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Gu-Chu-Sum Book Published by the Gu-Chu-Sum Movement of Tibet (Ex-political Prisoners’ Association) Jogibara Road, P.O.McLeod Ganj Dharamsala-176219 H.P. India www.guchusum.org Biography of an activist. Vol 14

The Son of Mount Everest Biography of Dingri Ngawang Edited by Lobsang Tashi Cover and Design: Sonam Tsewang Copyright © Gu-Chu-Sum Movement of Tibet First edition 500 copies, 2007 All rights reserved. No part of this book maybe reproduced by any means without prior written permission from the publisher.

Printed at Indraprastha Press (CBT), New Delhi


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1

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Wô-¤ô-GPÅ-h;¼-¼ÛºÛ-Zï-ºhzÅ-ˆÛEÛ¤-Mãhü (1932-1941)

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2

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Wô - ¤ô - GPÅ-h;¼-¼Û º Û - Zï - ºhzÅ-ˆÛ - EÛ ¤ -Mã h ü

3

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Wô - ¤ô - GPÅ-h;¼-¼Û º Û - Zï - ºhzÅ-ˆÛ - EÛ ¤ -Mã h ü

5

‚Å-qºÛ-Aïm-HÛÅ-Áï¾-h;¼-¤Pº-ŸzÅ-ˆÛ-wÞºÛ-¯Ó-D-Vß-¼ÛGÅü ¤hºw-GŸÛÅ-Å-DP-ŸïÅ-±P-¤-F¾-q-¤Û-Åï¼-¾-zhG-fôz-‚Å-VôG EômF¾-@P-ÅÞ¤-zM-iâG-Tß-®¤-»ôhü iG-qô-mÛü h¤G-F¾-»Ûmü hï-»P-M-¢ôP-h¤G-Çeïü hÛP-¼Ûh¤G-ÇK¼-¾-h¤G-¤Û-GbôP-hGôÅü hï-¾-¼ÛGÅ-GZÛÅ-mÅ-GTÛG-mÛh¤G-@P-ŸïÅ-Å-ŸÛP-»ôh-q-¾-ºFÛ-Mãü GŸm-ŸÛG-mÛ-ÇKï¼-VôÅü ÅôÅôºÛ-Ez-DôPÅ-mÅ-GbôP-hGôÅü hï-¤Ûm-¿kÛP-hqôm-ŸïÅ-fôz-fP-»ôh-qºÛ-¤Û-±P-»P-»ôhü wiâG-¿kÛP-hqôm-±-zü ¾ô-¾ô-¿kÛP-hqôm-T-wÞG-qü GŸm-»P-Ÿ¾-Pô¤ï-¤ô-¸ï¼-z-ÅôGÅ-»ôhü ºhÛ-±ô-mÛ-h¤ÛGÅ-zž-fôz-fP-»ôh-qºÛh¤G-¤Û-¼ïhü hï-¤Ûm-zŸÛ-Çoü zMh-Ço-¸ï¼-z-ÅôGÅ-ˆÛ-h¤G-F¾»P-»ôhü hï-±ô-mÛ-&GôP-Å-¤VôG-GÛ-Ç+Ý-ÆâP-zü IôP-Eï¼-HÛ-ZïmdôGÅ-q-ÅôGÅ-¼ïhü Ghm-Å-GÅÞ¤-HÛ-Ǩôm-¾¤-±ôGÅ-¤Vôh-zTňÛ-Vïhü ¤¼-F¾-ÅôGÅ-ˆP-ºzÞ¾-hGôÅü zôh-M¾-»ôPÅ-hP-¤±ßPÅ-q¼-¾G-hPÞ¾-mÛü hP-qô-D-GPhP-ü GZÛÅ-q-Ç+¼-¤ü GÅÞ¤-q-xïh-zMhü zŸÛ-q-Ÿô-GP-ü ¿S-q-ŸôGÅÞ¤-ÇKô¼-¤ôü iâG-q-Ÿô-¿S-ÇKô¼-¤ôü zhÝm-q-^ø-D-h;¼-qôü zMh-qzTß-bÛü hGÝ-q-ÆP-GÅÞ¤-ÇKô¼-¤ô-zTÅ-hP-ü ÁôG-¾ô¼-HÛ-¼ÛGÅ-hPÞ¾5


6

Wô - ¤ô - JÀ P -¤ºÛ - zÞ - yâ G

ÆP-¿S-¾ô¼-hP-ü hPÞ¾-ÆP-zhÝm-hP-Ÿô-¿Sü zTß-¾ô¼ü Zï¼-¿SºÛ-¾ô¼ü zM-¾ô¼-zTÅ-»ôhü ¯Û-Æô¾-mÛü Ÿô-GP-hP-Ç+¼-¤-GTÛG-¾-^ø-D-TÛGhP-ü Ÿô-GP-zTß-¾-ÆP-GP-ü ÆP-¿S-zTß-¾-lô-±h-GTÛG-»Ûmü wm±ßm-ÇKô-xãGÅ-hP-T-hPôÅ-Zô-hÝÅ-lô-±h-ˆÛ-IPÅ-¤-GbôGÅ-hPÞ¾-GŸmn¤Å-zïh-¤Û-uôhü hPÞ¾-hï-n¤Å-ˆÛ-fôG-zôh-»ÛG-hP-¤±ôm-hôm-¿kmqºÛ-¼Û-¤ô-Ço-±ôGÅ-¾Å-»ÛG-¼ÛGÅ-GŸm-GTÛG-ˆP-z;ôh-¤ïhü ¾-Çeôh-hÛP-¼ÛºÛ-»Þ¾-¤Û-n¤Å-VôÅ-¾-hh-TÛP.¾Å-ºƒÅ-¾-»ÛhVïÅ-qü „Àô-iP-¾-±ßGÅ-fÞz-qü ¼P-ZÛh-h¤º-Å-z¸ÞP-ŸÛP-GŸm-¾GÝÅ-qü zôh-ˆÛ-M¾-Dz-hP-¤Û-¼ÛGÅ-¾-Á-Ÿïm-Vï-ŸÛP.z;º-z¯Û-GÝÅz;ݼ-hP-¿km-qü ¾ÞÅ-hP-¾ôPÅ-uôh-GP-GÛ-V-mÅ-M¾-Dz-hP.¤Û-¼ÛGňÛ-ŸzÅ-ºhïGÅ-ŸÝ-Mã¼-„Àô-GZÛÅ-fï-±ô¤-hP.ü Bô-P¾-¤ïh-q-zTÅ-ˆÛEh-VôÅ-hÝ-¤-hP-¿km-q-»Ûmü »Þ¾-hïºÛ-mP-¾-Çeôh-¿Ëô-hÛP-¼Û-hGº-¼-DP-Gż-ŸïÅ-qºÛ-EÛ¤±P-ŸÛG-ˆP-GmÅ-zTÅ-ÁÛP-¤Û-¼zÅ-¼Û¤-qÅ-ŸÛ-iG-GZÛÅ-mÅ-M¾-DzhP.ü ¤Û-¼ÛGÅ-ˆÛ-ŸzÅ-ºhïGÅ-TÛ-mÝÅ-ŸÝ-zŸÛm-qºÛ-EÛ¤-hïºÛ-zÞ-¤ô¼ü ¾-Çeôh-w-iâG-IôP-h;¼-zM-hqôm-HÛ-zÞ-¹-z-M¾-qô-¤G-q¼-zÅÞÅü DôPGZÛÅ-¾-zÞ-yâG-¤ÛP-ÆÛP-GÅÞ¤-‚ãP-ü hïºÛ-mP-mÅ-Vï-z-hP-VßP-z-GZÛÅzÞ-¤ô-»Ûm-ŸÛP-ºƒÛP-z-hï-zÞ-¿ËG-q-»Ûmü 6


Wô - ¤ô - GPÅ-h;¼-¼Û º Û - Zï - ºhzÅ-ˆÛ - EÛ ¤ -Mã h ü

7

EÛ¤-±P-GÛ-º±ô-fzÅ-mÛ-ŸÛP-ºƒôG-fôm-¾Å-hP.ü hï-»P-GŸÝPMãG-DôPÅ-h¤G-dïm-Å-ŸÛP-ÅôGÅ-zhG-hzP-»ôh-ÇezÅü T-hP-hÛP¼Û-h¤G-ÇK¼-DôPÅ-ÅÞ-h¤G-¤Û-¼ï-º²â¾-GŸÝG-‚ïh-hGôÅ-q-¿e¼-ym-HÛ¤ïÅ-qô-¹-z-M¾-qô-T-hP-hÛP-¼Û-h¤G-ÇK¼-HÛ-h¤G-¤Û¼-»ôhü uÛ-¾ô- 1912 Vß-‚Û-¾ô¼-¾ÞºÞ-Tßm-M-h¤G-z®m-º²â¾-z-hÛP¼Û-mÅ-T-hP-zôh-h¤G-GÛÅ-¤f¼-Côh-GbôP-zºÛ-h¤G-ºfz-mP-ü ¤ïÅqô-¹-z-M¾-qô-hÛP-¼Û-Áï¾-h;¼-hP-ÇtP-¾ïz-GZÛÅ-z¼-HÛ-zÞ¤-VߺÛ-;z;ô-¸¤-q-ºGôG-ÆâP-GÛ-¾Å-ºGm-º²Ûm-Ç+zÅü h¤G-ºfz-mP-¤ïÅqô-M-hIºÛ-¾G-bà-Áô¼ü ¤ïÅ-qôºÛ-h¤G-±z-bà-DôP-GÛ-zÞ-¿ËG-q-T-hP-hÛP-¼ÛºÛ-h¤GDôPÅ-ŸÝGÅ-bïü D¤Å-ÅÞ-Å-ÆâP-¾-zBôh-Ç+zÅ-¾ô-Zï¼-zŸÛ¼-¾ôm¤±¤Å-Çkï-hGï-hGº-Xï-Ǩm-¤±ô-¤ô-hP-¼P-¤ôÅ-¤²º-¤fÞm-»ÛhGTßGÅ-ˆÛÅ-z¸º-º±ô¼-Hã¼-bïü £æ¤-¿km-¤-¤±ô-¤ô-hP-¤Z¤-hÛP¼Û¼-GŸÛÅ-ºDô¼-¾-wïzÅü uÛ-¾ô- 1929 ¾ôºÛ-hˆÛ¾-º±¤Å-¾-hGº-¼-DP-Gż-HÛz¸º-±ô-GZÛÅ-¾-zÞ-¤ô-ÍÞ-Mm-BïÅ-q-hP-ü Vß-vï¾-uÛ-¾ô- 1932 zôh¹- 5 ±ïÅ- 17 ZÛm-ym-PG-hzP-z®Åü zôh-GŸÝP-h¤G-uÛ-DP-GÛÅ-z;º-ºƒï¾-¿e¼-T-hP-hÛP-h¤G7


8

Wô - ¤ô - JÀ P -¤ºÛ - zÞ - yâ G

n¤Å-Gô-ºWô-Åï¼-D¼-Å-ÆâP-Vïh-zBôh-hGôÅ-qºÛ-z;º-¤PGÅ-¤²hq-zŸÛmü Í-¤-¤±ô-¤ôÅ-P-ÇK¾-q¼-ºEï¼-mÅ-w-¿ËG-qºÛ-XïÅ-ÅÞ-P-±ôGÅÞ¤-»P-ºƒPÅü PÅ-im-ÅôÅ-®¤-¾-w-h¤-q-¾-ÅôGÅ-q-¤Û-IPźGº-ŸÛG-Gô-Wô-Åï¼-D-mÅ-ZÛm-GÅÞ¤-®¤-HÛ-Å-V-ºhm-VôÅ-ºDô¼-hGômmÅ-M-h¤G-¤f¼-z=ôh-GbôP-z¼-wïzÅ-q-hP-ü P-±ô-»P-¤Z¤-ºFÛhGmP-Çeï-P-±ô-ºhm-DôG-bà-zŸG-Çeï-h¤G-ºfz-¾-xÛmü h¤G-fG-Vôh¤±¤Å-GmÅ-¤W¾-z¼-FÛh-q-hP.ü hïºÛ-Ç+zÅ-T-hP-hÛP-¼Û-h¤G-GÛŤ±m-ºGïzÅ-zbP-mÅ-zÅh-qºÛ-M-h¤G-ÁÛ-zºÛ-¼ô-ºGº-ŸÛG-Å-ÁݾŸÛG-bà-»ôh-q-P-±ôÅ-¤fôP-ü hï-mÅ-¤Þ-¤fÞh-Gô-ºWô-Åï¼-D¼-GmÅ-¤Þ¼GTßP-qô-q-ÅPÅ-z®Å-ÁÛP-ü hÛP-h¤G-n¤Å-¤hô-uÛºÛ-Ç+Ý-ÆâP-¾-z;ººGÝG-GmP-XïÅ-Vz-¤hô¼-GTßP-qô-d-¤IÛm-z®Åü uÛ-¾ô- 1942 ¾ô¼-w-¿ËG-q-hGÝP-IPÅ-Åô-zMh-¾-Åôm-qºÛÇ+zÅ-DôP-¾-JÀô-zÞ¼-hÝ-¾ôP-D¼-GZm-ºzÞ¼-ŸÛG-BïÅ-bïü ²-iG-Wï-Vï¼Hã¼-mÅ-¼P-ZÛh-º±ô-¤Û-fÞz-q-ÁïÅ-ÁÛP-ü h¤G-ÇK¼-HÛ-¿kÛP-hqôm-Ç+¾z¸P-¾GÅ-ºzôh-mÅ-yâG-GݺÛ-ºGô-ºhôm-º±ô-BôP-»ôP-zºÛ-¼ï-z-ŸÝÅ-bï¹-z-GZÛÅ-XïÅ-w-ºhÅ-IôPÅ-ÅÞ-Hã¼ü w-º±ô-zŸÝGÅ-Ç+zÅ-DôP-GÛ-¹-¼ïºÛ-wôGÅ-®¤-¤-¸hü Ÿô¼-hݱôP-¾Å-‚Å-mÅ-P-±ôºÛ-EÛ¤-±P-GÛ-º±ô-z¼-h;º-P¾-TÛ-»P-¤ïh-ˆP-ü 8


Wô - ¤ô - GPÅ-h;¼-¼Û º Û - Zï - ºhzÅ-ˆÛ - EÛ ¤ -Mã h ü

9

Ç+zÅ-hï-mÅ-z¸ÞP-P-±ôºÛ-º±ô-z¼-h;º-P¾-Wï-Vï¼-Hã¼-bï-º±ô-fzÅ-VïhÍ-¤-¾GÅ-hP-ü ¾ô-zTß-GÅÞ¤-¾-Åôm-qºÛ-GTïm-¤ô-ÍÞ-Mm-Oô¾-¤Å¼Û-mÅ-¤ï-ÁÛP-hP-ü Çeôm-D¼-ÁÛP-bôG-hP-¼P-‚ãP-¼Û-BïÅ-GÅï¼-Á-ÅôGźfÞ-mÅ-z®ôP-q-hP-ü ¼P-¾ô-zTß-¾-Åôm-qºÛ-P-¼P-d-iï¾-HÛ-Mm-V-hPÇ~äG-V¾-¾ÞGÅ-MG-¤Dm-ƒG-G»z-q-n¤Å-ˆÛ-¤hÝmü Ç~äh-q-MG-qºÛ¾Å-;-ÅôGÅ-ˆÛ-¤Û-G»ôG-MãG-Çeï-¿eô-GôÅ-º±ô¾-fzÅ-‚Åü

9


10

Wô - ¤ô - JÀ P -¤ºÛ - zÞ - yâ G

GZÛÅ-qü

¾ô-zTß-¾-Åôm-qºÛ-hÐ-yâG-h¤G¤Û¼-ŸÝGÅ-qü (1942-1953)

hï-¿e¼-¾ô-GTÛG-ºhÅ-XïÅ-ZÛm-ŸÛG-¿kÛP-hqôm-Ç+¾-z¸P-¾GÅP-±ôºÛ-EÛ¤-hÝ-wïzÅ-mÅ-Í-¤-¾GÅ-hP-P-±ô¼ü w-h¤-qÅ-yâ-Gݼ-¿edôG-‚ïh-hGôÅ-ŸïÅ-D-Vï¤Å-zŸG-q-¿e¼ü ¼Þ-zM-¿kÛP-GÅÞ¤-¿Ëm-MÅż-zÞ-Vï-z-PG-hzP-h¤G-ÇK¼-¾-º±ßh-fzÅ-BzÅ-ºWâG-ŸÝÅ-q-zŸÛmz;º-ºFô¾-‚ãP-ÅôP-zÅü ¤hº-hqôm-ż-¾G-fï¾-zMG-q¼-ºIô-hGôÅŸïÅ-z;º-GmP-ü Í-¤-¾GÅ-hP-P-±ô-±P-¤-hGº-vô-Vïm-qô-BïÅ-bïÍ-¤Å-¿kÛP-hqôm-¾GÅ-ÅÞ-¾G-GZÛÅ-f¾-¤ô-¢¼-mÅ-fÞGÅ-Xï-Vï-ŸïÅ-¾mIPÅ-hÝ-¤¼-ŸÝÅü hï-mÅ-¿kÛP-hqôm-Ç+¾-z¸P-¾GÅ-ˆÛÅ-P-¼Þ-fôG-¤hºhqôm-ż-ºFÛh-mÅ-¤hº-hqôm-HÛÅ-¾G-fï¾-zMz-¤±¤Å-GÅÞPÅ-hômü Eïh-¼P-w-¿ËG-qºÛ-±z-T-hP-hÛP-¼Û-h¤G-ÇK¼-¾-zTßG-qÅ-ÇÀh-xÛm-h¤G10


¾ô - zTß - ¾-Åô m -qºÛ - hÐ - yâ G -h¤G-¤Û ¼ -ŸÝ G Å-qü

11

FÛ¤Å-h¤-mm-ÆâP-hGôÅ-ŸïÅ-z;º-¤PGÅ-GmP-ü w-ºhÅ-qºÛ-Gb¤-Pm-hï-Çkï-hGï¼-fôÅ-qÅ-ZÛm-ŸÛG-Í-ŸPlô-Xï-¾GÅ-Vz-¤hô¼-P-±ô-fÞG-ºyh-hÝ-»ôP-Çeïü Á-±-¸ô¾-¤ïh-ˆÛŤ-zÞ-n¤Å-Çkï-hGï-hGº-Xï¼-ºIô-hGôÅ-ŸïÅ-ÍÞ-±ßGÅ-mm-ˆÛÅ-zÁhˆP-ü Í-¤-¾GÅ-mÅ-zÞ-PG-hzP-h¤G-¤Û¼-º±ßh-q-hP-ü yâGGݺÛ-wºÛ-Çtäm-Zï-f¤Å-Th-ˆP-hÛP-¼Û¼-»ôh-ÇezÅ-hÛP-¼Û¼-ºIô-»Û-»Ûmü z¸º-¹-ºhÅ-ˆP-zÞ-yâG-n¤Å-¾-zŤ-„Àô-¤-GbP-z¼-¼P-ºhôh-¿e¼‚ïh-fzÅ-¤ïh-TÛP-ü GTïm-qôÅ-Pïh-¤-Ǩh-n¤Å-¾-Åï¤Å-ºDÞ¼-¸ô¾¤ïh-GmP-z¼-fÞGÅ-Xï-Vï-ŸïÅ-Åï¤Å-fG-Vôh-qôÅ-zÁhü iÛm-Tm-Bïh¤Å-P-±ôºÛ-zhï-ÇkÝG-¾-Åï¤Å-ºDÞ¼-HÛÅ-Í-ŸP-¾GÅ-GÛ-¤hÝm-Gh¤G-hï-¿e¼-¤²h-q-hP-ü ZÛm-ÁÅ-ÇSôm-P-h¤G-¤Û¼-º±ßh-q¼-hGº±ô¼-Vïm-qô-‚ïh-qºP-hôm-hÝ-P-±ô-D¤Å-xôGÅ-ÅÞ-GmÅ-ÇePÅ-Bô-qô¼¾ÞÅ-hôGÅ-¼ïhü zôh-M¾-Dz-Vïm-qôºÛ-h¤G-¤Û¼-Gż-ŸÝGÅ-‚ïh-Ç+zÅ-G¸ÞGÅfP-Gô-ºwï¼-fôG-¼P-¾ô-zTô-zMh-¾-Åôm-q-ŸÛG-hP-ü ¤hº-hqôm-¤hÝm¤Û-zz-um-zÁï¼-¾-zT¼-hGôÅ-qºÛ-V-Aïm-GZÛÅ-mÛ-¤-¤f¼-hGôÅü ºôm-ˆP-w-»Û-‚Å-z¸P-XïÅ-ºƒï¾-HÛÅ-¼P-ZÛh-h¤G-¤Û¼-º²â¾hÝÅ-h¤ÛGÅ-zž-fôz-q-hP-ü P-±ô-BïÅ-®¤-mÅ-h¤G-¤Û-hP-ºƒ¾11


12

Wô - ¤ô - JÀ P -¤ºÛ - zÞ - yâ G

¤ïh-º±¼-¾ôPÅ-‚ãP-zºÛ-h¤G-yâG-n¤Å-h¤G-¯ïh-hP-ü ¤ï-¤hº-zÁÛGOÛG-¤ÛG-¾¤-hÝ-‚P-Çeï-h¤G-¯ïh-ÅôGÅ-h¤G-¤ÛºÛ-‚ïh-ÇKô-mÛü P-±ô-h¤GyâG-n¤Å-ˆÛ-¯ïh-¤ô-»G-ÁôÅ-hï-¼ïhü hï¼-zdïm-¼P-ZÛh-h¤G-Gż»Ûm-»P-h¤G-¯ïh-hP-¤ï-¤hº-zÁÛG-OÛG-¢P-¤-hGôÅ-q¼-hÝP-qºÛ-DôPÅÅÞ-º±ßh-hïü hÝP-GÛ-O-¾Å-hI-zô-G¼-»ôh-Çeôm-zlü hI-zô-hP-º²ÛPzlü h¤G-¯ïh-ˆÛ-zl-ÅôGÅ-h‚Ûm-Ç+h-fôG-h¤G-¾ÞGÅ-¸z-¢ôP-‚Åq-hP-ü Ÿô¼-hÝ-P-±ô-h¤G-yâG-n¤Å-hP-¤Z¤-Vß-A¾-¢PÅ-bï-ym-ÅôGžô-zTß-GTÛG-¾-Åôm-qºÛ-h¤G-yâG-zTô-¿S-®¤-HÛÅ-h‚¼-D-V¼-ÁÝGÅ-MÅÇ+zÅ-ˆP-μ-Vß-hP-Pô¤-Vß-GZÛÅ-GTôh-fÞz-ˆÛ-»ôhü Ç+zÅ-hï¼-zôh-¾-D-hP-IÔ-zŸÛ-h¤G-ÇK¼-hP-ü G-hP-GŸÛůï-h¤G-ÇK¼ü P-hP-M¾-¯ï-h¤G-ÇK¼ü T-hP-hÛP-¼Û-h¤G-ÇK¼-zTÅh¤G-ÇK¼-zŸÛ-»ôh-q-n¤Å-¾-zôh-h¤G-ÅÞ¤-ÇeôP-ŸïÅ-ºzôh-Æô¾-¤VÛÅü hï-¤Ûm-M¾-zºÛ-Ç+Ý-ÆâP-Vïh-z®ßGÅ-qºÛ-;-hP-Ç+Ý-ÆâP-h¤G-ÇK¼-»ôhü FÛ¤Å-mÛü FÛ¤Å-»ÛG-Ÿ¾-¿Uï-zTß-GÅÞ¤-GŸÛ-¾-zŸG-Çeï-¤ÛÅÞÅ-mG-ZïÅ-TÛ-ºi-zÅGÅ-q¼-fG-GTôh-‚ïhü ZïÅ-Tm-q¼-¤m¼-GTôhGbôP-‚ïh-¾G-V-d-¿UG-hP-ü ;ô-¿UG @P-¿UGÅü ¾G-¿UGÅü Ç+ïÇKôü Çkô¤-‚ïh-fG-q-ÅôGÅ-»ôhü ¼P-¾ô-zTß-zŸÛ-Çeï-uÛ-¾ô- 1946 hGÝm-D¼-zôh-GŸÝP-h¤G12


¾ô - zTß - ¾-Åô m -qºÛ - hÐ - yâ G -h¤G-¤Û ¼ -ŸÝ G Å-qü

13

uÛ-DP-mÅ-T-hP-hÛP-¼Û-h¤G-ÇK¼-HÛ-ºGô-h¤G-»ôPÅ-μôGÅ-ºDô¼-ŸGhGôPÅ-q-GmP-z-¿e¼ü Í-¤-¤±ô-¤ô-¾GÅ-hP-ym-±ô-¤ÛP-ÆÛP-zTżP-»Þ¾-hÝ-¾ôG-mÅ-ŸÛP-ºƒôG-fôm-¾Å-¾-ŸÝGÅü uÛ-¾ô- 1947 h‚¼-D-¼P-GŸÝP-h¤G-uÛ-DP-GÛÅ-ym-±ô-ThP-hÛP-h¤G-n¤Åü zôh-ˆÛ-M¾-Å-GZÛÅ-q-GŸÛÅ-¯ï¼-z;º-ÇKÝG-GmPÇeï-¹-ÁÅ-zÇkh-XïÅü P-±ô-mG-Vß¼-Å-ÆâP-hP-ü b-hP-h¤G-ÇK¼-hPÁô-Çe-¿Ëô-(Áô-q-¤hôü hq¾-ºz¼-Çe-μôP-ü ¿Ëô-μôP-ü)GÅÞ¤-HÛ-h¤G-zTÅ-Vz¤hô-Ç+¤-fôG-Iâ-D¼-G-hP-GŸÛÅ-¯ï-h¤G-ÇK¼-HÛ-Mz-Çoôm-hÝ-zÇ+ô-¤PGŤ²hü mG-Vß-μôP-hÝ-ZÛm-GÝP-ŸÛG-P-±ô-Z¾-DP-mP-Çkôh-Ç+zÅ-Å-ºGݾ‚ãP-zÅ-ÇKïºÞ-DÞP-mÅ-xÛ¼-¿e-Ç+zÅ-Å-GŸÛ-f¤Å-Th-ºh¼-ŸÛP-ü ¼Û-EÛ¤f¤Å-Th-»ô¤-»ô¤-hÝ-ºGݾü ®G-O-hP-ºÞ¼-OÅ-Gm¤-Å-z;P-zºÛÅ-»ô¤-ŸÛG-zMzü »P-ü ¾ô-hïºÛ-zôh-¹-zhÝm-qºÛ-ZÛm-ŸÛG-¤Þm-¤-¼Þz-®¤-¾-JÀôzÞ¼-¤ï-¤hº-hÝ-¤-ºwïm-¼ïÅ-‚ïh-qºÛ-O-¤Û-n¤Å-ˆÛ-n-z¼-fôÅü ¼Û¤-qÅZï-ºI¤-hI-zô-ÇÀïzÅ-q-¿e-zÞºÛ-¤ï-¤hºÛ-O-²-iG-Hã¼-qü h¤G-¤Û-ºGůÓ-¼¼-»ôh-qºÛ-h¤G-d-WG-zTô¤-‚Å-q¼-hôGÅ-bïü ¤ï-¤hº-ºEï¼mÅ-¼-¤h¼-fôm-»P-d-μÛ¼-ÅôP-zºÛ-h¤G-¤Û-n¤Å-ˆÛÅ-ˆP-O-hï-¿e-zÞfôÅ-qü h¤G-ÇK¼-hzÞÅ-¤¼-Zïm-D-‚ãP-hôGÅ-ˆÛÅ-d-wô-¿UG-GÛÅ-zÇ+ݾ13


14

Wô - ¤ô - JÀ P -¤ºÛ - zÞ - yâ G

bï-±ß¼-»ôP-z-hP-¾¤-z¼-fÞG-yh-‚ãP.ü XïÅ-ÅÞ-zôh-qÅ-¿Ë-h¤G-ºFâGqºÛ-¤ÛP-zbGÅ-qºÛ-TÛ-»Ûm-ºhÛ-»Ûm-¤ïh-qºÛ-O-hï-mÛ-ZÛm-¤±m-GTÛG-IGÅq-hP-Å-xôGÅ-GP-hÝ-xÛm-»P-hï-xôGÅ-mÅ-fôÅü mG-Vß-μôP-hÝ-¹-z-zhÝm-®¤-zÇkh-XïÅ-uÛ-¾ô- 1949 ¼P-¾ôzTß-zhÝm-Åôm-qºÛ-Ç+zÅ-P-±ô-ºGô-h¤G 250 μ-h¤¼-Í-ƒG-Å-DÞ¾hP.ü ºh¤-VÛP-¾ÞP-Å-DÞ¾-¾-ºGô-h¤G 250 ¼ï-zTÅ-Å-ÆâP-hÝzbP-z-mÅ-ym-ºh¤-VÛP-¾ÞP-hÝ-»ôh-TÛP-ü h¤G-Gݼ-¼ï¼-¤Û-zŸÛ-mÅzTß-z¼-Çkôh-q-M-h¤G-¾-hôGÅ-G¸ôm-HÛÅ-Gݼ-mP-mÅü Å-ºôG-GÛº²ÛP-¼G-¤ï-¤hºÛ-ÇkÛG-DÞP-z¸ôÅ-bï-Åô-q-¤-GbôGÅ-qºÛ-GŸm-h¤G¤Û-n¤Å-Å-ºôG-bà-Çkôhü Å-hï-mÛ-»PÅ-ÁÛP-M-Vï-zºÛ-¤Û-¤ïh-¾ÞP-ÇeôP¯Ó-fP-»Ûm-Aïmü VÛP-¾ÞP-GÛ-ºƒôG-qºÛ-D-Mãm-¾ü AP-ºƒôP-GZÛÅ-ˆÛÅ-V-¼ïhü ü½ÀâP-¿ËG-q-GZÛÅ-qô-º±ßz-Å-¼ïhü üTïÅ-IGÅü uÛ-¾ô- 1950 ¹- 11 ±ïÅ- 14 ®¤-¾-P-±ôºÛ-Å-V-hïzMãh-Vz-¤hôºÛ-Å-ÆâP-z-G-hP-h¤G-¤Û-zTß-®¤-º‚ô¼-z-GhôP-zÅÞ¼xÛm-qÅü DôP-±ôºÛ-¾ÞÅ-¾-Gô-¤±ôm-zbGÅ-¤ïh-TÛP-ü h¤G-GôÅxã-q-Å-¤hôG-hP-@P-¿Ë¤-ɾ-Éâ¾-hÝ-Hã¼ü ÁÛm-bà-Bô-Z¤Å-Vï-zºÛPP-±ß¾-hÝ-»ôh-q-Gݼ-mP-zÅÞÅ-bï-Çoï-¾ïm-GP-¸z-‚Å-bï-TÛ-ZïÅ-Ťü ŸïÅ-iÛ-Ç+zÅ-hïºÛ-mP-mÅ-¤Û-Lm-¾ô-¿S-zTß-®¤-¾-Åôm-q-ŸÛG-GÛÅ-M14


¾ô - zTß - ¾-Åô m -qºÛ - hÐ - yâ G -h¤G-¤Û ¼ -ŸÝ G Å-qü

15

¤ÛºÛ-h¤G-¤ÛÅ-Ç+¤-fôG-Iâ-D-mÅ-fôG-¤¼-z®m-º²â¾-‚Å-hÝÅü GhP-h¤G-ÇK¼-HÛ-h¤G-¤Û-VÛG-ÇeôP-®¤-hP-h¤G-ºFâG-fïPÅ-GZÛÅzMz-mÅ-¼ï-ŸÛG-h¤G-¤±¤Å-Vôh-hï-GmÅ-¤ÞºÛ-¤±m-¤ô-ŸÛG MãmhÝ-ºhô-¤ïh-ˆÛ-uôh-±ß¾-º²Ûm-TÛP-GP-‚ãP-Áôh-¤Dm-„Àô-±ï-¿Ëô-q-ŸïÅ-qÅü ºƒÛ-VߺÛ-w-¼ô¾-HÛ-M-h¤G-xôGÅ-mÅ-Å-ƒâ-zºÛ-O-fôÅ-±ß¾-ljm-GÅïPŸÝÅ-ˆP-»Ûh-VïÅ-¤-‚Åü ÅP-ZÛm-M-h¤G-GÛ-Iâ-GTÛG-XïÅ-GZÛÅ-¤fÞh-ˆÛÅ-ºƒÛ-Vß-zL¾ŸÛP-Mz-xôGÅ-mÅ-¤ï-NôGÅ-hP-¤ï-¤hºÛ-ÆâP-Bôz-ÁÝGÅ-Vï¼-‚Å-qÅü ¼P-h¤G-GÛÅ-¤-zÇeïm-q¼-ºƒÛ-Vß-hï-¤-fG-zL¾ü hï-Ç+zÅ-G-hP¤hº-hqôm-¤Þ-‚-hP-ü ¼Þ-hqôm-Ç~äh-DP-qü Ÿ¾-Pô-ºƒôP-¼G-zTňÛÅ-hqº-P¼-¿km-qºÛ-ºGô-FÛh-mÅ-²-iG-GÛÅ-h¤G-ºfz-fïPÅ-ºGº‚Å-ˆP.ü ¤P-Çoï-ZÝP-GÛÅ-zÇeïm-fzÅ-ƒ¾-mÅ-Ç+zÅ-hïºÛ-hqº-zôºÛEã-¤VôG-¼Þ-hqôm-Ç~äh-DP-q-hP-Ÿ¾-Pô-ºƒôP-¼G-GZÛÅ-ÇS-xÛ¼-hI»Û-¾G-bà-¼P-ÆôG-Áô¼-mÅ-w¤-ZïÅ-‚ãP-ü h-hÝP-Bô-GŸÝP-ÅôGÅ-ÅÞM-h¤G-GÛÅ-zôh-h¤G-¾-¤±m-ºGïzÅ-zbP-mÅ-h¤G-¤ÛºÛ-z¸º¹-zÞ-yâG-hP-zTÅ-q-ÇkïzÅ-GÅôh-zbP-ü ƒôÅ-‚ô¾-fÞz-qºÛ-¿ËG-¤-ºGº-Vz-¤hô¼-º‚ô¼-bï-h¤G-ºfzym-®¤-‚Å-XïÅü b-hP-¤hº-hqôm-Çkï-hGïºÛ-ÆÅ-Ç+¾-z¸P-hzP15


16

Wô - ¤ô - JÀ P -¤ºÛ - zÞ - yâ G

ºhÝÅ-ˆÛÅ-ºGô-FÛh-qºÛ-b-hP-h¤G-ÇK¼-mÅ-M-h¤G-¾-¤Gô-zbGÅü ¤hô-uÛ-P-wôh-ˆÛ-z;º-¿e¼-Vz-¤hôºÛ-Gô-¤±ôm-DP-¾-¤ï-zMz-Çeï-Pô-¾Ån¤Å-Iâ-GÝ-hGôm-z¼-ƒôÅ-wïzÅ-ˆP-ü M-h¤G-GÛÅ-Vz-¤hô¼-FÛhhï-z;G-BÛ¾-‚Åü P-±ô¼-»¼-¾¤-hÝ-Gô-¤±ôm-¤ïh-qÅ-D¤Å-xôGŤÛ-Åï¼-HÛÅ-¸Å-GôÅ-TßP-¿ËG-q-n¤Å-ˆP-zTô¤-Çeï-ÆôG-¤Gô-fôm-®¤‚ãP-ŸïÅ-„Àô-w¤-Vïm-qôÅ-zÁhü ¹-z-zMh-®¤-XïÅ-zôh-GŸÝP-h¤G-uÛ-DP-GÛÅ-z;º-¿e¼-ºh¤VÛ-¾ÞP-hP-μ-h¤¼-Í-ƒG-bà-»ôh-qºÛ-hÛP-¼Û-h¤G-¤Û-n¤Åü mGVß¼-Å-ÆâP-hÝ-¼Þz-zÇkÝÅ-¤²h-hïü T-hP-hÛP-h¤G-¤hº-hqôm-HÛÅVz-¤hô-M-h¤¼-¾-Áô¼-ŸÛP-ü uÛ-¾ô- 1951 ¹- 5 ±ïÅ- 23 ZÛm-IôÅ-¤fÞm-hôm-±m-zTß-zhÝm-zŸG-Ç+ô¼-hP-ü ¼ÛP-¤Ûm-M-h¤GmG-Vß-zMãh-¿Ë-ż-ºIô-Mã¼-n¤-ºHã¼-Pm-q-®¤-»P-zÇem-¤Û-VôGTÛP-ü xÛÅ-ˆÛ-‚ïh-ÇKô-mÛü zôh-GŸÝP-h¤G-uÛ-DP-GÛÅ-z;º-ÇKÝGhGôÅü ŸïÅ-ºhÅ-qºÛ-»ô-¾P-Vï-zºÛ-GmÅ-±ß¾-hP-¤-ºôP-qºÛ-DxôGÅ-¾¤-Çeôm-»ôPÅ-Ez-bà-GÅÞPÅü mG-Vß-μôP-hÝ-¹-z-GTÛG-®¤-Çkôh-Ç+zÅ-μ-h¤¼-Í-ƒG-xôGÅ‚P-¾¤-mÅ-¤ºô-»Û-q¼-ºx¼-zºÛ-M-h¤G-ÇeôP-®¤-hP-ü Vz-¤hô-mÅÅôG-G»G-¾-zMãh-GŸÝP-¾¤-xôGÅ-mÅ-M-h¤G-ÇeôP-yG-GTÛG-zTÅü 16


¾ô - zTß - ¾-Åô m -qºÛ - hÐ - yâ G -h¤G-¤Û ¼ -ŸÝ G Å-qü

17

xôGÅ-GZÛÅ-ˆÛ-M-h¤G-n¤Å-mG-Vß¼-ZÛm-GTÛG-GÛ-hGôP-iô-ºhÝ-º²ô¤Å‚Å-ÁÛP-ü mG-Vß-IôP-l¾-HÛ-Á¼-HÛ-»PÅ-qºÛ-ÇtP-GŸôPÅ-hï¼-h¤GÇK¼-GZÛÅ-qô-Åô-ÅôºÛ-Gݼ-B-VÛ¾-¾ï¼-DïPÅü Dô-q-±ô-º‚ô¼-¤-fG-qºÛ-hGôP-¤ô-hï¼-zôh-h¤G-¼Þ-hqômü zMhqômü ¤hº-hqôm-hP-Ÿ¾-Pô-zŸÛ-zTÅ-±ôGÅ-ºhÝ-ŸÛG-GÛ-hzÞÅ-ºzôhhï-M-hqôm-ŸÛG-GÛÅ-Gb¤-zÁh-mP-ü zôh-mÛ-º²¤-JÀÛP-mÅ-XïÅ-¾ÞÅTm-ŸÛG-»Ûm-Aïm-P-±ô-M-¼ÛGÅ-Çtäm-¹Å-z¯ï-Åï¤Å-zTPÅ-mÅ-¼ôGż¤-‚ïh-q¼-»ôP-qÅü XïÅ-ÅÞ-»¼-MÅ-Vïm-qô-‚ãP-¤±¤Å-P-±ô-±P¤-M-mG-bà-¾ôG-GÛ-»Ûm-ŸïÅ-zÁh-TÛP-ü h-hÝP-M-h¤G-ºFz-Çeôm¼Þ-DG-n¤Å-zôh-h¤G-GÛ-ÇK¼-hÝ-»ôP-Çeï-ºFP-ÁÛºÛ-¹ôÅ-G¼-hP-ü GżzXï¼-M¾-D-fôz-qü M-mG-bà-h¤PÅ-G®ôºÛ-zTôÅ-Nå¼-zbP-zü ¤Û¤P-¾-¿ËG-zŤ-n¤-hG-GÛ-¼ôGÅ-¼¤-‚ïh-±ß¾-zTÅ-ˆÛ-mP-hôm-¿kmqºÛ-Gb¤-zXôh-¹ôÅ-G¼-ºFz-qü hï-zŸÛm-Dô-q-±ô-w¼-±ß¼-ºIô-Ç+zňP-¤ºô-ÅôGÅ-ˆÛ-ºi-q¼-ºx¼-ŸÛP-ü uÛ-±ôGÅ-¼ÛP-¾ÞGÅ-ˆÛ-¾¤hÝ-ºIô-m-¤hÝm-¾¤-»ôh-±ß¾-ÅôGÅ-GôP-hP-GTÛG-¤±ßPÅ-zÁh-TÛPü zôh-¤Û¼-ÁÛm-bà-¤²º-¤fÞm-Vï-¤hôG-zÇem-q-hP-ü »P-xôGÅGTÛG-mÅ-G»Å-G»ôm-HÛ-¼Û-¤Gô-ÅôGÅ-ÅÞ-M-h¤G-Åô-¿e-z-z=¤Åbï-ZÛm-¤±m-¿eôÅ-¤ïh-hôGÅ-G¸ôm-¿Ëôh-¤ïh-‚ïhü 17


18

Wô - ¤ô - JÀ P -¤ºÛ - zÞ - yâ G

M-h¤G-n¤Å-mG-Vß¼-ZÛm-zhÝm-®¤-zÇkh-hï-¿Ë-źÛ-xôGÅ-¾ÇkïzÅ-GTÛG-bà-fôm-mÅ-¹-z-GZÛÅ-®¤-XïÅü uÛ-¾ô- 1952 ¹- 4 ±ïÅ- 20 ®¤-¾-&;Ým-G¸ÛGÅ-qa-Vïm-¼Ûm-qô-Vï-Ç+Ý-yïP-zTß-q-Xï-z®ßm„Àô-z¸P-ºyÛm-¾Å-¿Ëàm-Iâz-VôÅ-ˆÛ-M¾-¤±m-¤VôG-zôh-hÝ-VÛzÅ-Nå¼-fôG¤¼-GmP-zÅü ¤VôG-væ¾-¼Ûm-qô-VïºÛ-¤±m-hqïºÛ-hˆÛ¾-ºDô¼-¤W¾zºÛ-Ç+¾-z¸P-GÛ-hGº-Çeôm-fôG-¤¼-fôz-TÛP-ü P-±ô-T-hP-hÛP-h¤Gn¤Å-¼P-¤ôÅ-ˆÛÅ-¤W¾-zT¼-ŸÝÅ-bï-xG-hzP-hP-¤W¾-¤hÝh-fôz-qhP-¤VôG-væ¾-¼Ûm-qô-Vï-ºFâ¾-ƒ¾-»Ûm-q-hï-hÝÅ-mÅ-PïÅ-ÁïÅ-½‰ïhü P-±ô-¹-z-hGÝ-®¤-mG-Vß¼-GmÅ-zTÅ-ÁÛP-XïÅ-ÅÞ-zôh-GŸÝP-h¤GuÛ-DP-mÅ-¼P-»Þ¾-Åô-Åô¼-GŸÛÅ-Ç+ô¼-¾-ºIô-hGôÅ-ˆÛ-z;º-M-wïzÅ-qºÛhGôPÅ-hôm-zŸÛmü ºh¤-GŸÝP-hP-ü »PÅ-q-Tmü ¤¼-AP-ü ºÞ»ÞG ÇeG-Iâ-D-zTÅ-zMãh-GŸÛÅ-¯ï¼-º‚ô¼ü GŸÛÅ-¯ï-z=-ÁÛÅ-BÛh±¾-HÛ-Zï-ºI¤-¿UGÅ-ÁôG-GÛ-fôG-G»ôGÅ-qºÛ-M-h¤G-GÛ-h¤G-ÇK¼Vïm-qô-ŸÛG-Gż-hÝ-zMz-ºhÝG P-±ô-ZÛm-GZÛÅ-¼ÛP-z=-ÁÛÅ-¿Ëàm-qô-hGôm-q¼-¤Vôh-¤W¾-¾-zBôhq-ÅôGÅ-ˆÛÅ-hï¼-zÇkh-q-hP-ü hï-mÅ-Áï¾-h;¼-hÝ-zBôh-hïü ÇS¼¾¤-zŸÛm-Gô-¤±ôm-n¤Å-Áï¾-h;¼-VôÅ-Çkï-hP-μôP-GZÛÅ-¸ÞP-£ï¾-¾-¯ÛźzÞ¾-ŸÝÅ-Ç+zÅ-Gô-¤²ôh-DP-hÝ-ÇS¼-HÛ-¤hº-IÛ-hP-¤hÝP-ü ºÞ¼-lôü 18


¾ô - zTß - ¾-Åô m -qºÛ - hÐ - yâ G -h¤G-¤Û ¼ -ŸÝ G Å-qü

19

Fz-©ôG ¤ï-¤hºü μÅ-ÅôGÅ-hÝ-¤-¤fôP-ü hÛP-¼Û¼-º‚ô¼-XïÅ-hÛP-¼ÛºÛ-‚P-M-DP-ŸïÅ-qºÛ-Å-V¼-M-h¤GZÛÅ-zM-®¤-hP-ü fP-GÝP-Á¼-ŸïÅ-qºÛ-¿ËôºÛ-fP-hï¼-M-h¤G-zŸÛ-zM®¤-º‚ô¼-mÅ-ÇK¼-wzü hÛP-¼ÛºÛ-Á¼-¼-Vß-G®P-qô-hP-ü mÝz-Mz-¼Û»Ûm-qÅ-h¤G-ÇK¼-GZÛÅ-ˆÛ-z¼-zTßG-ºhÝG-zŤ-‚ãP-ü M-h¤G-±ô¤Û-Åï¼-HÛ-EÛ¤-Åô-Åô¼-»ôP-Çeï-Vß-Bï¾-z-hP-ü ¾Þh-zbz-q-ÅôGÅ-zôh¤Û¼-¼ôGÅ-q-Ço-±ôGÅ-‚Å-bï-zôh-GŸÝP-GÛ-Gô-GmÅ-»ôh-qºÛ-¤Û-hP-xãGzhG ±ôP-hqômü Lm-qôü ¤Û-IâP-qô-Lôh-qô-ÅÞ-»Ûm-zTÅ-¼ï-¼ï-můh-GTôh-¤f¼-xÛm-‚Åü

19


20

Wô - ¤ô - JÀ P -¤ºÛ - zÞ - yâ G

GÅÞ¤-qü

ºE¤Å-qôº-Û ºGô-G®ôü (1953-1958)

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ºE¤Å-qô º Û - ºGô - G®ô ü

21

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¤Gô-FÅü Í-wô-PG-hzP-ü h-¿eºÛ-M-h¤G-ºhÛ-n¤Å-¾-P±ôÅ-ºWz-h¤G-zMG-Çeï-PïÅ-q¼-hÝ-M¾-D-„ÀP-fÞz-q-‚ïh-hGôÅü Mh¤G-GÛ-Gô-¤±ôm-hP-ü d-iï¾-ÅôGÅ-P-±ô¼-fôz-XïÅ-zÇem-ÆâP-hP-„ÀPh¤G-¾-ºIô-zºÛ-V-Aïm-±P-GÛ-¼ïhü hï-¤Ûm-P-±ôºÛ-¤Û-n¤Å-zÇem-ÆâPhP-„ÀP-h¤G-¾-ºIô-ŸïÅ-q-mÛ-ZÛ-¤-ºzÞh-fzÅ-ˆÛ-Ç+h-V-¼ïhü Eïh-¾ôGŸôm-uP-IâP-º²ô¤-Aïm-¤HôGÅ-¥ã¼-zBôh-hï-hP-qô-Í-¾G-¾-GžzÁh-‚ôÅü Í-¾G-GÛÅ-±ôGÅ-¤Û-GŸm-hP-IôÅ-¤ô¾-‚Å-bï-h¤G-IzOÛG-GÛ-¼ïh-TïÅ-zÁh-‚ãP-zÅü PÅ-d-wô¼-VG-Iôh-q-MG-PïÅ-vhhï-¾¤-ÅïP-fôm-mÅ-m¤-xïh-¤-¸Ûm-®¤-¾-ÇKP-h;¼-hÝ-º‚ô¼-bïü Í-¾G¾-GmÅ-±ß¾-n¤Å-Vh-¾ÞÅ-¤ïh-q¼-zÁh-TÛP-ü P-GZÛÅ-ˆÛÅ-GŸmn¤Å-¾-IôÅ-zÇkݼ-‚ïh-Ç+zÅ-Dô-q-±ôÅ-ºGG-¯¼-G»ô¾-fzÅ-Dô-m-‚ïhq¼ü Í-¾G-GÛÅ-hP-qô-ºIô-ŸïÅ-ºÞh-Áôz-Áôh-¤Dm-Eïh-±ô-»Ûm-qÅü hô-hGôP-PïÅ-q¼-±ôGÅ-ºhݼ-»ôP-hGôÅ-ŸïÅ-zÁh-ˆP-¤±m-±ôGÅ-¾bÛ-Vïm-Ÿ¼-z-ÅôGÅ-¤Û-zTß-iâG-¾Å-¤-º‚ô¼ü P-hP-Í-¾G-GTïm-GTßP-GÛ-Åï¤Å-¾-ÁÛm-bà-Gmôh-qÅ-h¤GzMG-Mã-DÅ-¤-„ÀP-mü ±ôGÅ-fôG-hï-G¼-mP-DÞ¾-GÅôh-¼ïÅ-GbôP-MãhP-ü ±ôGÅ-fôG-mÅ-ÇKô-D¼-ÅÞ-fôm-»P-PÅ-GÅôh-Mã-DÅ-„ÀPÅ-bï-¼PZÛh-ˆÛÅ-ÇKô-ÆâP-mÅ-zÇkh-TÛP-ü ±ôGÅ-fôG-wm-±ßm-¢P-zÁh-¼Û¤-q¼49


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53

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T-hP-hÛP-h¤G-GÛ-¤fº-¤ºÛ-¾ô-MãÅü

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58

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ZÛm-GZÛÅ-®¤-mÅ-±ôGÅ-ºhÝ-Vïm-qô-ŸÛG-zÇ+ôPÅ-bï-¤Û-±P-¤¼ºzôh-±ÛG-GÛ-ÁôG-¾ï-¼ï-¼ï-vh-TÛP-ü G-hP-¼Þ-hqôm-hP-zM-hqôm-±P¤| hÛP-¼Û-zºÛ-¼Þ-hqôm-;Ým-hGº-hP-Ÿ¾-Pô-±P-¤-ºFÛh-»ôP-ü M¾Å-ˆÛÅ-uÛ-±ôGÅ-½‰ÛP-qºÛ-hÝG-¯¼-G®P-¯ÛÅ-zMG-hGôÅ-ŸïÅ-ºzôh-OOôG-zTßG-TÛP-ü ÇkÛPÅ-VºÛ-fôG-¤Û-¼ï-¼ï-zŸÛm-zÇÀPÅ-bï-±ôGÅ-ºhݺÛG®ô-BôP-zÅ-Pm-Ç+ݾ-‚Å-XïÅü G-hP-h¤G-¤Û-hˆãÅ-¤-GŸÛÅ-¯ï-zÉÛG-ÉÛG-ÅôGÅ-ºGÅ-¼Þ-hqôm-HÛ-ƒP-hP-¤Gô-mÅ-z¸ÞP-Çeï-ºfïm-q-ÅôGÅZïÅ-lÝP-GÛÅü ¼Þ-hqôm-hï-G¼-zÅh-TÛP-Ÿ¾-Pô-lÝP-lïG-GÛÅ-©Å-Bômz¸ôÅü P-±ôºÛ-T-hP-hÛP-h¤G-GÛ-Lm-IÅ-¸-¼ôP-z=-ÁÛÅ-hP-ü Lmzhï-¤VôG-hzP-M¾-HÛÅ-¼P-¤Û-¼P-GÛÅ-zlÝP-¤Û-Zmü ŸïÅ-GÅÞPÅbï-DôP-GZÛÅ-ˆÛÅ-G®ôÅ-P-±ô-±P-¤Å-¼Þ-hqôm-;Ým-hGº-hP-Ÿ¾-Pô-n¤ÅhˆÛ¾-¾-zTßG-mÅ-¤fº-Ç+ô¼-ŸÛP-zÆâPÅü Ç+zÅ-¼ï-±ôGÅ-Vïm-º±ôGÅ-bï-M-h¤G-hqôm-qôÅ-Eôh-±ôÅ-mGZïÅ-PôÅ-¾ïm-‚Å-m-GÝ-»PÅ-ÆÛh-‚ãÅ-»ôh-qÅü PôÅ-¾ïm-Gž-qô-‚Åm-¾¤-ÅïP-JÀôh-ˆÛ-»Ûm-ŸïÅ-zÁh-ˆP-ü zôh-¤ÛºÛ-zŤ-„ÀôºÛ-Gô-dôGÅh¤º-ŸÛP-ü M-¤ÛºÛ-ÆÛh-‚ãÅ-¾-fï-±ô¤-BïÅ-mÅ-GmÅ-Ç+zÅ-¼ÛP-Pôžïm-‚ïh-¤Dm-¤-‚ãP-»P-ü ¹-ÁÅ-XïÅ-¼Ûm-ÇtäPÅ-μôP-GÛ-hqôm-ŸÛG-GÛPôÅ-¾ïm-ŸÝ-»ÛG-ÁôG-zTß-IPÅ-ÁÛG-M-GŸÝP-GÛ-h¤G-hqôm-Í-¤hô-z-ŸÛG59


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GÛÅ-±ôGÅ-ºhݺÛ-fôG->ÀôG-qºÛ-mP-ü P-hP-qô-BïÅ-±ßm-mÅ-¾Å-;-VߺۼÛ-¤ô-®¤-»P-¤-‚Å-q¼-h-z¼-GZº-Gmôm-zÁÝ-GŸôG-Dô-mºÛ-º±ô-z-zB¾ŸÛP-ü zÁÝ-GŸôG-‚ïh-ÇePÅ-mÛü ¤Û-Åï¼-mÅ-ºƒâ-¼ÛGÅ-hP-Á-¤¼-„ÀPÅq-hP-ü F¾-ºÞ-¾G-zÇ+ݾ-z-¤-¸hü PÅ-FÛ¤Å-GTôh-zbP-Çeï-¤Û-GÅÞ¤zÅh-q-ÅôGÅ-ŸÛz-bà-zXôh-mü mG-ZïÅ-CºÛ-IPÅ-hP-VߺÛ-GZï¼-¤¿e-zÞ-zÅGÅ-»ôh-TïÅ-ÅôGÅ-ºDôhü PôÅ-¾ïm-»ÛG-V-z>ÀGÅ-XïÅ-Mhqôm-HÛÅ-¤Þ-¤fÞh-GÝP-Fm-bP-GÛ-D-Gž-¾-GÝ-»PÅ-hP-ü Ç~Å-Ç+ݤ¾-iG-Gmôm-HÛ-ÆÛh-WâÅ-GŸÛ¼-z¸ÞP-ü Dô-GÝP-Fm-bP-GÛ-ÆÛh-‚ãÅ-¾»Ûh-VïÅ-bï-mG-ZïÅ-PôÅ-¾ïm-‚Å-q-¼ïhü TïÅ-¤Û-hï-ÇkÛPÅ-VºÛ-fôG-ºzôhhï-¾G-ºEï¼-hP-»ÛG-V-zTÅ-vh-mÅ-JÀôh-Iô¾-zbP-ü z®ôm-q-w¾-¤ô-VïºÛ-Åï¤Å-ÅÞ-¼Ûm-ÇtäPÅ-μôP-GÛ-hqôm-hïÅ-zÅGÅqºÛ-mG-ZïÅ-hG-fzÅ-¤ïh-ˆP-ü GÝP-Fm-bP-GÛÅ-mG-ZïÅ-Gž-qô¼PôÅ-¾ïm-‚Å-m-JÀôh-ˆÛ-»Ûmü ŸïÅ-qºÛ-ÆÛh-WâÅ-hï-hPôÅ-ÅÞ-¾G-Çe¼-‚ïhˆÛ-ºhÝG-lj¤-Çeïü M-hqôm-Í-¤hô-z-hï¼-ÁôG-«åG-hGôÅ-qºÛ-¼ï-z-ŸÝÅbï| ¼P-Åô-Åô-¾ô-zMh-mÅ-z®ôm-hÝ-¤-º±ßh-z¼-HÛ-mG-ZïÅ-Vï-z-h¤GzMz-Çeï-M-h¤G-zÅh-qü OÛG-º²âGÅ-mP-ŸÝGÅ-qü ºyôG-zTô¤‚Å-qü h=ôGÅ-Gb¤-zÁh-qü Pm-‚ãÅ-zbÛPÅ-q-ÅôGÅ-¼ï-¼ï-zŸÛmPôÅ-¾ïm-ŸÝ-»ÛG-ƒÛÅ-q-hP-ü ºGº-ÁÅ-ˆÛÅ-ÇS-®¤-JÀôh-Iô¾-»ôP-Mã¼60


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¼ï-Çeï-¤-‚Å-‚Å-±ß¾-Áôh-ˆÛ-»ôh-q-hqï¼-mü mô¼-JÀÛP-hÝ-ºwGÅ-q-¿ËºÛ¤Dm-VßP-zÅôh-m¤Å-M-¤±ô-GÅôh-¤Dm-¾G-h¤¼-z-»Ûm-ŸïÅ-Áôh-¤DmzŸÛ-zM-®¤-‚ãP-z-mÅ-GZÛÅ-JÀôhü P-±ôºÛ-¼Þ-DG-zŸÛ-q¼-»P-¼P-ZÛh¤-GbôGÅ-±P-¤Å-PôÅ-¾ïm-‚Åü PôÅ-¾ïm-‚Å-q-hï-¿e¼-»P-¹-z-iâG-®¤-Mãm-HÛ-¾Å-;-‚ïh-Mã-¤GbôGÅ-±ôGÅ-ºhÝ-ÅôGÅ-TÛ-»P-¤ïh-q¼-ºW¤-fÛP-Pï¼-zŸG-TÛP-ü ZÛmŸÛG-Q-Vïm-HÛ-Dô¼-»ÞG-GÛ-¼Û-n¤Å-Gô-¤±ôm-fôGÅ-qºÛ-h¤G-GÛÅ-zÇ+ô¼bï-±ôGÅ-Vïm-Ç+ôP-qºÛ-żü hï-¼ÛP-mÛ-iG-Gmôm-FÛ¤Å-GTôh-ˆÛ-±ôGźhÝ-»Ûm-ŸïÅ-Pô-vôh-‚Å-q-hP-ü ¹-ÁÅ-ÇSôm-¼P-Åô-ÅôÅ-PôÅ-¾ïm-ŸÝÅqºÛ-ŸÝ-»ÛG-GÛ-mG-ZïÅ-GŸÛ¼-z¸ÞP-ü z®ôm-Vh-¾ô-GÅÞ¤-mÅ-±ï-z®ômz¼-FÛ¤Å-fG-¤Û-¼ï-¼ï-zŸÛm-zThü ±P-¤ºÛ-Åï¤Å-mP-GÝ-»PÅ-ºfôzMãºÛ-¼ï-z-ÁÛm-bà-Vï-»P-ÇkÝG-zÇS¾-HÛÅ-w-¤-Çtäm-¤Vïh-ÁÛ-z-¿e-zÞºÛ-zŸÛm¼Å-mG-¼ôG-Gï¼-Gݼ-hÝ-¾ôG-»ôP-ü ZÛm-ÁÅ-mÅ-M-¾Å-ÅÞm-=ï-bô-»ôm-HÛÅ-h¤ÛGÅ-zž-GÝÅ-DôqºÛ-Gݼ-mP-ºzôh-hï-Dô-qÅ-f-¤G-GÛ-hÝ-z-¿ËôG-¿ËôG-Qâz-º‚Ûm-‚ïh-TÛP-ü h¤ÛGÅ-zž-hGº-FôºÛ-n¤-ºHã¼-TÛ-»P-¤ïh-q¼-¾Å-‚ïh-q-;ôP-qôz-zÇem-q-zMãh-hïP-zŤ-„Àô-TÛ-ŸÛG-ºDô¼-¼¤ü ŸïÅ-iÛÅ-q¼ü GÝňÛÅ-zŤ-„Àô-GbôP-Mã-hGôÅ-q-¤ïh-q-zŤ-„Àô-ºDô¼-‚ãP-ŸïÅ-zÁhü 61


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Dô-qÅü »P-zB¼-D-ÅP-iG-Gmôm-FÛ¤Å-GTôh-Ç+zÅ-zŤ-±ß¾G-¼ï-‚ãP-P¤ü ŸïÅ-iÛÅü PÅ-¤Û-GÅÞ¤-®¤-HÛ-mG-ZïÅ-PôÅ-¾ïm‚Å-q¼-zdïm-GÝP-Fm-bP-GÛ-ÆÛh-WâÅ-GŸÛ¼-z¸ÞP-GÝ-»PÅ-JÀôh-Iô¾zbP-zÅü ±P-¤Å-hï-¿e¼-»Ûm-q¼-lj¤-Çeï-mG-ZïÅ-PôÅ-¾ïm-‚ňP-ü iG-Gmôm-FÛ¤Å-GTôh-‚Å-q-hï-mÛ-ÇSôm-HÛ-fG-GTôh-hP-XïňÛ-¾G-Çe¼-GZÛÅ-¯-z-mÅ-¤Û-¤±ßPÅ-ŸïÅ-zÁhü M-¾Å-ÅÞm-=ï-bô-»m-HÛÅ-Eïh-¼P-Z¾-DP-hÝ-xÛm-bï-¤ºôºÛGÅÞP-¯ô¤-¾-»G-qô-¿eôÅü hïºÛ-mP-ÆÛh-WâÅ-hP-fzÅ-WâÅ-mÛ-bP-GÛÆôG-¯-»Ûmü ¼Û¤-q-DG-GÛ-„Àô-¤fÞm-n¤Å-ˆÛÅ-Èô¾-MãG-hP-ÇoP-¤ïhGbm-mÅ-‚ïh-¤Û-VôG-TïÅ-zÁh-»ôhü hï-mÛ-P-±ôºÛ-ÆÛh-WâÅ-hP-fzÅWâÅ-ÁÛG-ˆP-¼ïhü ¾G-¾ïm-hï-¿e-zÞ-ŸÛG-¤-zÇe¼-m-zôh-ˆÛÅ-¾ôG-uôhq-n¤Å-ˆÛ-zŤ-„ÀôºÛ-¯-z-Gbm-mÅ-ÇSôG-¤Û-fÞz-TïÅ-zÁhü ¼P-ZÛhˆÛ-zŤ-„Àô¼-»P-hï-mÛ-¤Û-±ï-Vz-ÆÛh-ˆÛ-G»ô-ºyâ¾-uôh-q¼-¤DÅ-qºÛM-h¤¼-HÛ-G»ô-NåºÛ-ºôG-¾ÞG-¿e¼-JÀïm-ŸÛP-iP-qôºÛ-¾Å-¾-Gô¤Å-qºÛzôh-¤Û-n¤Å-º±ßh-ºhÝG-lj¤ü uÛ-¾ô- 1960 ¹- 1 ±ïÅ-Á¼-¾-Q-Vïm-hÝ-ZÛm-¾Å-hP-¤±m¾Å-‚ïh-¤Dm-Gbm-Dï¾-HÛÅ-¾Å-zGôÅ-zMz-TÛP-ü ÇSôm-HÛ-GŸÝP-ŸzÅÇ+Ý-iG-hP-ü D¤Å-qÅ-G®ôÅ-h¤G-Å-mÅ-z¸ÞP-zºÛ-¤Û-n¤Å-¾-ÇkP62


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¸ÞG-Vï-ŸÛP-ü ¾Å-¤Û-GŸm-¾Å-¾ôGÅ-ÅÞ-xï-mÅ-¼Þ-DG-GTÛG-z¸ôÅü ZÛm¤±m-GP-hÝ-¾Å-;-‚ïh-hGôÅ-qºÛ-¤Û-ÅÞ-»Ûm-»P-¾Å-hÝÅ-hï¼-¤Û-GTÛGGÛÅ-¾G-Eï¼-ZÛÅ-zM-zÅGÅ-hGôÅ-q-hP-ü lô-hzô¼-fïPÅ-¼ï-¾-¾GEï¼-¼ï-vôh-TÛP-ü ÇeôzÅ-Vïm-n¤Å-ˆÛÅ-lô-Vïm-ºDÞ¼-fïPÅ-GTÛG-¾-¾GEï¼-zŸÛ-fôz-ˆP-ü ¤Û-¤P-Vï-z-¾G-Eï¼-HÛ-Vïh-hÝÅ-Dô¤-q-Ç+h-TÛG-ˆP¤ïh-q¼-MãG-Á¼-Dô-m-JÀôh-hGôÅü ¤Û-n¤Å-ƒï¾-¸ÛP-hï-¿eºÛ-¤Þ¼-zhï-ºWGÅ-¾-ºGm-ºDÞ¼-GP-»P¤ïh-q¼-È-TP-fG-¤Û-¼ÛP-zºÛ-G»Å-G»ôm-mÅ-h¤G-Vïm-ŸÛG-zMG-GÛ»ôh-q-zŸÛmü ¼Û-¾-zMz-qºÛ-ºz¼-μÅ-zMh-zM-®¤-HÛ-O-zÇeàh-¤¼»P-»P-IGÅ-bï-¤Û-±ôGÅ-ˆÛ-hzÞÅ-ÅÞ-lô-hP-Å-ºfô¼-z-mÛ-Mãm-Gbm-HÛÇoP-±ß¾-ŸÛG-¼ïhü fïPÅ-ÁÛG-GÝP-±ÛGÅ-¤-¸Ûm-®¤-¾-ºz¼-μÅ-ˆÛ-O-ŸÛG-fôÅ-qhP-ü hï-¤-fG-¤ÛºÛ-ºô-hôh-iG-qô-‚ïh-q-ºÞ-TG-¾Å-¤Û-zM-yG-®¤-AïmPm-‚ãP-ż-MãGÅ-ˆP-ü M-h¤G-±ôÅ-Vß-±ôh-xïh-®¤-¼ÛP-z;G f¾-z-º±ßz-zŸÛm-qºÛ-xôGÅ-hï¼-¿e-Ç+zÅ-Å-hP-lô-GÅïz-mŤÛ-GÅÞ¤-HÛ-C-mG-º²¼-¼ï¼-¤fôP-z-¾Åü GŸm-n¤Å-Å-ºôG-bà-hÛ¤mÅ-¤ÛG-GÛÅ-¤Û-¤fôP-ü Aïm-Pm-hï¼-Eôm-¤Û-zTß-GÅÞ¤-HÛ-±ï-ÆôG-Áô¼z-hP-ü G¾-bï-M-h¤G-GÛÅ-P-±ô-z;G-¤ïh-m-¤-¤f¼-¤Û-GÅÞ¤-hï-P63


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±ôÅ-zBz-fÞz-PïÅ-¼ïhü ¾ô-ÁÅ-ÇSôm-ºW¼-¤m-HÛÅ-¼ôGÅ-Bô¼-ºôG-¼P-GŸÝP-GÛÅ-QVïm-hÝ-JÀôG-DP-zMG-Mã-Gbm-ºDï¾-bïü JÀôG-VÅ-M-G¼-mÅ-¿Ë-żhzô¼-z-hP-ü ¼ÛºÛ-Ç+ïh-q-»P-GP-®¤-zTh-»ôh-q-hï-fôG-M-¤ÛÅ-¾ôhïºÛ-¹-z-GÅÞ¤-q-®¤-¾-P-±ô¼-ZÛm-¤±m-;Ým-bà-zÇ+ݾ-hïh-ˆÛÅü ¼ÛÇ+ïh-zTh-ºyô-V-±P-GTôh-Mã-hP-ü lô-hzô¼-ºiïm-‚ïh-zTßG-Çeï-¼ÛzTh-Áݾ-zMãh-Vß-iP-mÅ-JÀôG-DP-z®ßGÅ-fzÅ-ºzh-z¯ôm-‚ïh-Ç+zÅü ¤±m-¤ô-ŸÛG-ƒG-ZÛ¾-mÅ-z®ôm-q-zM-®¤-¼P-ż-ºhÅ-q-hP-ü JÀôGºôh-ˆÛÅ-Gž-zºÛ-lݾ-±ßz-ˆÛ-hzÞÅ-mÅ-¤Û-ŸÛG-GÛÅ-P-BôzÅ-¼ôGÅŸïÅ-Ç+h-Pm-zMz-qü P-±ôºÛ-zTß-ÁôG-GÛ-¤Û-zMh-MãG-Çeï-¤Û-hï-lôºÛhˆÛ¾-mÅ-zbôm-Ç+zÅ-Vß-Áݾ-HÛ-Lm-qô-VôÅ-ºwï¾-»Ûm-q-hP-ü DôPzBzÅ-fÞz-ˆP-@P-q-»-GTÛG-VG-Çeï-hrP-hrP-‚ïh-q-¸ÞG-G¸ï¼-HÛŤ-z¸ôh-q¼-Vô-Pï-iG-bà-ºhôm-q¼ü PÅ-ºzÞ-¼Å-Çeôh-GôÅ-ˆÛÅ-@PqºÛ-¼ÞÅ-q-zOÛGÅ-bïü zÇk¤Å-qÅ-hPôÅ-Gž-HÛÅ-¸ÞG-G¸ï¼-VßPhÝ-xÛmü P-±ôÅ-DôP-z®ôm-qºÛ-Ǩm-DP-hÝ-Bï¾-Ç+zÅ-hï¼-©Å-Bôm-‚ãPzºÛ-¤Û-GŸm-zMh-®¤-»P-ºFÛh-‚ãP-ü GÝÅ-±ô-¹-z-¿SºÛ-¼ÛP-ZÛm-¤±m-£ï¾-bï-¼ÛºÛ-Ç+ïh-q-zTh-XïÅ-Vß¼GÅ-MG-q¼-zbP-Çeïü VzÅ-TÛG-¤ºô-=â-ŸÛÅ-Gbm-ºzïzÅ-z¸ôÅ64


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qºÛ-fôm-Çtï¾-Iôm-VßP-ŸïÅ-qºÛ-¾Å-ºGݾ-Çtï¾-ŸÛP-ü =âP-GôºÛ-¤Û-¼ï-¼ïżP-GÛ-¸Å-mÅ-ºƒÅ-lôG-GTÛG-zÅG-m-ºƒÅ-½ÀPÅ-ºDô¼-GTÛG-DïPňÛ-¼ïhü TïÅ-zÁh-hï-P-±ôºÛ-º±ô-z-ZÛm-¼ï-¾Å-¤-ºhÅ-q¼-f-Ÿm-hÝ-zbPÇeïü W-¾ô-hP-ü ¼P-‚ãP-GÛ-ÇSô-¼ÛGÅü f-m-®Û-®Û-hP-Å-ºôG-ºzÞ-ÆÛmÅôGÅ-ˆP-¾ôPÅ-uh-hGôÅ-‚ãP-ü ZÛm-¼ï¼-z=ïÅ-¿eôGÅ-ˆÛÅ-ZÝP-¤f¼-z®ôm-q-zMh-®¤-ºhÅ-qhP-ü GÁÛm-qô-n¤Å-ˆÛ-Hôm-GôÅ-GTÛG-bà-ÇtäPÅ-Ç+zÅ-¼Û-VßP-¿e-zÞºÛGbôÅ-VGÅ-q-„Àô-w¤-ÁÛm-bà-Vïm-qô-BïÅü hqï¼-mü z¸P-z¸P-hqômPG-hzP-¤Gôm-qô-¸Å-zTßh-¤-ºhP-z¼-Z¾-Gݼ-mP-¾ÞÅ-Aïm-¼ôGÅ-qn¤Å-¾ü G¾-bï-P-¾-¯¤-q-fÞ¼-¤-GP-vh-m-GÅôÅ-»ôP-Å-¼ïhü TïÅzÁh-ˆP-¼ôGÅ-q-ÅÞ-¾ºP-¯¤-q-vôh-Mã-¤ïh-ÇezÅ-DôP-h;º-ÇkÝG-VïmqôºÛ-PP-ºhÅü Ç+zÅ-hï¼ü ±h-GŸÛ-;Û-¾ô-¤Û-‡¼-zŸÛ-»ôh-qºÛ-¼GÅ-hï-z¯ÛGÅÇ+zÅ-Pïh-TG-GŸôm-BïÅ-±ô-Çeôh-¾-fï¼-Gï-iâh-q-hP-ÇÀï-zô-Mz-¾-ºDÞ¼bï-¾Å-;-‚ïh-hGôÅü z®ôm-q-Lm-q-±ôÅ-P-±ôºÛ-º±ô-z¼-Åï¤Å-ºDÞ¼HÛÅ-GŸm-zÇ+ݼ-Mã-¤ïh-ˆP-ü ¯Û-VßP-iÛ-ÇkÝG-ŸïÅ-ÇSô-¼ÛGÅ-iÛ-¿km-ŸÛGzÇ+ݼ-»P-z®ô-zºÛ-V-Aïm-®¤-¤ïh-qÅü hï-hG-Xïm-q¼-z¸º-»Û-»ôhü GÅôm-qô¼-GmÅ-q-n¤Å-ˆP-¾Å-¯ô¾-¿UÛ-ŸÛP-¿eôGÅ-z=ïÅ-ˆÛÅ65


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Zݾ-Ç+zÅ-Eôm-DP-q-zTß-iâG-hP-ü hïºÛ-mP-mÅ-ºGº-ŸÛG-¾-d-iᄎhôGÅ-Å-hP-ºGº-ÁÅ-ˆÛ-Å-¾-z@ôÅ-zMz-mÅ-zP-FÛ-hP-ü @Ýz-ÇeïGÅü Z¾-FÛü fz-ÅôGÅ-mP-VÅ-z¸ôÅ-ºhÝG z®ôm-q-n¤Å-ŸÛP-¾Å-ºhïzÅ-zÇkÝ-‚ïh-hGôÅ-qÅ-ÅP-ZÛm-ŸÛP¼¼-¾Å-;¼-ºIô-Ç+zÅ-¾¤-z¼-wG-q-º±ô-zŸÛm-qºÛ-z®ôm-q-½‰ÛP-q-ŸÛGfÞG-qü DôP-¾-»-¤±m-Vï-zºÛ-Å-ºôG-DP-qºÛ-mP-zÇkh-»ôh-Ç+ô¼-zÁhqÅü DôP-GÛÅ-Å-ºôG-DP-q-hï-hG-h¤G-ºFâG-Ç+zÅ-h¤G-hqôm-ZïmG»ô¾-Vïh-z¸ôÅ-q-¼ïhü TïÅ-GÅÞPÅü uÛ-¾ô- 1965 zôh-¹- 5 ±ïÅ- 22 ZÛm-hÛP-¼Û-z-hPôÅIâz-Íï-¤-ÇKP-z®ôm-DP-mÅ-ƒôÅ-q-hP-ü Áï¾-h;¼-z-±ôP-q-TßP-¾GňÛÅ-¾Å-ż-zL¾-¤Û-VôG-qºÛ-Å-fÛG-GÛ-zTh-¤±¤Å-¤-zL¾-»P-ü Mh¤G-ÆâP-‚-zÅ-ljh-ºhôGÅ-ˆÛÅ-¤ï-¤hº-ºwPÅ-bï-@P-q-©Å-q-¤-¸hü DôP-¾-Å-fÛG-zL¾-zºÛ-ZïÅ-q-z®ßGÅ-q-hP-ü ŸÛP-¼ºÛ-Zï-ºDô¼-Iâ-ÅhP.ü ;ô-Åü ¤Û-Åï¼-zTÅ-¾-hPôÅ-Iâz-ˆÛ-GhôP-h‚ÛzÅ-hP-ü G¸ÞGűh-ÅôGÅ-¾ô-MãÅ-V-±P-Ez-zOGÅ-‚Å-bï-hPôÅ-Iâz-ÅÞÅ-º²Ûm-z¸ÞP‚ïh-fÞz-mü G¸ÛGÅ-GÅô¾-hP-zÇeôh-zÇSGÅ-»ôh-±ß¾-zl-Ez-Çtï¾ü GôP-Gž-GmÅ-±ß¾-hï-GZÛÅ-ˆÛÅ-P-±ô-¤Û-¼ï-¸ÞP-zBôh-¤Û-VôGq¼-±ôGÅ-DG-¤Z¤-zBôh-‚ïh-hGôÅ-qºÛ-OÛG-º²âGÅ-Gż-hÝ-z¸ôÅü 88


G®P-DÞ¾-HÛ-IGÅ-Tm-z®ôm-DP-GÅÞ¤-ºIÛ¤Å-qü

89

¤Û-¼ÛP-zºÛ-ZÛm-ŸÛG-P-±ô-¾Å-¤Û-zŸÛ-zTß-¿ËG-®¤-±ôGÅ-ºhÝ-ŸÛGzÇ+ôPÅ-bïü M-¾Å-„Àô-Áôh-ˆÛÅ-Dô-qÅ-ºGô-ºFÛh-hï-ym-ÅôGÅ-¤Û-zMh¾-h¤ÛGÅ-z®ßGÅ-ˆÛÅ-¯ï-GhôP-hGôm-q-Çeô¼-z¼-ºIô-hGôÅ-zXôhü ymHÛ-Åï¤Å-ÅÞ-ÇkÛG-±ôGÅ-Vï-zºÛ->À->ÀôºÛ-Pm-uôh-¾-ŸÝGÅ-Mã-ÁÛm-bà-º±ï¼ŸÛP-ü M-h¤¼-hP-GZÛÅ-ÅÞ-¤ïh-qºÛ-„Àô-Áôh-Dô-q-»ôP-Mã¼-zdïm-w¼-xÛmm-G»ô¾-fzÅ-Gbm-mÅ-¤ïh-qÅü ym-HÛÅ-M-¾Å-ÁÛG-¾-hGôPÅ-q-ŸÝÆô¾-ÇÀôz-¼ôGÅ-ŸïÅ-zXôh-hï-G¸ÞGÅ-qô-zhï-zô-¤ïh-±ß¾-HÛÅ-hGôPÅ-qŸÝÅ-ˆP-hôm-ǨÛm-¤-‚ãP.ü TÛ-iG-GÛ-zŤ-„Àô-GbôP-Ç+zÅ-ºIô-¼ôGűôÅ-¤Z¤-hÝ-»ôP-»P-hGôm-q-Çeô¼-¤Û-hGôÅ-qºÛ-fzÅ-‚Å-VôG-TïÅ-zÁhqÅ-xÛmü ¯ï-GhôP-hÝ-º‚ô¼-Ç+zÅ-DP-Vïm-ºGºÛ-fôG-¾Å-hGôm-HÛ-zdïmdïm-q-w¾-Vï¼-Çeô¼-zÁÛG-¸Ûm-ºhÝG hï-DÞ¾-HÛ-¤Û-¤P-n¤Å-¾-ZïÅ-Tm-¼ÛGÅ-¾-ºƒï¾-z-‚ïh-¤Û-VôGqºÛ-iÛ¾-zOGÅ-ºWÛGÅ-Ç+ݾ-¾m-¤P-‚Å-ˆP-ü ym-±ô-¼P-¼ÛGÅ-ˆÛzhï-ÇkÝG-Vïh-Z¤-Ÿm-hÝ-Hã¼-q-Ÿï-GTÛG-»Ûm-qÅ-¤Pôm-Gž-hôh-qôÅW-VP-ÅôGÅ-Çoï-¾ïm-GP-fÞz-GmP-ŸÛP-ü hï-mÅ-Íï-¤-ÇKP-GÛ-zM-ÁôGbà-xÛ¼-¾ôG-q-hP.ü P-±ô-¤Û-fP-zTß-¸Þ¼-hÝ-h‚ï-Çeï-Å-V-GŸm-hÝ-ŸÛP-¼Gż-q-ŸÛG-º²âGÅ-Cæm-‚ïh-q¼-ºIô-hGôÅ-±ß¾-zÁhü 89


90

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zhÝm-qü

hzÞÅ-mÅ-Á¼-hÝ-FÛh-qü (1965-6 1965-10) ¾ô-hïºÛ-zôh-¹- 5 ±ïÅ- 27 ZÛm-M-h¤¼-HÛ-hqôm-qô-Áº-Dô=P-GÛÅ-ºGm-ºDÞ¼-zºÛ-P-±ô-¾Å-¤Û-iâG-Tß-GŸÛÅ-¯ï-mÅ-½ÀPÅ-ºDô¼mP-FÛh-Ç+zÅü d-Iâ-D¼-¾Å-¤Û-mô¼-zÞ-hôm-Iâz-ˆÛÅ-Å-DÞ¾-hï¼-DôPGÛ-mP-¤Û-GbàG-q¼-ºIô-MãºÛ-hGôPÅ-q-ŸÝÅ-ˆP-ü Áº-Dô-=P-GÛÅ-hGôPÅq-¤-vhü mô¼-hôm-Mãm-hÝ-M-h¤¼-HÛÅ-TÛ-GÅÞP-z;º-Oæz-‚ïh-qºÛ-Èà¼z¯ôm-Tm-ŸÛG-»Ûm-»P.ü EÛ¤-HÛ-ÇKô-ºI¤-ÇÀïzÅ-m-»P-mP-¤Û-PôfÞG-®¤-‚ïh-qºÛ-Gô-Ç+zÅ-¤-vh-q¼-ym-¼P-È-¾Å-ÁÛP-ü mô¼-hôm¾-Mãm-mÅ-Èà¼-z¯ôm-Vï-ŸÛP-bP-GÛ-G¸ÛGÅ-¤fôP-Vï-zºÛ-Eïh-¼P-EÛ¤HÛ-ÇKô-ºI¤-º‚ô¼-»P-mP-¤Û-Pô-fÞG-®¤-‚ïh-¤-zTßG-q-»-¤±m-Vïü 90


hzÞ Å -mÅ-Á¼-hÝ - FÛ h -qü

91

ŸïÅ-zXôh-qÅ-±ß¼-TP-¤Û-¬ü ¿Ë-ż-º‚ô¼-Ç+zÅ-ym-n¤Å-ˆP-¾Å-¤Û¼-zNå¼-z-Á-ÇeG-»Ûm»P-z®ôm-q-¿e-zÞ¼-w¼-±ß¼-ºIô-zBôh-¤Û-VôG-q-hP-ü ¿Ë-Å-mÅ-z¸ÞPP-±ô¼-¹-¼ï¼-hPÞ¾-wôGÅ-vôh-¤Gô-±ßGÅ-bïü ¾Å-¤Û-¼z-¾-¹-¼ï¼-ÇKô¼28 hP.¯¤-q-M-¤- 45 ºƒÛP-¾-ÇKô¼- 24 ¯¤-q-M-¤- 38 f¤¼-ÇKô¼- 20 hP-¯¤-q-M-¤- 28 zTÅ-hP-ü ¼z-ºƒÛP-f-GÅÞ¤HÛ-h‚ï-z-¤ïh-q¼-W-±-M-¤-GP-¼ï-hP-ü ¤¼-M-¤-GP-hP-xïh-zTňÛ-MÅ-zTh-Gbm-ºzïzÅ-z¸ôÅ-ÁÛP-ü GôP-Gž-¹-¼ïºÛ-hPÞ¾-fôG-mÅz¸º-zTºÛ-¼Ûm-hôh-ÇKô¼- 13 hP-ü wÛm- 6 GTôG-GÛ-¼ïhü ZÛm-GÅÞ¤-XïÅ-mÅ-¤Þ-¤fÞh-¿Ë-Å-mÅ-Á¼-xôGÅ-ÅÞ-FÛh-hï-Áï-¼ôPÁï¼-ŸïÅ-qºÛ-¾¤-ºyP-Zïm-ºGm-Vïm-qô-ŸÛG-bà-½ÀPÅ-ºDô¼-GTÛG-G»P¾-¿ËàP-mÅ-¤Û-hÝ-¤¼-©Å-Bôm-hP-ü G-hP-h¤G-ÇK¼-HÛ-zM-hqôm-hGÝP¾ô-zŸÛ-zTß¼-Åôm-qºÛ-M¾-¯ï-z-PG-hzP-M¾-¤±m-ºhÅ-IôPÅ-ÅÞ-H㼟ÛP-ü G»P-¾-¿ËàP-qºÛ-½ÀPÅ-ºDô¼-ºhôm-Vïh-zÇ+ݾ-hïh-‚Å-qºÛ-DÞ¾hïºÛ-¤Û-Åï¼-n¤Å-mÅ-¤Û-h¼-¤-ŸÛG-hP-ü wm-±ßm-mP-¤ô¾-‚ãP-Ç+zÅuÛ-±ôGÅ-½‰ÛP-qºÛ-Ç+zÅ-¸-MãºÛ-¤fÞm-Aïm-º²ô¤Å-ÁÛP-ü ÆÛh-‚ãÅ-GÝ-»PÅü VôÅ-xôGÅ-mÅ-¿Ëô-μôP-hGôm-q-¤Pº-fP-Vï-¾ü hGï-ºhÝm-n¤-qÅ-zÁhOæz-ˆÛ-zÇem-q-º²Ûm-BôP-Çtï¾-GÅÞ¤-HÛ-¾Å-¾-z¯ôm-zŸÛm-»ôh-q-zTÅ91


92

Wô - ¤ô - JÀ P -¤ºÛ - zÞ - yâ G

zhï-BÛh-wÞm-ÅÞ¤-±ôGÅ-qô-»ôhü uÛ-¾ô- 1959 ¾ô¼-M-h¤¼-HÛÅ-iG-Gmôm-‚Å-mÅ-z¸ÞP-zhïBÛh-±ÛG-Ç+¤-hÝ-Hã¼-mÅ-¤m¼-GTôh-Mãm-Vh-Mã-¤Û-ºhÝG-TïÅ-zÁh-q-hP-ü »P-hï-¾Å-TßP-¾ô-GŸôm-qºÛ-¤Û-ŸÛG-GÛÅ-ÇSôm-HÛ-Ç+h-VºÛ-¤WâG-¤fÞh-hï-Mh¤¼-HÛÅ-uÛ-±ôGÅ-Gż-½‰ÛP-zÇkݼ-mü zhï-BÛh-ˆÛÅ-Ez-qºÛ-uÛ-±ôGÅGż-q¼-zŤ-ÁïÅ-hP.ü ÇkÝG-zÇS¾-HÛÅ-Ez-qºÛ-uÛ-±ôGÅ-½‰ÛP-q-imhGôÅ-ŸïÅ-Ȥ-Gb¤-WÛ-¿e¼-zÁh-ˆP-hôm-hPôÅ-fôG-zôh-¤Û-n¤Å-I¾-¼Û¤DG-¤P-hÝ-h‚ï-z-Çeïü hP-qô-¤Pº-zhG GZÛÅ-q-Å-zhG GÅÞ¤-q¤Pº-±zü zŸÛ-q-ŸÛP-xãG ¿S-q-ŸÛP-q-ºƒÛP-ü iâG-q-¤Û-Pmü zhÝm-qzÁÝ-GŸôG-I¾-¼Û¤-zTÅ-hP.ü ºƒôG-q-hP.ü ±ôP-qºÛ-I¾-¼Û¤-zTÅGbm-ºzïzÅ-‚Å-ÁÛP-ü I¾-¼Û¤-ºhÛ-hG-»Ûm-qºÛ-zôh-¤Û-n¤Å-M-h¤¼HÛ-¾Å-‚ïh-ÅÞ-ŸÛG-GÛ-qÞÅ-¤ô-»m-¾-¿e-¤Û-VôG-q¼-„À-¤-BïÅ-Vïm-h¤-q¼-GÝźhÝh-ŸÝ-z-zŸÛm-‚ïh-hGôÅ-q-hP-ü zôh-¤Û-»ÛG-Bï¾-hP.ü ¤ï-GbôP-Vß¾ïm-ÅôGÅ-¾-ZÛm-¤±m-hÝÅ-iâG-bà-¤ÛºÛ-ºhÝ-ÁïÅ-®¤-¤ïh-q¼-ºyâ¾-ºDô¼¿e¼-z;ô¾-bïü I¾-¼Û¤-qºÛ-Å-mÅ-ºyôG-qºÛ-hq¾-º‚ô¼-¾Å-JÀ-V-ºy¾Åï¾-¼ï-vôhü hzÞ¾-wôPÅ-n¤Å-¾ºP-P¾-¯ô¾-Ç+ݾ-ºhïh-È-TP-Vï-ŸÛP-ü ¾Å-¤±¤Å-zŸG-XïÅ-¤±m-¤ô-±ôGÅ-ºhÝ-zÇ+ôPÅ-mÅ-¤ºôºÛ-¯-zºÛ-GÅÞP¯ô¤-GÅÞ¤-HÛÅ-G®ôÅ-h¤¼-qôºÛ-¿e-z¼-ÇÀôz-¢ôP-‚ïh-hÝ-zTßG-GÛ-ºhÝG-TïÅ92


hzÞ Å -mÅ-Á¼-hÝ - FÛ h -qü

93

»Ûh-VïÅ-„ÀôÅ-ºGï¾-HÛÅ-zXôhü ¿Ëô-μôP-hÝ-ŸG-GÅÞ¤-GmÅ-zTÅ-ÁÛP-ü hï-mÅ-¾-GTÛG-zMzÇeï-M-h¤¼-HÛÅ-Gbô¼-Bôm-zbP-zºÛ-GŸÛ-M-Vï-zºÛ-μÛ-fô-hGôm-Çeô¼-ÁݾhÝ-ÇÀïzÅü μÛ-fô-hGôm-hÝ-M-¤ÛÅ-z®ßGÅ-qºÛ-μôP-hP-z®ôm-DP-»ôh-qhP-ü hï-mÅ-½ÀPÅ-ºDô¼-HÛ-ºIô-¾¤-¤ïh-q¼-zdïm-Z¾-VÅ-ÅôGÅ-Mz¾-ºDÞ¼-mÅ-uÛ-¾ï-zTß-IPÅ-»ôh-qºÛ-M-h¤¼-HÛÅ-Çeô¼-zÁÛG-zbP-zºÛGŸÛ-M-Vï-zºÛ-Pô¤-fô-hGôm-hÝ-uÛ-¾ô- 1965 ¹- 8 qºÛ-mP-º‚ô¼mÅ-hï-G¼-GmÅ-Çkôh-‚Åü Pô¤-fô-hGôm-hÝ-hGôP-iô-±ôGÅ-ºhÝ-ŸÛG-±ßGÅ-bï-M-GŸÝP-¾Å‚ïh-qÅ-ŸÛP-¼-Gż-q-º²âGÅ-»Þ¾-ºhÛ-»Ûm-ŸÛP.ü ŸÛP-¼-hP-qô-hPGZÛÅ-qü GÅÞ¤-q-zTÅ-z¸ô-hGôÅ-ŸïÅ-zÁh-hïü xÛ-ZÛm-Å-fÛG-zMzÇeïü ŸÛP-¼-hP-qô-fP-h;¼-¤fôPÅ-hP.ü GZÛÅ-q-Wô-f¼-fP.ü GÅÞ¤q-Pô¤-fô-zTÅ-¾-Gbm-ºzïzÅ-‚Å-ÁÛP-ü ŸÛP-¼-¾-¤Dô-hGôÅ-d-¸ôGZô-Oæz-‚ïh-q¼-ºGô-‚ïh-GTÛG-hP-¤Z¤-hÝ-¾Å-¤Û-zŸÛ-¼ï-zTÅ-DG-GÅÞ¤¾-zGôÅ-bï-zbP-z-mÅü ym-ÇSô-Áôh-DÞ¾-hÝ-ºIô-IÅ-»Ûmü ÇSô -Áôh-hÝzBôh-qºÛ-¾¤-hÝ-¾¤-z¸ô-z-Eôm-Vï-ºhÝG-q-n¤Å-mÛ-¤Pº-zhG-hP.ü ¤Pº-±zü ŸÛP-q-VßP-ºƒÛP.ü Vz-ÆÛh-ˆÛ-ŸÐ-»ôh-q-Á-ÇeG-¼ïhü Dô-±ôÅ-ym-±ô-¤fôP-¤-fG-M-¤ÛºÛ-¾Å-‚ïh-hÝ-Åï¤Å-bï-¤Gô-ÇKݼ93


94

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mÅ-GÝÅ-ºhÝh-‚ïh-qü ym-HÛÅ-P-±ô-GTÛG-Hã¼-hP-ü ym-±ô-z®ôm-q¾Å-¤Û¼-zNå¼-zºÛ-IÅ-»Ûm-qÅ-GÝÅ-ºhÝh-‚ïh-¤Û-hGôÅ-zXôh-q-hP-ü hïºÛ-hzÞÅ-G¸ÞGÅ-ÇeôzÅ-Vï-ŸÛP-Hôm-GôÅ-Éâ¾-zºÛ-¾¤-¾Å-q-¾ô-m-¿S-zTß»ô¾-zºÛ-¤Û-ŸÛG-±ß¼-fôm-bïü Eïh-±ô-GP-mÅ-»Ûm-hP-ü GP-hÝ-ºIôÅôGÅ-iÛÅü ym-mÅ-Pïh-n¤Å-M¾-Dz-ˆÛ-ŸÛP-¼-Gż-º²âGÅ-Vïhd-¸ôG-Zô-Oæz-‚ïh-qºÛ-G»ôG-bà-¤PGÅ-‚ãP-ŸïÅ-zXôhü ¤Û-Lm-hïÅ-DôP-GÛ-¤ÛP-¾-zŤ-Iâz-hP-ü ÇSô-Áôh-hGôm-HÛ-ZïºhzÅ-ÅÞ-»ôh-qºÛ-DôP-GÛ-EÛ¤-¾-P-±ô-ÅP-ZÛm-»ôP-hGôÅ-qºÛ-¼ï-z-zbôm‚ãP-ü ÅP-ZÛm-hï-zŤ-Iâz-ˆÛ-EÛ¤-hÝ-xÛm-qÅ-DôP-GÛÅ-Eïh-±ô-PºÛ-EÛ¤hÝ-ºzôh-hôm-mÛ-P-±ô-zŤ-xôGÅ-GTÛG-Hã¼-»Ûm-qÅü »Ûh-VïÅ-„ÀôÅ-ºGï¾fôG-PÅ-Vz-¤hô-ŸÛ-z-¿Ë-¯h-GTôh-Vïh-»Ûmü ŸÛ-z-¿Ë-¼Ûm-qô-Vïü uÛ-¾ô1959 h¤G-ºFâG-Ç+zÅ-¿Ë-Å-mÅ-¿Ëô-¾¤-zMãh-M-G¼-hÝ-ƒôÅ-Ç+zŤ-f¼-q¼ü Vß-¤hô-¾-zMz-mÅ-hq¾-ºz¼-HÛ-ºfz-ºFâG-z¼-P-hP¤Z¤-hÝ-»ôh-ˆP-ü hï-XïÅ-DôP-z½ÀGÅ-mÅ-PÅ-h-z¼-¯h-GTôh-ŸÝňP-hïP-Ç+zÅ-ºhÅ-GÅôm-GP-»Ûm-V-¤-º±¾-zÅü DôP-GÛ-Ç+ô¼-¼PGÛÅ-¤fôP-z-hP-GŸm-mÅ-fôÅ-q-ÅôGÅ-¤-‚ãP-P¤ü ŸïÅ-iÛÅ-‚ãP-ü ymHÛÅ-ŸÛ-z-¿Ë-¼Ûm-qô-VïºÛ-Ç+ô¼-¤fôP-fôÅ-GP-»P-¤-‚ãP-ü hq¾-ºz¼-h¤GºFâG-Ç+zÅ-¤Û-WÛ-®¤-»ôh-hP-xÛ-M¾-mÅ-¼ôGÅ-¼¤-‚ãP-¤Ûm-iÛÅ-q¼ü 94


hzÞ Å -mÅ-Á¼-hÝ - FÛ h -qü

95

zŤ-Iâz-ˆÛÅ-zôh-Á¼-xôGÅ-mÅ-»ôP-zºÛ-ƒôÅ-‚ô¾-z-hP-ü hq¾-ºz¼DÞ¾-HÛ-hP-„ÀP-h¤G-¤Û-zTÅ-Eôm-ÇeôP-yG-¿S-®¤-ŸÛG-»ôh-q-hP-ü ͼۺÛ-fh-ºwÞ¼-Gm¤-IâÅ-¤Û-hP-¾G-V-zTÅ-hï-DÞ¾-G»ÞGÅü ºôm-bP-Gm¤-fôG-mÅ-zzÅ-qºÛ-¤Û-n¤Å-½Àô¤Å-Åï¤Å-Vï-z-hP-ü ¾G-V-n¤Å-xôGÅ-GTÛG-bà-zhG-Z¼-‚Å-q-Ǩh-xôGÅ-¤Û-hP-ü hq¾ºz¼-DÞ¾-HÛ-¤Û-Åï¼-zTÅ-ˆÛÅ-¼P-Åô-Åô¼-hGôÅ-±ß¾-zXôh-qÅü hï-mÅxôGÅ-GZÛÅ-¾-Gô-¤±ôm-ym-®¤-¼ï-vh-hï-¤P-Vï-z-DP-qºÛ-mP-z¯ÛGÅbï-Dô-q-±ô-VP-¼G-¾-¤Gô-ºDô¼-bïü GZÛh-Áô¼-Ç+zÅ-Í-¼ÛºÛ-Gm¤-Iâ¾m-GZÛÅ-ÇÀïzÅ-ˆP-¤-ÁïÅ-q¼-xÛ¼-¾ôG-Áô¼ü hq¾-ºz¼-HÛ-¤Û-iG-zÞ-zhÝh-ºhݾ-HÛÅ-Gm¤-fôG-mÅ-zzÅqºÛ-¤Û-hï-±ô¼-Gž-zÁh-‚Å-hômü Eïh-±ô-P-±ô¼-ÇÀôz-¢ôP-hP.ü ºGôºFÛh-hÝ-¤PGÅ-ˆP.ü Eïh-±ôÅ-VP-¼G-hP.ü zÞh-¤ïhü d-Zô-zzTÅ-zG-¤ïh-h=ôG-h=ôG-Á-ÇeG-GÛÅ-GÅP-z-Áô¼-mü ¼P-¼ïºÛ-¾Åhôm-zOæz-¤Û-fÞz-TïÅ-Gô-Ç+ôm-„Àô-ºGÝG-mm-qô-‚Å-q¼ü Zm-ÁïÅ-GbmmÅ-¤ïh-q¼-uÛ-hôm-¼Å-ÅÞ-zô¼-zºÛ-Pm-ºƒÅ-¾-ZÛm-GTÛG-M-h¤¼HÛÅ-hq¾-ºz¼-HÛ-xôGÅ-zŸÛ-mÅ-iG-Gmôm-‚Å-bïü z¯ÛGÅ-»ôhqºÛ-Gô-¤±ôm-n¤Å-¤ïÅ-º±ÛGÅ-mÅ-¿UGÅ-ÉâG-Çt¼-z-GP-hÝ-Hã¼ü ŸïźHôh-Åï¤Å-±h-¤ïh-‚ïhü 95


96

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hzÞ Å -mÅ-Á¼-hÝ - FÛ h -qü

97

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98

Wô - ¤ô - JÀ P -¤ºÛ - zÞ - yâ G

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hzÞ Å -mÅ-Á¼-hÝ - FÛ h -qü

99

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100

Wô - ¤ô - JÀ P -¤ºÛ - zÞ - yâ G

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hzÞ Å -mÅ-Á¼-hÝ - FÛ h -qü

101

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101


102

Wô - ¤ô - JÀ P -¤ºÛ - zÞ - yâ G

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Hï m -¾PÅ-±ô G Å-qü

103

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104

Wô - ¤ô - JÀ P -¤ºÛ - zÞ - yâ G

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Hï m -¾PÅ-±ô G Å-qü

105

M-h¤G-xÛ¼-ºzÞh-ˆÛ-h¤G-ºFâG-zÇÀPÅ-bïü P-±ô-GTïm-GTßP-n¤Å¤Z¤-º²ô¤Å-fôG-zôh-¾-M¾-D-¤-ºfôz-mü G»Þ¾-ż-ºVÛ-MãºÛ¤mº-zB¾-mÅ-M-h¤G-hP-Lô¾-º²ÛP-iG-bà-‚Å-qÅü ¼P-¼P-GÛÅhqº-GP-º±¤Å-¼ï-zŸG-Çeï-GTïm-GTßP-n¤Å-¼ï-¼ï-zŸÛm-M-h¤GGÛ-¤ï-¤hºÛ-ºôG-Å-ÇeïP-ºIÛ¾ü P-»P-¤mº-zB¾-z-zŸÛm-G»Þ¾Å-mÅ-xÛ¼-ºfïm-‚-MãºÛ-zŤ-„Àô-Çtä-®¤-¤ïh-q¼-º²ÛP-Ç+zÅü ¤ï¤hº-¤ÛG-G»Å-qºÛ-GÁ¤-hÝ-ºwôG-mÅ-GP-im-¤ïh-q¼-zM¾ü Mh¤G-GÛÅ-z¸ÞP-Çeï-Ǩm-zTôÅ-‚Å-q-hP-iÛ-z-ºi-¤Ûm-„ÀPÅ-bï-¤fº¤¼-ºhÛ¼-zB¾-‚ãP-ü ŸïÅ-Pô-vôh-Gž-z¼-GmP-ü PÅ-ˆP-¼PZÛh-ˆÛ-¾ô-MãÅ-hP-¾PÅ-xôGÅ-GP-»Ûm-DôP-¾-ŸÝÅü ¼ïÅ-G¸º-ZÛ-¤-ŸÛG-¼P-ZÛh-hGôPÅ-q-ŸÝÅ-bï-wô¼-ÁÛP-z;ôGq¼-v-¾ÞP-wÞ¼-ºIô-Ç+zÅü ¾-ZG-GÛ-ÇtP-GŸôPÅ-ÅÞ-£-Gݼ-mG-qôŸÛG-wÞz-ºhÝG-qü hï¼-xÛm-bï-xÛ-mÅ-ºzôh-qÅ-ÇKô-D¼-G¸ÞGÅ-hï-®¤¤Û-Vï-zºÛ-¾ô-¿S-zTß-®¤-Åôm-qºÛ-¤Û-Çoݤ-zG-Tm-xã-q-Hôm-q-ŸÛG-fôm»ôP-Çeïü Eïh-GP-mÅ-ºôPÅ-Ťü ŸïÅ-iÛÅü v-¾ÞP-z®ôm-q-¾Å¤Û¼-zNå¼-z-»Ûm-ŸïÅ-zÁh-qÅü Åï¤Å-hGº-ÇoP-Vïm-qôÅ-PºÛ-¤ÛP¾-h;¼-¤Gôm-¸ï¼-z-hP-ü P-¾-»P-ŸÛP-q-xãG-qôºÛ-ŸÐ-¤ô-G»ôGÅqÅ-P-±ô-GTÛG-Hã¼-¼ïhü TïÅ-»¼-ºzôh-hï-Ÿô-hP-ºô-¤Å-Çoï-¾ïm-GP105


106

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¸z-‚Å-q-hP-ºIô-D¼-¤¼-ŸÛG-ˆP-zÇ+ݼü G¸º-ºDô¼-GZÛÅ-ˆÛ-XïÅ-PºÛ-ÇeïÅ-hzP-GÛ-IôGÅ-qô-h;¼-¤Gôm¾-fÞGÅ-Xï-Vï-ŸÝ-Vïhü »P-zB¼-v-¾ÞP-wÞ¼-xÛm-bï-xã-q-Çtä-yâG-GTÛG»ôh-q-hï-DôP-¾-¾G-dGÅ-±ß¾-hÝ-vh-qÅ-DôP-GÛÅ-¤-¿eôGÅ-®¤-hP-ü ¤-IP-®¤-‚ãP-mü Mã-mô¼-zÅGÅ-mÅ-ÅôÅ-h¾-Çkôh-qºÛ-hÝÅ-¤-»Ûmü P-¾-ÇS¼-z¸º-¹-EÛ¤-±P-hP-ü wÞ-¾-¼Þ-z-hP-¤hº-¾-Å-ŸÛP-»ôh-qºÛmô¼-zhG-Tm-»Ûm-»P-h-V-mô¼-¤ïh-hzÞ¾-zºÛ-wô-ÉïP-ŸÛG-bà-Hã¼ü hÝÅ-m¤-ŸÛG-¾-z®m-M¾-M-h¤¼-ºhÛ-hP-ºfz-ºFâG-‚ïh-qºÛGô-Ç+zÅ-ÇKÝG-zÇkh-q-¾Å-GŸm-zŤ-q-GP-»P-¤ïhü TïÅ-G»ô-¸ô¾Çtä-®¤-¤ïh-q¼-Áôh-qü PÅ-M-G¼-mÅ-fôm-qºÛ-;ô-zºÛ-¿eô-wh-GTÛG-»ôhq-hï-DôP-¾-ÍÞ-±ßGÅ-ˆÛÅ-¿Ë¤-z¸ô-Vïh-wÞ¾-ŸÛP-ü DôP-ÇÀh-wm-fôGÅ»ôh-qºÛ-¤Û-ŸÛG-»Ûm-q-ÁïÅ-‚ãP-¾-ZÛm-hï-¿Ëôh-qô¼-zÇkh-hï-JÀô-»Þ¾-zMãhM-G¼-hÝ-ºIô-¾¤-ŸÛz-q-hP-ü M-G¼-mÅ-ºhÛ-G¼-Zݾ-¤-ÇÀïzÅ-ŤŸïÅ-iÛÅ-qÅü DôP-GÛÅ-PºÛ-iÛ-z-hï¼-hô-ÇoP-Vïm-qôÅ-W-ºfÞP-zŸÛm-qºÛW-wô¼-ÇeïGÅ-zÞºÛ-fôG-zŸG-Çeïü hôm-hï-PÅ-ˆP-ÇKÝG-mÅ-ÇoP-ºWôG-‚ïhÇ+zÅ-Çtô-zô-μôP-GÛ-Á¼-xôGÅ-¼Û-¯ï¼-¤±m-¤ô-JÀôG-zŸÝºÛ-ºôh-¤hPÅ-¤fôPz-¤-¸hü M-GŸÝP-GÛ-Mz-xôGÅ-h¤G-ÇK¼-Vïm-qôºÛ-Zï-ºI¤-Çtô-zô-GÅÞ¤º²ô¤Å-ˆÛ-ƒG-hˆÛ¾-Å-ºôG-bàü M-G¼-Åô-qÅ-Ç~Å-qºÛ-¤Û-zŸÛÅ-zˆG106


Hï m -¾PÅ-±ô G Å-qü

107

fÞz-®¤-HÛ-ºyâ¾-VÅ-ÁÛG-Zï-ºV¼-M-¤ÛÅ-zbôm-q-P-±ôºÛ-¤ÛÅ-¤fôP-zhP-ü M-G¼-HÛ-Åô-q-fÞG-qºÛ-¤Û-hïP-hÝÅ-ˆP-D-bÑ-¾ÞP-q¼-»ôhü ºômˆP-zÅôh-h¤m-P-¾-fÞG-¤-‚ãP-ü ŸïÅ-zXôhü PÅ-h;¼-¤Gôm-¾-xÛÅ-ÅÞ-M-G¼-mÅ-»ôP-qºÛ-¤Û-fÞG-mü P±ô-ÁÛP-GTôh-q¼-¾ÞP-qºÛ-wÞ¼-»ôP-hGôÅ-qÅ-PïÅ-q¼-ºƒï¾-z-‚ïh-hGôÅü ŸïÅ-zÁh-qÅü DôP-GÛÅ-P-¾-»P-¤Û-hï-ºi-fÞG-hGôÅ-»ôh-TïÅ-ÅôGÅzÁh-hï-P-GZÛÅ-Åï¤Å-¤fÞm-lôG-D-GTÛG-OÛ¾-HÛ-Gb¤-JÀïP-¾-G»ïP¤Þ¼ü ZÛ-¤-mÝz-xôGÅ-¾-¯ï¼-ÇeïGÅ-ºVº-¾-Zï-zÅ-DôP-hP-D-HïÅ-mž-ZG-mÅ-¤¼-¼Û-ºhzÅ-ÁÛP-mGÅ-ÇeàG-qôºÛ-hzÞÅ-º²â¾-mÅ-zBôhü uÛ-¾ô- 1966 ¾ô¼-±GÅ-ÁôG-fôG-¼ÛG-GmÅ-Gż-Xï-Vïmqô-ºGô-z®ßGÅ-ÁÛP-ü h¤ÛGÅ-hôm-mÛ-uÛ-±ôGÅ-fôG-GÛ-¤Û-Pm-hP.ü bPmP-GÛ-z¸ô-zTôÅ-¼ÛP-¾ÞGÅ-ˆÛ-¾¤-¾-ºIô-¤Dm-hzP-º²Ûm-q-¯-¤ïh-z¸ôMã-zTÅ-»Ûm-Ç+ô¼-±GÅ-ÁôG-fôG-»P-»P-z;ôhü hPôÅ-GŸÛºÛ-¾Å-hôm¾-ºWâG-Ç+zÅü »P-ü ±GÅ-ÁôG-fôG-ºDôh-q-¿e¼-bP-hP.ü ¿ËmDP-ü ¾Å-DÞPÅ-DG-zTÅ-ˆÛ-mP-Hïm-¾ôG-hP.ü ¤Z¤-£ï¾-ŸïÅ-xôGÅDG-GZÛÅ-z¸ôÅ-bï-¤Û-¤P-n¤Å-ÅÞºÛ-xôGÅ-ÅÞ-º²â¾-¤Ûm-ºhôh-¤ôÅ-¿e¼VôG-Mã-zXôh-mÅ-h‚ï-º‚ïh-‚Åü Gż-ºHã¼-zMãh-¾¤-fôG-h¤G-¤Û-hP-z®ôm-q-GZÛÅ-hïºÛ-mP107


108

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º²â¾-MãºÛ-fôz-hzP-¤ïh-qºÛ-Gž-zOGÅ-‚-»Û-ºhÝG-q-¾Åü mPDÞ¾-»ÛG-V¼-¤Û-Pm-HÛÅ-ºwÞP-h=âGÅ-zÇÀPÅ-mÅ-μÅ-¤hï¾-hP.ü ¤ï¤hº-ºyôG-¤Dm-‚ãP-m-»P-hI-zô-h¤¼-Xïm-hÝ-¯-z-¤-fôm-z¼ü iGGmôm-‚-Mã-¤ïh-q-hP.ü ¯-z-fôm-¤±¤Å-bP-=âP-h‚P-GÛ-z;º-zŸÛmü hP-qôü ºfz-¯ôh-hP.ü GZÛÅ-qü hGG-qü GÅÞ¤-qü zTôÅ-Nå¼zTÅ-GbôP-hGôÅ-ŸïÅ-ºDôhü Ç+zÅ-hï¼-ym-hP-ü ¤²ô-ÇKôP-z-zÅôh-m¤Å-mô¼-zÞü hÛP-¼ÛÁï¾-h;¼-±ôÅ-Ço-VôÅ-z¸P-ü hq¾-ºz¼-z-¤Vôh-dïm-Dü G®P-ºƒôPq-;©ü G®P-ºƒôP-q-¾Û-hzP-ü z=Å-¿Ëàm-IÔ-dºÞ-„Àô-z¸P-hq¾-¿kmzTÅ-P-±ô-¼ïÅ-G¸º-ZÛ-¤-dG-bà-Vß-D¼-xÛm-bïü W-zÇ+ô¾-ŸÛP-Vß-zL¾z-hP-ü OæP-hqï->ÀôG-qü wm-±ßm-BÛh-ÇkÝG-Áôh-q-ÅôGÅ-‚ïh-q-mÅZÛm-ŸÛG-P-±ô-M-GŸÝP-GÛÅ-z®ôm-¼-ºhÛ-mÅ-JÀôh-q-¤Û-ºhÝG-qÅü ±ôGÅq-ŸÛG-z®ßGÅ-mÅ-ƒôÅ-MãºÛ-ºV¼-GŸÛ-zbÛPÅ-Mã-‚Å-q-zŸÛmü ¤fº¤¼-±ôGÅ-q-º²âGÅ-Mã-Gbm-Dï¾-bïü h¤ÛGÅ-»Þ¾-mÛü M-G¼-¾ƒôÅ-Mã-hP-ü hï-»P-¼P-ÇKï¼-HÛ-zhï-fzÅ-GTÛG-qÞ-¤Ûm-q¼-M-G¼-mÅzôh-zBôh-¾¤-Çoï-FÛh-mÅü M-¤Û¼-h¤G-zMG-MãºÛ-h¤ÛGÅ-»Þ¾-G®ôzô¼-zŸG-mÅ-GÁ¤-Gž-n¤Å-ºy¾-hÝ-¾G-Çe¼-‚-Mã-‚Å-q-»Ûmü hP-qôü M-G¼-¾-ºIô-m-Çtô-Vß-G®P-qô-hP-¤ï-bôG-μôP-GÛ-G®P-qô108


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109

GZÛÅ-PïÅ-q¼-zL¾-hGôÅ-qÅ-¾Å-¤Û-¾ô-GŸôm-n¤Å-¾-A¾-zÇÀz-Mãü GZÛÅ-qü ¤Û-¼ï¼-Çe-¼ï-Vï-VßP-GZÛÅ-hP-¤hÝP-ü IÛ-Vï-VßP-GZÛżï-zTÅ-Gż-z¸ô-‚-Mãü GÅÞ¤-qü ¿UGÅ-Ç+Ýh-hP-¿UGÅ-ÉïP-z¸ô-Mãü GôP-Gž-hôm-±m-GÅÞ¤-hï-zOæzÅ-XïÅ-Çe-¼ï-Vï-zÅ-ÁÛP-hݤ-zTh-mÅ¿UGÅ-ÉïP-hP-¿UGÅ-Ç+Ýh-ˆÛ-Mã-VÅ-Iâ-z¸ôÅ-bïü ÇeôzÅ-ÁÝGÅ-Ÿm-qºÛ¤Û-n¤Å-G®P-qô-GZÛÅ-¾Å-zO¾-Mã-hP-ü Çe-¼ï-VßP-z-hP-¤hÝP-ü IÛVï-VßP-¼P-ÆâP-GÛ-Gô-¤±ôm-»Ûmü ym-¾G-VºÛ-ºGô-º²Ûm-HÛÅ-ÁÛP-GTôh-hP-¾¤-z¸ô-z¼-hGôű߾-z;º-z;ôh-zbP-Çeï-¿UGÅ-z¸ô-z-G®P-ºƒôP-q-;©¼-¼Û¤-qÅ-GôPGž-Çe-¼ï-Vï-VßP-zŸÛ-zTß-¿ËG-®¤-hP-ü ¤hÝP-ZÛ-ÁÝü IÛ-Åô-IPÅü ¿UGÅ-G¸ï¼-Vïm-qô-hô-qô-GÅÞ¤-zTÅ-z¸ôÅ-zTßG-q-hP-ü ¿UGÅ-Ç+Ýhhô-qô-GZÛÅ-zTÅ-I-OÛG-¾ïGÅ-q¼-GZï¼-z-¤-¸hü ¾Å-¤Û-GŸôm-qn¤Å-¾-Gô-Ç+zÅ-m¤-ºfôz-¾-Vß-A¾-ÇÀôz-ˆÛ-»ôhü PºÛ-¾Å-¼ôGÅ-Çtô-Çeôh-zÅôh-m¤Å-±ï-hzP-GÛÅ-ZÛm-ŸÛG-DôP¼P-ÁÛP-GTôh-q¼-ºIô-Ç+zÅü ¾¤-z¼-hq¾-ºz¼-mÅ-»ôP-zºÛ-ºIâ¾q-ŸÛG-fÞG-Çeïü hq¾-ºz¼-hP-ÅôG-μôP-ÅôGÅ-ÅÞ-zôh-¤ÛÅ-GŸÛ-MVï-zºÛ-Hïm-¾PÅ-‚ïh-±ß¾-ºIâ¾-q-hïÅ-zÁh-q-P-¾-zMãh-zÁh-‚Åü 109


110

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PºÛ-Åï¤Å-ÅÞ-±GÅ-ÁôG-¾Å-ˆP-¼ÛG-Gż-Ç+ô¼-hP-hÝÅ-zz-Gbm¿ËÛP-¤ïh-qºÛ-Ç+ô¼-ºDôh-qÅü GmÅ-ÇePÅ-²-iG-Wï-Vï¼-ºIô-zºÛ-hÝÅz¸P-qô-ºhÛ-hP-zÇeàmü P-±ôºÛ-OÛG-º²âGÅ-ˆÛ-Pô-zô-zNå¼-bï-¼Þ-DGGŸm-hP-ºƒï¾-z-‚Å-mÅ-GŸÛ-M-Vï-®¤-HÛ-±ôGÅ-q-ŸÛG-z®ßGÅ-bïü z®ôm-DP-GÛ-xÛ-¼ô¾-uÛ-±ôGÅ-fôG-GÛ-Hïm-¾ôG-hP-¾G-lP-£ï¾-ŸÛPGhÝPÅ-ÁÝGÅ-GTÛG-OÛ¾-HÛÅ-M-¤Û¼-h¤¼-º²ÛP-‚Å-mÅü zôh-ˆÛM¾-¼zÅ-mP-ºDôh-fÞz-q-ŸÛG-‚ãP-m-TÛ-¤-¼ÞP-lj¤-qºÛ-„Àô-ŸÛG-ºGôG¤ïh-hÝ-BïÅ-qÅü ¼ïÅ-G¸º-ZÛ-¤-ŸÛG-¾-PÅ-M-¾Å-¾-LÝ-ÁP-hÝ-wiâG-±ï-¼ÛP-z=-ÁÛÅ-ˆÛ-¤hÝm-zBôh-hGôÅ-±ß¾-hGôPÅ-q-ŸÝÅ-bïü ÅGmÅ-hï¼-GhïPÅ-ºWôG-Vï-zºÛ-ºzÞ¤-fP-hq¾-¿km-¾GÅ-hï-ÇSôm-±ôGÅVïm-Ç+zÅ-ÁÛG-mÅ-Pô-ÁïÅ-qÅ-fÞG-q¼-xÛmü DôP-hP-¤Û-GÅÞ¤-M-¾Å-ˆÛ-Z¾-DP-GÛ-fôG-ºGïzÅ-zŸÛm-qÅP-G¸ÛGÅ-q-hP-GÅô¾-W-¤Vôh-q¼-wïzÅ-ŸïÅ-fôG-mÅ-¤¼-zzÅ-Çeï-PZ¾-DP-VßP-PÞ-ŸÛG-mP-FÛh-TÛP-ü hÝh-iïG-GÛÅ-±ôÅ-qºÛ-DôG-¿kÛ¼-mPVß-ŸÛG-„ÀâGÅ-q-hP-hïºÛ-fôG-W-±Ð-ŸÛG-zbz-Çeïü Å-fz-bà-ÁÛP-GÁôG-GÛ¤ï-ºÞ¼-ºÞ¼-zbP-Çeï-»Þh-®¤-ŸÛG-¾-zÇ+ô¾-z-hP-ü hP-qô-P-¾-¿UGÅwô¼-ŸÛG-mP-W-fP-hÐPÅ-¤-ŸÛG-iPÅ-q-hP-ü hï-mÅ-Å-lݾ-HÛÅ-±ôÅqºÛ-¿UGÅ-wô¼-ŸÛG-GÛ-D-xÛÅ-®¤-GmP-mÅ-Dô-¼P-¾-»P-ü W-fP-ŸÛG110


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¿kÝG-GÛm-Ÿ¾-mÅ-GÝP-Fm-bP-GÛ-ÆÛh-WâÅ-z¸P-qôºÛ-iÛm-HÛÅ-hïP-hÝÅ-P±ô-zôh-¤Û-n¤Å-¤FÛÅ-q-m-hGôÅ-q-¤Û-ºhÝG-TïÅ-GÅÞPÅ-qÅü PÅhôm-dôGÅ-bï-Gh-¤ô-ºVô¼-z-hP-£GÅ-Eïh-±ô¼-ÁÛP-hzô¼-‚ïh-Iâ-VßP-»ôhq-¤-¸hü ¤ï-bôG-μôP-hP-fG-Zï-zÅ-GÅô¾-W-Æâz-¤-¤Vôh-q¼-wïzÅm-ÇezÅ-zhï-ŸïÅ-JÀïP-zÇÀPÅ-qÅü DôP-GÛÅ-Ghm-VßP-ŸÛG-GÛ-fôG-hˆÛ¾=â¤-hÝ-zŸÝGÅ-mÅ-GÅô¾-W-¤Vôh-ˆÛm-hï-¿e¼-‚ïh-¤-hGôÅ-q¼-¼ÛG-GżºhÛÅü zôh-¾-ÇezÅ-¾ïGÅ-ˆÛ-¼ï-z-ŸÛG-ºV¼-HÛ-ºhÝG TïÅ-GÅÞPÅÇ+zÅ-º±ô-zÅ-¼Ûh-TÛP-f¾-B¼-Hã¼-qºÛ-DôP-GÛ-zŸÛm-¾Å-ˆP-ºGôG-¤ïhˆÛ-¼ï-zºÛ-¤²â¤-¤hPÅ-ÁÛG-ºxã¼-»ôP-ü hï-¿e¼-»Ûm-m-P-±ô-ŸÛP-¼-zMh-¾-zôh-Bôz-OÛG-º²âGÅ-¼ï-z®ßGÅm-¾ïGÅ-qô-ºhÝG ºhÛ¼-Eïh-ˆÛÅ-fÞGÅ-ºGm-zŸïÅ-mÅ-z®ßGÅ-fÞzz¤ü GŸm-n¤Å-¾-ym-HÛÅ-ºƒï¾-z-‚Å-VôG-TïÅ-qºÛ-PºÛ-Ç+h-V-hïDôP-GÛ-Ç~Å-qºÛ-hGôPÅ-zŸïh-iÛ-ƒ¾-qj¨¼-ZÛ-¸ï¼-ºyôÅ-q-zŸÛmü ǨÛm¤-ÇeàG-qôºÛ-ºôG-GÛ-um-¸ÞP-Vïm-qô-hï-ym-¾-mm-HÛÅ-G¸ÛGÅ-ÁÛP-ü P±ô-zôh-¤Û¼-BïÅ-mÅ-BïÅ-Gô-Vôh-q-ŸÛG-PïÅ-q¼-‚-hGôÅü ºhÛ-¿e-zÞ-¤Û±ï-ÇkÝG-¸h-PP-ºIô-z-¾Å-Eïh-ˆÛÅ-GÅÞPÅ-qºÛ-¾Å-hôm-hïºÛ-Vïh-¼PÆôG-hô¼-z¼-P-¾-ºHôh-q-»ï-¤ïh-qÅü ºhÛ¼-PÅ-z®ßGÅ-VôG TïÅGhïPÅ-±ôh-hP-¿km-qºÛ-ÇKô-mÅ-Ÿ¾-zŸïÅ-¤²h-q-hP-ü P-GZÛÅ-IôÅ111


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114

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bï-¼P-Dï-GP-¾ôm-‚-hGôÅü ŸïÅ-GÅÞPÅü P-GZÛÅ-wm-±ßm-M¾-ŸïmHÛ-zIô-JÀïP-hÝ-¤Å-ZÛm-zhÝm-HÛ-hÝÅ-hï-»Þh-®¤-HÛ-ÇoP-z-ŸÛG-¾-μôGÅXïÅ-ym-v-¾ÞP-hÝ-xÛ¼-¾ôG-‚Åü m¤-Mãm-Çtô-zô-v-©ôG-μôP-mÅ-VôG-¤Vm-vh-qºÛ-ÁÛP-n¤Å-zTh±¼-XïÅ-P-±ô-;Ý-ÁݺÛ-¾Å-;¼-zbP-GÛ-»ôhü ;Ý-ÁݺÛ-¾Å-;-‚ïh-¤DmmP-ÇS¼-Gô-¤Ûm-bP-GÛ-h¤G-hqôm-¤fô-IÅ-¾Å-¤Û-¾ÞºÞ-¶m-Tßh-hP-„ÀôZï-qô¼-Hã¼-zÅü DôP-GÛÅ-P-¼ôGÅ-q¼-hGôÅ-±ß¾-M-¾Å-¾-¼ï-z-zbômmÅ-dG-q¼-P-GZÛÅ-¤Z¤-hÝ-xÛm-mÅ-DôP-zôh-Ç+h-ÁïÅ-qÅ-Vz-ÆÛh-hPGP-TÛ¼-PÅ-z;º-ºiÛ-ŸÝ-»Û-»ôhü ZÛm-ŸÛG-M-¾Å-ˆÛ-DP-q-Gh-zMz-Áݾ-mÅ-P-¾-bP-»ôm-HÛ-zôh»ÛG-±GÅ-ÁôG-GTÛG-½‰ïh-q-ºEï¼-mÅ-z¿eÅ-qÅü Gô¼-¤ô-hï-M-mGmÅ-z¯ÛÅ-qºÛ-¿Ëô-mÝz-¤fº-¤±¤Å-ˆÛ-Mz-xôGÅ-ˆÛ-dïm-GŸÛ-G¾-Vï-»Ûm±ß¾-ºDôh-qü PÅ-hôm-hï-DôP-hP-zIô-JÀïP-‚Å-qÅü DôP-GÛÅ-±GÅÁôG-fôG-ºDôh-q-hï-hPôÅ-zhïm-»Ûm-ŸÛP-Gô¼-¤ôºÛ-Å-V-¤P-Vï-z-‚ï-fP-»ÛmqÅü Å-ƒâ-zhï-ŸÛP-Å-ºôG-Gô-¤±ôm-ºWôG-Å-¾ïGÅ-qô-ŸÛG-¼ïhü MmG-mÅ-Gô¼-¤ô-z¼-¼Û-¾ÛºÛ-¾¤-z¸ôÅ-±¼-zÅ-XïÅ-IôP-Eï¼-Vïm-qô-VGňÛ-¼ïh-TïÅ-zXôhü h-hÝP-DôP-GÛÅ-zôh-¤Û-¼ÛGÅ-mÛ-‚¤Å-Åï¤Å-Vï-ŸÛP-»-¼zÅ-±ß¾117


118

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120

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122

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Hï m -¾PÅ-±ô G Å-qü

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143

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144

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145

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146

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147

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209

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211

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216


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220

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222

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222


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223

zTô-zMhü

Çt-ô zô-v-©ôG-μôP-z¸ÞP-Ço¼Gm¤-»ÛG-G»ÞGÅ-qü (1980-1)

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224

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225

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226

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227

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227


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zTß-hGÝ

¤Û-¾ô-ZÛ-ÁÝ-¯-GTÛG-XïżP-»Þ¾-hÝ-º‚ô¼-zü 1980-3)

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244

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GTï m -GTß P -GZÛ Å -ˆÛ Å -PºÛ - „À ô - Ço - ºwGÅ-»Þ ¾ -hÝ - iPÅ-qü

245

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246

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GTï m -GTß P -GZÛ Å -ˆÛ Å -PºÛ - „À ô - Ço - ºwGÅ-»Þ ¾ -hÝ - iPÅ-qü

247

ºHPÅ-ŸÝ-MãºÛ-PôÅ-¢ô¼-ŸÛG-GmP-¼ôGÅ-ŸïÅ-zXôh-q¼ü h‚PÅ-TmHÛÅ-ºGô-G®ô-¤Gôm-qô¼-¤ô¾-zÇkݼ-‚Å-bï-hqP-dGÅ-»ÛG-VßP-ŸÛG-vhVôG-TïÅ-zÁh-hï-¾ôG GmÅ-±P-hÝ-ym-±ôÅ-Vz-ÆÛh-ˆÛ-Ç+ô¼-GP-»P-¤-zÁh-q¼-xÛ-¾-zBôhhï-ym-z¾-»Þ¾-hÝ-ƒôÅ-MãºÛ-Ç+ô¼-¾-GÅP-¤ô¾-‚ïh-Ç+zÅü GTïm-GTßP-GZÛÅmÅ-¤Z¤-hÝ-ºIô-¸ï¼-»P-ym-HÛÅ-¤Z¤-hÝ-xÛm-m-±P-¤-G¸ÞP-GÛ-¼ïhü PGTÛG-qÞ¼-»ôP-GÛ-»Ûmü Eïh-GZÛÅ-z¾-»Þ¾-hÝ-fh-;¼-¾ôG-Çeï-ym-ÇKÝG¼ôGÅü GTÛG-‚-m-ym-GÅh-qºÛ-Gb¤-hP-ü GTÛG-‚-m-GÅôm-qô¼-º‚ô¼HÛ-¼ïhü hï-¤Ûm-fzÅ-¾¤-GTÛG-ˆP-¤ïh-qÅ-G¾-bï-GmÅ-±ß¾-fzÅ-ÇkÝGq-‚ãP-m-„Àô-ºHôh-TÛ-»P-GmP-Mã-¤ïhü TïÅ-ŸÝÅ-bï-fG-zThü GTïm-GTßPGZÛÅ-uÛ-¾ô- 1980 ¹- 4 ±ïÅ- 3 ZÛm-z¾-»Þ¾-hÝ-fômü xÛ-ZÛm-ymVßÅ-ˆÛ-ºGô-G®ô-¤Gôm-qôºÛ-¤hÝm-mÅ-hGôPÅ-q-xÛ¼-ºHPÅ-Hã¼-qºÛ-hqPdGÅ-»ÛG-VßP-„ÀPÅ-bï-GŸÛÅ-¯ï-xôGÅ-ÅÞ-fôm-DÞ¾-Áï¾-h;¼-hÝ-zBôhü ¹-z-hïºÛ-±ïÅ- 6 ZÛm-Áï¾-h;¼-mÅ-D-xôGÅ-zNå¼-bï-Gô¤-ŸïP-VïmqôÅ-¤Û-¤ïh-¾ÞP-ÇeôP-Á-ÇeG-zMãh-Á¼-DÞ¤-zÞºÛ-GPÅ-¾ºÛ-xôGÅ-ÅÞ-zBôhü GPÅ-¾ºÛ-¤±¤Å-lôG-¤FïÅ-ºDÞ¼-zºÛ-¤Û-zŸÛ-fÞG-q-mÅ-wô-GŸômŸÛG-GÛÅ-Eïh-GP-mÅ-»Ûm-m¤-ŸïÅ-iÛÅü PÅ-GZïm-ºyh-¾-zBôh-±¼mÅ-z¾-»Þ¾-hÝ-¾ôG-GÛ-»ôhü TïÅ-zÁh-qÅü wô-GŸôm-hïÅ-GZïm-ºyh247


248

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GTï m -GTß P -GZÛ Å -ˆÛ Å -PºÛ - „À ô - Ço - ºwGÅ-»Þ ¾ -hÝ - iPÅ-qü

249

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250

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1980-8)

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268

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º²Ûm-¿Ëm-MÅ-wô-ƒP-GÛ-hzÞÅ-mÅ-G¸ÛGÅ-qºÛ-ÇkÛPÅ-VºÛ-G»Å-G»ômhÝ-ÆÛh-„Àôm-hP.ü z;º-„Àôm-¤±m-ŸzÅü „À-væ¾ü xÛ-M¾-Ç+Ý-±z-¤ÛÇoü GŸm-»P-GŸÝP-ŸzÅ-ŸÛ-iG-hqôm-¼ÛGÅ-n¤Å-Gô-¼Û¤-zŸÛm-I¾¾-ºDôh-hï-zŸïPÅ-zŸÝGÅ-fôG ¤Û-¤P-n¤Å-ˆP-mô¼-JÀÛP-¿UGżۺÛ-xÛ-mP-;Ým-mÅ-wô-ƒP-¾-D-xôGÅ-bï-ºhÝG-q-hP-hÝÅ-¤±ßPÅ-zôh-¿YôPÅh¤G-uÛ-zIïÅ-qÅ-GÅÞP-ÁÝGÅ-¤fôm-qôÅü Çkï-±ôGÅü h‚ÛPÅ-ż¤±ôm-¤W¾-Gbôhü TïÅ-GÅÞP-ZÛh-M¾-JÀâ-h¤G-ÇkïºÛ-¼ô¾-VºÛ-GhPÅÅÞ-iPÅ-ÁÛP.ü ¿kÛP-hqôm-»m-HÛ-¼¾-IÛºÛ-¯ï-wzü h¤G-»ôPÅ-mÅGô-¤±ôm-¯ï-IÛ-º‚¼-¤-¤hÝm-hÝ-zOïP-Çeï-GÝÅ-zbàh-ŸÝÅ-XïÅ-¯ï-IÛ-wz-ÇeïÇkï-±m-Åô-ÅôºÛ-¼Þ-Ço-FÛh-hï-ÇkÛPÅ-VºÛ-¤hÝm-mÅ-@P-I-zOÛGÅ-ÁÛP-G»ÅxôGÅ-ÅÞ-¿e-ÇePÅ-hP.ü ¼Þ-h¼-ÇKݼ-wz-zBôh-±ß¾-hP-zTÅ-¼P-ÇK¼hÝ-¾ôG Ÿô-Çeôm-¼ÛP-h¤G-ÇK¼-DG-h¤ÛGÅ-zž-GÝP-ÅïP-»ôh-ÇezÅmô¼-JÀÛP-Zï-DÞ¾-JÀÛP-GºÛ-mP-ÇK¼-I¾-zOÛG-Çeï-vô-BÛh-GbôP.ü hïºÛ-Ç+zźƒï¾-»ôh-ŸÛ-iG-hqôm-¼ÛGÅ-hP.ü h¤G-ÇK¼-wm-±ßm-¤Iôm-hÝ-ºzôh¼ïÅ-ÅôGÅ-È-TP-MÅ-zÁô¤Å-Vï-zºÛ-hGº-vô¼-¾ôPÅ-ÅÞ-uôhü hï-zŸÛm-zôh-¹- 1 ±ïÅ- 15 hGôP-iô-¿Ë-¿km-Vô-ºyâ¾-Ǩôm¾¤-Vïm-¤ôºÛ-¤Vôh-G¸ÛGÅ-¤²h-ÇKô¼-h¤G-ÇK¼-DG-z¼-zÇ+ô¼-mP-¼ÞzOÛGÅ-&GôP-Å-¤VôG-VÛzÅ-zNå¼-»ôh-m-hP.ü hï-¤Ûm-z;º-ÁG-¾292


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293

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294

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ÅôGÅ-iâP-GmÅ-uÛ-ºIïºÛ-fôz-fP-¾¤-Æô¾-Z¤Å-¤ïh-ŸÝ-zŸÛm-ºhÝG

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M-GŸÝP-GÛ-GhÝG-¯çz-ºôG-±ï-ÆôGÁô¼-zºÛ-zôh-¤ÛºÛ-¤ÛP-GŸÝP-ü 1] BïÅ-»Þ¾-hÛP-¼Ûü EÛ¤-¤ÛP-Iâ-zŸÛ-F¾-z-Gż-qü ¤ÛPwÞm-±ôGÅü ¤Û-±P-iG-IÅ-»Ûm-qÅ-uÛ-¾ô- 1960 ¾ô¼-º²Ûmz¸ÞP-‚Å-bïü GŸÛÅ-¯ï-z;¼-DP-hÝ-zTßG-Ç+zÅ-uÛ-¾ô- 1961 ¾ô¼fôm-Çtï¾-Iôm-VßP-ŸïÅ-qºÛ-¾Å-ºGݾ-Çtï¾-z¼-zdïmü ¿eôGÅ-ÁÛ-fïzÅü hï-hÝÅ-DôP-¾ô-ÅÞ¤-Tß-Åô-GTÛG-®¤-»Ûmü 2] BïÅ-»Þ¾-hÛP-¼Ûü EÛ¤-¤ÛP-wÞ-Á¼-qü ¤ÛP-ºW¤-h‚PÅü º²Ûm-z¸ÞP-‚ïh-qºÛ-Mã-¤±m-hP-ü ¾ô-hÝÅü z®ôm-DP-ü ºhÅ-hÝÅü m-±ôh-zTÅ-GôP-ºDôh-hP-¤±ßPÅü 3] BïÅ-»Þ¾-hÛP-¼Ûü EÛ¤-¤ÛP-Iâ-zŸÛ-Eô-Bü ¤ÛP-Çtïm-qü º²Ûm-z¸ÞP294


M-GŸÝ P -GÛ - Çk Ý G -¯ç z -ºô G -±ï - Æô G -Áô ¼ -zºÛ - zô h -¤Û ü

295

‚Å-qºÛ-Mã-¤±m-ÅôGÅ-GôP-hP-¤±ßPÅ-¾ü GÁïGÅ-hÝÅ-¾ô-Åô-zhÝm-®¤-»Ûmü 4] BïÅ-»Þ¾-hÛP-¼Ûü EÛ¤-¤ÛP-¯-Ç+ô¼ü ¤ÛP-hôm-Iâzü º²Ûmz¸ÞP-‚Å-qºÛ-Mã-¤±m-ÅôGÅ-GôP-hP-¤±ßPÅ-¾ü GÁïGÅ-hÝÅ-¾ôzŸÛ-zTß-®¤-»Ûmü 5] BïÅ-»Þ¾-hÛP-¼Û-Áï¾-h;¼-lô-zMhü EÛ¤-¤ÛP-ºzº-ºôG ¤ÛP-„Àô-z¸P-ü º²Ûm-z¸ÞP-‚Å-qºÛ-Mã-¤±m-ÅôGÅ-GôP-hP-¤±ßPž| GÁïGÅ-hÝÅ-¾ô-ÅÞ¤-Tß-Åô-IPÅ-®¤-»Ûmü 6] BïÅ-»Þ¾-hÛP-¼Û-M¾-mô¼ü EÛ¤-¤ÛP-hGôm-Gżü ¤ÛP-zÞVßP-ü º²Ûm-z¸ÞP-‚Å-qºÛ-Mã-¤±m-ÅôGÅ-GôP-hP-¤±ßPÅ-¾ü z;¼DP-mÅ-Z-¼Û-z®ôm-DP-hÝ-zbP-Çeï-¿eôGÅ-z=ïÅ-PP-ºhÅü hï-hÝÅm-±ôh-¾ô-Zï¼-zMh-®¤-»Ûmü 7] BïÅ-»Þ¾-hÛP-¼Û-M¾-mô¼ü EÛ¤-¤ÛP-D-TßP-ü ¤ÛP-zÞ-wÞm±ôGÅü º²Ûm-z¸ÞP-‚Å-qºÛ-Mã-¤±m-GôP-hP-¤±ßPÅ-¾ü uÛ-¾ô1959 ¾ô-mÅ-z;¼-DP-z®ôm-DP-ÅôGÅ-ÅÞ-zTßG-mÅ-¤f¼-uÛ-¾ô1961 ¾ô¼-GŸÛÅ-¯ï-Ço¼-fP-ŸÛP-¼¼-¿eôGÅ-¼Ûh-PP-ºhÅü hïhÝÅ-¾ô-ÅÞ¤-Tß-Åô-zhÝm-®¤-»Ûmü 8] BïÅ-»Þ¾-hÛP-¼Û-M¾-mô¼ü EÛ¤-¤ÛP-m-Á¼ü ¤ÛP-zÞ-¼ÛmVïmü º²Ûm-z¸ÞP-‚Å-qºÛ-Mã-¤±m-ÅôGÅ-zÞ-wÞm-±ôGÅ-hP-¤±ßPÅ295


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¾| GÁïGÅ-hÝÅ-¾ô-ÅÞ¤-Tß-Åô-zMh-®¤-»Ûmü 9] BïÅ-»Þ¾-hÛP-¼Û-¯ÛzÅ-¼Û-‚P-ü EÛ¤-¤ÛP-ÇSôm-qôü ¤ÛP-zÞ;Ým-hGºü º²Ûm-z¸ÞP-‚Å-qºÛ-Mã-¤±m-ÅôGÅ-zÞ-¼Ûm-Vïm-hP-¤±ßPž| GÁïGÅ-hÝÅ-¾ô-ÅÞ¤-Tß-Åô-zŸÛ-®¤-»Ûmü 10] BïÅ-»Þ¾-w-iâG Áï¾-h;¼-VôÅ-ÇkïºÛ-IÔ-q-¾ÞP-dôGÅVôÅ-ºwï¾ü MP-wÞG-GŸÛÅ-hqôm-»Ûm-qÅ-uÛ-¾ô- 1959 ¾ô¼º²Ûm-z¸ÞP-‚Å-bïü GŸÛÅ-¯ï-z;¼-DP-hÝ-zTßG-mÅ-uÛ-¾ô- 1960 ®¤-¾-¤ÞG-ÁÛ-fïzÅü 11] BïÅ-»Þ¾-hÛP-¼Û-¾ô-¾ôü EÛ¤-¤ÛP-h‚ï¼-¼ü ¤ÛP-Lm-Vïmü uÛ-¾ô- 1959 ¾ô¼-¾ô-¾ôºÛ-Lm-qô-»Ûm-qÅ-º²Ûm-z¸ÞP-‚Å-bïü z;¼DP-z®ôm-DP-ÅôGÅ-ÅÞ-¼Û¤-qÅ-zTßG-q-hP-ü hï-XïÅ-ZÛP-FÛ¼-FÛhhï-uÛ-¾ô- 1961 ¾ô¼-ZÛP-FÛ-z®ôm-DP-hÝ-¤ÞG-ÁÛ-fïzÅü hï-hÝÅ-¾ôzŸÛ-zTß-Ÿï-¿S-®¤-»Ûmü 12] BïÅ-»Þ¾-hÛP-¼Û-w-iâG ¤ÛP-„Àô-z¸P-lô-Xïü IÔ-q-»Ûm-qhP-ü D¼-dºÛ-GŸÛÅ-hqôm-»Ûm-qÅ-º²Ûm-z¸ÞP-GÛÅ-z;¼-DP-hÝ-zTßGq-hP-ü uÛ-¾ô- 1961 ¾ô¼-z®ôm-DP-hï-G¼-¿eôGÅ-ÁÛ-fïzÅü hïhÝÅ-¾ô-iâG-Tß-®¤-»Ûmü 13] BïÅ-»Þ¾-hÛP-¼Û-GmÅ-GÅï¼-¤ôü ¤ÛP-zG-Iôü Áï¾-h;¼296


M-GŸÝ P -GÛ - Çk Ý G -¯ç z -ºô G -±ï - Æô G -Áô ¼ -zºÛ - zô h -¤Û ü

297

VôÅ-ÇkïºÛ-IÔ-q-»Ûm-q-hP-ü ¾Å-Çoï-»Ûm-q¼-zdïm-uÛ-¾ô- 1959 ¾ô¼º²Ûm-z¸ÞP-‚Å-bïü z;¼-DP-z®ôm-DP-hÝ-zTßG-mÅ-uÛ-¾ô- 1961 ¾ô¼z®ôm-DP-hï-G¼-¿eôGÅ-ÁÛ-fïzÅü hï-hÝÅ-¾ô-zŸÛ-zTß-®¤-»Ûmü 14] BïÅ-»Þ¾-hÛP-¼Û-w-iâG EÛ¤-¤ÛP-±ÛÅ-¼ôh-Ǩhü ¤ÛP-„Àôz¸P-¼ÛG-Iô¾ü Áï¾-h;¼-VôÅ-ÇkïºÛ-IÔ-q-hP-¾Å-Çoï-»Ûm-q¼-zdïmü uÛ-¾ô- 1959 ¾ô¼-º²Ûm-z¸ÞP-‚Å-bï-z;¼-DP-z®ôm-DP-hÝ-zTßG uÛ-¾ô- 1961 ¾ô¼-z®ôm-DP-hï-G¼-¿eôGÅ-ÁÛ-fïzÅü hï-hÝÅ-¾ô-¿SzTß-P-GTÛG-®¤-»Ûmü 15] BïÅ-»Þ¾-hÛP-¼Û-Áï¾-h;¼ü ¤ÛP-±ôP-q-Çtïm-q-±ï-¼ÛP-ü º²Ûm-z¸ÞP-‚ïh-hGôÅ-Mã-¤±m-Gž-ÁïÅ-¤-‚ãP-»P-ü uÛ-¾ô- 1959 ¾ô¼-º²Ûm-z¸ÞP-‚Å-bï-z;¼-DP-hÝ-zTßG-q-hP-hï-XïÅ-Íï-¤-ÇKP-ŸÛP¼¼-FÛhü Å-GmÅ-hï-G¼-uÛ-¾ô- 1961 ¾ô¼-¿eôGÅ-ÁÛ-fïzÅü hïhÝÅ-¾ô-zŸÛ-zTß-Ÿï-IPÅ-®¤-»Ûmü 16] BïÅ-»Þ¾-hÛP-¼Û-Á-lô¼ü EÛ¤-¤ÛP-Vô-¾ôü ¤ÛP-¿ËG-qü ThP-hÛP-h¤G-GÛ-Ÿ¾-Pô-»Ûm-qÅ-uÛ-¾ô- 1959 ¾ô¼-º²Ûm-z¸ÞP‚Å-bïü z;¼-DP-hP-ü ¿Ë-ż-FÛh-hï-¤f¼-mô¼-JÀÛP-hÝ-¿eôGÅ-ÁÛfïzÅü hï-hÝÅ-¾ô-iâG-Tß-¼ï-zŸÛ-®¤-»Ûmü 17] BïÅ-»Þ¾-hÛP-¼Û-w-iâG EÛ¤-¤ÛP-z-¾Åü ¤ÛP-„Àô-z¸P297


298

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M-GŸÝ P -GÛ - Çk Ý G -¯ç z -ºô G -±ï - Æô G -Áô ¼ -zºÛ - zô h -¤Û ü

299

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300


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zÞ-yâG-n¤Å-ˆÛ-¤-BÛh-º²ô¤Åü uÛ-¾ô- 1993ü 302


uÛ-¾ô- 1982 ¾ô-Gż-Ç+zÅü 1] GTßP-qô-d-¤IÛmü 2] ym-PG-hzP-ü 3] ±-zô-zÇem-º²Ûm-¤fÞ-ÇeôzÅü 4] ±-zôZÛ-¤ü 5] ±-zô-„Àô-z¸P-h¼-MÅü 6] GTßP-qô-q-ÅPÅü

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300

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308


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312


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14 mount-everest-dingri  

W ô - ¤ ô - J À P -¤ º Û - z Þ - w ñ G ü Vz-ÆÛ h -z®ô m -qºÛ - ¾ô - Mã Å -hï z -yï P .ü 14 Wô - ¤ô - JÀ P -¤ºÛ - zÞ - yâ G zô h -ˆÛ - hGÝ -...

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