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The Journal of History Volume LxIII • January–December 2017

Mindanao History in the Context of National History

Rolando O. Borrinaga Issue Editor

Bernardita Reyes Churchill Editor

Philippine National Historical Society, Inc. National Commission for Culture and the Arts Committee on Historical Research


© Copyright 2017 Philippine National Historical Society, Inc. All rights reserved. First Printing, 2017 Cover design and lay-out by Ronald B. Escanlar. Printed by Southern Voices Printing Press 19 J. Perez Street, Barangay Masagana, Project 4, Quezon City Tel. no. (632) 621-0251 Recommended entry: Rolando O. Borrinaga Bernardita Reyes Churchill Philippine National Historical Society, Inc. Bernardita Reyes Churchill Rolando O. Borrinaga ISSN 0117 - 2840 1.

The Journal of History Mindanao History I. Title in the Context of National History

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored, or transmitted in any form by any means without prior permission of the Philippine National Historical Society, Inc. Published by Philippine National Historical Society, Inc. # 40 Matiwasay Street, UP Village Diliman, Quezon City 1101, Philippines and published by the editors through a partial grant from the National Commission for Culture and the Arts. National Commission for Culture and the Arts 633 General Luna Street, Intramuros, 1002 Manila Tel. 527-2192 to 97 Fax: 527-2191 and 94 Email: info@ncca.gov.ph • website: www.ncca.gov.ph The National Commission for Culture and the Arts (NCCA), Philippines, is the overall policy-making body, coordinating, and grants-giving agency that systematizes and streamlines national efforts in promoting culture and the arts. The NCCA promotes cultural and artistic development; conserves and promotes the nation’s historical and cultural heritage; ensures the widest dissemination of artistic and cultural products among the greatest number across the country; preserves and integrates traditional culture mainstream, and ensures that standards of excellence are pursued in its programs and activities. The NCCA administers the National Endowment Fund for Culture and the Arts (NEFCA).


Table of Contents

Foreword................................................................................................... v Beyond Gold: Hindu-Buddhist Cultural Influences Based on Tangible Finds in the Caraga Region Greg Hontiveros.......................................................................................1 Trade and Politics in Mindanao-Sulu, Moluccas and Bornay (Brunei), 14th-16th Centuries Heidi K. Gloria.......................................................................................20 The Beads, The Boats, The Bowls of Butuan: Studying Old Things to Generate New Knowledge Mary Jane Louise A. Bolunia................................................................48 Analyses of Four Tausug Kissa on Parrang Sabil: Based on Sung Narratives Linked to Reality Talib L. Sangogot and Hja. Massaat P. Sangogot................................ 61 The Meranao Manuscripts: Their Contents and Characteristics Labi Hadji Sarip Riwarung...................................................................86 How Can an Epic Be Reliable for the Historian? Nicole Revel.......................................................................................... 109 Rich and Beautiful, but Deadly: Esteban RodrĂ­guez de Figueroa and His Quest for Mindanao John N. Crossley................................................................................... 133 A Survey of Mindanaoan Writers and Writings Calbi A. Asain...................................................................................... 157


The Limasawa Pot: A Bakalág (Human Sacrifice) Ritual Artifact Rolando O. Borrinaga.........................................................................224 The Visayas: Islands in the Seas, A Historical Perspective (Series 7) Earl Jude Paul L. Cleope......................................................................244 Scrutinizing Science and Philanthropy: Appreciating Little-known Spanish Expeditions to the Philippines, 1789-1813 María Eloísa G. Parco de Castro........................................................ 274 Altering the Colonial Agricultural Landscape One Plant, One Animal at a Time: Flora and Fauna Introductions and Improvements of the Bureau of Agriculture, 1903-1915 Marco Stefan B. Lagman and Keith Gerard L. Daguio.....................296 Kopyan Da Iyawe: Revisiting Traditional Ritual Practices among the Kalingas in the Cordillera Region Michael G. Layugan............................................................................ 328 Rizal, Civic Virtue, and Active Citizenship Clement C. Camposano.......................................................................346 The Authors........................................................................................363


FOREWORD

T

his volume of The Journal of History contains papers presented at the 37th National Conference on Local and National History of the Philippine National Historical Society (PNHS), which was held in Butuan City, Agusan del Norte on 20-22 October 2016. It was co-sponsored by the National Commission for Culture and the Arts - Committee on Historical Research (NCCA-CHR), the Butuan City Heritage Society, the City Government of Butuan, and the Philippine Social Science Council (PSSC). The Conference theme was “Mindanao History in the Context of National History,” and the papers presented research and writing on Mindanao as well as on other regions of the country. Incidentally, Butuan City was also the venue of the 9th National Conference on Local and National History of the PNHS in 1988.

Local history in the context of national history has always been the guiding theme in PNHS Conferences since we started this series on local/national history in 1978. And the year 2016 marked the 75th Anniversary of the founding of the Philippine National Historical Society (originally Philippine Historical Society) in February 1941. Mindanao Papers The Butuan City conference expectedly produced a rich harvest of papers about Mindanao history and culture. The paper “Beyond Gold: Hindu-Buddhist Cultural Influences Based on Tangible Finds in the Caraga Region,” by Greg Hontiveros, pleads for greater attention to tangible objects from the Hindu-Buddhist universe that were found aplenty in the Caraga Region. A good number of these had become subjects of in-depth archaeological studies, mainly the Golden Image of Agusan and the fabulous gold collections at the Ayala Museum and the Central Bank collection at the Metropolitan Museum, including the Surigao Treasure. But among the recent finds is the Mahapratisara


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amulet, found along the Agusan River upstream of Butuan, which is arguably as significant as the Laguna Copperplate Inscription. Many other found objects are not made of gold and thus easily available to those below the tribal elites; they imply a deeper social impact on the beliefs and sense of aesthetics of our ancestors. Heidi K. Gloria, in “Trade and Politics in Mindanao-Sulu, Moluccas and Bornay (Brunei), 14th-16th Centuries,” describes the interlocking economic and political events that took place in Mindanao-Sulu, the Moluccas, and Bornay (Brunei) between the 14th-16th centuries, before the advent of colonization of the region, when they were engaged in the spice trade. During the colonial period, Spain’s policies in the Philippines were considered constrained and influenced by the close relationship between and among these three places. For this paper, historical sources common to the region that were availed of include the Sejarah Melayu (Malay Annals), Negarakertagama (History of the Madjapahit), and the Suma Oriental of Tome Pires. In “The Beads, The Boats, The Bowls of Butuan: Studying Old Things to Generate New Knowledge,” Mary Jane Louise A. Bolunia asserts that Butuan became famous in contemporary society with the discovery of the first plank-built edge-pegged boat in early 1970s. But in earlier times, around the 10th century or thereabouts, Butuan was already famous in other polities of southeast Asia and China, when she participated in the southeast Asian maritime trading. Its involvement can be traced in nine identified boats, thousands of ceramic pieces, and other artifacts and ecofacts that have been recovered. Her paper presents data and findings of another research undertaken in 2012 by the Archaeology Division of the National Museum of the Philippines to further understand the maritime involvement of Butuan. The objectives were to excavate another wooden boat that might yield new insights on the boat-building tradition and to recover more evidences of habitation and trading activities. The research yielded not only one boat but two, with the second being considered as the biggest so far. More artifacts and ecofacts were also recovered associated with boat-building, trade and habitation. Old place-names were likewise identified that can be ascribed as meeting places of people and trading.


Foreword

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The paper “Analyses of Four Tausug Kissa on Parrang Sabil: Based on Sung Narratives Linked to Reality,” by Talib L. Sangogot and Hja. Massaat P. Sangogot, presents excerpts of four kissa (oral tradition) on parrang sabil (fighting face-to-face) among the Tausugs of Sulu and their respective analyses. Featured in kissa are the parrang sabil of the Tausugs against the abusive acts of the Spanish soldiers; refusal to accept American reforms which they believed were against their traditions; unjust decision of the Sultan for defending the Chinese; and the unjust decision and rejection of a court order for arrest by a Panglima (district leader). Each kissa clarifies some facts not mentioned by writers of Philippine History. The singers of kissa based their singing on factual information of the actual situation of events, as observed by persons telling the story, who actually participated in the events. That is why the events, places and the participation of persons involved are mentioned. “The Meranao Manuscripts: Their Contents and Characteristics,” by Labi Hadji Sarip Riwarung, describes the contents and characteristics of various categories of Meranao manuscripts, religious or cultural documents written by hand in classical Meranao or Malay language using Arabic-based script such as batang a Arab and kirim. The religious manuscripts include the Qur’an, kissa or Islamic stories, Arabic and Islamic textbooks like the parokonan or the guide to prayer, alipalipan or the Arabic alphabet, barsindi or the book used by the chanter during the celebration of the birth of Prophet Muhammad, prayer scroll, and other Islamic books. The cultural manuscripts include the Meranao epic called darangen, salsila or the Meranao genealogy, folktales, tothol or short stories, bayok or songs, and medicinal documents or mga bolong. Nicole Revel, in “How Can an Epic Be Reliable for the Historian?,” presents the Philippine Epics and Ballads Archive of the Ateneo de Manila, a new multimedia archive for Digital Humanities (DH) with the following Internet address: http://epics.ateneo.edu/epics. The author asserts that oral tradition is a wealth in the Philippines and that oral performances or epics and other oral literature have been tape-recorded in their genuine contexts, transcribed into written texts, and translated to English. Since the 1960s, several linguistic and ethnographic descriptions have been published and


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can be of use to complement our knowledge. These sources can be of reliable use to the historian looking for documents with a selective intellectual activity, and can offer a new understanding of a problem, of a period of time, or an area of civilization. The author illustrates her paper with some comments on tultul (epic) among the Pala’wan, kissah (true stories), kata-kata (fictive stories) among the Sama and the Sama Dilaut, and uwaging (epic) among the Talaandig, and provide new insights to the historian. In “Rich and Beautiful, but Deadly: Esteban Rodríguez de Figueroa and His Quest for Mindanao,” John N. Crossley provides a biographical profile of an early Spaniard who arrived in the Philippines with the Legazpi expedition in 1565 and remained here for thirty years until his death in 1596. An ambitious and intriguing personality, Capt. Esteban Rodríguez de Figueroa became an encomendero (territorial trustee) in the Visayas and a conqueror of several strategic areas in southern Philippines. He was also a generous patron of the early Jesuits who came to the colony. Rodríguez was desperately keen to command, and seemingly even wanted to own Mindanao, but ultimately he was unsuccessful in his quest. He was killed by a native chief within days after arrival as head of a large expedition with a quest to pacify Mindanao in April 1596. “A Survey of Mindanaoan Writers and Writings,” by Calbi A. Asain, presents the results of the author’s survey of Mindanaoan writers and their writings from Butuan to Bongao. He conducted this study to find out if Mindanao is on its way to building its own written literary heritage like Luzon and the Visayas, since its folk or oral literary heritage is already well-known as the source of pride and identity of its people. He had surveyed technical and creative writers and their writings that were published in regional, national, and international publications, but excepted journalists due to lack of time, materials, and other resources. Visayas Papers Two papers are about the Visayas. “The Limasawa Pot: A Bakalág (Human Sacrifice) Ritual Artifact,” by Rolando O. Borrinaga,


Foreword

ix

presents findings about an artifact that was discovered during a cultural mapping field work in Limasawa, Southern Leyte in 2015. The Limasawa Pot is a celadon trade ware (green ceramic item) that dates back to the Song Dynasty (960–1279 A.D.) in China, but was also embossed with a four-leaf clover design around its mouth, presumably by a native artist. Each of the four loops has writing in baybayin, the ancient script of the Filipinos. The key words bakalág (human sacrifice) and Masáwa (place-name) that were deciphered from the baybayin characters on the pot suggest the pot’s ritual function and the place where the ritual was performed. It appears that the Limasawa Pot was an essential accessory item in the performance of the bakálag ritual by the ancient Filipinos. Earl Jude Paul L. Cleope, in “The Visayas: Islands in the Seas, A Historical Perspective (Series 7),” traces the evolution of the establishment of maritime ports and shipping trading routes that hastened the interconnectivity of the Visayas Islands in central Philippines. This paper is a sequel to the collection of essays on an ambitious project on the history of the Visayas that explores the role of the bodies of water surrounding these islands in the historical development of this geographical area. Luzon Papers Four papers are mainly about Luzon. “Kopyan Da Iyawe: Revisiting Traditional Ritual Practices among the Kalingas in the Cordillera Region,” by Michael G. Layugan, looks into the spirit-world of the Kalingas, their concept of well-being and sickness, their healing practices, and their means of communicating with supernatural and unseen realities. In “Scrutinizing Science and Philanthropy: Appreciating Littleknown Spanish Expeditions to the Philippines, 1789-1813,” María Eloísa G. Parco de Castro focuses on the Malaspina Scientific Expedition (1789–1794) and the Balmis Royal Philanthropic Expedition (1803–1813), two Spanish expeditions which still elude popular consciousness in the Philippines. The former produced fascinating images of the Philippines in the 18th century; the latter brought the first vaccines against smallpox to this Spanish colony.


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The Journal of History Vol. LxIII (January-December 2017)

The paper closely examines these two pioneering expeditions by reviewing data and knowledge produced by each, and assessing how they changed existing knowledge then and now. It is hoped that a true appreciation of Malaspina’s and Balmis’ efforts may be gained and that a belated, but deserving, recognition of their achievements be given to reshape our own understanding of the past for the better. In “Altering the Colonial Agricultural Landscape One Plant, One Animal at a Time: Flora and Fauna Introductions and Improvements of the Bureau of Agriculture, 1903-1915,” Marco Stefan B. Lagman and Keith Gerard L. Daguio demonstrate that the Bureau of Agriculture, an American colonial institution, was mainly responsible for the introduction of numerous varieties of vegetables, ornamental flowers, forage crops, cash crops as well as a variety of livestock species. The Americans had hoped that the introduced flora and fauna would help improve the native population’s farm animal stock, produce new domestic and exportoriented agricultural subsectors, better feed and nourish the native population, and provide a steady resource for vital American colonial institutions. These programs, which were imbued with equal doses of enthusiasm, willingness to help, and conceit, eventually led to partial successes and failures. The paper “Rizal, Civic Virtue, and Active Citizenship,” by Clement C. Camposano, charts the development of Rizal’s political ideas. It argues that, in the late 1880s, Rizal made the difficult shift from Voltaire’s obsession with civil liberties to Rousseau’s fixation with political obligation. Occurring between the publication of the two novels, Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo, the author claims that the shift seemed to have found its fullest expression in La Liga Filipina. The Philippine National Historical Society acknowledges with thanks and appreciation the assistance and support provided by the National Commission for Culture and the Arts - Committee on Historical Research (NCCA-CHR) to the 37th National Conference


Foreword

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on Local and National History in Butuan City in 2016. The NCCACHR also provided partial funding for the publication of this volume. Rolando O. Borrinaga Issue Editor Bernardita Reyes Churchill Executive Editor


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The Journal of History Vol. LxIII (January-December 2017)


THE AUTHORS Calbi A. Asain, Ph.D. Professor College of Arts and Sciences Director for Research and Extension Mindanao State University – Sulu Jolo, Sulu Mary Jane Louise A. Bolunia, Ph.D. Senior Museum Researcher OIC, Archaeology Division National Museum of the Philippines Manila Rolando O. Borrinaga, Ph.D. Professor, School of Health Sciences University of the Philippines Manila Tacloban City Representative for Visayas, Committee on Historical Research National Commission for Culture and the Arts Clement C. Camposano, Ph.D. University of Asia and the Pacific Pasig City Vice-President, Philippine Studies Association, Inc. María Eloísa G. Parco de Castro, Ph.D. Associate Professor Faculty of Arts and Letters University of Santo Tomas Manila


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The Authors

Earl Jude Paul L. Cleope, Ph.D. Professor of History and Dean, College of Arts and Sciences Silliman University Dumaguete City Vice-Head, Committee on Historical Research National Commission for Culture and the Arts John N. Crossley, D.Phil. Professor Emeritus Monash University Melbourne, Australia Keith Gerard L. Daguio Department of Geography University of the Philippines Diliman Quezon City Heidi K. Gloria, Ph.D. Professor Emeritus Ateneo de Davao University Davao City Greg Hontiveros President, Butuan City Heritage Society Butuan City Marco Stefan B. Lagman Assistant Professor Department of Geography University of the Philippines Diliman Quezon City


The Authors

Fr. Michael G. Layugan, S.V.D., Ph.D., S.T.D. Rector, Divine Word Seminary Tagaytay City Nicole Revel, Ph.D. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Paris Musée National d’Histoire Naturelle (MNHN), Paris Labi Hadji Sarip Riwarung Researcher Mamitua Saber Research Center Mindanao State University – Marawi Marawi City Talib L. Sangogot Division Supervisor for Science and Mathematics (Retired) Department of Education Bongao, Tawi-tawi Hja. Massaat P. Sangogot Division Supervisor for Filipino (Retired) Department of Education Bongao, Tawi-tawi

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Profile for Philippine National Historical Society

The Journal of History Volume LXIII • January–December 2017  

Mindanao History in the Context of National History. This volume of the Journal of History contains papers presented at the 37th National Co...

The Journal of History Volume LXIII • January–December 2017  

Mindanao History in the Context of National History. This volume of the Journal of History contains papers presented at the 37th National Co...

Profile for pnhs1941
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