanisation (in 1990, 52% of the population were urbanised, in 2011 the figure stood at 62% and it is predicted that by 2030, 70% of the population will urbanites), and lastly the ability of potatoes as a substitute or a complement for other staple foodstuffs in the starch market such as maize meal, brown and white bread, rice and pasta. In terms of the latter potatoes are holding its own against the other “starchers” and command about 10% of the total expenditure on starch foods – not bad for the so-called humble spud. It is also important to take note of the continuous increase in the size of the processing market because of the changes in food tastes and preferences. At present more than 440 000 tons of the local crop are channelled to the processors.

Jooste – For the period 2002 to 2016 the compound annual growth rate was 2.9%. It could have been much better if it wasn’t for the very bad year we had in 2009 when we harvested about 186 million 10kg bags and again in 2016 when production was down by 13.5% from 2015 because of the severe drought accompanied by exceptionally hot weather. It should be said that technology played at significant role in the increase in the size of the crop over time, i.e. the introduction of higher yielding and disease resistant cultivars, better disease control and production practices.

Potatoes South Africa

CHIPS – An important question always asked is whether you can make money from farming with potatoes – What do you reckon?

CHIPS – Before we get to the Potatoes South Africa business activities, could you gives us an overview of ins and outs of the organisation?

Jooste – Let me start by saying that inflation is rising faster than production cost, and that does not include owner’s and land remuneration, capital expenditure,

Jooste – Potatoes South Africa is a non-profit company (NPC) with a board of directors representing the potato producers in the 16 potato production CHIPS • July/August 2017

Page 77


regions, and is responsible for overseeing the actions and activities of the administration through the various committees established by the board. As far as the activities are concerned it is important to note that it is based on the needs and requirements expressed by the production regions’ regional managements and the regional seed potato committees. It is the responsibility of the core business committees, that consist of producers and other industry role players, to prioritise and convert these needs and requirements into projects and prepare budgets for submission and consideration by Potatoes South Africa’s Audit Committee and then to the Board of Directors for approval. The final step is the submission of the projects and budgets per core business as well as the budgets of the administrative and support businesses to the Potato Industry Development Trust’s Risk and Audit Committee for consideration and then to the Trust for final approval. From the above it is clear that the administration cannot appropriate any monies before the budget application has gone through all the above hoops and final approval has been obtained. CHIPS – The needs of the potato producers are diverse, how does South Africa manage to cover the full spectrum of service rendering and how is the available funding appropriated? Jooste – We have five core businesses, i.e. Transformation, Market Development and Generic Product Promotion, Research and Development, Industry Information and Industry Services (Regional). These core businesses are supported by our Communications Department and the Finance and Administration Department. As far as funding is concerned there are strict ministerial guidelines we have to abide by, i.e. at least 20% must be spent on transformation, 70% on the other core businesses and not more than 10% on administration of the levy. CHIPS – Could you give a synopsis of the activities of the different core businesses? Jooste – Certainly. I believe it is best to cover them one by one. Transformation – the key transformation activities are (1) enterprise development, (2) small grower development, (3) farm based training and (4) tertiary skills development. Enterprise development is our transformation flagship. Our aim with it is to develop black farmers to eventually produce potatoes commercially in a Page 78 |

CHIPS • Julie/Augustus 2017

sustainable way. To ensure maximum success we have switched from a high numbers / high cost / low impact program to one that concentrates on fewer farmers, i.e. increase the assistance those farmers already participating in the program to try and ensure that they produce thirty hectares of potatoes at the end of the four year assistance period. A strict criteria is followed which includes identifying suitable farmer candidates, doing soil analyses, prefeasibility studies and finding and appointing mentors. Next would be the compilation of a full business plan and identifying partners such as input suppliers and financial institutions and only then will we go over to implementation. In addition we ensure that these farmers have access to technical support and training and get industry exposure. At present there are sixteen farmers participating in the program and I am proud to say it is going well. Small grower development focuses on food security, rural development and job creation. Our involvement entails the dissemination of production and business information through potato trials, to provide these community farmers with practical training on good potato production practices and finally creating a source of food security through product and income generation. In the last five years we were involved in the launching of 55 of these projects which reached more than 3 100 people in partnerships with the agricultural departments of the KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape provincial governments. Farm based training and tertiary skills development can be grouped together as both have to do with improving skills and personal development. In this regard Potatoes South Africa concentrates on uplifting the skills of black producers and workers by transferring technical and business knowledge and lastly awarding bursaries for the development of young talent through college, technikon and university studies as well as to establish a pool of knowledge. Naturally workplace experience forms part of the package. Since 2008, 118 bursaries (15 in 2017) have been awarded with almost all students successfully completing their studies. In respect of 2015/2016 we have managed to place ten students to do their internships and gain workplace experience as a prerequisite for obtaining their diplomas. Marketing development and generic product promotion – as the name indicates our marketing portfolio stands on two legs. As far as market development is concerned the emphasis is, inter alia, on trade policy and


Kommunikasie • Communication

interventions, liaison with the officialdom on related legislation, Project Rebirth to revitalise fresh produce markets, packaging standards with the aim to obtain the SABS mark and finally market information and intelligence. Successes attained in terms of market development include the implementation of safeguard and antidumping measures to protect the local farming and processing industries against importation of frozen French fries that are in oversupply abroad (this process was done in partnership with McCain, Lambertsbay Foods and Natures Garden). It is estimated that since the implementation of the measures in 2010 the impact in real terms amounted to R144 million. Other examples are the dispensation on tolerances negotiated on class 2 potatoes from 15% to 25% and the dispensation on size groups. Because fresh produce markets are still the most important platform for potato producers to sell their produce, Potatoes South Africa has wholeheartedly put their weight behind the concerted efforts by the authorities and industry stakeholders to improve the health and service delivery standards on markets and to introduce codes of good practice. Up to date in total R262.8 million have been spent / are earmarked for improvements on the Springs Fresh Produce market, the Pietermaritzburg Fresh Produce Market, the Tshwane Fresh Produce Market and the Vereeniging Fresh Produce Markets. Advertising does not come cheap and our funding is limited. We therefore had to tailor-made our generic product promotion activities with utmost precision to reach our selected target audience. Our focus is about Less is More and has therefore opted to spend the bulk of our available funding to reach the LSM 3-7 black consumers residing in urban areas through television and radio. However, this does not mean that we have forsaken the other LSM groups as we shall keep in touch with them through the printed and social media and public relations to convey valuable information generated by e.g. registered dieticians and chefs. In all our efforts we concentrate on conveying a singular message that resonates with all our target audiences. The current campaign theme is titled: #WTP. In this three pronged strategy puts three pertinent questions to the target market: • #WTP – Where’s the potato? >> Incite consumer awareness for and interest in potatoes.

• #WTP – Why the potato? >> The consumer develops a favourable disposition towards potatoes. • #WTP – Who’s the potato? >> The consumer forms a purchase intention, shops around, engages in a trial or purchases potatoes. Two television advertisement were launched in September and November 2016, reaching close to 30 million viewers on SABC 1, 2 and 3. As far as the radio campaign is concerned it was launched in September 2016 on the SABC’s African language stations Ukhozi, Umhlobo Wenene, Thobela and Lesedi FM garnering a listenership estimated at 20 million. Both the radio and television campaigns were supported by magazine advertisements in You and Drum in September, October and December 2016. These magazines have a joint weekly readership of 6.3 million people. Through the campaigns we also managed to generate R3.5 million worth of free media exposure by the end of January 2017. New television and radio advertisements have been produced and broadcasted in May and June this year. Readers who want to know more about Potatoes South Africa’s promotional campaigns are advised to go to potatonation.co.za If you ask me whether we are making headway with our market development and generic product promotion campaigns over the past number of years my answer is an unequivocal, Yes. In real terms consumers are spending R1.2 billion per annum more on potato purchases than ten years ago. I accept we cannot claim all the glory, but definitely a large chunk. Research and development The strategy of the Research and Development core business was revamped after consultation with producers in the potato production regions to ensure that projects undertaken address the industry’s specific prioritised needs. We have also increased the number of research institutions used to guarantee the best possible outcomes. In my opinion we now also have a more balanced research portfolio where the emphasis is particularly on soil health and conservation, knowledge transfer and potato quality. In the past more than 50% was spent on diseases. CHIPS • July/August 2017

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Kommunikasie • Communication

As far as information and knowledge transfer are concern we have lately been putting a considerable effort into this part of our research business. The array of quality and useful CHIPS articles, which is also available on our website, as well as fact sheets and guidelines that are being compiled and made available, are testimony to this. The decision to offer the previously centralised held technical courses in the production region is also a true winner. We have already held 16 such courses in the production regions on a variety of relevant topics such as soil health, irrigation scheduling and pack house sanitation. What is especially encouraging is the large number of young potato producers who are attending the courses. Naturally the annual Potato Research Symposium remains Potatoes South Africa’s primary platform for information and knowledge transfer. However, it also offers potato workgroup members, scientists, students, etc. the ideal opportunity to network.

efficiency and labour versus mechanisation. I am of the opinion that by comparing the efficiency of his / her farming operation to that of the project outcomes, the farmer will know where he is doing well or where he could improve and also be advised how to do so. This may just help to alleviate the impact of the cost squeeze environment the potato industry is facing. Regional Services Our regional personnel is on the one hand Potatoes South Africa’s service delivery arm to the producers and on the other hand ensures that requests and needs registered on regional level are passed on to head office. In addition they serve as the extension of Potatoes South Africa’s core businesses in terms of executing the core businesses related activities within the potato production regions with the emphasis on communication and technology transfer with the primary aim to enhance the sustainability of all potato producers.

Industry Information Potatoes South Africa’s Industry Information Department has always been an excellent source of strategic potato industry information on a daily, weekly, monthly, seasonal and annual basis through the SMS’s, e-mails, the website and CHIPS. However, it has now broaden its scope by going beyond just generating data and information. This data and information now get converted into business intelligence by making use of the Potato Industry Model to increase the value and usefulness thereof for the potato producer as well as other role players in the potato value chain. It is also important to take cognisance of the work now being done on the farmer’s side of the gate in terms of value adding. Examples thereof are the updating of production, packaging and marketing costs, the updating of the price versus yield model and determining the cost of transport based on the transport cost model. The outcomes of this work are readily available and are conveyed in CHIPS articles and are also available on the website – for example potato producers now have access to the transport model from the website and can apply it to their own farming businesses. What I find extremely encouraging is the preparedness of potato producers to get involved in the projects for their own benefit as well as for that of the co-farmers. Projects that come to mind is the efficient use of energy and water in irrigation farming, pack house and marketing efficiency, labour costs and Page 80 |

CHIPS • Julie/Augustus 2017

The regional offices are strategically based to ensure that the producers in all the potato production regions receive good services. Communication Although Communication is not regarded as a core business per se, it is really an integral extension of every core business. Potatoes South Africa’s Communication Department are using all available platforms to ensure that information reaches potato producers as well as other industry role players. Examples thereof are the old stalwart CHIPS, which is now also available on our website, the Newsletter, the WhatsApp, the website www.potatoes.co.za which contains a treasure trove of information for the taking. Potato producers must also endeavour to attend information transfer platforms such as sub-regional and regional meetings, farmers’ days and the biennial Potatoes South Africa Congress. CHIPS – Have you said it all? Jooste – There is a lot more to be said, but this will have to be suffice except for a special request to all potato producers: you are funding the work done by Potatoes South Africa and consequently the outcomes – use it all, it will be worth your while! C


CHIPS â&#x20AC;¢ July/August 2017

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Kontreinuus • Regional News

KwaZulu-Natal Annual General Meeting Louis Pretorius, Potatoes South Africa

of Potatoes South Africa, reported on the current status of the potato industry as well as the activities of Potatoes South Africa during the 2016/2017 financial year, with the emphasis on the activities of the core businesses and the achievements in terms of the approved projects. He also informed the producers about the application for statutory measures, which includes the levy, for the fourth term and said that it will be put to the Potatoes South Africa Congress on 28 September 2017 for consideration and decisiontaking.

The Durban Fresh Produce Market played host to the 2017 annual general meeting of the KwaZuluNatal potato production region on 19 July 2017. This afforded the potato producers the opportunity to experience first-hand what the market has to offer in terms of facilities and service rendering. Prof André Duvenhage from the North West University gave the producers an overview of latest development in the farming environment and expectations that could shape the future of farming in South Africa.

Mr Andre Young, Durban Market operational manager, gave feedback on the progress made with Project Market Rebirth, which is aimed at improving the facilities and service standards on all fresh produce markets. He stressed the importance of service excellence on markets in view of the pivotal role markets play as a platform for the marketing of fresh fruit and vegetables, especially to the informal traders. C

In his address Dr André Jooste, chief executive officer

Mike Green re-elected as chairman

Mike Green who is currently representing the KwaZulu-Natal production region on Potatoes South Africa’s board of directors / national council has been re-elected to represent the region for a further two year term.

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CHIPS • Julie/Augustus 2017


MIDDEL VEGETATIEF

LAAT VEGETATIEF EN KNOLVORMING

Met Kynoch se innoverende en pasmaakprodukte kan jy bemesting toedien volgens jou aartappelplant se behoeftes en groeistadiums. So verseker Kynoch dat jou aartappels kry wat hul nodig het, wanneer hul dit die nodigste het. Boonop het jy gemoedsrus, omdat jy weet, met Kynoch op jou plaas van meet af aan, haal jy net die beste uit jou aartappels en is jy verseker van verbeterde doeltreffendheid in kwaliteit en opbrengspotensiaal.

Kynoch – verbeterde doeltreffendheid deur innovasie. KynoPop™: Vir ‘n vinnige wegspring en groeikragtigheid.

KynoPlus™-NPKSplantermengsels soos SuperSpud™, Ruby of Topaz™: Plantermengsels met verhoogde doeltreffendheid om veral in die vroeë behoeftes, maar ook in die latere voedingbehoeftes van die aartappelplant te voorsien.

KynoPlus™, GreenGold™, Achillis™, Seniphos, Nitrabor, Foli-Grande™ en Foli-Plus™: Gebruik in kombinasie as topbemesting om knolinisiasie en opbrengs te bevorder.

Veggie Oemff® Starter: ’n Blaarvoeding vir wortelontwikkeling en vestiging van die jong plant.

Veggie Oemff® Grow, Bortrac 150, Stopit en Caltrac BZ:

Gebruik in kombinasie na knolinisiasie vir opbrengs en aanleg tot beter kwaliteit.

KynoPlus™, GreenGold™, Achillis™, Foli-Grande™, Foli-Plus™. Bortrac 150, Stopit, Caltrac BZ: Gebruik in kombinasie as topbemesting om opbrengs en kwaliteit te bevorder.

Veggie Oemff® Fruit: Gebruik gedurende knolgroei vir verbeterde werkverrigting wat lei tot beter opbrengs en kwaliteit.

Farmisco (Edms) Bpk. h/a Kynoch Fertilizer Reg. Nr. 2009/0092541/07

011 317 2000 | info@kynoch.co.za www.kynoch.co.za Nie handeldrywend in die Wes-Kaap nie.

KynoPop™ Reg. No: K9101, KynoPlus™ is geregistreer as kunsmis groep 1 – Reg. No: K8024, SuperSpud™ Reg. No: In proses, Ruby Reg. No: K8047, Topaz™ Reg. No: K8032, Veggie OEMFF® Starter Reg. No: K9088, GreenGold™ Reg. No: K8034, Achillis™ Reg. No: K8967, Foli-Grande™ Reg. No: K8045, Foli-Plus™ Reg. No: In proses, Seniphos Reg. No: K7682, Nitrabor Reg. No: K6395, Veggie OEMFF® Grow Reg. No: K9090, Bortrac 150 Reg. No: B3626, Stopit Reg. No: B3625, Caltrac BZ Reg. No: B3715, Veggie OEMFF® Fruit Reg. No: K9091. (Alle produkte is geregistreer onder Wet 36 van 1947)

CHIPS • July/August 2017

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uppe marketing A12789

AARTAPPELS

VROEG VEGETATIEF, MET PLANT


Wesgrow Potatoes wil aartappels sexy maak Gawie Geyer, CHIPS

Mnr. Gerhard Posthumus, besturende direkteur van Wesgrow Potatoes, het tydens die jaarlikse Wesgrow Proewedag wat vanjaar op die plaas Regina van York Agric aangebied is, gesê dat in Suid-Afrika aartappels ongelukkig steeds as net nog ’n kommoditeit gesien word, maar dat Wesgrow Potatoes hom dit ten doel gestel het om aartappels meer aanloklik vir die verbruiker te maak (of soos hy dit gestel het – sexy te maak). “Om dit reg te kry spits ons ons daarop toe om Page 84 |

CHIPS • Julie/Augustus 2017

spesialiteitsaartappels te verbou wat nie net aanloklik en stylvol lyk nie, maar ook aan spesifieke smake en gebruike sal voldoen en op ’n premieprys aanspraak sal kan maak. Dit beteken dus dat dit nie saam met jou bekende kultivars op die varsproduktemarkte te koop sal wees nie, aangesien dit dan teen die heersende markprys vir die dag verkoop sal moet word wat die beeld van hierdie nis-produk van nul en gener waarde sal maak en die produksiekoste nie regverdigbaar


Kontreinuus • Regional News

sal maak nie. Wat egter soos 'n paal bo water staan is die feit dat sukses sal afhang van deurlopende beskikbaarheid – as jy die verbruiker aan jou kant gekry het, moet jy seker maak hy bly aan jou kant.” Die besluit om hul eie bemarkingskanale te vestig eerder as om van die varsproduktemarkte te gebruik vir die bemarking van hierdie aartappels, was een van die vernaamste beweegredes waarom Wesgrow Potatoes besluit het om hul eie uitsoek- en verpakkingsaanleg, Stolins, op Christiana te vestig. Die vestiging van die aanleg hou natuurlik die bykomende voordeel in dat die vars-uitgehaalde aartappels slegs oor kort afstande vervoer word wat beskading grootliks beperk. Spesiale verpakkings is ook vervaardig wat uitstekend daarin slaag om die beeld te skep dat die inhoud iets besonders is. Wat die aartappels in die proef betref, het mnr. Posthumus gesê dat dit in vier kategorieë ingedeel kan word, naamlik nis-mark, kommersiële mark, prosesseringsmark en die hardeskyfiemark. “Ons is tans besig om twee kultivars op die proef te stel wat

Mnr. Gerhard Posthumus verduidelik die aartappelkategorieë in die Wesgrow Potatoes se produkmandjie

aan die verbruiker se behoefte vir 'n werklike slaaiaartappel sal kan voldoen. Die sukses hiervan sal natuurlik afhang of so 'n aartappel winsgewend in die verbruikersmark gevestig kan word. Ek aanvaar dat dit 'n langtermynproses is, maar is vol vertroue dat ons dit gaan regkry om ook 'n slaai-aartappel suksesvol in die Wesgrow Potatoes se produkmandjie in te sluit.” C

CHIPS • July/August 2017

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Kontreinuus • Regional News

Van moerkweker tot skrywer Gawie Geyer, CHIPS

t? Dat mure jou stories kan vertel van

ete tyd? Hierdie boek gee jou ’n kykie

kie Sandveld vanaf Swartboskraal tot

Suid-Afrika hul eie gemaak het.

tories van gister bevat ook meer as

ofiele van bekendes uit die Sandveld

deel.

boek kan jy lees oor die vindingryke

emaak het om hul huishoudings te

k is om enigiets van ’n kopseer tot

ies en die onnutsigheid van sommige

n die Sandveld die Sandveld teek van die Sandveld die Sandveld

Sandveldkos Kosnostalgie en stories van gister

r na oupa se staaltjies en ouma se kos.

n het Berg in die oorspronklike opstal met

e geskiedenis en stories van die Sandveld

ervrou en ma, en later het omstandighede

te boek

ndboek oor die

RINA THERON

Rina Theron, voorheen moerkweker in die Sandveld, het in ’76 vir die eerste keer regtig kennis gemaak met die gebied toe sy die plaas Aan het Berg se opstal met sy kleimure en rietdak betrek het. Rina was eers net boervrou en ma, maar moes later noodgedwonge ook die boerdery behartig.

Volgens Rina was die Sandveld nie liefde met die eerste opslag nie. Sy kan goed onthou toe oom JanFrans Visser een oggend voor kerk vir haar gesê het – “Kyk nooientjie, die Sandveld werk só. Eers wil jy net hier wegkom, maar die sand hou jou vas en hoe meer jy spook en spartel, hoe vaster val jy vas en later as jy kan wegkom, dan wil jy nie meer weggaan nie.” Tydens haar tyd as moerkweker het sy haar stempel behoorlik in die aartappelbedryf afgedruk, soos eerste vrouemoerkweker, eerste vroulike ondervoorsitter van SAKO en eerste vroulike voorsitter van die Leipoldtville Boerevereniging.

Omdat die Sandveld se geskiedenis en stories van meet af aan haar deur kom klop het, het sy besluit om dit te pen. Rina se eerste boek Sandveldkos: Kosnostalgie en stories van gister het sopas verskyn en is propvol lekkerlees inligting oor die Sandveld se geskiedenis, kookkuns, huiswenke en huisapteek asook stories. In die boek maak ons onder andere kennis met manne wat diep spore getrap het in die vestiging van die aartappelbedryf soos oom Koos Visser, oom Hannes Visser en oom Sarel van der Westhuizen. Sy verwys na oom Hannes Visser as 'n Sandvelder wat op 74 'n wandelende ensiklopedie is met 'n vlymskerp waarnemingsvermoë. Dan is daar ook die vroue wat help tem het aan die Sandveld, vroue soos tannie Kittie Visser wat geld vir haar man geleen het om aartappelmoere te koop vir sy eerste moeraanplanting op die plaas Sandfontein. Tannie Kittie, nou 95, woon nou steeds in die oorspronklike plaashuis. C Sandveldkos: Kosnostalgie en stories van gister is 'n moet vir elkeen, maar veral vir diegene vir wie die Sandveld na aan die hart lê. Dit kos R485.00 en is beskikbaar by rinatheron8@gmail.com of sel nr. 083 6910808 of by die boek se Facebookblad: www. facebook.com/Sandveldkos/

Jakkie Mellet, 3de in die 2017 Mongol Derby Gawie Geyer, CHIPS Volgens die organiseerders het Jakkie regdeur die wedren ongelooflike ryvernuf aan die dag gelê. Ongelukkig is hy ’n veearts-penalisasie by die laaste urtuu (perdestasie) opgelê, wat beteken het dat hy twee ure moes wag voor hy voorlopers agterna kon sit. Die wedren is gesamentlik deur Barry Armitage, ‘n voormalige professionele seevaarder wat avonturier geword het, van Suid-Afrika en Ed Fernon, ‘n olimpiese vyfkampatleet van Australië. Jakkie Mellett nadat hy die eindpunt oorgesteek het (Foto: Julian Herbert @ Mongol Derby 2017)

Jakkie Mellet van Potato Seed Production op Lydenburg het 3de geëindig in die 2017 Mongol Derby, die wêreld se langste en taaiste perdewedren. Page 86 |

CHIPS • Julie/Augustus 2017

Hulle het die 1 000 km, in daaglikse 12 uur skofte, binne sewe dae afgelê. Jakkie Mellett het net ’n paar ure daarna klaargemaak. Dit beteken ’n algehele suidelike-halfrond podium in 2017!


Aartappelprodukte wat werk

Die beproefde sukses van die Philagro produkreeks verseker dat ons produkte kop bo skouers uitstaan in 'n koste doeltreffende aartappelprogram! • Verbeter die uitloop van moere met ProGibb® 4% en ProGibb® 40%. Beheer: • Aalwurms met Rugby® 10G en Rugby ® 10ME • Swartskurf en stamkanker met Rizolex ® WP • Silwerskurf en antraknose met Octave® • Aartappelmot met SumiPleo® • Snywurms en aartappelmot met Sumi-Alpha® 200 EC en Sumi-Alpha® 200 EW • Plusia landmeters met DiPel ® DF en Florbac ® WG • Vroeëroes met Sumisclex® SC en Impact ® Praat gerus met jou naaste Philagro-agent oor betroubare aartappelprodukte wat werk. Philagro Suid-Afrika (Edms) Bpk Reg nr: 98/10658107

Tindrum 17/183

PostNet Suite #378, Privaatsak X025, Lynnwoodrif 0040 Pretoria Tel: (012) 348 8808 Somerset Wes Tel: (021) 851 4163

PRODUKTE WAT WERK VAN MENSE WAT OMGEE www.philagrosa.co.za

Raadpleeg die etiket vir volledige besonderhede. DiPel® (Reg. nr. L6441, Wet nr. 36 van 1947) bevat Bacillus thuringiensis var kurstaki. versigtig. Florbac® WG (Reg. nr. L5531, Wet nr. 36 van 1947) bevat Bacillus thuringiensis var aizawai. versigtig. Octave® (Reg. nr. L3406 Wet nr. 36 van1947), bevat prochloras, versigtig. ProGibb® 4% (Reg. n.r L5118, Wet nr. 36 van 1947) bevat gibberelliene. ProGibb® 40% (Reg. nr. L6777, Wet nr. 36 van 1947) bevat gibberelliene. Rizolex® WP (Reg. nr. L6376, Wet nr. 36 van 1947) bevat tolklofosmetiel, versigtig. Rugby® 10 G (Reg. nr. L4110, Wet nr. 36 van 1947) bevat kadusafos, skadelik. Rugby® 10 ME (Reg. nr. L6368, Wet nr. 36 van 1947) bevat kadusafos, versigtig. Sumi-Alpha® 200 EC (Reg. nr. L6452, Wet nr. 36 van 1947) bevat esfenvaleraat, giftig. Sumi-Alpha® 200 EW (Reg. nr. L8821 Wet nr. 36 van 1947) bevat esfenvaleraat, skadelik. Sumisclex® SC (Reg. nr. L6377, Wet nr. 36 van 1947) bevat prosimidoon. Impact ® (Reg. nr. L4088, Wet nr. 36 van 1947) bevat flutriafol, versigtig. Sumipleo® (Reg. nr. L 8377, Wet nr. 36 van 1947) bevat piridaliel, versigtig. Sumipleo®, Rizolex®, Sumicidin®, Sumi-Alpha® en Sumisclex® is geregistreerde handelsmerke Sumitomo Chemical Company, Tokyo, Japan. ProGibb®, DiPel® en Florbac® is die geregistreerde handelsname van Valent Biosciences Corporation VSA. Rugby® van en Octave® is die geregistreerde handelsmerke van FMC Corporation VSA. Impact® is die geregistreerde handelsmerk van Cheminova, Denemarke.


Seed Grower of the Year Finalists announced! Sanette Thiart, Potato Certification Service Introduction Wow, is a small word that describes the feeling when one faces excellence. Partnering with Bayer in bestowing an award in recognition of excellence has been an amazing experience for Potato Certification Service. Supreme quality in everything we do plays an important role in living our mission to support the potato industry in South Africa to perform optimally

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CHIPS â&#x20AC;˘ Julie/Augustus 2017

by ensuring the availability of high-quality planting material. Die top 4 moerkwekers se punte was so na aan mekaar dat daar besluit is om al vier te besoek. Die besoeke het bevestig dat hulle waardige ambassadeurs vir moerkweek is en daarom word al vier aan u voorgehou.


ASD • PCS

Die uiteenlopendheid van die finaliste se boerderyvertakkings, toerusting, fasiliteite en generasies geproduseer, is tekenend daarvan dat die kriteria vir die aanwys van die Moerkweker van die Jaar die spyker op die kop slaan. Die gemeenskaplike faktor in al hierdie boerderye is die passie waarmee moere gekweek word, die aandag aan detail, direkte betrokkenheid deur die kweker self en bo alles die nougesetheid waarmee basiese goeie praktyk beginsels vir die kweek van goeie gehalte aartappelmoere toegepas word.

Die beesboerdery word verdeel in ’n kudde- en ’n voerkraalgedeelte. As gevolg van die geïsoleerde ligging van die plaas bied dit ’n ideale gebied om vroeë generasie moere te kweek. Firna Boerdery is uit die aard van sy bedryf ook baie afhanklik van ’n sterk struktuur en arbeidsmag om ten beste sy produkte te lewer. Geen van die bogenoemde sal moontlik wees sonder kundigheid en waardebeginsels as hoekstene vir die maatskappy nie. Met hierdie hoekstene in plek is dit juis die struktuur se taak om elke stap van die moerkweek-proses klinies en deeglik te voltooi.

Daar word nie kortpaaie gevat met bemesting, chemiese beheer, suiwering, sortering, oes en verpakking nie, om maar net ‘n paar te noem. Die sertifiseringsbeamptes betrokke by hierdie kwekers getuig van die presisie waarmee alles gedoen word. Opvallend is die erns en liefde vir aartappels en spesifiek die kweek van aartappelmoere. Dit is lekker om erkenning te gee aan uitmuntendheid, al is dit nie die motivering agter die toegewydheid nie.

Firna Boerdery werk met ’n rotasiesiklus van tussen 7 en 11 jaar per land. Dit het tot gevolg dat ontbossing van ongebraakte grond die eerste stap in die proses is. Plantseisoen is die belangrikste tyd op die plaas. Die feit dat daar baie verskillende blokke en kultivars gedurende hierdie tyd geplant word vereis ’n streng waaksaamheid teen enige vermenging. Alle aartappels word met die hand geplant wat ’n verdere oog op vermenging hou. Goeie plantmateriaal is ononderhandelbaar en dít word deur Wesgrow voorsien.

Sanette Thiart - My dad taught me if something is worth doing, it is worth doing well! Production of certified seed potatoes is also like this. You either do it well, or you leave it. Given the cost and risk involved in seed potato production, it is worth the effort to do everything well. With this, I would like to congratulate these Top Four seed growers and their staff on a job well done! L 002 – Firna (Edms.) Bpk – Frans Engelbrecht en sy seun Michiel Artikel deur Jaco Botes, Sertifiseringsbeampte (ASD)

’n Gifbeheerstelsel speel ’n kardinale rol in die moerkweek-proses. Daar bestaan dus ’n gifprogram wat weekliks toegepas word om onder andere motte, plantluise en roes hok te slaan. Vandat die aartappels opkom is hulle in hierdie streng gifprogram tot en met die 90ste dag wanneer hulle doodgespuit word. In hierdie tyd word daar ook ’n waaksame oog gehou oor die grondvogbestuur om te verseker dat die aartappels binne die regte vogtoestande kan groei. Slegs ondergrondse water word vir die besproeiing van die aartappels gebruik. Daar bestaan ’n noue verhouding met die suiweringspan, omdat hulle die oë is wat elke liewe aartappelplant vanaf twee weke na opkoms tot doodspuit onder oë het. Die suiweringspan bestaan uit 15 lede wat permanent tydens die groeiseisoen aangestel is om enige moontlike vermenging of afwykende plante te identifiseer. Daar is daaglikse kommunikasie tussen die suiweringspan en die bestuur van die maatskappy.

V.l.n.r Les Kügel (OSRA), Richard Bamberger (Bayer), Francois Engelbrecht, Bernice Engelbrecht (Michiel se vrou), Hennie van der Westhuizen (Bayer), Michiel Engelbrecht, Ishmael Seumako en Jaco Botes Firna Boerdery bestaan hoofsaaklik uit twee hoof bedryfstakke, naamlik beeste en aartappelmoere.

Geen opbrengs kan egter deur ’n menslike hand voortgebring word nie en slegs Genade van Bo verseker dat daar ’n oes sal wees. Oestyd bring baie bedrywigheid op die plaas, omdat dit baie arbeidsintensief is. ’n Goeie leierskapstruktuur en verspreiding van leierskaprolle verseker dat sortering in die stoor optimaal geskied en dat uitdagings soos vermenging bekamp word. Die pakstoor het ’n kapasiteit van tussen 160 en 200 ton per dag en CHIPS • July/August 2017

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daarom speel die maatskappy waardebeginsels van goeie leierskap en self-motivering ’n groot rol om produktiewe resultate te verseker. Ten slotte is geen maatskappy ’n sukses sonder passie as dryfveer tot groter suksesse nie. Firna streef daarna om optimisties te wees en geleenthede in verandering raak te sien. Die boerdery is nie ’n eiland nie, menseverhoudings op elke vlak van die besigheid word hoog op die prys gestel. ’n Balans tussen finansies, roumateriale en arbeid word op ’n daaglikse basis gehandhaaf om optimale produksie en sukses in hierdie maatskappy te verseker. L 017 – JP van den Berg en sy pa, Koos van den Berg Artikel deur Jaco Botes, Sertifiseringsbeampte (ASD)

V.l.n.r Jaco Botes, JP van den Berg, Sanette Thiart, Les Kügel en Richard Bamberger Dit is vir die Van den Bergs van Buttermere Boerdery ‘n voorreg, eer en genade van hul Skepper om ‘n finalis vir die Moerkweker van die Jaar-toekenning te wees. Sedert 2014 bevind Buttermere en sy span hulself onder die top moerkwekers van die land. JP van den Berg het die toekenning alreeds twee maal gewen, waarvan laasjaar een van die kere was en 2014 die ander keer. Geleë in die pragtige Molopo, net noord van Tosca, is waar die familie boerdery 62.5 ha aartappelmoere vir Wesgrow vermeerder. Dit is vir hulle ‘n voorreg om met Wesgrow geassosieer te word en hulle vertroue en insette in die aanplantings is van onskatbare waarde. Daar word jaarliks drie verskillende lande geplant, 62 verskillende blokke bestaande uit 32 kultivars. Vir JP begin alles by die aanplant van vroeë generasie, G0- en G1-gesertifiseerde moere. Gesertifiseerde moere verskaf belangrike inligting aan die kliënt bv. persentasie virusbesmetting, Page 90 |

CHIPS • Julie/Augustus 2017

variëteitsegtheid, fito-sanitêre status, knoltellings asook plantgereedheid van die knolle ens. Met die inligting kan ingeligte bestuurspraktyke vroegtydig toegepas word. Die realistiese perspektief en onafhanklike kundigheid wat Aartappelsertifiseringsdiens en die SA Aartappelmoersertifiseringskema bied, dra by tot ‘n geloofwaardige produk wat met deursigtigheid gesertifiseer is. Hierdie eienskap voeg waarde toe tot die produk. Groot hoeveelheid tyd word spandeer aan die voorbereiding van die grond. JP gun homself genoeg tyd vir voorbereidings, want dit is belangrik dat grond foutloos voorberei word. Dit gee die moere wat geplant word die beste moontlike geleentheid om optimaal te groei. Hoe vinniger jy die plant bo die grond kan kry, hoe beter. Dit verseker maksimum dae vir groei, wat een van die sleutels is tot ‘n goeie opbrengs. Buttermere Boerdery streef na ‘n sekere opbrengs, maar laasgenoemde loop hand aan hand met goeie verspreiding van moere oor al die verskillende grootte indelings. Daar moet dus opbrengs en genoegsame eenhede wees. Chemiese beheer en bemesting van aanplantings moet vroegtydig, deeglik en akkuraat gedoen word. Suiwering vind daagliks plaas gedurende die groeiseisoen op Buttermere en alhoewel dit ‘n kort klein woordjie is, beskryf dit ‘n reusetaak wat, indien nie deeglik gedoen word nie, verrykende negatiewe gevolge kan hê. Hulle streef na ‘n moer wat aan meer as net die vereistes voldoen, daarom plaas hulle kwaliteit bo kwantiteit. As gevolg van die groot verskeidenheid kultivars wat geplant word is stoorhigiëne baie belangrik om vermenging te voorkom. Hulpbronbestuur in ooreenstemming met wetgewing is van kardinale belang, nie net vir hulself nie, maar vir die beeld van die bedryf in geheel. Daarom probeer JP dit nastreef om hulpbronne volhoubaar en oordeelkundig te bestuur om sodoende die toekoms van sy kwaliteit moere te verseker. Selfs die klimaat word fyn dop gehou. Die impak van die natuur kan geweldig verwoestend wees en die mens kan net soveel doen om homself teen die gevare van natuurrampe te verskans. Klem word gelê op temperatuurveranderings, die verskil tussen dag en nag temperature, die hoeveelheid wolkbedekking wat daar is en die heersende windrigtings. Al die voorafgenoemde verskynsels gee ‘n indikasie oor hoe vroegtydig programme en bestuurspraktyke pro-aktief aangepas moet word. Vir ons sertifiseringsbeamptes is dit altyd aangenaam


ASD • PCS

om op die plaas van JP van den Berg te kom. Al is dit landinspeksies, knolinspeksies of monsterneming. Ons weet alles verloop altyd vlot en presies. Tydens landinspeksies is JP altyd teenwoordig. Sy suiweringspan stap ook saam tydens landinspeksies sodat hul teenwoordig kan wees indien daar ‘n besmette of siek plant gevind word, sodat hulle ekstra ondervinding kan opdoen. JP sorg dat sy suiweringspan enige plant wat lyk of daar iets fout is, verwyder. JP kom elke dag in sy lande, wat baie belangrik is vir enige boer sodat hy pro-aktief kan optree. Suiwering is een van die belangrikste aksies wat uitgevoer word as dit kom by die produksie van moere en hy besef dit ten volle. Daar word elke dag gesuiwer, vandat die plant opkom tot die dag wanneer die loof doodgemaak word. Plante kan enige oomblik besmet word met virus en daarom moet die mense dit so gou as moontlik uithaal, met knolle en al, voor daar ‘n kans ontstaan dat die virus of swam mag versprei. JP is voltyds in die sorteerstoor besig wanneer daar geoes word om seker te maak alles verloop vlot. Aangesien hy baie kultivars plant, is dit baie belangrik dat daar iemand voltyds in die stoor en op die land is tydens die oes van die moere om variëteitsvermenging te vermy. Hy skryf sy eie vragbriewe soos hy die aartappelmoere weglaai om seker te maak daar kom nie ‘n fout nie. Tydens ons besoek aan hom het hy eers gewag vir die ete breek voor hy saam met ons na die land gery het waar die aartappels geoes word. Vir hom is dit baie belangrik om by elke faset betrokke te wees. JP se pa, Koos van den Berg, is verantwoordelik op die land waar daar geoes word. Hulle twee werk goed saam as ‘n span en JP waardeer sy pa se insette in die boerdery. Monsterneming is een van die minder lekker afdelings van sertifisering, maar die feit dat JP die monsternemingsprosedure baie goed ken, maak dat die hele proses vinnig en vlot verloop. JP verstaan en praat vlot Tswana wat maak dat die kommunikasie geen probleem is tussen hom en sy werkers nie en daar word gemaklik lande met meer as 50 blokkies op een dag bemonster. Hy gebruik twee spanne en wissel die spanne af tussen elke blokkie, sodat daar nie vermenging of verwarring kan plaasvind nie. Daar is soveel mense wat bedank moet word vir die ondersteuning, diens en insette in hulle bedryf. Buttermere Boerdery is ‘n groot span wat almal hard werk en daarom bedank JP graag die sowat 160 personeel wat deel is van hulle suksesverhaal. Dit is vir hom lekker om deel uit te maak van die aartappelbedryf en ‘n klein, maar deeglike, bydrae

lewer om hierdie produk te laat aanhou suksesvol groei in die mark. N 058 – Pidelta (Pty) Ltd – Dean Brown Article by Gareth Windt, Certification Official

Gareth Windt, Les Kügel, Dean Brown, Kevin Cockburn, Mynhardt Noëth (Bayer), Ferdus Erasmus and at the back Vernon Hohls (Plant Manager) and Hennie van der Westhuizen Pidelta, has been announced as one of the finalists for the prestigious Seed Grower of the Year Award for the 2016/2017 season. This achievement is significant, despite challenges and difficulties resulting from nationwide droughts. Pidelta has managed to beat the odds through a solid and sustainable infrastructure, effective organisational design, efficient processes and procedures and world class leadership. Pidelta is a member of the Plennegy group. The company was established in 1973 and is situated in the Natal Midlands just outside the small town of Greytown. Pidelta began primarily as a maize seed company. Since then they have diversified into other crops, including several varieties of vegetables, dry beans and soya. Seed potatoes was thus a natural progression. Diversification is essential for creating sustainability in our current agricultural economy and thus Pidelta has over the years, moved into different operations. Their footprint is spread across the country. They have three main growing regions, with Greytown being the base of the operation. Pidelta Farms in Greytown are approximately 1 100 m above sea level with an average annual rainfall of 850 mm. Farming conditions have been very difficult over the past few years. This can be attributed largely to the country wide droughts. Sound management and leadership principles have ensured CHIPS • July/August 2017

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ASD • PCS

that resources were available. The Pidelta Greytown operation grows 600 hectares of seed maize for Pannar and have other commercial maize, soya and dry bean plantings. Pidelta run a 700-head breeding cow unit with a small feedlot for finishing off their weaners. Included in this extensive operation is a 1 500 hectare timber plantation, consisting mainly of wattle and pine with a small amount of gum. Pidelta, upon realizing the potential in value adding to their mature pine trees, branched off into saw milling. They also have 100 hectares of sugarcane, 35 hectares of pecan orchards in the Muden Valley and a pecan processing factory in Greytown. In the Komatipoort region, Pidelta undertakes vegetable seed production for Starke Ayres, including a big area of garden bean seed production, seed maize, dry beans and sunflower productions for Pannar Seed and deliver 45 000 tons of sugar cane a year to the TSB mill in Komatipoort. Pidelta’s Winterton region is where they undertake seed maize production and soybean seed productions for Pannar. The rest of the lands are used to grow commercial maize and commercial soybeans. They have also established pecan trees and are planning to get up to 60 hectares of pecan orchards. Pidelta’s seed potato production career began in 2011 growing seed for McCain and Xylem. They started with 25 hectares and are now producing more than 70 hectares. They have future plans for growth, however, water is currently their limiting factor. Both of their main storage dams for irrigation are very low for the second year in a row. Currently Pidelta still produces for Xylem, with most of the production area planted to Simba varieties. In the past, they have only planted G3’s and G4’s, multiplied once and are then sold. In the coming season, they have taken the initiative to plant earlier generations seed as well to begin their own seed cycle. I have great confidence in their team’s abilities and I am certain they will make a success of it. Planting in mid-July allows them to market early as they start lifting by the end of November, with processing completed by the end of February. They only have a 3% commercial aspect to their potato crop, allowing them to get in and out quickly, avoiding the risks associated with aphids. Pidelta, having limited cold storage, don’t store on farm and move the seed off as quickly as possible. They lift and size the crop straight away, with the oversize and undersize being Page 92 |

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marketed immediately to local wholesalers or on the Pietermaritzburg Fresh Produce Market. The demand for unwashed potatoes in the surrounding region is very high. The seed fraction is stored in a ventilated shed for ten days before being sized and bagged as the orders come through from their customers. Pidelta has several experienced staff members which allow the cogs of the operation to turn smoothly. The farm managers run the day to day growing aspects from planting to harvesting. They have a dedicated store manager to oversee the sorting and packaging of their spuds. They have a specialised rogueing team that in the few short years have been able to effectively and efficiently rogue virus. In some cases, they have managed to get seed tested out cleaner than when it was planted. Social responsibility is high on their list of priorities. Pidelta’s permanent staff members are on a program whereby the company assists in supplying building materials for them to build their own houses. They also assist with student loan facilities for education of the staff’s children. Pidelta is very involved in the local community and drives the conservancy efforts in the Umvoti County. Dean Brown, operations director, is president of the Umvoti Agricultural Society and serves on the local security committee as well. Kevin Cockburn, managing director, is the chairman of the Umvoti Irrigation Board and on the Greytown Conservancy. They are also represented by one of their managers, Ian Redfern, on the local fire protection committee. As one can see from the above it is safe to say that they are geared for seed production with extensive knowledge in the seed industry as a whole. Their impressive infrastructure at a management level sets them aside from the rest. They pride themselves in attention to detail and on doing things right the first time, which is a prerequisite in any successful seed production. They truly are “Seed Production Specialists”


N 127 – Loch Buighe Farms – Craig MacFarlane Article by Ferdus Erasmus, PCS Regional Manager: KwaZulu-Natal and North Eastern Cape

F.l.t.r Ferdus Erasmus, Sue and Craig MacFarlane, Les Kügel, Mynhardt Noëth, Sanette Thiart and Gareth Windt Loch Buighe is set between rolling green hills and trees. It is complemented by fresh air that gives a picture of a countryside setting, as the name suggests, in the highlands of Scotland. You would be mistaken, however, as you are actually in the ‘highlands’ of Ixopo, KwaZulu-Natal, which is how the Macfarlane family sees their beloved home. Loch Buighe is located approximately 10 km outside Ixopo on the way to Donnybrook. Ixopo was originally named Stuartstown. The name Ixopo was given by the Zulu people. This word is an excellent example of onomatopoeia, as it perfectly describes the sound cattle make when squelching through the mud (remembering, of course, to use the correct click). The squelching mud is also reference to the damp conditions of the area at altitudes of 2 000 m above sea level. The rich history and almost ‘spiritual’ quality (there is a popular Buddhist Retreat in Ixopo), provides a picturesque setting for the MacFarlane family’s farm. The farm has four main farming components, namely: seed potatoes (as the main enterprise, with maize and grasslands as important rotation crops), dairy production, beef and timber. The area is well isolated. One potato grower is approximately 4 km away and the next is 20 km away. This helps to minimize aphid flights. Craig has a well-trained rogue team. He would like to mechanize as much as possible, however, due the topography of his farm this is Page 94 |

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somewhat impossible. The steep lands make it too difficult to use mechanical lifters and so Craig relies upon a lifting team. He also has a team of workers in the shed. The farm experiences a minimum of 800 mm of rainfall per annum, mainly from November to April. This makes following a spray program quite challenging. During lifting, there are often moments where even a 4x4 tractor struggles! Yet, somehow, Craig manages. The success story of a business can only be told if a little bit of history finds its way to the reader. Loch Buighe was established in 1868 and Craig is the fifth generation of his family to farm. At the age of 20, Craig was forced to discontinue his studies and return to the farm under tragic circumstances. Craig did not know much about farming, but a family friend lent a helping hand. Craig needed to learn quickly and most importantly, he had to learn to farm his own way and make a success thereof. Times were tough in the beginning of Craig’s farming career and he tried his best to keep all operations on the farm running smoothly. As time went by, Craig grew in confidence and gained knowledge. He began to learn about different crops and the seed potatoes began to ‘take off’. Craig’s father used to plant BP1 and Vanderplank, which were marketed through the local Donnybrook Seed Potato Association that all the seed growers in the area belonged to. Craig planted 15-20 hectares of seed potatoes in 1999 when he began farming. Today, along with his wife, Sue, he plants 70 hectares of seed potatoes, most of which are processing varieties for Simba. Over the last seven years, Craig has adapted to the ever-changing seed potato industry. He used to plant mostly open varieties such as BP1, which were supported by closed varieties like Valor and Avalanche. Today he does not plant any open varieties and focusses on mainly three varieties, namely: FL2108, Lanorma and Valor. These he grows from G0 seed potatoes, which are then multiplied for his own planting up to G3. G4 seed potatoes are sold to commercial farms. Soil borne diseases are managed by a 5 to 6 year rotation program and the leasing of virgin lands helps to stretch the rotation years. Rotation crops play a big role in the managing of volunteers. Craig plants maize, soya beans, oats and eragrostis, of which maize is the most important. He plants approximately 400 hectares of maize to produce silage for his dairy operation. Of course, for a 20 year old to start farming must


ASD • PCS

seem an extremely daunting task. Most people probably would have decided not to even try, but for Craig it was a challenge, one over which he surely questioned himself repeatedly over. Luckily for KwaZulu-Natal seed growers and the industry at large, Craig decided to see the challenge through and made a success of the farm.

new venture and started a share-milking operation on Loch Buighe. Craig partnered up with a dairy farmer who had sold his farm to Land Affairs and started a share-milking scheme, which is now milking 1 500 cows on two farms. This has been a fantastic growth opportunity, as the farm is now utilized to its full potential.

Craig is a finalist for the second time and hopes to be a second-time winner too. With hard work and by being open-minded to learning new tricks in the trade, Craig won the prestigious award of Seed Potato Grower of the Year: 2015. Here he is again as a finalist in 2017. One might notice that 2016 is missing, but Craig likes to see it is as ‘taking a gap year’ to concentrate on farming. This is because it was one of Craig’s most difficult years of his farming career: ‘The Drought of 2016’. For farmers and everyone else in KwaZulu-Natal, the drought was a huge challenge. For a farm with an annual rainfall of 800-1000 mm a year, to receive only 500 mm, would bring anyone to his knees. To see your potato plants struggling to grow, is not easily accepted. With a yield of 25 tons per hectare, the future of your farm comes knocking at your door very quickly, leaving a very tense atmosphere in your business and at home. Craig’s attention to detail helped to still produce good quality seed potatoes in spite of natural conditions. 2016 was very difficult for most farmers nationally and Craig had such a scare that he was forced to build a dam and install a pivot. This is a simple way to try to explain Craig’s character. He learns and improves whenever he can.

Craig has a 600 cow Red Angus Beef commercial breeding herd that grazes on the steep slopes where no other farming enterprises can be accomplished. He has a full-time manager who runs his beef production and who also oversees the timber aspect of Loch Buighe. The timber enterprise on the farm consists of 500 hectares of Eucalyptus Grandis (Blue Gum) plantations, which are harvested year-round per a ten year felling cycle. Once a compartment is harvested, it is automatically replanted to achieve its full potential in a further ten years.

As if potatoes were not enough to keep him busy, Craig also likes to improve his knowledge in the other three farming enterprises of Loch Buighe. The dairy is fully automated and leaves anyone visiting it in awe. It is such a smooth operation that there aren’t enough words to describe it. Eight years ago, Craig began a

Although a young farmer, faced with many trials, Craig managed to find the time to marry Sue and have four children, three daughters and a son. He considers himself a family man and his wife and children are very dear to him. Craig is very much involved with the community. He serves on the school board and is actively involved in training upcoming farmers to succeed and make profits on the farms given to them. He recognized the need these new farmers have due to his own struggle to succeed when he was a young farmer and sees this as a way of ‘giving back’. Craig is a honest and hardworking farmer. He treats all people he comes into contact with respectfully. Craig and Sue have worked tirelessly to build Loch Buighe into the success it is today. Craig and Sue believe that they are fortunate to be able to farm in such a beautiful part of our country. When one surveys the lush greenery that is the farm, Loch Buighe, it is easy to understand why. C

CHIPS • July/August 2017

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Prokon Nuus Gedurende Mei en Junie 2017 het 15 aartappelproduksiestreke asook nie-produserende verskaffers aartappels aan die varsproduktemarkte landwyd gelewer STREEK

% VAN LEWERINGS

SAKKIES GELEWER

SANVDELD

6.22%

1 171 217

CERES

1.04%

195 673

SUIDWESKAAP

0.01%

1 760

NOORDKAAP

4.81%

905 211

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DRIE HOOF KULTIVARS

% AFMERKINGS

HOOFREDES VIR AFMERKINGS

Sifra (49.42%) Mondial (24.96%) Avalanche (6.61%)

5.25%

Verbruining (63.08%) Aalwurm (9.31%) Vergroening (7.03%)

Panamera (38.97%) Lanorma (32.96%) Sifra (18.21%)

1.81%

Verlep (73.21%) Meganiese beskadiging (12.42%) Vergroening (6.21%)

Sifra (100%) Sifra (29.49%) Mondial (21.49%) Up-to-Date (16.14%)

31.25%

7.53%

Binne-bruinvlek (100%) Insekbeskadiging (26.85%) Meganiese beskadiging (17.82%) Aalwurm (17.57%)


PROKON

STREEK

% VAN LEWERINGS

SAKKIES GELEWER

DRIE HOOF KULTIVARS

% AFMERKINGS

HOOFREDES VIR AFMERKINGS

OOS-KAAP

0.62%

Sifra (50.19%) 116 609 Labadia (18.72%) Mondial (16.41%)

Misvormd (31.88%) 11.54% Insekbeskadiging (27.79%) Meganiese beskadiging (24.52%)

NOORDOOSKAAP

2.40%

Mondial (56.35%) 450 835 Sifra (21.76%) Electra (7.39%)

Vergroening (16.23%) 13.02% Insekbeskadiging (15.76%) Meganiese beskadiging (14.76%)

WES-VRYSTAAT

29.26%

Mondial (63.74%) 5 505 718 Sifra (25.85%) Lanorma (3.23%)

Vergroening (23.83%) 8.46% Sandsplete (22.78%) Meganiese beskadiging (10.88%)

OOS-VRYSTAAT

Mondial (76.12%) 34.49% 6 489 091 Lanorma (13.48%) Electra (5.20%)

Meganiese beskadiging (27.60%) 8.10% Aartappelmot (16.22%) Insekbeskadiging (14.46%)

SUIDWESVRYSTAAT

1.14%

Sifra (48.14%) 215 378 Mondial (27.67%) Savana (12.92%)

Vergroening (73.98%) 3.93% Lentisel beskadiging (10.65%) Sandsplete (5.91%)

KWAZULUNATAL

2.45%

Mondial (44.93%) 460 430 Lanorma (23.85%) Up-to-Date (14.48%)

Insekbeskadiging (50.18%) 4.33% Silwerskurf (16.61%) Bruinskurf (5.82%)

MPUMALANGA

0.06%

LIMPOPO

6.63%

Sifra (45.34%) 1 247 185 Mondial (25.63%) Valor (15.24%)

NOORDWES

5.02%

Sifra (66.69%) 944 514 Lanorma (15.45%) Mondial (8.62%)

GAUTENG

1.09%

Lanorma (39.86%) 204 828 Mondial (37.54%) Almera (21.34%)

LOSKOPVALLEI

0.04%

NIEPRODUSERENDE VERSKAFFERS

4.72%

11 200

Mondial (70.54%) Taisya (29.46%)

7 876 Sifra (100%) Mondial (37.48%) 888 055 Sifra (18.72%) Lanorma (16.67%)

0% Geen Vergroening (42.69%) 3.99% Sandsplete (28.90%) Meganiese beskadiging (7.70%) Vergroening (49.92%) 5.70% Bruinskurf (15.10%) Sandsplete (5.99%) Bruinskurf (19.24%) 14.03% Meganiese beskadiging (14.20%) Aalwurm (12.83%) 6.98% Lentisel-beskadiging (100%) Meganiese beskadiging (27.74%) 8.91% Vergroening (14.62%) Bruinskurf (8.44%)

Relevante statistiek ten opsigte van lewering gedurende Mei / Junie 2017 is soos volg: • 18 815 580 sakkies vanuit 15 streke asook die nie-produserende verskaffers, is aan die varsproduktemarkte landwyd gelewer. • 88 196 sakkies het nie aan die voorgeskrewe merkvereistes voldoen nie. Dit was 1 347 sakkies meer as gedurende Maart / April 2017 waartydens 86 849 sakkies nie voldoen het nie. • 53 824 sakkies het nie die nodige kultivar aangedui nie, wat weer 'n aansienlike styging toon van 45 174 sakkies teenoor die 8 650 sakkies vir Maart / April 2017. • Die verslag toon 'n effense verlaging in die gemiddelde persentasie afmerkings van 7.64% teenoor die 7.76% vir Maart / April 2017. Totale aantal sakkies gelewer in Mei / Junie 2017 = 18 815 580

Gemiddelde persentasie afgemerk 7.64%

CHIPS • July/August 2017

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Prokon Nuus

1,87%

0,74%

1,22%

1,30%

1,42%

1,51%

10,00%

2,13%

20,00%

2,65%

10,28%

30,00%

22,09%

54,79%

HOOF KULTIVARS GELEWER OP VARSPRODUKTEMARKTE: 1 MEI - 30 JUNIE 2017

0,00%

ANDER: AVALANCHE, LAPERLA, FIANNA, VANDERPLANK, LABADIA, INOVA, BP1, DARIUS, FABULA, NAVIGATOR, MARKIES, BUFFELSPOORT, INOVATOR, LADY ROSETTA, ERYN, SERENADE, DAISY, VALUE, EVORA, PENTLAND DELL, HERTHA

ANDER MET MINDER AS 0% AFMERKINGS: MPUMALANGA (0.00%)

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13,27%

6,98%

14,03%

5,70%

3,99%

4,33%

3,93%

8,10%

8,46%

13,02%

11,54%

7,53%

1,81%

30,00% 20,00% 10,00% 0,00%

5,25%

31,25%

AFMERKINGS PER STREEK OP VARSPRODUKTEMARKTE: 1 MEI - 30 JUNIE 2017


PROKON

4,72%

1,09%

5,02%

6,63%

2,45%

34,49% 1,14%

2,40%

4,81%

10,00%

1,04%

20,00%

6,22%

30,00%

29,26%

STREEKLEWERINGS OP VARSPRODUKTEMARKTE: 1 MEI - 30 JUNIE 2017

0,00%

ANDER: SUIDWES-KAAP (0.01%), OOS-KAAP (0.62"%), MPUMALANGA (0.06%), LOSKOPVALLEI (0.04%)

14,64%

2,82%

4,54%

4,88%

5,43%

6,23%

8,41%

9,15%

10,00%

10,77%

20,00%

15,44%

30,00%

17,69%

REDES VIR AFMERKINGS OP VARSPRODUKTEMARKTE: 1 MEI - 30 JUNIE 2017

0,00%

ANDER: LENTISEL, STINGELENT, HOLHART, BEDERF, TE KLEIN, UINTJIES, NERF-AF/LOS, ANTRAKNOSE, BINNEBRUINVLEK, DROËVROT, WATERIGHEID, VERLEP, GROOTTE, GEBREEKTE KNOLLE, TE GROOT, RHIZOCTONIA, SKILAALWURM, GEEN KULTIVAR, GRONDBESMEER, UITGELOOP, VAATBUNDEL VERBRUINING, KOUE BARSTE, KOUE SKADE, BESMEER EN BESMET .

CHIPS • July/August 2017

Page 99


Potato Industry Forum Gawie Geyer, CHIPS

The Potato Industry Forum met on 22 May 2017 under the chairmanship of Prof Johan Kirsten. In addition to the normal feedback by representatives of the Potato Industry Development Trust, Potatoes South Africa and industry role players, the program made provision for presentations by Mr Mzi Rubushe from the Competition Commission South Africa, Mr Etienne Booyens from Prokon, Ms Sanette Thiart from Potato Certification Service and Ms Marieta Botha from Plantovita. No answer in case against market agents for alleged collusion to fix market prices Mr Mzi Rubushe, head of stakeholder relations at the Competition Commission South Africa, said that since the case against market agents for alleged collusion to fix market prices is still under investigation he is not in a position to comment on the matter. He

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added that the agricultural sector has been prioritised by the Commission and that the latter has already investigated a number of complaints levelled at role players in the industry. As far as the Competition Commission is concerned, he explained that it derives its mandate to promote and maintain competition from the Competition Act in order to promote efficiency and development of the economy, provide consumers with competitive prices and product choices, ensure that South Africa participates in world markets and recognising the role of foreign competition in South Africa and ensuring that small and black business enterprises are assured equitable opportunities in the local economy. He also said that there are specific activities which hampers competition and are prohibited under the Competition Act. â&#x20AC;&#x153;These include illegal arrangements


Algemeen • General

between competitors, illegal arrangements between suppliers, producers and their customers and illegal use of market power by large companies which boils down to abuse of their dominant positions. No defence is allowed in respect of illegal arrangements between competitors, i.e. direct or indirect fixing of prices, the agreed division of markets and collusive tendering.” According to Mr Rubushe the Competition Act makes provision for exemptions if the objective of the prohibited arrangement is, e.g. to promote exports, enhance small business and black business competiveness, prevent a decline in an industry, or to protect intellectual property rights. “The Competition Commission is not against the establishment of industry associations such as Potatoes South Africa and recognises the fact that such associations should be allowed to carry-out legitimate activities to the benefit of its members, with the proviso that such associations do not serve as a platform to facilitate collusion. As far as information exchange by associations are concerned such action is allowed, but it cannot include discussions, standardisation or stabilisation of prices, cash discounts, credit terms, restrictions on supply and allocation of customers or markets”, Mr Rubushe said in conclusion. Size group classification system requires serious attention Mr Etienne Booyens, chief executive officer of Prokon, reported that since December 2016 there had been a considerable increase in down-marking of consignments because of incorrect sizing in terms of the approved size groups and which adversely affected the price the farmer fetched for his/her potatoes. “Because of the Prokon’s responsibility in terms of its appointment as assignee in respect of quality assurance to protect the consumer and also to retain consumer confidence in the product, Prokon had no option to strictly apply the grading regulations. “In January 2017 as much as 123 813 bags were down-marked because of incorrect sizing (mixed sizes / too big / too small) and which increased to 363 002 bags in February 2017. However, because of a temporary dispensation by the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries and Potatoes South Africa’s efforts to obtain the cooperation of potato producers to resolve the problem at farm level, downmarking dropped appreciably in March and April 2017. Naturally this benefitted the prices the farmers

fetched for their potatoes”, he said. “The size group classification system used to work fine, but it is no longer the case because of adverse weather conditions, biological factors and quite a number of new cultivars being introduced onto the market whose shapes differ somewhat from those for which the current system caters. It is, therefore paramount that role players, including the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, work together to find a permanent solution to the problem because a temporary dispensation is not the answer”, Mr Booyens said in conclusion. Certification of seed potatoes and the benefits and necessity of planting certified seed potatoes Ms Sanette Thiart, managing director of Potato Certification Service, provided an overview of the important work done by the Independent Certification Council for Seed Potatoes (Council) and Potato Certification Service to guarantee the future of the local potato industry by ensuring that high quality certified planting material are available to the industry. “The South African Seed Potato Certification Scheme is there to keep producers informed of the disease status of the seed potatoes, to limit the build-up of diseases in seed potatoes and in the soil and to protect the local potato industry from imported pests and diseases. This is done by being self-sufficient in terms of producing certified seed potatoes, the fact that only in vitro plant material and minitubers may be imported, that there are three local in vitro quarantine facilities and lastly that all commercially grown varieties and trial varieties are maintained in vitro”, she explained. In respect of the 2015/2016 production year 9 784 hectares of seed potato were planted which yielded in excess of 6.362 million 25 kg bags of certified seed potatoes. Because of the pivotal role seed potato growers play in the success and future existence of the South African potato industry strict rules apply before a person can produce certified seed potatoes. “Before a seed potato grower is allowed to participate he/she must achieve a 75% mark in an examination on scheme regulations, the protocol, applicable legal aspects and seed potato production. As far as the certification of seed potatoes is concerned it is a prerequisite that the unit be registered beforehand. The planting will CHIPS • July/August 2017

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be subject to at least two timely field inspections by Potato Certification Service’s inspectors, the drawing of field samples for virus testing as well as samples for bacterial wilt testing and the testing thereof in a Council approved laboratory. If the unit passes the tests and before the unit is finally certified the inspector will conduct a tuber inspection and draw post control samples for virus testing and varietal verification”, she said. In conclusion Ms Thiart underlined the importance of planting certified seed potatoes with emphasis on the fact that the risk of crop failure is greatly minimised. “Planting certified seed potatoes gives you the assurance that you buy a quality product that was grown by dedicated registered seed potato growers and verified, inspected and approved by independent, knowledgeable certification officials. In addition table potato growers are assured that the seed potatoes they plant were certified under a well-established certification scheme that is revered internationally.” What laboratory services in the potato industry is all about “For the period 1998 to 2016 Plantovita tested close to 6.91 million virus samples and more than 6.088 bacterial samples which underlines the seriously important role it plays in the South African potato industry”, Ms Marieta Botha, Chief Executive Officer of Plantovita said at the start of her presentation. According to Ms Botha there are more than 50 000 diseases that are associated with plants and pathogens and are estimated to cause about 12.5% of crop losses globally. “In order to maintain a sufficient food supply to the world’s population, it is the responsibility of institutions such as Plantovita to assist in managing and combating plant diseases capable of destroying crops on a large scale. To do this there are five regional testing laboratories strategically situated in the South African seed potato

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CHIPS • Julie/Augustus 2017

production regions with the primary task to detect viruses and bacteria in planting material.” Ms Botha concluded by saying that Plantovita specializes in diagnostic services with the emphasis on the identification of fungi, viruses, bacteria, nematodes and physiological deviations on tubers or plant. “This means we are, e.g. geared to confirm bacterial wilt results, conduct diffused lighting tests for true to type determination, able to test imported and/or other foundation material and do dispute testing on virus samples. Since 2012 we are also in a position to conduct molecular tests (PCR testing) for seed potato growers which further cemented the important role that Plantovita plays in the well-being of the South African potato industry.” Performance of the Potato Industry Development Trust Mr Martin Fourie, a trustee of the Potato Industry Development Trust, reported that in respect of the appropriation of statutory funds in respect of the 2015/2016 financial year, with the exception of spending on administration, the ministerial guidelines were met. “Because of an underspending on transformation and marketing for reasons beyond Potatoes South Africa control, the overspending on administration, which may not exceed 10% of funds appropriated, was 0.2%. Although the 2016/2017 financial year only ends on 30 June 2017, currently figures show that in respect of the current financial year about 8.25% will be spent on administration which is well within the limit set by the Minister. In total R39 805 675 was spent in the 2015/2016 financial year on funding Potatoes South Africa’s core businesses and administration.” As far as the 2016/2017 financial year is concerned he reported that the year to date collection of the statutory levy is lower than budgeted because of the extreme weather conditions experienced in


Algemeen • General

the production regions, which adversely affected crop volumes. He also referred to the projected income for the current statutory period that spans from 2015/2016 to 2018/2019 and said that it is anticipated that the levy income received each year will be lower than budgeted, but that timely actions have been implemented to address the lower levy income. The South African potato industry and Potatoes South Africa

executive officer, provided an overview of the South African potato industry, Potatoes South Africa as a leading organisation in the fresh produce industry and the statutory measures that include the statutory levy which make it possible for the organisation to render a high quality service to the potato producer in particular and the potato industry as a whole. The gist of his presentation on the South African potato industry and Potatoes South Africa is contained in an interview that CHIPS had with Dr Jooste (See page 76).

Dr André Jooste, Potatoes South Africa’s chief

PIF gives thumbs-up to Potatoes South Africa’s application for statutory measures The industry representatives attending the Potato Industry Forum decided to give the thumbs-up for the Potatoes South Africa application for statutory measures for the fourth levy period spanning 2019 to 2023. This was after careful consideration of the information presented to them by Dr André Jooste, Potatoes South Africa’s Chief Executive Officer. Dr Jooste said in his presentation that the application for statutory measures for the fourth period, i.e. 2019 to 2023 will be presented to the biennial Potatoes South Africa Congress on 28 September 2017 for approval. He explained that it is necessary to get the go-ahead now as Congress will only meet next in September 2019, by what time the next statutory period would already have commenced. According to him the approach followed in respect of the application is one of creating an affordable financial plan by reducing costs and keeping the statutory levies at a sustainable level. In order to succeed due cognisance must be taken of the following: • • • • • •

The ministerial guidelines which stipulates that at least 20% must be spent on transformation, 70% on the other core businesses and not more than 10% on administration of the levy. Maintaining a 60:40 ratio between projects and operational costs. Ensuring an equitable spending ratio between Market Development and Generic Product Promotion on the one hand and Research and Development on the other. Ensuring a positive cash flow situation by maintaining carry-over funds / bridging capital of approximately R7 million for which ministerial approval will have to be obtained. (It is necessitated by the fact that bag manufacturers who serve as points for collecting the levy are only in a position to pay-over the levies after collection from producers / buyers.) Abiding by the NAMC guidelines for the appropriation of statutory funds for transformation. Achieving the set budget goals.

As far as the levy for the four year period is concerned he said that it is based on a projected 2% annual growth in volumes produced. “We shall recommend to Congress that the levy for the first year (2019/2020) of the fourth statutory period be fixed at 2.05c per kilogram that will be 0.75c less than the statutory levy for 2018/2019, which is the last year of the current statutory period. In respect of the ensuing years of the fourth statutory period, i.e. 2020/2021 to 2022/2023 the levy will increase by 3.9% per annum.”

CHIPS • July/August 2017

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Algemeen • General

From the floor

…….. on the planting of certified seed potatoes

……on information exchange

Table potato producers do not always get what they pay for because of mechanical damage and mixed sizes in the bag that makes the planting process difficult. Problem cases should be taken up with the seed grower and if the table producer gets no joy he could get in touch with Potato Certification Service. C

It is evident that the industry and Competition Commission are planets apart in terms of what constitutes the exchange of information and collusion and is the result of a lack of understanding of the free market system as it applies to the fresh produce markets and how the price discovery mechanism works. After the dust has settled it is imperative that organisations such a Potatoes South Africa, together with the market agents and market authorities, must ensure that all role players have a clear understanding of how the fresh produce market system functions as a business platform where price is primarily determined by supply and demand. It is extremely important that everybody is aware and understands what is allow and what is not allowed as far as information exchange is concerned in the eyes of the Competition Commission. It is therefore imperative that industry role players make sure that they officially comment on the Commission Competition information exchange document to be released by the Competition Commission soon. ……on the size group classification system The industry faces numerous challenges in respect of sizing of potatoes and a number of meetings were held by stakeholders and with the authorities since November 2016. Because of the extent of the problem and the fact that an array of regulations and standards are being affected, an overarching presentation will have to be submitted to the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Potatoes South Africa’s Marketing Committee scheduled an industry stakeholder workshop for July 2017 to discuss the regulations in order to compile the presentation that will address the needs of all potato industry stakeholders. It is also important that the matter be addressed at farm level (in the pack house). This will ensure that down-marking on markets are kept to a minimum as far as sizing is concerned. However, the fact that there are about 680 pack house on farms, makes it a problem not easy to address. It must also be accepted that it is only those potatoes that are marketed through official channels that are affected.

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CHIPS • Julie/Augustus 2017

The Potato Industry Forum was established to ensure that the interests of the industry as a whole are promoted and protected. Stake holders such as producers, processors, exporters, retailers, wholesalers, consumers, informal traders, labour, fresh produce markets and market agents are represented on the PIF. In addition the Potato Industry Forum is responsible to nominate the industry representative and the financial expert on the Potato Industry Development Trust. Potatoes South Africa also has to table the proposed new statutory levies to the Potato Industry Forum for information and comment. (The proposed statutory levies that would apply in respect of the 2019/23 statutory period was also tabled at the meeting of the Potato Industry Forum held on 22 May 2017 where none of the stake holder representatives registered their opposition to the proposed statutory levies.)


Algemeen • General

CHIPS • July/August 2017

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Werkstyd, oortyd, kort tyd, rustyd Mariёtte Redelinghuys, LWO Tyd is geld en effektiewe tydsbestuur is van kardinale belang in enige besigheid. Sektorale Vasstelling 13 reguleer arbeidsverhoudinge in die landbousektor en verskaf duidelike reëls ten opsigte van tydsbestuur met betrekking tot operasionele vereistes en spertye. Normale werksure: Plaaswerkers in die landbousektor kan tot ’n maksimum van 45 ure per week werk. Indien plaaswerkers vir 5 dae of minder per week werk, mag hulle nie meer as 9 normale werksure per dag werk nie. Wanneer plaaswerkers meer as vyf dae per week werk word normale werksure tot 8 ure per dag beperk. Die 45 ure per week kan verminder word by wyse van ’n dienskontrak. Byvoorbeeld, wanneer werkers slegs 5 dae in ’n week werk en 8 ure per dag werk, sal die normale werksure 40 ure per week wees. Hou in gedagte dat normale werksure verminder kan word maar nooit 45 uur per week mag oorskry nie.

werksure moet werk, of langer ure moet werk as wat in hul dienskontrakte gestipuleer word, sal die ekstra ure oortyd wees. Oortyd kan slegs gewerk word indien die plaaswerker en werkgewer daarop ooreenkom en is nie van toepassing waar ’n plaaswerker as gevolg van sy eie toedoen later moet werk om sy take te voltooi nie. ’n Plaaswerker kan tot 15 ure oortyd per week werk. Normale werksure tesame met oortyd mag egter nie 12 ure per dag oorskry nie. Betaling van oortyd is 1.5 keer die normale uurlikse tarief. Indien betaling nie ’n opsie is nie, kan die werkgewer egter kies om die plaaswerker betaalde tyd af te gee – 90 minute vir elke uur oortyd gewerk. Indien die plaaswerker minder as ’n uur se oortyd gewerk het, kan die waarde van die tyd wat die plaaswerker gewerk het bereken word en vermenigvuldig word met 1.5 om die presiese bedrag te kry. Korttyd:

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CHIPS • Julie/Augustus 2017

Indien die werkgewer as gevolg van verlangsaming van besigheidsaktiwiteite, ’n tekort aan grondstowwe,


Algemeen • General

of indien aktiwiteite tot ’n stilstand gebring word deur ’n ongeluk of enige ander onvoorsiene noodgeval, mag die werkgewer plaaswerkers op korttyd plaas. Korttyd mag slegs geïmplementeer word vir die tydperk wat die toestand voortduur.

plaaswerker normaalweg sou werk moet die werker nog steeds sy daaglikse loon ontvang. Plaaswerkers wat wel op openbare vakansiedae werk moet dubbel die daaglikse loon vir daardie dag verdien. Noodwerk:

Korttyd moet, waar prakties moontlik, geïmplementeer word by wyse van skriftelike kennisgewing aan die vakbond verteenwoordiger en/of plaaswerkers ten minste 24 uur voor die aanvangsdatum van die korttyd. Wanneer korttyd gewerk word moet die werk wat beskikbaar is sover moontlik eweredig verdeel word tussen die plaaswerkers. Vir die tydperk wat korttyd gewerk word, word die plaaswerkers slegs betaal vir die tye wat hulle werk. Dit word aanbeveel dat korttyd deel vorm van die dienskontrak waar bepalings en voorwaardes waaronder korttyd geïmplementeer mag word, gestipuleer word. Rustyd:

Dit is belangrik om kennis te neem van noodwerk op hierdie stadium aangesien dit as ’n uitsondering op die bogenoemde reëls beskou kan word. Soms, as gevolg van onvoorsiene omstandighede wat nie redelikerwys voorsien kon word nie, soos byvoorbeeld in die geval van veldbrande, natuurrampe en probleme met lewende hawe en wat nie die werkgewer se skuld is nie, moet plaaswerkers bystand verleen en kan hulle dan vir hul tyd vergoed word teen die normale uurlikse tarief of die oortyd tarief, indien van toepassing Werkgewers in die landbousektor moet die belangrikheid van die korrekte toepassing van werksure besef en kennis dra van hul regte in hierdie verband. C

’n Plaaswerker moet 12 ure per dag rus. Hierdie rusperiode kan by ooreenkoms verminder word na 10 ure wanneer die behoefte van tyd tot tyd mag ontstaan. Die vermindering van rustyd kan egter nie ’n permanente reëling wees nie en kan slegs in uitsonderlike gevalle oorweeg word. ’n Weeklikse rusperiode van 36 aaneenlopende ure word voorgeskryf. Dit kan egter by ooreenkoms gewysig word maar moet ’n Sondag insluit. Wat van werk op Sondae en openbare vakansie dae? Plaaswerkers moet meer as hul normale uurlikse tarief betaal word wanneer hulle op Sondae en openbare vakansiedae moet werk. Op Sondae, wanneer ’n plaaswerker twee ure of minder werk, moet die plaaswerker dubbel sy loon verdien vir die tyd wat die plaaswerkers gewerk het. Indien die plaaswerker tussen 2 en 5 ure gewerk het moet hy sy normale daaglikse tarief verdien. Indien die plaaswerker vir langer as 5 ure werk moet die plaaswerker dubbel betaal word vir die ure gewerk of dubbel die daaglikse tarief, watter bedrag ook al die grootste is. Met betrekking tot openbare vakansiedae, kan geen werkgewer ’n plaaswerker dwing om te werk nie tensy die plaaswerker ooreenkom om wel te werk. Wanneer ’n openbare vakansiedag val op ’n dag waarop die CHIPS • July/August 2017

Page 107


Resepte uit die boek Sandveldkos: Kosnostalgie en stories van gister Met vergunning van Rina Theron

Oondgebakte Kapokaartappels Bestanddele 500 g kapokaartappels 1 t bakpoeier, knippie rooipeper, gerasperde cheddarkaas, paprika om oor te strooi

Metode Voorverhit die oond tot 190 °C. Berei die kapokaartappels. Klits dan die bakpoeier, rooipeper en ’n bietjie gerasperde kaas by die kapokaartappels. Skep in ’n gesmeerde oondbak, verf met ’n bietjie melk en strooi paprika liggies bo-oor. Bak tot goudbruin.

Aartappelnessies Bestanddele 500 g aartappels, opgekook en fyngedruk ¼ k sagte botter 1 t olie 1½ t sout 2 eiergele 1 t witpeper ½ t fyn neut

Page 108 |

CHIPS • Julie/Augustus 2017

Metode Voorverhit die oond tot 190 °C. Meng al die bestanddele goed. Skep lepelsvol van die mengsel op ’n gesmeerde bakplaat en druk ’n holte met ’n lepel in die middel van elke nessie. Bak tot goudbruin. Meng oorskietvleis met ’n lekker dik sous en skep binne-in die holtes vir opdien.


Uit die argiewe / From the archives CHIPS, Junie / Julie / Augustus 1987 Aartappelverbruik sal toeneem “Dit is duidelik dat die land in die volgende 13 jaar heelwat meer aartappels sal moet produseer om in die toenemende behoeftes van verbruikers te kan voorsien”, het dr. A I van Niekerk, adjunk-Minister van Landbou, by geleentheid van die opening van die tweede Nasionale Aartappelkongres op Maandag, 25 Mei gesê.

Dr. Van Niekerk het interessante statistiek aangehaal en gesê dat die verbruik van aartappels in 1950 'n skrale 15 kg per kop was, maar verdubbel het tot 30 kg per kop verlede jaar. “Indien die toename voortduur en die bevolkingsaanwas word in aanmerking geneem, sal die per capita verbruik in die jaar 2000 na raming 45 kg beloop”, het hy voorts gesê. Ai ou Kraai, wie’t jou syfer geraai!

Skyfie sê / Skyfie says Hear no Evil monkey figurine in their house. Maybe we should now consider getting an updated version – Speak no Information, See no Information, Hear no Information. Meer as 30 Aartappelnavorsingsimposiums agter die rug en hy staan nog steeds sterk….. Tydens die onlangse Aartappelnavorsingsimposium is genoem dat oom Schalk Grobbelaar van Limpopo nog al die Navorsingsimposiums bygewoon het – meer as dertig van hulle. In die begin was dit glo nie so grênd, groot en verteenwoordigend soos nou nie en het ook nie simposiumstatus gehad nie. Dit was egter die begin van iets groots. Information exchange is no monkey business Mr Mzi Rubushe of the Competition Commission said to the Potato Industry Forum that the riskiness of information exchange varies with age – “The exchange of information of historical data is least risky, the exchange of current data is more risky, and the exchange of future plans, except under very limited circumstances, is extremely risky.”

Skyfie se eerste kennisname met oom Schalk was jare terug by Noord-Transvaal aartappelprodusente se boeredag op Dendron toe die manne nog goed bygewoon, saamgestaan en vasgestaan het. Tydens sy voorlegging het hy verwys na die plekkie Bylsteel wat op een van die aanwysigsborde verkeerd gespel was – die nuwe naam was Blysteel.

Many moons ago when Skyfie was still a youngster almost everybody had the Speak no Evil, See no Evil,

Dis ook die eerste dat Skyfie gesien het hoe lyk ’n brandewynvlek op ’n bakkie se buffer.

Dagboek / Diary - 2017 Aartappels Suid-Afrika / Potatoes South Africa Kongres / Congress: 28 September Direksievergadering / Board Meeting: 21 & 22 November Aartappelsertifiseringsdiens / Potato Certification Service Moerkwekersforum / Seed Potato Growers’ Forum: 27 September

Moerhandelaarsforum / Seed Traders Forum Moerhandelaarsforum / Seed Traders Forum: 26 September Ander / Other Agri SA Kongres / Congress: 12 & 13 Oktober / October

CHIPS • July/August 2017

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APAC AGRICULTURAL PRODUCE AGENTS COUNCIL

REGISTERED FRESH PRODUCE AGENTS BLOEMFONTEIN FRESH PRODUCE MARKET Bloemfontein Market Agency Modise Market Agency RSA Bloemfontein Market Agency Subtropico Bloemfontein Market Agency Vrystaat Market Agency CAPE TOWN FRESH PRODUCE MARKET Boland Market Agency Fine Bros Market Agency Rhoda’s Market Agency RSA Cape Town Market Agency Subtropico/Spes Bona Market Agency DURBAN FRESH PRODUCE MARKET Delta Market Agency Hanly Market Agency Port Natal Market Agency RSA Durban Market Agency Wenpro Durban Market Agency EAST LONDON FRESH PRODUCE MARKET AA Market Agency Border Farmers Market Agency Martin & Scheepers Market Agency Subtropico East London Market Agency EPPING MUNICIPALITY Laeveld Somerset Market Agency GEORGE MUNICIPALITY Garden Route Fresh Express Market Agency Maverick Market Agency JOBURG FRESH PRODUCE MARKET Botha Roodt Johannesburg Market Agency C L de Villiers Market Agency Catu-Fresh Market Agency Citi Deep Waatlemoen Market Agency Citifresh Market Agency Dapper Market Agency DW Fresh Produce Johannesburg Market Agency Egoly Johannesburg Market Agency Exec-U-Fruit Market Agency

Nkosi Market Agency Peter & Co Market Agency Subtropico Pietermaritzburg Market Agency

Marco Market Agency Matla Market Agency Metro Market Agency Pula Nala Market Agency RSA Johannesburg Market Agency Subtropico Johannesburg Market Agency Swartberg Market Agency Target Market Agency Wenpro Johannesburg Market Agency

PORT ELIZABETH FRESH PRODUCE MARKET African Market Agency Algoabaai Market Agency Gouws & Co Market Agency Lansdell Market Agency W Finlayson & Co Market Agency

KEI FRESH PRODUCE MARKET Farmers Direct Market Agency KING WILLIAM’S TOWN FRESH PRODUCE MARKET King William’s Town Market Agency KIMBERLEY FRESH PRODUCE MARKET Kimberley Market Agency Squires & Sons Market Agency Subtropico Kimberly Market Agency KLERKSDORP FRESH PRODUCE MARKET Garfield Market Agency J Frances & Son Market Agency Matlosana Market Agency Subtropico Klerksdorp Market Agency W.L. Ochse & Kie Market Agency LIMPOPO PROVINCE RSA Limpopo Market Agency RSA Mooketsi Market Agency

SPRINGS FRESH PRODUCE MARKET AM Meyer Market Agency New Africa Market Agency Springs Market Agency (Fruit) Springs Market Agency (Vegetables) Subtropico Springs Market Agency TSHWANE FRESH PRODUCE MARKET Botha Roodt Pretoria Market Agency Du Plessis & Wolmarans Market Agency DW Fresh Produce Tshwane Market Agency Egoly Tshawane Market Agency Farmers Trust Market Agency Fresh Way Market Agency Noordvaal Market Agency Prinsloo & Venter Market Agency RSA Tshwane Market Agency Subtropico/Protea Market Agency Tshwane Green Market Agency VEREENIGING FRESH PRODUCE MARKET Impala Market Agency Subtropico Vereeniging Market Agency

NELSPRUIT MUNICIPALITY Laeveld Nelspruit Market Agency Nelspruit Market Agency NOORDEINDE FRESH PRODUCE MARKET Noordeinde Market Agency PIETERMARITZBURG FRESH PRODUCE MARKET G.W. Poole Market Agency Natalia Market Agency

WELKOM FRESH PRODUCE MARKET Botha & Roodt Welkom Market Agency Opkoms Market Agency Subtropico Market Agency WITBANK FRESH PRODUCE MARKET Subtropico Witbank Market Agency Witbank Market Agency

VISIT APAC’S WEBSITE REGULARLY Do you know if your fresh produce agent practise sound financial management? Did your agent received an audit qualification on his last audit report? Does your agent submit their monthly trust reconciliation timeously and has no trust account shortages? Ensure that you visit our website monthly as it is updated regularly with information on the financial status of agencies.

SUITE NUMBER 69, PRIVATE BAG X 9, EAST RAND, 1462 TEL: (011) 894-3680, 0870951335, FAX: (011) 894-3761,www.apacweb.org.za

REGISTRATEUR • REGISTRAR : L PRETORIUS


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Saadaartappels wat wĂŠrk.

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