_INTEGRATED SETTLEMENT DEVELOPMENT _CURRICULUM
INTEGRATED SETTLEMENT DEVELOPMENT CURRICULUM ACADEMIC BOOK
WRITTEN BY DR. BÁLINT BACHMANN DR. GABRIELLA MEDVEGY DR. JÁNOS GYERGYÁK DR. GÁBOR VERES DR. ERZSÉBET SZERÉNA ZOLTÁN PÉTER UDVARDI ALEXANDRA PETŐ PÉTER PAÁRI TAMÁS RÁCZ GÁBOR BÉRES ANISKIN ALEKSEJ PH.D OREŠKOVIĆ MATIJA PH.D BOGADI ANTONIJA IVAN CVITKOVIĆ PHOTOGRAPHED BY PÉTER PAÁRI EDITED BY ALEXANDRA PETŐ PÉTER PAÁRI TAMÁS RÁCZ
TRANSLATED BY A+P MAGYARORSZÁG KERESKEDELMI KFT. PRINTED IN ÉRDI RÓZSA NYOMDA KFT. 2030 ÉRD, TÖRÖKBÁLINTI ÚT 34. 2018 ISBN 978-963-429-266-1(digital) ISBN 978-963-429-265-4 (printed)
00_PROJECT AND PARTICIPANTS 01_INTEGRATED SETTLEMENT DEVELOPMENT 02_DESCRIPTION OF COURSE TOPICS
5 9 15
2.1_COURSE REQUIREMENTS, PROGRAM DESCRIPTION, PREPARATION 2.2_ON-SITE SAMPLING: VISUAL AND VERBAL DATA COLLECTION: „VISIBLE AND TALKING CITY”
16 18 18
2.3_SCIENTIFIC, ANALYTICAL DATA COLLECTION: „INVISIBLE CITY ”
2.4_INTEGRATION OF SETTLEMENT STUDIES, JOINT ANALYSIS
AND EVALUATION OF INFORMATION: „INTEGRATED CITY” 2.5_DEFINITION OF THE URBAN PLANNING CONCEPT AND THE INTEGRATED URBAN PLANNING STRATEGY 2.6_CREATING A DEVELOPMENT PLAN
26 28 28 32
2.7_MAKING ARCHITECTURAL PLANS
2.8_PLANNING OUTDOOR, OPEN SPACES
2.9_THE FEASIBILITY AND SUSTAINABILITY OF THE DEVELOPMENTS (OUTLINED TOPIC DEVELOPMENT)
2.10_INTRODUCING AND GIVING COMMENTS ON THE FINAL PLANS
04_REFERENCES BASED ON TOPICS
_PROJECT AND PARTICIPANTS
In the cross-border project, the Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of PĂŠcs, the University North in VaraĹždin, the Baranya County Council participated. We were curious about how young people saw the possibilities of developing a settlement. We conduct an integrated approach course with Hungarian and Croatian students, and in the next semester, there will be workshops built on this. The finished material, which has an integrated urban development approach and can be
taught in Croatia and Hungary in the longer term. The course prepares more close cooperation in the future in the long term thanks to the Hungarian and the positive experiences of the project with foreign settlements as well. This cooperation is also extremely useful for students and consultants as they can address real-estate problems and developments in situ, while the settlements receive development ideas from a new approach, unlike the practice, in any case, more for a problem.
MATIJA OREŠKOVIČ Ph.D
ALEKSEJ ANISKIN Ph.D
GÁBOR BÉRES URBAN PLANNING CONSULTANT 6
_UNIVERSITY OF PÉCS_FACULTY OF ENGINEERING AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY_HUNGARY
DR ERZSÉBET SZERÉNA ZOLTÁN ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR
HONORARY ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR
DR GABRIELLA MEDVEGY
DR JÁNOS GYERGYÁK
DR GÁBOR VERES
_INTEGRATED SETTLEMENT DEVELOPMENT
Due to earlier (2004) accession of Hungary to EU, integrated settlement development (ISD) approach is applied and expands in the Hungarian border zone, experiences of its local implementation are available. As Croatia has joined EU in 2013, its border zone local municipalities have to apply ISD approach when planning their EU-financed settlement and urban development actions. Mentioned aspects underline that new generation of architects, urban planners, civil engineers have to be literate with ISD knowledge and practice in the border zone. Similarly, practicing professionals need to receive actual updates on the topic. Despite the EU sets ISD as guiding principle in settlement/urban developments the lack of knowledge, competence and skills makes difficult to build on spatial, sectoral and temporal aspects of key areas of urban policy in a co-ordinated way. It is also against the ample attention to be paid to deprived neighbourhoods within the context of the settlement as a whole (social cohesion and integration in cities and urban areas, social housing policies). Whilst the practicing profession has relevant and expanding experiences
and knowlegde based on a place-based particularities of the border region, the right ISD implementation endeavours are not supported by the knowledge centres of border zone higher education organisations. THE LEIPZIG CHARTER
The theory of integrated urban development was published in the Leipzig Charter in 2007 that determined the elaboration of integrated urban development documents. It is very important to know the recommendations of the Charter as it gives a clear vision for urban development in the future. The Leipzig Charter was publlished during the German presidency of the European Union in 2007. „…The Leipzig Charter on Sustainable European Cities is a document of the Member States, which has been drawn up with the broad and transparent participation of European Stakeholders. In the knowledge of the challenges and opportunities as well as the different historical, economical, social and environmental backgrounds of European cities, the Member States’ Ministers responsible for Urban Devel-
opment agree upon common principles and strategies for urban development policy. The Ministers commit themselves • to initiate a political debate in their states on how to integrate the principles and strategies of the Leipzig Charter on Sustainable European Cities into national, regional and local development policies, to use the tool of integrated urban development and the related governance for its implementation and, to this end, establish any necessary framework at national level and • to promote the establishment of balanced territorial organisation based on a European polycentric urban structure. Recommendation of the Leipzig Charter: Making greater use of integrated urban development policy approaches For us, integrated urban development policy means simultaneous and fair consideration of the concerns and interests which are relevant to urban 9
development. Integrated urban development policy is a process in which the spatial, sectoral and temporal aspects of key areas of urban policy are co-ordinated. The involvement of economic actors, stakeholders and the general public is essential. Integrated urban development policy is a key prerequisite for implementing the EU Sustainable Development Strategy. Its implementation is a task of European scale, but it is one which must take account of local conditions and needs as well as subsidiarity. The reconciliation of interests facilitated by an integrated urban development policy forms a viable basis for a consensus between the state, regions, cities, citizens and economic actors. By pooling knowledge and financial resources, scarce public funds can be more effectively used. Public and private investments will be better coordinated. Integrated urban development policy involves actors outside the administration and enables citizens to play an active role in shaping their immediate living environment. At the same time, these measures can provide more planning and investment certainty. Creating and ensuring high-quality public spaces The quality of public spaces, urban man-made landscapes and architecture and urban development play an important role in the living conditions of urban populations. As soft locational factors, they are important for attracting knowledge industry businesses, a qualified and creative workforce and for tourism. Therefore, the interaction of architecture, infrastructure planning and urban planning must be increased in order to create attractive, user-oriented public spaces and achieve a high standard in terms of the living environment, a “Baukultur”. Baukultur 10
is to be understood in the broadest sense of the word, as the sum of all the cultural, economic, technological, social and ecological aspects influencing the quality and process of planning and construction. Modernizing infrastructure networks and improving energy efficiency Urban transport must be reconciled with the different requirements of housing, work areas, the environment and public spaces. Technical infrastructure, especially water supply, waste-water treatment and other supply networks, must be improved at an early stage and adapted to changing needs in order to meet future requirements for high quality urban living. Key prerequisites for sustainable public utility service are energy efficiency and economic use of natural resources and economic efficiency in their operation. Energy efficiency of buildings must be improved. This concerns both existing and new buildings. The renovation of housing stock can have an important impact on energy efficiency and the improvement of a resident’s quality of life. Particular attention must be paid to pre-fabricated, old and low quality buildings. Optimized and perfomant infrastructure networks and energy efficient buildings will lower costs for businesses and residents alike. An important basis for efficient and sustainable use of resources is a compact settlement structure. This can be achieved by spatial and urban planning, which prevents urban sprawl by strong control of land supply and of speculative development.
Proactive innovation and educational policies Cities are places where a lot of knowledge is created and also imparted. The full exploitation of a city’s knowledge potential depends on the quality of its pre-school and school education, and on the transfer opportunities provided within the education and training systems, as well as by social and cultural networks. The opportunities for lifelong learning, the excellence of the universities and non-university research institutes and the transfer network between industry, businesses and the scientific community. That special attention is paid to deprived neighbourhoods within the context of the city as a whole Cities are faced with major challenges, especially in connection with the change in economic and social structures and globalisation. Specific problems, among others, are especially high unemployment and social exclusion. Within one city, considerable differences may exist in terms of economic and social opportunities in the individual city areas, but also in terms of the varying quality of the environment. In addition, the social distinctions and the differences in economic development often continue to increase which contributes to destabilization in cities. A policy of social integration which contributes to reducing inequalities and preventing social exclusion will be the best guarantee for maintaining security in our cities. In order to achieve the objectives of social cohesion and integration in cities and urban areas, well-conceived social housing policies can be effective tools. Healthy, suitable and affordable housing can make these neighbourhoods more attractive for both young and old
people. This is a contribution to stability in the neighbourhoods. It is better to spot early warning signs and take remedial action in a timely and effective way. This saves resources. Once an area has begun to decline, the cost of and difficulty in turning it around can be many times more expensive. Government must offer an outlook and incentives for improvement to residents in affected areas.
Proactive education and training policies for children and young people
Pursuing strategies for upgrading the physical environment
Promotion of efficient and affordable urban transport
Economic activity and investments on the one hand and high-quality urban structures, a sound built environment and a modern and efficient infrastructure and facilities on the other are closely interlinked. For this reason, it is necessary to improve existing building stock in deprived neighbourhoods with regard to their design, physical conditions and energy efficiency.
Many deprived neighbourhoods have the additional burden of poor transport connections as well as poor environmental influences which further reduce their attractiveness.â€?
Strengthening the local economy and local labour market policy Measures to secure the economic stabilisation of deprived neighbourhoods must also exploit endogenous economic forces in the neighbourhood themselves. In this context, labour market and economic policies which are tailored to the needs of the individual neighbourhoods will be the appropriate instruments. The objective is to create and secure jobs and to facilitate the start-up of new businesses. In particular, access opportunities to local labour markets must be improved by offering demandoriented training. Increased use must also be made of the employment and training opportunities in the ethnic economy.
A crucial starting point for improving the situation in deprived neighbourhoods is the improvement of the education and training situation in the local community in conjunction with proactive policies focused on children and young people.
URBAN REHABILITATIO EXTENDING FUNCTIONS The two main types of urban development are urban rehabilitation extending functions and social urban rehabilitation. These urban renewal peojects are based on the theory of the Leipzig Charter. The essential goal of urban rehabilitation extending functions is the integrated rehabilitation of urban areas. The rehabilitation area is determined by action areas in a way that the economic and social character of the city should be strengthen, so as the population and the companies, firms, enterprises and other organizations established and settle within the city. Meantime, investments aimed at strengthening, or as required, extending certain town functions are supported. In order to achieve the development aims of the area the environment and infrastructure will be renewed, the key features of the built area will be preserved and exploited and will assist the extension
and rehabilitation of economic areas, public functions and services. Establishing an urban rehabilitation project that extends functions it is very important to take it into consideration that the financial issues of the developments of the action area are almost the most important especially in the long term for the local government. Certainly, this goal can be achieved if we consider the existing situation of the real estate market characteristic of the town too. SOCIAL URBAN REHABILITATION Social urban rehabilitation concentrates on such urban areas whose social, physical state and condition is significantly worse than the average of the city. The level of the state of the urban conditions should be also analysed at the local and regional level. In that case if the project is supported by EU Funds the degraded status has to be proven by indicators. Indicators are published in the call documentation of the Managing Authority. The aim of the social urban rehabilitation is to develop the quality of urban area and ensure the local citizens chances for a better life. The local segregated population that live in the disadvantaged area is the main actor of the development programme and they are interested in the enhancement of the the built environment and the social status. The basic component of the project is that interventions associated with residential dwellings should be established with the financial support of EU Fund. Social urban rehabilitation focuses on different target areas in towns: â€˘ Development of housing estates, block of houses 11
Rehabilitation of traditional residential areas located in deprived urban areas • Rehabilitation of Roma colonies Sometimes when we establish a social urban rehabilitation project other interventions can also be implemented. Very often the whole city can be included in the project as the inhabitants of the segregated area move to other parts of the city. This elemnt of the project is called the mobilisation programme. The aim of the mobilisation programme is to decrease the concentration of the disadvantaged population within the action area and strengthen the social integration. Integrated Urban Development Strategy The integrated urban development strategy (IUDS) is a medium-term, so 6-8 years long, implementation-oriented planning document. It has a strong strategic approach and it determines the medium-term operative city development activities. The integrated urban development strategy defines action areas alongside integrated principles. Thematic aspects determine the content of the IUDS. It also coordinates the sectoral approaches like economy development, transport development, environmental development, social rehabilitation aspects. It is based on action areas and covers the expectations and needs of the stakeholder partners from the private sector, municipality and inhabitants. It has a strong influence on local decision makers in urban development. IUDS has to be operative that means the integrated approach appears in the sectoral actions too. The IUDS defines the frames and staff that manages the development actions, the necessary financial background and calculates the 12
implementation and maintanance. The integrated urban development strategy helps the local decision makers to take as many criterias into consideration while making project decision as possible. It is also imporntant to mention that integrated urban development can be established in smaller scale settlements too. Lately, it is rather called as integrated settlement development strategy refering tha fact as villages can be also developed by these integrated approaches. Analysis of IUDS Content of the city analysis that has to be done before the finalization of iUDS is the following: • The role of the city in the network of settlements • The assessment of the administrative status • Analysis of settlement districts • Analysis of the segregated areas or areas threatened by segregation THE CONTENT OF IUDS The major objectives Local decision makers should follow the development concept during their long term decision making proocess, and the IUDS objectives during the medium term (6-8 years). There is a strong interaction between the long term development conception and the medium term IUDS. The IUDS objectives should start with a clear vision for the future that defines the state and position of the city after 15-20 years. Extent of action areas Each urban development action area has to be designated in thhe IUDS. It is
important to emphasize in the integrated urban development strategy that the designation of the action areas is indicative, and it is possible to clarify the extent later where necessary in the preparation of the action area plan. All action areas should be identified and schematically presented. The introduction of action areas should cover the medium term interventions planed and the criteria system of the implementation. Sustainability aspects Sustainability aspect is a special winwin opportunity. It means a situation that is good for both society and the environment. The sustainable solution usually means a long term appproach, describes that how we can live with our environment in the future. In this approach, sustainability is a complex phenomenon. Major risks in implementing the strategy In this chapter we have to collect the the factors that may be influence the implementation. The measures should also be presented in order to reduce the negative effects of the risks. The risk analysis should be realistic and keep an eye on all the possible facts that have even a minor impact on IUDS projects. Partnership The partnership process follows the whole elaboration of IUDS from the beginning. It is very important to ensure a transparent way of partnership. The system of partrnership process should be declared in a local municipality decision. That local regulation defines the essential steps of the dissemination and negotiation process.
ACTION AREA PLAN The role of the action area plan is to define the management and control of the projects initiated by the local municipality in the IUDS. The projects will be implemented according to a complex, urban, technical, financial scenario for local government. The complexity means that the municipality has control for a specified period of time over the project, taking economic, social and urban development results into consideration. The process is ellaborated together with the financial parameters like expenditures and earnings. This is a methodology based on action area planning, which is the
structured cooperation of the public sector and the private sector. URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMPANY There is an existing good practice for a well-established urban development company in the European Union. The management of the company initiates effective business activities. The possible form of the company is a business association. The ownership of the urban development company can be a mixed type, public and private ownership together. The majority of the ownership should stay at the municipality. The feasibility of the project proposals can be better if a
URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMPANY
professional financial organization like a bank or an estate development company can be involved. The percentage of the ownership can vary in the different countries, but generally we can say that at least 50% should be municipal ownership. The urban development company means earnings outlook around the slightly positive rather zero-settled. The incomes must cover the operating costs and the companyâ€™s remuneration accordingly.
LOCAL MUNICIPALITY LOCAL CITIZENS The operation of the Urban Development Company
The operation of the Urban Development Company Settlement scaled model 13
_DESCRIPTION OF COURSE TOPICS
The units of the program described below are required to be accomplished sequentially, as they can be interpreted as being built on one another. If necessary, some units can be merged, shortened. The emphasis will depend on the size, complexity of the chosen settlement and the field of expertise, interest and research area of teachers, researchers and specialists involved in the program. The scope of the units to be presented below is freely adjustable but needs careful planning. Below, all 10 units are described in the following breakdown: A brief presentation of the course-unit: The role of the course-unit within the program,
Teaching method, Necessary tools, Detailed description and recommended literature: 2.1 Course requirements, program description, preparation 2.2 On-site sampling: visual and verbal data collection: „Visible and talking city” 2.3 Scientific, analytical data collection: „Invisible city ” 2.4 Integration of settlement studies, joint analysis and evaluation of information: „Integrated city” 2.5 Definition of the urban planning concept and integrated urban planning strategy 2.6 Creating a layout plan 2.7 Creating architectural plans 2.8 Planning outdoor, open spaces 2.9 The feasibility and sustainability of the developments (outlined topic development) 2.10 Introducing and giving opinions on the final plans
Lecture on the integrated settlement developement 15
2.1 Brief description of the course-unit A detailed description of the program, a summary of the course topic, detailed description of the task to be performed during the course, description of objectives and milestones to be achieved, and the related teaching method. The role of the course-unit within the program The most important intention of presenting the entire program at an early stage is to give the student a comprehensive picture of each of the units built on each other, to be performed during the course, and to make the student understand its integrated, complex system. Teaching method During the description of the program, great emphasis should be placed on the studentsâ€™ understanding of the content and the necessity of each unit of the program. When discussing the
_COURSE REQUIREMENTS, PROGRAM DESCRIPTION, PREPARATION
topic, we recommend that the semester program be presented through visual and textual material, and discussion should be developed between the audience and the educators, where it is possible to create a more intimate atmosphere. Necessary tools For the presentation of the program and the task, we recommend the compilation of projected and printed materials that are able to pass on the content of the presentation. The projected material should be aimed at using short, easy-to-understand content, while the printed material available to all students should have a detailed program and task description. Detailed description 2.1.1 Course syllabus in a weekly/occasional breakdown The provision of the course syllabus in a weekly breakdown promotes conti-
nuous work and presents the connection system of the modules to be built on each other and the deadline for their preparation. 2.1.2 Detailed description of course tasks The precise and detailed description of the tasks to be performed is a very important element in order to understand the tasks to be done during the course. We suggest giving out of drawing sample materials as an attachment and providing a table of contents for textual materials, a list of contents for drawing materials. 2.1.3 Working methods The presentation of the courseâ€™s working method is an essential element as it allows to understand the working method of preparing the tasks defined in the syllabus. In all cases, we recommend clarifying the tasks to be performed during the lesson or outside the lesson, even from lesson to lesson.
Lecture on the integrated settlement developement 16
2.2 Brief description of the course-unit Urban planning for existing settlements always follows the principle of additivity; by starting from the existing values and problems of settlements and by supplementing them, we create new development suggestions and intentions. In order to understand the operation, life and the advantages and disadvantages of the settlement, the examination of the existing systems has an important role. The role of the course-unit within the program Without a detailed, careful knowledge of the settlement, it is unimaginable to make plans which are well integrated, organically linked to the existing system of the settlement, so the success of the plans is in a central relationship with the investigations and examinations to be carried out at the beginning of the work. This chapter deals with studies, observations that can be known by our sen-
_ON-SITE SAMPLING: VISUAL AND VERBAL DATA COLLECTION: „VISIBLE AND TALKING CITY”
ses (vision and hearing), which can also be called an empirical study (knowledge, skill, technique resulting from experience which is based on practice, and opposite to theory, it considers direct perception as a priority). It is recommended that sufficient time is spent on this course-unit as the knowledge gained at this stage significantly influences the quality of the subsequent reasoning! Teaching method Teaching the topic strictly breaks with classroom work and focuses on on-site observation. The proposed multiple on-site sampling is preceded by compulsory „mapping” for all actors in order to make the on-site sampling as comprehensive and detailed as possible. Necessary tools Before the site visit, it is necessary to obtain the maps required to study the settlement or a part of it or browse
applications over the Internet (Google Map, Google Earth, mapire.eu) by which the settlement can be interpreted and understood on a structural level so that the on-site visit can be planned in advance. During the on-site work, we should take tools suitable for making photos, sound recordings and videos necessary for documenting, and blank paper, notebook and writing and drawing tools for making notes (text or drawing). Detailed description 2.2.1 On-site visit of the settlement On-site sampling is an important part of the investigation in the initial phase of the task. For this process, it is advisable to prepare from the settlement in advance (acquisition and preparation of drawing materials representing the structure of the settlement) to become familiar with the areas relevant for designing purposes. It is recommended that the area is exami-
Students’ visit in Villány 18
ned during on-site walks in group and individually because it is different if we together, in groups, observe the settlement, or if we take a look at the operation and life of the given area individually, engrossed with it. On-site sampling is recommended several times to ensure that we have sufficient information (on different days, part of days, seasons). 2.2.2 Understanding the life, operation of the settlement (decision-makers, civilians, economic actors, residents) To explore and understand the functioning of a given settlement it is important to know the people who live there; therefore besides visiting the physical environment, we recommend
to contact local people such as decision-makers, civilians, and economic actors, and to initiate conversations with residents. The circle can be freely expanded by asking actors such as commuters (people who only work in the settlement) or tourists, but in their case, we cannot expect profound complex answers.
2.2.4 Analysing and evaluating on-site sampling We recommend you to analyse and evaluate the on-site observations, materials made first individually and then in the form of a joint discussion (see the comprehensive analysis and evaluation later!).
2.2.3 Documenting the observation of a settlement During the on-site visit, we can document on-site observations with sketches, notes, photographs, video and sound recordings, so accordingly we should equip ourselves with tools suitable for making them!
The connection with the local people plays an important role in the educational process (studentsâ€™ visit in Prelog) 21
2.3 Brief description of the course-unit After the on-site visit (which is suggested to be repeated many times), we carry out the analysis and examination of the settlement from different data, for which we have to carry out preliminary research. All documents related to the settlement can be useful for the research (printed literature, archival data, journals, drawings, plans, data available on digital platforms, statistics, statements, etc.), that is why it is important to systematise and document the extremely rich knowledge in many cases. The role of the course-unit within the program Without a detailed, careful knowledge of the settlement, it is unimaginable to make plans which are well integrated, are organically linked to the existing system of the settlement, so the success of the plans is in a significant relationship with investigations and explorations to be carried out at the beginning of the work. This chapter deals with studies that can be known by our senses (vision and hearing), which can be prepared by searching and analysing data and drawing files. 22
_SCIENTIFIC, ANALYTICAL DATA COLLECTION: â€žINVISIBLE CITY â€?
Teaching method The topic can be taught in a classroom, but it also provides opportunities for outdoor teaching (library, archives, municipal public buildings), where the students can present their results independently, in smaller groups or jointly presented, outside the research. It is recommended that sufficient time is spent on this course-unit as the knowledge gained at this stage significantly influences the quality of the subsequent reasoning! Necessary tools The scientific, analytical examination of the settlements requires significant research and data collection for which the local government of the municipality to be examined, the state organs, the freely available data (open data) and paper-based materials (books, maps) should be searched. In the initial phase, we suggest to process the studies related to the drawings schematically, and then only digitise their final version with high graphic content.
Detailed description 1. Connections of the settlement network, place of settlement in the settlement network, regional relations 2. Investigating the connections between the spatial development documents (National Spatial Development Concept and territorial relevant county and regional spatial development concepts and programs) 3. Investigating the connections between spatial development plans 4. The relevant findings of the effective settlement structural plans of adjacent settlements affecting the development of the given settlement 5. The presentation of effective urban planning decisions 6. Investigating the resettlement plan of the settlement 7. The society of the settlement 7.1. Demography, population, ethnic, composition, qualification, employment, income status, quality of life 7.2. Spatial-social stratification, conflicts, interests 7.3. Factors strengthening local dentity (historical and cultural conditions, social life, customs, traditions, ethnicity,
During the lessons the instructors should assist the studentsâ€™ improvement with continious consultations
civil organisations, religious communities, etc.) 8. The human infrastructure of the settlement 8.1. Human public services (education, healthcare, etc.) 8.2. Ensuring equal opportunities 9. The economy of the settlement 9.1. The economic weight and role of the settlement 9.2. The main economic sectors and characteristics of the settlement 9.3. The characteristics of the economic organizations, their major investments, the development vision affecting the settlement 9.4. Factors influencing economic competitiveness (availability, qualifications, R&D, etc.) 9.5. Real estate market conditions (supply and demand) 10. The management of the local government, the system of tools and institutions of settlement development 10.1. Budget, property management, economic program 10.2. The settlement development activity and the institutional system of the local government 10.3. Economic development activity 10.4. Employment policy 10.5. Housing and room management 10.6. Institution maintenance 10.7. Energy management 11. Settlement management services, smart city settlement services 12. Examination of landscape and natural conditions
12.1. Natural conditions 12.2. Landscape use, landscape structure 12.3. Protected landscapes, landscapes that need protection, natural values, areas 12.4. Assessment of land use conflicts and problems 13. Examining green space system 13.1 Elements of the settlementâ€™s green space system 13.2. The conflicts and problems of the green space system 14. Investigating the built environment 14.1. Investigating land-use 14.1.1. the structure of the settlement, the examination of the local characteristics 14.1.2. based on the land registry data, in the case of agricultural land, the cultivation branches and the quality classes 14.1.3. areas intended for building up and not intended for building up 14.1.4. function testing (institutional state of supply, functional and supply relationships) 14.1.5. underdeveloped brownfield sites 14.1.6. conflict-laden (impoverished, degraded) area 14.2. Investigating the plot structure 14.3. Municipal property cadastre 14.4. Geodetic survey of building stock and environment 14.5. Investigating the buildings 14.5.1. function, capacity 14.5.2. features of building up (method, rate, density)
14.5.3. height, level number, rooftop 14.5.4. settlement character, local features: street view, space ratio, typical building types 14.6. Values of the built environment 14.7. Conflicts and problems of the built environment 15. Transport 15.1. Networks and network connections 15.2. Road transport 15.3. Public transport 15.3.1. road 15.3.2. track-based 15.4. Bicycle and pedestrian transport 15.5. Parking 16. Public utilities 16.1. Water utilities 16.2. Energy 16.3. Electronic communications (wired electronic network, wireless telecommunication facilities) 17. Environmental protection (and municipal management) 18. Disaster-preparedness (factors affecting or limiting land-use and building up) 19. Mineral raw material quarry 20. Urban climate 2.3.2 Analysis and evaluation of investigations We recommend you to analyse and evaluate the on-site observations, materials made individually many times and then in the form of a joint discussion (see the comprehensive analysis and evaluation later!).
During the lessons the instructors should assist the studentsâ€™ improvement with continious consultations 25
2.4 Brief description of the course-unit The course-unit is closely linked to the previous two units, the visual and verbal data collection („Visible and Talking City”) and the Scientific, analytical data collection („Invisible city”) with that the results there end with integrated analysis built on each other, then the joint evaluation of the studies. The role of the course-unit within the program The course-unit, by summarising the previous two topics, analyses and evaluates the past and present of settlements, thus establishing the development intentions of the following chapters. Teaching method During the analysis and evaluation of the studies, it is recommended that it be carried out either individually or in smaller groups at the initial stage, then it should be discussed and evaluated with the involvement of all participants so that each student has adequate information. Necessary tools The analysis and assessment of the study typically require computer processing, but in some cases the prepa26
_INTEGRATION OF SETTLEMENT STUDIES, JOINT ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION OF INFORMATION: „INTEGRATED CITY”
ration of drawing, sketch materials is also supported, which can easily be digitised after scanning. Detailed description 2.4.1 Integrated analysis of the studies (situation analysis) Analysis of the factors under investigation, comparison of their effects on each other On the basis of the investigations, analysis of the actual conditions, comparison of their effects on each other, analysis of their processes 2.4.2 Integrated assessment of the studies (situation assessment) Evaluation of the results of the situation analysis, synthesis Evaluation of the actual condition, as well as highlighting problematic topics that conflict with the general requirements of the extreme environment for the settlement environment. Summary of the features, possibilities and development constraints of the settlement taking into account the risk assessment based on the settlement-threatening impacts.
2.4.3 Creating a problem map A summary of the municipal problems in the form of a map, the depiction of territorial possibilities and constraints on map 2.4.4 Creating a value map A summary of the municipal problems in the form of a map, the depiction of territorial possibilities and constraints on map 2.4.5 Settlement parts with different characteristics 1. designation, precise delimitation of the municipal parts of different characters, explanation, map depiction of the delimitation, a brief description of the demarcated settlement parts 2. delimitation, map depiction and situation analysis of segregated areas and areas threatened by segregation (potential action areas) 3. delimitation, map depiction and situation analysis of areas requiring intervention in other respects (potential action areas) 2.4.6 Making infographics Illustrating the results obtained through high-quality graphics materials that help to understand the results.
Problem figure in case of Varazdin (made by Jurdik Sarolta) During the lessons the verbal and visual preentations play important role 27
2.5 Brief description of the course-unit In this part of the task, after getting to know the past and present of the settlement in details, the future development opportunities and proposals are put forward along concept and integrated development strategy. The role of the course-unit within the program The course-unit deals with the determination of future goals after analysis and detailed evaluation of the results of the test, by creating the basis of later planning tasks, the development and design program. Teaching method The teaching of the topic starts with the detailed presentation of the materials to be prepared, then the development intentions of some relevant settlements (= national and international) will be presented (the topic can be freely supplemented with other literary references and research).
After the theoretical block, the determination of development intentions is to be carried out independently or in smaller groups at the initial stage, then it should be discussed and evaluated by including all participants so 28
_DEFINITION OF THE URBAN PLANNING CONCEPT AND THE INTEGRATED URBAN PLANNING STRATEGY
that each participant has adequate information. Necessary tools The development intentions are presented primarily in text form, however, it is advisable to accompany this with visual materials created with a freely chosen technique; manual drawings, sketches, montage and digital drawings, as together, by strengthening each other, they can be better presented and understood. Detailed description 2.5.1 Content of the urban planning concept 1. Vision • The settlement’s vision for its social, economic, landscape, natural and built environment • In the case of a city, the city’s vision for its role in the region • Laying down the principles of urban planning 2. Goals • Determining the goals serving the comprehensive development of the settlement • Determination of partial goals and territorial units of interventions
2.1. The relationship between the vision, the principles of urban planning, the overall goal and the partial goals 2.2. Interpretation of development goals for each part of the settlement 2.5.2 Defining the mid-term goals of the integrated urban planning strategy and their correlations 1. Definition of strategic development goals 2. Presentation of the relationship between thematic and territorial goals 2.5.3 Interventions for implementing an integrated urban planning strategy 1. Selecting action areas, justifying the selection and delimitation 2. Summary description of the developments to be implemented in each action area, the scheduling of development 3. A coordinated, outlined financial plan for urban planning actions 4. Developments to be implemented outside the action areas, significant in respect of the whole settlement, and their fitting to the goals of the strategy
The evaluation of students works happens in paralell with their verbal presentations (Kock-Off Conference) 29
2.5.4 External and internal relationships of the integrated settlement development strategy1. External relations (the alignment of the strategy to the resettlement tools, the presentation of consistency with the sectoral strategies, the economic program of the local government, the municipal environmental program and other environmental plans, the regional development plan documents) 2. Internal relations (the logical context of the objectives, if it provides a solution to problems identified in the assessment of the situation, the feasibility of the
strategy, the effect of activities on each other planned for achieving the goals) 2.5.5 The preparation of supporting and foundational work parts Some of the content-units may be omitted if the available information is insufficient: 1. Presentation of areas affected by the change 2. Resettlement proposals 3. Landscape planning proposals 4. Development of the green space system 5. Development of the transport system
6. Proposals for public utilities 7. Investigating environmental impacts 8. The presentation of consistency with the effective urban-planning and resettlement materials 2.5.6 Introducing and giving comments on the developments Based on the principles of socialisation, we recommend presenting the development suggestions and ideas to the decision-makers, the population and the economic actors of the settlement in addition to the narrow professional circle for a more comprehensive review, which can bring significant experience to designers for later design work.
Areas of development in case of Harkรกny (made by Attila Kovรกcs) 30
2.6 Brief description of the course-unit The creation of layout plans based on the previously defined development and planning program. The plans to be made in this chapter to renew the built and natural environment offer a scale design proposal in a complex way, by creating several possible versions. The role of the course-unit within the program The program set out in the previous course-unit is defined in the form of scale drawing, which includes the design material for architectural and open (exterior) spaces to be described later, typically by creating multiple versions. Teaching method The teaching of the topic starts with the detailed description of the materials to be prepared; then through presenting contemporary examples, the students will get a comprehensive view of the layout plans that meet today’s requirements (the topic can be freely supplemented with other literary references and research). After the theoretical block, the layout plan should be made independently or in smaller groups. If it is made independently, it is recommended to 32
_CREATING A DEVELOPMENT PLAN
have a continuous consultation with the reviser of the plan by making the feedback expressed by others to be continuous, while in the case of group work great emphasis is laid on the continuity of intra-group interaction. Necessary tools During the layout plan, it is recommended to use simple manual drawing processing when preparing the first sketches; then we recommend to display the approved and final drafts as edited, elaborately processed manual or digital drawing. Detailed descriptions 2.6.1 Content of the layout plan The content units of the plan can only be omitted if they are not included in the given layout plan (e.g. lack of track-based traffic): Markings for buildings 1. Existing remaining building (typical rooftop view) 2. Planned building (typical rooftop view) 3. Typical feature (inscription or colour) 4. Typical level numbe (inscription or colour)
5. Existing or planned underground parking [subtitle number of lots (G 30) indication of the underground garage contour] Markings for surface design 1. Green space 2. Roof garden (built underneath) green space 3. Existing and planned tree, alley 4. Existing and planned water surface Markings for transport surfaces 1. Pedestrian surface 2. Bicycle path 3. Mixed-use surface 4. Vehicle traffic area (together with the depiction of the planned traffic technology) 5. Surface parking [subtitle with number of lots (P12) marking] 6. Track-based traffic (with the representation of designed track axles) Other markings 1. The border of the design area 2. Proposed land border 3. Safety distances 4. The display of adjacent areas 5. Street name 6. Lot number 7. Street-number
Masterplan of Varazdin (made by Patricia Dékány) Conceptional floorplan (made by Patricia Dékány)
2.6.2 Analysis and evaluation of the layout plan With the completion of the plans, we recommend the preparation of infographic figures and calculations, which summarise the most important measurements of the layout plan, such as the renewed area, useful floor space, parking balance, etc.
2.6.3 Description and comment on the layout plan and their evaluationBased on the principles of socialisation, we recommend presenting the development suggestions and ideas to the decision-makers, the population and the economic actors of the settlement in addition to the narrow professional circle for a more comprehensive review, which can bring significant experience to designers for later design work.
2.7 Brief description of the course-unit Making architectural design documentation with site plan (also with key horizon display), floor plans, sections, facades, detail drawings, illustrative drawings, visual designs, technical descriptions and models based on previously defined principles. The role of the course-unit within the program Making architectural design documentation based on the previously defined design, development program and scale layout plan. The architectural plan already provides concrete suggestions regarding the architectural renewal of the given environment, but its feasibility and sustainability must be examined later. Teaching method The teaching of the topic starts with the detailed description of the materials to be prepared; then through presenting contemporary examples, the students will get a comprehensive view of the current topics of architectural design, space design, use of materials (the topic can be freely supplemented with other literary references and research). After the theoretical block, the ar34
_MAKING ARCHITECTURAL PLANS
chitectural plans should be made independently with continuous consultation in order to have continuous feedback. In the case of the elaboration of several architectural plans within one layout plan proposal, we recommend group work that enhances intra-group interaction. Necessary tools During the architectural planning, it is recommended to use simple manual drawing processing when preparing the first sketches; then we recommend to display the approved and final drafts as edited, elaborately processed manual or digital drawing.
- Terrain sections, mass sections M=1:500-1000 - Weight sketches, visual plans (in installation scale) - Other study diagrams, drawings, visions, sketches showing architectural ideas and concepts - Technical description 2.7.2 Analysis and evaluation of architectural plans With the completion of the plans, we recommend the production of infographic figures and calculations, which summarise the most important measurements of architectural projects, such as renewed area, useful floor space, parking balance, etc.
Detailed description 2.7.1 Architectural plan list Content units required to be compiled compulsorily during the planning: - Site plan in architectural scale M=1:500-1000 (building in plan view, and together with separate key horizon/terrain horizon connected to the environment, with its space scale environment) - Layout M=1:100-500 - Functional scheme diagrams
2.7.3 Description and comment on architectural plans and their evaluation Based on the principles of socialisation, we recommend presenting the development suggestions and ideas to the decision-makers, the population and the economic actors of the settlement in addition to the narrow professional circle for a more comprehensive review, which can bring significant experience to designers for later design work.
Visualization (made by Attila Kovรกcs)
2.8 Témaegység rövid bemutatása A Brief description of the course-unit: Creating design documentation (landscape or gardening plan) for the design of external spaces with minimum layout, contours, detailed diagrams, visual design, technical description and, if necessary, with a scale-model, based on previously defined principles. The role of the course-unit within the program The preparation of design documentation for the design of external spaces according to the previously defined design, development program and the scale layout plan. The landscape and gardening plan to be prepared already provide concrete suggestions regarding the renewal of the built and natural environment of the given environment, but its feasibility and sustainability must be examined later.
_PLANNING OUTDOOR, OPEN SPACES
Teaching method The teaching of the topic starts with the detailed description of the materials to be prepared; then through presenting contemporary examples, students will get a comprehensive view of the requirements of external spaces (the topic can be freely supplemented with other literary references and research.) After the theoretical block, the plans for creating external spaces should be made independently with continuous consultation in order to have continuous feedback. The task can be carried out in group work, but continuous consultation is also required in this case. Necessary tools During the planning of outdoor spaces, it is recommended to use simple manual drawing processing when preparing the first sketches; then we
recommend to display the approved and final drafts as edited, elaborately processed manual or digital drawing. Detailed description 2.8.1 Making plans for outdoor, open spaces The content units of the plan can only be omitted if they are not included in the relevant environmental design plan: 1. The design of the site plan 2. Height design, layout, cross sections 3. Cityscape appearance, image elements 4. Gardening design 5. The development of transport and parking areas (including bicycle storage facilities and the establishment of public transport stops) 6. The placement of public objects (street furniture, drinking and
Visualization (made by Péter Ármin Varró) 36
fountains) 7. The placement of equipment 8. The design of public lighting and decorative lighting 9. The placement of pavilions, pavilion-type buildings, cabins 10. The design of terraces for visitors 11. The placement and design of other structures not classified as artworks 12. In case of scheduled implementation, the delimitation of implementation time
2.8.2 Analysis and evaluation of the renewal of external open spaces With the completion of the plans, we recommend the production of infographic figures and calculations, which summarise the most important measurements of architectural projects, such as renewed area, useful floor space, parking balance, etc.
2.8.3 Describe and comment on architectural plans and their evaluation Based on the principles of socialisation, we recommend presenting the development suggestions and ideas to the decision-makers, the population and the economic actors of the settlement in addition to the narrow professional circle for a more comprehensive review, which can bring significant experience to designers for later design work.
_THE FEASIBILITY AND SUSTAINABILITY OF THE DEVELOPMENTS (OUTLINED TOPIC DEVELOPMENT)
Brief description of the course-unit The complex program (environmental, economic, social) of the feasibility and sustainability of the architectural and external open spaces planned in the previous two chapters (available resources, investors, maintainers, operators, etc.) is presented schematically.
Necessary tools We recommend the digital processing of the topic. With the Internet and by using printed professional literature, it is easy to create an outlined program for the feasibility and sustainability of the building.
The role of the course-unit within the program The outline of the feasibility and sustainability of architectural and external open spaces designed in the previous two chapters, its matching with the development concepts previously identified and proposed, and the establishment of the interventions for the final presentation.
2.9.1 The content of the feasibility of the program and the interventions (Within the course program, the following elements can be simplified and merged): 1. The development of project ideas 2. The examination of the current situation 3. The examination of the need to which the project responds 4. The analysis of alternative solutions 5. The analysis of the project implementation 6. Financial analysis 7. The analysis of environmental and environmental protection impacts 8. The analysis of economic and social impacts 9. The evaluation of project feasibility and sustainability
Teaching method The teaching of the topic starts with the detailed description of the materials to be prepared; then it deals with the presentation of some examples and case studies of professional literature. After the theoretical block, in addition to small group work, we propose the development of proposals for feasibility and sustainability. 38
2.9.2 The content of the feasibility of the program and the interventions 1. Environmental sustainability 2. Economic sustainability 3. Social sustainability
Conception analysis in relation to the sustainability (made by PĂŠter Varga) Floor plan of the designed function (made by PĂŠter Varga) 39
2.10 Brief description of the course-unit The presentation of all materials made during the program in the form of an exhibition (detailed material) or presentation (abstract) for at least one professional jury. If possible, it is recommended to present the results of the entire training program to the decision-makers, the population and the economic actors of the settlement for a more comprehensive review, which can bring significant experience to designers for later design work, or may lead to the further design or implementation of projects. The role of the course-unit within the program The course-unit covers all the previous topics and presents the final result within the framework of the summaries.
_INTRODUCING AND GIVING COMMENTS ON THE FINAL PLANS
Teaching method Students will come to the fore in the last unit of the program. At the end of the work, they prepare a summary material, which is recommended to be presented in the form of an exhibition (can be viewed and commented at any time or can be placed anywhere; in educational environments or several places of the given settlement) or by word of mouth. Necessary tools We recommend to process the work summary completed during the program with digital technology and present it by illustrating with high graphics and infographics helping the understanding. It is necessary to produce printed pictures for the exhibition, to which different scale models can be paired as an illustrative tool. For live presentations, we recommend using presentation software.
The invited partners were inspirated by the students visions and ideas 40
At the Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, complex thinking approaches have a long tradition: since 2004 we have been designing on the basis of realistic problems for real sites, in the context of interdisciplinary project subject created by the interconnection of several disciplines. In the project, the students prepared a concept for urban planning of the settlements in Croatia (Varasd, Perlak and Ludbreg), as well as Harkány, Siklós and Villány, which was first presented in April and
subsequently, following continuous consultations, in June, it was published in a new exhibition. Each student has prepared a development plan for a Hungarian and a Croatian settlement, for which the municipal and the county government also provided them with information on the problematic parts which already have plans, or for which an EU-funded application has been issued.
_ATTILA KOVÁCS_HARKÁNY __UNIVERSITY OF PÉCS FACULTY OF ENGINEERING AND INFOMATION TECHNOLOGY
The settlement is characterised primarily by the thermal bath and the tourist functions and service units built upon it. The present-day cultural centre and library are located in the city centre, the area, however, does not function as a real city centre to this day. The traffic system of the settlement is defined by the two main motor vehicle main axes, the Kossuth Lajos and Ady Endre Street. The traffic of these road sections decreased considerably after the bypass road was built, thus their width became unjustified, and they occupy valuable urban areas. Access to the city by public transport is only possible by bus. The train station is not currently operational. In the town there is significant pedestrian traffic on the pedestrian area of Zsigmond promenade and Kossuth Lajos street. Roads are generally characterized by poor quality pavements. Harkány currently does not have the right public space suitable for tourists, as well as the proper layout of the main square would be necessary.
and rethought public spaces. The resulting network could operate along a green corridor linking the public functions. By narrowing existing fourlane roads to two-lane roads, it would be possible to define the appropriate main street. Moving the railway station would strengthen the position of the city in the region. It would be possible for the Siklós-Villány-Harkány tourist triple to be established, redefined. When the area of the bath was examined, the development of the northern gate was formed, serving the welcoming of those arriving from Pécs. The location of the new 5-star hotel also helps this in this area, which clearly indicates the location of the northern gate. The population of the settlement is characterized by ageing. Taking this into account, it would be justified to build a home for the elderly. The city’s geographic, natural and rehabilitative (spa) facilities make it particularly suitable for serving older adults by creating a retirement home.
Environmental design The city’s development concept is based on the correct design of the pedestrian traffic system, linking the junctions of other transport branches
Architectural program By rethinking the existing market and bus station, the two functions could be placed in a building complex. The so-released areas can be used to crea-
te the necessary green spaces, to place usable public spaces. With this the city-wide green city concept can be prevailed, one element of which would be this building complex. The main aspect of market and bus station placement was the connection to the pedestrian network built at urban level. The design area is bordered by public roads, the nearby shopping mall (SPAR) and the newly defined pedestrian axis. During the installation, the goal was to create the area of the three main functions, the market, the parking lot and the bus station. The floor plan layout of the building requires four main zones, the market, the bus station, the economic functions serving the former as well as the inner garden delineated by these zones. The proper interoperability of the building, the connection between functions, the approach, even the operation independently from each other had to be taken into account during design and space management. It was important to separate passenger traffic and market traffic (both at sales and customer level), in addition, in the market function, separation of the freight and customer routes in time and floor plan. The building’s identity, the most typical character is given by its
Settlement scaled analyzes Visualization of the planned functions 45
structure, which is a wood space grid structure forming triangles, determining the edit of the floor plan. This structure allows the creation of a larger console roof, which is capable of covering the platform of the bus station, as well as, through its supports, a definite raster but still freely formable floor plan can be made possible. The facades of the building are defined by the full-surface glazing, the small brick facade cladding, the wooden structure and the pillar system. Longevity was an important factor when choosing materials (the wear and tear from the market function, and the appearance and repair possibilities of possible me-
chanical injuries had to be taken into account). Scheduling, feasibility Based on the urban development concept, several zones were designated as development areas at settlement level. The development of these areas can be realised independently of each other; they form independently functional zones. The development of a new city centre is of utmost importance for improving the viability of the city. Apart from the bus station and the market development, further developments can also strengthen the role played in the region, and the re-
lationship with the surrounding settlements, such as the establishment of the northern gate of the bathing area, then at a later stage the displacement of the railway station, the rehabilitation of tourism areas, providing new accommodation, and realization of the old peopleâ€™s home.
Visualization of the planned function Proposal for the sustainability 47
3.2 Ludbreg The main area of the design area is the area of Roman ruins connected to the central square and the monumental building there. In addition, it is important to put the library building into a new context, to unify the space walls of the square and to arrange the mixed functions there. In the area of residential buildings, it would be important to create suitable green spaces and parking spaces, which can be solved most by planning an underground garage and creating viable community sites. There is enough space before the Batthyány Castle, but it would be important to connect it more to the main square. This can be achieved by creating a new pedestrian axis that can drive through the ruin area to the green area of the lake. Planned functions The expansion of the existing library building is transformed by the change of installation. A café would join it in the place of an existing residential building, and the new building with its facade facing the central square would unify the space wall. The development of the central area would be assisted by the replacement of missing vegeta48
_DIÁNA SZABÓ_LUDBREG __UNIVERSITY OF PÉCS FACULTY OF ENGINEERING AND INFOMATION TECHNOLOGY
tion, the appearance of street furniture providing shade or new pavements. It is important to emphasise the connection with the funnel-shaped square, or treat it as a single square, here it would also be possible to solve the development of the visitor centre’s foreground. Through the stream, there will be holiday apartments serving tourism, where there are various indoor and outdoor sports and recreational functions. The path along the stream can be transformed into a green passage; the end point would be the larger green space and the lake. Green space wall and street furniture close it from two sides. Among the new functions planned it is important to preserve, present the Roman ruins, to build the visitor centre, and to develop this part of the central square. In addition to keeping the monumental building, designing a new building mass is the goal, which can serve the audience that is visiting here and give more emphasis to the history of the ruins. Architectural program The new promenade (cultural promenade) starting from the Bat-
thyány Castle, passing through the block next to the library building passes through the Roman ruins as well, and arrives at the lake. The building of the new visitor centre follows the line of this axis, and its positioning next to this strengthens it. Next to the ruin area located the hotel’s block, on the other side are the residential houses. It would be important to slightly demarcate the public buildings from the area of residential buildings, which would be solved by the mass of the new building. A simple pitched-roof, longitudinal mass that delimits and protects the ruins. In addition, separation can be achieved by landscape architecture planning of the area - vegetation, coating. The relationship between existing and new building blocks is reinforced by the closed-open traffic space between them. It offers visitors access to the ruins and solves the passing through the promenade. The visitor centre operates as an extra function for tourists. The entrance of the main building is aligned with the axis of the cultural promenade. The entrance to the existing monumental building is located in the central square.
Settlement scaled analyzes and proposal for the land use
Two main functions will be in the main building. A cafe will be built in the part closer to the square, in the part connecting better to the ruins exhibition space, lecture hall, cloakroom, service units and gallery level will be built. On the gallery, visitors can get a complete picture of the ruins. The working area of archaeological researchers will be located in the existing monumental building, here laboratories, offices, storage rooms can be found with serving rooms. In the design, accessibility and developing spatial relations was an essential aspect of design. The visitor centre function also functions as a quality
meeting space, so spatial relations, spatial design, material use and mass formation require high-quality architectural elements. The building adapts to the surrounding family houses in its appearance, at the same time it is characterised by contemporary facade formation and mass formation with masonry structure, with plastered facade, with visible rafter pitched roof. Larger openings on the facade are located at the cafe and the entrance to the exhibition space. Their shading is solved with wooden lamellas, which also appear in the closed-open space connecting the two masses. For the Roman ruins, the creation of a worthy
prelude and a demanding environment is important. The lamellar corridor from the public space delimits the area, and at the same time, it also makes it open and permeable for everyone. The square part connecting to the central square in funnel-shape become a part of the main square and the foreground of the visitor centre. The buildingâ€™s cafe function can be accessed from the square via a strong axis. In the new square, quality pavement, green spaces formed as islands and vegetation providing shade can be found. Their positioning also strengthens the axis.
Planned land use presented on site plan Visualization of the planned function 51
3.3 Current state Analysis and Problem Map Resources The Prelog belongs to the type of elongated road settlements formed around the Market Street. A major influence on the development of the settlement was it’s favourable position in the important transport directions and the river crossing over the Drava. The capital is the basis for the development of a sustainable community (economic, physical, social, cultural, human, natural). ECONOMIC CAPITAL focuses on making a bigger profit than an investment using already existing resources. PHYSICAL CAPITAL produced capital (material, equipment, technology, construction) SOCIAL CAPITAL includes networks and relationships among people who transmit common attitudes and values. CULTURAL CAPITAL implies nourishing traditions, art, social diversity. HUMAN CAPITAL includes intellectual and communication skills, practical skills; Investing in education. NATURAL CAPITAL is a natural stock or property that ensures future goods and services. 52
_MATEJ HUĐEK, JOSIP HAJDUK, IGOR KIŠUR_ PRELOG _UNIVERSITY NORTH
The area we have dealt is not used by any of the aforementioned capitals. The present green infrastructure does not exist but has enough surface to plant plants. Position Street of Kralja Petra Krešimira IV, Prelog
Solution concept The Problem of urbanism in the area of King Tomislav Square in Prelog was worked out step by step with a detailed analysis of the existing situation. The project was elaborated in 3 zones: 1) Parking Zone 2) Purpose Zone 3) Green Zone
Pedestrian access There is no specific pedestrian approach.
The Idea is to regulate the space of the square to be economically and environmentally friendly.
Vehicous access Access to the square on the north side most dominant, re-undetermined.
The square of the area of more than 14 000m2 is divided into three zones: parking Zone, purpose zone and Green Zone. The parking zone would contain over 80 parking spaces, ensuring parking for all users of the market and other activities. The market would be placed in the zone of easy accessibility to pedestrians and close to parking spaces. The planned marketplace would contain 10 stands with solar cells due to the possibility of its own electricity supply. The café would be placed in a residentialbusiness building with a terrace at the beginning of the Green Zone. The Green Zone would contain a fountain, a terrace café, benches for rest and
Purpose of the surrounding buildings city administration buildings are located around the observed area of the park, City Hall, bank, catering establishments and neglected houses. Deficiency of the observed area are parking spaces for cars and bicycles, and a place for people’s gathering and random encounters. Area of 14 920m2 gives enough freedom for something urban, new and interesting. Area of 14 920m2 gives enough freedom for something urban, new and interesting.
socializing and a park. For square to be “put „into function” we decided to modernize it. 1) Parking zone: Parking is located east of the square and it’s surrounded by existing facilities. It spreads over 3160 m2. 2) Purpose zone: In the Purpose Zone there is a market due to easy access for pedestrians and proximity to parking spaces. The planned marketplace would contain 10 stands with solar cells due to the possibility of their own power supply. The café would be placed in a residential-business building with a terrace at the beginning of the Green Zone. 3) Green zone: The Green Zone would contain a fountain, a terrace café, benches for rest and socializing and a park. For square to be “put „into function” we decided to modernize it. Urbanistic solution Solutions on the principle of sustainable development of space The square area within the border includes easy pedestrian access and is free of charge. The microclimate is pleasant and the greenery is suitable for the region. Maintenance and construction costs are minimal. Materials and movables The materials used are aligned with the buildings in the square, and we give priority to domestic produced
Planned land use Analyzes of the current land use
materials, thereby strengthening the local-domestic economy. The material does not have a harmful effect on the environment and is easily replaceable or fixable. Movables are scheduled for all ages. Water and animals The design element of the water is achieved by a fountain that can be used for playing and cooling. Grass surface is available for the game of the meadow animals. Glass surfaces have been avoided. User environment User needs are improved as well as security aspects. The space is suitable for all generations and allows meetings and retention. Technical infrastructure and illumination Benches and stands on the market work on the principle of solar panels, which also provide lighting to the square. On each bench there are sockets and an open Internet connection (Wi-Fi).
interesting. Traffic solution The traffic solution is quality and visibly connected with the rest of the city. The area of the square is regulated in a way that the pedestrian approach is separated from the driveway, and thus increases the safety of pedestrians. Green infrastructure With green infrastructure we have provided the function and convenience of space so we have achieved better air quality, habitat mitigation, animal life and recreational space. This project has improved the functionality of space, and revive the center of the Prelog with a new market. We have improved the microclimate and made the space more enjoyable to stay.
Economy of space Space offers readily available facilities and services, and a good relationship between the business-urban-civil sector has been achieved. Urbanistic solution The urbanistic solution offers to future users an urban structure in human scale. The contents of the Green Zone square are available to everyone for use, which includes a playground, a fountain, a summer house, an outdoor gym. Due to the reduction of the cost of reconstruction of the square, we have decided to place a café whose terrace starts the Green Zone. The area of 14 920m2 gives enough freedom for something urban, new, 53
Analysis of functions and connections
3.4 Action area One of the main attractions of Siklós is the castle. We can observe that the settlement itself was organised around the castle garden, but the expansion was well visibly done towards the north and east sides. On the south side, there is only a narrow family house area, while in the west part we can observe a single street area, which has become a segregated area over the years. To one of the important entrances to the castle garden a commercial area was installed, which hinders the smooth approach and does not fit into the overall picture of the castle’s environment. The other tourist attraction of the city is the spa area south of the castle, which is located in a family house area, disconnected from the central areas. Existing functions In addition to the aforementioned two functions, there are public functions near the castle such as the City Hall, Police, Hospital, Library and Market, as well as essential services for people like grocery stores, post office, branch office, school. Most are along the main traffic axes, and industrial features have been scattered on the edge of the city. 54
_PATRICIA DÉKÁNY_SIKLÓS __UNIVERSITY OF PÉCS FACULTY OF ENGINEERING AND INFOMATION TECHNOLOGY
Existing transport systems The main traffic axis of Siklós is the Villány-Harkány route. Due to this high traffic load, the bypass road leading to Pécs was necessary. This solution has alleviated the load, but did not provide a definitive solution. Public transport to the city is well-solved by buses, but the establishment of a bus stop does not provide an adequate arrival situation. Regrettably, the railway connected to the city has been out of service for several years. Restarting the line is a possible solution to improve the situation. The existing bicycle path is solved up to the city; it would be necessary to build it within Siklós. Public space system We cannot find a central core in Siklós so the main square could not be developed. At present, the town hall and the event hall are being developed. However, up to now, the currently available public spaces can only accommodate a small number of people. One bigger green area is the area of the castle garden, which also needs constant care.
Presentation of the environment shaping The primary action area is the castle garden and its surroundings. It is important to create a visual connection with the bus stop. To do this, it is necessary to renovate the bus stop and to develop the road to the city. At the moment, the castle has two entrances, which can be used freely. It is also necessary to establish a connection between the spa and the city centre. This is accomplished by two new openings from Felszabadulás Street with a multi-cycle transport development in the direction of the city centre, as well as on the south side by using existing unused access in the direction of the bath. An important element is to connect the bicycle road to this system. The uniform coatings and emphasising the infographic display of information surfaces are the tasks in the development area. In the case of the residential area within the castle wall, it is important to create a unified street image and urban atmosphere as it will be one of the most important entrance. The area at the two ends of Batthyány Kázmér utca has features such as restaurant, wine bar, event hall from the castle garden, hotel. Another important task
Analysis of activities
Planned land use presented on site plan Analyzes of the planned land use 55
is to reconsider the row of bazaars and surface parking in the Felszabadulรกs Street. Here, in addition to keeping the passage, the creation of a territory serving the population and tourists is possible by placing new building masses. Features like the recreation centre and parking garage have been added, thus solving parking difficulties around the castle. The third area is an empty area at the eastern end of Vรกralja Street, where a handicraft street is placed with town market and other features. Thus defining the southern gate of the city.
Sustainability During the developments, as many local materials should be used as possible and simple structural solutions are needed with proper orientation and natural light.Sustainability can be supported by minimising the number of building engineering systems.
Built borders of urban spaces presented on model Proposal for the land use Floor plan of the planned function 57
3.5 Existing buildings and their functions do not give the campus atmosphere of the higher education institution, first of all I wanted to improve this. At present, all university functions are centred in three barracks blocks, where in the original, bound floor plan, a representative reception area or a larger auditorium cannot be established. The development of the university would be divided into different phases, the first stage of which could be to create a hall, which could be an emphasised and designated overture for the entire campus. A larger large auditorium, suitable for about 380 people is linked to this mass. This new building would be placed partly in the area of parking in front of the existing educational wings. In respect of their heights, the masses are two-storey, with such an arrangement that under the library section, on the ground floor a full through-traffic is ensured, which corridor is divided by only a few glass student box serving the illumination of the library. I placed a bicycle storage under the sloping ceiling resulting from the stairs of the auditorium. The cafe section, completed with note shops, is located on the ground floor, above it, the library’s reading terrace is 58
_BALÁZS NOVÁK_VARASD __UNIVERSITY OF PÉCS FACULTY OF ENGINEERING AND INFOMATION TECHNOLOGY
located. I do not terminate the parking place in the area, but I lower it underground as an underground garage, thus, in place of it, a building showing the size of the university would be placed, with a worthy up-leading squaring. The masses growing on the existing houses themselves are permeable on the lower floor, thus maintaining the connection with the current garden and further enhancing the university functions in the north. In the second stage, the northern part of J. Krizanica Street could be transformed, in which I would form a college with a gym connected to it, and an extra wing, in which the university service functions would be placed. Before the building masses, a greener squaring can be created, and an outdoor sports field is installed for the students. With this new installation I would change the small town atmosphere currently in the area. In this street I would convert the traffic so that I would transform the car route into a pedestrian-bicycle path, perhaps adding a bus lane. This could ensure uninterrupted traffic in the campus area, and if the city were open to green transport, it could be a new bicycle axis that would lead to the historic city centre.
Even in the same stage or in the next, a new residential block could be created in which rental apartments could be created to university students.. These masses on the ground floor are saturated by different establishments, by functions bringing community life to the fore, completed with a few apartments for disabled people on the ground floor. Starting from west to east, the ground floor of the first mass I conceived a covered-open community space, in the covered area I would create an outdoor cooking and grill place, which can operate in conjunction with a free open area in case of larger companies. On the ground floor of the second mass, there would be a business premise and two apartments for the disabled in the north half. I would create community storage on the ground floor of the next building, and there will be two barrier-free dwellings here. I placed a community laundry room on the ground floor of the last mass. Under the buildings, I would satisfy the parking need so I put the entrance of the underground garage at the north end of this building. I would create a leisure/sports park in front of the rental apartment building, which could
Proposal for the land use Analyzes of the current functions 59
serve the residents of the neighbouring residential buildings and the students of the educational institutions. Even thinking in the long-run, with the growing of the university, the gym could be expanded with a grandstand along the south wall, or a new university building could be placed in the closing of this block in the direction of the east wing of the existing barracks building. The university service function would be installed here, and the present would become a college. Due to the proximity of the two masses, it is easy to connect, the interior design being the same in the service building at the college.
Visualization of the proposal for the land use Visualized detail of the planned function 61
3.5 Urbanistic Solution Solutions based on the principle of sustainable space development The elaborated space within the scope of the project is free and easily accessible to pedestrians, the space is planned for the needs of the citizens in the respective and surrounding parcels, and the planned facilities settle the needs of various groups of users. The microclimate of the space is pleasant, and the greenery is suitable for the suburbs. Robust materials were used in the processing this area. Urban material is flexible to use, and space is in accordance with the environment. Construction and maintenance costs are appropriate. Materials and mobiliary All used materials are aligned with the surrounding buildings and landscape. The advantage is given to locally produced materials, thereby strengthening the local economy, but also to reduce the harmful impact of transport on the environment. The selected materials can be easily repaired or replaced and have no harmful effect on the environment and can be recycled. Mobiliary is a multi62
_ANTONIJA RADOŠ, MATEA ALEKSIĆ, VALENTINA MATIJA_ VARAZDIN _UNIVERSITY NORTH
functionally designed, it can be used to play, sitting, like tables, learning space.
On each „parasol” there are sockets, and free internet connection (W-LAN).
Users and Environment The needs of potential beneficiaries have been greatly enhanced, the use of space is organized in a balanced manner, and the security aspects are especially considered. The space is suitable for all generations, allows encounters and retention, but also a retreat into silence and protection.
Urbanistic Solution The urban solution of the cultivated area offers many possibilities for further users. Easily accessible basketball courts, volleyball, badminton, and mini-football cages are open all day and free. Also this area includes an outdoor gym that is randomly distributed on the grassy surface, and the devices are connected by paths and affordable. The representative zone offers a slightly different picture. In the middle of the whole area there is a fountain in the shape of the University North’ logo which is also conceived as a „trademark” of the entire area of the University. From the east and west of fountain there are „parasols” in two sizes, with diameter of 8 and 10 meters. They work on the principle of solar cells, and besides representative, they also have the role of sun protection.
Technical infrastructures and illumination „Parasols” and the entire lighting around the University operates on the principle of solar panels, which greatly helps the technical infrastructure and sustainable development of the area.
The „parasols” are designed to make sure that there are desks with tables that are suitable for learning and companionship, and in every parasol there are sockets so that students, and other users, can freely use their laptops, mobiles and other devices.
Water and Animals Grass surfaces are suitable as habitats for meadow animals, and large glass surfaces are avoided because they pose a danger to the birds. The area is also suitable for dogs and their owners. The design element from the fountain in the middle of the representative zone in front of the University which is in the form of the logo of University North.
View of Varazdin, the connection between the built and green area
Due to the removal of the parking lot from the entire area in front of the University buildings ,we have designed an underground garage whose entrance is oriented south-southeast from the street 104. Brigade. It contains 113 parking spaces, 3 exit stairs that are incorporated into the environment in front of the University, 2 lifts, a male and a female toilet, a toilet for the disabled and a storage room. In addition to the underground garage, there are also 18 parking spaces in the northeast of the parcels from the Juraj Križanić street enter.
Traffic Solution In the area of the University North, pedestrian and vehicle approach are very nice and suitable for students and employees of the University, but also for residents of city of Varaždin. It is also obvious that this part is well connected with the rest of the city. In addition to quality traffic connections, it also has good circulation and public transportation. Bus stations are located on accessible and visible places. Changes in the traffic infrastructure are visible at the entrance to the underground garage on 104 street and entrances to the parking lot from Juraj Križanića Street. Hiking and biking
trails were made on the entire plot. The fire road is now arranged and passable in case of an accident. Green infrastructure We used functional greening, planting and retaining existing evergreen trees on the north side of buildings and thus affected the protection from cold winds in winter and thereby reduced heat losses. By planting deciduous trees on the south side, we protected the buildings from excessive insulation in the summer. The west side trees have been planted to protect the area from low Western sun. The building „Unin 3”, which is located along the road, is
protected from the noise by planting trees in two dense rows. By improving the microclimate, biodiversity have also been improved (insects, birds, butterflies). Apart from the trees, the microclimate in this area has been enhanced by the use of dark materials on the facade of buildings, which is especially suitable in cold winters because dark materials stimulate stronger heating, thereby raising the temperature in its environment.
the cultural capital that is the product of common memory through tradition, customs, values, heritage, identity and history. The space we’ve been dealing with is currently not a „boast” with it’s capitals. Namely, we have cultivated an area around the University North in Varaždin, and students who act as the university (which we ourselves) do not have the desire, nor the will to dwell in such a circle.
This urban solution as we believe, is primarily a representative picture of the city of Varaždin, and then pleasant for socializing, sporting activities, learning, performing common tasks or simply for sipping afternoon coffee in intervals between lectures.
This natural capital area is neither „heard”, as far as physical, economic, human, social and cultural capital of the university and a large number of students are improving the situation. Three new and modern university buildings and a considerable number of University’s departments make a brighter side of the situation. However, students cannot express „their capitals” and capacities in such an area, it has a great shortage of places to learn, work together or to socialize.
Analysis of existing status and problem map: The foundation of sustainable community Development is its capital: natural, physical, economical, human, social and cultural. Sustainable development of the city of Varaždin implies the mobilization of citizens and local authorities in order to strengthen all forms of Community capital. A brief explanation Natural capital encompasses natural stocks or property that ensures future goods and services year-round. The physical capital is produced capital: the stock of materials, equipment, construction, technology, infrastructure that can be used to produce income. Economic capital is the way in which resources are distributed and decisions are made on their use. Human capital focuses on knowledge, skills, competences in individuals that enable personal, social and economic prosperity. Social capital implies interactions that groups of people lead to productive activities, the „glue” that holds the community together. Finally 64
Analyzing existing situation According to the problem map on orthophoto view we can conclude that in the area of the university North the pedestrian and driveway approach is very nice and suitable for students and employees of the university, but also for the inhabitants of Varaždin. It is also obvious that this part is well connected with the rest of the city. In addition to quality traffic connections, it also has good circulation and public transportation. Bus stations are located on accessible and visible places. The lack of the observed area is a bicycle path that is not developed, and we are well aware that Varaždin is a bicycling city. Also, the fire road is now arranged and passable in case of an accident. The advantage of this area is the proximity of the POS settlements which
extends right across University, and in almost every building, there are also other possibilities, such as: Hair salons, fitness center, pharmacies, polyclinic, bakeries, Business offices, shops, cafes. Solution Concept The problems of urbanism in the university area, which we have concluded that there are many, we decided to settle step by step. We analyzed the existing condition in detail, became aware of the shortcomings, asked colleagues for their opinion: „What kind of environment would be pleasant for their further study?” The idea is to arrange the space to be tempting to students, but ultimately to random bystanders, have the desire to spend their free time in this area. We divided the space into two zones: Representative and sport. As we see on the sketch, the Representative zone would be located in front of the buildings „Unin 1” and „Unin 2” (South-southeast), and the sport zone between the buildings „Unin 1” and „Unin 3” (North-northeast). The representative zone would serve, as the name says, the representativeness of the University, but in order to connect comfortably with the useful, they would create a space that would encompass natural, economic and social capital. The sport zone would serve as a „drain valve” for students and other citizens in their spare time. We blend three playgrounds for different sports and outdoor gym which nowadays is a very popular way of maintaining a healthy life and body. This is how we connect physical, human and social capital.
Grean area in the centrum of Varazdin Proposal for the land use 65
_REFERENCES BASED ON TOPICS
_METHODOLOGY AND GOOD PRACTICES • LEIPZIG CHARTER on Sustainable European Cities; Final Draft; 02 May 2017 (www.ec.europa.eu) • LIPCSEI CHARTA a fenntartható európai városokról (www. 2010-2014.kormany.hu • Városfejlesztési Kézikönyv, Második, javított kiadás, Nemzeti Fejlesztési és gazdasági Minisztéérium •
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_SMART CITY • Al-Hader, M.; Mahmud, A.R.; Sharif, A.R.; Ahmad, N.. “SOA of Smart City Geospatial Management,” Proc. of EMS • • • • • • • • • •
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_EXCELLENCE OF CITY MANAGEMENT • • • • • • • • • •
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_BUILT AREAS • DO THE RIGHT MIX: Sustainable urban mobility. http://dotherightmix.eu/ • The Sustainable urban mobility plan concept. http://www.eltis.org/mobility-plans/sump-concept • LAURA BLISS: Inside a Pedestrian-First ‘Superblock’. https://www.citylab.com/transportation/2018/08/inside-a• • • 68
pedestrian-first-superblock/566864/ FEARGUS O’SULLIVAN: Barcelona’s Car-Taming ‘Superblocks’ Meet Resistance https://www.citylab.com/transportation/2017/01/barcelonas-car-taming-superblocks-meet-resistance/513911/ LIPCSEI CHARTA a fenntartható európai városokról: http://epiteszforum.hu/lipcsei-charta-a-fenntarthato-europaivarosokrol
Pécs Megyei Jogú Város Fenntartható Városi Mobilitási Terve (SUMP): http://gov.pecs.hu/download/index. php?id=1028990
_TRAFFIC • Településtervezés III. — A településtervezés gyakorlati kérdései – Tóth Zoltán, Hübner Mátyás, Pécs, 2009 ISBN: • • •
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In the cross-border project, the Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, the University North in Varaždin, th...
Published on Dec 14, 2018
In the cross-border project, the Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Pécs, the University North in Varaždin, th...