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OECD

Environmental

REPORT 2014

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The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) was created in 1961. Today, the mission of the OECD is to promote policies that will improve the economic and social well-being of people around the world. The OECD Secretariat provides for its 34 Member countries, as well as many non-Members associated with its work, a forum in which governments can work together to share experiences and seek solutions to common problems. Some 3 100 people work in the OECD Secretariat. Drawing on facts, analysis and real-life experience, the OECD recommends policies designed to make the lives of ordinary people better. It works with business and with labour, and has active contacts as well with civil society organisations. The common thread in its work is a shared commitment to market economies backed by democratic institutions and focused on the well-being of all citizens. Further details on the Report and its methodology, as well as primary data and their treatment, are available upon request.

OECD Executive Directorate greening@oecd.org 2, rue AndrĂŠ Pascal, 75775 Paris CEDEX 16, France

Cover photo (left): Liisa-Maija HARJU


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FOREWORD BY THE SECRETARY GENERAL

The OECD helps governments around the world to foster and support new sources of growth through, among other things, innovation and environmentally friendly green growth strategies. Instruments like the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) also provide a comprehensive set of government-backed recommendations on responsible business conduct, including environmental protection. We have a responsibility to lead the way by example and implement, as appropriate, these guidelines and other green growth policy recommendations in the management of our very own OECD Secretariat. Our environmental management system is a valuable tool for ensuring the impact of our daily operations and work contributes towards their continuous improvement. We have been able to demonstrate for several years that the accomplishments of the system and our overall environmental programme, Greening@OECD, are consistent with the pursuit of more effective and efficient resource use at the OECD. Indeed, Greening@OECD was identified in a comprehensive review last year as one of the key corporate service areas - alongside IT, purchasing, and office space management - enabling value for money for the Organisation. Against this background, I am pleased to share with you this OECD Environmental Report 2014 that highlights continued progress in our environmental performance, and areas where further improvement is still possible. Our overarching objective is to build environmental sustainability into all our corporate services. We are continuing these efforts in 2015, a year that has particular significance in terms of global efforts to curb climate change with the celebration of the COP21 meeting in Paris. The outcome of the climate change negotiations later this year could well determine the future of the Earth’s climate for decades to come and consequently the sustainability of our planet. The signals seem positive. For the first time in 40 years, annual global emissions of carbon dioxide did not rise in 2014. This news gives us hope, and encourages us to continue to explore innovative management practices and policies which further improve our Organisation’s own environmental footprint. I am proud of the significant contribution that the OECD and its staff are making to our environmental strategy, and encourage everyone to join in and keep up the good work.

Angel Gurría

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REPORT 2014

OECD Environmental Vision Recognising that our Organisation’s activities can impact the environment, sustainable use of natural resources and public health and safety, we are committed to limit the environmental impact of our work in a manner consistent with the wider goals of green growth and sustainable development. In that regard, strive to: •

ensure that the procurement policies of the Organisation give due consideration to the selection of products, materials, technologies and services which are environmentally sound;

optimise the use of energy, water, wood, paper, and other natural resources;

limit and offset the release of greenhouse gases, reduce vehicle emissions and minimise the use of other substances damaging to health and the environment;

reduce waste and expand re-use, recycling and use of recycled materials;

assess environmental risks and opportunities associated with our operations.

To reach these goals, we will embody good practices and ensure we remain compliant with relevant environmental legislation in the host country and other countries where Secretariat facilities are located. We will maintain an environmental management system appropriate to our operations. This system will include: •

a collection and evaluation of relevant and timely information regarding the environmental and health and safety impacts of our outputs;

measurable objectives and, where appropriate, targets for improved environmental performance and resource utilisation, and a periodical review of the continued relevance of these objectives;

regular monitoring and verification of progress toward the objectives and targets.

Employee understanding and involvement are key to the effective implementation of this Vision. We will raise awareness about the environmental performance of the OECD Secretariat and facilities. This OECD Environmental Vision is communicated to all OECD employees. It will be monitored on a regular basis and updated as necessary.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

FOREWORD BY THE SECRETARY-GENERAL 3

OECD ENVIRONMENTAL VISION

4

OVERVIEW

6

1. ENVIRONMENTAL CERTIFICATION OF OECD BUILDINGS

8

2. GREEN PROCUREMENT

9

3. USE OF NATURAL RESOURCES IN OPERATIONS

10

3.1 Paper

10

3.2 Water

11

3.3 Energy

12

4. GREENHOUSE GAS AND VEHICLE EMISSIONS

14

4.1 Greenhouse Gas Emissions

14

4.2 Vehicle Fuel Consumption

17

5. WASTE MANAGEMENT

18

20

ANNEX - GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS INVENTORY METHODOLOGY

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OECD

Environmental

REPORT 2014 OVERVIEW

This report provides an update on the progress made in implementing corporate environmental management at the OECD Secretariat. It addresses five objectives: 1

Environmental certification of OECD buildings

2

Green procurement

3

Use of natural resources in operations: energy, water and paper

4

Greenhouse gas and vehicle emissions

5

Waste management

Progress towards achieving these five objectives is assessed against eight indicators. In a majority of these areas the OECD Secretariat became more efficient and environmentally friendly in 2014. Challenges remain however, in water and waste management in particular. The OECD Secretariat is committed to improvement in these areas. For each indicator, the change is calculated in comparison with the base year 2010 except in the case of “Total paper consumption” where the comparison is with 2011 as no comparable data are available for 2010. In the case of “Total waste recycled”, a relative value (out of 100%) is indicated and the percentage value does not include a comparison with previous years.

Partnering on Sustainability Challenges Sustainability issues are becoming increasingly complex, global in nature and pivotal to corporate success. It is not easy for organisations and companies to make the necessary impact acting alone. Joining forces and collaborating with others is important to success. In 2014, as part of its environmental strategy, the OECD continued sharing good practices with other international organisations and financial institutions. The OECD Secretariat, along with over 30 French public and private sector entities, also took part in a partnership led by the French ‘Carbon Footprint Organisation’ (Association Bilan Carbone). The collaboration gave the OECD a better understanding of the host country’s current energy and climate regulations and an insight into the effective communication practices and campaigns used by other host country entities.

Reporting scope This report covers the 11 buildings in the Paris area (77 845 m2 in total, 2 715 employees) for which the Executive Directorate of the OECD has full operational responsibility: seven office buildings1, two storage buildings, the OECD Conference Centre and the Secretary-General’s residence. In addition to accommodating its staff (3 088 worldwide in 2014, a 12% increase compared to 2010) in these buildings, the OECD welcomes a large number of delegates and visitors annually in its Conference Centre (122 000 in 2014). The OECD also operated in three other buildings in Paris in 2014. The International Energy Agency (IEA), the International Transport Forum (ITF), the OECD Development Centre and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) are autonomous OECD bodies that manage these buildings. 2010 is used as the base year because it is considered to be the first stable year for OECD buildings following completion of the site renovation project.

1

6

The OECD does not occupy all of the Delta office building. The indicators are based on an estimated 88% occupation of the building.


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240 t

2014

Total Paper Consumption (in t)

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280

2013

310

2012

360

2011 0

50

100

150

200

250

30 300 30 500

2012

29 000

2011 24 100

I N D I C AT O R S

2010 5000

10000

15000

20000

25000

30000

16 900

2013

17 600

2012

18 500

2011

21 300

2010 0

5000

10000

15000

20000

25000

2014

9 100 tCO2e

2013

9 200 9 400

2012 8 800

2011

9 700

2010 0

GHG Emissions related to buildings (in kgCO2e/m2)

2000

4000

6000

8000

10000

12 kgCO2e/m2

2014

20

2013 2012

21

2011

21 28

2010 0

5

10

15

20

25

14 100

2013 2012

15 500

2011

19 900

2010

22 800

0

5000

10000

15000

20000

540

2013

620

2012 490

2011

500

2010 0

Total waste recycled (share as % of total)

100

200

300

400

500

600

2014

62 %

2013

60

700

800

70

80

66

2012 59

2011

58

2010 0

25000

740 t

2014

Total waste generation (in t)

30

12 800 L

2014

Total vehicle fuel consumption (in L)

35000

15 100 MWh

2014

Total GHG Emissions (in tCO2e)

400

3

2013

0

Total Energy Consumption (in MWh)

350

27 100 m

2014

Total Water Consumption (in m3)

300

10

20

30

40

50

60

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1. ENVIRONMENTAL CERTIFICATION OF OECD BUILDINGS

Objective:

To obtain the High Environmental Quality (HQE®E2) certification for all of the OECD’s real estate.

Four OECD Secretariat Buildings are ‘Green Building’ Certified The OECD Secretariat has made significant progress in integrating green building standards into the management of its real estate. By the end of 2014, three OECD buildings had achieved HQE®E certification.

MARSHALL BUILDING

2011

CONFERENCE CENTRE

DELTA

2012

st

2014

CHÂTEAU DE LA MUETTE

2015

First building of its kind in France to be certified

Background In 2010, the OECD started using the French HQE®Exploitation (HQE®E) certification scheme aimed at buildings in use (i.e. not under construction). The HQE®E certification endorses the overall performance of a building with a focus on energy, environment, health and comfort. The performance levels achieved take into account product and material lifecycles.

Photos: Elisa LÓPEZ ROLDÁN

The scheme does not impose specific solutions but rather gives OECD building managers the freedom and responsibility to adopt appropriate choices and innovations.

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La Haute Qualité Environnementale, HQE®Exploitation


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2. GREEN PROCUREMENT

Objective:

To implement green procurement by ensuring that works, goods and services are chosen with environmentally sustainable characteristics.

The OECD’s Catering and Cleaning Companies use Sustainable Products and Management Practices In 2014, the following practices, among other things, were implemented or examined: • The OECD’s catering contractor is committed to high environmental management standards (ISO 14 000 and ISO 22 001 certified). It uses sustainably and locally produced materials when possible, and does not serve endangered seafood. Cleaning products used by the company are natural, biodegradable and environmentally certified (Nordic Ecolabel, EU Ecolabel). They do not contain materials originating from the petrochemical industry; • The OECD’s cleaning contractor, responsible for the office buildings and Conference Centre, is equally committed to high environmental management standards (ISO 14 000 certified). The products used by the company are similar to the ones used in the catering service; • Electric shuttles were shortlisted in a call for tender aiming to find a new service provider for employee office shuttles. The search for such alternative, sustainable transport modes continues in 2015; • OECD express mail is sent using DHL’s ‘Go Green’ service and all transport-related greenhouse gas emissions (320 tCO2e in 2014) are offset by DHL through external climate protection projects.

Background Green public procurement, i.e. public purchasing of products and services which are less environmentally damaging when their whole life cycle is considered, can be a major driver for innovation, providing industry with incentives for developing environmentally friendly products and services.

Photo: Andrew WHEELER

The OECD Secretariat has been implementing green procurement for several years. Implementing green procurement requires the OECD Secretariat to carry out an assessment of the environmental standards of goods and services in the design, selection and award of projects and in contract performance.

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3. USE OF NATURAL RESOURCES IN OPERATIONS Objective:

To optimise the use of energy, water, wood, paper, and other natural resources.

3.1 Paper The OECD Print Shop and Offices Use 33% less Paper than in 2011 400

10000

8 400 A4

sheets/employee

300 250

Office paper (A4 sheets)/employee

8000

5 700 A4

200

sheets/employee

150 100

Total 240 t

350

Total 360 t

t

Office paper/employee (A4 sheets)

6000

OECD Print Shop (recycled)

50 0

OECD Print Shop (non-recycled)

2011

2012

2013

2014

4000

Offices (recycled)

Total paper consumption has decreased by 33% in comparison with 2011, from 360 t (3) in 2011 to 240 t in 2014. Use of paper at the offices alone (i.e. excluding the OECD Print Shop) has decreased in a similar manner by 32% in comparison with 2011, from 8 400 A4 sheets/employee to 5 700 A4 sheets/employee in 2014. This continued downward trend is due to the increased use of electronic devices, publications and documents, which themselves have environmental impacts that are not readily measurable, as well as the continued use of the printing management software that was installed in all OECD multifunctional office printers in 2013.

Reduction of Unnecessary Consumption of Paper In 2014, OECD set up an internal task force which defined a strategy with a number of action items with an aim to reduce the unnecessary consumption of paper. The strategy, planned to be implemented from 2015, covers areas such as distribution of official documents, office paper supplies and use, publications and magazines and proposes an awareness raising campaign and training.

Definition and Background The indicator includes paper delivered by the OECD Executive Directorate to offices and the OECD Conference Centre as well as paper used in the OECD print shop. Envelopes, magazines and newspapers as well as publications printed off-site are not included and comparable 2010 data are not available. Production of office paper is an energy and water intensive process and harmful chemicals are often used in its bleaching process. Recycling the paper mitigates these and other environmental impacts but not those related to energy consumed by manufacturing, transporting and reprocessing paper products. Paper can be recycled only seven to ten times before the fibres break down.

It should be noted that the OECD Environmental Report 2013 included, for the year 2011, an error: the paper consumption of the International Energy Agency (IEA), the International Transport Forum (ITF), and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) were included (6 t). 3

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3.2 Water The OECD Uses Water 27% more efficiently than in 2010 9 400

L /employee

m3 35000

10000 L /employee

20000 15000 10000

Total 24 100 m3

25000

6 900

L /employee

Total 27 100 m3

30000

8000 Consumption/employee (only office buildings)

5000 0

Total water consumption

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

6000

Total water consumption in OECD facilities amounted to 27 100 m3 in 2014. Annual consumption per employee in office buildings has decreased by 27% since 2010, from 9 400 L to 6 900 L. Part of the reduction in 2014, compared to 2013, is linked to the lawn drainage works in the OECD garden during which the irrigation of the lawn was stopped. Trends in the data can be explained in part by annual variations in rainfall. Water management remains a challenge, and the OECD Secretariat is working on finding ways to consume less and to do so more efficiently. A rainwater harvesting feasibility study was concluded in 2014 and the practice is being initiated in the OECD premises in 2015.

Replacing Bottled Water by Drinking Water Fountains In 2014, drinking water fountains were installed in the meeting rooms of the OECD Conference Centre, thereby enabling the replacement of bottled water in the Centre by self-service water fountains and recyclable goblets. The objective is to reduce the volume of plastic bottled water by up to 200 000 units annually. Bottled water can cost many times more than tap water, especially if the costs of the entire supply chain are included. Tap water is considered more environmentally friendly than bottled water.

Let’s protect the environment by using tap water instead of bottled water.

Definition The indicator includes metered water consumption and employee data for six office buildings and the Conference Centre. Detailed data on consumption patterns are currently not available for the other buildings. It should be noted that data availability improved significantly in 2014. Water consumption data for the Delta office building, where 36% of OECD employees work (compared to 32% in 2010), was obtained and integrated retrospectively into the analysis from 2011 onwards. Following this update, the increase in total annual values, compared to those outlined in the 2013 report, is as follows: 21% for 2011, 20% for 2012, 23% for 2013 and 24% for 2014.

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3.3 Energy 29% Energy Reduction Achieved in OECD Facilities over a Five-Year Period MWh

kWh/employee

8 900

25000000

Per employee

6 800

8000

kWh/employee

5 600

10000000

kWh/employee

4 400

5000000

0

Total 15 100 MWh

15000000

kWh/employee

Total 21 000 MWh

20000000

10000

District heating (CPCU)

6000

2011

2012

2013

2014

Heavy Fuel

Natural Gas

kWh/employee

2010

Per employee (Only office buildings)

4000

Electricity

Total energy consumption in 2014 amounted to 15 100 MWh, which represents a reduction of 29% compared to 2010. The OECD is becoming more energy efficient as consumption has decreased from 8 900 to 5 600 kWh/employee, i.e. a 37% reduction since 2010. In 2014, the OECD Secretariat completed numerous energy-efficiency initiatives as it continued to reduce the energy intensity of its facilities (194kWh/m2 in 2014 compared to 273 kWh/m2 in 2010). For example, the office lighting system in the second largest office building, Delta, was changed, so that the lights are now no longer set to come on automatically in the mornings. Trends in the data can be explained in part by annual variations in weather conditions.

Definition This indicator reflects four different energy sources used by the OECD: district heating (i.e. waste-to-energy), electricity, heavy fuel oil and natural gas. The data were extracted from invoices and, for the Delta building, from metering reports.

Background Buildings represent the largest energy consuming sector in the world, and account for over one-third of total final energy consumption, as well as being an equally significant source of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions.4 Improving the energy efficiency of existing buildings is recommended because it offers a powerful and costeffective tool for achieving a sustainable energy future. The OECD is currently reviewing its office space needs for the coming decade. Energy efficiency and environmental factors are among the key criteria being assessed.

IEA (2013) Transition to Sustainable Buildings: Strategies and Opportunities to 2050. Available online at: http://www.iea.org/ publications/freepublications/publication/transition-to-sustainable-buildings.html 4

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Guided Tours of the Technical Facilities In 2014, experts from the OECD Buildings Division continued to offer regular guided tours of the technical facilities located in the OECD buildings. These visits allow for staff to understand the efforts being made ‘behind the scenes’ to ensure good working conditions, such as high quality indoor air and energy efficiency.

Photo: Andrew WHEELER

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4. GREENHOUSE GAS AND VEHICLE EMISSIONS

Objective:

To limit and offset the release of greenhouse gases, reduce vehicle emissions, and minimise the use of other substances damaging to health and the environment.

4.1 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Emissions Decreased by 6% in 2014 in Comparison with the Base Year 2010 tCO2e

tCO2e/employee 4.0

6000

4.2

Total 9 100 tCO2e

8000

Total 9 700 tCO2e

10000

tCO2e/employee

3.3

Total GHG emissions/employee

GHG Protocol Scope 3

3.5

tCO2e/employee

4000

(Air travel due to employees missions and invited experts travel, employee commuting)

GHG Protocol Scope 2 (Purchased electricity, purchased steam)

2000 GHG Protocol Scope 1

(Stationary combustion, mobile combustion, fugitive emissions)

0

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

3.0

The OECD’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in 2014 amounted to 9 100 tonnes of carbon equivalent (tCO2e). Emissions related to facilities amounted to 930 tCO2e and emissions related to employees and invited experts’ air travel, as well as employees commuting to 8 190 tCO2e. Emissions decreased by 590 tCO2e (i.e. 6%) in 2014 in comparison with the base year 2010. This results from operational energy efficiency measures as well as the improved carbon footprint of purchased electricity. The trend in the data can be explained in part by annual variations in weather conditions. The OECD continues to reduce its carbon intensity overall: since 2010, per capita emissions have decreased by 0.7 tCO2e/employee (i.e. 16%) and emissions from buildings have fallen by 21 kgCO2e/ m2 (i.e. 65%). 75% of OECD GHG emissions relate to official air travel. This volume depends on the missions needed to implement the Programme of Work and the locations of events to which the Organisation contributes. Per capita emissions related to official air travel have increased by 9% compared to 2010 (from 2.3 tCO2e/ employee in 2010 to 2.5 tCO2e/employee in 2014).

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Total Greenhouse Gas Emissions in 2014 260 tCO e (3%) 2

670 tCO e (7%) 2

1 320 tCO e (15%) 2

1 390 tCO e (15%)

GHG Protocol Scope 1 (Stationary combustion, mobile combustion, fugitive emissions)

5 470 tCO e (60%)

2

2

GHG Protocol Scope 2 (Purchased electricity, purchased district heating) GHG Protocol Scope 3 (Air travel, employees' missions) GHG Protocol Scope 3 (Air travel, invited experts and statutory trips) GHG Protocol Scope 3 (Employee commuting)

3.3

tCO2e/employee

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Buildings kgCO2 /m2

30

25

28 kgCO2e/m2

20

21

21

kgCO2e/m2

kgCO2e/m2

15

20 kgCO2e/m2

12

10

kgCO2e/m2

5

0

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

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Definition This dataset presents trends in emissions of major greenhouse gases (GHG). The emissions are calculated in accordance with the GHG Protocol methodology (see Annex for details).

Background Emissions of pollutants and gases from human activities have many negative effects on the local, regional and global environment. GHG emissions exacerbate the natural greenhouse effect, leading to temperature changes and other consequences for the earth’s climate. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions is a must, but governments, businesses and communities also need to prepare for a changing climate.

A Carbon Price Applied Internally at the OECD In 2013, the Secretary-General introduced an internal OECD carbon price to address the growth in air travelrelated GHG emissions. This price (EUR 20/tCO2e) is calculated on the basis of the GHG emissions generated by air travel by OECD Directorates and Programmes in the previous year. The funds collected are invested annually in projects that improve the environmental footprint of the Organisation. In 2014, the funds collected were allocated, among other things, to displaying the energy consumption of OECD buildings in real time to employees and visitors, and developing other types of employee engagement materials related to energy and paper consumption; the initiation of rainwater harvesting; the installation of beehives in the OECD premises; and a review of the GHG emissions related to ICT usage. The funds collected in 2013 were allocated to improving the Organisation’s remote conferencing facilities. This reflected an acceleration of user needs and expectations due to a combination of business pressures and technological changes that are making remote conferencing more functional and reliable, easier to use and less costly. In 2014, remote conferencing activity amounted to 2 450 sessions, a 20% increase from 2013.

This carbon pricing initiative, which was introduced for a two-year trial period, is continuing in 2015-16. In 2015, the price applied has been increased to EUR 25/ tCO2e, and in 2016 to EUR 30/ tCO2e.

Photos: Liisa-Maija HARJU (left) and Elisa LÓPEZ ROLDÁN (right)

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4.2 Vehicle Fuel Consumption OECD Vehicles’ Fuel Footprint has Decreased by 44% since 2010

L 25000

10

Total 12 900 L

15000 10000 5000 0

12 km/L

Total 22 800 L

20000

11 km/L

8 km/L

2010

2011

2012

2013

Fuel efficiency (km/L) Total fuel consumption

8

2014

The OECD Secretariat has been working hard to optimise its vehicle fuel footprint and consumption has fallen by 44% since 2010, from 22 800 L/year in 2010 to 12 900L/year in 2014. Related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have decreased by 7%, from 36 tCO2e in 2010 to 33 tCO2e in 2014. These emissions are included in the inventory outlined in the previous chapter (p.14). The size of the OECD vehicle fleet remained stable in comparison with 2013 but two diesel cars were sold and replaced by two petrol cars in 2014. The current vehicle fleet is relatively young (86% of the vehicles are less than 4 years old). Due to this, the fleet has remained fuel efficient at 11km/L in comparison with 2013. This has also had a positive impact on the costs of repairs, which were reduced by 38% in comparison with 2013.

Definition The OECD vehicle fleet comprises 15 vehicles: 2 electric, 2 petrol and 11 diesel cars. These cars are used, among other things, to carry out diplomatic services, transport staff and transport equipment. The data for this indicator are extracted from fuel invoices and driving reports.

Background 33 of the 34 OECD countries tax diesel at a lower rate than petrol, even though diesel vehicles produce more carbon emissions per litre and more harmful air pollutants than petrol vehicles. Diesel contains approximately 18% more carbon per litre than petrol, yet remains the most used vehicle fuel in 23 of the 34 OECD countries, due in part to this tax differential.5

Under-taxing drivers is bad for environment and health, OECD says’ Press release on 30.9.2014 http://www.oecd.org/tax/under-taxing-drivers-is-bad-for-environment-and-health.htm 5

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REPORT 2014

5. WASTE MANAGEMENT

Objective:

To reduce waste and expand re-use, recycling and use of recycled materials.

Recycling of Organic Waste Initiated at OECD Self-Service Restaurants in 2014 t

Kg/employee

800

300

270

Total 740 t

kg/employee

700

500 400 300 200

Total 500 t

600

220

kg/employee

250

62

% recycled

Total waste/employee

200

58% recycled

Non-recycled waste (i.e. for district heating, incineration)

100 0

Recycled waste

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

150

In 2014, the OECD produced 740 t of waste, i.e. a 46% increase from 2010. Per capita waste generation increased by 24% from 217 Kg/employee in 2010 to 270 Kg/employee. The recycling rate increased from 58% in 2010 to 62% in 2014. Since 2010 the OECD Secretariat has made great efforts to enhance waste traceability and monitoring in order to understand how it can improve. In 2014, monitoring of all waste created by the service providers of self-service restaurants, cafeterias and the OECD garden was initiated. In addition, recycling of organic waste was initiated in the OECD Secretariat self-service restaurants (15.3 t of organic waste were methanized in 2014). Data availability is now expected to remain stable. The strategy to reduce the unnecessary consumption of paper, referred to on page 10, is expected to have a favourable impact on the statistics. But waste management does remain a challenge, particularly the monitoring of waste generated by events and the facilities’ renovation projects. Improvement in this area is a priority.

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Success of the ‘Bring your own Mug’ Campaign In 2014, staff helped the OECD reduce waste by 47 000 disposable cups (11% of total beverage purchases) by bringing their own mugs to the cafés. The success was achieved by introducing, at the beginning of the year, a price incentive: beverages served in mugs are cheaper than drinks served in regular disposable cups.

Definition The data for this indicator are taken from reporting provided by the OECD subcontracted cleaning company, caterer and technical service company. Hazardous (e.g. electronic waste, batteries), liquid (e.g. fat separator waste), and solid (e.g. cans, paper) waste was generated by offices, the print shop, building and renovation works, gardening, restaurants and cafeterias.

Background High consumption levels in developed countries, combined with rapid industrialisation in emerging economies, have led to unprecedented levels of demand for raw materials. Over the past thirty years, the quantity of materials extracted for consumption has increased by 60%. A fifth of these materials end up as waste. This represents over 12 billion tonnes of waste per year globally.

Photos: Andrew WHEELER (left) and Elisa LÓPEZ ROLDÁN (right)

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REPORT 2014

ANNEX – GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS INVENTORY METHODOLOGY

Background The greenhouse gas (GHG) emission calculations for the inventory were carried out under the operational control approach set out in the Greenhouse Gas Protocol Corporate Accounting and Reporting Standard. This methodology is the outcome of a partnership between the World Resources Institute (WRI) and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD). It is internationally recognised as best practice for GHG emissions accounting and reporting, and is compliant with ISO 14064-1. The reporting of emissions is carried out with an Excel tool on the basis of data available at the time the report is drafted. Details of the methodology relating to the GHG inventory were reviewed in 2012 by PwC, a third party, on the basis of a detailed methodological report by the OECD and the GHG Protocol Guidelines.

Organisational boundaries The GHG inventory covers the 11 buildings in the Paris area for which the Executive Directorate of the OECD has full operational responsibility (representing 77 845 m2 and 2 715 employees). Accordingly, the offices of the International Energy Agency (IEA), the International Transport Forum (ITF), and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) as well as the offices located outside France are excluded.

Operational boundaries This GHG Inventory includes three categories (“scopes”) of emissions that are defined by the GHG Protocol for GHG accounting and reporting purposes: •

Scope 1 is compulsory and includes direct GHG emissions from stationary combustion sources, i.e. natural gas and heavy fuel oil (HFO), emissions from mobile combustion by the vehicle fleet, and fugitive emissions from refrigeration and air conditioning equipment;

Scope 2 is compulsory and includes indirect GHG emissions from the generation of purchased electricity and purchased steam;

Scope 3 is voluntary and covers air travel related to employees and invited experts’ professional travel and estimates of employees’ personal commuting habits.

Even though scope 3 emissions are optional for reporting purposes, they have been included because, in respect of the official travel component, they are relevant to OECD secretariat daily business and significant.

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Greenhouse gases included in the inventory GHGs weighed in this methodology are the gases required by the UNFCCC/Kyoto Protocol: carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), methane (CH4), nitrogen trifluoride (NF3), nitrous oxide (N2O), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulphurhexafluoride (SF6). GHG emissions are expressed in tonnes of carbon equivalent (tCO2e) or in kilogrammes of carbon equivalent (kgCO2e). Only GHG emissions from activities over which OECD has direct operational control are considered in the boundaries of the inventory:

Table 1. Global warming potential of GHGs that OECD emits.

Source Climate Change 1995. The Science of Climate Change. Summary for policymakers and Technical Summary of the Working Group I Report.

Greenhouse gas

OECD source

Global warming potential, GWP (Time horizon: 100 years)

Carbon dioxide (CO2)

Purchased electricity, purchased steam, stationary and mobile combustion, air travel, commute

1

Methane (CH4)

Stationary and mobile combustion, air travel, commute

25

Nitrous oxide (N2O)

Stationary and mobile combustion, air travel, commute

298

HFC-134a, Hydro fluorocarbon gas

Cooling system and air conditioning maintenance operations

1300

R-404A, a blend of Hydro fluorocarbon gas

Cooling system and air conditioning maintenance operations

3260

Base year (2010) 2010 has been chosen as the reporting base year. In order to accurately track progress the OECD Secretariat will adjust its base year emissions inventory for significant qualitative or quantitative structural or methodology changes. The significance threshold is considered to be 5%. A base year emissions recalculation was not considered necessary for the year 2014.

Data Scope 1, Scope 2: Data are extracted from monthly or annual invoices. For the Delta building, data is extracted from annual consumption statistics. Scope 3: Air travel data is based on the methodology of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and obtained from the OECD air travel agency. Commuting data is indicative only, based on employees’ home postal codes and statistics from the French National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies (INSEE). The employee pool, hence the data, is estimated to have remained relatively stable in comparison with 2013.

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Emission factors Direct measurement of GHG emissions by monitoring concentrations and flow rates is not common practice. More often, the approach for calculating GHG emissions consists in applying documented emission factors. These factors are calculated ratios relating GHG emissions to a proxy measure of activity at an emission source. The OECD tool’s emission factors are checked for accuracy every year to ensure that the most upto-date emissions factors are used. #

SCOPE 1

1-1

1-2

SCOPE 3

SCOPE 2

1-4

EMISSION TITLE

Emissions from mobile combustion Fugitive emissions

Source

Uncertainty

0.2020 kgCO2/ kWh

GHG Protocol 2010

5%

2.9393 kgCO2/L

GHG Protocol 2010

5%

Vehicle fleet (petrol)

0.2070 kgCO2/ km

GHG Protocol 2010

5%

Vehicle fleet (diesel)

0.1979 kgCO²/ km

GHG Protocol 2010

5%

Refrigerant HFC 404A

3260 kg/GWP

GHG Protocol 2010

50%

Refrigerant HFC134A

1300 kg/GWP

GHG Protocol 2010

50%

EDF Electricity

0.017 kgCO²/ kWh

EDF 2014

15%

0.195 kgCO2/ kWh

ADEME Base Carbone 2012 (“Paris et communes limitrophes”)

30%

N/A

ICAO Air Travel Agency Report

N/A

Metro

0.0057 kgCO2e/ person.km

ADEME Base Carbone 2012

20%

Bus

0.0666 kgCO2e/ person.km

GHG Protocol 2010

20%

Motorcycle (<750cm3)

0.0680 kgCO2e/ person.km

ADEME Base Carbone 2012

60%

Motorcycle (>750cm3)

0.0792 kgCO2e/ person.km

ADEME Base Carbone 2012

60%

Private car (petrol)

0.2070 kgCO2e/ km

GHG Protocol 2010

60%

Private car (diesel)

0.1979 kgCO2e/ km

GHG Protocol 2010

60%

RER regional train

0.0057 kgCO2e/ person.km

ADEME Base Carbone 2012

20%

TGV high speed train

0.0037 kgCO2e/ person.km

ADEME Base Carbone 2012

60%

N/A

ICAO Air Travel Agency Report

N/A

2-1

Purchased electricity

2-2

Purchased steam

CPCU steam

3-6

Air travel

Employees’ air travel for missions

3-7

Employee commuting

EMISSION FACTORS Value

Emissions Natural gas from stationary combustion Heavy fuel oil

Other 22

EMISSION SOURCE

Invited experts’ air travel


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Photos: Elisa LÓPEZ ROLDÁN

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OECD Environmental Report 2014  

Greening@OECD: This report provides an update on the progress made in implementing corporate environmental management at the OECD Secretaria...

OECD Environmental Report 2014  

Greening@OECD: This report provides an update on the progress made in implementing corporate environmental management at the OECD Secretaria...