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OUTDOOR RECREATION ACTIVITY GUIDES

Photo: Paul Petch 2016

trail running Know before you go

Trail running is not only a great way to see New Zealand’s outdoors, it is an enjoyable activity that demands physical performance, mental agility, fortitude and perseverance. It is also a pursuit that frequently exposes runners to risk. While the risks are inherent in trail running, they can easily be reduced through careful planning and good decision making. It doesn’t take long to plan. Use this guide to help you. Page

Tales from the trail

1

The Outdoor Safety CODE 1. Plan your trip

3

2. Tell someone your plans

5

3. Be aware of the weather

7

4. Know your limits

9

5. Take sufficient supplies

11

Safer places, safer activities, safer people


tales from the trail

Amanda Broughton - NZ Editor, Trail Run Magazine

Amanda’s story We planned a run to explore some local trails in a different suburb, most of us had run together before but there were a couple of new people that wanted to come along. Everyone had entered the same ultramarathon, and since it was just months away we assumed that we would all be around the same level of fitness. After just the first kilometre we realised that one of the group was quite a lot less experienced and with a very low level of fitness, but they insisted on continuing the run. This person had been dropped off by a friend at the start of the trail, and had no plan on how to get home. We had planned for a 2.5-hour loop run starting at 8am to beat the heat. With all the stops to wait for this person that time quickly went up to 4 hours and we were just over half way. It was a hot day and by 12pm we had run out of water, were dripping with sweat and people were beginning to get dehydrated.

Once we reached a junction that exited the trails, the group went down to the road and managed to find water. We then decided to walk the slower runner back to the nearest town and leave them there while the others ran back to their vehicles at the starting point.

someone got injured and needed to go home, and make sure that they knew the risks that everyone else would have to take if they chose to continue with the group rather than go home.

Lessons learned

For the safety of the group, make sure you are near the same level of fitness. This would also have been an issue on a cold day, with faster runners stopping and cooling down quickly when waiting for slower runners.

know the limits of everyone in the group

In future I would specify that the group running should all be able to comfortably run a minimum amount of kilometres within a certain time. I would have a plan for what to do if

Take sufficient supplies

have a plan in case someone gets injured

“...we assumed we would all be around the same level of fitness”

tales from the trail

1 Plan your run

2 Tell someone YOUR PLANS

3 be aware of the weather 1

4 know your limits

5 take sufficient supplies

1

OUTDOOR RECREATION ACTIVITY GUIDES TRAIL RUNNING


Malcolm Law - Adventurer / Fundraiser / Storyteller 2015 NZ Wilderness Outdoor Hero of the Year

Mal’s story It all started well enough. Cold, but there was the promise of clearing skies and a magnificent circuit of the southern Waitakere’s on some of my favourite tracks. Ahead lay 4 -5 hours of quality training and fun. I had food, I had drink, my legs were feeling springy and I was full of the joys of the trail. What could possibly go wrong? Nothing... at least, not for the first hour during which I climbed to the high point of the Summit Track and was well on my way down it’s gnarly, rootencrusted descent. I was brimming with confidence and reflecting on just how much my technical skills were benefitting from lots of rough running recently, when CRACK... my right ankle collapsed under me, turning inside out over itself and producing a stream of shouted expletives from me.

One step was enough to convince me otherwise. This one was serious. For the first time in all those years I pulled out my first aid kit, put on a compression bandage, taped over the top of it and popped a couple of Panadol. I started off again, hobbling and quietly cursing. But there was no sun penetrating the bush and within minutes, despite wearing two layers, I was starting to get cold. Stop again. Put on lightweight fleece and rain coat. Carry on downhill. Later, as I hobbled, crawled and groveled my way out, I had the great fortune to run (ha, if only!) into two friends who were also out for a midweek bash. So I made it out alive and am writing this with my right foot elevated and smothered in ice bags. Hopefully it’s nothing more than a bad sprain. Hopefully I’ll only be off running for a week. But it could have so easily

been worse and I’m grateful now for having gone so well prepared. Yes, I have run thousands of kms without ever using spare clothing or my first aid kit. I have carried that extra weight so many times and have often been tempted to leave it out. But I don’t. Today I was very, very grateful to have it with me. I was also very glad that I’d left a detailed route plan at home with Sally. Even if I’d had to lie down in the bush and await rescue I could have done so confident that people knew where to look for me. Take note people, especially you solo runners.

Lessons learned take a first aid kit

“crack... my ankle collapsed under me...” I’ve been running the trails of the Waitakere Ranges for nigh on 20 years and have clocked countless thousands of kms over these glorious hills. In all that time I’ve never turned an ankle so badly that I couldn’t carry on running within a few minutes. So yes, this hurt like hell, but surely I’d be okay and I’d soon be cantering off again? tales from the trail

1 Plan your run

2 Tell someone YOUR PLANS

run on known trails or take a map

tell someone before you go

take extra layers of clothing

3 be aware of the weather 1

4 know your limits

5 take sufficient supplies

2

OUTDOOR RECREATION ACTIVITY GUIDES TRAIL RUNNING


can you answer the following? ?

Who are you going with?

?

Where are you going?

?

Where can you seek local knowledge?

Photo: Paul Petch 2016

1 Plan your run Planning your run and considering the capabilities of everyone in the group increases the chances of a positive and enjoyable trip. It will help you to have the right gear, skills and expectations in order to have a safe day out.

1,304

trail runners are injured each year in new zealand - ‘There and back’, MSC 2016

jonathan wyatt Seven time mountain running world champion When I plan a trail run I think about how long I am running for, the terrain I am running on, the altitudes I will cover, what the weather is doing and if my fitness level and technical ability are up to what I am planning to do. If I am running more than 3 hours in the mountains on a trail I have never been on before that could be quite technical, then I prepare myself very differently compared to a 2-hour trail run on my home trails that I know I am running at lower elevation with good weather. If you’re out in nature, then you have to rely on your own knowledge and the resources you have with you. This means good clothing, energy replacing fuels, basic safety equipment and thinking about likely hazards.

tales from the trail

1 Plan your run

2 Tell someone YOUR PLANS

3 be aware of the weather 1

4 know your limits

5 take sufficient supplies

3

OUTDOOR RECREATION ACTIVITY GUIDES TRAIL RUNNING


who are you going with?

Solo?

Group?

The first thing you need to consider is who you are going with. If you are planning to run solo, you’ll need to carefully consider how this changes your approach to preparing for the run. If you’re running with others ensure they are all involved in the planning.

• How experienced and fit is each person? Make sure everyone in your group is physically fit enough to enjoy the run. The trip time can also change depending on the abilities of your group.

• Does anyone have any pre-existing medical conditions? This is a really important thing to know, partly to make sure each person can cope with the run, and partly to know how to deal with any medical situations that may arise while you’re out.

• What does each person want from the run? Charging up a steep rough track is a great

What is the elevation?

challenge for some but it won’t be everyone’s idea of fun. Make sure you all have the same expectations and plan a run to meet those expectations.

• Does everyone have what they need? Make sure you have the appropriate clothing and equipment for the track, terrain and weather. See the Take Sufficient Supplies section for more information.

Where are you going? Once you’ve considered who is coming, carefully consider the location.

Cellphone coverage?

How long will it take you? Ensure you leave yourself enough time, it’s no fun running in the dark if you weren’t expecting to. What’s the terrain like? Check a map and ask someone who knows. A trip’s distance might look short on a map, but it could take much longer if it’s on a rough track or has a large elevation gain. Can everyone in the group cope with the terrain?

x

Will your phone work? Mobile phones have limited coverage in most outdoor locations. You need to plan for what to do if something goes wrong. Are there rivers? Plan trips that use bridges where possible. Do not attempt a river crossing unless you have the skills to do so. See the Know Your Limits section for more information.

who has been there before?

Where can you seek local knowledge? Get advice from people who have been there before. The running community is really helpful, so check out blogs and websites from people who have run on the trails before:

• Local runners often post on running forums and through websites such as WayWiser, Meetup and Facebook. You can check out places others are running on social sites such as MapMyRun and Strava. Most event promoters also create online forums for those training for that event.

Do you know the way?

• Department of Conservation (DOC) has a wealth of knowledge about tracks and important things to know about the areas you’re going. Pop into your nearest visitor centre or see www.doc.govt.nz

• Maps. There are a range of different maps available depending on the location of your run and personal preference varies. Try the local council, DOC or the Walking Access Mapping System and ask people who have run there before.

tales from the trail

1 Plan your run

2 Tell someone YOUR PLANS

3 1 be aware of the weather

4 know your limits

5 take sufficient supplies

4

OUTDOOR RECREATION ACTIVITY GUIDES TRAIL RUNNING


can you answer the following? ?

Who will you tell?

?

What information should you leave?

?

What should your trusted contact do if they haven’t heard from you?

Photo: Paul Petch 2016

2 tell someone your plans Telling someone your plans is essential, no matter what or where the trip is. There’s always a chance that things could go wrong. You won’t get any help if no one knows where you are. Leaving your intentions with a trusted contact is a small act that will significantly increase your chances of a safe return if you get injured or lost.

69%

of trail runners involved in search and rescues were overdue or lost - ‘There and back’, MSC 2016

Grant Guise 2015 Skyrunning Aust/NZ Series champion Always tell someone where you are heading and what time to expect you back. Pass on your planned route and area you will be in, how long you think it will take and what time they can expect you home. Make sure this person is aware of what sort of gear you might be carrying and what emergency gear you would have. If things do take a turn for the worse, this information is all very helpful for SAR. But maybe the most important thing is to make sure you tell this person when you have returned! You don’t want them getting worried and sounding the alarm for you, when you have been sitting in the pub for the last few hours telling tall tales of your day’s adventure.

tales from the trail

1 Plan your run

2 Tell someone YOUR PLANS

3 be aware of the weather 1

4 know your limits

5 take sufficient supplies

5

OUTDOOR RECREATION ACTIVITY GUIDES TRAIL RUNNING


Who do you tell?

TOP TIP

Tell your plans to someone you trust. A family member or a close friend is ideal for your trusted contact – you need to know they will act if you don’t return from your trip when you say you will.

If you change your plans, let your contact know with a quick phone call or text on the day.

What information should you leave? Telling someone your plans is as simple as letting them know where you’re going and when you expect to be back. You should give them the information in the diagram below including contact details for everyone on the trip. You can write this down for them, or use the helpful online intentions process on the AdventureSmart website. This can be easily accessed on your mobile phone and is automatically emailed to your trusted contact once completed. www.adventuresmart.org.nz. If you change your mind about any of this, try to let your contact know with a quick phone call or text on the day. Make sure you get a reply. For example, someone might bring a friend or decide not to go, or you might decide to take a different track. If something does go wrong, it’s much better if people know exactly where to look and who they’re looking for.

Identify your trusted contact

Have a great run

Tell them your plans: What are you doing Where are you going

Let your trusted contact know when you have returned

Who is going with you Your transport there When you will be back

What should your trusted contact do if they haven’t heard from you? Your trusted contact needs to know exactly what to do if they don’t hear from you, and when to do it. If they don’t hear from you by the stated time, they need to:

3

1

2

Try to contact everyone on the trip. If they can’t get hold of anyone, wait one hour.

tales from the trail

4

1 Plan your run

After an hour, try again to contact everyone on the trip.

2 Tell someone YOUR PLANS

If they can’t make contact, try contacting friends or family for everyone on the trip to see if they have heard from the group.

3 1 be aware of the weather

4 know your limits

If they still haven’t made any contact with the group, call 111 and ask for the Police. They should tell the Police all the information they have and how they have tried to contact the group.

5 take sufficient supplies

6

OUTDOOR RECREATION ACTIVITY GUIDES TRAIL RUNNING


can you answer the following? ?

What is the forecast?

?

What impact will the weather forecast have on your run?

?

What will you do if the weather changes while you’re out?

Photo: Yap Zhi Yuen 2015

3 be aware of the weather Knowing what the weather is likely to do on the day means you can pack the right gear or change your plans. But weather can change quickly, so you also need to be prepared for all conditions.

-0.7°C

is the average change in temperature for every 100m of elevation gained - MetService

Lisa Tamati Adventurer, Author, Documentary Maker, Coach I have had so many times out on the trails when things could have gone better if I had known more, been better prepared or had more experience in different climates. Checking the weather and adjusting my plans is something that I learned the hard way. It’s not just about packing a raincoat if it might rain. For me, I suffered kidney and nerve damage from not taking enough water or electrolytes with me on a hot day. Whatever the weather, make sure you adjust your plan appropriately.

tales from the trail

1 Plan your run

2 Tell someone YOUR PLANS

3 1 be aware of the weather

4 know your limits

5 take sufficient supplies

7

OUTDOOR RECREATION ACTIVITY GUIDES TRAIL RUNNING


WHAT IS THE FORECAST?

TOP TIP

Checking the weather in New Zealand is easy. The MetService mobile apps and www.metservice.com are a great place to start.

The weather can change from what was forecast a few days ago. Regularly check the forecast right up until you go.

In the days leading up to your run, use these planning tools:

• S evere Weather Information. The Severe Weather Outlook is the first place to look for a heads-up on any severe weather expected beyond the next couple of days.

•M  aps & Radars. The 3-day and 5-day rain forecasts are an indication of the timing of weather features expected over the next 5 days. The day before and on the morning of your run, re-check the:

• F orecast. If your route is through a National or Forest Park, be sure to check the ‘Mountains & Parks’ forecast in addition to current Severe Weather Information (see below). If your route is closer to ‘Towns & Cities’, use those forecasts - but look for any Warnings or Watches indicated at the top of the page,

• Severe Weather Information. Current Watches and Warnings highlight severe weather around the country in the next 24-48 hours, but are primarily focused away from the Mountains. If the weather looks serious, it would be wise to consider whether or not you should go on your run.

What impact will the weather have on your run? If the weather forecast does change for the worse, you need to decide if it’s significant enough to alter your plans. You may want to think about either changing the day or time of your run, or going to a different area that is less affected. Make sure you talk it through with everyone in the group, and consider everyone’s experience and comfort. In making your decisions, consider what effects these different weather conditions will have on your run.

RAIN

SNOW

FOG

EXTREME TEMPERATURES

TRACK Will we need to wear or pack different clothes and equipment?

DURATION Will the run take longer? Is our planned run suitable for the coming weather?

Are we able to carry enough water? Do we have access to water during the run? Is the water drinkable?

1 Plan your run

SUN

Clothing

Water

tales from the trail

WIND

2 Tell someone YOUR PLANS

RIVERS What will happen to streams and rivers that we may have to cross? Will they rise? Do we need to cross any? Are there alternative options?

3 1 be aware of the weather

4 know your limits

What will happen to the condition of the track? Will it become too muddy or slippery?

exposure How exposed will we be to the sun, wind and rain?

5 take sufficient supplies

8

OUTDOOR RECREATION ACTIVITY GUIDES TRAIL RUNNING


can you answer the following? ?

Is your body ready?

?

Is everyone else prepared?

?

What if things change?

Photo: Paul Petch 2016

4 know your limits Considering the limits of yourself and the group means you can pick a run that meets everyone’s expectations and fitness levels. It also means you are less likely to get into potentially dangerous situations beyond your experience and skill. Always be prepared to turn around and alter your plans if things change.

95%

of trail running accidents requiring medical attention were soft tissue injuries -‘There and back’, MSC 2016

keri devine International trail running and rogaining athlete I’ve experienced the mountains under a vast range of conditions and I’ve been in situations where my physical ability has been tested to the limit. One time I was running up an alpine pass and just before the top, the track became very steep and icy. While I was confident going up, I was concerned about getting down. I was not that experienced in the snow and ice so I made the decision to turn back. Making the wrong decision can be fatal. Wherever you’re headed, make sure you are aware of your physical ability and your skill level and plan your trip accordingly.

tales from the trail

1 Plan your run

2 Tell someone YOUR PLANS

3 be aware of the weather 1

4 know your limits

5 take sufficient supplies

9

OUTDOOR RECREATION ACTIVITY GUIDES TRAIL RUNNING


is your body ready?

TOP TIP

Good, fundamental skills are imperative to handling the trail.

• Start small. If you are new to trail running, start with shorter routes and easier terrain and gradually build up to more challenging trips. It’s important to take it slow. It can take several months for your body and mind to become accustomed to the varied terrain as you develop skills to glide over the trail and learn about what levels of fuel and water your body needs.

• G et advice from people with greater experience. Consider getting some coaching to focus on your posture and running style and develop a conditioning plan.

• It’s  also a great idea to run with others wherever possible as this will help you to learn little hints and tips from them. It also ensures that if something does go wrong others are around to help.

• A good warm up tells your body that it will start working soon. Warming up has a lot of benefits. Among them is the fact that it helps to gradually increase the heart and breathing rate, giving you an increased capacity to perform. Everyone develops their own preferences, but generally the older you are, the more attention you have to pay to the warm up.

• O nce you’re ready to go, ease into it gently. When you’ve finished, remember to let your body gradually cool down through low-intensity exercises, light stretching and rehydrating.

Starting with your extra layers on will help your body to warm up.

is everyone else prepared? To recognise your own limits and those of others in the group, answer the following questions:

• Is this track the right level of challenge for us?

• Is our fitness level sufficient? • What does each person want from the run?

• Does anyone have pre-existing medical conditions?

• Do we have what we need?

what if things change? Considering the abilities of the group and ensuring the trip meets everyone’s expectations will mean you are less likely to get into a dangerous situation. However, circumstances can change while you’re out. Be prepared, know your limits and make smart decisions.

• P ace yourself. Trail running is about perseverance and conserving energy. Regularly take short breaks to refuel, hydrate and check in to see how everyone’s doing.

• S tay together. Keep everyone in sight if possible. It may help to have the slower members towards the front to set the pace, and the most experienced person at the back to ensure no one is left behind on their own.

• S tay alert to your surroundings. Ask yourself, is anything changing? Are people starting to get cold, wet or overheated as the weather changes? Do you still know where you are and where you’re going? That way you can take early action if you need to, like turning back, picking a different route or finding shelter.

• A void crossing rivers if you’re not experienced, select tracks that use bridges to avoid crossing rivers. Remember, if the circumstances change you can always alter your plans by turning back, picking a different route or by finding shelter.

what if there are no bridges? is it safe?

Where to cross?

• In flood? • Discoloured? • Debris floating past? • Flows faster than walking pace? • Rocks being pushed along?

how do we cross? • Use the Mutual Support method if you are running in a group.

Check extra river safety information at www.mountainsafety.org.nz

if in doubt, do not attempt to cross tales from the trail

1 Plan your run

2 Tell someone YOUR PLANS

3 1 be aware of the weather

4 know your limits

5 take sufficient supplies

10

OUTDOOR RECREATION ACTIVITY GUIDES TRAIL RUNNING


can you answer the following? ?

What clothing and footwear will we need?

?

What food and drink will we need?

?

What equipment do we need?

5 take sufficient supplies There is a huge difference between running a track as part of a race and running that same track as a social training run. While a race will normally require a list of gear for you to carry so you can be self-reliant, there is always a “safety net” in place on top of that. All these things are removed when you are not taking part in a planned event. It is up to you to take responsibility for yourself.

55%

of search and rescues for trail runners occurred in the summer months - ‘There and back’, MSC 2016

nathan Fa’avae Five time adventure racing world champion New Zealand weather can change quickly. What can start out as a hot sunny day can rapidly turn cold, windy and wet. For that reason, I never head out on a trail run greater than 2 hours without a few basic items for safety and comfort. In my backpack I carry a waterproof and windproof jacket, warm hat and gloves and a thermal top. This clothing, combined with what I’m already wearing, is the minimum to get me home if I get caught out in bad weather. If the forecast predicts a weather change, I take thermal leggings, lightweight over trousers and a heavier-weight top. This gear enables me to stay warm in all trail conditions. I always add a first aid kit (which contains a survival blanket and matches), anti-chafe cream and a communication device. I budget on something to eat every 30 minutes and have a plan on where I can refill my water.

tales from the trail

1 Plan your run

2 Tell someone YOUR PLANS

3 be aware of the weather 1

4 know your limits

5 take sufficient supplies

11

OUTDOOR RECREATION ACTIVITY GUIDES TRAIL RUNNING


TOP TIP

what do you wear? Here are the key things to consider when deciding what to wear and pack for your run:

Don’t wear cotton, once it’s wet it stays wet.

•W  ear the right fabrics. Clothing only retains what heat your body produces. Certain fabrics wick moisture away from the body and retain warmth. Avoid cotton clothing – when cotton gets wet it ceases to insulate you. Wet and cold clothing significantly contributes to hypothermia.

External layer

• Wind and waterproof Insulation layer

• Breathable • Warm when wet • Light weight • Insulating

Layers Wind and rain

• K eep your core warm. There

EXTERIOR LAYER

are parts of you that are more important to keep warm. Focus on your chest, head, feet and hands. Always have a hat, thermal top, gloves and warm socks on your body or in your pack, even on a fine day.

INSULATION LAYER

Base layer

BASE LAYER

• Not irritating on skin • Absorbs moisture

Body heat

Running cap

•W  ear and pack layers. Light layers are the key to having options when you’re out. You can take one off if you’re too hot and it won’t be too heavy to carry, and you can chuck another one on if you’re cold.

Warm hat Jacket Gloves Copyright © New Zealand Mountain Safety Council 2015. All rights reserved.

Thermal top

• A lways take wind and rain protection. Weather is changeable. Warm top The weather at the start of your run might be completely different by the halfway point. Make sure you take wind and rain protection and extra layers you can put on if it gets cold.

Shorts

Consider:

• Sunglasses • Over-trousers • Gaiters • Trekking poles

Thermal leggings

Sturdy trail shoes with good traction

tales from the trail

1 Plan your run

2 Tell someone YOUR PLANS

3 1 be aware of the weather

4 know your limits

5 take sufficient supplies

12

OUTDOOR RECREATION ACTIVITY GUIDES TRAIL RUNNING


What do you eat and drink? Planning good nutrition and fuelling for your adventure is very important. Nothing will see your best-laid plans coming undone like running out of food and energy. Here are our suggestions:

• Have a decent meal before a long run. This should be between 2 and 4 hours before you start so that you are not running on a full stomach. For shorter, early morning runs, a snack at least 30 minutes before you go is important.

• What and when you eat on the run is very much a personal preference – sandwiches, crackers or specialized sports gels and bars. A good guide to follow is 60-90 grams of carbohydrate per hour.

• Drink small amounts when thirsty. Take at least 1 litre of water with you. Consider where you can refill and whether the water is safe to drink. Add electrolytes for longer runs.

2-4 hours before run

30 mins before run

During running

anna frost Ultra marathon legend It is up to each of us to find what works and what doesn’t for our own bodies. This can only happen through trial and error. During races I generally stick to energy bars and gels. I only drink water. In Ultra races I add peanut butter and jam sandwiches, baby food and chia seed drinks. I try to eat solid normal food at the beginning of the race and move to quick sugar-intensive foods near the end. And of course chocolate and coffee are a must!

tales from the trail

1 Plan your run

2 Tell someone YOUR PLANS

3 1 be aware of the weather

4 know your limits

5 take sufficient supplies

13

OUTDOOR RECREATION ACTIVITY GUIDES TRAIL RUNNING


what else do you take? EQUIPMENT

ADDITIONAL ITEMS

FIRST AID KIT

You definitely want to have these essential things with you on your run:

Depending on the weather, location and duration of your run, consider taking:

The most likely injuries to occur are blisters and sprains, so pack a couple of things to treat these such as:

• A topo map of the route • A communication device. Mobile phones can have limited coverage in most outdoor locations. If you are going into a remote area, especially if solo, seriously consider a personal locator beacon.

• A headtorch. You might be

• A running cap • Sunscreen and sunglasses • A compass and/or GPS • Trekking poles • Gaiters • Toilet paper

• Compression bandage. If sterile, this can also be used for mopping up blood if required

• Strapping tape which can also be put onto ‘hotspots’ to prevent blisters

• Saline solution to clean open wounds

TOP TIP

planning on getting back before dark, but if you don’t, a torch will be your new best friend.

• Painkillers, antihistamines and

An MSC pocket survival bag can also be used as a lightweight pack liner.

personal medication

• Chafing cream

• A small survival kit which includes a survival bag, a whistle and a lighter.

• Remember to keep everything dry, including your map.

tales from the trail

1 Plan your run

2 Tell someone YOUR PLANS

3 1 be aware of the weather

4 know your limits

5 take sufficient supplies

14

OUTDOOR RECREATION ACTIVITY GUIDES TRAIL RUNNING


Have a great run, but make it home This resource is intended to help people gain enjoyment and be challenged safely in the outdoors. However, individuals must take responsibility for their own safety to ensure safe participation in the outdoors. Please share with your family, friends and running groups to help them plan their trip and make it home.

#MakeItHomeNZ

Published by: New Zealand Mountain Safety Council www.mountainsafety.org.nz Enquiries: info@mountainsafety.org.nz Š 2016 New Zealand Mountain Safety Council

We value your feedback and we would love to hear what you think of this resource. Please contact us at info@mountainsafety.org.nz

with thanks We would like to thank the following individuals and partners for their support and involvement in producing this resource: Amanda Broughton

Nathan Fa’avae

Anna Frost

Nigel Muir

Grant Guise

Paul Petch

Jono Wyatt

Sam McCutcheon

Keri Devine

Simon Wickham

Lisa Tamati

Yap Zhi Yuen

Malcolm Law


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