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Volume LxiV • January–December 2018

History and the Cagayan Valley:

Local History in the Context of National History


The Journal of History Volume LxiV • January–December 2018

History and the Cagayan Valley: Local History in the Context of National History

Rolando O. Borrinaga Issue Editor

Bernardita Reyes Churchill Executive Editor

Philippine National Historical Society, Inc. National Commission for Culture and the Arts Committee on Historical Research


© Copyright 2018 Philippine National Historical Society, Inc. All rights reserved. First Printing, 2018 Cover design and lay-out by Ronald B. Escanlar. Printed by Southern Voices Printing Press 19 J. Perez Street, Barangay Masagana, Project 4, Quezon City Tel. no. (632) 621-0251 Recommended entry: Rolando O. Borrinaga Bernardita Reyes Churchill Philippine National Historical Society, Inc. Bernardita Reyes Churchill Rolando O. Borrinaga ISSN 0117 - 2840 1.

The Journal of History History and the Cagayan Valley I. Title Local History in the Context of National History

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored, or transmitted in any form by any means without prior permission of the Philippine National Historical Society, Inc. Published by Philippine National Historical Society, Inc. # 40 Matiwasay Street, UP Village Diliman, Quezon City 1101, Philippines and published by the editors through a partial grant from the National Commission for Culture and the Arts. National Commission for Culture and the Arts 633 General Luna Street, Intramuros, 1002 Manila Tel. 527-2192 to 97 Fax: 527-2191 and 94 Email: info@ncca.gov.ph • website: www.ncca.gov.ph The National Commission for Culture and the Arts (NCCA), Philippines, is the overall policy-making body, coordinating, and grants-giving agency that systematizes and streamlines national efforts in promoting culture and the arts. The NCCA promotes cultural and artistic development; conserves and promotes the nation’s historical and cultural heritage; ensures the widest dissemination of artistic and cultural products among the greatest number across the country; preserves and integrates traditional culture mainstream, and ensures that standards of excellence are pursued in its programs and activities. The NCCA administers the National Endowment Fund for Culture and the Arts (NEFCA).


Table of Contents

Foreword................................................................................................... v The Chinese Presence in Northern Luzon: An Exploratory Study Teresita Ang See.......................................................................................1 The Dominicans in the Parish of San Pedro Telmo in Aparri, Cagayan, 1680-1898 Regalado Trota Jose............................................................................... 47 Northern Luzon: Historical Interpretations of Regional Space Maria Nela B. Florendo........................................................................ 67 On the Dying Art of Kalinga Tattooing Michael G. Layugan.............................................................................. 87 Until When Will the Last “Mengal” Stand? History’s Challenge for the Preservation of a Recalcitrant Local Language (The Case of the Malaueg Tongue) Ferdinand T. Maguigad....................................................................... 100 The Kalinga Archaeological Excavation Marian Reyes-Magloyuan and Maricar Belarmino......................... 113 Understanding Prehistoric Shellfish Utilization in Cagayan Valley, Northern Philippines Ame M. Garong................................................................................... 129 Miscommunication, Misunderstanding and Misuse in the Early Spanish Philippines, from Cebu to Aparri John N. Crossley................................................................................... 152


Holy Week Processions in the Philippines: A Devotional and Artistic Tradition on the Rise (The Case of the Parish Church of Our Lady of the Abandoned in Marikina) Juan O. Mesquida................................................................................ 173 The William Kerr Botanical Journal of 1805 in the Philippines Thomas B. Colvin and Domingo A. Madulid....................................205 A Possible Laurel-Ricarte Alliance of 1944 Motoe Terami-Wada............................................................................222 Leyte in Transition, 1768-1780: Contextualizing Two Accounts of Fr. Agustin Maria de Castro, OSA, Augustinian Missionary Rolando O. Borrinaga.........................................................................264 From Hunter to Prey: The Japanese Account of the Liberation of Negros Island Earl Jude Paul L. Cleope...................................................................... 320 Islamic Consciousness Reflected in the Contemporary Creative Literature of Sulu Calbi A. Asain......................................................................................347 Enhancing the Study/Teaching of Philippine History and Culture in Basic and Higher Education and Creating an Inclusive History – Martial Law (1972-1986), The History of Muslim and Indigenous Peoples (IPs) Bernardita Reyes Churchill................................................................. 371 Book Review Jose S. Buenconsejo, ed. Philippine Modernities: Music, Performing Arts, and Language, 1880-1941 Ramon Guillermo................................................................................ 389 The Authors..................................................................................393


FOREWORD

T

he papers in this volume of The Journal of History were presented at the 38th National Conference on National and Local History of the Philippine National Historical Society (PNHS), which was held at the Lyceum of Aparri in Macayana, Aparri, Cagayan Province, on 19-21 October 2017. The Conference was co-sponsored by the National Commission for Culture and the Arts – Committee on Historical Research (NCCA-CHR), the Lyceum of Aparri, and the Philippine Social Science Council (PSSC). The theme of the Conference was “History and the Cagayan Valley: Local History in the Context of National History.” It featured historical studies mainly about Cagayan Valley and Northern Luzon, complemented with representative papers on other parts of the country. In this volume, fifteen papers are presented. Cagayan Valley and Northern Luzon papers Eight papers deal with various facets of Cagayan Valley and/or Northern Luzon, including this geography’s history, culture and archaeology. The paper titled “The Chinese Presence in Northern Luzon: An Exploratory Study,” by Teresita Ang See, provides vignettes on the Chinese presence in Northern Luzon since ancient times. For instance, the 1588 Selden Map of China has Aparri as the first name that appeared on it, followed by Sanchez Mira in Cagayan Valley, and Lam Ong or Namoah, west of Aparri. This meant that long before the Spaniards discovered the alternate route to the Moluccas, places in Northern Luzon were already well known to Chinese traders. In “The Dominicans in the Parish of San Pedro Telmo in Aparri, Cagayan, 1680-1898,” Regalado Trota Jose put together aspects of the Spanish-era history of Aparri through a reconstructed list of Dominican parish priests from the foundation of the parish in 1680 until the end of the Spanish regime in 1898. The basic source


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for his paper was the Acta Capitulorum or Acts of the Chapters of the Dominicans, which were usually held every two years. The paper “Northern Luzon: Historical Interpretations of Regional Space,” by Maria Nela B. Florendo, is a survey of the historiographies of Northern Luzon and addresses the main issue of whether or not this geography as a regional entity is contrived. Northern Luzon as a geographic construct may be traced to the arrival of the Spaniards. The earliest reorganization of the Philippine colony was based on ecclesiastical considerations. Cagayan, Ilocos (with the Cordillera region between them) and Pangasinan were lumped under the Bishopric of Nueva Segovia, with its seat in Lal-lo, Cagayan. Felix Keesing’s The Ethnohistory of Northern Luzon (1962) and William Henry Scott’s The Discovery of the Igorots (1974) later explored events and cultural elements that integrated the Ilocos, Cordillera, Cagayan and Pangasinan into a coherent historical narrative. The Tobacco Monopoly in the Philippines: Bureaucratic Enterprise and Social Change, 1766-1880 by Ed. C. de Jesus (1980) is an economic history of Northern Luzon. These are just some successful attempts at finding historical connections of geographically contiguous spaces. In “On the Dying Art of Kalinga Tattooing,” Michael G. Layugan narrates that the art of tattooing which conforms to its original Kalinga signification is slowly disappearing. With the remaining Kalinga tattoo artists (mambabatok) now in their old age, with no institution to preserve the transmission to the next generation, and with the changing values and mentalities of the times, the art of Kalinga tattooing and its signification will cease to be known as such. The introductory study titled “Until When Will the Last ‘Mengal’ Stand? History’s Challenge for the Preservation of a Recalcitrant Local Language (The Case of the Malaueg Tongue),” by Ferdinand T. Maguigad, weaves and winds through history for some possible grounds as to why and how a local idiom remains extant until today. After centuries of being exposed to foreign influences, the Malaueg tongue of Rizal town in Cagayan Province, which is spoken only in this town, is still very much in use.


Foreword

vii

“The Kalinga Archaeological Excavation” by Marian ReyesMagloyuan and Maricar Belarmino narrates the search for the earliest human remains in the country that has been going on since the 1930s. Local and foreign scientists have collaborated on geological and archaeological researches to collect information and data that would demonstrate how Cagayan Valley was once inhabited. The research had a long hiatus due to the change in focus of the succeeding geologists and archaeologists. In 2014, another team of local and foreign researchers went to Rizal, Kalinga, to once again embark on the earlier search for evidences. To date, the research has been successful with the discovery of more fossils and stone tools, with a warm reception from the local community and government unit. The paper “Understanding Prehistoric Shellfish Utilization in Cagayan Valley, Northern Philippines” by Ame M. Garong presents results of the ten-year continuous archaeological undertakings conducted in the areas of Gattaran, Lal-lo, and Camalaniugan towns. The findings show that prehistoric shell-gathering people intensively utilized riverine resources from the Cagayan River, but did not strictly subsist on freshwater shells, especially kabibe (Batissa sp.). Bones recovered from the shell middens showed they also relied on animals for their protein, indicating that hunting and gathering subsistence strategies had been applied through time. Reliance on shellfish and wild animals, and eventually domesticated ones, were both consumed at a given time. John N. Crossley, in “Miscommunication, Misunderstanding and Misuse in the Early Spanish Philippines, from Cebu to Aparri,” considered half a dozen specific examples of what miscommunication cost to the early Spanish colonizers. The first was because orders were not obeyed; practicalities for the Spaniards sometimes required turning a blind eye on them. The second, using new information from the unpublished Lilly Historia, showed how blood pacts meant different things to Spaniards and indigenes, and perhaps, demonstrated the cleverness of the Manileño rulers. The third was a case of misinterpretation. The fourth showed how blocking communications could yield personal gain. The fifth was where there was no chance of mutual understanding between the Spaniards and


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the natives. And the last example considered an incident where the “devil” extracted revenge on the Spaniards for their deliberate misuse of local land and resources in Claveria, in the Babuyan Channel, about 65 km. west of Aparri. Other Luzon papers Three papers dealt with other parts of Luzon. “Holy Week Processions in the Philippines: A Devotional and Artistic Tradition on the Rise (The Case of the Parish Church of Our Lady of the Abandoned in Marikina),” by Juan O. Mesquida, looks into the past to explain possible origins of a contemporary phenomenon, the processions of religious floats or carrozas which are one of the main activities during Holy Week when Filipino Catholics commemorate the passion of Jesus Christ. The paper delves into the history of Holy Week processions in Spain, during the early Christianization of the Philippines, and the hybridization or adaptation that took place locally in the 19th century. It also analyzes the many motivations that have led to what can be considered a “revolution” of carroza sponsoring in the second half of the 20th century in the Parish Church of Our Lady of the Abandoned in Marikina City. “The William Kerr Botanical Journal of 1805 in the Philippines,” by Thomas B. Colvin and Domingo A. Madulid, summarizes the findings of British botanist William Kerr during his ill-fated expedition to the country in 1805. It includes a background of other significant events occurring during this period, drawn from the first author’s previous research and referenced in the Kerr Journal, which he traced to have been kept at the Library of the British Museum of Natural History. Madulid places this expedition in historical context and presents an evaluation of the significance of the catalog of specimens collected by Kerr. “A Possible Laurel-Ricarte Alliance of 1944” by Motoe TeramiWada, focuses on the alliance between Artemio Ricarte and Jose P. Laurel that did not happen under the Japanese Occupation of the Philippines (1942-1945). A staunch anti-American nationalist, Ricarte was a revolutionary general who fought against Spanish and American colonial forces at the turn of the 20th century. He


Foreword

ix

sought refuge in Japan and refused to return to the Philippines as long as the U.S. occupied the country. He finally returned home at the end of 1941, along with the invading Japanese forces. Jose P. Laurel was one of those high-ranking government officials who had been working hard to prepare the country’s independence under the Commonwealth government in the pre-war period. When the Japanese landed on Philippines soil, he was one of those Cabinet members who were ordered to stay behind while Commonwealth President Manuel L. Quezon and a few other officials left for the United States and established the Commonwealth government-in-exile in Washington, D.C. When the Second Republic was inaugurated in 1943 under Japanese sponsorship, Laurel was elected president. It would be natural to think that Ricarte would have cooperated with Laurel, thus forging an alliance of sort, to establish the independent Republic. While this had been an ardent lifelong wish for both men, this alliance did not take place and the paper examines why. Visayas and Mindanao papers Three papers tackle historical and cultural issues in Visayas and Mindanao. “Leyte in Transition, 1768-1780: Contextualizing Two Accounts of Fr. Agustin Maria de Castro, OSA, Augustinian Missionary,” by Rolando O. Borrinaga, provides an Augustinian friar’s eyewitness perspective of the overall dynamics and developments in Leyte during the restless 1770s. The first account was a status report of the Leyte pueblos compiled after the turnover of the Jesuit missions to the Augustinians in 1768, a catalog appended in Osario Venerable, which was Fr. de Castro’s history of the Augustinian missions until the late 18th century. The second account was a report full of negative impressions and opinions on the state of affairs, colonial governance, and the people of the province. Included as the tenth and last chapter of Relación clara y verίdica de la toma de Manila por la escuadra inglesa (Clear and True Account of the Capture of Manila by the English Squadron) in the year 1762, this account had little or nothing to do with the topic of the war against the English. In “From Hunter to Prey: The Japanese Account of the Liberation of Negros Island,” Earl Jude Paul L. Cleope presents the version of


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Japanese soldiers who were assigned to Negros Island during World War II. Two personal accounts by First Lt. Komei Fujitomi and Cpl. Kyuji Yamada, translated to English, offer narratives of how the Japanese forces coped with the combined efforts of the resistance movement and the joint Filipino and American Army Forces to liberate the island from Japanese control. In the popular narratives of the liberation of the Philippines, the stories of those who were defeated are seldom heard. The paper hopes to contribute to an enlightened understanding of the War. It is about time to know the version of the “enemy,” notably when they became the prey of the people they used to hunt. The paper “Islamic Consciousness Reflected in the Contemporary Creative Literature of Sulu” by Calbi A. Asain provides content analysis of creative literary outputs of student writers in the Province of Sulu who wrote for their campus publications. Since they are Muslims, the author was interested in finding out what Islam meant to them and their expectations of being believers, as reflected in their literary art. The paper likewise discussed their preferred literary form for mirroring their religious consciousness. Revisiting the Teaching of Philippine History One paper overrides the geographic categorization of the other papers above. “Enhancing the Study/Teaching of Philippine History and Culture in Basic and Higher Education and Creating an Inclusive History – Martial Law (1972-1986), The History of Muslim and Indigenous Peoples (IPs),” by Bernardita Reyes Churchill, presents the need to “revisit the teaching of Philippine history,” especially in view of the attempts at “historical revisionism” that has been engaged in recently by certain quarters to sanitize some important periods and personalities in our history (e.g., the martial law years, 1972-1986). There is also the need to finally include in our study and teaching of Philippine history and culture those Filipinos who have been marginalized in the national history. The planned thrust is to “enhance” the study/teaching of Philippine history and culture and create an “inclusive history” that will present the multi-ethnic and multicultural diversity that characterizes Philippine society


Foreword

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and culture, including the history of the Muslims and Indigenous Peoples. The Philippine National Historical Society acknowledges with thanks and appreciation the assistance and support provided by the National Commission for Culture and the Arts – Committee on Historical Research (NCCA-CHR) to the 38th National Conference on Local and National History in Aparri, Cagayan in 2017. The NCCA-CHR provided partial funding for the publication of this volume. The members of the PNHS Board of Trustees have always provided us with support and comfort in the various undertakings of the organization. We would like to acknowledge with thanks their friendship and commitment to the PNHS and historical research. Rolando O. Borrinaga Issue Editor Bernardita Reyes Churchill Executive Editor


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THE AUTHORS Calbi A. Asain, Ph.D. Professor (Retired) College of Arts and Sciences Mindanao State University – Sulu Jolo, Sulu Maricar Belarmino Archaeology Division National Museum of the Philippines Manila Rolando O. Borrinaga, Ph.D. Professor, School of Health Sciences University of the Philippines Manila Palo, Leyte Representative for Visayas, Committee on Historical Research National Commission for Culture and the Arts Bernardita Reyes Churchill, Ph.D. Professor and Professorial Lecture of History (Retired) University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City Earl Jude Paul L. Cleope, Ph.D. Professor of History and Dean, College of Arts and Sciences Silliman University Dumaguete City Vice-Head, Committee on Historical Research National Commission for Culture and the Arts


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The Authors

Thomas B. Colvin Independent Scholar Manila John N. Crossley, D.Phil. Professor Emeritus Monash University Melbourne, Australia Maria Nela B. Florendo, Ph.D. Professor of History University of the Philippines Baguio Baguio City Representative for Luzon, Committee on Historical Research National Commission for Culture and the Arts Ame M. Garong, D.Sc. Archaeology Division National Museum of the Philippines Manila Regalado Trota Jose Archivist University of Santo Tomas Sampaloc, Manila Fr. Michael G. Layugan, S.V.D., Ph.D., S.T.D. Rector, Divine Word Seminary Tagaytay City Domingo A. Madulid, Ph.D. National Museum (Retired) De La Salle University Manila


The Authors

Marian Reyes-Magloyuan Archaeology Division National Museum of the Philippines Manila Ferdinand T. Maguigad, Ph.D. Lyceum of Aparri Junior High School Aparri, Cagayan Juan O. Mesquida, Ph.D. Department of History University of Asia and the Pacific Pasig City Teresita Ang See Kaisa Heritage Center Philippine Association for Chinese Studies Manila Motoe Terami-Wada, Ph.D. Independent Scholar Former Visiting Fellow, Sophia University Former Lecturer, Ateneo de Manila University BOOK REVIEW Ramon Guillermo, Ph.D. Professor, Department of Filipino and Philippine Literature University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City

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T

he papers in this volume of The Journal of History were presented at the 38th National Conference on National and Local History of the Philippine National Historical Society (PNHS), which was held at the Lyceum of Aparri in Macayana, Aparri, Cagayan Province, on 19-21 October 2017. The Conference was co-sponsored by the National Commission for Culture and the Arts – Committee on Historical Research (NCCA-CHR), the Lyceum of Aparri, and the Philippine Social Science Council (PSSC). The theme of the Conference was “History and the Cagayan Valley: Local History in the Context of National History.” It featured historical studies mainly about Cagayan Valley and Northern Luzon, complemented with representative papers on other parts of the country. In this volume, fifteen papers are presented. Rolando O. Borrinaga Issue Editor Bernardita Reyes Churchill Executive Editor

Profile for Philippine National Historical Society

The Journal of History Volume LXIV • January–December 2018  

History and the Cagayan Valley: Local History in the Context of National History The papers in this volume of The Journal of History were p...

The Journal of History Volume LXIV • January–December 2018  

History and the Cagayan Valley: Local History in the Context of National History The papers in this volume of The Journal of History were p...

Profile for pnhs1941
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