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Gu-Chu-Sum Books Published by the Gu-Chu-Sum Movement of Tibet (Ex -political Prisoners’Association) Jogibara Road, P.O Mcleod Ganj, Dharamsala-176219 H.P.India. www.guchusum.org Biography of an activist. Vol 1

Life experience of Reting Tenpa Tsering (*METSE NYONGWA) Edited by Ngawang Tobchen GoPey Tibetan Copyright* by GuChuSum Translation copyright by Reting Tenpa Tsering Typesetting & cover design: Ngawang Thardoe and Sonam Tsewang First Edition 1000 copies, 2001. All right reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced by any means without prior written permission from the publisher.

Printed at Indraprastha Press (CBT), New Delhi.


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q-¤-¸h-hï-G¼-¤Vôh-DP-»P-»Ûm-qÅ-}À-¤-hGï-ºhÝm-n¤Å-<P-z·ÝGÅ-q¼-{ïh-<Û-»ôh. º|ôG-DÞ¾-HÛ-GZïm-OÛG-mÛ-w-¤Å-fG-GTôh-{ïh. zÞ-hP-zÞ-¤ô-Åô-ÅôÅ-GZïm-OÛG-{Å-q-ZàP-ZàP-¼ïh. w-¤-GZÛÅ-wm-±ßmz;º-¤ô¾-GmP-z-¾Å-zÞ-hP-zÞ-¤ô-º|ï¾-ºiÛÅ-w¼-z·G-GhôP-®¤-¤fôP-¥ôP-¤ïh-mºP-GZïm-OÛG-dïm-º|ï¾-{Å-q-mÅ-z¸ÞP-wm±ßm-GTÛG-Åï¤Å-GTÛG-¾-Gbh-mÅ-z¯ï-zÅ-zTÛPÅ-q-hP-. EÛ¤-Mãh-º²Ûm-qºÛ-zÞ-yâG-z®Å-mÅ-¤Û-±ï-z¸P-¤f¼-zB¾-HÛ-»ôh. º|ôG-q-EÛ¤-hÝh-Vï-VßP-WÛ-ºi-·ÛG-¾-uÛ¼-zbP-mP-GÛ-zÞ-Lm-q-hï¼-Gmº-¤-}ÀPÅ-mÅ-EÛ¤-G·ÛÅ-º²Ûm-zTßG-q-hP-. zÞGZÛÅ-q-hï-hGôm-q-GP-¼ÞP-GÛ-VôÅ-ÇKô¼-zTßG-mÅ-IÔ-q-z¸ô. h-hÝP-zÞ-GÅÞ¤-q-ÅôGÅ-»ôh-m-zÞ-¤ó-·ÛG-zÅÞÅ-mÅ-EÛ¤-G·ÛÅ-Gż-qº²Ûm-zTßG-GÛ-¼ïh. zÞ-¤ó-WÛ-®¤-»ôh-q-hï-H-mô¤-qºÛ-μôP-zÇ?¾-hP-zTÅ-¤mº-¤¼-GbôP-z-hP-. G¾-ÆÛh-EÛ¤-hï¼-zÞ-¤ô-¾Å-zÞ-¤ïhm-EÛ¤-G·ÛÅ-º²Ûm-¤Dm-¤G-q-·ÛG-zÅÞ-z¼-{ïh. º|ôG-DÞ¾-hÝ-EÛ¤-·ÛG-¾-zÞ-mÛ-¤ïh-hÝ-¤Û-¼ÞP-z-·ÛG-»Ûm. GP-»Ûm-·ï-m. ±-¾ïmhP-. ±ôP-MG-q. hI-ºfz. f-m-h¤¼-¾Å-ÅôGÅ-¾-BïÅ-qÅ-{ïh-hGôÅ. zÞh-¤ïh-<ÛÅ-¾Å-¼ÛGÅ-hï-¼ÛGÅ-{ïh-Æô¾-¤ïh. h-hÝPº|ôG-DÞ¾-hÝ-zÞ-¾Å-zÞ-¤ô-¤P-z-»ôh-TÛP-Mã-¤±m-mÛ. zÞ-¤P-¤P-qô-·ÛG-hI-ºFâG-hP-. Á-¾ïm-ÅôGÅ-¾-Áô¼-z-hP-. D-ÁÅ-VôÅÇKô¼-·ÝGÅ-q-ÅôGÅ-<ÛÅ-¼ïh. º|ôG-q¼-G·ÝP-hP-. hzP-ÁÝGÅ-¤Pº-fP-Tm-HÛÅ-hqôm-qôÅ-z·G-qºÛ-FÛ¤Å-Æô¾-¤ïh-mºP-GP-{ãP-hÝ-¤Û-GÅôh-q-hP-. @Ý-MG-ºyôG-zTô¤-ÅôGÅ-¤Gô-ºWâG-Gbm-mÅ-¤ïh-q-hï-ºiºP-¤-¼ïh. mP-q-ÅPÅ-MÅ-qºÛ-VôÅ-<Û-zÇÀz-{-G·Û¼-z¸ÞP-zºÛ-fôG-¿ËVôÅ-hGï-z-zTß-hP-¤Û-VôÅ-G®P-¤-zTß-iâG-GÛ-FÛ¤Å-Gô¤Å-ºiÛÅ-ÅÞ-»ôh-qºÛ-Æô¾-·ÛG-¤Û-¼zÅ-mÅ-¤Û-¼zÅ-z¼-ºWGÅ-»ôh-q-hP-. º|ôG-q-¼Þ-Ç?ô¼-hP-Çkï-ÁôG-Åô-Åô¼-Lm-qô-·ïÅ-q-G·ÝP-iP-DôG-M-»PÅ-q-·ÛG-»ôh-qÅ-hïÅ-Hôh-hP-D-¤Vß-ÅôGÅ-¯ôh-G·ÛºÛ-¼ÛGÅfG-GTôh-{ïh-q-¼ïh. º|ôG-qºÛ-BïÅ-q-±ô¼-ÁG-qô-TïÅwm-±ßm-¤mº-B¾-mÅ-IôGÅ-qô-z¸ô-<Û-¼ïh. ÁG-qô-hï-G¾-Vï-ÁôÅ-z¯Û-GÛ-»ôh. ÁG-qô-z¸ôÇ?zÅ-¤Û-GZÛÅ-wm-±ßm-¾G-G»Å-<Û-¤²âz-¤ô-ÆôG-¤²âz-GZÛÅ-wm-±ß¾-zÇoô¾-mÅ-mP-hÝ-z;ÝG ¤²âz-¯ï-Dz-z®GÅ-zMz-qºÛ-FGzbàPÅ-mÅ-}À-¤-h;ôm-¤VôG-hP-. »Þ¾-¿Ë-G·Û-zhG ZÛ-¹-hqP-hÝ-z·G-mÅ-h¤-zTºÛ-±ÛG-zXôh-¼ïÅ-{Å-XïÅ-G·Û-mÅ-Dô-GZÛŤmº-IôGÅ-ÁG-qô¼-Hã¼-z-¼ïh. ¤mº-z·G-qºÛ-ÁG-qô-ÁÛ-h¥¾-zºÛ-mP-hÝ-fÞG-Mã-»ôh-q-¼ïh-¸ï¼. ¤mº-z·G-qºÛ-ÁG-qô-wm-±ßm-BÛh-ÇkÝG-¤Z¤-¥ôP-GÛÅ-GTÛG-wm-GTÛG-IôGÅ-{ïh-q-¼ïh. ¤Û-GTÛG-¤mº-IôGÅ-ÁG-qôD-ÁÅ-»ôP-GÛ-»ôh-TÛPü. ÁG-qô-GTÛG-G·m-HÛÅ-zÅh-q-»Ûm-m-hïºÛ-ÁG-qô-n¤Å-º²ô¤Å-mÅ-Á-¾ïm-¾ïm-q-hP-. »P-Hôh-D-¤Vß{ãP-mÅ-ÇeôP-ºW¾-{-hGôÅ-{ãP-±ï-ÁG-qô-n¤Å-mÅ-¼ôGÅ-{ïh. G¾-bï-¤-¯-zÇkÛzÅ-qº¤-º±ô-dïm-|¾-z-ÅôGÅ-<Û-h;º-DG-Ç?zÅÁG-qôÅ-¼P-GÛ-ºDôÅ-{ô¼-¾-G·ÛGÅ-qºÛ-¼ôGÅ-¼¤-EÛ¤-G·Û-º²âGÅ-¼ôGÅ-{ïh-<Û-»ôh. d-MãGÅ-mÛ-º|ôG-q-n¤Å-¯ï-hGº-Vï-zºÛ-¯ïh-¤óºÛ-¼ÛGÅ-ÁÛG-¼ïh. º|ôG-q-±P-¤Å-hï¼-È-TP-hGº-qô-{ïh-TÛP-Å-fG-¼ÛPfÞP-¾-¤-z¿eôÅ-q¼-¿eh-¤ô¼-»ôP-z-hP-. d-¯¾-zÇkݼ-HÛ-¼ïh. d-MãGÅ-DG-GZÛÅ-»ôh-q-mÅ-GTÛG-mÛ-d-z·ôm-q-qóºÛ-¯¾-ºIm-qhP-. GZÛÅ-q-mÛ-dºÛ-ºHôGÅ-±h-zÇkݼ-z-¼ïh. d-¯¾-mÛ-d-MãGÅ-q-qôÅ-d-wô-½ÀâP-¿e¼-zÇ?ݾ-mÅ-ÇK-ÇeïP-mÅ-ºôG-ºHã¼-MG-z·Ûm-ÅfôG-mÅ-h¼-D-hP-fôG-VG-OæG-GÛ-¼ïh. h-hÝP-d-wô-MãGÅ-z·Ûm-ÇK-fôG-mÅ-¤ï-¤hº-G»Å-zÇ?ô¼-hP-. G»ôm-Ç?ô¼-HÛÅ-¯¾-¾G-ºhôm-ºzïm-¾-ºwïm-HÛ-»ôh-qÅ-wôGż-±óºÛ-¯¾-Pô¤Å-Å-·ÛG-¼ïh. zP-¯¾-mÛ. d-n¤Å-GÁÛzÅ-mÅ-MP-fG-¼ÛP-fÞP-±h-z·G-mÅ-hï¼-ÅÞ-ÇÀïzÅ-<Û-¤HôGÅ-±hzÇkݼ-z-¼ïh. ÍP-hP-qô-hP-GZÛÅ-q. GÅÞ¤-q. zTÅ-ÍP-¿S-iâG-z¼-¼Û¤-z·Ûm-Mm-hP-GÅô¾-¼Å-»ôh. ¤WâG-bà-¾ÞÅ-¤Dm¾ºP-}Àô-w¤-¤Û-º{ãP-zºÛ-GÅô¾-¼Å-»ôh. d-MãG-¤Dm-¤Û-d-GZÛÅ-¹-z-GTÛG-GZÛÅ-ÇSôm-mÅ-¢ôP-zl¼-vôh-Æô¾-»ôh. d-MãGÅ-Ç?ô¼¼Ð-OïP-w-zôP-fP-Ç?ô¼-Ç?zÅ-ÅÞ-zXôh-»ôh-qÅ-ºhÛ¼-·Ûz-z;ôh-{Å-¤ïh.


m¤-hÝÅ-Åô-Åô-hP-. ¯-Vß-»G-ZïÅ-¾-z¿eÅ-mÅ-º|ôG-qºÛ-¼Þ-z-Çtô-Bôh-{ïh-TÛP-¼Þ-z-Çkôh-Å-hï¼-¤±ï¼-Å-·ïÅ-¸ï¼. h{¼DºÛ-hÝÅ-ÅÞ-Å-V-¤fô-Å-hP-. ¯-Vß-º²ô¤Å-Å-·ÛG-bà-Çtô-Çkôh-{ïh-q-hï¼-h{¼-¤±ï¼-·ïÅ-¸ï¼. Çeôm-hÝÅ-ºô-¤-hP-¤¼-fôm-ºzz-Vï-ÁôÅ»Ûm-qÅ-¯-Vß-º²ô¤Å-q-GP-·ÛG-¾-¯-D-Zï-Å-·ÛG-bà-Çtô-Çkôh-{ïh-qÅ-hï¼-Çeôm-¤±ï¼-·ïÅ-¸ï¼. hGÝm-¤±ï¼-mÛ-Å-zz-h¤º-¾. ¼ÛºÛºhzÅ-hP-DÞG-¸Þ¼-Gh-D-»ôh-Å-zTÅ-iô-Å-·ÛG-bà-Çtô-Çkôh-{ïh. h{¼-DºÛ-hÝÅ-ÅÞ-hGÝm-¤±ï¼-»ôh-Å-hï¼-Åï¤Å-Tm-¤Û-GbôP-z¼-¯D-»G-qô-GmÅ-fzÅ-{-GÛ-»ôh. hrÛh-¤±ï¼-mÛ-hGÝm-¤±ï¼-hP-fG-ZïºÛ-Å-V-·ÛG-bà-Çtô-Çkôh-{ïh. hrÛh-hÝÅ-hï-º|ôG-q¼-h;º-¾Å-DG-ÁôÅ-ÁÛG-¼ïh. GP-»Ûm-·ï-m. ¯-D-½[ÛP-q-μôGÅ-mÅ-Gż-q-¤Û-Bï-zºÛ-z¼-GmÅ»Ûm-qÅ-Åï¤Å-Tm-Bô-qô-VGÅ-mÅ-ÁÛ-Vh-»P-»ôP-GÛ-»ôh. ¤hô¼-m-¤±ï¼-Å-Åô-Åô¼-Åï¤Å-Tm-GP-{ãP-GbôP-GÛ-¤ïh-¾. »Þ¾-Çkï-DÁÅ-¾-»Þ¾-Çkï-GTÛG-GÛ-¤±ï¼-ż-»Þ¾-Çkï-G·m-·ÛG-GÛ-Åï¤Å-Tm-GbôP-Æô¾-¤ïh-qºP-»ôh. ÇtP-ÇKô¼-ÇKô¼-¤ï-bôG-¼Ð-z-m. . ¯Û-¤ï-bôG-zM-º²ô¤Å-ÇeôP-º²ô¤Å-¼ïh. . h;¼-Vï-z-ÇtP-Mm-¤ï-bôG-¼ïh. . iÛ-·Û¤-q-Gݼ-;ݤ-¤ï-bôG-»Ûm. .


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1967 ¾ô¼-P-±ô-z®ôm-q-¿S-zM-®¤-·ÛG-JÀô-zÞ¼-;ôP-qô¼-zbP-ÅôP-. ;ôP-qô¼-¤-zbP-GôP-zhÝm-yG-GZÛÅ-ÇÀôz-¢ôP-{ïhzTßG-mÅ-Eôh-±ô-fG-¼ÛP-·ÛG-bà-ºIô-hGôÅ-qÅ-¾¤-z¼-¤ô-\ºÛ-xÛ-mÅ-¤Û-h¤PÅ-<ÛÅ-Ç?h-zMz-q-»Ûm-m-hï-¾-zl-¾m-{-¤Û-VôG-qhP-. ¤ô-\ºÛ-ºDô¼-Oô¤-¾Å-zL¾-mÅ-xÛ¼-¾G-q-BôP-¤Û-VôG G¾-ÆÛh-GmÅ-±ß¾-hï-¼ÛGÅ-{ãP-±ï-¤ï-¤hº-MG-Mã-»Ûm-qÅ-Åô-ÅôºÛºGm-Åô-ÅôÅ-ºEï¼-hGôÅ-¾ÞGÅ-Ez-zOGÅ-{Å-ÅôP-. ¤ô-\-l-FïºÛ-¸ï¼-zºÛ-hôÅ-ºEï¼-¤ô-\-Vï-z-¼ïºÛ-mP-z®ôm-q-¤Û-IPÅ-ZÛ-ÁÝ-¯-¿S-¼ï-hP-hïºÛ-ºGm-®ßºÞ-=P-Lm-G·ôm-GZÛÅ-¾vh. z®ôm-q-}ÀâGÅ-qºÛ-¤ô-\-¿S-¼ïºÛ-¤±¤Å-ÅÞ-¤ï-ÁÛm-JËm-z®ßGÅ-qºÛ-ÆâP-h¤G-¤ô-\-¼ï-zTÅ-Eôm-¤ô-\- 40 ®¤-·ÛG-ºwm-qô-mÅ¿Ë-źÛ-;Ý-¼Þ-¸¤-q-zMãh-;ôP-qô¼-lôG-fôm-{Å. ;Ý-¼Þ-¸¤-q¼-¤ô-\-±P-¤-D-z;G-mÅ-Ç?¼-¤- 15 ®¤-·ÛG-P¾-GÅô-zMz-q-¾Å-hï¤Ûm-D-z;G-¤-ÅôP-. ºwm-qô-M¾-Çeôh-mÅ-fôm-qºÛ-·ôGÅ-q-W-fP-G¼-qó-·ÛG-vh-{ãP-zÅ-W-hï-ºDô¾-¤ïh-qº¤-GP-¿e¼-¤ô-\ºÛ-mP-Iôh-DôG-¸ÞG·ï-iG-MG-GÛ-ºhÝG. DG-GTÛG-Iôh-DôG-zÁ¾-mÅ-GÝ-fÞP-mP-«PÅ-¤-Áô¼-ÅôPü. P-»ôh-źÛ-¤ô-\ºÛ-mP-ºwm-qô-mÅ-»Ûm-qºÛ-Í-»Þ¸ï¼-z-·ÛG-»ôh. DôP-GÛÅ-®ßºÞ-=P-¾GÅ. ¤ô-\-z;G-¼ôGÅ-·ÝÅ-m-¤-GbôGÅ-Iôh-DôG-zÁ¾-IzÅ-{Å-mÅ-ÇkÝG-¼ÞÅ-fÞz-<Û-¤Û-ºhÝGTïÅ-zÁh-{ãP-zÅ. P-®ßºÞ-=P-G·ôm-q-»Ûm-ÇezÅ-qº-;ôô-bàºÞ-=P-¸ï-Ç?h-zMz-mÅ-(zôh-Ç?h-hÝ-Ç[m-ÅïP-·Ý-Mã-·ïÅ-¸ï¼.) Dô-Iôh-DôGzÁ¾-HÛ-ºhÝG-qÅ-¤ô-\-z;G-¼ôGÅ-·ÝÅ-q¼-¤ô-\ºÛ-¤Gô-zóºÛ-mP-»ôh-z®ôm-ÆâP-zÅ. Eôh-±ô-z®ôm-q-»Ûm-qÅ-GTÛm-q-GbôP-zºÛ-hÝűôh-»ôh-q-¤-¼ïh. ¸ï¼-mÅ-GTÛm-q-GbôP-z¼-zbP-¤-{ãPü. Í-»Þ-ÇkÝG-¼ÞÅ-{ïh-¤-fÞz-q¼-hÙ-{ãP-¤-ÅôP-. Áô¼-±¼-ÅôP-·ïÅ-xã-qºÛwÞ-fÞP-mP-±ï¼-O-hP-zTÅ-«PÅ-¤-JÀôh-±¼-ÅôP-zÅ-¤ô-\ºÛ-mP-GÛ-¤Û-±P-¤-«PÅ-iÛ-±ßz-zï¼-ºIô-Mã-¼ïh. hï-mÝz-¤¾-Iô-GÝP-h;¼-HÛ-M¾-z¸P-hÝ-·G-Çkôh-{Å-ÅôP-. z®ôm-q-±P-¤-DP-q-Vïm-qó-·ÛG-mP-¼-¾ÞG-mP-z·Ûm-zTßGmÅ-¿eô-VÅ-ym-®¤-·ÛG-<P-vh. xÛ-ZÛm-m¤-Gž-Ç?zÅ-·ôGÅ-¿eô-D-GP-»P-¤ïh-q¼-D-Å-mP-z·Ûm-¤ô-\ºÛ-mP-}ÀâGÅ-mÅ-;ôP-qô¼ºIô-Mã-¼ïh. ;ôP-qó-ZÛP-FÛ¼-·G-±ßGÅ-GTÛG-{Å-ÅôP-. hï-mÝz-z®ôm-q-±P-¤¼-¯¤-q-Iôh-DôG-MG-ÅôP-zŤ-q-·ÛG-Çeï¼-{ãP-zÅG¸ÞGÅ-qôºP-¿Ëôh-ÁÛG-ÁÛG-VGÅ-ÅôPü. xÛ-ZÛm-ÇÀ¼-»P-ºIâ¾-zBôh-<ÛÅ-Åï-Dï¤-¾-w¼-zMz-<Û-h¤G-ÇK¼-·ÛG-¾-·G-Çkôh-{Å-mÅ-¿eôVÅ-<P-vh-{ãP-. ÅP-ZÛm-¤Þh-¤fÞh-ºIâ¾-zBôh-<ÛÅ-ÇtôºÛ-v-¤ôG-bà-º{ô¼-mÅ-hï-G¼-zTº-¤-ZÛm-GTÛG-zÇkh. zTº-¤ºÛ-ZÛm-hï¼-z®ôm-q±P-¤-Vß-w¼-xôGÅ-ÅÞ-qP-¾ïz-¾ïm-q¼-zbP-{ãP-. qP-¾ïz-hï-ÇtóºÛ-GÅÞ¤-º²ô¤Å-hÝ-z®ôm-DP-Gż-q-MG-»Å-¼ïh-ºhÝG xÛ-ZÛmÇtóºÛ-GÅÞ¤-º²ô¤Å-<Û-hGôm-¼ô-»ôh-Å-·ÛG-bà-zB¾-{ãPü. hGôm-q-·ÛG-¼ô-hï-fôG-z¯ïGÅ-GZÛÅ-Tm-»Ûm-qÅ-z®ôm-q-I¾-¼Û¤-»Ûm-qn¤Å-ºôG-Áôh-hÝ-z·G-q-hPü. z®ôm-q-I¾-¼Û¤-¤-»Ûm-q-ÇeïP-fôG-bÝ-z·G-ÅôP-. z®ôm-DP-mP-hݺP-I¾-¼Û¤-HÛ-h{ï-º{ïh-¤P-qô»ôh-q-¼ïh. Å-V-hï¼-¾Å-DÞPÅ-Gż-q-MG-hGôÅ-¼ïh-TïÅ-ÁÛP-zTh-mÅ-zï¼-lôºÛ-¯-z-zÇSôGÅ-zTßG-q-hP-. lô-z;ôGzTßG-q-ÅôGÅ-Å-zž-lô-zž-HÛÅ-Å-¼ôP-¯çz-qô-hï-Çkï¼-fP-z¸ô-¼Þ-zTßG Iôh-DôG-¿eôGÅ-q-»Ûm-qÅ-zï¼-lóºÛ-¯-z-±ß¼-ºfïm-Ç?zźfïm-¤-fÞz-q¼-w¼-ºfïm-mÅ-D-ÅÞz-¾ôG-ºIó-GÛ-ºhÝG hï-G¼-¹-z-hGÝ-P¾-¾Å-zÇ?ݾ-XïÅ-ºV¼-G·Û¼-ºHã¼-z-xÛm-q-¼ïh-TïÅ-¾Åº±¤Å-z·G-mÅ-;ôP-qô-ZÛP-FÛ¼-ÇtôÅ-ÅôP-. ÇtóºÛ-GÅÞ¤-º²ô¤Å-<Û-hGôm-¼ô¼-P¾-¾Å-zÇ?ݾ-mÅ-¹-z-GZÛÅ-¿ËG-ºIô-Ç?zÅ-<Û-ZÛm-·ÛG-z®ôm-q-±P-¤-fP-Çkï¼-hÝ-¼Þ-OÛGzTßG-mÅ-¤ÛP-fô->ÀôG-q-hP-. ¤ÛP-fô-hôm-qºÛ-z®ôm-q-ZÛÅ-zM-¿S-zTß-¸Þ¼-ºfïm-HÛÅ-ÇtóºÛ-GÅÞ¤-º²ô¤Å-bà-JÀôG-DP-Ç?h-IGÅ-Tm-hïMG-q¼-ºFÛh-{ãP-. JÀôG-DP-MG-Å-hï-ÇtóºÛ-GÅÞ¤-º²ô¤Å-<Û-lô-Xï-VßÅ-·ïÅ-qºÛ-¾ÞP-¤hô-hï¼-¼ïh. z®ôm-q-DG-GTÛG-¼ÛºÛ-Ç?ïh-q-μŤï-zMz-mÅ-Gbàz-zTßG-Çeï-Vß-»Þ¼-z¸ôÅ-q-hP-. DG-GTÛG-JÀôG-DP-MG-zTßG hï-¿e¼-ZÛm-¤±m-¤ïh-q¼-±-±-ºÞ¼-ºÞ¼-HÛÅ-¾Å-;zÇ?ݾ-mÅ-¹-z-D-ÁÅ-mP-JÀôG-DP-hï-zMz-±¼-z-¼ïh. JÀôG-DP-MG-¤Dm-HÛ-ºGó-FÛh-hP-μÅ-¤ï-vôh-¤Dm-M-¤ÛºÛ-h¤G-¤Û-»Ûm-q-


¾Å-¾Å-;-{ïh-¤Dm-±P-¤-P-±ô-z®ôm-q-¼ïh. ÇtóºÛ-GÅÞ¤-º²ô¤Å-mÅ-;ôP-qó-ZÛP-FÛ¼-ÇtôÅ-qºÛ-hÝÅ-±ôh-hï- 1967 ¾ô-hï-G-¼P-¼ïh. ÅÛ-;ï¤-¾-zL¾-±¼-®¤-HÛ-D-|G·ïÅ-qºÛ-Å-ÇeôP-hï¼-¾ôG-Dh-Tßh-(P¾-¯ô¾-zNå¼-z;ôh-¼-z-)z®ôm-DP-hï-Gż-MG-{Å-ÁÛP-Å-zÇ?ôÅ. lô-zÇSôGÅ. ÁÛP-zTh-q-zTÅÅ-V-Çkï¼-fP-z¸ôÅ-mÅ-z®ôm-q-zTßG-źÛ-DP-q-¿e¼-yïP-D-ÁÅ-Gż-MG-{Å-q-¼ïh. 1968 ¾óºÛ-uÛ-¹-zhÝm-qºÛ-mP-P-¼P-hÝÅ-z;G-z®ôm-ºWâG-¾ô- 8 HÛ-ZïÅ-hÝÅ-μôGÅ-ÅôPü. »Ûm-mºP-GôP-¼Û¤-mÅ-Eôh¼P-ZïÅ-hÝÅ-±P-z-»Ûm-mºÛ-mP-hÝ-¾ôG-VôG-GÛ-¤-¼ïh. ¾Å-¤Û-¼Þ-DG-bà-zÇkh-mÅ-¤Þh-¤fÞh-P¾-¯ô¾-zNå¼-z;ôh-»G-qô-{ïh-hGôÅ-q¤-¸h. zŤ-}Àô-zNå¼-z;ôh-»G-qô-GbôP-hGôÅ-¼ïh-TïÅ-mP-hÝ-¾ôG-¤-zTßG-q¼-¾Å-¤Û-¼Þ-DG-bà-z·G-{ãP-. ¾Å-¤Û-¼Þ-DG-bà1982 z¼-¾ô- 14 zÇkh-q-»Ûm. ¾Å-¤Û-¼Þ-DG-TïÅ-q-mÛ-GôP-¼Û¤-HÛ-hô-h¤-ºôG-»ôh-<P-z®ôm-q-mP-z·Ûm-h¤-qô-¤ïh. Z¾-DP-ÇKô¿UGÅ-MG-GÛ-¤ïh. ¼ïÅ-G¸º-ZÛ-¤¼-Fô¤-¾-ºIô-VôG-q-hPü. ¾Å-;ºÛ-ºGô-{ïh-·Û-VÅ-vÅ-q-»Ûm-q-¾Å-h¤G-¤Û-¤-¼ïh. »Ûm-mºP¤Û-G·m-hG-mP-z·Ûm-ºIô-zBôh-¼P-hzP-¤ïh-q¼-ºGô-{ïh-¾-hGôPÅ-q-·Ý-hGôÅ-q-zTÅ-<Û-Eh-q¼-»ôh. ;ôP-qô¼-z®ôm-¼Ð-Vï-z-DG-GZÛÅ-ºhÝG uÛ-¾ô- 1962 ®¤-hÝ-;ôP-qó-ZÛP-FÛºÛ-Ç~-TÛ-ÁÛP-®P-·ïÅ-qºÛ-Å-V¼-¾ÞP-FP(z®ôm-¼-) º²âGÅ-Cæm-{Å-mÅ-Å-V-hï-G¼-z®ôm-q-ÇeôP-yG-D-ÁÅ-¿eôGÅ-ÁÛ-fïzÅ-q-¼ïh. hïP-ÅP-Å-V-zÇSôGÅ-q-»Ûm-m-GP-ÅmÅ-¤ÛºÛ-¼ÞÅ-Oô¤-hôm-»ôP-GÛ-»ôh-TÛP-ºIâ¾-q-Å-V-hï-Mãh-mÅ-ºIô-Ç?zÅ-hzÞGÅ-¼ÛP-ºfïm-mÅ-¤Û-¤P-qô-¿eôGÅ-ÁÛ¼-fïzÅ-q¼-Bô-ÇoP{ïh-q-hPü. hï-GºÛ-h;º-ÇkÝG-¥ôP-¤Dm-GÅôm-qô¼-zÇkh-qÅ-Å-V-hqº-zóºÛ-zP-Åô¼-z¯ÛÅ-mÅ-¥-Pm-GÝÅ-zbàh-{ïh-<Û-»ôh. P-±ôºwm-qô-M¾-Çeôh-z®ôm-DP-mÅ-ºFÛh-»ôP-zºÛ-z®ôm-qÅ- 1967 ¾ô¼-ZÛP-FÛ-Ám-¾ôG-Dh-TßÅ-Gż-hÝ-º²âGÅ-Cæm-{Å-q-¼ïh. ¤Û-ÁÛVh-{ãP-mºP-Ç~-TÛ-¾ÞP-FP-hP-zÇkݼ-z-»Ûm-m-TßP-ZàP-®¤-¼ïh. z®ôm-DP-mP-¤Û-¾ô-zMh-<Û-z=ïÅ-dôGÅ-<Û-º±ô-z-¥PÅ-q-»Ûm-qÅ-h-mÛ-¾Å-¤Û-¼Þ-DG-mP-Iôh-DôG-MG-q-z¸ô-zºÛ-hÝÅ-ÅÞÇÀïzÅ-q-¼ïh-Ç[¤-mÅ-z¸Å-q-»Ûm. ¾Å-¤Û-¼Þ-DG-¾-¹-¼ï¼-¯¤-q-Iôh-DôG-MG-PïÅ-»ôh-qºÛ-fôG-¾Å-¤Û-Lm-IÅ-¼ï-¸ÞP-GÛÅ-fôzÇ?¾-¯¤-q-V-±P-z¸º-fÞz-<Û-¤ïh-qÅ-¯¤-q-M-¤-¿S-¾-M-ÇKô¼-TÛG-vh-mÅ-Zó-GÛ-»ôh. PÅ-¹-z-GTÛG-¾-¯¤-q-M-¤- 80 z¸ºfÞz-<Û-ºhÝG-qÅ-G¸ÞGÅ-qôºP-»G-qô-VGÅ-{ãPü. P-±ô¼-¾Å-;-{Å-qºÛ-JÀ-¹-¼ï¼-M-ÇKô¼- 23 »ôh. hï-hG-W-hPü. ¤¼. ±. hÝG-¾ôG f-¤G-zTÅ-Zô-hGôÅ-qÅ-¿kïP-®¤-·ÛG-»ôP-GÛ-ºhÝG ¾Å-¤Û-¼Þ-DG-mP-fôG-¤¼-¼Û-¾-ÁÛP-GTôh-q¼-¾ô-GTÛG-xÛm. »P-ÁÛP-}ÀâGÅ-q¼-zbP-{ãP-zÅ-GhÝP-¤-Ç~ô¤-qô-¤ô-\ºÛ-mP}ÀâGÅ-mÅ-¾ô-GZÛÅ-®¤-¾Å-;-hï-{Å. z®ôm-DP-xÛ-¼Þ-«åG-¤ºÛ-¿UGÅ-¼Û-zÇ?ô¼-ÅôP-z¼-P-¼Þ-DG-hP-qô¼-zbP-mÅ-«åG-¤-GTôh-q¼Mãm-¼ÛP-xÛm. hï-XïÅ-zhÝm-Tß-hôm-IPÅ-mP-Vß-ÁÝGÅ-¾-zdïm-mÅ-ÁÛP-ÅôG-GÁGÅ-MG-ż-l-qP-hzô¼-z¼-zbP-{ãP-zÅ-l-qPL¾-q¼-ºEï¼-mÅ-¾ô- 10 ÉÛ¾-qô-zÇkh-q-»Ûm. l-qP-¾-XÛh-±h-w¾-Vï¼-M-¤-ÇeôP-yG-GTÛG-¸Ûm-HÛ-»ôh-TÛP-¼ÛP-±h-¤Û-\¼- 4 ®¤-hP-. ¤fÞG-±h-¤Û-\¼-xïh-®¤-»ôh. l-qP-hï-¤Û-GZÛÅ-mÅ-zbïGÅ-mÅ-¤Û-GTÛG-GÛÅ-L¾-q¼-ºEï¼-hGôÅ-q-¼ïh. 1973 ¾ô¼-¾Å-¤Û-¼Þ-DG-¾-JÀ-VºÛ-¼Û¤-q-z¸ôÅ. P¾-¯ô¾-mÝÅ-ÁÝGÅ-Vï-ÁôÅ-¼ïh-TïÅ-P-¾-¹-¼ï¼-M-ÇKô¼- 45 hP-¤ºô-±ï3 wÛm- 6 ¼ïh. hïºÛ-GôP-hÝ-¹-¼ï¼-M-ÇKô¼- 23 ¾Å-¤ïh-q-¼ïh.

¼Û-¤Gô-¤fôm-qóºÛ-h¼-¿UôG-hï. .iô-¼ôGÅ-¤-¼ïh-IP-¼ôGÅ-¼ïh. .


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1997 ¹- 9 ±ïÅ- 27 HÛ-ZÛm-¤ô-hï- 1987 ¹-z- 9 ±ïÅ- 27 mÅ-zôh-<Û-M¾-Å-¿Ë-ż-M¾-GTïÅ-Åï¼-B-¤Û-¤P-mÅzôh-¼P-z®m-ºfz-¯ôh-<Û-·Û-zºÛ-Q¤-Çeôm-Fô¤-zÇ?ô¼-HÛ-¾ïºÞ-Gż-q-·ÛG-Gbôh-mÅ-¾ô-Pô-zTß-ºDô¼-HÛ-»ôh-qÅ-½ÀzÅ-Vïm-HÛ-¾ô-zTߺDô¼-zºÛ-im-GÅóºÛ-±ôGÅ-Vïm-hï-zôh-<Û-hGÝ-zTß-GÅÞ¤-¾Å-ºGݾ-±ôGÅ-qÅ-l-¼¤-Å-¾¼-±ôGÅ-Gbm-ºDï¾-mÅ-P-¼P-¾ºP-ºIômºzôh-{ãP-zÅ-w-»Þ¾-hP-EÛ¤-G·ÛÅ-D-|¾-mÅ-¤Û-»Þ¾-hÝ-»ôP-hGôÅ-{ãP-z-¤-¸h. ¾Å-ºGݾ-ºhÛ-»Û-mP-¼P-ZÛh-<ÛÅ-FG-h¤¼-fÛ¤»ôh-ÇezÅ-¾¤-fG-¼ÛP-z-hPü. Gm¤-IâºÛ-JÀ-V-ÅôGÅ-<Û-ºIô-ÅôP-¾-¤-º²ï¤Å-q¼-M-G¼-l-ż-»ôP-mÅ-±ôGÅ-zT¼-·ÝÅ. ¹-z- 9 qºÛ-±ïÅ- 27 ZÛm-¿Ë-M¾-¼Û¼-hGÝ-qºÛ-Zï¼-zhÝm-HÛ-hÝÅ-im-¤²h-ÇKô-ºhÝG-qÅ-¤²h-ÇKóºÛ-GÅô¾-W-z·ïÅ-º|Å-<Û-ºIô-ÅôP-P-¼P-mÅwÞ¾. ±ïÅ- 28 hP- 29 ZÛm-GZÛÅ-¼ÛP-z·ÝGÅ-ÇK¼-Ǩm-¯ÛÅ-DP-±ôGÅ-DP-hÝ-zôh-<Û-hGÝ-zTß-GÅÞ¤-¾Å-ºGݾ-±ôGÅ-qºÛ-±ôGÅVïm-hÝ-zT¼-mÅ-ºhÅ-qºÛ-Z¤Å-¥ôP-hP-. h-¿eºÛ-GmÅ-ÇePÅ. ¤-ºôPÅ-qºÛ-{ïh-xôGÅ-ÅôGÅ-D-DôG-qÅ-¤-GÅP-z¼-iP-qóºÛ-Ç[ÛPGb¤-fïPÅ-¤P-zÁh-q-¤-¸h. zôh-<Û-hGÝ-zTß-GÅÞ¤-¾Å-ºGݾ-±ôGÅ-q-ºhÛ-z·Ûm-¤ÛP-hôm-¤±ßPÅ-qºÛ-±ôGÅ-q-·ÛG-»ôP-Mã¼-ºzôhÇ?ݾ-·ÝÅ. ±ôGÅ-Vïm-¾-Gb¤-zXôh-ºFz-MãºÛ-IôÅ-zÇkݼ-{ãP-·ÛP-G¾-ÆÛh-Gb¤-zXôh-ºFz-fÞz-q-»Ûm-m-ºIô-Iôm-fôG-P-¼P-mÅGP-fÞz-¼ôGÅ-{ïh-MãºÛ-DÅ-¾ïm-<P-{Å-q-»Ûm. ±ôGÅ-Vïm-hÝ-hï-ÇS-z®ôm-DP-ÇS-xÛ-GZÛÅ-mP-BÛh-ÇkÝG-¤Z¤-¥ôP-GÛÅ-ºiÛÅ-zÁÛz-{Å-qºÛ-z®ôm-IôGÅ-Lm-G·ôm-GP-¤PhP-¤W¾-º²ô¤Å-{ãP-zÅ-vô-z-zdÅ. ¿e-z-¤fÞm-TÛP-BÛh-ÇkÝG-¤Z¤-¥ôP-{ïh-¥ôP-zºÛ-z®ôm-IôGÅ-n¤Å-hP-BÛh-Gb¤-ÇkÝG-Gb¤-HÛJÀïP-¤ô¾-TÛ-hG¼-{Å-mÅ-¤Û-±ï¼-xÛ¼-z¿eÅ-ÇÀôG-Ç?zÅ-¤Û-¾ÞÅ-hôm-¤ïh-xÛm-¤Û-ºhÝG-Ç[¤-mÅ-hôm-¿km-¤Û-±ï¼-hGº-z-¿ËG-q¼-ºwï¾-MãºhÝG ±ïÅ- 29 ZÛm-JÀô-zÞ¼-hÝ-±ôGÅ-Vïm-fôG-GÛ-±ôGÅ-zT¼-z-Vz-ÆÛh-z®ôm-q-n¤Å-ÅP-ZÛm-7GôP-Å-¤VôG-GÛ-¤W¾-D-»ôh-qºÛz;º-z¸P-wïzÅ-q-z·Ûm-xÛ-ZÛm-Vß-±ôh- 9 q-®¤-¾-wô-|P-hÝ-7GôP-Å-¤VôG-GÛ-Xïm-xG-hPü. ¤W¾-D-¼G-q-¤-¸h-Ç[ÛP-GÛ-zhÝh¯Û¼-zTPÅ-MãºÛ-¸z-Gž-}ÀPÅ-hô¼-z;º-ÇÀôz-z=Ûm-z°¾-ÅôPü. 1998 ¾óºÛ-hGÝ-qºÛ-Zï¼-zhÝm-HÛ-hÝÅ-im-¾-l-¼¤-Å-¾¼-zT¼-mÅ-z®ßm-hGôm-hGï-¿km-VôÅ-JÀÛP-hÝ-zÇkh. ÇS-hGôP-hPz¼-GÅïP-GÛ-hÝÅ-±ôh-»ôh-±h-¾-z®ôm-IôGÅ-PG-hzP-ÇeôzÅ-Vïm-HÛÅ-P¾-z¼-¤-º²ï¤Å-q¼-l-ÇeïP-zôh-EÛ¤-mÅ-»ôP-Çeï-P-¼P-GÛ-¤Û±ïºÛ-¾ô-MãÅ-ºhÛ-O-º²Ûm-ºDô¼-fG-¾-O-ºWâG-{Å. ¾ô-¤P-ÅôP-zºÛ-<G-<ôG-¤Û-±ïºÛ-mP-GÛ-{-z-DG-im-GÅô-hGôÅ-ÇezÅ-zXïh-Ph@Ým-qôÅ-ºEï¼-mÅ-h;º-DG-Vïm-qô-{ãP-»P-PP-¼ÛP-z¸ôh-zÆm-HÛÅ-TÛ-IôÅ-¤ôÅ-Iô¾-fôG-mÅ-im-q-GÅô-fzÅ-<Û-{-fzÅ-uh-mÅ-iGP-MÅ-hPü. D-GP-Gž-·ÛG-Gž-zÁh-{Å-»ôh-DÞ¾-¾GÅ. hÝÅ-±ôh-ÇSôm-mÅ-z¸ôÅ-»ôh-q-¿e¼-l-Å-mÅ-xÛ¼-ºDô¼-HÛÅ-zhÝm-yG-GTÛG-<P-¤-ºGô¼-z¼- 1998 ¹- 10 qºÛ-mP-ºWm-¤m-hÝ-±ôGÅ-qºÛ-zôh-hôm-±ôGÅ-ºhݼ-zBôh. ±ôGÅ-ºhÝ-hï¼-Ç?ݺÛ-GTßP-qô-¤Pº-¼ÛÅ-¼Ûm-qô-Vï-<P-wïzÅ-mÅ-¼Ûm-qô-VïÅh{Ûm-Ç?h-fôG-mÅ-GÅÞP-zÁh-GmP-ÅôP-. P-¼P-Ç?h-»ÛG-¤-ÁïÅ-qºÛ-PG-¿?ÝGÅ-q-·ÛG-»Ûm-ÇezÅ-±ôGÅ-Vïm-¾-PÅ-zÁh-qºÛ-Ç?h-Vn¤Å-¿Ëô-|G-mÅ-»Ûm-qºÛ-±ï-hzP-mô¼-zÞ-¾GÅ-mÅ-ºWm-¤m-Ç?h-hÝ-zNå¼-ÅôP-. P-ºWôm-iGÅ-q-hPü. Lôh-iGÅ-mÅ-±ôGÅ-ºhÝDG-¾-ºIô-Mã-hPüÇ?h-V-Áôh-Mã-{ãP-z-¼ïh-m¤-»P-zŤ-HÛ-¤ïh-TÛP-hï-mÛ-&M¾-z-»Ûh-z·Ûm-mô¼-zÞºÛ-fÞGÅ-Xï-z;º-iÛm-¾-zdïm-mÅ{ãP-z-¼ïh-zŤ-HÛ-»ôh.


1998 ¾óºÛ-GÅÞ¤-zTߺÛ-hÝÅ-im-ZÛm-¤ô-mÅ-zôh-<Û-G·ôm-mÝ-¿Ëm-±ôGÅ-<ÛÅ-Gó-OÛG-ºôG-zôh-¤Û-iâG-GÛÅ-¿kÛ-¾Û¼-zôh-<Û-zhïmhôm-Vïh-¤-ÁÛ-z¼-¸Å-zTh-Pô-Lô¾-{ïh-<Û-»ôh-qºÛ-GmÅ-±ß¾-Gô-fôÅ-{ãP-zÅ-¼P-ZÛh-<P-Åï¤Å-ÁÝGÅ-¿ËG-q¼-ºwï¾-TÛP-¹-z-z·ÛqºÛ-±ïÅ- 12 ZÛm-¿kÛ-¾Û-¼P-G·ÝP-Ç?Ý-±z-hôm-GTôh-¾-·¾-q¼-wÞ¾-mÅ-zôh-¤Û-Å-»-iâG-GÛ-zhïm-hôm-Vïh-Ç[ÛP-ÇeôzÅ-Vïm-qôÅ-¤-ÁÛ-z¼¸Å-zTh-Pô-Lô¾-GmP-z-hï¼-P-¼Ð-OïP-zÇem-q-±ï-¼ÛP-mÅ-zÇSGÅ-zXôh-Mz-Bô¼-hP-fÞGÅ-Xï-Vï-·Ý-Mã-¤-¸h. Åï¤Å-qºÛ-¤±ôm-{ïh-hݤÛ-¼ï¼-¤W¾-h¼-Í-Áï-¼ï-hP-ÈÛm-ÇKô¼-VÛG-ÇeôP-»ôh-qÅ-hôm-GTôh-mÅ-ºzÞ¾-¼ôGÅ. ¤W¾-h¼-hP-hPÞ¾-zz-hï-hôm-GTôh-hÝ-zbP»ôP-GÛ-»Ûm-·ïÅ-·ÝÅ-q-¤-¸h-±ïÅ- 13 ZÛm-ºWÛ-mÛ-¿~ºÛ-¤Z¤-º|ï¾-M¾-±ôGÅ-ÇKô-ºI¤-hÝ-xÛm-mÅ-±ôGÅ-z·Ûm-ºIô-z-¤ÛºÛ-fôz-fP±ôGÅ-Vïm-¤hÝm-zôh-¤Û-iâG-GÛ-zhïm-hôm-¾-Mz-Bô¼-Vïh-¸Å-zTh-Pô-Lô¾-zhÝm-yG-GTÛG-{Å. P-hP-¤Z¤-hÝ-zÅôh-m¤Å-Oô¾h;¼-¾GÅ-hPü. ¼ï-GôP-Å-DÞ¾-mÅ-¤Û-GZÛÅ. Èô¼-JËm-mÅ-Ç?Ý-·zÅ-±-q-ÅPÅ-MÅ-¾GÅ. hGï-zÁïÅ-PG-hzP-M-¤±ô-zTÅ-P-±ó¤Û-iâG-»ôh. M-G¼-hݺP-¸Å-zTh-Pô-Lô¾-MG-GÛ-»ôh-qÅ-P-±ôÅ-<P-GhÝP-Åï¤Å-¤Z¤-zBïh-»ôh-¸ï¼-z-hï-D-zÁh-Vß-»Û-¿~ä-z. ¾G-¾ïm-GÅï¼-HÛ-fÛGÅ-q¼-¤-ÅôP-z¼-hôm-hPôÅ-<Û-fôG-mÅ-Mz-Bô¼-¤±ôm-q¼-{Å-»ôh. 1998 ¾óºÛ-mP-uÛ-mô¼-&GôP-Å-&BzÅ-¤Gôm-Vïm-qô-¤VôG-zôh-<Û-zhïm-hôm-Vïh-ºW¼-¤m-hÝ-7·zÅ-Åô¼-ºDôh-Mã¼-fÞGÅGbm-ºDï¾-ÁÛP-hô¾-M¾-zÇeïm-GÅô¾-{ïh-¤Dm->Àh-¤ïh-GP-®¤-·ÛG-GÛÅ-&GôP-Å-¤VôG-GÛ-Ç?Ý-xÙ¼-zhô-zºÛ-{-Pm-z¯ô¤-HÛ-»ôh-q-GôfôÅ-{ãP-zÅ-ÅÞh-ÅÛºÛ-zôh-¼ÛGÅ-zÞh-¤ïh-±ôGÅ-qÅ-zôh-¤Û-GP-¤P-ºW¼-¤m-¾-&GôP-Å-¤VôG-wïzÅ-zÅÞ-hP-Ç?Ý-xÙ-ÆâP-Bôz-Vïh-zBôhMãºÛ-ºzôh-Ç?ݾ-GmP-z-z·Ûm-P-¼P-hÐP-}ÀPÅ-ÅÞ-ºIô-Mã-Ǩôh-¤ïh-fôG-z¸º-¹-mh-¤m¼-HÛÅ-¾Å-;¼-ºIô-¤-fÞz-q¼-mP-hÝ-zÇkh-»ôh<P-&GôP-Å-¤VôG-GÛ-Ç?Ý-xÙ¼-fÞG-qºÛ-¾Å-hôm-ºhÛ-¾-ÁÛ-m-¼ô-Gô-Vôh-q-{ïhhGôÅ-¼ïh-TïÅ-mh-GTôP-GÛ-z¸º-¹ºP-ºW¼-¤m-¾-ºFÛh. Åßh-ÅÛ-mÅ-zôh-¼ÛGÅ-zM-¤-¸Ûm-®¤-ºhÝG-TÛP-ºIâ¾-Bï¾-Ç~-ÅÛ-·ÛG-JÀÅ-mÅ-ºW¼-¤m-¾-fôm. &GôP-Å-¤VôG-ºW¼-¤m-¾-VÛzÅ-zNå¼-GmP-Ç?zÅ-¾ÞÅ-¾-IÔ-VÅ-Hôm-qºÛ-¤Gô-Åï-wô-¤ô-¿S-zTß-P-IPÅ-ÁÛG-hP-. {ïh-Gbï¤ÛG-Áï¾-mG-qô-Vïm-qó-·ÛG-zMz-qºÛ-zôh-qºÛ-IÔ-q-ºz¼-DôG-ÁÛG-zTÅ-mÅ-¾G-bà-Pô-Lô¾-HÛ-»ô-VÅ-TÛ-¼ÛGÅ-ºEï¼-mÅ-&GôP-ŤVôG-GÛ-wïzÅ-GhôP-hÝ-±ß¼-»ôP-Ç?zÅ-P-±ô-ÅÞh-ÅÛ-mÅ-»ôP-zºÛ-zôh-¼ÛGÅ-n¤Å-mÅ-Dô-±óºÛ-¤hÝm-mÅ-ºyïh-z;G-GÛÅ-&GôP-Å-¤VôGwïzÅ-zÅÞ-·ÝÅ-q¼-Dô-q-±ô-Mz-bà-=ôP-Pï¼-¾PÅ-Çkôh-Mã-¾Å-{-fzÅ-GP-»P-{ãP-¤-ÅôPü. G¾-ÆÛh-Dô-±ôÅ-bØ-¾ºÛ-}À-¤-»Å-{Å. ¤Å{Å-TïÅ-¤hÝm-hÝ-º±P-»ôP-m-»ôP-¼Û¤-z·Ûm-PÅ-IÛ-zMz-mÅ-GÅôh-Mã¼-Åï¤Å-fG-zTh-±¼. ÅÞh-ÅÛ-»ôP-Ç?zÅ-zôh-<Û-VôÅ-ÆÛh-GZÛÅ-<Û-hzÞ-FÛh. GÅôm-ºhÛ-GP-Bôz-qºÛ-hqôm-qó. ÁÛ-xÛ-¤-ºiïm-qºÛ-}À-¤. &M¾-z-»Ûhz·Ûm-mô¼-zÞºÛ-Ç?Ý-xÙ¼-fÞG-®¤-{ïh-¤Dm-·ÛG-GÅôm-ºWÛG-dïm-D¤Å-ÅÞ-z·G-ÅôP-¸ï¼-m-Dô-¼Ð-OïP-zÇem-q-ÁÛ-¾ï-¼ïh-zŤ-mÅ-IÛ-·ÛG¼Þ¤-hÝ-zTßG-mÅ-ºEï¼-»ôh. hï-ZÛm-z¸º-¹Å- Ç?Ý-¤Eïm-Eôh-IÛ-zMz-mÅ-GP-{ãP-¤P-{ãP-¤-{ïh-¼ôGÅ. ¤ÛºÛ-h<Û¾-¾-f¾-±ßz-¤MG-TïÅ-¤fï-zôP-;ï¼-mÅ-·Ý-z-ºfïm-HÛ-ºhÝG Eôh-D-±ß¤Å. PÅ-zŤ-}Àô-GbôP-ÁïÅ-<Û-¼ïh-TïÅ-zÁh-q-»Ûm. z¸º-¹-hP-yâ-GݼP-¤Gô-fôm-»ôh-qÅ-Åï¤Å-VGÅ-¾ÞÅ-VGÅ-GP-»P-¤ïh. zÇem-hI-D-ÁÅ-ÁÛG-Å-¾-zlzÅ-mÅ-FÛ¤Å-¤Þm-hÝ-ºIô-hGôÅ-hP-. ÆôG-Áô¼-hGôÅ-<P-TÛ-Bôm-zŤ-mÅ-DôP-FôÅ-¤ï-¿Uï-ºz¼-ÅôPü. hôm-GTôh-xG-¼ôGÅ-PG-VôÅ-¾GÅ-mÅ-zÇem-q-¼P-ÁÝGÅ-Vïm-qô-»ôh-ÇezÅ-Dô-±ô-¤hÝm-hÝ-Áô¼-¤-zTßG-q¼-z;G-fÞz-q{ïh-Í×-TïÅ-fïPÅ-D-ÁÅ-ÇÀïzÅ-{ãPü. ÇezÅ-¾ïGÅ-mÅ-Dô-q-±ô-¤hÝm-hÝ-»ôP-¤-wôh-q¼-TÛ-{ïh-|¾-mÅ-Mz-bà-ºhôm-q-ºi-·ÛG-Bô¼mÅ-¾PÅ-zÇkh-ÅôPü. Dô-±ô-±ß¼-¤hÝm-¾-¤-»ôP-zÅ-PºÛ-IÛ-FG-¾-zOï-¤-hGôÅ-®¤-{ãP-z-¼ïh. &GôP-Å-¤VôG-GÛ-¤²h-ºV¼-G·m-·ÛG-mÛ-hï-GºÛ-¤fó-¼Û¤-ÇÀôz-IÔ-·ÛG-bà-VÛzÅ-zNå¼-GmP-Mã-»Ûm-qÅ-zÇem-hI-hï-n¤Å|ï¾-º±ßz-º±ßz-<ÛÅ-xÛm-ÅôP-zÅ-P-±ôÅ-&GôP-Å-¤VôG-VÛzÅ-zNå¼-Iâz-q-hP-¾¤-ÅïP-¤fó-¼Û¤-ÇÀôz-IÔºÛ-ÇKô-ºI¤-hÝ-xÛm. DôP-±ô-


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Á¼-lô-Xï-Ghm. Á¼-lô-Xï-Ghm-HÛ-{P-xôGÅ-m. .GmÅ-qÞ¼-M¾-zôh-TïïÅ-{-z-»ôh. ¼Û-¤fô-qô-Gm¤-HÛ-;-z-»ôh. .¤±ô-ÇSôm-qô-G»Þ-»Û-iÛ-Vz-»ôh. .GPÅh;¼-qô-Áï¾-HÛ-¤Vôh-dïm-»ôh. .ÇtP-Åï¼-qô-GÅï¼-HÛ-¿Ëàm-qô-»ôh. .iÛ-·Û¤-qô-Ǩm-HÛ-GhÝG-ÇtôÅ-»ôh. .h{¼-z=-G»Þ-»Û-¤ï-bôG-»ôh. .fPVïm-qô-GÅï¼-HÛ-¤\¾-¾. .¤-¤Dº-ºIô-ºzÞ¤-HÛ-hô-¼Ð-»ôh. .mô¼-¼Ûm-Vïm-Ço-¿SÅ-±ô¤-zÞ-z;ôh. .hÝÅ-Gbm-hÝ-;Ým-z¸P-VôÅ-vÛm-ºFÛGÅ. ¼Û-qj¨-ºhz-¿km-h{ÛzÅ-¾ïGÅ-q. .hÝÅ-hGÝm-GÅÞ¤-h;¼-qô-Áï¾-HÛ-¤hôG .hÝÅ-hrÛh-GÅÞ¤-F-zô-G¸Û-»Û-¤hôG .hÝÅ-h{¼-GÅÞ¤ÇSôm-qô-G»Þ-»Û-¤hôG .hÝÅ-Çeôm-GÅÞ¤-Åï¼-qô-GÅï¼-HÛ-¤hôG .¤hôG-wÞm-ÅÞ¤-±ôGÅ-qºÛ-¼Û-zó-mÛ. .dGÅ-Eh-hÝ-ºwGÅ-qºÛ-¤±m-¤-»ôh. .z¿eÅ-¤fôP-z-hôm-hP-¿km-q¼-»ôh. .Vß-»m-¾G-zMh-¿km-Vß-¤ÛG-zzÅ. ÅÞÅ-zbàPÅ-<P-Pm-ÅôP-GmÅ-¾Å-Iô¾. mGÅ-z=-ÁÛÅ»¾-ºhz-MÅ-q¼-»ôh. {-hÝ-¤Å-JÀâ-h{PÅ-OôG-q¼-»ôh. .Å-qj¨-ºhz-MÅ-»Þ¾-HÛ-hzÞÅ. .Gm¤-ºDô¼-¾ó-¯ÛzÅ-zMh-wßzÅ-qºÛºôG .xôGÅ-z=-ÁÛÅ-dGÅ-zMh-zMm-qºÛ-Å. ..¤Û-Eïh-<Û-zÇem-q-hï-m-Çtï¾. .»Ûh-zG-wïzÅ-º|ï¾-±h-hôm-hP-¿km. .GmÅ-ºhÛ-¼ÞhÝÅ-GÅÞ¤-M¾-zºÛ-·ÛPü. .·ÛP-ºhÛ-¼Þ-º²ô¤Å-qºÛ-dïm-º|ï¾-z¸Pü.

z;º-zbGÅ-vôÅ-|¾. z;º-zbGÅ-vôÅ-hP-|¾-z-hPü. .¿Ëàm-ºIâz-ºGG-¤ïh-ÇoP-z-ºV¼. .¤Z¤-¤ïh-¼ô¾-qºÛ-|ô-zlÝPÅ-qÅ. .VôÅ-Ç?Ý-|ô-»Û-¼ô¾-G¼Á¼. dG-º²Ûm-Tm-HÛ-Å-G·Û-¾. .¤Û-dG-hÝÅ-z·Û-ÇKô¤-qºÛ-|ô. .fzÅ-ÁïÅ-GZÛÅ-<ÛÅ-zlÝPÅ-{Å-qÅ. .ºhÛï-m-ºyh-qºÛ-uôh-q¼-uôh. .Mã-º|Å-¤Û-zÇÀâ-±ß¾-GÅÞPÅ-qÅ. .ºDô¼-zºÛ-xôGÅ-¾-Mz-xôGÅ-bï. ..PïÅ-º{ãP-zdm-qôÅ-|ô-zlÝPÅ-qÅ. .Gbm-HÛ-ºhÝm-¤-PïÅq¼-zOæzÅ. .ºIô-;Ým-w-¤¼-ÁïÅ-q-»ÛÅ. .{¤Å-hP-Ç[ÛP-XïºÛ-|ô-zlÝPÅ-qÅ. .¼Û-zô-Iâ-º²Ûm-·ÛP-D¤Å-m. .¾ôPÅ-Ç?Ý-fÞGÅ-Xï-Vïm-qó»Û. ÇKô¤-qºÛ-VôÅ-|ô-ºFz-¾-zHÛh. .¤fº-hzÞÅ-¤ïh-qºÛ-|ô-GTÛG-ºFz. .¼P-ÇoP-hG-qºÛ-·ÛP-D¤Å-m. .º|ô¤-Çeôm-M¾-zºÛ-º{ãPGmÅ-»Ûm. .M¾-ÆÅ-uôh-qºÛ-|ô-¾-zHÛh. .xÛ-hÝÅ-hÝÅ-z·Û-|ô-·ÛG-ºFz. .xôGÅ-zTß-Ez-zhG-¤Dº-h{ÛPÅ-ÅÞ. .Gbô¼-±ôGÅ-¤¾ÞÅ-|ô-¾-zHÛh. .¼ÛG-qºÛ-d-|ô-ºhÛ-zlÝPÅ-qÅ. .hzP-Vïm-hGº-zºÛ-h<Û¾-ºDô¼-mÅ. .»ï-ÁïÅ-¿S-»Û-|ô-zlÝPÅ-qÅ. .Zôm-¤ôPÅ-ÇkÝGzÇS¾-h¤G-±ôGÅ-n¤Å. .¼P-¼ÛGzlÝPÅ. .dïm-º{ãP-ºGG-¤ïh-lô-XïºÛ-|ô. .GmÅ-ºhÛ¼-»P-»P-zlÝPÅ-q-»ÛÅ. .JÀô-zÞ¼-¾Å-PmAïm-Pm-GÅÞ¤. .VôÅ-ZÛh-Vïm-qóºÛ->ÀôP-hÝ-zÇom. .¼ô¾-qºÛ-d-|ó-VÛ¤-Åï-VÛ¤. .ºWÛGÅ-qºÛ-¼ô¾-fzÅ-¾ÛP-Åï-¾ÛP. Ç[m-qºÛ-JÀâ-h{PÅ-Bå¼Þ-¼Þ. .D¤Å-GÅÞ¤-¸Û¾-Gmôm-|ô-GTÛG-ºFz.

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M¾-¤VôG-¤Û-»Û-ZÛ-¤. ÇSôm-M¾-¤VôG-¤Û-»Û-ZÛ-¤-mÅ. .ÇeôzÅ-μâ-ºFâ¾-qj¨-·ïÅ-{-z. .hÝÅ-mG-xôGÅ-M¾-¼ÛGÅ-¤-¾ÞÅ-q¼. .}Àô-ºImmÅ-{ãPü. ÇeïP-¿Ë-»Û¾ÞP-zÇem-Åï¼-qô-Èô¼. .hÝÅ-Èô¼-zM-ºhݾ-zºÛ-fzÅ-ÁÛG-{ãPü. .¤-¤Dº-ºIô-¤G¼-z¸º-VôÅ-Oô¾-¤. .hqº-hI-¿ËºÛ-zÞ¼-μôP-¾Þž-zTPÅ. .¾G-¤hº-h¼-Ço-ï ¿k-º²Ûm-q-»ÛÅ. .±ï-zÅôh-m¤Å-hzP-fP-º{ô¼-q-ÅôGÅ. .hqº-ºhôh-hGÝ-¤-¾ÞÅ-¿Ëmà -ºIâz-qÅ. .GmźhÛ-¼Þ-G»P-ºGÝGÅ-dïm-º|ï¾-z¸Pü.

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»P-hHïÅ-qºÛ-¤Vôh-vÛm-ºzÞ¾-¾ô. .hïP-hï¼-z=-ÁÛÅ-{Ûm-G»P-VGÅ-qºÛ. .Pô-¤±¼-hG-qºÛ-·ÛP-¤VôG-¼Ð-OïPü. .ºhÛ¼-±ôGÅ-hqºzô-¤Dº-ºIô-n¤Å-<Û. .hGº-Çeôm-lô-Xï-|ô-G¼-zlÝPÅ-Åô. .»Þ¾-ºhÛ¼-¿Ë->Àâ-G·Û-zhG-n¤Å-<Û. .hGº-BÛh-|ô-G¼-JÀâ-h{PÅ-zOGÅÅô. .hÝÅ-ºhÛ¼-Ç?¾-q-z¸P-qô-Á¼-mÅ. .zhï-BÛh-»¼-¹ºÛ-hq¾-¾-ºIm-º±¾. .Çkôm-±ï-º²¤-JÀÛP-mô¼-zÞ-hI-ºhݾ. .¤-¼ÞP-zhÝhz·Û-V¤-¾-wz-ÅôPü. .iïGÅ-¿km-Bï-LÝ-hzP-hÝ-ºhÝÅ-qÅ. .hI-¿Ë-hHïÅ-qºÛ-¿Ë-M¾-hP-qô-. .;ÛÙ-;ÛÙ-ÅÐô-ÅÐô-¿Ë-GÅô¾-¾ô-. h-¿e-¿Ë-ÆÅ-væ¾qºÛ-M¾-qôÅ. ¤Û-ºhôh-hI-zô-V¤-¾-wz-ÅôPü. VôÅ-ÆÛh-hzÞ-ºwPÅhGÝP-¾Å-¤fô-z. hI-¿Ë-hHïÅ-qºÛ-¿Ë-M¾-GZÛÅ-q. .;ÛÙ-;ÛÙ-ÅÐô-ÅÐô-¿ËGÅô¾-¾ô-. .¤-ºôPÅ-¼ÛGÅ-¿km-iG-qô-ºDô¼-¾ô. .¤Þ-ÇeïGÅ-zhÝh-±ôGÅ-V¤-¾-wz-ÅôP. .zhï-BÛh-μôGÅ-¿km-HÛ-Ç?¾-q-Á¼-±ï. .hI¿Ë-hHïÅ-qºÛ-¿Ë-M¾-GÅÞ¤-q.

¤Û-Vïm-ÅïP-Vïm. ¤Û-Vïm-ÅïP-Vïm-¿Ë-»Û-mô¼-zÞ. .hI-¿Ë-¶ï¼-¤ºÛ-hqÞP-hP-zTÅ-bï. .hqº-vô-¸Û¤-¸Û¤-fïzÅ-Åï-{ôm-mÅ. .G»Å-IÅ-¿Ë-»Û-|ô-¾-wïzÅÁôG wô-Mãh-hqº-zôºÛÅïP-Vïm-wôz-ÁôG .zÞ-»ÛÅw-hï-zXïh-q-¤Û-ÆÛh. .¤-zXïh-»ôh-m-h-¿e-wïzÅ-ÁôG .@P-qºÛ-|ô-hP-¾G-qºÛ-G¼ÇezÅ. PG-GÛ-GhÝP-h{PÅ-¿ËP-¿ËP-OôGÅ-ÅôP. .¤Eïm-qºÛ-ZÛ-¤-ÆÛh-qºÛ-¿Ë-ÆÅ. .¯ÛÅ-qºÛ-¹-z-zM-q-¤Û-zXïh. .{Ûm-½ÀzÅ-JÀôG¿e¼-¥ã¼-zºÛ-ÅïP-Vïm. .Ç?Ý-Bïhôm-Iâz-¶ï¼-¤-h;¼-qô. .º²â¤-qºÛ-·Å-¼Å-Çeôm-¾-{ôm-ÁôG .Ç[m-qºÛ-GÅÞP-h{PÅ-zOôG-¾-{ôm-ÁôG .{Ûm-½ÀzÅ-¤fº-hG-Çeôm-¾-{ôm-ÁôG .¤-G»ï¾-fÞGÅ-<Û-hGôPÅ-ÁÛG-mô¼-zÞ. .w-»ÛÅ-zÞ-hï-zXïh-q-¤Û-ÆÛh. .¤-zXïh-»ôh-m-h-¿e-wïzÅÁôG .wïzÅ-mÅ-z=-ÁÛÅ-{Ûm-½ÀzÅ-¤²ôh-TÛG. (VôÅ-|ô-º¤-JÀPÛ -|ô-ºhÛ-¾ô-MãÅ-zhG-qôÅ-¼Ð-OïP-Ç?-Ý yïP-¿S-qÅ-¤²h-q-¼ïh-GÅÞPÅ-q-z·Ûm-ºhÛ¼-z;ôh-»ôh. ¼Ð-OïP-Ç?-Ý yïP-¿S-qºÛ-GôP-mÅ-JÀPÛ -|ô-ºhÛ-»ôhqºÛ-Áôh-Æô¾-·ÛG-<P-ºhÝG-qÅ-GP-»Ûm-zdG-q¼-·Ý. PG-mÅ-zXôh-q-D-Ç?h-»Ûm-qÅ-»ÛG-fôG-¾-ºzïzÅ-Ç?zÅ-±ÛG-¤-zhï-z-GôP-ºôG-¾-¿eÅô -mÅ-±ÛGzOÛG-»ôh<P-¯-z-mÅ-±ÛG-zOÛG-¤-fÞz-q-DG-GTÛG-ÇePô -q¼-z·G-»ôh. ¯ô¤-OÛG-qÅ.)

¼Ð-OïP-zÇem-q-±ï-¼ÛP-¾GÅ-mÛ-uÛ-¾ô- 1936 ¾ô¼-{P-¼Ð-OïP-hÝ-BïÅ. h-¿e-ÅÞh-ÅÛ¼-z·ÝGÅ-<Û-»ôh. ¼P-¾ô-hGÝ-mÅ-¼Ð-OïP-}À-|P-GÛ|ô-q-{Å-q-hPü. ¼P-¾ô-zTß-GÅÞ¤-¾-ÇÀïzÅ-Ç?zÅ-zÞ-¤ô-GÅÞ¤-HÛ-¤G-q-{Å-ÁÛP-xÛ-¾ô-¼Ð-OïP-GÛ-hÝÅ-¸ÛP-mP-¤ï-¤hº-ºEï¼-mÅ-G·ÝPh¤G-¾-D-Gbh-zTG-¥ôP-»ôh. 1959 ¾ô¼-zÇem-ÆâP-hÐP-}ÀPÅ-h¤G-¾-zBôh-mÅ-¿Ëô-D-hP-. º|Û-GÝP-ÅÛ-¼Û-¼ôP-. {P-¬Û-bÛ-DÅôGÅ-{P-Mãh-hÝ-M-h¤G-hP-h¤G-ºfz-¾m-¤P-{Å. 1960 ¾ô¼-h¤G-Å-mÅ-ºWâ-z¸ÞP-GÛÅ-¤Û-¾ô- 22 M-¤ÛºÛ-hô-h¤-ºôG-GmÅ. 1987 hGÝ-qºÛ-Zï¼-zhÝm-mÅ-·Û-Lô¾-Fô¤-Ç?ô¼-DG-mP-º²â¾-·ÝGÅ-{Å-q¼-¤ï-©Å-<ÛÅ-¤hï¾-¼ô-h-¿eºP-G¸ÞGÅ-qô¼-»ôh-TÛP-ÇÀ¼»P-z®ôm-¼Ð-GZÛÅ-q-ºIÛ¤Å-mÅ- 1990 ¾ô¼-ÅÞh-ÅÛ¼-z®m-{ô¾-hÝ-º{ô¼. ºWÛ-mÛ-¶¼-¸Å-zTh-Pô-Lô¾-hP-. ·Û-zºÛ-Gô¤-ºIôh.


Á¼-mÝz-M¾-Dz-DG-mP-zôh-hôm-±ôGÅ-ºhÝ-ÅôGÅ-¾-zBôh-mÅ-¤Û-±ï-zôh-<Û-zÇem-ÆÛh-zhï-fzÅ-¾-ºzh-z·Ûm-»ôh.

¯ô¤-OÛG-q-ÇKô-qï-PG-hzP-ÇeôzÅ-Vïm-mÛ-{P-º|ôG-Íô-bôG-ÇKô-qïºÛ-¼ÞÅ-ÅÞ- 1967 ¾ô¼-º|Û-GÝP->ÀâP-Áôh-¼ôP-hÝ-BïÅ. IôP-GÅïz-ÇÀôz-VßP¤f¼-xÛm-HÛÅ-º|Å-ÇtäPÅ-hGôm-q¼-mP-VôÅ-ÇÀôz-GZï¼-{Å-ÁÛP- 1988 ¾ô¼-z®m-Lô¾-M¾-Bôz-<Û-¾Å-ºGݾ-mP-z®ôm-ºWâG-hPhï-XïÅ-hGôm-q-mÅ-xÛ¼-ºzÞh-{Å. 1990 ¾ô¼-z®m-{ô¾-hÝ-º{ô¼-mÅ-¼ÛGÅ-¾¤-ÇÀôz-GZï¼-DP-hÝ-f-Ç[h-¼ÛG-GmÅ-ÇÀôz-¢ôP-GÛÅ-¾ôÁÅ-hGï-Lm-HÛ-¾Å-ºDÞ¼-}ÀPÅ-. zôh-<Û-hGÝ-zTß-GÅÞ¤-¾Å-ºGݾ-±ôGÅ-qºÛ-iâP-Vï-hP-. zôh-<Û-wô-Z-hÝÅ-hïz-<Û-¯ô¤-OÛG-q-»Ûm-q¤-¸h. ·ô¼-hÝ-z®m-ºôG-GÛ-zôh-GmÅ-·Ûz-ºWâG-{ïh-¤ÞÅ-»Ûm.

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