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Promotion of Social Policies – An Investment in the Future Canada – European Union – Baltic States – Nordic Countries


Promotion of Social Policies – An Investment in the Future Canada – European Union – Baltic States – Nordic Countries


UDK 316:37(063) Pr 805 This volume represents presentations, discussions and research papers in conjunction with the Forum for a Comparative Dialog- an Investment in the Future. The Forum was held in Riga at the University of Latvia on November 6-8, 2008 and was organised by the Centre for European and Transition Studies at the University of Latvia and Capilano University, Canada. Canada

This collection of studies provides information, opinions and research that should be of value to practitioners, policy makers at national and international levels, including those of Canada and EU institutions, academics and students specialising in Social policy issues. This publication is funded by the European Commission Representation in Latvia. European Commission

Editor in chief Tatjana Muravska Editors Alexandre Berlin and Eduard Lavalle

Editorial Committee

- Dr. Jolanta Aidukaite, Sodertorns Hogskola (University College-, Stockholm, Sweden); - Dr. Alexandre Berlin, (Honorary Director, European Commission, Paris, France – The EU Public Diplomacy Project in Canada); - Professor Dr. Joan DeBardeleben, (Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada: Strategic Knowledge ClusterCanada-Europe Transatlantic Dialogue). - Dr. Maria Jepsen (Research Director, European Trade Union Institute – Research, Education and Health and Safety, Brussels – Belgium); - Professor Dr. Eduard M. Lavalle (Capilano University, North Vancouver, Canada – The EU Public Diplomacy Project in Canada); - Professor Dr. Teodoras Medaiskis (Advisor to the Minister, Ministry of Social Security and Labour, Republic of Lithuania, Vilnius, Lithuania); - Ms. Daina Mezecka (Advisor, Nordic Council of Ministers’ Office in Latvia Riga, Latvia); - Professor Dr. Tatjana Muravska (Jean Monet Professor & Director of the Centre for European & Transition Studies, University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia); - Mr. Peep Muhls (CEO, Estonian Cooperation Assembly, Tallinn, Estonia); - Mr. Thomas Townsend (Executive Head, Policy Research Initiative, Government of Canada – Ottawa, Canada). The contributions have been reviewed. Layout and cover design Andra Liepiņa Proof reader Rita Bravarska

© European Commission Representation in Latvia, 2009 © University of Latvia, 2009 © Centre for European and Transition Studies at the University of Latvia, 2009 © Capilano University, Canada

ISBN 978-9984-45-098-8


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Table of Contents Acknowledgement . ......................................................................................................................5 Preface ........................................................................................................................................ 7 Part I. Opening Addresses ....................................................................................... 11 Marcis Auzins Rector, University of Latvia .............................................................................. 11 Iveta Sulca Head, the European Commission Representation in Latvia .................................. 13 R. Scott Heatherington Canadian Ambassador to the Baltic States .......................................... 14 Andris Aukmanis Representative of the Soros Foundation in Latvia . ...................................... 16 Framework and Objectives of the Forum . ................................................................................ 17 Eduard Lavalle Professor, Capilano University ........................................................................ 17 Tatjana Muravska Jean Monnet, Professor, University of Latvia................................................19 Part II. Forum Outcomes ......................................................................................... 21 Executive Summary Berlin, Alexandre; Lavalle, Eduard; Muravska, Tatjana . ........................ 21 The Implications of the Forum for the Baltic States Jolanta Aidukaite . .................................. 26 Canadian Social Policy in Comparative Perspective with the Baltic and Nordic Countries: How Have Elephants’ Neighbours Developed their social policies? Florence Larocque .................................................................................... 30 Summary of Discussions: Forum for Comparative Dialogue: The Promotion of Social Policies – An Investment in the Future Kristina Pauksens ............... 52 Part III. Overview of Social Policies . ............................................................... 63 Frederic Lerais New Social Dimensions of Europe ................................................................... 63 Jolanta Aidukaite The Transformation of Social Policy in the Baltic States ............................. 73 Thomas Townsend An Introduction to Canada’s Social Welfare System ................................... 86 Joakim Palme The Nordic Model ............................................................................................. 93 Part IV. Papers Presented at the Forum (in alphabetical order) ...................... 99 Mare Ainsaar, Kadri Rootalu, Ulle Valgma Demography as a Factor of Social Policy Process in Baltic Countries in 1995–2007 ....................................................... 99 Algis Dobravolskas Accessibility and Quality of Health Insurance ......................................... 111 Parsla Eglite Response to Family Policy in Latvia .................................................................. 114 Maria Jepsen Gender Equality and Social Policy Issues in the European Union .................... 126 Reinis Joksts Public Financing of Health Care in Latvia ........................................................ 146


4 Kristiina Kahur Health Insurance Coverage in Estonia . ....................................................... 153 Merja Kauhanen Unemployment Benefits – Nordic Perspective ........................................... 161 Juris Krumins The Social Impact of Demographic Changes .................................................. 169 Eduard M. Lavalle Is There a Judicial Light at the End of the Social Policy Tunnel? Notes on the Constitutional Aspects of Social Policy Creation in Canada . ...................................................................................... 172 Ernie S. Lightman and Graham Riches Canada: One Step Forward, Two Steps Back? ..................................................................................................................... 183 Rianne Mahon Work-Family (Im)Balance in Canada ............................................................ 202 Anneli Miettinen Family Policies - Experiences from the Nordic Countries .......................... 225 Peep Muhls The Baltic Challenges – Can Civil Society Make the Difference . ....................... 229 Patsy Sorensen From the Margins to the Foreground: Artists Engaging in Social Reality ........................................................................................... 231 Patsy Sorensen Pioneering the Fight against Human Trafficking ............................................ 233 Ilze Trapenciere On Social Inclusion of Young People After Institutional Care in Latvia ...... 240 Zaza Tsereteli Women’s Health in Prison – Social and Public Health Impact . ...................... 254 Inese Vigante The Influence of the Estonian Model on Family Policy in Latvia . ................... 263 Oksana Zabko Tackling Unemployment Benefits and Active Labour Market Policies ........... 274 Laimute Zalimiene Family Policy in Lithuania . .................................................................... 276 Part V. Zane Cunska and Tatjana Muravska SOCIAL POLICY IMPLEMENTATION IN LATVIA POST EU ACCESSION . ...................................................................................................... 283 Part VI Power Point Presentations at the Forum for A Comparative Dialogue .............................................................................. 311 Annex 1. Programme of the Forum ....................................................................................... 313 Annex 2. List of the Forum Participants ................................................................................ 317


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Acknowledgement We gratefully acknowledge support of the European Commission - the EU Public Diplomacy Project in Canada and the University of Latvia. The achievements of the Forum and its organisation would not have been possible without the support of the: European Commission’s Representations in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, Canadian Embassy to Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, Nordic Council of Ministers' Office in Latvia, the Swedish Embassy to Latvia, Soros Foundation in Latvia, Strategic Knowledge Cluster Canada-Europe Transatlantic Dialogue: Seeking Transnational Solutions to 21st Century Problems, Canada. It also would not have been possible without support of the Programme Committee: Dr. Jolanta Aidukaite, (University College-, Stockholm, Sweden); Dr. Alexandre Berlin (Honorary Director, European Commission, the EU Public Diplomacy Project in Canada), Professor Joan DeBardeleben, (Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada: Strategic Knowledge Cluster- Canada-Europe Transatlantic Dialogue), Dr. Maria Jepsen (Research Director, European Trade Union Institute – Research, Education and Health and Safety, Brussels - Belgium), Professor Eduard M. Lavalle (Capilano University, North Vancouver, Canada – The EU Public Diplomacy Project in Canada), Professor Teodoras Medaiskis (Advisor to the Minister, Ministry of Social Security and Labour, Republic of Lithuania, Vilnius, Lithuania), Ms. Daina Mezecka (Advisor, Nordic Council of Ministers’ Office in Latvia Riga, Latvia), Professor Tatjana Muravska ( Jean Monet Professor & Director of the Centre for European & Transition Studies, University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia), Mr. Peep Muhls (CEO, Estonian Cooperation Assembly, Tallinn, Estonia), Mr. Thomas Townsend (Executive Head, Policy Research Initiative, Government of Canada – Ottawa, Canada). Many thanks to all! We thank Kristina Pauksens for organizational work for the Forum and English editing of some articles. Our acknowledgement goes to all participants. Their knowledge and enthusiasm made the Forum an unforgettable experience. April 2009

Alexandre Berlin, Eduard Lavalle, Tatjana Muravska


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Preface From November 6 to 8 2008, we had the privilege to come together as scholars, students, public servants, diplomats, service providers and representatives of NGO’s. We came together to discuss Social policy in the Baltic States, the Nordic Countries, Canada and the European Union. The scope of our diversity, different places of origin, different life experience and professions enriched what we were able to share and what we able to take away. We came together under the rubric of “The Promotion of Social Policies – An Investment in the Future”. We came together to pool our experience and knowledge and benefit from sharing best practices, receiving information on innovative new developments, and increasing theoretical understanding. We also worked to explore answers to some significant questions: • How can substantial levels of social protection and development be balanced with economic growth and labour market needs? • What are the priorities in social protection programs and what delivery modes are most effective, efficient and fair? • Where there is conflict, how can it be resolved and through what mechanisms? Our tasks were threefold. First, we worked to understand the different architecture of policies and institutions which made up the Social policy environment in each of the comparators by focusing on each. An overview of the comparators gave us a shared basis to understand each other’s systems, practices and issues. These opening interventions are at the beginning of this volume. Second, we shared information on some of issues faced in each system and the practices and policies addressed. As the realm of Social policy is very broad, we focused on four areas of Social policy: • Family support; • Health insurance coverage; • Pension coverage; • Unemployment coverage. So as not to exclude other issues, we featured sessions for presentations which did not speak to the four main areas in: “The Agora: frontline issues and practices in Social policy,” which provided a stimulating programme of issues, strengthening the perception that all social policies are interconnected and society’s health must be viewed as a whole. Third, we tried to synthesize the information available to produce some general views on what could be shared among us. That summary also appears in this volume and while modest it is primarily a resource for expanding awareness of each other’s Social policy environment rather than an attempt to engineer a common prescription.


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Our objective was to focus on the importance of the social dimension in the development process of policies and exchange the practical experiences in Canada, the Baltic States and Nordic countries, as well as the European Union. We sought to raise awareness on Social policy issues, and values, common to the countries examined. We exchanged practical experiences in the Social policy realm and discussed Social policy achievements, problems, and current visions as well as the interrelations between the labour market, demography, social wellbeing and gender.


Promotion of Social Policies - An Investment in the Future,...