European Integration and Baltic Sea Region Studies vol 2

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Tatjana Muravska, Gunnar Prause (eds.)

European Integration and Baltic Sea Region Studies:

University-Business Partnership through the Triple Helix Approach Volume II


Regional Business and Socio-Economic Development Herausgegeben von Gunnar Prause, Hochschule Wismar / Technische Universität Tallinn Jost Kramer †, Hochschule Wismar Juhani Laurinkari, Universität Kuopio Tatjana Muravska, Universität Lettlands Jüri Sepp, Universität Tartu Band 6

Tatjana Muravska, Gunnar Prause (eds.)

European Integration and Baltic Sea Region Studies:

University-Business Partnership through the Triple Helix Approach


Bibliografische Information der Deutschen Nationalbibliothek Die Deutsche Nationalbibliothek verzeichnet diese Publikation in der Deutschen Nationalbibliografie; detaillierte bibliografische Daten sind im Internet über abrufbar. ISBN 978-3-8305-3028-2

This publication is supported by the Baltic – German University Liaison Office in Riga, Latvia,Wismar Business School, Germany and Doctoral School European Integration and Baltic Sea Region Studies, University of Latvia, Latvia. Diese Publikation wurde vom Baltisch-Deutschen Hochschulkontor mit Mitteln des Deutschen Akademischen Austausch Dienstes (DAAD) erstellt.

Editorial Board Vice-Rector for Research Indrikis Muiznieks, University of Latvia, Latvia Dr. Alexandre Berlin, Honorary Director, European Commission Prof. Dr. Giorgio Dominese, Tor Vergata University, Rome, Italy Prof. Dr. Elena Dubra, University of Latvia, Latvia Prof. Dr. Manfred J. Holler, Hamburg University, Germany Prof. Dr. Kestutis Krisciunas, Institute of Europe, Kaunas, Lithuania Prof. Dr. Zaiga Krisjane, University of Latvia, Latvia Prof. Dr. Tatjana Muravska, University of Latvia, Latvia Prof. Dr. Sanita Osipova, University of Latvia, Latvia Prof. Dr. Roman Petrov, Kyiv-Mohyla Academy, Ukraine Prof. Dr. Gunnar Prause, Wismar Business School, Germany Prof. Dr. Juris Rozenvalds, University of Latvia, Latvia Prof. Arild Sæther, Agder University, Norway Prof. Dr. Biruta Sloka, University of Latvia, Latvia The contributions have been double blindpeer reviewed. Layout and cover design: Berliner Wissenschaftsverlag Proof readers: Denize Ponomarjova, Anna Galante, Anna Tobin, Marcel Sangsari © 1. Auflage 2012 BWV • BERLINER WISSENSCHAFTS-VERLAG GmbH, Markgrafenstraße 12–14, 10969 Berlin E-Mail:, Internet: Printed in Germany. Alle Rechte, auch die des Nachdrucks von Auszügen, der photomechanischen Wiedergabe und der Übersetzung, vorbehalten.

Contents Acknowledgement




1. Institutional Development and Business Environment Effectiveness of Law, Values, and Subsidiary Sources of Law by Di na Apse


Dif culties of Performance Budget Introduction – Based on German Experiences by Stefan Grzesiak and Katarzyna Stieger


Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement between EU and Canada as an Example for Business and University Cooperation by Valters L cis


Pharmaceutical Pricing and Reimbursement Policies in European Countries by Eva Liepi a


Development of Environmental Infrastructure in Latvia: Evaluation of the Results by Juris Spiridonovs


Employment Policies and Industrial Relations: Research Issues and Practical Applications by Sergejs Stacenko


The Salary Gap between Men and Women in the Baltic States by Agate Za e


Post Crisis (2012) Shifting of Consumer Behaviour by Anna Zhigalova


2. Management, Education and Demographic Trends Optimisation Models in Business by Aleksandrs Dahs


Recent Trends and Actualities for Development of Professional Education in Mechanical Engineering and Metalworking Industries in Latvia by Art rs Graudi s and Biruta Sloka

116 V


Design Management and Branding for SMEs: Experiences from the DesignSHIP Project by Achim Hack, Gunnar Prause and Laima Maknyte


Excessive Control over the University Business by Member States of the EU: Killing the Goose that lays the Golden Egg? by Tanel Kerikmae and Lehte Roots


‘Europe 2020’: Human Resources and Competitiveness in the Baltic Sea Macro-Region by Aksel Kirch, Marika Kirch, Mikhail Rodins and Vladimir Mezentsev


On Comparison of the Black-Scholes and the Black-Merton Stochastic Models by Henryk Kowgier


Re-evolvement of Cooperative Structures in Estonia by Rünno Lumiste, Gunnar Prause and Einar Eiland


University-Business Interaction in the Context of Demographic Change by Gunnar Prause and Kristina Hunke


3. Innovation, Energy and Cluster Policies Information Technologies and Internet Exploitation in Micro and Small Enterprises in Regions of Latvia by In ra Kant ne and Biruta Sloka


Adoption of Renewable Energy and Innovation Process in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Germany), Estonia, Latvia by Ants Kukrus and Rünno Lumiste


University-Industry Cooperation – Facilitation, Motivational System for Innovation and Economic Bene ts, the Case of Latvia by Gints Turlajs, Viktoriia Riashchenko and irts Lapi š


Triple Helix Cooperation Opportunities in the Clusters’ Framework: Examples of Latvian Clusters by Zane Zeibote and Elita Liela


4. Regional Dimension and University Business Partnership Advantages of Latvia in Economic Cooperation with the EU Eastern Partnership Countries: the Role of University by J nis Apr ns and Rom ns Put ns VI



“Place-Based” Approach and Innovation in Cohesion Policy by L ga Balti a and Tatjana Muravska


The State Border Concept as Element of National Sovereignty of the Republic of Latvia and its Legal Evolution by Art rs Gaveika


Northern Europe Shaping (New) Northern Geopolitics by Lassi Heininen


Analysis of Local Development Patterns of Three Baltic Capitals Applying Shift-Share Analysis by Normunds Strautmanis


Public and Private in Space: Values, Legal Practice and Land-Use Planning in Latvia by P teris Š i is, Armands Pužulis and Silvija Meiere


Concluding Remarks



Acknowledgement The Volume II as a collection of studies devoted to the Business-University and Economic Environment research concept and supported by different institutions. We would like to express our deepest gratitude to the staff of the Centre for European and Transition Studies at the University of Latvia for organisation of the discussions related to research presentations by scholars from different universities and business representatives from across EU countries at the workshops and roundtable debate “University-Business Partnership through the Triple Helix Approach” in September 2011 at the University of Latvia, the support of Doctoral School European Integration and Baltic Sea Region Studies, Jean Monnet Centre of Excellence at the University of Latvia, Wismar Business School in Germany and Baltic – German University Liaison Of ce in Riga. The nancial support from Baltic – German University Liaison Of ce in Riga for this publication is gratefully acknowledged. Our appreciation to all of the contributing authors who have enriched the debate on university- business partnership exploring the role of the research done in academia for innovative business development and stimulating social and economic environment. Our special thanks to the Editorial Board for reviewing articles submitted for publication. Finally, we would like to express our thanks to Denize Ponomarjova, Ari Sales, Jayson Dong, Anna Galante, Anna Tobin and Marcel Sangsari interns from Canadian universities network on European Studies and EU Canada Study Tour for proof reading of the book. Tatjana Muravska

Gunnar Prause


Preface In times of economic hardship it is important that businesses, universities and governments collaborate in research, innovation and development. With no clear end to the current economic situation in Europe, there is more need than ever for strategic partnerships and discussions between all partners involved in business-university partnership. This Volume II is the second publication of research outcomes speci cally related to workshops and roundtable debates on issues of university-business and government partnership and development of stimulating socio-economic environment. The aim of the publication is to exchange ideas about cooperation between enterprises and universities as one of the key priorities for the economic renewal in the EU in general and in the Baltic Sea Region (BSR) in particular, to help to facilitate business activities and education in the BSR, and to provide a forum for debates of the assessment of the current status of European integration. The publication highlights the role of universities in social and economic development of regions as the third task of universities and a new trend in regional innovation strategies. Articles of the publication contribute to the discussions of this new trend in the BSR and Baltic States. A special feature of the Riga Conference was the Round Table Discussion on the issue of “University-Business Partnership through the “Triple Helix Approach”, which united in discussions leaders of business organisations, representatives from responsible government institutions, and public research and education experts. The Round Table provided a platform for participants to express their ideas on strategic partnerships between businesses and universities and governments. It was open to public authorities, NGOs and civil society and was intended to facilitate discussions between all stakeholders. During the discussion between the Round Table participants – Ari Koski, Gunnar Ljungdahl, Rünno Lumiste, Gunnar Prause, Maris Purgailis, Merli Reidolf and Pavel Strach – ideas have been exchanged about new models and experiences of universitybusiness cooperation as a corner stone for the European Growth Strategy EU2020. It was concluded that the third task of universities in regional development through education, gained knowledge and skills embodied in the concept of the “learning region” is crucial for the improvement of the environment of entrepreneurship and innovation transfer in the Baltic Sea Region; the Round Table also facilitated discussions among stakeholders. This publication “Business University Partnership and Socio-Economic Environment” is an important contribution to the debate, on the role of universities in raising the ef ciency of real economy sectors; it offers the views of academia, researchers and practitioners from a variety of disciplines, different generations and countries. Many hold views, which illustrate important clashes of different opinions that occur in this debate on themes such as: consequences of the economic and nancial crises of 3

Preface 2008–2010, Eurozone and public debt crises 2010–2012, employment and industrial policies, legal issues, cohesion, education and training research, competitiveness, university-business cooperation and promotion of entrepreneurship and innovation. Please enjoy reading this publication; the next collection of articles related to issues of European Integration and Baltic Sea Regional Studies will be published as a journal on a regular basis. Tatjana Muravska


Gunnar Prause

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