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issn 0117 – 2840

The Journal of History

Volume LxII • January–December 2016

In this issue:

“History and the Central Philippines: Local History in the Context of National History”

Philippine National Historical Society, Inc. Charter member: Philippine Social Science Council

NCCA National Commission for Culture and the Arts


The Journal of History (ISSN 01172840) is the official publication of the Philippine National Historical Society (first named Philippine Historical Society), an organization of historians and practitioners of history, organized in February 1941. It is a refereed journal that publishes selected papers from the National Conferences on National and Local History of the Philippine National Historical Society which have been recommended by an Editorial Advisory Board. The Journal publishes articles on local/regional and national history presented by young and upcoming scholars as well as recognized historians and other specialists on Philippine culture and society. It promotes studies of local history in the context of national history and encourages multidisciplinary study in related social science disciplines. Requests for permission to reprint, translate, and distribute in print or electronic formats should be addressed to the Executive Editor, The Journal of History, Philippine National Historical Society, 40 Matiwasay Street, UP Village, Diliman, Quezon City 1101. Correspondence via e-mail should be addressed to nitachurchill@hotmail. com. When citing any portion of any article published in the Journal, all bibliographic details should be included. Copies of the Journal may be ordered from the PSSC Central Subscription Service, Philippine Social Science Council, P.O. Box 205, UP Post Office, Diliman, Quezon City 1101, or at the PNHS Office: 40 Matiwasay Street, UP Village, Diliman, Quezon City 1101.

Bernardita Reyes Churchill Executive Editor Editorial Advisory Board Calbi A. Asain Mindanao State University-Sulu Rolando O. Borrinaga UP Manila, at Palo, Leyte Earl Jude Paul L. Cleope Silliman University Maria Nela B. Florendo University of the Philippines Baguio International Editorial Advisory Board Belinda A. Aquino University of Hawai’i at Mano’a, USA Greg Bankoff University of Hull, UK Richard T. Chu University of Massachusetts Amherst, USA Leonor Diaz de Seabra University of Macau Shinzo Hayase Osaka City University, Japan Paul H. Kratoska National University of Singapore Otto D. van den Muijzenberg Amsterdam School for Social Science Research Yoshiko Nagano Kanagawa University, Japan Mina Roces The University of New South Wales Australia Florentino Rodao Universidad Complutense de Madrid Paul A. Rodell Georgia SouthernUniversity, USA Maria V. Stanyukovich Russian Academy of Science St. Petersburg, Russia


The Journal of History Volume LxII • January–December 2016

History and the Central Philippines: Local History in the Context of National History

Bernardita Reyes Churchill Editor

Philippine National Historical Society, Inc. National Commission for Culture and the Arts Committee on Historical Research


© Copyright 2016 Philippine National Historical Society, Inc. All rights reserved. First Printing, 2016 Cover design and lay-out by Ronald B. Escanlar. Printed by Southern Voices Printing Press 19 J. Perez Street Barangay Masagana, Project 4 Quezon City, tel. no. (632) 439-4021 Recommended entry: Bernardita Reyes Churchill Philippine National Historical Society, Inc. Bernardita Reyes Churchill ISSN 0117 - 2840 1.

The Journal of History History and the Central I. Title Philippines: Local History in the Context of National History

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored, or transmitted in any form by any means without prior permission of the Philippine National Historical Society, Inc. Published by Philippine National Historical Society, Inc. # 40 Matiwasay Street, UP Village Diliman, Quezon City 1101, Philippines and published by the editors through a partial grant from the National Commission for Culture and the Arts. National Commission for Culture and the Arts 633 General Luna Street, Intramuros, 1002 Manila Tel. 527-2192 to 97 Fax: 527-2191 and 94 Email: info@ncca.gov.ph • website: www.ncca.gov.ph The National Commission for Culture and the Arts (NCCA), Philippines, is the overall policy-making body, coordinating, and grants-giving agency that systematizes and streamlines national efforts in promoting culture and the arts. The NCCA promotes cultural and artistic development; conserves and promotes the nation’s historical and cultural heritage; ensures the widest dissemination of artistic and cultural products among the greatest number across the country; preserves and integrates traditional culture mainstream, and ensures that standards of excellence are pursued in its programs and activities. The NCCA administers the National Endowment Fund for Culture and the Arts (NEFCA).


Table of Contents

Foreword................................................................................................... v Casa Real de Iloilo: The Tale of a Heritage Provincial Capitol Demy P. Sonza........................................................................................... The Life and Works of Pedro Casanave Jose Nereo C. Lujan................................................................................... One Island, One Region: A History of Dominance and Union in Negros Island Earl Jude Paul L. Cleope............................................................................ Perspectives on Visayan Women from Francisco Ignacio Alcina’s Historia de las Islas e Indios de Bisayas Marya Svetlana T. Camacho.................................................................... Doctrina Christiana: National Treasure, World Treasure John N. Crossley......................................................................................... Transcribing the UST Baybayin Documents: Shedding Light on Early 17th-Century Philippine Writing Regalado Trota Jose................................................................................... Romancing the Monreal Stones: Transcriptions, Decipherments, Translations, and Some Notes Rolando O. Borrinaga............................................................................... Using Franciscan Missionaries’ Writings in Writing Local History Grace Liza Y. Concepcion.......................................................................... From Lands Far Away: Manila’s Migrants from the Visayas, Mindanao and Other Islands during the 1880s-1890s Marco Stefan B. Lagman...........................................................................


Towards an Open-ended Understanding of Nationhood: The Discordant Imaginings of Rizal, Bonifacio, and (Isabelo) de los Reyes Clement C. Camposano............................................................................. Jewish Refugee Rescue in the Philippines, 1937-1941 Bonnie M. Harris....................................................................................... Exploring Interethnic Relations in a Time of War: The Case of Baguio Maria Nela B. Florendo............................................................................ The Strategies and Operations of the Guerrillas in Laguna during the Second World War Marcelino M. Macapinlac, Jr.................................................................... Tsutomu Sawamura and his Contributions to the Philippine Wartime ‘National Cinema’ Nick Deocampo.......................................................................................... ‘With a Spirit Apostolically Bold’: Mindanao’s First Christian Century Greg Hontiveros......................................................................................... The Jawi Texts as Indigenous Written Heritage of Muslim Filipinos Calbi A. Asain............................................................................................ Ba’i a labi: Noblesse Oblige of Female Royal Title Holders in Meranao Society Labi Hadji Sarip Riwarung....................................................................... First Stages and Subtleties of the GPH-MILF Peace Negotiations Tirmizy E. Abdullah.................................................................................. The Authors.....................................................................................


FOREWORD

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he papers in this volume of The Journal of History were presented at the 36th National Conference on Local and National History of the Philippine National Historical Society (PNHS), held at the “splendidly restored” Casa Real de Iloilo in Iloilo City, on 22-24 October 2015. The Conference was hosted by the Office of Governor Arthur D. Defensor, this being the very first time that the PNHS National Conference was hosted by an LGU. The National Commission for Culture and the Arts – Committee on Historical Research, also sponsored the conference, the PNHS Conference being one of the CHR’s flagship projects. Also co-sponsoring the Conference was the Philippine Social Science Council where PNHS is a Charter Member and History Discipline Representative. The theme of the Conference was “History and the Central Philippines: Local History in the Context of National History. The PNHS has focused on research on local history since its first National Conference on National and Local History in 1978, held at Xavier University in Cagayan de Oro City, Misamis Oriental Province. In this volume, eighteen papers (including one from a guest author) are presented. Visayas Papers Four papers are about the Visayas. In “Casa Real de Iloilo: The Tale of a Heritage Provincial Capitol,” Demy P. Sonza narrates the colorful 150-year story of the Casa Real de Iloilo, the oldest and grandest building of its kind in the country, where 18 Spanish and 29 Filipino governors has held office. This heritage structure was built as the Provincial Capitol of Iloilo at the start of the sugar boom after the opening of the port of Iloilo to international trade in 1855 and completed in 1873. The Casa Real was renovated in 1910 and was heavily damaged in World War II. A large annex was built after the war, but this was gutted by fire in 1998. The building was declared a historical landmark in 2010 by the National Historical Commission


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of the Philippines and was restored to its pristine grandeur in time for the 2015 Independence Day celebration. “The Life and Works of Pedro Casanave,” by Jose Nereo C. Lujan, reconstructs the biography of Pedro Casanave, an American photographer and artist who lived in Iloilo City from 1905 until he and his family were arrested by the Japanese in 1942 and detained in internment camps during World War II. The paper shows how Casanave’s story is intertwined with the history of the Philippines, starting from his arrival as part of the American occupation forces during the Philippine-American War and his appointment as treasurer of the provinces of Samar and Negros Occidental, to his internment at the Santo Tomas Internment Camp and the Los Baños Internment Camp, from where he and his family were rescued, and their return to the United States. Casanave is a very familiar name among historical researchers in Iloilo as most early 20th-century photographs of the city and province bear his mark. The paper “One Island, One Region: A History of Dominance and Union in Negros Island,” by Earl Jude Paul L. Cleope, deals with the initiative of creating a one-island political region that originated in the 1980s in Negros Island, which culminated in the signing of Executive Order No. 183 by President Aquino on 29 May 2015, establishing the Negros Island Region or Region XVIII. This paper identifies the discourses to understand the manifestations of the themes of dominance and union in the evolution of the movement that can be traced from the Spanish occupation. It also looks into the various factors behind the concepts of domination and consolidation, which have been a motivating force, influenced by the dynamics of powers that brought changes in the island. Marya Svetlana T. Camacho, in the paper “Perspectives on Visayan Women from Francisco Ignacio Alcina’s Historia de las Islas e Indios de Bisayas,” explores Father Alcina’s depiction of Visayan women in his famous circa 1668 manuscript, which in many instances is historically comparative, distinguishing between what was “antiguamente” (formerly or in olden times) and “agora” (now or the present). Alcina’s work reveals changes and continuities in the condition of women in the given period.


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Baybayin Three papers are about baybayin, the ancient Philippine script. “Doctrina Christiana: National Treasure, World Treasure,” by John N. Crossley, deals with the oldest long piece of Tagalog writing, which is also the earliest printed work in the Philippines. The Doctrina Christiana was printed in Manila in 1593 and was intended as an aid for priests and friars trying to convert the people of the newly colonized Philippines. It contains the Lord’s Prayer, Hail Mary, the Apostles’ Creed, and basic articles of the Catholic faith, all presented in three ways: in Spanish, in Tagalog written in Roman letters, and in the indigenous baybayin script. Only one copy of this national treasure is extant, and it is in the U.S. Library of Congress. It is the Philippine equivalent of the Gutenberg Bible – the first European book ever printed. The Doctrina Christiana is under consideration for nomination to the UNESCO Memory of the World International Register. The paper “Transcribing the UST Baybayin Documents: Shedding Light on Early 17th-Century Philippine Writing,” by Regalado Trota Jose, recounts the gradual recovery and the significance of two deeds of sale of land documents, written in baybayin and dated 1613 and 1625, respectively, which are presently conserved in the Archivo de la Universidad de Santo Tomas. The UST Baybayin Documents were declared as National Cultural Treasures by the National Archives of the Philippines on 22 August 2014. Approaches to the reading of their texts, and the insights derived from interpreting the texts, are presented. In “Romancing the Monreal Stones: Transcriptions, Decipherments, Translations, and Some Notes,” Rolando O. Borrinaga presents his research on the baybayin characters written on two Monreal Stones (or Batong Monreal). Found inside a village school compound in the town of Monreal, on Ticao Island in Masbate Province, these are the first set of stone artifacts inscribed with the ancient script of the Philippines to have surfaced in this country. The writing appears to have been composed in the old Bisayan language. Notes on the possible cultural context of the writing on each artifact are provided.


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Luzon Papers Seven papers are about Luzon. In “Using Franciscan Missionaries’ Writings in Writing Local History,” Grace Liza Y. Concepcion highlights the significance of Franciscan accounts for Philippine historiography, particularly local history. The paper focuses on three works: the Historia de las Islas del Archipielago y Reynos de la Gran China, Tartaria, Cochinchina, Malaca, Sian, Camboya y Japon by Fray Marcelo  de Ribadeneira (1601); the  Crónica de la Provincia de San Gregorio Magno by Fray Francisco de Santa Inés (1676, 1892); and the three-volume Crónicas de la Apóstolica Provincia de San Gregorio by Fray Juan Francisco de San Antonio (1736, 1741, 1744). The paper includes a summary of the contents of these works, highlighting especially those parts that are relevant to local history. The paper “From Lands Far Away: Manila’s Migrants from the Visayas, Mindanao and Other Islands during the 1880s-1890s,” by Marco Stefan B. Lagman, is a continuation of a series of ongoing research on the spatio-demographic profile of individuals who migrated to Manila’s districts during the final decades of Spanish colonial rule. By using material gathered from civil register lists (vecindario) of selected Manila districts during the 1880s to 1890s, and combining these with Geographic Information System (GIS) tools, this historical GIS paper seeks to illustrate the spatial and demographic characteristics of individuals who decided to move to Manila from their home provinces in the Visayas and Mindanao, as well as those from the island settlements in the Luzon area that were not geographically proximate to Manila. Clement C. Camposano, in “Towards an Open-ended Understanding of Nationhood: The Discordant Imaginings of Rizal, Bonifacio, and (Isabelo) de los Reyes,” explores the different ways by which three of our heroes – Jose Rizal, Andres Bonifacio, and Isabelo de los Reyes – conceived of the national community. The paper argues for an understanding of the nation as an artifact of history, imbued not with necessity and a fixed essence, but with contingency, diversity, and positionality. It discusses how this nonessentialist and open-ended understanding of nationhood might pave the way for a more inclusive understanding of Filipino-ness, one


Foreword

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more in keeping not only with the evolving multi-ethnic character of Philippine society but also with an increasingly plural world of transgressions and cross-border movements. Four of the Luzon papers fall under the World War II timeline. Bonnie M. Harris in “Jewish Refugee Rescue in the Philippines, 1937-1941” discusses a previously unknown episode in history of the rescue of about 1,300 persecuted refugee Jews from Europe who found haven in the Philippines when nations of the world closed their doors. The Philippines, through Commonwealth President Manuel L. Quezon and US High Commissioner Paul V. McNutt, with the Jewish community in Manila, set up a rescue plan and saw to its execution, overcoming political constraints, economic limitations, racial prejudices, and religious differences to save lives. In the paper “Exploring Interethnic Relations in a Time of War: The Case of Baguio,” Maria Nela B. Florendo narrates that Baguio was a mountain resort that paralleled the British hill station in Shimla, India as a centerpiece of American administration on the eve of the of World War II. By 1941, its rolling terrain had the amenities of a tropical sanctuary. Baguio was a multi-ethnic space at the time. It was here that the lowland population and the indigenous peoples of the Cordillera interacted. The city was also host to several foreign ethnic groups, among them the Japanese, the Chinese, and the Americans, who significantly played important roles in the development of the city. It is this aspect of interethnic relations in a time of war that the paper explores. It answers the question of the impact of the war on the various ethnic groups and interethnic relations. “The Strategies and Operations of the Guerrillas in Laguna during the Second World War,” by Marcelino M. Macapinlac, Jr., examines the strategies and operations of the various guerrilla groups which operated in Laguna against the Japanese Imperial Forces during World War II. The paper utilized data from a wide array of sources: Historical Data Papers for the Province of Laguna deposited in the Philippine National Library of the Philippines; the official report of the Laguna Intelligence Forces; accounts on the rescue of the Allied internees and the massacres in Los Baños found in the American Historical Collection at the Library of the Ateneo de Manila


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University; published memoirs; guerrilla survivors’ memoirs stored in the Veterans Federation of the Philippines Library and Museum; interviews with former guerrillas; and books and journal articles pertaining to the Second World War. The paper “Tsutomu Sawamura and his Contributions to the Philippine Wartime ‘National Cinema’,” by Nick Deocampo, focuses on the film career of an artist who was considered a “prophet” of the wartime Japanese cinema. During World War II, Sawamura developed in Japan the “spiritist” film movement that evolved an idealistic view of the human struggle under the predicament of war. His contribution to Japanese film history was the development of the concept of kokumin eiga or the “people’s cinema” (otherwise known as the “national cinema”). Sawamura’s assignment in the Philippines, ignored by both Japanese and local film historians, represented a progress in his intellectual and creative evolution but, more importantly, also remarkably contributed to the development of wartime cinema in the Philippines. Through “aspirational nationalism,” he tried to conceive for the Filipinos a “national cinema” that would be native, anti-American and, of course, proJapanese. All these values were contained in his philosophy of the “ideal cinema.” Mindanao Papers Four papers are about Mindanao. “‘With a Spirit Apostolically Bold’: Mindanao’s First Christian Century,” by Greg Hontiveros, attempts to draw the main threads and the mindset of personages and times during the first century of Christianity in Mindanao, and how a selection of key events and the dramatis personae had molded historical events half a millennium later. He theorizes that one crucial element in the historical development of our country is the collision of two universalist religions in the island of Mindanao and its outlying islands. He argues that this meeting of two irresistible forces as early as the 16th century, with their concomitant impact on the territorial divisions and the cultural ethos of the inhabitants, have resonance until today, as can be gleaned from the news.


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Calbi A. Asain, in “The Jawi Texts as Indigenous Written Heritage of Muslim Filipinos,” presents the Jawi texts as an indigenous written heritage of Muslim Filipinos. He describes the Jawi as a native writing system and the messages or themes that are inscribed in its contents. The description covers the provenance of the texts and who wrote and owned them. It is hoped that the Jawi documents could trigger further research or investigation by anthropological and historical enthusiasts, who could disseminate new knowledge and truth about the Muslim Filipinos not only in Muslim Mindanao but also in other parts of the country. The Jawi manuscripts of Mindanao and Sulu are also under consideration for nomination to UNESCO Memory of the World Register. The paper “Ba’i a labi: Noblesse Oblige of Female Royal Title Holders in Meranao Society,” by Labi Hadji Sarip Riwarung, describes the Meranao social title called Ba’i a labi, the feminine equivalent of the Sultan. It includes the term of succession or the selection process, investiture preparation, and confirmation. The different duties and responsibilities of a Bai-a-labi are enumerated. The qualities of an ideal Ba’i a labi, as described in the Darangen epic, are also discussed. In the paper “First Stages and Subtleties of the GPH-MILF Peace Negotiations,” Tirmizy E. Abdullah investigates and narrates the development, dynamics, and gains of the two phases or stages of the Government of the Philippines (GPH) and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) peace negotiations: the First Phase or Domestic Stage from 1997 to 2000, and the Second Phase or International Stage from 2001 up to the signing of Comprehensive Agreement on Bangsamoro (CAB) in 2012. It identifies substantive agreements signed by both parties, events that served as determining factors of the peace negotiations, and recommends further studies within the discipline of history. Signed agreements and documents between the two parties are exhaustively used and analysed in this paper. The Philippine National Historical Society celebrates 75 years of its history this year (1941-2016), still dedicated to the simple objective “to encourage and undertake the study of Philippine history.” History matters in the life of the nation and the PNHS remains committed to


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this mission as it hopes to instill among all Filipinos interest in and appreciation of history as the bedrock of our national heritage. The focus on local history, which PNHS inaugurated in its First National History on Local and National History in 1978 at Xavier University in Cagayan de Oro, was a recognition that local history is an important component and key to the understanding of national history. Given the archipelagic nature of the Philippines, research in the local/regional history is vital in building up a body of historical literature that could be used to construct a national or “total” history of the Philippines. Local history could also provide the vital data that will, hopefully, rectify the facile and sometimes inaccurate or imprecise generalizations made by national history. The PNHS annual conferences could “initiate a new process of national integration via the intellectual tie-up of historians and other scholars from north to south” and “create a new Filipino intellectual heritage through the collection and collation of local historical writings and oral traditions throughout the country.” It is important that a relationship must be established between local and national history, for without this linkage, local history becomes divisive and, therefore, of very little significance to national history except as part of local literature. Local cannot remain local – it must go beyond its local boundaries – hence the PNHS has taken themes that would situate local history in the context of national history, or maybe, more appropriately, the “many histories” of the Filipino people. Further, because historical studies these days are also informed by other social science disciplines and the humanities, PNHS Conferences have also presented updated studies in archaeology, anthropology, ethno-history, literature, musicology, the arts and the entire gamut of culture, and how these fields impact on national and local history. From these materials and other seminal works on society and culture, Filipino historians need to decide how we should teach our history that will integrate the history of the regions and their peoples to the totality of Philippine national history. And more importantly, history that will tell the truth even of the darkest moments in our life as a nation.


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The papers published in the Journal of History have reflected the mission PNHS has set for itself in the pursuit of historical research. Through the years, each volume of the Journal of History has been a collaborative effort of many scholars in many disciplines who have made significant contributions to historical knowledge, continuing a PNHS/JOH tradition of many decades. Every volume of the Journal of History is a collaborative effort. Special thanks go to Rolando O. Borrinaga for assistance in preparing this volume for publication. And sincerest thanks go to colleagues and friends in the PNHS Board who have been the mainstays of our various undertakings. Bernardita Reyes Churchill Issue Editor


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The Authors

Tirmizy E. Abdullah Assistant Professor Department of History College of Social Sciences and Humanities Mindanao State University – Marawi Marawi City Calbi A. Asain, Ph.D. Professor College of Arts and Sciences Director for Research and Extension Mindanao State University – Sulu Jolo, Sulu Rolando O. Borrinaga, Ph.D. Professor, School of Health Sciences University of the Philippines Manila, in Palo Leyte Representative for Visayas, Committee on Historical Research National Commission for Culture and the Arts Marya Svetlana T. Camacho, Ph.D. Associate Professor Department of History University of Asia and the Pacific Pasig City Clement C. Camposano, Ph.D. University of Asia and the Pacific Pasig City Vice-President, Philippine Studies Association, Inc.


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Earl Jude Paul L. Cleope, Ph.D. Professor of History and Dean, College of Education Silliman University Dumaguete City Vice-Head, Committee on Historical Research National Commission for Culture and the Arts Grace Liza Y. Concepcion Department of History University of Asia and the Pacific Pasig City John N. Crossley, D.Phil. Professor Emeritus Monash University Melbourne, Australia Nick Deocampo Professorial Lecturer College of Mass Communication University of the Philippines Diliman Quezon City Director, Center for New Cinema Maria Nela B. Florendo, Ph.D. Professor of History University of the Philippines Baguio Baguio City Bonnie M. Harris, Ph.D. Lecturer, Dept. of History San Diego State University Grossmont College Southwestern College Greg Hontiveros President, Butuan City Heritage Society Butuan City


The Authors

Regalado Trota Jose Archivist University of Santo Tomas Sampaloc, Manila Marco Stefan B. Lagman Assistant Professor Department of Geography University of the Philippines Diliman Quezon City Jose Nereo C. Lujan Chief, Public Information and Community Affairs Office Province of Iloilo Iloilo City Marcelino M. Macapinlac, Jr. The Graduate School University of Santo Tomas Assistant Professor St. Scholastica’s College Manila Labi Hadji Sarip Riwarung Researcher Mamitua Saber Research Center Mindanao State University – Marawi Marawi City Demy P. Sonza Provincial Board Member Chair, Committee on Culture, Arts, History and Tourism Sangguniang Panlalawigan Province of Iloilo Iloilo City

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Brief History of the

Philippine National Historical Society (1941-2016)

The Philippine National Historical Society (PNHS) is today the oldest voluntary professional organization devoted to study and research in Philippine history. It was officially organized on February 2, 1941 when its constitution and by-laws were approved, with the organization initially called the Philippine Historical Society. While this was the first organization of historians in the country, there were other similar groups that actually preceded it, like the Asociación Histórica de Filipinas, founded by Felipe G. Calderon in 1905, and the Sociedad Histórico-Geográfica de Filipinas, founded in 1916 or 1917 by a group led by a Filipinist named Carlos A. Sobral. Both groups went defunct after just a few years although they managed to publish some issues of the Revista Histórica de Filipinas and Boletín, respectively.

The Philippine National Historical Society can trace its beginnings to the History Club at the Philippine Women’s University (PWU), organized by Eulogio B. Rodriguez, sometime in the late 1920s when he was a history teacher in the same institution while concurrently serving as Assistant Director of the National Library. The PWU History Club published a quarterly called The Historical Review which fostered historical scholarship during the pre-war period. In 1941, Rodriguez and Eufronio M. Alip transformed the student history club into the Philippine Historical Society, an organization beyond a mere student history club. The charter members included a veritable “Who’s Who” in Filipino intellectual life at that time. Among them were Antonio K. Abad, Elias M. Ataviado, Evergisto Bazaco, O.P., Conrado Benitez, Manuel I. Carreon, Horacio V. de


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la Costa, S.J., Jose Lopez del Castillo, Gabriel F. Fabella, Leandro H. Fernandez, Tomas S. Fonacier, Mariano del Prado Goyena, Maximo M. Kalaw, Pura Villanueva Kalaw, Leoncio Rizal Lopez, Paz Policarpio-Mendez, Camilo Osias, Jose Villa Panganiban, William C. Repetti, S.J., Walter Robb, Miguel Selga , S. J., Benito T. Soliven, Leopoldo B. Uichanco, Jaime C. de Veyra, Gregorio Yabes, Nicolas Zafra, and Gregorio F. Zaide. The Society, according to its constitution and by-laws, aimed to “encourage and undertake the study of Philippine history.” To this day, this remains the fundamental aim of PNHS as it seeks to catalyze nationwide interest in and appreciation of history as the bedrock of Filipino national identity. The Historical Review became the Journal of the Philippine Historical Society, with the first issue coming out in July 1941. Eulogio B. Rodriguez served as President of the Society at the time of its founding and throughout the years of the Second World War. Eufronio M. Alip succeeded Rodriguez around 1946, and served as the Society’s President until his demise in 1976, when Marcelino A. Foronda, Jr., took over. In 1965, the Philippine Historical Society changed its official name to Philippine National Historical Society. In the same year, the Society approved The Journal of History as the new name of its official publication, now on its 59th volume. The Society aggressively contributed towards setting the pace and agenda of historical research in the Philippines during the incumbency of Foronda, under whose leadership the Society effected a major intellectual shift in the agenda of Filipino historians away from what Resil B. Mojares, a distinguished lifetime member of PNHS, describes as “classical colonial scholarship,” towards studies depicting the grassroots of Filipino culture and the life histories of individual Filipino communities in the regions. This shift was concretized by the PNHS in its First National Conference on Local and National History held at Xavier University in Cagayan de Oro City in 1978. Such a shift in intellectual focus has led to more research by historians on various aspects of provincial/ regional history which have revised age-old stereotypes and perceptions regarding the Filipinos and their history and culture. Since 1978, almost every year in October, the traditional annual national conference on local and national history is convened by the Philippine National Historical Society. The focus on local history was


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continued under the presidency of Leslie E. Bauzon from 1983-1994. In these conferences, papers are presented not only on history, but also on other disciplines, such as archaeology, heritage studies, literature, anthropology, and other aspects of Philippine studies. Upon his appointment as Visiting Professor at Tsukuba University in Japan, Dr. Bauzon turned over the presidency of PNHS in February 1994 to Bernardita R. Churchill, former Chairman of the Department of History, UP Diliman. Dr. Bauzon was designated as PNHS President emeritus. Under the term of the current President, the PNHS has continued its focus on multi-disciplinary/interdisciplinary studies in local history (provincial, regional), looking especially at cultural communities and regions that have not received much attention in historical research, The diversity and comprehensiveness of the program of activities of PNHS merited from the Philippine Social Science Council (PSSC) an Institutional/Disciplinal Award in 1993 as one of two best memberassociations of the Philippine Social Science Council (PSSC), of which the PNHS is a Charter Member. Then PNHS President, Leslie E. Bauzon was Chairman of the PSSC Executive Board from JanuaryDecember 1983. From 1991-1993, he served as Chairman of the PSSC Governing Council. The PNHS was once again awarded as one of two Outstanding Regular Member Organization “for its faithful and timely compliance with all PSSC membership requirements for the past five years” at the PSSC General Assembly on February 16, 2013. The award certificate reads: The Philippine Social Science Council presents this Outstanding Regular Member Award to the Philippine National Historical Society for its faithful and timely compliance with all PSSC membership requirements for the past five years. On the same occasion, the first Virginia A. Miralao Excellence in Research Award was given to Marco Stefan B. Lagman, PNHS Board Member, for outstanding article published in the Journal of History 2012 entitled, “Agricultural and Urban Land as Property and Resources in Nineteenth Century Pampanga, Journal of History (January-December 2012). The official PNHS publication is the Journal of History, issued annually, features selected papers from the annual national conferences, refereed by a Philippine Editorial Advisory Board and


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an International Editorial Advisory Board. The Journal of History is published in the Philippine E – Journals (www.ejournals.ph) of C&E Publishing, Inc. The PNHS Newsletter has been published since 1995, and is now in its 14th volume. The PNHS started a monograph series: The Story of a Province – Surigao Across the Years by Fernando A. Almeda, Jr. (1993); Land of Hope, Land of Want – A Socio-Economic History of Negros, 15711985, by Violeta Lopez Gonzaga (1994); and Vignettes of Philippine History (2012, by Teodoro A. Agoncillo). The PNHS also contributed the section on the discipline of history in Volume II of the Philippine Encyclopedia of Social Sciences, “History and Current Situation of the Discipline of History in the Philippines, published by the Philippine Social Science Council in 1993. This article was revised and updated and was published in the Philippine Social Sciences Report – Philippine Social Sciences: Capacities, Directions, and Challenges, edited by Virginia A, Miralao and Joanne B. Agbisit (2012). Selected papers from two conferences have been published other than as issues of the Journal of History. “Selected Papers of the 9th National Conference on Local and National History (Butuan City, November 8-12, 1988) were published in the volume, In Search of Historical Truth, edited by Leslie E. Bauzon, co-published with Heritage Publishing House (1992). Papers from the 12th National Conference on Local and National History held at MSU-Marawi (October 22-24, 1991) were published in the issue “The Shaping of Philippine History: Focus on Mindanao,” in the Mindanao Journal (MSU-Marawi: XIX:1-2 (July-December 1992). The Philippine National Historical Society has co-published monographs with the National Commission on Culture and the Arts – Committee on Historical Research (which has sponsored its annual conferences from 1995-1998, and also from 2002-2014 thru funding grants for the conference and the publication of the Journal of History) and the Manila Studies Association, Inc. such as Manila: Selected Papers of the Annual Conferences of the Manila Studies Association, 1989-1993, edited by Bernardita Reyes Churchill (1994); Determining the Truth, The Story of Andres Bonifacio, (Being Critiques of and Commentaries on Inventing a Hero, The Posthumous Re-creation of Andres Bonifacio, edited by Bernardita Reyes Churchill (1997, 1998); A History of the Philippines, by Samuel K. Tan (1998); Centennial Papers on The Katipunan and the Revolution, edited


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The Journal of History Vol. LxII (January-December 2016)

by Bernardita Reyes Churchill and Francis A. Gealogo (Centennial Volume, 1999); The Revolution in the Provinces, edited by Bernardita Reyes Churchill (Centennial Volume, 1999); Batis ng Kasaysayan (Historical Sources) I:1 (2004), edited by Bernardita Reyes Churchill, with Madrileña de la Cerna, Faina C. Abaya-Ulindang and Augusto V. de Viana (Associate Editors); and Batis ng Kasaysayan 2011 – The Movement for Independence of the Philippines (1896-1898 – Calendar of Documents in the Archives of the Cuerpo de Vigilancia de Manila, National Commission for Culture and the Arts, edited by Bernardita Reyes Churchill (Executive Editor), Eden Manalo Gripaldo, and Digna Balangue Apilado (Associate Editors) (2011); and Vignettes of Philippine History by Teodoro A. Agoncillo (2012). During the Centennial of the Declaration of Independence in 1998, the Philippine National Historical Society, with the assistance and sponsorship of the National Centennial Commission and the National Historical Institute, under then Chairman and Executive Director, Samuel K. Tan, conducted 16 regional seminar-workshops on oral and local history on the theme “History from the People, Kasaysayan Mula Sa Bayan,” thus continuing its tradition of advancing the frontiers of historical research in local history in the context of national history. The proceedings of the 16 seminars were published in 16 volumes, four each edited by Digna Balangue Apilado, Bernardita Reyes Churchill, Eden Manalo Gripaldo, and Violeta S. Ignacio. The sixteen seminar-workshops were held in Vigan, (Ilocos Sur), Tuguegarao (Cagayan), Muñoz (Nueva Ecija), Los Baños (Laguna), Naga (Camarines Sur), Miag-ao (Iloilo), Dumaguete (Negros Oriental), Dapitan (Zamboanga del Norte), Calapan (Mindoro Oriental), General Santos (South Cotabato), Cotabato City (Maguindanao), Bago City (Negros Occidental), Surigao City (Surigao del Norte), Koronadal (South Cotabato), and Bangued (Abra). In recognition of its participation in the celebration of the Centennial of the Philippine Revolution (1996) and the Proclamation of Philippine Independence (1998), the PNHS, on April 30, 1999, received the Gawad Sentenaryo from the National Centennial Commission “Bilang pagkilala at pasasalamat sa mahalagang pakikiisa nito sa layunin at adhikain ng Komisyon upang maisakatuparan ang matagumpay na Pagdiriwang ng Sentenaryo ng Kasarinlan ng Pilipinas noong ika-12 ng Hunyo, 1998.”


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The PNHS is proud of the tradition, begun in 1978, of holding its national conference on local and national history in pursuit of its mission to expand the frontiers of historical research in the Philippines. These conferences have been held all over the archipelago in an effort to bring to teachers and students of history the most recent researches on local and national history and related disciplines, not only by national historians, but more especially by local historians. In Luzon up to Kabikolan, ten national conferences have been held – in UP Diliman (1984), Ateneo de Naga (1990 and 2000), Ateneo de Manila (1996), UP College Baguio (1999), Cavite State University (2004), Mariano Marcos State University, Batac, Ilocos Norte (2005), University of the Philippines Baguio and Ifugao State College of Agriculture and Forestry (ISCAF), Banaue, Ifugao (2008), Holy Angel University, Angeles City, Pampanga (2011)., and University of Northern Philippines, Heritage City of Vigan, Ilocos Sur (2014). In the Visayas, eleven conferences have been convened – at Silliman University, Dumaguete City (1979, 2001, and 2012); Negros Occidental Historical Commission, Bacolod City (1980); San Carlos University, Cebu City (1981); UP Cebu College (2002); Palawan State University, Puerto Princesa (1994); Leyte Normal University, Tacloban City (1998 and 2006); Holy Name University, Tagbilaran, Bohol (2009), and the Provincial Government of Iloilo, Iloilo City (2015). The PNHS has convened the most number of national conferences in Mindanao and Sulu – fifteen altogether, hosted by the following institutions: Xavier University, Cagayan de Oro (1978); Mindanao State University-Iligan Institute of Technology (1982); Surigao City Historical Commission, Surigao City (1985); Mindanao State University-General Santos City (1987, 1989, 2010); Butuan City Historical Commission (1988); Mindanao State University – Marawi (1991); Mindanao State University – Bongao, Tawi-Tawi (1992); University of Southern Mindanao in Kabacan, North Cotabato (1993); Western Mindanao State University, Zamboanga City (1995); Mindanao State University – Jolo (1997); Surigaonon Heritage Center, Surigao City (2003); Tangub Historical Commission in Tangub City, Misamis Occidental (2007); and Liceo de Cagayan University. Cagayan de Oro City (2013). The 37th National Conference in National and Local History is to be hosted by the City Government of Butuan and the Butuan City Heritage Society


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The Journal of History Vol. LxII (January-December 2016)

on October 20-22, and this is the sixteenth national conference in Mindanao. In each of these conferences, there is usually a conference theme in order to draw attention to the region where the conference is held, as well as to other regional histories in the context of national history. For instance, the following themes were chosen for the various conferences: “Local Traditions and National History,” in Tawi-Tawi; “Focus on Maguindanao Studies,” in Kabacan; “Focus on Palawan Studies,” in Puerto Princesa; “The Lumad, the Bangsa Moro and the Christian Filipino: Documentary History of the Philippines,” in Zamboanga; “The Muslim Filipinos in Philippine History,” in Jolo; “History and the New Millennium: Northern Luzon in Perspective,” in Baguio; “The Millenarian Movements, Historical and Contemporary: Perspectives for the New Millennium,” in Naga; “A Century of Education in the Philippines,” in Dumaguete; “Towards a National History of the Philippines: Local History in the Context of National History” in Cebu City; “Cultural History of the Philippines, Ethnohistory of Mindanao and Sulu,” in Surigao City; “Focus on Cavite and Beyond: Local History in the Context of National History,” in Indang, Cavite; “Focus on Northern Luzon: Local History in the Context of National History,” in Batac, Ilocos Norte; “Revisiting Visayan Historiography, Revisioning Philippine Historiography,” in Tacloban, Leyte; and “Focus on Mindanao and Sulu” in Tangub City, Misamis Occidental; “ Philippine Ethnohistories: The Luzon Cordillera and Beyond,” in Banaue, Ifugao; “Towards a National History: Local History in the Context of National History,” in Tagbilaran, Bohol; and “Focus on Mindanao and Sulu” in Tangub City, Misamis Occidental; “Philippine Ethnohistories: The Luzon Cordillera and Beyond,” in Banaue, Ifugao; “Towards a National History: Local History in the Context of National History,” in Tagbilaran, Bohol; “Celebrating 70 Years of the PNHS: Looking Back and Looking Forward – Historical Antecedents and Future Prospects in National and Local History” in Angeles City; “Towards a National History: Mindanao and Sulu Local History in the Context of National History” in General Santos City; “History and Environment:” in Dumaguete City; and “History and Culture” in Cagayan de Oro City; “History of the Northern Philippines: Local History in the Context of National History” in the Heritage City of Vigan;“ History and the Central Philippines: Local History in the Context of National History” in Iloilo City; and


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“Mindanao History in the Context of National History” in Butuan City. 1st 1978 Xavier University, Cagayan de Oro City 2nd 1979 Silliman University, Dumaguete City 3rd 1980 Negros Occidental Historical Commission, Bacolod City 4th 1981 San Carlos University, Cebu City 5th 1982 Mindanao State University–Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City 6th 1984 College of Social Sciences and Philosophy, UP Diliman th 7 1985 Surigao City Historical Commission, Surigao City 8th 1987 Mindanao State University–General Santos 9th 1988 Butuan City Historical Commission, Butuan City 10th 1989 Mindanao State University–General Santos 11th 1990 Ateneo de Naga, Naga City 12th 1991 Mindanao State University–Marawi 13th 1992 Mindanao State University, Bongao, Tawi-Tawi 14th 1993 University of Southern Mindanao, Kabacan 15th 1994 Palawan State University, Puerto Princesa City 16th 1995 Western Mindanao State University, Zamboanga City 17th 1996 Ateneo de Manila University, Loyola Heights, Quezon City 18th 1997 Mindanao State University–Sulu, Jolo 19th 1998 Leyte Normal University, Tacloban City 20th 1999 University of the Philippines College Baguio 21st 2000 Ateneo de Naga University, Naga City 22nd 2001 Silliman University, Dumaguete City 23rd 2002 UP Cebu College, Cebu City 24th 2003 Surigaonon Heritage Center, Surigao City 25th 2004 Cavite State University, Indang, Cavite 26th 2005 Mariano Marcos State University, Batac 27th 2006 Leyte Normal University, Tacloban City 28th 2007 Tangub City Historical Commission, Tangub City 29th 2008 University of the Philippines College Baguio Ifugao State College of Agriculture and Forestry, Banaue


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The Journal of History Vol. LxII (January-December 2016)

30th 2009 Holy Name University, Tagbilaran City 31st 2010 Mindanao State University–General Santos 32nd 2011 Holy Angel University, Angeles City, Pampanga Silliman University, Dumaguete City, Negros 33rd 2012 Oriental Liceo de Cagayan University, Cagayan de Oro 34th 2013 City, Misamis Oriental University of Northern Philippines, Heritage City 35th 2014 of Vigan, Ilocos Sur Sangguniang Panlalawigan ng Iloilo, Iloilo City 36th 2015 2016 Office of the City Mayor and Butuan City 37th Heritage Society PNHS 75th Founding Anniversary [Portions of this article were written by Leslie E. Bauzon and published in the Philippine Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, Vol. II (Quezon City: Philippine Social Science Council, 1993). Updated September 22, 2016, by Bernardita Reyes Churchill]


SUBMISSIONS Preparation and Manuscript Manuscripts other than those selected from PNHS National Conferences may be accepted for publication in The Journal of History. All manuscripts submitted should be original and must not have been submitted to another publication for consideration. Articles submitted to this journal represent the views and opinions of the author, and not of the editors of the publication. Manuscripts must be typed and single-spaced, including quotations, notes, and references, and with adequate subheadings. A minimum number of tables, figures and illustrations will be accepted. Notes must be located at the end of the text. Sources for tables, figures and illustrations must be cited in full. Author-title citations in the text should follow the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 2003). Please consult recent issues of The Journal of History for format of notes and references. Length Manuscripts should range between 8,000 to 10,000 words, including notes and references, and must include a 150-word abstract at the beginning of the document. Longer articles, however, may also be considered if the research deserves a longer study. Refereeing The Journal of History publishes selected papers presented at the PNHS National Conferences. The selection is done by an Editorial Advisory Board, comprised of five selected academics representing top state and private universities from Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. There is also an International Advisory Board. The authors of papers accepted for publication may be required to revise their papers, subject to final approval of the Executive Editor and the Editorial Advisory Board. This method of refereeing ensures transparency of the process. Copyright The author is required to secure all necessary permission for any part of the article to be published in the paper. Upon publication in The Journal of History, copyright is vested in the Philippine National Historical Society. Authors may publish their articles in other publications with the prior permission of the Philippine National Historical Society. Submission of Papers Papers should be submitted in hard copy and electronic version using MS Word. The hard copy should be sent to the Executive Editor, The Journal of History, Philippine National Historical Society, 40 Matiwasay Street, UP Village, Diliman, Quezon City 1101; the electronic version should be sent as e-mail attachment to nitachurchill@hotmail.com. Manuscripts will not be returned.


T

he papers in this volume of The Journal of History were presented at the 36th National Conference on Local and National History of the Philippine National Historical Society (PNHS), held at the “splendidly restored” Casa Real de Iloilo in Iloilo City, on 22-24 October 2015. The Conference was hosted by the Office of Governor Arthur D. Defensor, this being the very first time that the PNHS National Conference was hosted by an LGU. The National Commission for Culture and the Arts – Committee on Historical Research, also sponsored the conference, the PNHS Conference being one of the CHR’s flagship projects. Also co-sponsoring the Conference was the Philippine Social Science Council where PNHS is a Charter Member and History Discipline Representative. The theme of the Conference was “History and the Central Philippines: Local History in the Context of National History. The PNHS has focused on research on local history since its first National Conference on National and Local History in 1978, held at Xavier University in Cagayan de Oro City, Misamis Oriental Province. In this volume, eighteen papers (including one from a guest author) are presented.

Bernardita Reyes Churchill Editor

Philippine National Historical Society, Inc. #40 Matiwasay Street, UP Village Diliman, Quezon City 1101, Philippines

National Commission for Culture and the Arts 633 General Luna Street, Intramuros, 1002 Manila Tel. 527-2192 to 97 Fax: 527-2191 and 94 Email: info@ncca.gov.ph | website: www.ncca.gov.ph

Profile for Philippine National Historical Society

The Journal of History Volume LXII • January–December 2016  

History and the Central Philippines: Local History in the Context of National History. The papers in this volume of The Journal of History w...

The Journal of History Volume LXII • January–December 2016  

History and the Central Philippines: Local History in the Context of National History. The papers in this volume of The Journal of History w...

Profile for pnhs1941
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