2017 ANNUAL REPORT North Dakota Corn Utilization Council 1411 32nd St. S., Suite 2, Fargo, ND 58103 (701) 364-2250 â&#x20AC;¢ www.ndcorn.org
REFLECTING ON THE 2017 FISCAL YEAR to move corn, ethanol and dried distillers grain across the world. USGC uses checkoff funds from corn producing states and accesses matching funds from USDA’s Foreign Market Development Program and Market Access Programs to market corn and corn byproducts worldwide. The return on investment is running at $28 of value to $1 of investment.
Dale Ihry Executive Director
Scott German Chairman
The North Dakota Corn Utilization Council (NDCUC) experienced a very positive 2017 fiscal year. The 2016 corn crop was exceptional with a record state average yield of 158 bushels an acre, shattering the previous record of 132 bushels an acre attained in the 2010 crop year. Unfortunately the corn price has remained below the cost of production during an average year. In 2016 the marketing year average price for corn sold in the state was $3.15 a bushel. NDCUC’s mission of market development, research on new products for corn and its byproducts and education of corn is an integral part of creating demand. By partnering with local and national organizations, we are able to create more opportunities for corn grown in the state.
NDCUC supports the National Corn Growers Association (NCGA) and their market development, education and research efforts. We are proud that the NDCUCfunded Soil Health and Agricultural Research (SHARE) Farm in Mooreton, ND has been added to the Soil Health Partnership. This partnership strives to enhance agricultural sustainability and productivity by demonstrating and communicating the economic and environmental benefits of improved soil health with data from over 100 demonstration farms around the country. NCGA promotes ethanol by informing consumers about the value of ethanol, both at the pump and in the environment, and assisting with infrastructure to make ethanol more available across the U.S. One third, or 5.0 billion bushels, of the U.S. corn crop is used for ethanol; while approximately one half of North Dakota’s corn is used for ethanol production by our five ethanol plants.
The NDCUC is a founding member of the North Dakota Livestock Alliance (NDLA). The NDCUC and other commodity groups are funding NDLA to help grow animal agriculture in the state, which will ultimately create more markets for our crop. The NDLA’s mission is to work with individuals, communities, NDSU and state government to help find locations and communities that will support livestock growth.
Our valuable partnership with NDSU researchers continues. Funding efforts continue in the standard areas of agronomy, value-added and livestock. In the agronomy area we fund research that affects the corn plant related to fertilization and the ability to battle insects and diseases. Agronomy research also entails productivity and enhancements of soils. Value-added research seeks new uses for corn, such as wood composite replacement and biodegradable film. Livestock research focuses on the efficiencies of using corn and corn byproducts to feed livestock. Some of these feeding research efforts have been used this past summer during the drought, as ranchers searched for forage and feed alternatives.
To help promote and market corn around the world NDCUC partners with the US Grains Council (USGC). USGC provides the NDCUC and National Corn Growers Association the foreign marketing expertise
We always appreciate feedback from our corn growers on our funding decisions and priorities. Feel free to contact our office or your district representative if you have any questions.
North DAKOTA DakotaCORN Corn Production NORTH PRODUCTION 516,600,000
150,000,000 100,000,000 Price in ND ($/bushel)
2017 ALLOCATIONS Total: $2,753,602.16
2017 Allocations 2014
Total Allocation: $2,753,602.16
Research "Livestock" 2% Ethanol Marketing 5% Refunds 4%
Board Expense 2%
Producer Communication 6% National Corn Growers Association 25%
All O ther 2%
Sponsorships 5% US Grains Council 7%
Research "Agronomy" 12% National Ag Genotyping Center 15%
CHECKOFF INVESTMENT 2016 Actuals
Mini Grants Research "Agronomy" 2 Research "Value Added" 2 Research "Livestock" 2 Ethanol Marketing US Grains Council Refunds National Corn Growers Association Administrative 1 Board Expense
$8,177.05 $588,662.21 $140,736.10 $43,030.04 $83,136.75 $156,000.00 $89,108.49 $697,000.00 $346,812.17 $32,714.88
$12,552.96 $335,580.35 $13,546.66 $42,511.30 $134,420.04 $206,000.00 $106,162.65 $702,500.00 $407,566.86 $45,164.73
Sponsorships National Agricultural Genotyping Center Consumer Info/Marketing Producer Communication Agriculture Economics
$153,911.23 $400,000.00 $19,061.81 $118,547.62 $112,091.30
$141,060.96 $400,000.00 $20,292.00 $174,280.26 $11,963.39
Administrative costs in 2016 were low due to staff transitions. 2017 costs included a contract employee for technical support on research. 2 Research reductions were due to a reduction in proposals presented to the Council. 1
2017Annual ANNUALRevenue REVENUE $5,889,453
$6,000,000 $5,500,000 $5,000,000 $4,500,000
$1,000,000 $500,000 $-
Fiscal Year End
EDUCATIONAL AND PROMOTIONAL OUTREACH CornVention On February 8th, 2017, the North Dakota Corn Utilization Council (NDCUC) hosted the annual CornVention at the Holiday Inn in Fargo. This year’s theme was “Growing Tomorrow’s Farmers” and was considered a great success, with over 300 attendees. “Growing Tomorrow’s Farmers” featured discussions about the future generations involvement in agriculture. Meteorologist Mick Kjar kicked off CornVention by forecasting the 2017 growing season. The panel discussion focused on soil health practices such as cover crops, conservation tillage and nutrient management. The panel was moderated by Dr. Abbey Wick, NDSU Extension Soil Health Specialist, and featured four panelists: crop consultants Lee Briese and Mark Huso, and farmers Terry Wehlander and Scott Huso. The panel drew many questions and received great response from the audience. In the afternoon, the Peterson Farm Brothers from central Kansas entertained and educated the audience. The Peterson Farm Brothers are three young farmers known for their parody music videos and agriculture advocacy using social media. They performed some of their parody music hits and spoke on how they have
promoted agriculture to the general public. Their presentation received a standing ovation and a long line of fans requesting autographs and photos. Dr. Bill Wilson from the NDSU Department of Agribusiness and Applied Economics ended CornVention with his session about trade and worldwide commodity markets.
Ag in the Classroom NDCUC participated in four Ag in the Classroom events this year, educating over 4,000 elementary students about corn in North Dakota. These four events included the Winter Ag and Construction Expo in Jamestown, KFYR Agri-International Show in Bismarck, Living Ag Classroom in West Fargo and Harvest North Dakota in Lisbon. When teaching the students about corn, NDCUC focuses on the three types of corn grown: popcorn, sweet corn and field corn, and the four uses of corn: food, feed, fuel and fiber. Students also learn more about corn by playing a game using the spin wheel. By the end of the six minute presentation, the students have learned all about America’s number one field crop! CONTINUED ON PAGE 6
The Peterson Farm Brothers discussed their agriculture advocacy efforts and entertained the audience at CornVention with their parody music.
CONTINUED FROM PAGE 5
Banquet in a Field CommonGround North Dakota hosted its 3rd annual Banquet in a Field at Peterson Farms Seed near Prosper, ND. CommonGround North Dakota is a group of farmers having conversations about the food they grow and how they produce it. CommonGround members share their personal experiences, as well as science and research to help consumers sort through the myths and misinformation about food and farming. Banquet in a Field is designed to give consumers a chance to connect with North Dakota agriculture by touring crop plots, enjoying a five course meal featuring 12 crops and 3 meats grown in North Dakota, and conversing with North Dakotan farmers. The meal was prepared by local chefs Tony and Sarah Nasello and North Dakota State Universityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Meat Sciences. Over 120 influencers from the Cass County area attended the event. CommonGround was developed by the National Corn Growers Association and United Soybean Board to provide a platform and support to help farmers reach urban consumers. The local CommonGround North Dakota organization is supported by the NDCUC.
Ethanol Outreach The NDCUC continued market support and promotion of ethanol throughout the state. The five North Dakota ethanol plants use approximately 180 million bushels of corn annually, which is 40-60% of North Dakotaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s total corn production. The NDCUC has a valued relationship with the North Dakota Ethanol Council to educate about the value of corn to North Dakota as well as the environmental benefits of using ethanol. The NDCUC participated in various events to promote ethanol including Race Night at the Red River Valley Speedway in West Fargo, ND. NDCUC staff and board members handed out promotional items and had discussions with race-goers about the value and benefits of ethanol. Some drivers participating in the races use an ethanol blend in their cars, including Jason Strand of E85 racing, whom the NDCUC sponsors. NDCUC staff participated in an ethanol promotion event at a local fuel station in conjunction with the Minnesota Corn Growers Association and the American Lung Association of the Upper Midwest. During the event, any drivers fueling up their vehicles received a discount on higher ethanol blends. This was a chance to discuss the benefits and encourage drivers to consider fueling with ethanol.
MAJOR PARTNERS: NATIONAL CORN GROWERS ASSOCIATION install E15 pumps across the country. Building on this success, NCGA has worked with major pump manufacturers, like Wayne Fueling Systems, which is now manufacturing pumps that can dispense higher ethanol blends such as E25.
Even on a good day, production agriculture is a risky business. That’s why organizations like the North Dakota Corn Utilization Council (NDCUC) and the National Corn Growers Association (NCGA) work together on various issues affecting your bottom line. Over the long-term, growing demand for your corn is your best risk management tool. Strong demand is central to your success and the driver for virtually every NCGA program. Whether you know it or not, you play a vital role in the success of these efforts. NCGA’s programs are funded, in part, by your corn checkoff dollars through the NDCUC. Checkoff investments from corn farmers play a crucial role in helping us promote corn, educate consumers, leverage innovative research, and build new markets. One of the best examples of the power of your checkoff investment is the work done to grow demand for corn ethanol. In the last decade alone, corn used for ethanol has grown from 3.7 billion bushels to 5.3 billion bushels. This generates over $13 billion in economic activity in rural America annually. Behind this success you will find checkoff funded research on ethanol efficiency, increased ethanol yield, and on documenting the environmental benefits of ethanol. Our current American Ethanol program, which has powered every NASCAR race car for over 10 million miles on E15, has fired consumer imagination on the use of higher ethanol blends in their own cars. NCGA is using checkoff investments to give consumers access to higher ethanol blends via two major pump infrastructure initiatives. The first, Prime the Pump, is using funds to match grants from the U.S. Department of Agriculture. USDA’s Biofuel Infrastructure Partnership is making $100 million in grants available to
One of our latest demand initiatives is the Consider Corn Challenge. This global competition seeks to identify new and innovative uses for field corn as a renewable feedstock for making sustainable chemicals. NCGA is inviting innovators from industry, academia and other research institutions to consider new ways to utilize corn and maximize its contributions to the economy and your profitability. We have learned that building demand requires us to engage consumers to foster a better understanding and trust of how corn is produced. NCGA is taking positive messages to consumers through cooperative programs such as the US Farmers and Rancher’s Alliance, CommonGround and our Corn Reputation Initiative. Our corn reputation effort uses social media strategy to place positive educational messages in five of the nation’s largest urban areas and is anchored by a series of articles featured on National Geographic’s website. Everyone in ag today seems to be talking about soil health, due in part to the Soil Health Partnership (SHP) forged by NCGA, the Walton Family Foundation, and Monsanto. SHP strives to enhance sustainability and productivity by demonstrating and communicating the economic and environmental benefits of improved soil health. The data gained from over 100 demonstration farms will help document on-farm environmental progress and allow farmers improved soil health, water quality, resilience to extreme weather, and reduce economic risk in a common-sense manner. These programs are guided by the farmers on our Board of Directors and those who serve on our Action Teams and Committees. Equally important, these programs are funded by you, as a North Dakota corn checkoff contributor, through dollars invested by the NDCUC into national programs. NCGA appreciates your support of these efforts and tackles each project with great attention to grinding more corn, increasing your profitability, and growing new markets for tomorrow’s corn crop.
MAJOR PARTNERS: UNITED STATES GRAINS COUNCIL tunities for buyers to engage directly with Council staff, agribusiness members and farmers.
For over 55 years, the U.S. Grains Council (USGC) has worked to develop markets for U.S. corn, sorghum, barley and related products including ethanol and distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS). USGC operates programs in more than 50 countries with the funding support of farmer and agribusiness members, including the North Dakota Corn Utilization Council (NDCUC), as well as funds from the Market Access Program (MAP) and the Foreign Market Development (FMD) program authorized in the 2014 Farm Bill. A study released in November 2016 looked at the MAP and FMD programs’ impact over the past four decades, showing they contributed an average annual increase of $8.2 billion to farm export revenue – for a total of more than $309 billion. This gain equates to an impressive return on investment of 28 to 1. Despite the large returns on efforts of the USGC, the work is never done. Grain exports are a bright spot in the current farm economy and can grow even further through outreach to the 95 percent of the world’s consumers who live outside U.S. borders. The USGC serves as the bridge that allows stakeholders to be effective global business leaders. In a series of conferences, seminars and one-on-one meetings, the Council worked in 2016 to provide accurate and timely information about the quality and availability of the U.S. corn and sorghum crops, offering new and unique information available in the Council’s 2015/2016 corn and sorghum harvest and export cargo quality reports. These roll-outs provided a full review of the global grain supply and demand situation and offered oppor-
In the last year, the USGC has focused on finding buyers for a very large corn crop through an intense marketing push while continuing long-term demand building programs. As a result, USGC ramped up work in Mexico, Latin America and Southeast Asia while also pursuing new demand in up-and-coming markets like Tanzania, Cuba, Algeria and Malaysia and maintaining solid relationships in Canada, Japan, Taiwan and South Korea. As the U.S. government started dismantling the 50-year-old restrictions on trade with Cuba, the Council arranged a delegation of grain importers and officials from Cuba to visit the United States and see firsthand the advantages of purchasing U.S. coarse grains and co-products. Buyers left the United States with a renewed confidence in the supply and quality of U.S. coarse grains and co-products. Importantly, USGC also expanded the ethanol export promotion program dramatically in cooperation with Growth Energy, the Renewable Fuels Association and USDA’s Foreign Agricultural Service; worked to help our industry address investigations brought against U.S. DDGS by China; and pushed to open new markets like South Africa despite existing non-tariff barriers. The Council played a key role in the U.S. ethanol and DDGS industry’s defense against anti-dumping and countervailing duties investigations by China. This coordination was essential to the industry being represented well throughout the proceedings in China and keeping the U.S. industry informed. In 2017 and beyond, the Council and its partners will continue working with these global customers to increase their support of higher blend mandates for ethanol, which ultimately should lead to higher global demand for ethanol. The USGC works to both maintain long-term relationships with the world’s top grain buyers and capitalize on opportunistic demand for grain demand. Finding new opportunities around the world for our grain is the passion of both USGC members and staff. As always, the USGC values your support in these endeavors.
MAJOR PARTNERS: NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL GENOTYPING CENTER
Our mission at the National Agricultural Genotyping Center (NAGC) is to translate scientific discoveries into solutions for production agriculture, food safety, functional foods, bioenergy and national security. At present, there exists a large unmet need for high throughput genotyping services within US agricultural research, food production and safety testing. The National Corn Growers Association (NCGA) in partnership with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) established NAGC in 2016, to alleviate the inefficiencies, redundancies, bottlenecks and gaps that impede research and commercial development. We are supported through a public and private partnership of leading research and trade organizations, including LANL and NCGA. LANL provides the technological and informatics expertise to maintain technological advancements and ensure diverse genotyping needs are met. NCGA represents 35,000 dues-paying corn farmers from 47 states and the interests of more than 300,000 growers who contribute through corn checkoff programs. The North Dakota Corn Utilization Council was instrumental in securing NAGC to be housed on the campus of North Dakota State University in Fargo, ND. NAGCâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s genotyping services are made available to private and public scientists from breeders to quality control and food safety researchers. NAGC has undergone a rigorous audit from the International Organization for Standardization and is certified as an ISO 17025 testing facility, which is the highest recognition available for a testing laboratory.
Accurate and rapid diagnosis of disease is a key component to crop management. During the growing season, it is strongly recommended to continually scout fields to detect diseases as early as possible. To aid with diagnosis, many agricultural extension services provide resources to help recognize particular pathogens. For example, the color and length of the lesions on leaves have been suggested to be diagnostic features for particular corn pathogens. But are the symptoms consistent at early stages compared to late stages of the disease? Probably not. Are the symptoms for the same pathogen consistent across different varieties of corn? Probably not. These issues become immediately obvious as many guides or handouts on how to visually diagnose diseases have disclaimers noting that several groups of pathogens can produce similar symptoms, such as fungi and bacteria, two very distinctive groups that require entirely different strategies to control. Another issue is that many guides have illustrations that show only the best lesions that fit the description of a particular pathogen, but in reality, symptoms (e.g., streaks or spots) in the field can be highly variable. Thus, while visually diagnosing potential disease in the field is rapid, it may not be accurate. Ultimately, for the producers this confusion can be costly, leading to ineffective control practices that can add up quickly, amounting to wasted time and money. To help reduce confusion of visual disease diagnosis, the National Agricultural Genotyping Center (NAGC) has validated genetic tests for several diseases that may look similar in the field, but have unique molecular (DNA) signatures. These tests can detect diseases in plant tissue, roots, crop residues and soil. NAGC has made available corn-specific molecular tests to confidently diagnose Gossâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Wilt, Bacterial Leaf Streak, and Gray Leaf Spot; three diseases that can be confused by visual inspection alone. These assays were made possible through collaborations with the laboratories of Jan Leach and Kirk Broders from Colorado State University, and Ryan McNally from the University of Minnesota.
2017 RESEARCH FUNDING Research Project - Agronomy Carena - Building a Short Season Quality Gene Pool for ND Hybrids
Contracted Funds $133,299.09
Chatterjee - Corn Response to Sulfur Application Rates Cooper - CCSP Corn Plots Franzen - Potassium Recalibration for Corn Friskop - Identification and Management of Corn Diseases Harmon - Influence of Soil Salinity Gradients on Corn and Pest Infestation Knodel - Evaluation of Bt-Traits in Corn Hybrids in Corn Rootworms in ND Ransom - Improving the Profitability of Nitrogen Use in Corn
$9,810.00 $5,052.00 $45,010.00 $14,700.00 $17,406.87 $27,384.39 $25,667.26
Wick - Research and Extension Efforts at the SHARE Farm
Yan- Plant Parasitic Nematodes on Corn and Evaluation of Resistance Zang - Corn Germplasm Evaluation for Tolerance to Waterlogging
Total Research Project - Value Added Ransom - Improving Profitability of Nitrogen Use Corn with Distillers Grains Teboh - Corn Production Optimization with Distillers Grains as Fertilizer
Total Research Project- Livestock Swanson - Effects of Fat Level In Distillers Grain Fed with Corn or Barley on Steer Performance Ripplinger - Beef Finishing Study
$335,580.52 Contracted Funds $10,995.63 $3,036.09
$14,031.72 Contracted Funds $22,073.45 $20,437.68
Research Project - Mini Grants Contracted Funds Rahman - Minimize Odor and GHG Emissions at Animal Feeding Operations $4,974.03 Quadir - Synthesizing Medical Material from Corn Bran $3,865.93 Upper Great Plains Transportation Institute - Grain Handling Database $3,713.00 Total $12,552.96 Total Research Funding
BUILDING A SHORT-SEASON QUALITY GENE POOL FOR THE NEXT GENERATION OF NORTH DAKOTA CORN HYBRIDS Marcelo J. Carena, NDSU Plant Science Department This proposal addressed the need for genetic diversity and quality of North Dakota hybrids. Consequently, the NDSU corn-breeding program identified low cost high quality hybrids with reduced risk to farmers. A new northern U.S. gene pool was created and knowledge was generated to colleagues, students, and stakeholders. The program developed 21 new corn products in 2016-2017 and Plant Variety Protection Disclosure Forms were completed. Advanced Corn Technologies (USA) has signed two commercialization agreements with the NDSU Research Foundation to increase, produce, and process NDSU hybrid seed available to ND farmers. One of these products is a female inbred line demonstrated to produce more hybrid seed than any female inbred available in the market. This will translate to a lower final cost of seed to farmers under low commodity prices. Other program accomplishments include: • Plant and Food Research (New Zealand) identified five NDSU hybrids with commercial potential for the dairy industry. • CanaMaize (Canada) requested the commercialization of genetically broad based NDSU populations for marketing low cost alternative short-season corn populations and their hybrids saving time and cost of seed production. • Two NDSU corn products were used for humanitarian purposes in NE Asia. • Companies and institutes requested over 60 NDSU corn inbred and population agreements in 2016. Corn royalty fees were used to supplement research-related salaries and travel. • Hi-Fidelity Genetics signed a consulting agreement to identify commercial products. The NDSU corn-breeding program validated a non-
destructive high throughput phenotyping invention for identifying drought tolerant hybrids, produced 11 peer-review publications, developed four new male and female inbred line releases, and created 17 new germplasms. Hybrids, including the new lines, out-yielded commercial hybrids in marginal environments across years. Hybrid yield gains due to NDSU breeding and genetics were worth over $20 an acre. A unique breakthrough happened this season: the program adapted 100% tropical corn to North Dakota for the first time. To continue success, it is imperative to be able to harvest later in the season. This provides new genetically diverse elite products that carry drought tolerance, fast dry down, disease resistance, and low nitrogen input needs, reducing farmer costs for fertilizing, drying, and irrigation. Screening under controlled winter nursery conditions and utilizing NDSU corn breeding inventions for high throughput phenotyping for fast dry down, cold and drought tolerance was essential for the development of these products. Dollars were used in a cost-efficient way taking maximum advantage of cooperation. We have worked extensively with stakeholders and led a large network of public and private cooperators to avoid spending federal and state funds in costly academic labs. The program was exposed to Monsanto and Benson Hill Biosystems technologies when invited to visit their technology centers and conferences to share ideas on quantitative genetics, genome editing, bioinformatics, analytics, and microbiome initiatives. The information gathered was presented on-site to producers and peers through field days, scientific publications, press releases, plenary lectures, and websites. Information can be accessed on the NDSU Plant Sciences and Research Foundation websites and in the monthly Plant Sciences Department newsletter.
CORN RESPONSE TO SULFUR APPLICATION RATES Jashandeep Kaur and Amitava Chatterjee, NDSU Soil Science Department Sulfur (S) is considered the fourth major nutrient for optimum plant growth and development. Unlike other major nutrients, researchers have not studied S extensively mainly because it was highly available from several sources like industrial emissions, fertilizers and pesticides, but several S deficiency incidences have been recorded in the Northern Great Plains. The major reasons are: declines in atmospheric S deposition, use of high analysis fertilizers with no or low S, and continual S removal by crops like corn, canola and alfalfa. Fertilizers like ammonium sulfate and ammonium thiosulfate have the potential to overcome S deficiency. However, the lack of accurate soil testing methods restricts the ability to determine the soil S levels and the amount of fertilizer S required. In recent times, S deficiency in corn has been recorded at many sites. This results in lower corn grain yield and chlorosis of new leaves. Generally, a corn crop
Sulfur defiency in corn at the Ada site.
with 180 bushels/acre yield removes 16 lbs of S/acre. Previous research across North Dakota recommended to apply 10 lbs of SO42-/acre of ammonium sulfate for corn in low organic matter coarse textured soils. Our study aims to revisit this recommendation by determining the corn response to various S treatments. In addition, we will evaluate the relationship between plant S uptake and yield at critical crop stages. Our experiment was planned at five sites: Absaraka, Ada, Downer, Gardner and Walcott for the 2016 growing season. Five S treatments (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 lb SO42- S/ acre) were applied using ammonium sulfate in randomized complete block design with four replications. Our objectives were 1) to evaluate corn response to five S application rates and 2) to determine relationship between corn S uptake and yield under different soil types. Our results showed that corn response to S was observed at one site (Downer) out of five sites. Significant increase in yield at Downer with fertilizer application might be due to low organic matter and sandy loam soils. Sandy soils have less capacity to retain nutrients and at more risk for S deficiency due to its high leaching potential. In addition, the soil organic matter was less at this site (3%) compared to other four sites. Thus, the mineralization of soil organic matter could not provide enough S to meet plant needs at this site and corn showed response to the applied S fertilizer whereas enough S was available from soil organic matter at other sites and no response was observed to applied S. In addition, no relationship was noticed between corn yield and plant S content. We are conducting this experiment in 2017 to validate our findings.
MILLING AND STABILIZATION OPTIMIZATION OF CORN FLOUR Neil Doty, Northern Crops Institute Human food and animal feed industries have become focused on reducing microbiological hazards originating from agricultural commodities. Flour and meal products derived from grain, such as corn, can be contaminated with microbiological hazards from the commodity itself; animal, bird, and insect contamination; transport equipment; storage facilities; processing equipment; and packaging materials. Food and feed processors are charged with ensuring all potential microbiological hazards are identified and mitigated as mandated by the 2011 FDA Food Safety Food Modernization Act. Many food processors have adopted the attitude that seeds, nuts, and grain are not safe to use for human food without a microbe reduction treatment. Several treatment technologies involve the use of heat to achieve a microbe reduction treatment for seeds and grains. A combination of increased corn acres in North Dakota along with increased demand for whole grain flour as a superior food ingredient for a variety of food products may provide an opportunity for the development and operation of a food-grade corn mill in North Dakota. New food-grade corn mill operators in North Dakota will be faced with the decision whether to incorporate heat treatment technologies to corn prior to milling in order to mitigate the risk of microbial contamination of milled corn flour. The objectives of this study were twofold: 1) to select a potentially effective heat treatment procedure on corn kernels that result in milled whole grain corn flour with minimal effect on starch viscosity characteristics and 2) to determine if a heat treatment on corn kernels affects the quality of whole grain corn flour baked goods, snack food, and pasta products. The Northern Crops Institute (NCI), Fargo, ND, evaluated samples using the Rapid Visco Analyser® technology to analyze heat and moisture treated corn kernels to select an effective heating time and temperature that had a minimal effect upon corn
starch characteristics. A Fitzmill® hammermill was used to produce whole grain corn flour. Three corn-based baked goods, cornbread muffins, corn pancakes, and Brazilian corn cookies, were produced and evaluated at the NCI bakery laboratory to determine the effect of a whole grain corn flour heat treatment on product quality. 100% whole grain corn extruded snack puffs (also known as snack collettes) were produced at the NCI twin screw extrusion laboratory. 100% whole grain corn, gluten free pasta was produced at the NCI pasta pilot production laboratory to evaluated to determine the effect of a whole grain corn flour heat treatment on pasta quality. Heat treated whole corn flour can be utilized to produce corn flour expanded snack collettes with a milder flavor profile and a more appealing texture. Heat treated corn flour does not exhibit detrimental effects on the preparation of corn flour expanded snack collettes. Unheated whole corn flour is superior to heat treated whole corn flour as the primary ingredient in whole corn, gluten free penne pasta. Heat treated corn flour penne pasta had nearly double the cooking loss of unheated corn flour penne pasta. Heat treated corn flour penne pasta had only ¾ of the el dente firmness of unheated corn flour penne pasta. In industry practice, high temperature, short time, high humidity heat treatments are being used to sterilize nuts, seeds, and grains. Heat treatments on corn kernels can be utilized to reduce the incidence of microbiological risk and also improve food product characteristics, primarily in extruded snack foods and baked goods. Conversely, heat treated corn flour yielded pasta products with unacceptable cooking losses and inferior firmness scores. A North Dakota-based corn milling entity should fully evaluate adding a microbiological kill step to corn to determine effectiveness of microbiological mitigation and corn flour product quality prior to implementation.
POTASSIUM RECALIBRATION IN NORTH DAKOTA David Franzen, Amitava Chatterjee, Manbir Rakkar, and John Breker, NDSU Soil Science Department The objective of this project was to investigate the yield response of potassium (K) in corn in North Dakota. The original K fertilizer recommendations for corn in North Dakota were borrowed from other states, because soil test K levels in North Dakota were mostly in the high recommendation range, requiring little K. Export of K from our soils due to a change from a wheat state to corn and soybeans, containing many times more K in grain than wheat, has resulted in much lower K soil tests. The study was conducted on 29 sites in farmer fields in Cass, Richland, Barnes and Sargent counties in North Dakota. The K rates used were 0, 30, 60, 90, 120,
and 150 pounds K2O supplied by potassium chloride fertilizer, commonly known as 0-0-60 potash. Having selected most sites having K soil test levels under 150 ppm, we expected corn yield to increase up to a certain K rate, and then select a K soil test critical level based on the highest K soil test with a yield increase to application, and a rate of K based on what K rate resulted in maximum yield. However, only half of the sites reacted as we initially expected. On further evaluation, we found that whether or not a site responded had much to do with clay chemistryeither smectite clay or an illite clay, both of which are found in greatest abundance in most of North Dakota. CONTINUED ON PAGE 15
Figure 1. Potassium feldspar content as a percentage of total soil minerals in North Dakota, from a soil sampling of two to three major soil groups in each county, spring 2017.
Figure 2. Smectite/illite ratio of the clay portion of soils in North Dakota, from a soil sampling of two to three major soil groups in each North Dakota county, spring, 2017.
CONTINUED FROM PAGE 14 We separated sites into those with a smectite/illite ratio of greater or less than 3.5. Sites with greater a smectite/illite ratio greater than 3.5 required a higher critical level (200 ppm) than sites with a smectite/illite ratio less than 3.5 (150 ppm). In addition, we found that rates greater than 200 pounds 0-0-60 resulted in a yield decrease compared to an optimum potash rate of 150 to 200 pounds 0-0-60 depending on the site. In addition, yield increases to K fertilization were less than expected, perhaps due to the relatively high potassium feldspar mineral content of many soils in eastern North Dakota, where the K rate trials were conducted (Figure 1). In order to produce recommendations that are easy to use and understandable to farmers and their consultants and suppliers, we needed a map of North Dako-
ta clay chemistry. To produce such a map, surface soil samples from two to three major soil groups from each county of the state were collected in early May 2017, and sent off for analysis of clay type and potassium feldspar content. The results are shown in Figure 2. Smectite clays supply K to the soil solution from their structural interlayers when the soil is moist, but when the soil is dry, smectite clays collapse and draw in K into the interlayers, causing what is called in soil science â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;fixationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. When the soil re-wets, the K again can be released into the soil solution. Fixation is a problem in drier growing seasons. Illite clays supply K to the soil solution whether the soil is wet or dry, thus the lower required critical K level in soils with greater illite presence. Specific K fertilizer recommendations for corn have been revised and incorporated into revised Extension circulars and on relevant websites.
IDENTIFICATION AND MANAGEMENT OF CORN DISEASES Elizabeth Bauske and Andrew Friskop, NDSU Plant Pathology Department Corn diseases are found regularly in North Dakota, yet their prevalence and severity have never been formally documented. Understanding the diseases that occur in the state and understanding which diseases pose the greatest economic threat will help drive future management decisions for growers. The objectives of this project will help document corn diseases in North Dakota, assess the yield loss potential of Goss’ leaf blight and wilt (Goss’ wilt), and develop a better understanding of the bacterial pathogen responsible for Goss’ wilt. A corn disease foliar survey has been conducted in North Dakota since 2014. Results from the survey have determined that three diseases commonly occur in the state; common corn rust, northern corn leaf blight and Goss’ wilt (Figure 1). The incidence of these diseases have varied from year to year, however common corn
rust continues to be the most prevalent disease. Common corn rust and northern corn leaf blight rarely need to be managed as most northern hybrids have adequate resistance. However, several hybrids are susceptible to Goss’ wilt. Hybrid selection can influence both the prevalence (how often it appears) and severity (how much of the plant is damaged) of this disease. Hybrid selection is an important decision made by a grower each year. Many factors can drive the selection process such as maturity and yield potential. Another factor that may influence hybrid selection is disease (i.e. Goss’ wilt). Understanding the yield loss potential associated with Goss’ wilt will help create awareness among ND growers. Trials have been conducted since 2015 to determine the effect of inoculation timing CONTINUED ON PAGE 17
Figure 1. Goss’ wilt poses the greatest economic threat to ND corn. Symptoms include water-soaked (greasy lesions) with ‘freckles’ within the lesion, premature leaf death and premature plant death.
CONTINUED FROM PAGE 16 (infecting corn plants with the Goss’ pathogen) and hybrid susceptibility on yield. Research plots were inoculated at growth stage V8-V12 and/or VT. All the data were compared to plots that were not inoculated with the pathogen. Results in 2016 showed substantial yield loss in both susceptible and intermediate hybrids. For example, when the pathogen was inoculated at growth stage V8-V12, yield losses of 55% and 34% were observed on susceptible and intermediately resistant hybrids. Another way to look at this data is if a producer assumes a susceptible hybrid has 170 bu/A yield potential, an early season infection by the Goss’ wilt pathogen may reduce yields to 94 bu/A in infected areas. One of the cornerstones of plant pathology is understanding the causal agent of a disease. It has been well documented that several plant pathogens have
changed over time in numerous cropping systems. In order to understand Goss’ wilt risk in ND, more information is needed on the biology of the pathogen. In the upcoming year, approximately 80 Goss’ wilt pathogen isolates will be used to assess aggressiveness (how quickly the pathogen spreads on leaf tissue). Aggressiveness will be assessed by measuring the lesion length over time and determining if certain isolates produce disease symptoms faster than others. The information could aid future breeding efforts. The research listed above will help create and strengthen corn disease management recommendations for North Dakota. The survey will help monitor any changes in disease prevalence, the Goss’ field trials will help determine yield loss potential, and the aggressiveness studies will enhance our knowledge on the biology of the Goss’ wilt pathogen. This information will used in Extension talks to help create awareness and management options.
IDENTIFICATION OF BT RESISTANCE IN CORN ROOTWORMS Janet J. Knodel, NDSU Plant Pathology Department; Joel Ransom, NDSU Plant Sciences Department; Mark Boetel and Veronica Calles-Torrez, NDSU Entomology Department Northern corn rootworm (NCR), Diabrotica barberi, and western corn rootworm (WCR), D. virgifera virgifera, are major insect pests of corn in the Midwest. Corn rootworm (CRW) larvae damage plants by feeding on roots, which results in plant lodging and reduced yields. Many corn producers have adopted the strategy of planting hybrids expressing Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) endotoxins to manage corn rootworms. Rootworm Bt-corn hybrids express Bt proteins that are specifically toxic to corn rootworm larvae. Western corn rootworm resistance to transgenic corn expressing Bt endotoxins has been confirmed in some states; however, the status of sensitivity to this technology has not been previously investigated in NCR or WCR populations in North Dakota. The goal of the 2016-2017 research was to determine if North Dakota populations of NCR and WCR have developed resistance to any of the Bt proteins. Northern and western corn rootworm adults were collected from five corn fields in North Dakota during 2016. Collection of beetles were from July 24 through September 20th, 2016. A grand total of 30,372 NCR beetles were collected from the five corn fields. The WCR was found only in Ransom Co., and a total of 304 beetles were collected from this field. Collected beetles were transported to the NDSU greenhouse. Beetles were caged by field site and reared in a growth chamber, which was set at temperature of 25Â°C, 65% R.H., and at photoperiod 16:10 (L:D). Beetles were fed with artificial corn diet, and agar was provided as source of water. In each cage, one to two petri dishes containing fine/aggregate soil were provided for oviposition eggs. Oviposition substrate dishes were changed once a week. When egg dishes were taken out of the rearing cage, they were left outside of cages for two weeks. After two weeks, eggs were washed and counted.
Up to 26 November 2016, a total of 110,790 eggs of northern corn rootworm were counted from the five corn fields and 51,050 eggs of western corn rootworm from Ransom County. Eggs were stored in a growth chamber set at temperature of 8Â°C, 65% R.H., and dark (no light). Eggs need to be stored for a minimum of five months to complete egg diapause period. After five months, eggs can be used for testing corn rootworm resistance in Bt corn hybrids in the greenhouse. Controls for the experiment were obtained from WCR and NCR laboratory colonies at the USDA ARS laboratory in Brookings, SD that had never been exposed to any Bt endotoxins. Currently, larvae of WCR and NCR are being screened for potential resistance to Cry3Bb1, Cry34/35 and pyramided (Cry3Bb1 + Cry34/35Ab1) Bt corn endotoxins at the NDSU Research Greenhouse. Due to the length of time required to complete the rearing of corn rootworms and the Bt bioassay, we asked and received an extension on this grant until December 31, 2017. Previous results of the 2015 bioassays indicated that the field collected populations of WCRs had significantly greater survival on Cry3Bb1 compared to the laboratory (control) colony progeny. For NCR, there were no significant differences in sensitivity to any of the Bt endotoxins between a susceptible laboratory colony and the field population of NCR; however, the bioassay used was developed for WCR. In 2016-2017, we are repeating this bioassay with modifications for NCR. Results also indicated that pyramided Bt corn had the lowest larval survival from ND field-collected populations: WCR at 16% larval survival and NCR at 10% larval survival. Peer-reviewed papers: We submitted the following corn rootworm paper to the Journal of Economic Entomology for publication as result of this NDCUC funded CONTINUED ON PAGE 19
Northern Corn Rootworm feeding. Photo by Veronica Calles-Torrez. CONTINUED FROM PAGE 18 project: “Transgenic Bt Corn, Soil Insecticide, and Insecticidal Seed Treatment Effects on Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Beetle Emergence, Larval Feeding Injury, and Corn Yield in North Dakota.” It is in the process of being modified for re-submission. Poster: A poster titled Effects of Transgenic Bt Corn, Soil Insecticide, and Insecticidal Seed Treatment on Timing of Diabrotica barberi Beetle Emergence in North Dakota, which was presented by Ms. Veronica Calles Torrez at the 2nd Annual Asa Fitch Entomological Symposium in Fargo, ND. NDSU Extension Publications: A new publication E1852 Integrated Pest Management of Corn Rootworm in North Dakota was recently published during June 2017. Two older NDSU Extension publications are in the process of being updated: “Corn Insects of North
Dakota Affecting the Crop after Emergence;” and “Corn Insects of ND Affecting Planting Decisions.” Graduate Student: This funding also partially supported the research/training of two graduate students in the field of Plant Sciences (Kellie Podliska, M.S. degree confirmed in Spring 2015), and Entomology (Veronica Calles-Torrez, Ph.D. degree to be completed in Fall Semester 2017). Summary: The preliminary results of this research suggest that, although WCR populations have declined in North Dakota in recent years, they appear to be in the process of developing resistance to CRW-specific Bt endotoxins. The 2016-2017 research will reevaluate these research findings. As such, grower adherence to insect resistance management practices in relation to Bt hybrid use for CRW management is critical to sustaining the effectiveness of this technology in North Dakota.
RESEARCH AND EXTENSION EFFORTS AT THE SOIL HEALTH AND AGRICULTURE RESEARCH EXTENSION (SHARE) FARM Abbey Wick, Caley Gasch and Frank Casey, NDSU Soil Science Department; Dave Ripplinger, NDSU Agribusiness and Applied Economics Department The SHARE Farm is both a location for research efforts and a platform for extension programming. On-site, research is being conducted on evaluation of soil health, conservation tillage approaches, incorporation of cover crops in rotation and also salinity management. Extension programming includes annual bus tours and field days at farms throughout the state demonstrating practices used at the SHARE Farm and also Soil Health CafĂŠ Talks. Farmer input drives both the research and extension efforts associated with this project.
In 2016, the SHARE Farm was linked with the National Corn Growers Association Soil Health Partnership network of sites. Sites within this network are primarily located in Iowa, Indiana and Illinois. This is the first site in the Northern Great Plains, making it critical for understanding how soil health building practices, like using cover crops and reducing tillage, impact crop yield and soil properties in this region. As part of this partnership, over 100 acres of corn at the SHARE farm were interseeded with cereal rye and radish in 2016. CONTINUED ON PAGE 21
CONTINUED FROM PAGE 20 In 2017, soybean was planted into a living cereal rye cover crop (an approach called “planting green”) and an oat/radish cover crop mix was flown on into the soybean in late July. The conservation tillage plots evaluating soil warming and drying under strip till, vertical till and chisel plow management are in their second year of data collection (2016 – corn; 2017 – soybean). In addition, a large scale assessment of soil health evaluation methods currently available (for example, the Haney Test and Cornell Soil Health Test) was initiated in 2017 to determine the best possible tools for North Dakota farmers to use when evaluating soil health on their farms. An online economic calculator was also made available on the NDSU Soil Health webpage (ndsu. edu/soilhealth) to provide guidance on crop selection for saline soils. This calculator included data collected from commodity- funded projects over the past three years on corn, soybean and wheat response to salinity.
NDSU Soil Health specialist, Abbey Wick, farmer and NDCUC Treasurer Terry Wehlander, from DeLamere, ND, and International Certified Crop Advisor of the Year, Lee Briese, from Edgeley, ND, were featured in an NCGA Soil Health Partnership learning session at the 2017 Commodity Classic in San Antonio. This put efforts related to using cover crops and building soil health in North Dakota on a national stage. SHARE Farm update videos along with 50 other videos related to building soil health in North Dakota, AgWeek “Soil Health Minute” segments, workshop and field day information are available on the NDSU Soil Health webpage (ndsu.edu/soilhealth). Day-to-day information on soil health is also available by following Abbey Wick (@NDSUsoilhealth) and Caley Gasch (@ckgasch) on Twitter.
Extension programming included a two-day bus tour in 2016 to highlight commodity-funded research and demonstration sites in the southeastern part of the state. Topics covered included interseeding corn, saltaffected soil management using tile drainage, crop rotation and cover crops, conservation tillage practices, and using cover crops in rotation to achieve onfarm goals. The popular Soil Health Café Talks were also held in the winter of 2017 in LaMoure, Nelson, Ransom, Richland, Sargent and Stutsman counties. We reached over 250 farmers during these café talks with 65 hours of discussion on how to incorporate cover crops, manage salinity, fertility recommendations and on-line calculators, grazing efficiency, compost and manure management and climate information from NDAWN. The AgWeek “Soil Health Minute,” which featured both a television segment and a magazine column, was also initiated in the spring of 2017. This North Dakota Corn Utilization Council (NDCUC) and North Dakota Soybean Council funded effort included 12 television segments and 16 magazine columns geared towards getting information on soil health building practices out to farmers. Due to popularity, the “Soil Health Minute” will be continued in 2018.
PLANT-PARASITIC NEMATODES ON CORN AND EVALUATION OF CORN VARIETIES FOR RESISTANCES TO NEMATODES Guiping Yan and Andrew Friskop, NDSU Plant Pathology Department Joel Ransom, NDSU Plant Sciences Department Plant- parasitic nematodes (PPN) are one of the greatest threat to world crop production today. These pests of roots are reported to cause yield losses of up to 20% in some U.S. corn fields. It was estimated that these parasites of roots reduced annual statewide grain corn yield by 4% in Iowa and 7% in Georgia. Similar results were observed in South Dakota where corn grain yield losses due to nematodes averaged in 9.5 bu/ac. However, very little is known about nematode occurrence and their populations in North Dakota corn fields. In order to reduce crop losses and determine what management tactics are needed to control these pests, it is important to be aware of density, incidence and species of nematode populations. Thus the objectives of this study were to conduct a survey of 100 corn fields to determine nematode occurrence in ND and
to screen ten corn varieties for resistance to root-lesion nematode and spiral nematode. In 2016 soil samples were collected from 100 corn fields or fields that had a history of corn production across 18 counties. Vermiform (motile) nematodes were then extracted from these soil samples to identify and quantify them. Among these fields, 73% of them were found to be infested with plant-parasitic nematodes. Seven major groups (genera) of vermiform PPN were detected. The most common group in these fields was spiral nematode followed by stunt, pin, root-lesion, dagger, lance and stubby root nematodes (Figure 1). Juveniles of soybean cyst nematode were also deCONTINUED ON PAGE 23
Figure 1. Occurrence frequency (incidence) of each group of plant-parasitic nematodes. X-axis: different nematode groups. Y-axis: percentage of North Dakota fields positive for PPN. Soybean cyst nematode = only juveniles.
Figure 2. Distribution of total plant-parasitic nematodes based on 300 corn field samples in various counties of North Dakota in 2015 and 2016. CONTINUED FROM PAGE 22 tected. The results of nematode occurrence frequency in 2015 are also included in Figure 1. The nematode distribution pattern in various counties of North Dakota in 2015 and 2016 is described in Figure 2.
their reactions to the root-lesion nematode and spiral nematode. The initial population of spiral nematode in this soil was 4,627 per kg of soil, whereas the initial number of lesion nematode was 510 per kg of soil.
In addition, the species identities of five nematode groups were confirmed by morphological and DNAbased methods, including one species of each of spiral, stubby root, lance, and pin nematodes, and four species of root-lesion nematodes. Further research is needed to evaluate the effect of these nematodes on corn plant growth and grain yield, and develop efficient assays to detect and identify different species for designing effective nematode management strategies.
From the results of the experiment we primarily concluded that spiral nematode population of this corn field reproduced best on X5B-8801, DKC 44-13, and GX 89 VT2P whereas the nematode reproduced the least on PFS74K89. On the other hand the root-lesion nematode population of this field reproduced well on 4913 VT2RIB, DKC 44-13, and DK 43-48 RIB. Further experiments are needed to confirm the resistance or susceptibility of the ND corn varieties to these nematode species.
Root-lesion nematode is one of the most common nematode pests of corn. Spiral nematode is consistently found in very high numbers in ND corn fields. Thus we evaluated resistance reactions of ten corn varieties in ND to these two nematode field populations. The varieties included LR 9487 VT2PRIB, 4913 VT2RIB, DKC 44-13, DK 43-48 RIB, DK 43-46, L-2916 VT2PRO, GX 89 VT2P, 1392 VT2P, PFS74K89 and X5B-8801. Soil samples were collected from a corn field in Cass County to screen these corn varieties for
These research findings are important, as it gives us an insight into nematode population dynamics in North Dakota corn fields. It is very important to be aware of nematode populations and their characteristics in corn fields for determining if and what management actions are needed to control these pests of roots. Knowing such information we will be able to determine strategies and help farmers in combating this threat caused by plant-parasitic nematodes to increase corn yield.
CORN GERMPLASM EVALUATION FOR TOLERANCE TO WATERLOGGING Qi Zhang, NDSU Plant Sciences Department Waterlogging (i.e. flooding) is a major constrain in agricultural production, affecting about 10% of land worldwide. Farmers in North Dakota have experienced severe waterlogging damage in the last two decades. One of the most economically effective methods to reduce stress damage is use of tolerant plants. Furthermore, waterlogging-tolerant plants are less likely to be affected by other stresses such as disease and insect infections and weed invasion, thus reducing other inputs (e.g., chemical applications). Consequently, economic revenue is increased. We are conducting this project to develop a screening method to evaluate corn waterlogging tolerance and subsequently using this method to determine relative tolerance of 16 corn populations maintained in the NDSU corn germplasm collection. Development of a waterlogging tolerance screening method: Corn seeds were germinated in plastic tubes amended with a soil:sand (1:1, v:v) mixture which mimicked the field condition, held in cone-containers. The containers were soaked in ½ strength Hoagland solution after seedling to ensure sufficient nutrients for germination and seedling growth. Corn plants were grown to 2-3 leaf stage (~ 10 days after sowing) and then subjected to the control (i.e. non-waterlogging) or waterlogging (containers held in plastic tubs with water
level 2 cm above the soil surface) for 3, 6, or 9 days. Waterlogging caused limited growth reduction above the ground and at 0-5 cm depth below the ground (data not shown). Three-day waterlogging caused approximately 50% root reduction at all rooting depths between 10 cm and 25 cm (Table 1). Root growth of the plants under 6-day waterlogging decreased with increasing rooting depth, ranging from 21.0 mg at 5-10 cm depth to 1.2 mg at 20-25 cm depth. The extended waterlogging, 9-day, caused severe root damage (~ 80% growth reduction compared to the control) from 10 cm below the soil surface. Six-day waterlogging duration was selected to screen waterlogging tolerance in corn. Relative waterlogging tolerance of 16 corn populations: Relative waterlogging tolerance of ‘NDEarlyGEM21a’, ‘NDEarlyGEM3’, ‘NDEarlyGEM10’, ‘NDSSR’, ‘NDSM(M-FS)C10Syn2’, ‘NDEarlyGEM4’, ‘NDEarlyGEM5’, ‘NDEarlyGEM26’, ‘Leaming(S-FS) C6’, ‘NDSMo17’, ‘NDSMB73’, ‘NDBS39’, ‘NDBS29’, ‘NDSHLC(FS-M-FS)C6’, ‘NDBS16’, and ‘NDBS28’, was determined following the method described previously. These 16 populations vary in maturity. The plants were cross pollinated within each population CONTINUED ON PAGE 25
Table 1. Corn tissue dry weight (mg) at 5-25 cm depth below the soil surface after 3-, 6-, and 9-day (D) of the control (non-waterlogging) and waterlogging condition. Numbers in the parenthesis indicate the ratio between waterlogging to the control within the same waterlogging duration. Below ground biomass Treatment 3D-control 3D-waterlogging 6D-control 6D-waterlogging 9D-control 9D-waterlogging
138.0a 9.0b (16.5)
81.8a 2.3b (2.8)
†Means followed by the same letter were not significantly different (P≤0.05) within the same duration of control and waterlogging treatments.
CONTINUED FROM PAGE 24 in the field and harvested in fall 2016. Due to the potential of genetic differences of waterlogging tolerance both among and with corn populations, more than one-hundred seeds of each population need to be included for each growing condition. By Aug. 2017, the experiment had been repeated six times (Run) (60 seeds/population/growing condition). The results below are concluded based on the data from Run 1 to Run 6. Tissue biomass was higher under the non-waterlogging condition than the waterlogging condition, except the 0-5 cm depth in which a reversed trend was observed (59.9 mg under non-waterlogging vs. 64.9 mg under waterlogging, data not shown). It suggested that waterlogging might increase tissue growth at 0-5 cm depth where relative more oxygen presents compared to lower soil depths. A growing condition x
population interaction was observed in the above and below ground biomass, except the 0-5 cm depth (data not shown). Each corn population performed similarly under the non-stressed and stressed conditions. Therefore, the growing condition x population interaction was most likely due the close ranking of waterlogging tolerance in the corn populations tested in the present study. For example, ‘NDEarlyGEM4’ and ‘NDBS39’ had high shoot and root biomass both under the non-waterlogging and waterlogging condition; while, ‘NDSSR’ was the worst performer under both condition. No genetic differences were observed in root growth at 15-25 cm depth under the waterlogging treatment. Overall, ‘NDSM(M-FS)1C0Syn2’, ‘NDEarlyGEM4’, ‘Leaming(S-FS)C6’, ‘NDSMo17’, ‘NDBS39’, ‘NDSHL(FS-M-FS)C6’, and ‘NDBS16’ had higher shoot and root growth under the waterlogging condition, which may be contributed by their higher tissue biomass under the non-waterlogging condition.
Table 2. Above and below ground biomass of 16 corn populations under non-waterlogging (i.e. control, C) and waterlogging (W) condition at the seedling stage. Population name
Above ground biomass (mg)
Below ground biomass (mg) 0-5 cm†
10-15 cm C
20.1b-d 9.1ab 6.0cd
†No growing condition (non-waterlogging and waterlogging) x population interaction was observed in the below ground biomass at the 0 – 5 cm depth. Biomass at the 0 – 5 cm soil depth included the below ground stem and root. Data were pooled across the control (i.e. non-waterlogging) and waterlogging conditions.
IMPROVING THE PROFITABILITY OF N USE IN CORN WITH DISTILLER GRAINS AND N FERTILIZER EXTENDERS Joel Ransom, NDSU Plant Science Department Jasper Teboh, NDSU Carrington Research and Extension Center Nitrogen is the most important applied fertilizer and is usually the most expensive input in corn production. Management practices that maximize the return to the nitrogen applied is critical for the profitability of a farming operation and for the environment. There are a number of fertilizer products available that slow the rate of N release from the fertilizer granule (ESN) or slow the conversion of ammonium-N to nitrate-N. ESN, SuperU™, and Instinct II™ were the products used in this research. Keeping N in the ammonium form longer can reduce the potential loss of N from the soil leaching or volatilization. An alternative N source is distillers grain (DG), an important by-product of ethanol production. This by-product is valued as a source of animal feed that stores and transports well when dried. However, when there is excess DG production relative to demand, there may be periods when the ethanol plants may need to sell it locally for use as a fertilizer, especially if it can be used prior to drying. Local research is needed to evaluate the performance of wet DGs (WDGs) as a nitrogen source. The objectives of this research were to determine the fertilizer equivalent value of WDGs for corn production and to determine the best management practices for new fertilizer products that delay the conversion of nitrogenous fertilizers to nitrate. Field experiments were established in three locations in 2015 and 2016 . Treatments consisted of nitrogen rates at 75%, 100% and 125% of the optimum rate, and nitrogen source (urea, urea at planting + UAN at V6, WDGs, 50:50 WDGs + urea, ESN™, and SuperU™ , urea + Instinct II, and an unfertilized check). Treatments were established in small plots and replicated four times at each location. All fertilizers were broadcasted and incorporated prior to planting, except
surface applications of UAN and all treatments at the 2016 Carrington no-till site. A chemical analysis of the WDGs revealed that they are a rich source of N, P, K, and other nutrients, containing about 4% nitrogen on a dry wet basis. Data from the Casselton location were not included due to excessive variability or non-responsiveness to treatments. Averaged over nitrogen sources, yield increased as the rate of N applied increased. At the lowest application rate, applying WDGs resulted in lower yield and protein when compared to other treatments of the same rate. This suggests that some N in the WDGs was not mineralized quickly enough to meet the demands of the corn. Limited data suggest that fall applications of WDGs may hasten the mineralization of N compared to spring applications of WDGs. We concluded that WDGs are an alternative source of N, P, K, and other plant nutrients, and can be used as a substitute for N fertilizers. However, if using WDGs exclusively, they should be applied at least at 125% the optimum N rate when compared to other N sources to elicit an equivalent response. In the environments of this study, alternative fertilizer sources and additives showed no apparent benefit over urea, and therefore were not cost-effective. However, it would be useful to compare these fertilizer sources and additives in environments conducive to N losses in the future. Environments with significant N loss may evoke a positive response from slow release and nitrification inhibiting products if they are indeed effective in keeping the nitrogen in the ammonium form longer to reduce N loss.
INFLUENCE OF GRAIN SOURCE AND DDGS OIL ON FINISHING CATTLE PERFORMANCE, DIGESTION AND FEEDING BEHAVIOR Kendall Swanson, Faithe Keomanivong, Mary Rodenhuis, and Marc Bauer, NDSU Animal Science Dept. Vern Anderson and Chanda Engel, NDSU Carrington Research and Extension Center Distillers grains are a byproduct of the ethanol industry that provide an excellent feed source for livestock. Distillers grains are produced at multiple ethanol plants in North Dakota. A portion is used as a feed source for livestock in the state but the majority is sent to other locations. The current process to remove corn oil from distillers grains may alter the nutrient density and affect animal performance. This may alter the demand and use of distillers grains potentially affecting domestic use and exports. Corn is the primary grain used in finishing diets in the U.S., whereas barley is the major grain used in Southern Alberta, which is the major feedlot region in Canada and a large user of distillers grains produced in North Dakota. Therefore, it is important to study the effects of oil concentration in corn distillers grains in both corn and barley-based diets. A collaborative study was conducted by researchers at the Carrington Research and Extension Center (CREC) and North Dakota State University (NDSU) to examine the effects of oil concentration in distillers grains and grain source (corn vs. barley) on growth performance, feeding behavior, ruminal fermentation, and digestion in finishing cattle.
vs. 7.9%; low vs. moderate) fed at 25% of the diet on growth performance, feeding behavior, carcass traits, and blood metabolites. Feeding distillers grains with lower oil concentration reduced plasma urea concentration, a marker for changes in nitrogen utilization, but did not influence growth performance or carcass traits in steers fed corn- or barley-based diets. A ruminal fermentation and digestion experiment was also conducted at NDSU utilizing eight steers to examine the effects of grain source (rolled barley vs. rolled corn) fed at 50% of the diet and corn distillers grains oil concentration (4.5% vs. 7.9%; low vs. moderate) fed at 25% of the diet on ruminal microbial digestive enzyme and volatile fatty acid (the primary energy source for cattle) production, and nutrient digestion. Feeding distillers grains with lower oil concentration altered the activity of ruminal digestive enzymes but this did not result in changes in ruminal volatile fatty acid production or nutrient digestion. Overall, feeding distillers grains containing low vs. moderate oil concentrations had minimal effects on growth performance, rumen fermentation and digestion when fed at 25% of diet DM in finishing diets based on corn or barley.
A feedlot study was conducted at CREC using 154 steers group-fed to examine the effects of grain source (rolled barley vs. rolled corn) fed at 30% and 50% (growing and finishing phase) of the diet and corn distillers grains oil concentration (5.8% vs. 9.6%; low vs. moderate) fed at 26% of the diet on growth performance and carcass traits. Oil concentration of distillers grains did not influence growth performance or carcass traits in steers fed corn or barley-based diets. A feedlot and feeding behavior study was conducted at NDSU using 81 steers to examine the effects of grain source (rolled barley vs. rolled corn) fed at 50% of the diet and corn distillers grains oil concentration (4.5%
BIOCHAR PRODUCTION FROM MANURE AND WET DISTILLERS GRAINS AS AN ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT OPTION Shafiqur Rahman, NDSU Ag and Biosystems Engineering Department
The biomass-derived biochar has shown potential to increase soil properties that are conducive for plant growth with reduced environmental pollution. Therefore, to devise a sustainable farming system in North Dakota (ND) conditions, biochar derived from crop residues and animal manure needs to be investigated. The main goal of the study is to minimize odor and GHG emissions from animal feeding operations through conversion of manure, corn stover and wet distillers grains (WDG) to biochar. Biochar can be used as a soil amendment, can increase water-holding capacity, reduce bulk density, provide additional cation exchange sites, and serve as a source of reduced carbon compounds that may benefit microbial populations, thus ultimately promote plant growth. Similarly, application of biochar in soil can reduce GHG from crop production as well as from feedlot or manure storage. The specific objectives of this project are to characterize the physico-chemical properties of biochar produced from manure, corn stover, and WDG, and evaluate their effectiveness in mitigating gaseous emission from livestock manure. WDG samples were collected from Tharaldson Ethanol in Casselton, ND with sizes from 1-3 mm. Dairy and beef feedlot manure was collected from the NDSU Dairy Teaching and Research Unit and NDSU Beef Cattle Research Complex. The corn stover biomass was harvested from NDSUâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s experimental field. The samples were air dried to reduce moisture content < 30%. Once the moisture content reached below 30%, the substrate was put through a pyrolysis process to produce biochar. Raw biomass samples and finished biochar were analyzed for different components. Physical and chemical characteristics such as pH, electrical conductivity (EC), bulk density (BD), water holding capacity (WHC), and total organic carbon (TOC) were measured for each biochar derived from four bio-
masses: corn stover (CS), dried distillers grains soluble (DDGS), dairy manure (DM), and beef feedlot manure (BFM). Biochar characteristics were analyzed in the Waste Management Lab at NDSU and the AgVise laboratories in Northwood, ND. The BFM had the highest biochar yield (~77%), followed by DM (~ 46%), DDGS (~ 42%), and CS (~ 31 %) after 3 hours of pyrolysis. The BFM also contained the highest ash content and CS the lowest. Conversely, the highest heating values were determined from CS and the lowest from BFM. The highest organic carbon content was obtained with CS (68%) followed by DDGS (63%), DM (44%), and BFM (15.4%) biochars. Scanning electron microscopy images of biochar samples showed consistent aggregates 2-10 Âľm in diameter, which would be suitable for absorbing pollutant gases and increasing soil water holding capacity. The CS and DDGS biochars showed higher values of total carbon (76%), FC (61%), OC (67%), water holding capacity, and mineral content. The CS and DDGS outperformed the DM and BFM biochars as the best soil amendments. Nitrogen content of corn-based biomass (CS and DDGS) increased with increased pyrolysis times, whereas the manure derived biochars showed a decreasing trend with increased time. The biochar has intrinsic properties for potentially improving soil carbon and soil water loss. Thus, producing biochar from waste through pyrolysis is an effective disposal option for biomass waste generated from farming systems, especially corn stover and WDG due to their high quality biochar. Due to limited funding, no research has been conducted on the effectiveness of biochar in mitigating gaseous emission from livestock manure. Additional funding is needed for producing a large quantity of biochar, as well as to examine their effectiveness in mitigating some of the environmental concerns both in the laboratory and in the field.
SYNTHESIZING MEDICAL MATERIAL FROM CORN BRAN Mohiuddin Quadir, NDSU Coatings and Polymeric Materials Department We applied for a ‘North Dakota Corn Council 2016 Producer Education Mini Grant’ to initiate our research on corn-based polymers that can be used in biomedical settings. We have selected a biopolymer, Arabinoxylan (AX), which is abundantly present in corn, and investigated the feasibility of using AX for synthesizing nanoparticles. We are envisioning to use these nanosystems for drug delivery applications in cancer. One of the major challenges in current cancer therapy is the inability of the potent anticancer medicine to specifically target the cancer site, resulting in the disposition of severe toxic effects in patients. Another major treatment challenge lies in the fact that, anticancer drugs are very low molecular weight compounds, and human body excretes these molecules out of the system by means of liver or kidney clearance. With the advent of nanotechnology (science of using materials at very small scale, 10-9 times smaller than a meter) over the last few decades, cancer research has been using nanoscale drug carriers which can encapsulate the small drug molecules and transport them specifically to cancer tissues. Synthetic polymers are usually employed to synthesize nanocarriers in particulate forms for this purpose. However, these synthetic systems increase the cost of treatment severely, and in some cases, also show severe toxicity in animal models and in humans.
Hence, we attempted to use biobased, corn-derived polymer, such as AX, to replace synthetic polymers to prepare nanoparticles for cancer therapy. Such approach will open a completely new avenue of using corn byproducts which will not only benefit the corn growers, but also will have a long-lasting impact on medical and environmental sectors. Originally our idea was to use xylan as the biopolymer obtainable from corn, but eventually we discovered that the aromatic derivative of xylan, (i.e. arabinoxylan), will be a much more profitable biopolymer than xylan. AX can be easily extracted from corn and show multifunctional, water-dispersible properties. Hence, we utilized the process of ‘self-assembly’ to generate ultra-small spherical particles (nanoparticles) of AX to encapsulate potent drug molecules inside these nanostructures. Within the scope of the mini grant of $5,000, we have employed several undergraduate students who worked on different phases of the project and standardized an extraction condition of AX, identified chemical properties of AX, and synthesized AX-based nanoparticles by ‘self-assembly’-driven procedure. This mini grant mostly supported the undergraduate salary and the cost of supply and equipment. We have also used the mini grant to pay the recharge center facilities for utilizing different instruments for analysis of our AXderived nanostructures study to investigate the physicochemical properties of AX.
Overview of the current idea of using corn-based biopolymer (AX) for anticancer drug delivery applications.
NORTH DAKOTA CORN UTILIZATION COUNCIL EMPLOYEES
Dale Ihry Executive Director
Jean Henning Finance Director
Katelyn Blackwelder Communications Director
CORN UTILIZATION COUNCIL COUNTY REPRESENTATIVES District 1 Richland: Arnie Anderson District 2 Cass: Patrick Skunes Steele: Jason Rayner Traill: Steve Doeden District 3 Benson: Randy Simon Bottineau: Paul Smetana Cavalier: Mike Muhs Divide: BJ Wehrman Grand Forks: Greg Amundson McHenry: Jason Schiele Mountrail: Nevis Hoff Nelson: David Steffan Pierce: Nick Schmaltz Ramsey: Paul Becker Towner: Paul Belzer Walsh: Timothy Zikmund Ward: Gary Neshem
District 4 Barnes: Jeff Enger Eddy: Bill Smith Foster: David Swanson Griggs: Troy Haugen Stutsman: Kevin Haas District 5 Ransom: Justin Halvorson Sargent: Terry Wehlander District 6 Dickey: Scott German LaMoure: Dennis Feiken District 7 Adams: Jordan Christman Bowman: Tony Pierce Burleigh: Lance Hagen Dunn: Robert Ferebee Emmons: Alex Deis Golden Valley: Steve Zook
District 7 (continued) Grant: Cody VandenBurg Hettinger: Darwyn Mayer Kidder: James Cusey Logan: Dennis Erbele McIntosh: Anthony Neu McKenzie: CJ Thorne McLean: Paul Anderson Mercer: Riley Schriefer Morton: Elwood Barth Oliver: Clark Price Sioux: Jarrod Becker Slope: Ryan Stroh Stark: Duane Zent Wells: Richard Lies
NORTH DAKOTA CORN UTILIZATION COUNCIL MEMBERS
Arnie Anderson Hankinson, District 1
Jason Rayner, Vice Chairman Finley, District 2
Paul Belzer Cando, District 3
Dave Swanson New Rockford, District 4
Terry Wehlander, Secretary DeLamere, District 5
Scott German, Chairman Oakes, District 6
Robert Ferebee Halliday, District 7
North Dakota Corn Utilization Council 1411 32nd St. S., Suite 2 • Fargo, ND 58103 (701) 364-2250 • www.ndcorn.org