NEXT - Blueprint Anchorage 2050 - Research Document

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Blueprint Anchorage 2050 Cultivating Social Capital Mandated Biofuels SEP | 2021

Graphene Breakthrough

Spring 2019

Aee Programme

FEB | 2028

CCS Deployment OCT | 2028

Algaculture Investments JAN | 2031

Solar Expansion MAR | 2034

Population Boom NOV | 2039

ANCHORAGE 2050 Tiago Da Costa Vasconcelos 170120


PRO G R A M M E

TI AG O DA COSTA VASCO N CELOS 5th Year Thesis Student 170120 Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts School of Architecture, IBT Tutor | David A. Garcia

Spring 2019

Architecture and Extreme Environments

PRO GRA


PRO G R A M M E

TI AG O DA COSTA VASCO N CELOS 5th Year Thesis Student 170120 Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts School of Architecture, IBT Tutor | David A. Garcia

Spring 2019

Architecture and Extreme Environments

PRO GRA


PR E FAC

ACA D EM I C FR A M EWO RK

Architecture and Extreme Environments

PREFACE

To explore the intersections between architecture & environment students design and travel with an architectural device in order to investigate the potential of a certain scientific field and to respond to present and future global challenges. In close collaboration with local communities, scientists, experts and professionals, this master program engages with the possibilities architecture has to offer when imbued with acquired knowledge from local investigations and on-site experience.

Too often is culture and the environment disregarded for the advancement technology in architecture. AS STUDENTS OF ARCHITECTURE AND EXTREME ENVIRONMENT CONSIDERATION IS PUT INTO INVESTIGATING THE DESIGN POTENTIALS TECHNOLOGY HAS TO OFFER, NOT ONLY IN TERMS OF ABSOLUTE PERFORMANCE, BUT ALSO AS A PROCESS WITH AESTHETIC AND CULTURALLY CONSCIOUS CONSIDERATIONS.

By focusing of the acquirement of sitespecific knowledge and local design traditions, architecture can be sustainable, and offer less resistance to its environment, allowing for a smoother integration. With the help of science and technology, a larger vocabulary of approaches and solutions can then be applied to building design and construction.

Preface

T

his architectural programme is situated within the master of architecture and extreme environments unit. The masters research unit aims to respond to local challenges and issues in remote locations around the globe. Through a site-specific approach, it favours research on the place, and scientific testing of local phenomena to inform architectural design. This is achieved by direct on-site involvement in the form of active expeditions.


PR E FAC

ACA D EM I C FR A M EWO RK

Architecture and Extreme Environments

PREFACE

To explore the intersections between architecture & environment students design and travel with an architectural device in order to investigate the potential of a certain scientific field and to respond to present and future global challenges. In close collaboration with local communities, scientists, experts and professionals, this master program engages with the possibilities architecture has to offer when imbued with acquired knowledge from local investigations and on-site experience.

Too often is culture and the environment disregarded for the advancement technology in architecture. AS STUDENTS OF ARCHITECTURE AND EXTREME ENVIRONMENT CONSIDERATION IS PUT INTO INVESTIGATING THE DESIGN POTENTIALS TECHNOLOGY HAS TO OFFER, NOT ONLY IN TERMS OF ABSOLUTE PERFORMANCE, BUT ALSO AS A PROCESS WITH AESTHETIC AND CULTURALLY CONSCIOUS CONSIDERATIONS.

By focusing of the acquirement of sitespecific knowledge and local design traditions, architecture can be sustainable, and offer less resistance to its environment, allowing for a smoother integration. With the help of science and technology, a larger vocabulary of approaches and solutions can then be applied to building design and construction.

Preface

T

his architectural programme is situated within the master of architecture and extreme environments unit. The masters research unit aims to respond to local challenges and issues in remote locations around the globe. Through a site-specific approach, it favours research on the place, and scientific testing of local phenomena to inform architectural design. This is achieved by direct on-site involvement in the form of active expeditions.


TH ESIS I NTRO D U C TI O N

Blueprint Anchorage 2050 | Cultivating Social Capital

PRO G R A M M E I NTRO D U C TI O N Food Museum and Cultivation Facility

Preface

B

lueprint Anchorage 2050: Cultivating Social Capital is an architectural critique cautioning exploitative capitalism and climate change opportunism – set in a speculative Anchorage, Alaska. The project explores actions and counteractions; spatial, social and economic, which arise through corporate greed, digital consumerism and necessity. Prevalent throughout the city and state, this projected tension remains congruent with American history and its Alaskan past; tribal, inordinant, hubristic. Informed by Royal Dutch Shell’s Energy Scenarios to 2050, and inspired by McKenzie Funk’s novel, Windfall: The Booming Business of Global Warming as well as the essay “Bowling Alone: America’s Declining Social Capital” by Robert D. Putnam; Blueprint Anchorage 2050: Cultivating Social Capital imagines an Anchorage and Alaska set in the year 2050. Due in large part to Climate change, Agriculture has soared; whilst fresh water supplies have taken a dive, prompting widespread industry action and adaptation. Oil conglomerates masquerade as proponents of mitigation and as sigils of

innovation; whilst scrambling to capitalize on the thawing tundra and lucrative mandates. And, all-the-while, thrifty developers continue to exploit ambiguous city by-laws, plugging it with lack-lustre living spaces and monotonous megastore outlets in an attempt to sequester the ever-increasing climagrant crisis; simultaneously - conveniently - bolstering their bank accounts. The project provides a cynical lens through which we might view a plausible reality; manifest fantastical. Set in motion by greed and short-sightedness; whilst provoking questions of consideration and value; I WANT TO DRAW ATTENTION TO WHAT IT IS WE MUST HOLD NEAREST AND DEAREST TO OURSELVES WHEN OUR CITIES BEGIN TO CHANGE DRASTICALLY - AS A RESULT OF CLIMATE CHANGE. To consider how we might make the best of an imminently bad situation; and make better that of a potentially good one too?

FOOD MUSEUM

CULTIVATION + DISTRIBUTION

Providing civic function, the food museum brings Alaskan food culture and heritage to the forefront by exhibiting its rich history and current trends. Functional spaces offer classes, lectures and workshops for visitors; fostering an environment for learning, sharing and taking part in the community.

Economically, the facility is founded upon the hydro and aeroponic cultivation of fresh produce. This technologically oriented agricultural production comes as a response to the strained water reserves experienced as a result of climate change, but also offers community support and functions with ‘farm to table’ principles.

The food museum also provides visitors with cafe and restaurant spaces which are inspired by the various exhibits; allowing guests to take in a rich heritage, whilst looking out onto the symphony of sea planes leaving and arriving at Lake Hood.

A community market place sits at the heart of this production component; allowing visitors to buy directly from the producers. Additionally, this market place allows for trade and collection of Native foods; sent by seaplane from rural Alaska - to relatives now residing in the city.

his programme document focuses on the proposed building set within the city of Anchorage, Alaska.

T

thesis project; the primary architectural focus for the project lies in the proposed programme and building.

THE AIM OF THE DOCUMENT IS THUS TO UNPACK RELEVANT INFORMATION WHICH UNDERPINS IDEAS AND DECISIONS LEADING TO MY PROPOSED PROGRAMME FOR A BUILDING WITHIN THIS CONTEXT.

The intention with dealing with a wider set of themes and issues is to generate dialogue around relevant topics; touching on each subject in a meaningful way in order to provoke thought and discourse.

Additionally, it must be stated that whilst I intend to deal with a wider set of themes and issues in the Alaskan context for my

Detail and specificity, however, with regards to design, spatial considerations, concrete relationships and performance lie in the building programme; described herein.

Preface

PROPOSED PROGRAMME


TH ESIS I NTRO D U C TI O N

Blueprint Anchorage 2050 | Cultivating Social Capital

PRO G R A M M E I NTRO D U C TI O N Food Museum and Cultivation Facility

Preface

B

lueprint Anchorage 2050: Cultivating Social Capital is an architectural critique cautioning exploitative capitalism and climate change opportunism – set in a speculative Anchorage, Alaska. The project explores actions and counteractions; spatial, social and economic, which arise through corporate greed, digital consumerism and necessity. Prevalent throughout the city and state, this projected tension remains congruent with American history and its Alaskan past; tribal, inordinant, hubristic. Informed by Royal Dutch Shell’s Energy Scenarios to 2050, and inspired by McKenzie Funk’s novel, Windfall: The Booming Business of Global Warming as well as the essay “Bowling Alone: America’s Declining Social Capital” by Robert D. Putnam; Blueprint Anchorage 2050: Cultivating Social Capital imagines an Anchorage and Alaska set in the year 2050. Due in large part to Climate change, Agriculture has soared; whilst fresh water supplies have taken a dive, prompting widespread industry action and adaptation. Oil conglomerates masquerade as proponents of mitigation and as sigils of

innovation; whilst scrambling to capitalize on the thawing tundra and lucrative mandates. And, all-the-while, thrifty developers continue to exploit ambiguous city by-laws, plugging it with lack-lustre living spaces and monotonous megastore outlets in an attempt to sequester the ever-increasing climagrant crisis; simultaneously - conveniently - bolstering their bank accounts. The project provides a cynical lens through which we might view a plausible reality; manifest fantastical. Set in motion by greed and short-sightedness; whilst provoking questions of consideration and value; I WANT TO DRAW ATTENTION TO WHAT IT IS WE MUST HOLD NEAREST AND DEAREST TO OURSELVES WHEN OUR CITIES BEGIN TO CHANGE DRASTICALLY - AS A RESULT OF CLIMATE CHANGE. To consider how we might make the best of an imminently bad situation; and make better that of a potentially good one too?

FOOD MUSEUM

CULTIVATION + DISTRIBUTION

Providing civic function, the food museum brings Alaskan food culture and heritage to the forefront by exhibiting its rich history and current trends. Functional spaces offer classes, lectures and workshops for visitors; fostering an environment for learning, sharing and taking part in the community.

Economically, the facility is founded upon the hydro and aeroponic cultivation of fresh produce. This technologically oriented agricultural production comes as a response to the strained water reserves experienced as a result of climate change, but also offers community support and functions with ‘farm to table’ principles.

The food museum also provides visitors with cafe and restaurant spaces which are inspired by the various exhibits; allowing guests to take in a rich heritage, whilst looking out onto the symphony of sea planes leaving and arriving at Lake Hood.

A community market place sits at the heart of this production component; allowing visitors to buy directly from the producers. Additionally, this market place allows for trade and collection of Native foods; sent by seaplane from rural Alaska - to relatives now residing in the city.

his programme document focuses on the proposed building set within the city of Anchorage, Alaska.

T

thesis project; the primary architectural focus for the project lies in the proposed programme and building.

THE AIM OF THE DOCUMENT IS THUS TO UNPACK RELEVANT INFORMATION WHICH UNDERPINS IDEAS AND DECISIONS LEADING TO MY PROPOSED PROGRAMME FOR A BUILDING WITHIN THIS CONTEXT.

The intention with dealing with a wider set of themes and issues is to generate dialogue around relevant topics; touching on each subject in a meaningful way in order to provoke thought and discourse.

Additionally, it must be stated that whilst I intend to deal with a wider set of themes and issues in the Alaskan context for my

Detail and specificity, however, with regards to design, spatial considerations, concrete relationships and performance lie in the building programme; described herein.

Preface

PROPOSED PROGRAMME


CON T EN CO NTENTS

35

TOMORROW 37

39 41

Scenarios Frameworks Technologies

17

51

63

TODAY

INTENTIONS

APPENDICES

19

25 31

Macro Meso Fieldwork Alaska

53 57

58

Site Themes Programme + Functions

64 65 69

Curriculum Vitae Prototype Details Bibliography

01

09

47

59

IDENTITY

YESTERDAY

SYNTHESIS

SCOPE

02

03 07

Alaska Concepts + Focus Yesterday + Today + Tomorrow

11

15

History Heritage

48

49

Overview Timeline

60 61

Submission Materials Schedule


CON T EN CO NTENTS

35

TOMORROW 37

39 41

Scenarios Frameworks Technologies

17

51

63

TODAY

INTENTIONS

APPENDICES

19

25 31

Macro Meso Fieldwork Alaska

53 57

58

Site Themes Programme + Functions

64 65 69

Curriculum Vitae Prototype Details Bibliography

01

09

47

59

IDENTITY

YESTERDAY

SYNTHESIS

SCOPE

02

03 07

Alaska Concepts + Focus Yesterday + Today + Tomorrow

11

15

History Heritage

48

49

Overview Timeline

60 61

Submission Materials Schedule


I DE NT I

A L ASK A

Rooted | Transient

FACTS + STATISTICS 740 000 PEOPLE

113 000 NATIVE PEOPLE

the current population of the State. Around 460 000 - 62% - people live in its urban centres or small cities.[1]

were accounted for in 2016. This constitutes 15% of the state’s total population; a larger proportion than any other state in the U.S.[2]

840 000 PEOPLE the projected population for Alaska in 2045. This forecast does not account for ‘climagration’.[2] 68% BY 2050

8% OF THE POPULATION was born out of state; representing a significant proportion of those who have brought in new culture, customs and identity.[2]

I D ENTIT Y

A

laska is a state of parallel identities sometimes coming together, and other times clashing. It is a place of indigenous roots and diverse native heritage, but too of transience, change and contemporary American culture. Research has established connection between indigenous culture - often described in terms of cultural identity, enculturation, and participation in traditional activities - and resilience, the process by which people overcome acute and ongoing challenges.[4] Despite correlations between culture and resilience, research has seldom described the ways these concepts are linked in

01

Identity

the percentage of people globally who will be living in Urban Areas. If alaska follows this conservative trend (for a state within a first world country), this would represent ~ 570 000 people, an increase of over 100 000 people to Urban Areas.[3]

people’s narratives.[4] I BELIEVE THAT WITHIN THIS CONTEXT, TWO CONCEPTS WHICH UNDERWRITE SO MUCH OF HOW RESILIENCE IS BOLSTERED THROUGH CULTURAL STRENGTH ARE FOOD CULTURE AND SOCIAL CAPITAL. These two concepts - Food Culture and Social Capital - will serve as points of reference to which this investigation will look back to, draw inspiration from and be driven by.

02


I DE NT I

A L ASK A

Rooted | Transient

FACTS + STATISTICS 740 000 PEOPLE

113 000 NATIVE PEOPLE

the current population of the State. Around 460 000 - 62% - people live in its urban centres or small cities.[1]

were accounted for in 2016. This constitutes 15% of the state’s total population; a larger proportion than any other state in the U.S.[2]

840 000 PEOPLE the projected population for Alaska in 2045. This forecast does not account for ‘climagration’.[2] 68% BY 2050

8% OF THE POPULATION was born out of state; representing a significant proportion of those who have brought in new culture, customs and identity.[2]

I D ENTIT Y

A

laska is a state of parallel identities sometimes coming together, and other times clashing. It is a place of indigenous roots and diverse native heritage, but too of transience, change and contemporary American culture. Research has established connection between indigenous culture - often described in terms of cultural identity, enculturation, and participation in traditional activities - and resilience, the process by which people overcome acute and ongoing challenges.[4] Despite correlations between culture and resilience, research has seldom described the ways these concepts are linked in

01

Identity

the percentage of people globally who will be living in Urban Areas. If alaska follows this conservative trend (for a state within a first world country), this would represent ~ 570 000 people, an increase of over 100 000 people to Urban Areas.[3]

people’s narratives.[4] I BELIEVE THAT WITHIN THIS CONTEXT, TWO CONCEPTS WHICH UNDERWRITE SO MUCH OF HOW RESILIENCE IS BOLSTERED THROUGH CULTURAL STRENGTH ARE FOOD CULTURE AND SOCIAL CAPITAL. These two concepts - Food Culture and Social Capital - will serve as points of reference to which this investigation will look back to, draw inspiration from and be driven by.

02


CO N CEP TS + FO CUS

Food Culture, Social Capital, Agriculture and Civic Space

C

Alaska Natives come from different ecoregions, speak different languages, and have diverse cultures; however, they share a commonality of living well on the land. TRADITIONAL PRACTICES WHICH ARE SIMILAR THROUGHOUT THE STATE, MORE OFTEN THAN NOT, HAVE SOME INVOLVEMENT WITH FOOD. 03

CONCEPT | SOCIAL CAPITAL

CONCEPT | FOOD CULTURE

oming together and sharing a meal is the one of most communal and binding things in almost every place in the world. Being able to make a dish and share that with the people you love is one of the most universal concepts because it is at the root of our survival as living beings. Tradition and heritage, as discussed, is at the core of Alaskan identity; native and contemporary.

Fig.02 Alaska Farm to School programme activities

Practices such as providing by hunting, fishing, and trapping, gathering of flowers, berries, greens and roots, growing and cultivating natural spaces, community gardens, and sharing of food. Dissimelarly, ‘contemporary America’ within this context paints a very stark, dichotomous picture. Despite its Native reliance on gathered food, around 95% of what Alaskans consume today is imported [4]. This is largely due to limited agricultural activity within the state, given its limiting climate and lack of appropriate infrastructure. Around 14% of Alaskans are defined as ‘food insecure’ - an issue to be discussed further in this document; a clear indication that there is a deep seated issue within the state when it comes to food culture. For these reasons, I believe that food embodies a significant role within the Alaskan landscape and conversation.

F

or the purposes of this investigation I will refer to social capital as “features of social organization such as networks, norms, and social trust that facilitate coordination and cooperation for mutual benefit.” as described in the essay ‘Bowling Alone: America’s Declining Social Capital’ by Robert D. Putnam. At its core, building social capital is an exercise which lies at the base of any ‘successful’ society; cohesion and mutual benefit tend to breed prosperity for the inhabitants of a society. [5]

As is still the case today; and noted in his essay, Robert D. Putnam points out that one of the many factors diminishing the quality and level of this capital in modern America could be attributed in part to two factors.

THE LACKING CIVIC SPACES AND INCREASE IN SPRAWL, TWO THINGS WHICH HAVE SERVED TO FRACTURE SPATIAL INTEGRITY WITHIN THE AMERICAN CONTEXT.

Identity

Identity

Fig.01 Eskimo Whalers hauling a catch

Fundamentally, I believe that this is an important concept when one begins to consider how a changing city of Anchorage and state of Alaska might impact its people. Given its inherently American context, laden with strip malls and riddled with sprawl, how are trying times going to affect this fact? Will climate change exacerbate the issues of today related to these realities? Or will sensible heads prevail in planning for greater consideration toward Civic space and Social engagement in the future?

04


CO N CEP TS + FO CUS

Food Culture, Social Capital, Agriculture and Civic Space

C

Alaska Natives come from different ecoregions, speak different languages, and have diverse cultures; however, they share a commonality of living well on the land. TRADITIONAL PRACTICES WHICH ARE SIMILAR THROUGHOUT THE STATE, MORE OFTEN THAN NOT, HAVE SOME INVOLVEMENT WITH FOOD. 03

CONCEPT | SOCIAL CAPITAL

CONCEPT | FOOD CULTURE

oming together and sharing a meal is the one of most communal and binding things in almost every place in the world. Being able to make a dish and share that with the people you love is one of the most universal concepts because it is at the root of our survival as living beings. Tradition and heritage, as discussed, is at the core of Alaskan identity; native and contemporary.

Fig.02 Alaska Farm to School programme activities

Practices such as providing by hunting, fishing, and trapping, gathering of flowers, berries, greens and roots, growing and cultivating natural spaces, community gardens, and sharing of food. Dissimelarly, ‘contemporary America’ within this context paints a very stark, dichotomous picture. Despite its Native reliance on gathered food, around 95% of what Alaskans consume today is imported [4]. This is largely due to limited agricultural activity within the state, given its limiting climate and lack of appropriate infrastructure. Around 14% of Alaskans are defined as ‘food insecure’ - an issue to be discussed further in this document; a clear indication that there is a deep seated issue within the state when it comes to food culture. For these reasons, I believe that food embodies a significant role within the Alaskan landscape and conversation.

F

or the purposes of this investigation I will refer to social capital as “features of social organization such as networks, norms, and social trust that facilitate coordination and cooperation for mutual benefit.” as described in the essay ‘Bowling Alone: America’s Declining Social Capital’ by Robert D. Putnam. At its core, building social capital is an exercise which lies at the base of any ‘successful’ society; cohesion and mutual benefit tend to breed prosperity for the inhabitants of a society. [5]

As is still the case today; and noted in his essay, Robert D. Putnam points out that one of the many factors diminishing the quality and level of this capital in modern America could be attributed in part to two factors.

THE LACKING CIVIC SPACES AND INCREASE IN SPRAWL, TWO THINGS WHICH HAVE SERVED TO FRACTURE SPATIAL INTEGRITY WITHIN THE AMERICAN CONTEXT.

Identity

Identity

Fig.01 Eskimo Whalers hauling a catch

Fundamentally, I believe that this is an important concept when one begins to consider how a changing city of Anchorage and state of Alaska might impact its people. Given its inherently American context, laden with strip malls and riddled with sprawl, how are trying times going to affect this fact? Will climate change exacerbate the issues of today related to these realities? Or will sensible heads prevail in planning for greater consideration toward Civic space and Social engagement in the future?

04


CO N CEP TS + FO CUS

“ Due in large part to Climate change, Agriculture has soared; whilst fresh water supplies have taken a dive, prompting widespread industry action and adaptation. Oil conglomerates masquerade as proponents of mitigation and as sigils of innovation; whilst scrambling to capitalize on the thawing tundra and lucrative mandates. And, all-the-while, thrifty developers continue to exploit ambiguous city by-laws, plugging it with lack-lustre living spaces and monotonous megastore outlets in an attempt to sequester the ever-increasing climagrant crisis; simultaneously - conveniently - bolstering their bank accounts. ”

AG R I C U LTU R E

C I V I C S PAC E

The cultivation, production, distribution and education surrounding food.

The necessity for quality ‘third spaces’ where community building can occur. Identity

Identity

Food Culture, Social Capital, Agriculture and Civic Space

T

he two primary focus areas for the programme when exploring a speculative Anchorage 2050 are listed above and briefly desribed.

Fig.03 Matanuska Valley Experiment Farm, Alaska

Each of these are topics which came up time and time again during my conversations with locals; and throughout the research period leading up to my investigative interests.

THESE TWO FOCUS AREAS ARE SOME OF THE MOST CONTENTIOUS TOPICS WHICH ARISE WHEN DISCUSSING THE FUTURE OF ALASKA; CONSIDERING CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS AND EFFECTS.

06


CO N CEP TS + FO CUS

“ Due in large part to Climate change, Agriculture has soared; whilst fresh water supplies have taken a dive, prompting widespread industry action and adaptation. Oil conglomerates masquerade as proponents of mitigation and as sigils of innovation; whilst scrambling to capitalize on the thawing tundra and lucrative mandates. And, all-the-while, thrifty developers continue to exploit ambiguous city by-laws, plugging it with lack-lustre living spaces and monotonous megastore outlets in an attempt to sequester the ever-increasing climagrant crisis; simultaneously - conveniently - bolstering their bank accounts. ”

AG R I C U LTU R E

C I V I C S PAC E

The cultivation, production, distribution and education surrounding food.

The necessity for quality ‘third spaces’ where community building can occur. Identity

Identity

Food Culture, Social Capital, Agriculture and Civic Space

T

he two primary focus areas for the programme when exploring a speculative Anchorage 2050 are listed above and briefly desribed.

Fig.03 Matanuska Valley Experiment Farm, Alaska

Each of these are topics which came up time and time again during my conversations with locals; and throughout the research period leading up to my investigative interests.

THESE TWO FOCUS AREAS ARE SOME OF THE MOST CONTENTIOUS TOPICS WHICH ARISE WHEN DISCUSSING THE FUTURE OF ALASKA; CONSIDERING CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS AND EFFECTS.

06


YESTERDAY + TO DAY + TOMO RROW Shaping of Anchorage 2050

TOMO R ROW SCENARIOS Shell Blueprints and Scramble FRAMEWORKS

“ Blueprint Anchorage 2050: Cultivating Social Capital is an architectural critique cautioning exploitative capitalism and climate change opportunism – set in a speculative Anchorage, Alaska ”

UN Sustainable Development Goals Municipal Planning TECHNOLOGIES Production Energy Infrastructure

TO DAY

T

he imagined reality within which this investigation is situated is based upon, projected from and created through a synthesis of todays geo-political, economic, cultural and technological landscape. Through a range of projected frameworks and scenarios for tomorrow, I have formulated a conceivable narrative for the city and state. Through my on-site experience during a month long Fieldwork Alaska trip, taken in November 2018, I developed a strong interest in the future of the state of Alaska; and more specifically the city of Anchorage given the serious impacts which global warming will have - and is already having today. This meta discussion, surrounding global warming; how climate change is consequently impacting cities and states, sparked an interest to interrogate further. What potential outcomes might be? Good and Bad?

07

AND MORE IMPORTANTLY HOW A SOCIETY AND PLACE LIKE ANCHORAGE MIGHT RESPOND TO SUCH OUTCOMES? Thus, I believe it is imperative to understand the basis upon which the narrative for Anchorage 2050 has been created. It is this synthesis which led to a scenario timeline, laying out events and potential outcomes leading up to the imagined Anchorage 2050. THE TIMELINE SERVES AS THE PRAGMATIC BACKDROP AGAINST WHICH ‘ACTIONS AND COUNTERACTIONS; SPATIAL, SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC, WHICH ARISE THROUGH CORPORATE GREED, HYPER-CONSUMERISM AND NECESSITY.’ TAKE HOLD.

Maps Policy Industry

Identity

Identity

MACRO

MESO Maps Climatic Infrastructural FIELDWORK ALASKA Experience Reflections

Y ESTE R DAY HISTORY Agriculture Third Place HERITAGE Food Culture 08


YESTERDAY + TO DAY + TOMO RROW Shaping of Anchorage 2050

TOMO R ROW SCENARIOS Shell Blueprints and Scramble FRAMEWORKS

“ Blueprint Anchorage 2050: Cultivating Social Capital is an architectural critique cautioning exploitative capitalism and climate change opportunism – set in a speculative Anchorage, Alaska ”

UN Sustainable Development Goals Municipal Planning TECHNOLOGIES Production Energy Infrastructure

TO DAY

T

he imagined reality within which this investigation is situated is based upon, projected from and created through a synthesis of todays geo-political, economic, cultural and technological landscape. Through a range of projected frameworks and scenarios for tomorrow, I have formulated a conceivable narrative for the city and state. Through my on-site experience during a month long Fieldwork Alaska trip, taken in November 2018, I developed a strong interest in the future of the state of Alaska; and more specifically the city of Anchorage given the serious impacts which global warming will have - and is already having today. This meta discussion, surrounding global warming; how climate change is consequently impacting cities and states, sparked an interest to interrogate further. What potential outcomes might be? Good and Bad?

07

AND MORE IMPORTANTLY HOW A SOCIETY AND PLACE LIKE ANCHORAGE MIGHT RESPOND TO SUCH OUTCOMES? Thus, I believe it is imperative to understand the basis upon which the narrative for Anchorage 2050 has been created. It is this synthesis which led to a scenario timeline, laying out events and potential outcomes leading up to the imagined Anchorage 2050. THE TIMELINE SERVES AS THE PRAGMATIC BACKDROP AGAINST WHICH ‘ACTIONS AND COUNTERACTIONS; SPATIAL, SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC, WHICH ARISE THROUGH CORPORATE GREED, HYPER-CONSUMERISM AND NECESSITY.’ TAKE HOLD.

Maps Policy Industry

Identity

Identity

MACRO

MESO Maps Climatic Infrastructural FIELDWORK ALASKA Experience Reflections

Y ESTE R DAY HISTORY Agriculture Third Place HERITAGE Food Culture 08


YE S T ER

YESTERDAY

“ Prevalent throughout the city and state, this projected tension remains congruent with American history and its Alaskan past; tribal, inordinant, hubristic. ”

Yesterday

Framing

YESTERDAY

09

10


YE S T ER

YESTERDAY

“ Prevalent throughout the city and state, this projected tension remains congruent with American history and its Alaskan past; tribal, inordinant, hubristic. ”

Yesterday

Framing

YESTERDAY

09

10


H ISTO RY

Agriculture and Third Place

FACTS + STATISTICS 762 FARMS

38 FARMERS’ MARKETS STATEWIDE

covering about 830,000 acres.[4] Whilst it is the largest state in the U.S, it contains only half the number of farms compared to that of the smallest state - Rhode Island which is itself just 0.2% the area of Alaska.[5]

compared to 89+ Large Chain Supermarket locations alone. (this excludes independent supermarkets and grocery stores).[5]

TOP 5 PRODUCTIVE CROPS

Yesterday

Hay, Potatoes, Barley, Oats and Corn - however, all crops and nursery + greenhouse production combined account for only 42% of agriculture income; the rest is made up by livestock.[4]

AGRICULTURE | THE MATANUSKA COLONY

I

Fig.04 Matanuska Valley historical photograph 11

n 1935, the Federal Emergency Relief Administration created an experimental farming community known as the Matanuska Valley Colony as part of the New Deal resettlement plan.[1]

Due in large to a lack of infrastructure, after just five years over half of the colonists had returned home. Farming continued, albeit with some struggle, but by 1965, only 20 of the first families remained in the valley.[3]

The Colony settlement consisted of 203 families sent over from the lower 48. The plan was to begin industrialised farming activities in the Matanuska Valley, some 70km north of Anchorage.

TODAY THE MATANUSKA VALLEY REMAINS AT THE CENTRE OF INDUSTRIAL ALASKAN AGRICULTURE, WHERE UPWARDS OF 95% OF ITS COMMERCIAL CROPS ARE CULTIVATED.[4]

The chosen colonists were fairly skilled and self-sufficient, but lacked specialized farming skills and industriousness. Additionally land was worse than expected ;the mountainous terrain, glacial soils, and climate did not favour large-scale agriculture. [2]

A short growing season limits the cultivation period during the year, however, long summer daylight hours have resulted in record breaking produce; allowing farmers to harvest some crops in as little as 27 days after planting.[3] 12


H ISTO RY

Agriculture and Third Place

FACTS + STATISTICS 762 FARMS

38 FARMERS’ MARKETS STATEWIDE

covering about 830,000 acres.[4] Whilst it is the largest state in the U.S, it contains only half the number of farms compared to that of the smallest state - Rhode Island which is itself just 0.2% the area of Alaska.[5]

compared to 89+ Large Chain Supermarket locations alone. (this excludes independent supermarkets and grocery stores).[5]

TOP 5 PRODUCTIVE CROPS

Yesterday

Hay, Potatoes, Barley, Oats and Corn - however, all crops and nursery + greenhouse production combined account for only 42% of agriculture income; the rest is made up by livestock.[4]

AGRICULTURE | THE MATANUSKA COLONY

I

Fig.04 Matanuska Valley historical photograph 11

n 1935, the Federal Emergency Relief Administration created an experimental farming community known as the Matanuska Valley Colony as part of the New Deal resettlement plan.[1]

Due in large to a lack of infrastructure, after just five years over half of the colonists had returned home. Farming continued, albeit with some struggle, but by 1965, only 20 of the first families remained in the valley.[3]

The Colony settlement consisted of 203 families sent over from the lower 48. The plan was to begin industrialised farming activities in the Matanuska Valley, some 70km north of Anchorage.

TODAY THE MATANUSKA VALLEY REMAINS AT THE CENTRE OF INDUSTRIAL ALASKAN AGRICULTURE, WHERE UPWARDS OF 95% OF ITS COMMERCIAL CROPS ARE CULTIVATED.[4]

The chosen colonists were fairly skilled and self-sufficient, but lacked specialized farming skills and industriousness. Additionally land was worse than expected ;the mountainous terrain, glacial soils, and climate did not favour large-scale agriculture. [2]

A short growing season limits the cultivation period during the year, however, long summer daylight hours have resulted in record breaking produce; allowing farmers to harvest some crops in as little as 27 days after planting.[3] 12


H ISTO RY

Agriculture and Third Place FACTS + STATISTICS 31 JANUARY 1968

ANCHORAGE DOWNTOWN

The first mall in Anchorage opened its doors. Today there are over 15 Large malls (35 000sqm+) located in Anchorage alone, this excludes the dozens of strip malls and smaller shopping centres found throughout the city.[8]

whilst relatively compact, boasts a variety of entertainment and social establishments. The largest concentration of ‘third places’ of the city is centred around this downtown area; this however, means that for a majority of people looking for specific services, a lengthly car trip downtown may be needed.

T

hird places are the social surroundings separate from the two usual social environments of home (“first place”) and the workplace (“second place”). Examples of third places would be environments such as churches, cafes, clubs, public libraries, or parks.[6]

Robert Putnam addressed issues related to third place in his essay ‘Bowling Alone: America’s Declining Social Capital’. [6] He discusses decline in social capital in contemporary America as a result of increasing spatial fragmentation - sprawl - and the proliferation of consumericst centric public spaces - strip mall era.

Fig.05 Downtown Anchorage circa 1960 13

Anchorage was established in 1914 as a railroad construction port for the Alaska Railroad and quickly became a tent city. It was incorporated on November 23, 1920 and its economy centered around the railroad. Between the 1930s and the 1950s, the city experienced massive growth as air transportation and the military became increasingly important throughout the state.[7]

In 1968, the oil boom spurred rapid growth in Anchorage; it was around this time that proliferation of strip malls and sprawl development took place in the lower 48; anchorage followed suit.[7]

Yesterday

THIRD PLACE | PLACES FOR CIVIC AND SOCIAL ENGAGEMENT

IT BECOMES EVIDENT THAT ANCHORAGE HAS VERY LITTLE ABOUT IT WHICH SETS IT APART FROM MOST OTHER LARGE CITIES IN THE U.S. IT’S DISPROPORTIONATE SCALE IN RELATION TO PEOPLE, HYPER VEHICLE-CENTRIC DESIGN AND CITY GRID DOTTED WITH SHOPPING MALLS PORTAY AN OBVIOUS LACK OF CONTEXTUALISATION TO THE ALASKAN LANDSCAPE AND LIFESTYLE. “It could be found anywhere else in the U.S, unless you knew otherwise; you may as well have thought that going there.” - Geneva, Anchorage Resident.

14


H ISTO RY

Agriculture and Third Place FACTS + STATISTICS 31 JANUARY 1968

ANCHORAGE DOWNTOWN

The first mall in Anchorage opened its doors. Today there are over 15 Large malls (35 000sqm+) located in Anchorage alone, this excludes the dozens of strip malls and smaller shopping centres found throughout the city.[8]

whilst relatively compact, boasts a variety of entertainment and social establishments. The largest concentration of ‘third places’ of the city is centred around this downtown area; this however, means that for a majority of people looking for specific services, a lengthly car trip downtown may be needed.

T

hird places are the social surroundings separate from the two usual social environments of home (“first place”) and the workplace (“second place”). Examples of third places would be environments such as churches, cafes, clubs, public libraries, or parks.[6]

Robert Putnam addressed issues related to third place in his essay ‘Bowling Alone: America’s Declining Social Capital’. [6] He discusses decline in social capital in contemporary America as a result of increasing spatial fragmentation - sprawl - and the proliferation of consumericst centric public spaces - strip mall era.

Fig.05 Downtown Anchorage circa 1960 13

Anchorage was established in 1914 as a railroad construction port for the Alaska Railroad and quickly became a tent city. It was incorporated on November 23, 1920 and its economy centered around the railroad. Between the 1930s and the 1950s, the city experienced massive growth as air transportation and the military became increasingly important throughout the state.[7]

In 1968, the oil boom spurred rapid growth in Anchorage; it was around this time that proliferation of strip malls and sprawl development took place in the lower 48; anchorage followed suit.[7]

Yesterday

THIRD PLACE | PLACES FOR CIVIC AND SOCIAL ENGAGEMENT

IT BECOMES EVIDENT THAT ANCHORAGE HAS VERY LITTLE ABOUT IT WHICH SETS IT APART FROM MOST OTHER LARGE CITIES IN THE U.S. IT’S DISPROPORTIONATE SCALE IN RELATION TO PEOPLE, HYPER VEHICLE-CENTRIC DESIGN AND CITY GRID DOTTED WITH SHOPPING MALLS PORTAY AN OBVIOUS LACK OF CONTEXTUALISATION TO THE ALASKAN LANDSCAPE AND LIFESTYLE. “It could be found anywhere else in the U.S, unless you knew otherwise; you may as well have thought that going there.” - Geneva, Anchorage Resident.

14


H ERITAG E

Food and Culture

FOOD | HISTORICAL TO CONTEMPORARY

I

n Alaska, as is true for many other places, the concept of “traditional meals” depends upon time and peoples.

Native cookery is subject to the limitations imposed by a very cold climate and sparse range of fauna and flora. The diet has a high proportion of meat, fish and fat. Native peoples have subsisted mainly on game animals, notably caribou, moose, polar bear, sea mammals - especially whale and seals, fish and finally berries of the far north.[9] FOOD FOR NATIVE POPULATIONS HAS BEEN SUBSISTENCE BASED FOR ALMOST ALL OF TIME; UNTIL ONLY RECENTLY. THIS DUE TO THE INTRODUCTION OF A MODERN ECONOMY; AND THUS REQUISITE FOR MONEY.

15

Acccording to the Juneau Centennial Cookbook the recipes listed below are family favorites contributed by people who lived in Alaska at least 50 years. Smoked salmon, Pickled herring, Halibut pie, Crab casserole, Venison parmesean, Deer sausage, Moose stroganoff, Baked wild duck, Wild cucumber, Goosetongue (sea plaintain), Lima bean bake, Fiddlehead ferns, Blueberry cobbler, Red huckleberry pudding, Nagoonberry chiffon pie, Lowbush cranberries chutney and Rhubarb crisp.[11] TODAY’S ALASKAN MENUS AND DINING OPTIONS ARE NOT UNLIKE THOSE FOUND IN THE “LOWER 48.” THERE ARE LOCAL TRUCK STOP CAFES, GREAT BURGER/SALAD PLACES, MEXICAN RESTAURANTS, STANDARD CAFETERIA AND THE LIKE.

Fig.07 Traditional Alaskan Inuit native dance

CULTURE | NATIVE AND FOREIGN

A

laskan culture is a unique blend of ancient ways, and social and political change. Although its statehood is relatively brief, the history is long and colorful. Prior to the first Europeans to see Alaska a number of Native Tribes lived off the land for hundreds of years. In Southeast Alaska, a region of lush forests, mild climate, abundant fish, game, and edible plants, the Tlingit, Haida, and Tshimshian Indians thrived. The Athabascan Indians of interior Alaska faced harsher living conditions and more often dealt with famine than their neighbours on the coast. The Inupiaqs settled along the north coast of Alaska and the Yupiks settled in Southwest Alaska.[12] After initial expeditions, the Russians settled in the 1780’s, and were quickly followed by the Spanish. However, the first Russian colonization program didn’t get underway

until the early to mid-19th century. The US purchased Alaska from the Russians in 1867 for $7.2 million dollars, with the former capital of Sitka kept as the capital of the new territory. It remained the only settled community until the 1900’s until the gold rushes of the 1890’s through 1910 saw thousands of miners descend upon the area.[12]

Yesterday

Yesterday

Fig.06 Muktuk, A local food of whale skin and blubber

ALASKA NATIVES, WHO MAKE UP 15 PERCENT OF THE STATE’S POPULATION, MAINTAIN MANY TRADITIONS, BUT WHILE NATIVE CULTURE, AS A WHOLE, MAY DEFINE MUCH OF ALASKA’S APPEARANCE, THE STATE CONTAINS A BROAD MIXTURE OF CULTURES. In Anchorage, for example, the school district has found that its student body comes from homes that speak 83 languages. [13]

16


H ERITAG E

Food and Culture

FOOD | HISTORICAL TO CONTEMPORARY

I

n Alaska, as is true for many other places, the concept of “traditional meals” depends upon time and peoples.

Native cookery is subject to the limitations imposed by a very cold climate and sparse range of fauna and flora. The diet has a high proportion of meat, fish and fat. Native peoples have subsisted mainly on game animals, notably caribou, moose, polar bear, sea mammals - especially whale and seals, fish and finally berries of the far north.[9] FOOD FOR NATIVE POPULATIONS HAS BEEN SUBSISTENCE BASED FOR ALMOST ALL OF TIME; UNTIL ONLY RECENTLY. THIS DUE TO THE INTRODUCTION OF A MODERN ECONOMY; AND THUS REQUISITE FOR MONEY.

15

Acccording to the Juneau Centennial Cookbook the recipes listed below are family favorites contributed by people who lived in Alaska at least 50 years. Smoked salmon, Pickled herring, Halibut pie, Crab casserole, Venison parmesean, Deer sausage, Moose stroganoff, Baked wild duck, Wild cucumber, Goosetongue (sea plaintain), Lima bean bake, Fiddlehead ferns, Blueberry cobbler, Red huckleberry pudding, Nagoonberry chiffon pie, Lowbush cranberries chutney and Rhubarb crisp.[11] TODAY’S ALASKAN MENUS AND DINING OPTIONS ARE NOT UNLIKE THOSE FOUND IN THE “LOWER 48.” THERE ARE LOCAL TRUCK STOP CAFES, GREAT BURGER/SALAD PLACES, MEXICAN RESTAURANTS, STANDARD CAFETERIA AND THE LIKE.

Fig.07 Traditional Alaskan Inuit native dance

CULTURE | NATIVE AND FOREIGN

A

laskan culture is a unique blend of ancient ways, and social and political change. Although its statehood is relatively brief, the history is long and colorful. Prior to the first Europeans to see Alaska a number of Native Tribes lived off the land for hundreds of years. In Southeast Alaska, a region of lush forests, mild climate, abundant fish, game, and edible plants, the Tlingit, Haida, and Tshimshian Indians thrived. The Athabascan Indians of interior Alaska faced harsher living conditions and more often dealt with famine than their neighbours on the coast. The Inupiaqs settled along the north coast of Alaska and the Yupiks settled in Southwest Alaska.[12] After initial expeditions, the Russians settled in the 1780’s, and were quickly followed by the Spanish. However, the first Russian colonization program didn’t get underway

until the early to mid-19th century. The US purchased Alaska from the Russians in 1867 for $7.2 million dollars, with the former capital of Sitka kept as the capital of the new territory. It remained the only settled community until the 1900’s until the gold rushes of the 1890’s through 1910 saw thousands of miners descend upon the area.[12]

Yesterday

Yesterday

Fig.06 Muktuk, A local food of whale skin and blubber

ALASKA NATIVES, WHO MAKE UP 15 PERCENT OF THE STATE’S POPULATION, MAINTAIN MANY TRADITIONS, BUT WHILE NATIVE CULTURE, AS A WHOLE, MAY DEFINE MUCH OF ALASKA’S APPEARANCE, THE STATE CONTAINS A BROAD MIXTURE OF CULTURES. In Anchorage, for example, the school district has found that its student body comes from homes that speak 83 languages. [13]

16


TOD AY TO DAY

“ The project explores actions and counteractions; spatial, social and economic, which arise through corporate greed, digital consumerism and necessity. ”

Today

Framing

TO DAY

17

18


TOD AY TO DAY

“ The project explores actions and counteractions; spatial, social and economic, which arise through corporate greed, digital consumerism and necessity. ”

Today

Framing

TO DAY

17

18


Arctic Ocean

C

M ACRO

Maps + Policy + Industry

Atlantic Ocean

oastal villages are washing into the Bering Sea, trees are sprouting in the tundra and shipping lanes are opening in an ocean that was once locked in ice.

“‘Impossible to Ignore’: Why Alaska Is Crafting a Plan to Fight Climate Change”

In Alaska, climate change isn’t a distant or abstract concern. Its impacts and effects are a very real, very visceral issue of today; and certainly one of tomorrow too.

– The Guardian

Pacific Ocean

Arctic

– Anchorage Daily News

Chukchi Sea

ON CLIMATE POLICY | DENIAL

Beaufor t Sea

Bering

Alaska

“Climate change deniers have been remarkably successful in shaping the position of the Republican Party with regards to global warming. During the 2012 presidential primary contest, each candidate had to pass a number of ideological litmus tests in order

Canada

Alaskan Gulf

U.S Lower 48

01 J U N E 2 017 Pacific

Atlantic

Ocean

Mexico

Ocean

Area Comparison [1] M km² Alaska

1.718

Denmark

0.043

Lower 48

9.834

Map | North America

Greenland, Faroe Is.

Alaska is ~ 40x the size of Denmark and ~ 1|5th the size of the combined Lower 48

- Jean-Daniel Collomb “The Ideology of Climate Change Denial in the United States”

[2]

Trump withdraws from 2015 Paris Agreement on Climate Change.

+ + +

31 OCTOBER 2017

[3]

Alaska Order 289 Climate Change Strategy is issued.

Despite Trump’s withdrawal, the implementation of an Alaskan Plan on Climate Change indicates the importance of the issue to the state Irrespective of national policy.

ORDER 289 | Six broad goals were established, along with strategies and actions that Alaska can take to achieve these goals:

1. COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIPS

4. CLEAN ENERGY

Strengthen community resilience and sustainability, local and State governance, State agency capacity, and collaboration and action between State agencies.

Maximize the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions as part of carbon-neutral economic growth.

2. HUMAN AND ECOSYSTEM HEALTH Excluding

to prove his or her conservativeness on key issues. Curiously, denying man-made global warming or downplaying its consequences turned out to be one of the requirements foisted on the candidates.”[1]

Work to better understand and address environmental and ecosystem changes, and their effect on human health and wellbeing.

3. ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITY Invest in, partner with, and encourage private sector diversification, and the growth of Alaska’s adaptation and mitigation services, clean energnd blue economy.

Today

Greenland

“Erosion may force this Southwest Alaska village to move - again”

Ocean

Sea

Today

“In doomed Alaska town, hunters turn to drones and caribou as ice melts”

Indian

Ocean

19

– New York Times

5. OUTREACH AND EDUCATION Expand climate and environmental science, natural resource, and energy education, awareness, and workforce development.

6. INVESTMENT Develop and implement equitable funding mechanisms for the State’s climate change strategy.

20


Arctic Ocean

C

M ACRO

Maps + Policy + Industry

Atlantic Ocean

oastal villages are washing into the Bering Sea, trees are sprouting in the tundra and shipping lanes are opening in an ocean that was once locked in ice.

“‘Impossible to Ignore’: Why Alaska Is Crafting a Plan to Fight Climate Change”

In Alaska, climate change isn’t a distant or abstract concern. Its impacts and effects are a very real, very visceral issue of today; and certainly one of tomorrow too.

– The Guardian

Pacific Ocean

Arctic

– Anchorage Daily News

Chukchi Sea

ON CLIMATE POLICY | DENIAL

Beaufor t Sea

Bering

Alaska

“Climate change deniers have been remarkably successful in shaping the position of the Republican Party with regards to global warming. During the 2012 presidential primary contest, each candidate had to pass a number of ideological litmus tests in order

Canada

Alaskan Gulf

U.S Lower 48

01 J U N E 2 017 Pacific

Atlantic

Ocean

Mexico

Ocean

Area Comparison [1] M km² Alaska

1.718

Denmark

0.043

Lower 48

9.834

Map | North America

Greenland, Faroe Is.

Alaska is ~ 40x the size of Denmark and ~ 1|5th the size of the combined Lower 48

- Jean-Daniel Collomb “The Ideology of Climate Change Denial in the United States”

[2]

Trump withdraws from 2015 Paris Agreement on Climate Change.

+ + +

31 OCTOBER 2017

[3]

Alaska Order 289 Climate Change Strategy is issued.

Despite Trump’s withdrawal, the implementation of an Alaskan Plan on Climate Change indicates the importance of the issue to the state Irrespective of national policy.

ORDER 289 | Six broad goals were established, along with strategies and actions that Alaska can take to achieve these goals:

1. COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIPS

4. CLEAN ENERGY

Strengthen community resilience and sustainability, local and State governance, State agency capacity, and collaboration and action between State agencies.

Maximize the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions as part of carbon-neutral economic growth.

2. HUMAN AND ECOSYSTEM HEALTH Excluding

to prove his or her conservativeness on key issues. Curiously, denying man-made global warming or downplaying its consequences turned out to be one of the requirements foisted on the candidates.”[1]

Work to better understand and address environmental and ecosystem changes, and their effect on human health and wellbeing.

3. ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITY Invest in, partner with, and encourage private sector diversification, and the growth of Alaska’s adaptation and mitigation services, clean energnd blue economy.

Today

Greenland

“Erosion may force this Southwest Alaska village to move - again”

Ocean

Sea

Today

“In doomed Alaska town, hunters turn to drones and caribou as ice melts”

Indian

Ocean

19

– New York Times

5. OUTREACH AND EDUCATION Expand climate and environmental science, natural resource, and energy education, awareness, and workforce development.

6. INVESTMENT Develop and implement equitable funding mechanisms for the State’s climate change strategy.

20


M ACRO

Maps + Policy + Industry ~95% OF FOOD ALASKANS PURCHASE IS IMPORTED ON AGRICULTURE | ALASKA GROWN

[6]

Moreover, this food is shipped through long supply chains. Essential items arrive by

wilted celery or a bin of mealy apples — if there’s any produce at all. Even shelfstable food isn’t readily available, since bad weather can delay shipments to remote communities.”[1]

ALASKA GROWN is a program supported by the Alaska Division of Agriculture. The agriculture industry in Alaska created the Alaska Grown logo to highlight products grown in Alaska, and to help consumers identify which products are local.

The vision and values of the Alaska Division of Agriculture include:

- Krista Langlois “Farming in Alaska is increasingly possible”

+

That all Alaskans have access to and value Alaska Grown food and products.

+

That all Alaskan Farmers have a reliable and consistent market.

+

That Alaskans know their role in supporting local agriculture.

IT TAKES FRESH PRODUCE ~7 DAYS TO TRAVEL FROM ANCHORAGE TO SOME OUTLYING VILLAGES [7] Improving infrastructure and localisation of production could respond directly to these challenges.

$400 MILLION: ESTIMATED VALUE OF ALASKA’S ANNUAL WILD FOOD HARVEST [7] It is estimated that Rural Alaskans’ diets consist ~80% of substentive food sources.

62%: INCREASE IN THE NUMBER OF FARMS SELLING DIRECTLY TO CONSUMERS BETWEEN 2007 AND 2014 [7]

Today

Today

airplane, barge, and truck.

“Alaskans are also hungry for local food. Wild game, fish and shellfish are staples of the Alaskan diet, but vegetables, perishables and store-bought meat are usually imported from far away, at tremendous cost. In many villages and small towns, the produce at the local store is limited to a few stalks of

Farm to table concepts have become increasingly popular in Alaska with organisations such as the Alaska Grown initiative.

OIL & MINERAL FUELS MADE UP 40% OF THE STATE’S TOTAL IMPORTS IN 2017 [8] Alaska is one of the worlds largest sources of oil, fuel prices in the state are atypically high - this due in large to the lack of in-state refineries.

FARM BILL 2018 | PROVISIONS FOR ALGAE AGRICULTURE

R

eauthorisation of many expenditures in the prior United States farm bill: the Agricultural Act of 2014. The $867 billion reconciled farm bill was passed by the Senate on December 11, 2018, and by the House on December 12. On December 20th, 2018 it received the President’s signature and became law.

21

AMONG THE BILL’S MORE THAN 800 PAGES IS A SUITE OF PROVISIONS PLACING ALGAE AMONG THE U.S’ TOP PRIORITIES FOR NEW CROP DEPLOYMENT AND PROVIDING SUPPORT FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF ALGAE AND RELATED TECHNOLOGIES IN NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT, SOIL HEALTH, CARBON RECYCLING AND OTHER FARM AND RURAL APPLICATIONS.

50%: ENERGY FROM RENEWABLE SOURCES BY 2025 [9] Alaskas non-binding goal has ignited the conversation and programmes to begin realising this goal.

AL ASK A HAS MORE THAN 150 STAND-ALONE ELECTRICAL GRIDS SERVING RURAL VILL AGES [9] Localised power generation is necessary for rural communities given their isolation.

22


M ACRO

Maps + Policy + Industry ~95% OF FOOD ALASKANS PURCHASE IS IMPORTED ON AGRICULTURE | ALASKA GROWN

[6]

Moreover, this food is shipped through long supply chains. Essential items arrive by

wilted celery or a bin of mealy apples — if there’s any produce at all. Even shelfstable food isn’t readily available, since bad weather can delay shipments to remote communities.”[1]

ALASKA GROWN is a program supported by the Alaska Division of Agriculture. The agriculture industry in Alaska created the Alaska Grown logo to highlight products grown in Alaska, and to help consumers identify which products are local.

The vision and values of the Alaska Division of Agriculture include:

- Krista Langlois “Farming in Alaska is increasingly possible”

+

That all Alaskans have access to and value Alaska Grown food and products.

+

That all Alaskan Farmers have a reliable and consistent market.

+

That Alaskans know their role in supporting local agriculture.

IT TAKES FRESH PRODUCE ~7 DAYS TO TRAVEL FROM ANCHORAGE TO SOME OUTLYING VILLAGES [7] Improving infrastructure and localisation of production could respond directly to these challenges.

$400 MILLION: ESTIMATED VALUE OF ALASKA’S ANNUAL WILD FOOD HARVEST [7] It is estimated that Rural Alaskans’ diets consist ~80% of substentive food sources.

62%: INCREASE IN THE NUMBER OF FARMS SELLING DIRECTLY TO CONSUMERS BETWEEN 2007 AND 2014 [7]

Today

Today

airplane, barge, and truck.

“Alaskans are also hungry for local food. Wild game, fish and shellfish are staples of the Alaskan diet, but vegetables, perishables and store-bought meat are usually imported from far away, at tremendous cost. In many villages and small towns, the produce at the local store is limited to a few stalks of

Farm to table concepts have become increasingly popular in Alaska with organisations such as the Alaska Grown initiative.

OIL & MINERAL FUELS MADE UP 40% OF THE STATE’S TOTAL IMPORTS IN 2017 [8] Alaska is one of the worlds largest sources of oil, fuel prices in the state are atypically high - this due in large to the lack of in-state refineries.

FARM BILL 2018 | PROVISIONS FOR ALGAE AGRICULTURE

R

eauthorisation of many expenditures in the prior United States farm bill: the Agricultural Act of 2014. The $867 billion reconciled farm bill was passed by the Senate on December 11, 2018, and by the House on December 12. On December 20th, 2018 it received the President’s signature and became law.

21

AMONG THE BILL’S MORE THAN 800 PAGES IS A SUITE OF PROVISIONS PLACING ALGAE AMONG THE U.S’ TOP PRIORITIES FOR NEW CROP DEPLOYMENT AND PROVIDING SUPPORT FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF ALGAE AND RELATED TECHNOLOGIES IN NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT, SOIL HEALTH, CARBON RECYCLING AND OTHER FARM AND RURAL APPLICATIONS.

50%: ENERGY FROM RENEWABLE SOURCES BY 2025 [9] Alaskas non-binding goal has ignited the conversation and programmes to begin realising this goal.

AL ASK A HAS MORE THAN 150 STAND-ALONE ELECTRICAL GRIDS SERVING RURAL VILL AGES [9] Localised power generation is necessary for rural communities given their isolation.

22


M ACRO

Maps + Policy + Industry

04. Russia $ 8 3M

10. United Kingdom $18M

02. Canada $455M

01. South Korea $463M 03. China $374M

0 9. Me x ico $20M

07. M a l ay si a $ 4 4M

A

laskas top ten import partners are indicated on the map above. Noteably, its largest international partners lie mostly on continental Asia.

Nearly all cargo comes into the state via maritime shipping Alaska maritime cargo trends can be shown by looking at the outbound and inbound tonnage at the major ports serving Alaska: Seattle and Tacoma. [10]

23

0 8 . Ta iwa n $28M

06. Thailand $62M

Alaskan Imports | 2017 01. South Korea $463M 02. Canada $455M 03. China $374M

MARITIME CARGO | THROUGHPUT

Today

Today

0 5 . Ja p a n $ 6 5M

Map | Alaskan Global Trade Partners for 2017

Year Tonnage 5

2014 3.0M

2015 2.8M

2016 2.7M

4 3 2

AIR CARGO | THROUGHPUT Alaska’s airports are a major component of the state’s transportation system; air cargo throughput in Anchorage and Fairbanks are an effective measure of that activity.[10]

Year Tonnage

2014 2.5M

2015 2.6M

2016 2.9M

5 4 3 2 1

1 2.2 in

0.8 out

2.1 in

0.7 out

2.0 in

0.7 out

24


M ACRO

Maps + Policy + Industry

04. Russia $ 8 3M

10. United Kingdom $18M

02. Canada $455M

01. South Korea $463M 03. China $374M

0 9. Me x ico $20M

07. M a l ay si a $ 4 4M

A

laskas top ten import partners are indicated on the map above. Noteably, its largest international partners lie mostly on continental Asia.

Nearly all cargo comes into the state via maritime shipping Alaska maritime cargo trends can be shown by looking at the outbound and inbound tonnage at the major ports serving Alaska: Seattle and Tacoma. [10]

23

0 8 . Ta iwa n $28M

06. Thailand $62M

Alaskan Imports | 2017 01. South Korea $463M 02. Canada $455M 03. China $374M

MARITIME CARGO | THROUGHPUT

Today

Today

0 5 . Ja p a n $ 6 5M

Map | Alaskan Global Trade Partners for 2017

Year Tonnage 5

2014 3.0M

2015 2.8M

2016 2.7M

4 3 2

AIR CARGO | THROUGHPUT Alaska’s airports are a major component of the state’s transportation system; air cargo throughput in Anchorage and Fairbanks are an effective measure of that activity.[10]

Year Tonnage

2014 2.5M

2015 2.6M

2016 2.9M

5 4 3 2 1

1 2.2 in

0.8 out

2.1 in

0.7 out

2.0 in

0.7 out

24


Arctic Ocean Arctic Ocean

Chukchi

M ESO

Sea

Beaufor t

BARROW

Maps + Climatic + Infrastructural

Sea

Wainwright Point Lay

DEADHORSE

Kaktovik

LEGEND he

rn

Se

Subregional Harbor

a

Point Hope

e

rt

R

sag

No

Regional Harbor

te

Pas

ou

Highway (Paved Road)

Northw

est

Gravel Road Railroad Marine Highway System

Northwest Region

KOTZEBUE

MATANUSKA-SUSITNA VALLEY

Vessels (51-200 trips) Vessels (1-50 trips)

Yu ko

n Ri ve r

Circle

Pilgrim Hot Springs

Port Clarence

Council

Galena

Nome

Ruby

Russia

Long

NENANA

Denali

Bering Sea

Delta Junction

4h

Poorman

The ‘Mat-Su’ Valley is responsible for ~98% of commercial agriculture in Alaska and drives virtually all of local fresh produce provision for Anchorage + surrounds.[10]

Eagle

FAIRBANKS

Manley Hot Springs

Unalakleet

Today

Encompassing an area of 60,000 km2 in Southcentral Alaska, about 56 km north of Anchorage, it includes the valleys of the Matanuska, Knik, and Susitna Rivers.

Cape Blossom

Cape Espenberg

Yu

ko

n

R iv

er

Tok

Ophir McGrath

Beaver Creeck

MAT|SU VALLEY

Talkeetna

Today

Middle-Mile Infrastructure

St. Mary’s Aniak

1

Coper Center

ANCHORAGE

Lake Hood Seaplane Base Bethel

Chitina

4

VALDEZ Kenai

number of airports per capita vs lower 48

1

Williamsport Aleknagik Levelock Dillingham

1 MILE OF H I G H WAY = $7M

Pedro Bay

h

16X

9

4 .5

Port MacKenzie

Southwest Region

Whitter

Cordova Skagway

Seward

+

Yakutat

Homer

Naknek King Salmon

this is equivalent to the construction cost of one remote airport

Narrow Cape Kodiak

Alaskan Gulf

21%

82%

of roads are in poor condition

of communities are not served by roads

Chigvnik

False Pase

ce

W

ar

re

ng

to

n

H

ils

b

o

ro L

Akutan

y

Map | State of Alaska

w

Credit | Map Adaptation of AK Infrastructure Infographic | Courtesy of Alicja Szczesniak [11] o

o

Circ

le

Se

at

North Great

d

tl

e

25

Unalaska

en

n

Ocean

or

n

Pacific

DUTCH HARBOR

Fl

26


Arctic Ocean Arctic Ocean

Chukchi

M ESO

Sea

Beaufor t

BARROW

Maps + Climatic + Infrastructural

Sea

Wainwright Point Lay

DEADHORSE

Kaktovik

LEGEND he

rn

Se

Subregional Harbor

a

Point Hope

e

rt

R

sag

No

Regional Harbor

te

Pas

ou

Highway (Paved Road)

Northw

est

Gravel Road Railroad Marine Highway System

Northwest Region

KOTZEBUE

MATANUSKA-SUSITNA VALLEY

Vessels (51-200 trips) Vessels (1-50 trips)

Yu ko

n Ri ve r

Circle

Pilgrim Hot Springs

Port Clarence

Council

Galena

Nome

Ruby

Russia

Long

NENANA

Denali

Bering Sea

Delta Junction

4h

Poorman

The ‘Mat-Su’ Valley is responsible for ~98% of commercial agriculture in Alaska and drives virtually all of local fresh produce provision for Anchorage + surrounds.[10]

Eagle

FAIRBANKS

Manley Hot Springs

Unalakleet

Today

Encompassing an area of 60,000 km2 in Southcentral Alaska, about 56 km north of Anchorage, it includes the valleys of the Matanuska, Knik, and Susitna Rivers.

Cape Blossom

Cape Espenberg

Yu

ko

n

R iv

er

Tok

Ophir McGrath

Beaver Creeck

MAT|SU VALLEY

Talkeetna

Today

Middle-Mile Infrastructure

St. Mary’s Aniak

1

Coper Center

ANCHORAGE

Lake Hood Seaplane Base Bethel

Chitina

4

VALDEZ Kenai

number of airports per capita vs lower 48

1

Williamsport Aleknagik Levelock Dillingham

1 MILE OF H I G H WAY = $7M

Pedro Bay

h

16X

9

4 .5

Port MacKenzie

Southwest Region

Whitter

Cordova Skagway

Seward

+

Yakutat

Homer

Naknek King Salmon

this is equivalent to the construction cost of one remote airport

Narrow Cape Kodiak

Alaskan Gulf

21%

82%

of roads are in poor condition

of communities are not served by roads

Chigvnik

False Pase

ce

W

ar

re

ng

to

n

H

ils

b

o

ro L

Akutan

y

Map | State of Alaska

w

Credit | Map Adaptation of AK Infrastructure Infographic | Courtesy of Alicja Szczesniak [11] o

o

Circ

le

Se

at

North Great

d

tl

e

25

Unalaska

en

n

Ocean

or

n

Pacific

DUTCH HARBOR

Fl

26


“Rising temperatures may provide some benefits in Alaska, such as a longer growing season for agricultural crops, increased tourism, and access to natural resources that are currently inaccessible due to ice cover, like offshore oil. However, climate change is also having adverse effects on many ecosystems and species, and is creating new hardships for Native Alaskans.”

M ESO

Maps + Climatic + Infrastructural

THE ALASKAN CLIMATE Northern Alaska has a cold, dry, polar climate with frequent winter blizzards. Temperatures on the coast are moderated somewhat by the Arctic Ocean. Central Alaska has a dry continental climate, with

– U.S Environmental Protection Agency

a large variation between summer and winter temperatures. Southern and westcentral Alaska experiences moderate temperatures and high precipitation.

KÖPPEN CLIMATE MAP OF AL ASK A BSk | Cold Semi-arid Cfc | Subpolar Oceanic Dsc | Dry-summer Subarctic Dwc | Subarctic

PERMAFROST THAW Atmospheric + Infrastructure Impacts Climate change leads to more permafrost thaw and disruptions to freeze-thaw cycles that can increase frost heaves and subsidence. This can potentially cause damage to transportation infrastructure in Alaska, including highways, railroads, and airstrips.Uneven sinking of the ground in response to permafrost thaw is likely to add significant costs to the maintenance and repair of transportation infrastructure and buildings. Additionally increased activity in mico-organisms due to thawing will cause the release of tons of carbon as CO2 which is currently locked up within the frozen ground.[11]

ET | Tundra

ECOSYSTEMIC EFFECTS Water + Fire

Today

Today

Dfc | Subarctic

Climate change is causing changes in lakes, ponds, wetlands, plant composition, and wildfires that impact human health, wildlife, and ecosystems. Higher temperatures and drier conditions increase the risks of drought, wildfire, and insect infestation. Large wildfires have consumed more boreal forest in Alaska in the last ten years than in any other decade recorded. [11] OCEANS AND COASTS Acidification + Melting EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN ALASKA

T

hroughout Alaska, record temperatures and adverse weather conditions have been plaguing the state with greater frequency. Recent news that the government has identified at least 31 towns with impending risk of devastation due to coastal erosion and rising tides - is strong signaling that the climate has been changing at an ever-increasing pace. [11]

27

SOME OF THESE VILLAGES ARE PREDICTED TO BE UNINHABITABLE BY 2040, LAYING DOWN A DIFFICULT CHOICE FOR THE NATIVE ALASKANS WHO HAVE SETTLED HERE FOR GENERATIONS.

Over the past several decades, perennial sea ice has declined. This decline is, in part, a result of extended periods of above-freezing air or water temperatures. Diminishing sea ice is opening new opportunities for shipping, oil and gas exploration, tourism, and other economic activities. However, it also creates a pathway for invasive species and habitat loss for a variety of ice-dependent species, including walruses and polar bears. Oceanic Acidification is also adding to the challenges faced by local fishermen, diminishing fish populations and affecting overall oceanic health. [11]

28


“Rising temperatures may provide some benefits in Alaska, such as a longer growing season for agricultural crops, increased tourism, and access to natural resources that are currently inaccessible due to ice cover, like offshore oil. However, climate change is also having adverse effects on many ecosystems and species, and is creating new hardships for Native Alaskans.”

M ESO

Maps + Climatic + Infrastructural

THE ALASKAN CLIMATE Northern Alaska has a cold, dry, polar climate with frequent winter blizzards. Temperatures on the coast are moderated somewhat by the Arctic Ocean. Central Alaska has a dry continental climate, with

– U.S Environmental Protection Agency

a large variation between summer and winter temperatures. Southern and westcentral Alaska experiences moderate temperatures and high precipitation.

KÖPPEN CLIMATE MAP OF AL ASK A BSk | Cold Semi-arid Cfc | Subpolar Oceanic Dsc | Dry-summer Subarctic Dwc | Subarctic

PERMAFROST THAW Atmospheric + Infrastructure Impacts Climate change leads to more permafrost thaw and disruptions to freeze-thaw cycles that can increase frost heaves and subsidence. This can potentially cause damage to transportation infrastructure in Alaska, including highways, railroads, and airstrips.Uneven sinking of the ground in response to permafrost thaw is likely to add significant costs to the maintenance and repair of transportation infrastructure and buildings. Additionally increased activity in mico-organisms due to thawing will cause the release of tons of carbon as CO2 which is currently locked up within the frozen ground.[11]

ET | Tundra

ECOSYSTEMIC EFFECTS Water + Fire

Today

Today

Dfc | Subarctic

Climate change is causing changes in lakes, ponds, wetlands, plant composition, and wildfires that impact human health, wildlife, and ecosystems. Higher temperatures and drier conditions increase the risks of drought, wildfire, and insect infestation. Large wildfires have consumed more boreal forest in Alaska in the last ten years than in any other decade recorded. [11] OCEANS AND COASTS Acidification + Melting EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN ALASKA

T

hroughout Alaska, record temperatures and adverse weather conditions have been plaguing the state with greater frequency. Recent news that the government has identified at least 31 towns with impending risk of devastation due to coastal erosion and rising tides - is strong signaling that the climate has been changing at an ever-increasing pace. [11]

27

SOME OF THESE VILLAGES ARE PREDICTED TO BE UNINHABITABLE BY 2040, LAYING DOWN A DIFFICULT CHOICE FOR THE NATIVE ALASKANS WHO HAVE SETTLED HERE FOR GENERATIONS.

Over the past several decades, perennial sea ice has declined. This decline is, in part, a result of extended periods of above-freezing air or water temperatures. Diminishing sea ice is opening new opportunities for shipping, oil and gas exploration, tourism, and other economic activities. However, it also creates a pathway for invasive species and habitat loss for a variety of ice-dependent species, including walruses and polar bears. Oceanic Acidification is also adding to the challenges faced by local fishermen, diminishing fish populations and affecting overall oceanic health. [11]

28


3

1

HARBOUR P O R T O F A N C H O R A GE

M ESO

Deep Water, 3 bulk carrier berths, two petroleum berths, and one barge berth

MO D ERNI SA T ION

Maps + Climatic + Infrastructural

P R O G R A M U N D E R WA Y

3.5

M IL L ION

T O N S C A R GO A N N U A L L Y

11

STATISTICS DOWNTOWN

51

49

M al e

Female

Income per Capita 2016

93.19

138.38

Co s t o f L iv in g

P u r ch as in g P o w er

Index

In the City

Index

An c h o r a g e % L a n d Use

2 9 2018 8K

Population

$ 3 9 ,0 6 1

Alaska % Population

1 7 41980 K

Population

20

14

31 7

7

17

1

Re s ide ntia l Infra s truc ture P ublic L a nds Va c a nt Com m e rc ia l P a rks Industria l

1

4

6 1 2018 3K

Population

50

50

M al e

Z e a l a n d % Po p u l a t i o n

Population

$ 5 5 ,6 8 2

Female

Income per Capita 2016

87.91

114.05

Co s t o f L iv in g

P u r ch as in g P o w er

Index

In the City

Index

Copenhagen % Land Use

COPENHAGEN

4 9 81980K

7

2

ANCHORAGE

24

18

16

12

11 10

6 3

10

Re side ntia l Infra struc ture P ublic L a nds Va c a nt Com m e rc ia l P a rks Indus tria l Agric ultura l

2

L AK E HOOD

13

8

THE WORLD’S LARGEST AND BUSIEST SEAPLANE BASE

Today

Today

6

190

FLIGHTS/DAY

12

AIR

ZONING MAP RURAL RESIDENTIAL SINGLE FAMILY RESIDENTIAL

LIGHT INDUSTRIAL

2

MERRILL FIELD AIRPORT MRI

3

E L M E N D O R F A F B A I R P OR T E D F

4

S K Y H A R B OR A I R P OR T 9 A K 5

5

F L Y I N G C R OW N A I R P O R T A K 1 2

6

C A M P B E L L A I R S T R I P A I R P OR T C S R

7

A L A S K A H OS P I T A L H E L I P O R T 2 OK

8

C A M P B E L L B L M H E L I P OR T A K 8 2

9

ELMENDORF HOSPITAL HELIPORT AK91

10

PROVIDENCE HOSPITAL HELIPORT AK38

11

V I K I N G H E L I P OR T A A 0 4

12

CAMPBELL LAKE SEAPLANE BASE 3C3

HEAVY INDUSTRIAL MARINE COMMERCIAL MARINE INDUSTRIAL PARKS PUBLIC LANDS AND INSTITUTIONS

LAND SUITABILITY

39

KM

2

Vacant Land for Development SUITABLE MARGINALLY

29

UNSUITABLE

48

%

24

%

28

%

SEAPLANE PORTS

T E D S T E V E N S A N C H OR A G E I N T E R N A T I O N A L

MULTIPLE FAMILY RESIDENTIAL COMMERCIAL

&

1

13

Runways: 3, Commercial Ops: 98,395, Air Taxi Ops: 76,301, Itinerant Ops: 76,206

4

Runways: 3, Air Taxi Ops: 500, Itinerant Ops: 66,862, Local Ops: 58,872

Runways: 2, Itinerant Ops: 500, Local Ops: 7,600, Military Ops: 78,500

Runways: 1, Itinerant Ops: 1,500, Local Ops: 5,000

5

Runways: 1, Itinerant Ops: 100, Local Ops: 3,000

Runways: 1, Local Ops: 500, Military Ops: 100

Runways: 2

Runways: 2

Runways: 2

Runways: 2

Runways: 2

Runways: 2

LAKE HOOD SEAPLANE BASE LHD Runways: 2

Map | City of Anchorage 30


3

1

HARBOUR P O R T O F A N C H O R A GE

M ESO

Deep Water, 3 bulk carrier berths, two petroleum berths, and one barge berth

MO D ERNI SA T ION

Maps + Climatic + Infrastructural

P R O G R A M U N D E R WA Y

3.5

M IL L ION

T O N S C A R GO A N N U A L L Y

11

STATISTICS DOWNTOWN

51

49

M al e

Female

Income per Capita 2016

93.19

138.38

Co s t o f L iv in g

P u r ch as in g P o w er

Index

In the City

Index

An c h o r a g e % L a n d Use

2 9 2018 8K

Population

$ 3 9 ,0 6 1

Alaska % Population

1 7 41980 K

Population

20

14

31 7

7

17

1

Re s ide ntia l Infra s truc ture P ublic L a nds Va c a nt Com m e rc ia l P a rks Industria l

1

4

6 1 2018 3K

Population

50

50

M al e

Z e a l a n d % Po p u l a t i o n

Population

$ 5 5 ,6 8 2

Female

Income per Capita 2016

87.91

114.05

Co s t o f L iv in g

P u r ch as in g P o w er

Index

In the City

Index

Copenhagen % Land Use

COPENHAGEN

4 9 81980K

7

2

ANCHORAGE

24

18

16

12

11 10

6 3

10

Re side ntia l Infra struc ture P ublic L a nds Va c a nt Com m e rc ia l P a rks Indus tria l Agric ultura l

2

L AK E HOOD

13

8

THE WORLD’S LARGEST AND BUSIEST SEAPLANE BASE

Today

Today

6

190

FLIGHTS/DAY

12

AIR

ZONING MAP RURAL RESIDENTIAL SINGLE FAMILY RESIDENTIAL

LIGHT INDUSTRIAL

2

MERRILL FIELD AIRPORT MRI

3

E L M E N D O R F A F B A I R P OR T E D F

4

S K Y H A R B OR A I R P OR T 9 A K 5

5

F L Y I N G C R OW N A I R P O R T A K 1 2

6

C A M P B E L L A I R S T R I P A I R P OR T C S R

7

A L A S K A H OS P I T A L H E L I P O R T 2 OK

8

C A M P B E L L B L M H E L I P OR T A K 8 2

9

ELMENDORF HOSPITAL HELIPORT AK91

10

PROVIDENCE HOSPITAL HELIPORT AK38

11

V I K I N G H E L I P OR T A A 0 4

12

CAMPBELL LAKE SEAPLANE BASE 3C3

HEAVY INDUSTRIAL MARINE COMMERCIAL MARINE INDUSTRIAL PARKS PUBLIC LANDS AND INSTITUTIONS

LAND SUITABILITY

39

KM

2

Vacant Land for Development SUITABLE MARGINALLY

29

UNSUITABLE

48

%

24

%

28

%

SEAPLANE PORTS

T E D S T E V E N S A N C H OR A G E I N T E R N A T I O N A L

MULTIPLE FAMILY RESIDENTIAL COMMERCIAL

&

1

13

Runways: 3, Commercial Ops: 98,395, Air Taxi Ops: 76,301, Itinerant Ops: 76,206

4

Runways: 3, Air Taxi Ops: 500, Itinerant Ops: 66,862, Local Ops: 58,872

Runways: 2, Itinerant Ops: 500, Local Ops: 7,600, Military Ops: 78,500

Runways: 1, Itinerant Ops: 1,500, Local Ops: 5,000

5

Runways: 1, Itinerant Ops: 100, Local Ops: 3,000

Runways: 1, Local Ops: 500, Military Ops: 100

Runways: 2

Runways: 2

Runways: 2

Runways: 2

Runways: 2

Runways: 2

LAKE HOOD SEAPLANE BASE LHD Runways: 2

Map | City of Anchorage 30


FI EL DWO RK A L ASK A Experience + Reflections

“Our main goal isn’t to just grow vegetables, or make money for that matter. Yes, we want to feed people’s stomachs; but we also want to fulfill them – beyond their physical hunger. This place (Alaska) hungers for much more than nutritious vegetables alone; we want to figure out how to give them a taste and a course of whatever they need, provided we’re able to.”

“The difficulty for Alaskan agriculture really does come down to just two things. Yes, fine; the weathers crappy and soils aren’t necessarily best, but it’s really about money, and education. Funding’s tough because industry is small; and education is lacking for the same reason. But it’s a vicious cycle. If you ask me, what we need is to break that cycle; one way or another.”

– Ryan Witten, Alaska Seeds of Change, Greenhouse Manager

– Jodie Anderson, Matanuska Experiment Farm, Director

ALASKA SEEDS OF CHANGE | COMMUNITY + CULTIVATION

A

laska Seeds of Change (SOC) is a vertical hydroponics greenhouse inconspicuously tucked away in the midtown area, Anchorage - Marked on the ‘Meso - Anchorage Map with the SOC Logo. Through its greenhouse they provide supported employment, comprehensive educational and vocational services, and community-based behavioural health services to transition-age (16-24 years old) young adults. The youth participate in all major aspects of running the urban agriculture business, with the opportunity to take on increasing job responsibilities and leadership roles. This supportive business model has fostered a new, strengthened community within the Midtown area; something which becomes apparent when speaking with locals. Their range of fresh produce, from leafy greens to vegetables and fresh herbs are

31

all sold to the public at farmers markets around town. Feedback since the business opened late 2016 has been overwhelmingly positive; customers revel over the freshness and quality of the produce; but also take well to the initiative, standing by the values which the business stands for and too the mode by which it operates. THIS SYNTHESIS OF CULTIVATION AND COMMUNITY OFFERS A UNIQUELY DISTINCTIVE QUALITY TO THE MIDTOWN NEIGHBOURHOOD. IT IS THROUGH MUTUAL STRENGTHENING OF THE COMMUNITY AND LOCAL FOOD SOURCES THAT THIS BUSINESS IS MAKING A MASSIVE IMPACT; BUILDING SOCIAL CAPITAL; WITH THE BENEFITS OF GASTRONOMY AND ECONOMY.

Fig.09 Experiment Farm silos

MATANUSKA EXPERIMENT FARM | RESEARCH + AGRICULTURE

T

he Experiment Farm is a working research farm serving the Southcentral Alaskan community. It includes 260 acres of cultivated land and 800 acres of forest land for research or demonstration purposes, including barns, feed storage facilities and pasture land. The experiment farm has a complete complement of farm equipment to produce and harvest grain, forage (both hay and silage) and other crops. There are also field and laboratory facilities for research on soils, plants and livestock. Current research includes small grains, vegetable variety trials, renewable resources and environmental remediation takes place while also being home to one of the subarctic rhubarb germplasms. Having received a tour from Jodie Anderson, the director, it became apparent that the Matanuska-Susitna Valley region

really is the centre for agriculture in the state of Alaska. Additionally learning about the community initiatives and programmes for engagement was enlightening. The majority of which are focused around basic to intermediate education. Given a thin history of growing in Alaska; one of the major pitfalls today is lack of knowledge when it comes to cultivation.

Today

Today

Fig.08 Seeds of Change greenhouse

THERE IS A TANGIBLE ENERGY IN THE AIR WHEN MEETING THOSE WHO WORK IN THIS SECTOR; AND MORE IMPORTANTLY THERE SEEMS TO BE A MAJOR WILLINGNESS FOR INNOVATION AND ALTERNATE THINKING WHEN IT COMES TO TACKLING THE FOOD RELATED CHALLENGES FACING ALASKANS TODAY AND MORE IMPORTANTLY, THE ONES COMING TOMORROW.

32


FI EL DWO RK A L ASK A Experience + Reflections

“Our main goal isn’t to just grow vegetables, or make money for that matter. Yes, we want to feed people’s stomachs; but we also want to fulfill them – beyond their physical hunger. This place (Alaska) hungers for much more than nutritious vegetables alone; we want to figure out how to give them a taste and a course of whatever they need, provided we’re able to.”

“The difficulty for Alaskan agriculture really does come down to just two things. Yes, fine; the weathers crappy and soils aren’t necessarily best, but it’s really about money, and education. Funding’s tough because industry is small; and education is lacking for the same reason. But it’s a vicious cycle. If you ask me, what we need is to break that cycle; one way or another.”

– Ryan Witten, Alaska Seeds of Change, Greenhouse Manager

– Jodie Anderson, Matanuska Experiment Farm, Director

ALASKA SEEDS OF CHANGE | COMMUNITY + CULTIVATION

A

laska Seeds of Change (SOC) is a vertical hydroponics greenhouse inconspicuously tucked away in the midtown area, Anchorage - Marked on the ‘Meso - Anchorage Map with the SOC Logo. Through its greenhouse they provide supported employment, comprehensive educational and vocational services, and community-based behavioural health services to transition-age (16-24 years old) young adults. The youth participate in all major aspects of running the urban agriculture business, with the opportunity to take on increasing job responsibilities and leadership roles. This supportive business model has fostered a new, strengthened community within the Midtown area; something which becomes apparent when speaking with locals. Their range of fresh produce, from leafy greens to vegetables and fresh herbs are

31

all sold to the public at farmers markets around town. Feedback since the business opened late 2016 has been overwhelmingly positive; customers revel over the freshness and quality of the produce; but also take well to the initiative, standing by the values which the business stands for and too the mode by which it operates. THIS SYNTHESIS OF CULTIVATION AND COMMUNITY OFFERS A UNIQUELY DISTINCTIVE QUALITY TO THE MIDTOWN NEIGHBOURHOOD. IT IS THROUGH MUTUAL STRENGTHENING OF THE COMMUNITY AND LOCAL FOOD SOURCES THAT THIS BUSINESS IS MAKING A MASSIVE IMPACT; BUILDING SOCIAL CAPITAL; WITH THE BENEFITS OF GASTRONOMY AND ECONOMY.

Fig.09 Experiment Farm silos

MATANUSKA EXPERIMENT FARM | RESEARCH + AGRICULTURE

T

he Experiment Farm is a working research farm serving the Southcentral Alaskan community. It includes 260 acres of cultivated land and 800 acres of forest land for research or demonstration purposes, including barns, feed storage facilities and pasture land. The experiment farm has a complete complement of farm equipment to produce and harvest grain, forage (both hay and silage) and other crops. There are also field and laboratory facilities for research on soils, plants and livestock. Current research includes small grains, vegetable variety trials, renewable resources and environmental remediation takes place while also being home to one of the subarctic rhubarb germplasms. Having received a tour from Jodie Anderson, the director, it became apparent that the Matanuska-Susitna Valley region

really is the centre for agriculture in the state of Alaska. Additionally learning about the community initiatives and programmes for engagement was enlightening. The majority of which are focused around basic to intermediate education. Given a thin history of growing in Alaska; one of the major pitfalls today is lack of knowledge when it comes to cultivation.

Today

Today

Fig.08 Seeds of Change greenhouse

THERE IS A TANGIBLE ENERGY IN THE AIR WHEN MEETING THOSE WHO WORK IN THIS SECTOR; AND MORE IMPORTANTLY THERE SEEMS TO BE A MAJOR WILLINGNESS FOR INNOVATION AND ALTERNATE THINKING WHEN IT COMES TO TACKLING THE FOOD RELATED CHALLENGES FACING ALASKANS TODAY AND MORE IMPORTANTLY, THE ONES COMING TOMORROW.

32


FI EL DWO RK A L ASK A Experience + Reflections

Today

PERMABIOREACTOR | ARCHITECTURAL PROTOTYPE

14%

of Alaskans are currently defined as food-insecure, lacking access to nutritious food on a consistent basis. The cold climate inhibits agricultural activity much of the year and as a result, up to 90% of food consumed in the state is imported. Climate change is only exacerbating this challenge; as increasing temperatures and oceanic acidification are causing large shifts in migratory patterns of animals and reduction of fish populations; making these subsistent sources increasingly difficult to come by for Native peoples. Additionally, elevating temperatures are causing widespread permafrost thaw; wreaking structural havoc and greenhouse gas emissions.

Fig.10 Closeup, Permabioreactor Prototype 33

This project investigates the synthesis of two challenges; permafrost carbon emissions, and the continued struggle with food security in Alaska.

The prototype allowed me to connect with various stakeholders and roleplayers actively engaged within the agricultural space in Anchorage. Through the Seeds of Change Network, I gained much insight with respect to the local community and its perception of technology in agriculture.

Today

Fig.11 Setting up, Permabioreactor Prototype

THE MOST SIGNIFICANT THING I LEARNT DURING MY TRIP WAS THAT THERE IS A WIDESPREAD, VERY SERIOUS YEARNING FOR INNOVATION AND ATTENTION WITHIN THIS SPACE. THIS MEANS THAT PEOPLE ARE NOT ONLY OPEN, BUT WILLING TO TAKE ON NEW CHALLENGES AND EXPLORE ALTERNATE IDEAS IN THE PURSUIT OF FOOD SECURITY IN AN UNCERTAIN FUTURE. 34


FI EL DWO RK A L ASK A Experience + Reflections

Today

PERMABIOREACTOR | ARCHITECTURAL PROTOTYPE

14%

of Alaskans are currently defined as food-insecure, lacking access to nutritious food on a consistent basis. The cold climate inhibits agricultural activity much of the year and as a result, up to 90% of food consumed in the state is imported. Climate change is only exacerbating this challenge; as increasing temperatures and oceanic acidification are causing large shifts in migratory patterns of animals and reduction of fish populations; making these subsistent sources increasingly difficult to come by for Native peoples. Additionally, elevating temperatures are causing widespread permafrost thaw; wreaking structural havoc and greenhouse gas emissions.

Fig.10 Closeup, Permabioreactor Prototype 33

This project investigates the synthesis of two challenges; permafrost carbon emissions, and the continued struggle with food security in Alaska.

The prototype allowed me to connect with various stakeholders and roleplayers actively engaged within the agricultural space in Anchorage. Through the Seeds of Change Network, I gained much insight with respect to the local community and its perception of technology in agriculture.

Today

Fig.11 Setting up, Permabioreactor Prototype

THE MOST SIGNIFICANT THING I LEARNT DURING MY TRIP WAS THAT THERE IS A WIDESPREAD, VERY SERIOUS YEARNING FOR INNOVATION AND ATTENTION WITHIN THIS SPACE. THIS MEANS THAT PEOPLE ARE NOT ONLY OPEN, BUT WILLING TO TAKE ON NEW CHALLENGES AND EXPLORE ALTERNATE IDEAS IN THE PURSUIT OF FOOD SECURITY IN AN UNCERTAIN FUTURE. 34


TOM OR R TOMO RROW

“ Informed by Royal Dutch Shell’s Energy Scenarios to 2050, and inspired by McKenzie Funk’s novel, Windfall: The Booming Business of Global Warming as well as the essay “Bowling Alone: America’s Declining Social Capital” by Robert D. Putnam; Blueprint Anchorage 2050: Cultivating Social Capital imagines an Anchorage and Alaska set in the year 2050. ”

Tomorrow

Framing

TOMO RROW

35

36


TOM OR R TOMO RROW

“ Informed by Royal Dutch Shell’s Energy Scenarios to 2050, and inspired by McKenzie Funk’s novel, Windfall: The Booming Business of Global Warming as well as the essay “Bowling Alone: America’s Declining Social Capital” by Robert D. Putnam; Blueprint Anchorage 2050: Cultivating Social Capital imagines an Anchorage and Alaska set in the year 2050. ”

Tomorrow

Framing

TOMO RROW

35

36


SCENA RI OS

Shell Blueprints and Scramble

“In its simplest description, a scenario - a tool now adopted by everyone from Disney to the National Intelligence Council that has guided most of Shell’s major decisions for a generation - is a story. Each scenario is a plausible story about a plausible future, researched and told by a futurist.”

Blueprints and Scramble, the scenario from which this project title and timeline has been inspired serves as the global narrative from which Anchorage 2050 draws.

– McKenzie Funk, Windfall: The Booming Business of Global Warming

Tomorrow

S

ince the 1970s Shell has had a dedicated team setup to conceptualise and design future scenarios; helping the company to explore ways forward and make better decisions. Shell Scenarios ask ‘what if?’ questions, encouraging leaders to consider events that may only be remote possibilities, and stretch their thinking. Their scenarios help governments, academia and business in understanding possibilities and uncertainties ahead.[1] BLUEPRINTS

SCRAMBLE

“Blueprints describes the dynamics behind new coalitions of interests. These do not necessarily reflect uniform objectives, but build on a combination of supply concerns, environmental interests, and associated entrepreneurial opportunities. It is a world where broader fears about life style and economic prospects forge new alliances that promote action in both developed and developing nations. This leads to the emergence of a critical mass of parallel responses to supply, demand, and climate stresses, and hence the relative promptness of some of those responses.”

“Scramble reflects a focus on national energy security. Immediate pressures drive decisionmakers, especially the need to secure energy supply in the near future for themselves and their allies… Growth in coal and biofuels becomes particularly significant.

- ‘Shell energy scenarios to 2050’, 2008, p.25

Despite increasing rhetoric, action to address climate change and encourage energy efficiency is pushed into the future, leading to largely sequential attention to supply, demand and climate stresses. Demand-side policy is not pursued meaningfully until supply limitations are acute. Likewise, environmental policy is not seriously addressed until major climate events stimulate political responses.” - ‘Shell energy scenarios to 2050’, 2008, p.13

37

W

hen all three of the most powerful drivers of our current energy world - demand, supply, and effects on the environment — are set to undergo significant change, we are facing an era of revolutionary transitions and considerable turbulence. And while prices and technology will drive some of these transitions, political and social choices will be critical. Those choices also depend on how alert we are to the transitions as they happen, especially because for a decade or so we may be distracted by what appears to be healthy development. But underneath this “business-as-usual” world, the transitions are already beginning: governments and companies are positioning for longer-term alternatives; regulatory frameworks are being debated; as there will be no silver bullets, new technology combinations are under development such as intermittent renewable sources being integrated into existing power supply systems; and new infrastructures, such as carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS), are required and older inefficient ones need to be decommissioned.

People are beginning to realise that energy use can both nourish and threaten what they value most - their health, their community and their environment, the future of their children, and the planet itself. These deeply personal hopes and fears can intensify and interact in ways that have different collective outcomes, and usher in the new energy era in very different ways.”

Tomorrow

Key events and outcomes from this Shell Scenario were applied in constructing a timeline toward Anchorage 2050.

“ GIVEN THAT PROFOUND CHANGE IS INEVITABLE, HOW WILL IT HAPPEN? WILL NATIONAL GOVERNMENTS SIMPLY SCRAMBLE TO SECURE THEIR OWN ENERGY SUPPLIES? OR WILL NEW BLUEPRINTS EMERGE FROM COALITIONS BETWEEN VARIOUS LEVELS OF SOCIETIES AND GOVERNMENT, RANGING FROM THE LOCAL TO THE INTERNATIONAL, THAT BEGIN TO ADD UP TO A NEW ENERGY FRAMEWORK? “ - ‘Shell energy scenarios to 2050’, 2008, p.10

38


SCENA RI OS

Shell Blueprints and Scramble

“In its simplest description, a scenario - a tool now adopted by everyone from Disney to the National Intelligence Council that has guided most of Shell’s major decisions for a generation - is a story. Each scenario is a plausible story about a plausible future, researched and told by a futurist.”

Blueprints and Scramble, the scenario from which this project title and timeline has been inspired serves as the global narrative from which Anchorage 2050 draws.

– McKenzie Funk, Windfall: The Booming Business of Global Warming

Tomorrow

S

ince the 1970s Shell has had a dedicated team setup to conceptualise and design future scenarios; helping the company to explore ways forward and make better decisions. Shell Scenarios ask ‘what if?’ questions, encouraging leaders to consider events that may only be remote possibilities, and stretch their thinking. Their scenarios help governments, academia and business in understanding possibilities and uncertainties ahead.[1] BLUEPRINTS

SCRAMBLE

“Blueprints describes the dynamics behind new coalitions of interests. These do not necessarily reflect uniform objectives, but build on a combination of supply concerns, environmental interests, and associated entrepreneurial opportunities. It is a world where broader fears about life style and economic prospects forge new alliances that promote action in both developed and developing nations. This leads to the emergence of a critical mass of parallel responses to supply, demand, and climate stresses, and hence the relative promptness of some of those responses.”

“Scramble reflects a focus on national energy security. Immediate pressures drive decisionmakers, especially the need to secure energy supply in the near future for themselves and their allies… Growth in coal and biofuels becomes particularly significant.

- ‘Shell energy scenarios to 2050’, 2008, p.25

Despite increasing rhetoric, action to address climate change and encourage energy efficiency is pushed into the future, leading to largely sequential attention to supply, demand and climate stresses. Demand-side policy is not pursued meaningfully until supply limitations are acute. Likewise, environmental policy is not seriously addressed until major climate events stimulate political responses.” - ‘Shell energy scenarios to 2050’, 2008, p.13

37

W

hen all three of the most powerful drivers of our current energy world - demand, supply, and effects on the environment — are set to undergo significant change, we are facing an era of revolutionary transitions and considerable turbulence. And while prices and technology will drive some of these transitions, political and social choices will be critical. Those choices also depend on how alert we are to the transitions as they happen, especially because for a decade or so we may be distracted by what appears to be healthy development. But underneath this “business-as-usual” world, the transitions are already beginning: governments and companies are positioning for longer-term alternatives; regulatory frameworks are being debated; as there will be no silver bullets, new technology combinations are under development such as intermittent renewable sources being integrated into existing power supply systems; and new infrastructures, such as carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS), are required and older inefficient ones need to be decommissioned.

People are beginning to realise that energy use can both nourish and threaten what they value most - their health, their community and their environment, the future of their children, and the planet itself. These deeply personal hopes and fears can intensify and interact in ways that have different collective outcomes, and usher in the new energy era in very different ways.”

Tomorrow

Key events and outcomes from this Shell Scenario were applied in constructing a timeline toward Anchorage 2050.

“ GIVEN THAT PROFOUND CHANGE IS INEVITABLE, HOW WILL IT HAPPEN? WILL NATIONAL GOVERNMENTS SIMPLY SCRAMBLE TO SECURE THEIR OWN ENERGY SUPPLIES? OR WILL NEW BLUEPRINTS EMERGE FROM COALITIONS BETWEEN VARIOUS LEVELS OF SOCIETIES AND GOVERNMENT, RANGING FROM THE LOCAL TO THE INTERNATIONAL, THAT BEGIN TO ADD UP TO A NEW ENERGY FRAMEWORK? “ - ‘Shell energy scenarios to 2050’, 2008, p.10

38


N E FR A M EWO RKS

The 2040 LUP incorporates analysis of Anchorage demographics and projected growth, current and future economic changes, current land uses, and future land capacity.

“The Anchorage 2040 Land Use Plan (2040 LUP) supplements the Municipality’s Comprehensive Plan for the Anchorage Bowl. Anchorage 2020 - Anchorage Bowl Comprehensive Plan serves as the framework for the 2040 LUP. Building on this framework, the 2040 LUP incorporates the adopted neighborhood and district plans, public facility plans, and recent analyses regarding population, housing, commercial, and industrial needs over the next 25 years. The 2040 LUP features a land use plan map, which recommends the future land development pattern. It shows where land uses may occur within the Anchorage Bowl to accommodate anticipated growth. It also includes strategies to carry out the plan and manage growth.”

UNITED NATIONS | SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS Zero Hunger

Climate Action

The proposed programme responds to existing issues related to Alaskan food security; and attempts to secure a local, integrated source for cultivation and distribution of nutritious food.

Alaska is at the forefront of global impacts due to climate change. The proposed programme responds to this goal by facilitating the process of increasing awareness, resilience and adaptation through alternate means of production and education.

The programme therefore builds upon Targets : 2.2, 2.3, 2.4 and 2.C Sustainable Cities and Communities

Cities are hubs for ideas, commerce, culture, science, productivity, social development and much more. This programme responds by providing a civic space for the creating and strengthening of community bonds through the diverse culture of food. The programme therefore builds upon Targets : 11.3, 11.4 and 11.7

39

ANCHORAGE MUNICIPALITY PLAN | 2040 LUP

The programme therefore builds upon Targets : 13.1, 13.3 and 13.B

Tomorrow

Tomorrow

UN SDGs + Municipal Planning

- ‘Anchorage 2040 LUP’, 2017, p.11

PLAN | FRAMEWORK

T

he municipality plan offers insight into the direction which Anchorage is headed from a policy and planning perspective. The document offers detailed information with respect to densification and intended functions and uses for the city. THE DOCUMENT, HOWEVER, DOES NOT DIRECTLY ACCOUNT FOR THE IMPACTS AND EFFECTS WHICH CLIMATE CHANGE IS LIKELY OR CERTAIN TO HAVE ON THE CITY.

Nor does it take into account shifts in population patterns as a result of climate change. Thus, Blueprint Anchorage 2050 forms a scenario which plays out some of these potential outcomes, whilst respecting and referencing planning and policy already in place today.

40


N E FR A M EWO RKS

The 2040 LUP incorporates analysis of Anchorage demographics and projected growth, current and future economic changes, current land uses, and future land capacity.

“The Anchorage 2040 Land Use Plan (2040 LUP) supplements the Municipality’s Comprehensive Plan for the Anchorage Bowl. Anchorage 2020 - Anchorage Bowl Comprehensive Plan serves as the framework for the 2040 LUP. Building on this framework, the 2040 LUP incorporates the adopted neighborhood and district plans, public facility plans, and recent analyses regarding population, housing, commercial, and industrial needs over the next 25 years. The 2040 LUP features a land use plan map, which recommends the future land development pattern. It shows where land uses may occur within the Anchorage Bowl to accommodate anticipated growth. It also includes strategies to carry out the plan and manage growth.”

UNITED NATIONS | SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS Zero Hunger

Climate Action

The proposed programme responds to existing issues related to Alaskan food security; and attempts to secure a local, integrated source for cultivation and distribution of nutritious food.

Alaska is at the forefront of global impacts due to climate change. The proposed programme responds to this goal by facilitating the process of increasing awareness, resilience and adaptation through alternate means of production and education.

The programme therefore builds upon Targets : 2.2, 2.3, 2.4 and 2.C Sustainable Cities and Communities

Cities are hubs for ideas, commerce, culture, science, productivity, social development and much more. This programme responds by providing a civic space for the creating and strengthening of community bonds through the diverse culture of food. The programme therefore builds upon Targets : 11.3, 11.4 and 11.7

39

ANCHORAGE MUNICIPALITY PLAN | 2040 LUP

The programme therefore builds upon Targets : 13.1, 13.3 and 13.B

Tomorrow

Tomorrow

UN SDGs + Municipal Planning

- ‘Anchorage 2040 LUP’, 2017, p.11

PLAN | FRAMEWORK

T

he municipality plan offers insight into the direction which Anchorage is headed from a policy and planning perspective. The document offers detailed information with respect to densification and intended functions and uses for the city. THE DOCUMENT, HOWEVER, DOES NOT DIRECTLY ACCOUNT FOR THE IMPACTS AND EFFECTS WHICH CLIMATE CHANGE IS LIKELY OR CERTAIN TO HAVE ON THE CITY.

Nor does it take into account shifts in population patterns as a result of climate change. Thus, Blueprint Anchorage 2050 forms a scenario which plays out some of these potential outcomes, whilst respecting and referencing planning and policy already in place today.

40


TECH N O LO G I ES

Production + Energy + Infrastructure

T

Algaculture is the commercial cultivation of algae. Algae come in two main forms. Macroalgae which are seaweeds, and Microalgae; tiny, single-celled plants. Algaculture is nothing new. Seaweed was first cultivated in Japan at least 1,500 years ago and algae production is still a big business there.[2] Dulse has long been eaten in the British Isles and the microalgae spirulina were harvested by the Aztecs of 16th-century Mexico. In addition to providing human food, seaweeds have been used for fertilizers. They provide the food thickener carrageen and other gelling agents and stabilizers 41

HYDRO+AERO PONICS | PRODUCTION

ALGACULTURE | PRODUCTION oday, algae - which can take the form of a water-borne weed or ordinary pond scum - holds immense promise for supplying us with everything from animal feed to jet fuel.

Fig.13 Alaska Seeds of Change greenhouse hydroponics units

that show up in everything from soup to toothpaste. Worldwide, algae production is a $6 billion business.[2] THROUGH A PROCESS CALLED ‘BIOSEQUESTRATION’ MICROALGAE ARE BEING INVESTIGATED AS AN EFFECTIVE MEANS OF CAPTURING EXCESS CO2 FROM THE ATMOSPHERE. [3] THE PROMISE OF MITIGATING THIS GREENHOUSE GAS, WHILST PRODUCING A SOURCE FOR FOOD OR FUEL HAS SHOWN SUCH PROMISE THAT THE U.S 2018 FARM BILL MADE EXTENSIVE CONSIDERATIONS FOR ALGACULTURE; AS PREVIOUSLY DISCUSSED.

H

ydroponics uses liquid, sand, gravel, and other materials to grow plants away from a soil environment. The plants’ roots get nutriention from water that is enriched with liquid plant food. Hydroponics is noticeably better than conventional farming methods since the basic requirements of a plant are few—water, sunshine, and nutrients. In a hydroponic system, a plant does not need an extensive root system because it does not have to expend energy seeking nutrients as it does when grown in the ground.[4] Aeroponics is a method of growing plants in a moist environment. The plants are suspended in an enclosed setting and water, mixed with plant food, is sprayed onto the roots. Aeroponics systems are frequently employed in an enclosed environment like a greenhouse so that the temperature and humidity can be accurately regulated.

Although sunlight is the principal light source, some additional lighting may also be added.

Tomorrow

Tomorrow

Fig.12 Commercial Photobioreactor Setup

In an aeroponics system, the roots of the plants are misted with nutrients, water, and oxygen. Using a closed loop system, 95% less water than field farming is used and 40% less than hydroponics. [4] BECAUSE HYDROPONICS AND AEROPONICS DO NOT USE SOIL, THEY CAN BE ESTABLISHED INDOORS IN LOCATIONS THAT HAVE COLD, SEVERE CLIMATES. THESE GROWING METHODS CAN ALSO BE USED IN LOCALITIES THAT HAVE POOR, SANDY SOIL.

42


TECH N O LO G I ES

Production + Energy + Infrastructure

T

Algaculture is the commercial cultivation of algae. Algae come in two main forms. Macroalgae which are seaweeds, and Microalgae; tiny, single-celled plants. Algaculture is nothing new. Seaweed was first cultivated in Japan at least 1,500 years ago and algae production is still a big business there.[2] Dulse has long been eaten in the British Isles and the microalgae spirulina were harvested by the Aztecs of 16th-century Mexico. In addition to providing human food, seaweeds have been used for fertilizers. They provide the food thickener carrageen and other gelling agents and stabilizers 41

HYDRO+AERO PONICS | PRODUCTION

ALGACULTURE | PRODUCTION oday, algae - which can take the form of a water-borne weed or ordinary pond scum - holds immense promise for supplying us with everything from animal feed to jet fuel.

Fig.13 Alaska Seeds of Change greenhouse hydroponics units

that show up in everything from soup to toothpaste. Worldwide, algae production is a $6 billion business.[2] THROUGH A PROCESS CALLED ‘BIOSEQUESTRATION’ MICROALGAE ARE BEING INVESTIGATED AS AN EFFECTIVE MEANS OF CAPTURING EXCESS CO2 FROM THE ATMOSPHERE. [3] THE PROMISE OF MITIGATING THIS GREENHOUSE GAS, WHILST PRODUCING A SOURCE FOR FOOD OR FUEL HAS SHOWN SUCH PROMISE THAT THE U.S 2018 FARM BILL MADE EXTENSIVE CONSIDERATIONS FOR ALGACULTURE; AS PREVIOUSLY DISCUSSED.

H

ydroponics uses liquid, sand, gravel, and other materials to grow plants away from a soil environment. The plants’ roots get nutriention from water that is enriched with liquid plant food. Hydroponics is noticeably better than conventional farming methods since the basic requirements of a plant are few—water, sunshine, and nutrients. In a hydroponic system, a plant does not need an extensive root system because it does not have to expend energy seeking nutrients as it does when grown in the ground.[4] Aeroponics is a method of growing plants in a moist environment. The plants are suspended in an enclosed setting and water, mixed with plant food, is sprayed onto the roots. Aeroponics systems are frequently employed in an enclosed environment like a greenhouse so that the temperature and humidity can be accurately regulated.

Although sunlight is the principal light source, some additional lighting may also be added.

Tomorrow

Tomorrow

Fig.12 Commercial Photobioreactor Setup

In an aeroponics system, the roots of the plants are misted with nutrients, water, and oxygen. Using a closed loop system, 95% less water than field farming is used and 40% less than hydroponics. [4] BECAUSE HYDROPONICS AND AEROPONICS DO NOT USE SOIL, THEY CAN BE ESTABLISHED INDOORS IN LOCATIONS THAT HAVE COLD, SEVERE CLIMATES. THESE GROWING METHODS CAN ALSO BE USED IN LOCALITIES THAT HAVE POOR, SANDY SOIL.

42


TECH N O LO G I ES

Production + Energy + Infrastructure

CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE CCS | ENERGY

C

arbon capture and storage (CCS) (or carbon capture and sequestration) is the process of capturing waste carbon dioxide from large point sources, such as biomass or fossil fuel power plants, transporting it to a storage site, and depositing it where it will not enter the atmosphere. The aim is to prevent the release of large quantities of CO2 into the atmosphere.[5]

“Founded by Climeworks, the direct air capture (DAC) plant is capable of removing 900 tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) from ambient air annually. This is then supplied as a raw material to customers in different markets, including to a nearby vegetable farm, where it is used as fertiliser. The CO2 can also be used to make carbonated drinks and carbon-neutral fuels. 43

By using the filtered C02, Climeworks’ says its customers can reduce their overall emissions as well as lowering their dependence on fossil fuels. Its factory represents the first commercial carbon-capture operation.” [5] CCS TECHNOLOGIES ALLOW FOR THE REMOVAL OF CO2 FROM THE ATMOSPHERE; HOWEVER, I BELIEVE THERE IS AN OPPORTUNITY TO UTILISE THIS CO2 AS A RESOURCE; BY EXPLOITING IT AS FUEL, FOR EXAMPLE, FOR THE CULTIVATION OF PRODUCE, OR GROWTH OF ALGAE

Fig.15 Graphene sheet

GRAPHENE | ENERGY

G

raphene is a flat honeycomb lattice made of a single layer of carbon atoms, this nanocrystal is a basic building block for all other graphitic materials; it also represents a conceptually new class of materials that are only one atom thick, so-called 2D materials. Graphene has emerged as one of the most promising nanomaterials because of its unique combination of properties: it is not only one of the thinnest but also strongest materials; it conducts heat better than all other materials; it is a great conductor of electricity; it is optically transparent, yet so dense that it is impermeable to gases – not even helium, the smallest gas atom, can pass through it.[6]

IN NOVEMBER 2017, SAMSUNG DEVELOPED A UNIQUE “GRAPHENE BALL” THAT COULD MAKE LITHIUMION BATTERIES LAST LONGER AND CHARGE FASTER. IT IS SAID THAT USING THE NEW GRAPHENE BALL MATERIAL TO MAKE BATTERIES WILL INCREASE THEIR CAPACITY BY 45% AND MAKE THEIR CHARGING SPEED FIVE TIMES FASTER ANDMAINTAIN A TEMPERATURE OF 60 DEGREES CELSIUS THAT IS REQUIRED FOR USE IN ELECTRIC CARS. [7]

Tomorrow

Tomorrow

Fig.14 Climeworks DAC Plant

“Graphene-based batteries have exciting potential and while they are not yet fully commercially available yet, R&D is intensive and will hopefully yield results in the future.” 44


TECH N O LO G I ES

Production + Energy + Infrastructure

CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE CCS | ENERGY

C

arbon capture and storage (CCS) (or carbon capture and sequestration) is the process of capturing waste carbon dioxide from large point sources, such as biomass or fossil fuel power plants, transporting it to a storage site, and depositing it where it will not enter the atmosphere. The aim is to prevent the release of large quantities of CO2 into the atmosphere.[5]

“Founded by Climeworks, the direct air capture (DAC) plant is capable of removing 900 tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) from ambient air annually. This is then supplied as a raw material to customers in different markets, including to a nearby vegetable farm, where it is used as fertiliser. The CO2 can also be used to make carbonated drinks and carbon-neutral fuels. 43

By using the filtered C02, Climeworks’ says its customers can reduce their overall emissions as well as lowering their dependence on fossil fuels. Its factory represents the first commercial carbon-capture operation.” [5] CCS TECHNOLOGIES ALLOW FOR THE REMOVAL OF CO2 FROM THE ATMOSPHERE; HOWEVER, I BELIEVE THERE IS AN OPPORTUNITY TO UTILISE THIS CO2 AS A RESOURCE; BY EXPLOITING IT AS FUEL, FOR EXAMPLE, FOR THE CULTIVATION OF PRODUCE, OR GROWTH OF ALGAE

Fig.15 Graphene sheet

GRAPHENE | ENERGY

G

raphene is a flat honeycomb lattice made of a single layer of carbon atoms, this nanocrystal is a basic building block for all other graphitic materials; it also represents a conceptually new class of materials that are only one atom thick, so-called 2D materials. Graphene has emerged as one of the most promising nanomaterials because of its unique combination of properties: it is not only one of the thinnest but also strongest materials; it conducts heat better than all other materials; it is a great conductor of electricity; it is optically transparent, yet so dense that it is impermeable to gases – not even helium, the smallest gas atom, can pass through it.[6]

IN NOVEMBER 2017, SAMSUNG DEVELOPED A UNIQUE “GRAPHENE BALL” THAT COULD MAKE LITHIUMION BATTERIES LAST LONGER AND CHARGE FASTER. IT IS SAID THAT USING THE NEW GRAPHENE BALL MATERIAL TO MAKE BATTERIES WILL INCREASE THEIR CAPACITY BY 45% AND MAKE THEIR CHARGING SPEED FIVE TIMES FASTER ANDMAINTAIN A TEMPERATURE OF 60 DEGREES CELSIUS THAT IS REQUIRED FOR USE IN ELECTRIC CARS. [7]

Tomorrow

Tomorrow

Fig.14 Climeworks DAC Plant

“Graphene-based batteries have exciting potential and while they are not yet fully commercially available yet, R&D is intensive and will hopefully yield results in the future.” 44


TECH N O LO G I ES

Production + Energy + Infrastructure

DRONE DELIVERY NETWORKS | INFRASTRUCTURE

D

elivery drones are unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) that can deliver lightweight packages. Delivery drones are operated autonomously or remotely, with operators potentially overseeing multiple drones at once. In several examples across the world, drones are being used for delivering time-sensitive items, such as medicine, or deliveries that would be difficult with traditional vehicle-based services. Delivery drones have the potential to change last-mile delivery economics for smaller and lighter packages as they could replace many deliveries currently made by traditional delivery vehicles.”[8]

Since 2013 companies such as Amazon, Walmart, Google, and traditional carriers, such as UPS have been testing the capabilities of drones and delivery networks to provide such a service. They are being met particularly with challenges 45

to do with regulation and efficacy; policy and law surrounding the utilisation of UAVs is a highly contested topic today. Additionally the capabilities of drones due to their lightweight nature, minimizes load capacity as well as range - due to battery life. HOWEVER, THE SECTOR IS ON THE CUSP OF A SUBSTANTIAL INCREASE GIVEN THE RECENT BOOM IN THE MARKET AND WILLINGNESS TO EXPAND THE TECHNOLOGY. POLICY MAKERS HAVE ALSO, IN RECENT YEARS HAD TO DEAL WITH THESE ISSUES HEAD ON; AND IT IS BECOMING INCREASINGLY EVIDENT THAT DRONES WILL FORM A SIGNIFICANT PART OF AIR INFRASTRUCTURES IN THE NOT SO DISTANT FUTURE.

Fig.17 Automated robotic arms

AI AUTOMATION | INFRASTRUCTURE

T

he topic of job displacement has, throughout US history, ignited frustration over technological advances and their tendency to make traditional jobs obsolete. According to a new study by the research firm PwC, nearly 40% of jobs in the U.S. may be vulnerable to replacement by robots in the next fifteen years. The U.S. has a higher percentage of jobs under threat by automation relative to other developed economies because more workers are employed in positions that require routinized tasks.[9]

Jobs most at risk of being done by new technologies are in industries related to transportation, manufacturing and retail. The researchers point to a few policy interventions that might be explored to address the effects of broad job loss due to automation, like workforce re-training programs or universal basic income schemes.

“But new policies require government action, and in the U.S. — where job loss to automation may reach 38 percent by the 2030s, according to the study — the Trump administration doesn’t seem immediately concerned.”[10]

Tomorrow

Tomorrow

Fig.16 DHL delivery drone

THE TOPIC OF AUTOMATION HAS BECOME AN INCREASINGLY HEATED TOPIC WITHIN THE POLITICAL AND INDUSTRIAL SPHERE. IT IS IMPERATIVE THAT IN PREPARING FOR THE ADVENT OF MASS JOB LOSS; COUNTER MEASURES ARE TAKEN WHICH GO BEYOND PROGRAMMES SUPPORTING RETRAINING. SELFRELIANCE AND SUBSISTENCE I THINK, COULD BE A MECHANISM BY WHICH RESILIENCE IS BOLSTERED IN RESPONSE TO LOSS.

46


TECH N O LO G I ES

Production + Energy + Infrastructure

DRONE DELIVERY NETWORKS | INFRASTRUCTURE

D

elivery drones are unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) that can deliver lightweight packages. Delivery drones are operated autonomously or remotely, with operators potentially overseeing multiple drones at once. In several examples across the world, drones are being used for delivering time-sensitive items, such as medicine, or deliveries that would be difficult with traditional vehicle-based services. Delivery drones have the potential to change last-mile delivery economics for smaller and lighter packages as they could replace many deliveries currently made by traditional delivery vehicles.”[8]

Since 2013 companies such as Amazon, Walmart, Google, and traditional carriers, such as UPS have been testing the capabilities of drones and delivery networks to provide such a service. They are being met particularly with challenges 45

to do with regulation and efficacy; policy and law surrounding the utilisation of UAVs is a highly contested topic today. Additionally the capabilities of drones due to their lightweight nature, minimizes load capacity as well as range - due to battery life. HOWEVER, THE SECTOR IS ON THE CUSP OF A SUBSTANTIAL INCREASE GIVEN THE RECENT BOOM IN THE MARKET AND WILLINGNESS TO EXPAND THE TECHNOLOGY. POLICY MAKERS HAVE ALSO, IN RECENT YEARS HAD TO DEAL WITH THESE ISSUES HEAD ON; AND IT IS BECOMING INCREASINGLY EVIDENT THAT DRONES WILL FORM A SIGNIFICANT PART OF AIR INFRASTRUCTURES IN THE NOT SO DISTANT FUTURE.

Fig.17 Automated robotic arms

AI AUTOMATION | INFRASTRUCTURE

T

he topic of job displacement has, throughout US history, ignited frustration over technological advances and their tendency to make traditional jobs obsolete. According to a new study by the research firm PwC, nearly 40% of jobs in the U.S. may be vulnerable to replacement by robots in the next fifteen years. The U.S. has a higher percentage of jobs under threat by automation relative to other developed economies because more workers are employed in positions that require routinized tasks.[9]

Jobs most at risk of being done by new technologies are in industries related to transportation, manufacturing and retail. The researchers point to a few policy interventions that might be explored to address the effects of broad job loss due to automation, like workforce re-training programs or universal basic income schemes.

“But new policies require government action, and in the U.S. — where job loss to automation may reach 38 percent by the 2030s, according to the study — the Trump administration doesn’t seem immediately concerned.”[10]

Tomorrow

Tomorrow

Fig.16 DHL delivery drone

THE TOPIC OF AUTOMATION HAS BECOME AN INCREASINGLY HEATED TOPIC WITHIN THE POLITICAL AND INDUSTRIAL SPHERE. IT IS IMPERATIVE THAT IN PREPARING FOR THE ADVENT OF MASS JOB LOSS; COUNTER MEASURES ARE TAKEN WHICH GO BEYOND PROGRAMMES SUPPORTING RETRAINING. SELFRELIANCE AND SUBSISTENCE I THINK, COULD BE A MECHANISM BY WHICH RESILIENCE IS BOLSTERED IN RESPONSE TO LOSS.

46


SYN THE OVERVI EW

Synthesizing Anchorage 2050

SCENARIO

By reflecting upon each aspect; I developed a narrative which was written out as part of the theoretical essay submission for the previous semester.

SYNTH ESIS

47

The essay then provided the story from which each of the significant events and

outcomes were plotted along a speculative timeline. MY BUILDING PROGRAMME, THUS RESPONDS TO THIS TIME AND PLACE; SET IN THE YEAR 2050. AFFECTED AND IMPACTED BY CLIMATE CHANGE, BY POLICY, TRADE, INDUSTRY, CULTURE AND UNCERTAINTY; AFFECTED AND INFLUENCED IN A VARIETY OF WAYS BY A VARIETY OF FACTORS LAID OUT HEREIN.

Synthesis

Yesterday’s heritage and history, today’s goings on within policy and industry; on a global and state scale and finally tomorrows projections, scenarios and frameworks all add up to what becomes the setting for this speculative project.

48


SYN THE OVERVI EW

Synthesizing Anchorage 2050

SCENARIO

By reflecting upon each aspect; I developed a narrative which was written out as part of the theoretical essay submission for the previous semester.

SYNTH ESIS

47

The essay then provided the story from which each of the significant events and

outcomes were plotted along a speculative timeline. MY BUILDING PROGRAMME, THUS RESPONDS TO THIS TIME AND PLACE; SET IN THE YEAR 2050. AFFECTED AND IMPACTED BY CLIMATE CHANGE, BY POLICY, TRADE, INDUSTRY, CULTURE AND UNCERTAINTY; AFFECTED AND INFLUENCED IN A VARIETY OF WAYS BY A VARIETY OF FACTORS LAID OUT HEREIN.

Synthesis

Yesterday’s heritage and history, today’s goings on within policy and industry; on a global and state scale and finally tomorrows projections, scenarios and frameworks all add up to what becomes the setting for this speculative project.

48


ANCHORAGE POPULATION

293 000 | < 1 000 DECADE DIFFERENCE

+ 33 000

village populations 2 015 14% of Alaskans are food insecure

2 016

GROWING SEASON

114 days

GLOBAL TEMP ANOMALY

GLOBAL 2 011

+0.90°C WORLD POPULATION

7.3 billion ALASKAN POPULATION

714 000 ANCHORAGE POPULATION

293 000 | < 1 000 DECADE DIFFERENCE

+ 33 000

AL ASK A

China has overtaken U.S. as major CO2 emitter

2 013

Partial emission trading scheme evolution post Kyoto Coastal erosion set to displace over 30 local village populations

2 014 2 015

2 017

Gradual decline in Coal with steady uptake of Natural Gas

Graphite Creek development agreement settled Port of Alaska modernization programme begins, Expected completion date 2022

2 018 Uptake in Algal cultivation technologies with the aim of producing biofuels and combating CO2 emission

2 019

2020 GLOBAL TEMP ANOMALY

7.3 billion ALASKAN POPULATION

746 000 ANCHORAGE POPULATION

300 000 | < 1 000 DECADE DIFFERENCE

+ 7 000

Mandated Biofuels

2 022 2 023

Synthesis

Modest nuclear growth

2 025 2 026

Electric vehicles enter mass regional markets

8.6 billion ALASKAN POPULATION

791 000 ANCHORAGE POPULATION

311 000 | > 1 000 DECADE DIFFERENCE

+ 11 000

DECADE DIFFERENCE

Major Graphene technology breakthrough Surrounding Arctic ice down to 20% of historical 1979-2000 average value

2030

2 031

CO2 emissions moderate

Aggressive investments made toward alternative, localised food production technologies

GLOBAL TEMP ANOMALY

2 032

Further rise in biofuels

Vehicles remain predominantly fossil fuel based due to relative low fuel costs and abundant supply 12% of Alaskans are food insecure

2 034

Solar expansion

Seeds of Change model has become most successful format of hydroponic-community business

2 035

CO2 emissions on the rise again Non-OECD reaches two-thirds of world primary energy demand

Graphene battery technology expansion

2 036

Continental U.S catastrophes and intensifying climate drives population and businesses northward

2 037

Air pollution in the metropolitan area rises significantly, 475 ppm

Anchorage population boom results in densification and increased sprawl

2040

ALASKAN POPULATION

824 000 ANCHORAGE POPULATION

339 000 | ~ 19 000 DECADE DIFFERENCE

+ 28 000

8.6 billion ALASKAN POPULATION

791 000 ANCHORAGE POPULATION

311 000 | > 1 000 DECADE DIFFERENCE

+ 11 000

Agricultural output in Alaska has almost doubled in productivity and reduced imports by 25%

2 0 42

India overtakes U.S. as major CO2 emitter

Surrounding Arctic is ice free during Summer months, Alaskan trade boom as a result

2 0 43

Climate adaption measures begin

U.S vehicles mandates for electric based transport system

2 0 44

Energy related CO2 emissions decline but atmospheric concentrations continue to rise

Permafrost thaw affects vast inland road infrastructures, reliance on air transport grows Alternate Production proliferates throughout city

2040

Global temperature average increase of 2.3°C relative to 19511980 average temp

Growing city populations result in greater necessity for inner-city civic function

GLOBAL TEMP ANOMALY

Energy mandates push Alaskan production toward a largely renewable system

+1.79°C

2 0 48

Biofuels ~30% of liquid fuels

Mat-Su Valley largest Biofuel User in-state

WORLD POPULATION

2 0 49

Decoupling of world GDP & energy growth

2 0 45

2 0 47

8% of Alaskans are food insecure Alaskan temperature average increase of 3.7°C

2050 ALASKAN POPULATION

WORLD POPULATION

ANCHORAGE POPULATION

DECADE DIFFERENCE

848 000

9.7 billion

382 000 | ~ 25 000

+ 43 000

GLOBAL TEMP ANOMALY

GROWING SEASON

+2.27°C

141 days

Graphite Creek operational

2 022 2 023

Modest nuclear growth

Surrounding Arctic ice melting rate sees further increases Port of Alaska modernization programme ends, Completion date 2024 Oil operations expand in the north due to diminishing ice and easier to access land

2 024 2 025 2 026

Port of Alaska modernization programme delays as funding is slow

Electric vehicles enter mass regional markets

Coastal Erosion worsens, displacing a number of coastal populations, prompts rapid reponse drone network Port of Alaska expansion programme begins, on going diversification

2 027 2 028

CCS deployed commercially

Major Graphene technology breakthrough

2 029

Coal hits constraints

Surrounding Arctic ice down to 20% of historical 1979-2000 average value

2 031

CO2 emissions moderate

Aggressive investments made toward alternative, localised food production technologies

2 032

Further rise in biofuels

Vehicles remain predominantly fossil fuel based due to relative low fuel costs and abundant supply 12% of Alaskans are food insecure

2 033 2 034

Solar expansion

Seeds of Change model has become most successful format of hydroponic-community business

2 035

CO2 emissions on the rise again Non-OECD reaches two-thirds of world primary energy demand

Graphene battery technology expansion

2 036

Continental U.S catastrophes and intensifying climate drives population and businesses northward

2 037

Air pollution in the metropolitan area rises significantly, 475 ppm

2 038 Anchorage population boom results in densification and increased sprawl

2 039

UNDERPINNING 2|0 41 BACKDROP 8% of all coal and gas fired power generation equipped with CCS

Agricultural output in Alaska has almost doubled in productivity and reduced imports by 25%

The projected timeline summarizes this,is ice free along with the India overtakes U.S.the as major Extrapolating Surrounding Arctic during Summer 2 0 42 CO2 emitter months, Alaskan trade boom aswhich a result has been Blueprints and Scramble scenarios, underpinning information Climate measures U.S vehicles mandates electric based plays transport out system 2 0 43 for plotting a likely course theadaption future of begin unpacked herein; thefortimeline ALASKAN POPULATION 824 000 the state of Alaska; with influences which the narrative for the state of Alaska in a Energy related CO2 emissions Permafrost thaw affects vast inland road infrastructures, 2 0 44 ANCHORAGE impactPOPULATION it directly on a global scale. mannerreliance which is transport specific to the region. The decline but atmospheric concentraon air grows 339 000 | ~ 19 000 tions continue to rise example above givesproliferates an indication Alternate Production throughoutof cityhow 2 0 45 DECADE DIFFERENCE this breakdown has been created. Shell 9.2 billion

+ 28 000

49

Mandated Biofuels

GROWING SEASON

127 days

GROWING SEASON

134 days

WORLD POPULATION

8% of all coal and gas fired power generation equipped with CCS

2 0 46

2 021

+1.42°C

2 0 41

+1.79°C 9.2 billion

122 days

Coal hits constraints

2 033

Uptake in Algal cultivation technologies with the aim of producing biofuels and combating CO2 emission

2 019

GROWING SEASON

CCS deployed commercially

2 039

WORLD POPULATION

+ 7 000

Coastal Erosion worsens, displacing a number of coastal populations, prompts rapid reponse drone network

2 038

GLOBAL TEMP ANOMALY

746 000

2 028

GROWING SEASON

127 days

ALASKAN POPULATION

2 029

+1.42°C WORLD POPULATION

7.3 billion

Graphite Creek operational

2030 GLOBAL TEMP ANOMALY

WORLD POPULATION

Port of Alaska expansion programme begins, on going diversification

2 027

Port of Alaska modernization programme begins, Expected completion date 2022

2 018

+1.05°C

300 000 | < 1 000

Surrounding Arctic ice melting rate sees further increases

Graphite Creek development agreement settled

2020

Port of Alaska modernization programme delays as funding is slow

Port of Alaska modernization programme ends, Completion date 2024 Oil operations expand in the north due to diminishing ice and easier to access land

2 024

GROWING SEASON

122 days

2010 through 2050

ANCHORAGE POPULATION 2 021

+1.05°C WORLD POPULATION

TI M ELI N E

GLOBAL TEMP ANOMALY 14% of Alaskans are food insecure

2 016

GROWING SEASON

114 days

Nome Graphite Creek is Announced to the public Port of Alaska modernization programme begins, Expected completion date 2022

2 012

Gradual decline in Coal with steady uptake of Natural Gas

Synthesis

2010

2 017

2 0 46

GROWING SEASON

134 days

2 0 47 2 0 48

Global temperature average increase of 2.3°C relative to 19511980 average temp

Growing city populations result in greater necessity for inner-city civic function

Biofuels ~30% of liquid fuels

Mat-Su Valley largest Biofuel User in-state

Energy mandates push Alaskan production toward a largely renewable system

50


ANCHORAGE POPULATION

293 000 | < 1 000 DECADE DIFFERENCE

+ 33 000

village populations 2 015 14% of Alaskans are food insecure

2 016

GROWING SEASON

114 days

GLOBAL TEMP ANOMALY

GLOBAL 2 011

+0.90°C WORLD POPULATION

7.3 billion ALASKAN POPULATION

714 000 ANCHORAGE POPULATION

293 000 | < 1 000 DECADE DIFFERENCE

+ 33 000

AL ASK A

China has overtaken U.S. as major CO2 emitter

2 013

Partial emission trading scheme evolution post Kyoto Coastal erosion set to displace over 30 local village populations

2 014 2 015

2 017

Gradual decline in Coal with steady uptake of Natural Gas

Graphite Creek development agreement settled Port of Alaska modernization programme begins, Expected completion date 2022

2 018 Uptake in Algal cultivation technologies with the aim of producing biofuels and combating CO2 emission

2 019

2020 GLOBAL TEMP ANOMALY

7.3 billion ALASKAN POPULATION

746 000 ANCHORAGE POPULATION

300 000 | < 1 000 DECADE DIFFERENCE

+ 7 000

Mandated Biofuels

2 022 2 023

Synthesis

Modest nuclear growth

2 025 2 026

Electric vehicles enter mass regional markets

8.6 billion ALASKAN POPULATION

791 000 ANCHORAGE POPULATION

311 000 | > 1 000 DECADE DIFFERENCE

+ 11 000

DECADE DIFFERENCE

Major Graphene technology breakthrough Surrounding Arctic ice down to 20% of historical 1979-2000 average value

2030

2 031

CO2 emissions moderate

Aggressive investments made toward alternative, localised food production technologies

GLOBAL TEMP ANOMALY

2 032

Further rise in biofuels

Vehicles remain predominantly fossil fuel based due to relative low fuel costs and abundant supply 12% of Alaskans are food insecure

2 034

Solar expansion

Seeds of Change model has become most successful format of hydroponic-community business

2 035

CO2 emissions on the rise again Non-OECD reaches two-thirds of world primary energy demand

Graphene battery technology expansion

2 036

Continental U.S catastrophes and intensifying climate drives population and businesses northward

2 037

Air pollution in the metropolitan area rises significantly, 475 ppm

Anchorage population boom results in densification and increased sprawl

2040

ALASKAN POPULATION

824 000 ANCHORAGE POPULATION

339 000 | ~ 19 000 DECADE DIFFERENCE

+ 28 000

8.6 billion ALASKAN POPULATION

791 000 ANCHORAGE POPULATION

311 000 | > 1 000 DECADE DIFFERENCE

+ 11 000

Agricultural output in Alaska has almost doubled in productivity and reduced imports by 25%

2 0 42

India overtakes U.S. as major CO2 emitter

Surrounding Arctic is ice free during Summer months, Alaskan trade boom as a result

2 0 43

Climate adaption measures begin

U.S vehicles mandates for electric based transport system

2 0 44

Energy related CO2 emissions decline but atmospheric concentrations continue to rise

Permafrost thaw affects vast inland road infrastructures, reliance on air transport grows Alternate Production proliferates throughout city

2040

Global temperature average increase of 2.3°C relative to 19511980 average temp

Growing city populations result in greater necessity for inner-city civic function

GLOBAL TEMP ANOMALY

Energy mandates push Alaskan production toward a largely renewable system

+1.79°C

2 0 48

Biofuels ~30% of liquid fuels

Mat-Su Valley largest Biofuel User in-state

WORLD POPULATION

2 0 49

Decoupling of world GDP & energy growth

2 0 45

2 0 47

8% of Alaskans are food insecure Alaskan temperature average increase of 3.7°C

2050 ALASKAN POPULATION

WORLD POPULATION

ANCHORAGE POPULATION

DECADE DIFFERENCE

848 000

9.7 billion

382 000 | ~ 25 000

+ 43 000

GLOBAL TEMP ANOMALY

GROWING SEASON

+2.27°C

141 days

Graphite Creek operational

2 022 2 023

Modest nuclear growth

Surrounding Arctic ice melting rate sees further increases Port of Alaska modernization programme ends, Completion date 2024 Oil operations expand in the north due to diminishing ice and easier to access land

2 024 2 025 2 026

Port of Alaska modernization programme delays as funding is slow

Electric vehicles enter mass regional markets

Coastal Erosion worsens, displacing a number of coastal populations, prompts rapid reponse drone network Port of Alaska expansion programme begins, on going diversification

2 027 2 028

CCS deployed commercially

Major Graphene technology breakthrough

2 029

Coal hits constraints

Surrounding Arctic ice down to 20% of historical 1979-2000 average value

2 031

CO2 emissions moderate

Aggressive investments made toward alternative, localised food production technologies

2 032

Further rise in biofuels

Vehicles remain predominantly fossil fuel based due to relative low fuel costs and abundant supply 12% of Alaskans are food insecure

2 033 2 034

Solar expansion

Seeds of Change model has become most successful format of hydroponic-community business

2 035

CO2 emissions on the rise again Non-OECD reaches two-thirds of world primary energy demand

Graphene battery technology expansion

2 036

Continental U.S catastrophes and intensifying climate drives population and businesses northward

2 037

Air pollution in the metropolitan area rises significantly, 475 ppm

2 038 Anchorage population boom results in densification and increased sprawl

2 039

UNDERPINNING 2|0 41 BACKDROP 8% of all coal and gas fired power generation equipped with CCS

Agricultural output in Alaska has almost doubled in productivity and reduced imports by 25%

The projected timeline summarizes this,is ice free along with the India overtakes U.S.the as major Extrapolating Surrounding Arctic during Summer 2 0 42 CO2 emitter months, Alaskan trade boom aswhich a result has been Blueprints and Scramble scenarios, underpinning information Climate measures U.S vehicles mandates electric based plays transport out system 2 0 43 for plotting a likely course theadaption future of begin unpacked herein; thefortimeline ALASKAN POPULATION 824 000 the state of Alaska; with influences which the narrative for the state of Alaska in a Energy related CO2 emissions Permafrost thaw affects vast inland road infrastructures, 2 0 44 ANCHORAGE impactPOPULATION it directly on a global scale. mannerreliance which is transport specific to the region. The decline but atmospheric concentraon air grows 339 000 | ~ 19 000 tions continue to rise example above givesproliferates an indication Alternate Production throughoutof cityhow 2 0 45 DECADE DIFFERENCE this breakdown has been created. Shell 9.2 billion

+ 28 000

49

Mandated Biofuels

GROWING SEASON

127 days

GROWING SEASON

134 days

WORLD POPULATION

8% of all coal and gas fired power generation equipped with CCS

2 0 46

2 021

+1.42°C

2 0 41

+1.79°C 9.2 billion

122 days

Coal hits constraints

2 033

Uptake in Algal cultivation technologies with the aim of producing biofuels and combating CO2 emission

2 019

GROWING SEASON

CCS deployed commercially

2 039

WORLD POPULATION

+ 7 000

Coastal Erosion worsens, displacing a number of coastal populations, prompts rapid reponse drone network

2 038

GLOBAL TEMP ANOMALY

746 000

2 028

GROWING SEASON

127 days

ALASKAN POPULATION

2 029

+1.42°C WORLD POPULATION

7.3 billion

Graphite Creek operational

2030 GLOBAL TEMP ANOMALY

WORLD POPULATION

Port of Alaska expansion programme begins, on going diversification

2 027

Port of Alaska modernization programme begins, Expected completion date 2022

2 018

+1.05°C

300 000 | < 1 000

Surrounding Arctic ice melting rate sees further increases

Graphite Creek development agreement settled

2020

Port of Alaska modernization programme delays as funding is slow

Port of Alaska modernization programme ends, Completion date 2024 Oil operations expand in the north due to diminishing ice and easier to access land

2 024

GROWING SEASON

122 days

2010 through 2050

ANCHORAGE POPULATION 2 021

+1.05°C WORLD POPULATION

TI M ELI N E

GLOBAL TEMP ANOMALY 14% of Alaskans are food insecure

2 016

GROWING SEASON

114 days

Nome Graphite Creek is Announced to the public Port of Alaska modernization programme begins, Expected completion date 2022

2 012

Gradual decline in Coal with steady uptake of Natural Gas

Synthesis

2010

2 017

2 0 46

GROWING SEASON

134 days

2 0 47 2 0 48

Global temperature average increase of 2.3°C relative to 19511980 average temp

Growing city populations result in greater necessity for inner-city civic function

Biofuels ~30% of liquid fuels

Mat-Su Valley largest Biofuel User in-state

Energy mandates push Alaskan production toward a largely renewable system

50


INT ENT

I NTENTI O NS

“ I want to draw attention to what it is we must hold nearest and dearest to ourselves when our cities begin to change - drastically - as a result of climate change. ”

Intentions

Framing

I NTENTI O NS

51

52


INT ENT

I NTENTI O NS

“ I want to draw attention to what it is we must hold nearest and dearest to ourselves when our cities begin to change - drastically - as a result of climate change. ”

Intentions

Framing

I NTENTI O NS

51

52


OPEN FOR DEVELOPMENT Municipal 2040 LUP

SITE

Spenard Beach, Lake Hood Seaplane Base

HIGH DENSITY RESIDENTIAL Municipal 2040 LUP

+

Intentions

+

++

+ ++

+

++

+

Intentions

+

+

+

+

+

Existing

+

TED STEVENS | INT AIRPORT

+ + ++ ++ ++

HIGH SCHOOL Existing

SITE LOCATION Spenard Beach LAKE HOOD | SEAPLANE BASE The world’s largest and busiest 190 Flights / Day / Year

COMMERCIAL CORRIDOR Municipal 2040 LUP

INDUSTRIAL ZONE Existing “ Not a beach for you to get into water. It’s a float plane air field so you can just sit on the side and watch. It’s actually a really popular thing to do, and everyone seems to enjoy it. ” Map | Lake Hood Seaplane Base and surrounds 53

54


OPEN FOR DEVELOPMENT Municipal 2040 LUP

SITE

Spenard Beach, Lake Hood Seaplane Base

HIGH DENSITY RESIDENTIAL Municipal 2040 LUP

+

Intentions

+

++

+ ++

+

++

+

Intentions

+

+

+

+

+

Existing

+

TED STEVENS | INT AIRPORT

+ + ++ ++ ++

HIGH SCHOOL Existing

SITE LOCATION Spenard Beach LAKE HOOD | SEAPLANE BASE The world’s largest and busiest 190 Flights / Day / Year

COMMERCIAL CORRIDOR Municipal 2040 LUP

INDUSTRIAL ZONE Existing “ Not a beach for you to get into water. It’s a float plane air field so you can just sit on the side and watch. It’s actually a really popular thing to do, and everyone seems to enjoy it. ” Map | Lake Hood Seaplane Base and surrounds 53

54


SITE

Spenard Beach, Lake Hood Seaplane Base

PROX I M IT Y

CO R R I D O R

The site is located near several important infrastructural nodes | Logistics Advantage

The proposed 2040 LUP commercial corridor terminates at the site | Public Draw

D E NS IT Y

LO C ATI O N

Surrounding neighbourhoods are set to be some of the more densely populated residential areas in the 2040 LUP | Popular Locale

The site offers beautiful views of the mountains to the east, and takeoffs West | Spectacle

Intentions

Intentions

Fig.19 Seaplane runway

M I DTOW N I N DUSTRY The site is well positioned to link with existing and proposed industry | Production

The site lies just a few blocks south west of the proposed additional urban and employment center | Concentration

Fig.18 Boy swinging, watching the seaplanes take off 55

56


SITE

Spenard Beach, Lake Hood Seaplane Base

PROX I M IT Y

CO R R I D O R

The site is located near several important infrastructural nodes | Logistics Advantage

The proposed 2040 LUP commercial corridor terminates at the site | Public Draw

D E NS IT Y

LO C ATI O N

Surrounding neighbourhoods are set to be some of the more densely populated residential areas in the 2040 LUP | Popular Locale

The site offers beautiful views of the mountains to the east, and takeoffs West | Spectacle

Intentions

Intentions

Fig.19 Seaplane runway

M I DTOW N I N DUSTRY The site is well positioned to link with existing and proposed industry | Production

The site lies just a few blocks south west of the proposed additional urban and employment center | Concentration

Fig.18 Boy swinging, watching the seaplanes take off 55

56


TH EM ES

PRO G R A M M E + FU N C TI O NS

Biophilic Design + Tactility + Access

.his facility whilst at its ‘economic’ core is powered by the production of hydro+aeroponically cultivated crops; serves, more importantly, as a civic anchor in this now densified part of the city.

The Spenard and Turnagain neighbourhoods have seen a significant increase in residential density, and given the advent of digital consumerism; a necessity for more quality public space has arisen.

FO O D MUS E UM

C U LTI VATI O N

SU PP O RTI V E

Public Function

Semi Public

Private

Hydroponics

Drone Port

Primary display space for large exhibitions and events

Hydrate nutrient mix cultivation

Medium scale aeroport for drone deployment and delivery

All the while visitors can enjoy the symphony of air take offs and landings during the summer time, or enjoy warm respite from the cold during winter.

Embedded Exhibitions

Intentions

Gallery

The Facility offers a warm, green experience for users who would like to visit the museum of Alaskan food culture, or take part in a variety of community based programmes. Traditional food stuffs can be collected as they are brought back by sea plane, or fresh produce cultivated in-house purchased from the market.

Exhibition Halls Dedicated exhibit spaces for themed exhibitions

Displays which run throughout circulatory building spaces

Multipurpose Rooms Functional spaces for events, lectures and gatherings

UNPACKING | THEMES Biophilic Design

Access

The importance of nature in the Alaskan context runs deep and true; from native to contemporary life, people find joy and and love spending time in the ‘great outdoors’. It is to this end which I would like to explore the potential value which a ‘green indoor’ space may bring; in contrast to the cold and grey outdoors during winter time

Dichotomous Alaskan relationships; urban and rural, hungry and fed and contemporary and historical. Much of the struggle today in Alaska deals with the issue of access. Whether hindered geographically or economically, imposed by policy or for lack of provision, I believe investigating how a facility and programme of this kind can mediate access is a valid and valuable undertaking.

Aeroponics Aerated nutrient mix cultivation

Soil Allotments Publicly held growing spaces

Algae Cultivation Microalgae production for biosequestration and consumption

Restaurant

Marketplace

Formal dining experience with views to the mountains

Green market where produce is sold and trade takes place

Café

Seaplane Dock Logistics connection to seaplanes for delivery

Storage Various storage spaces for museum and cultivation spaces

Intentions

T

The productive museum

Service Space Back of house for service oriented functions

Prep and Packaging Cultivation preparation areas for distribution and delivery

Casual dining experience with views to the lake

Commons Lounge and relaxation spaces for visitors and employees

Cold Stores Storage for perishables and sensitive goods

Tactility In an increasingly digital world the rift between tactile and virtual continues to grow. Exploring the relationship between materiality and place is thus a topic of investigation for this programme. 57

58


TH EM ES

PRO G R A M M E + FU N C TI O NS

Biophilic Design + Tactility + Access

.his facility whilst at its ‘economic’ core is powered by the production of hydro+aeroponically cultivated crops; serves, more importantly, as a civic anchor in this now densified part of the city.

The Spenard and Turnagain neighbourhoods have seen a significant increase in residential density, and given the advent of digital consumerism; a necessity for more quality public space has arisen.

FO O D MUS E UM

C U LTI VATI O N

SU PP O RTI V E

Public Function

Semi Public

Private

Hydroponics

Drone Port

Primary display space for large exhibitions and events

Hydrate nutrient mix cultivation

Medium scale aeroport for drone deployment and delivery

All the while visitors can enjoy the symphony of air take offs and landings during the summer time, or enjoy warm respite from the cold during winter.

Embedded Exhibitions

Intentions

Gallery

The Facility offers a warm, green experience for users who would like to visit the museum of Alaskan food culture, or take part in a variety of community based programmes. Traditional food stuffs can be collected as they are brought back by sea plane, or fresh produce cultivated in-house purchased from the market.

Exhibition Halls Dedicated exhibit spaces for themed exhibitions

Displays which run throughout circulatory building spaces

Multipurpose Rooms Functional spaces for events, lectures and gatherings

UNPACKING | THEMES Biophilic Design

Access

The importance of nature in the Alaskan context runs deep and true; from native to contemporary life, people find joy and and love spending time in the ‘great outdoors’. It is to this end which I would like to explore the potential value which a ‘green indoor’ space may bring; in contrast to the cold and grey outdoors during winter time

Dichotomous Alaskan relationships; urban and rural, hungry and fed and contemporary and historical. Much of the struggle today in Alaska deals with the issue of access. Whether hindered geographically or economically, imposed by policy or for lack of provision, I believe investigating how a facility and programme of this kind can mediate access is a valid and valuable undertaking.

Aeroponics Aerated nutrient mix cultivation

Soil Allotments Publicly held growing spaces

Algae Cultivation Microalgae production for biosequestration and consumption

Restaurant

Marketplace

Formal dining experience with views to the mountains

Green market where produce is sold and trade takes place

Café

Seaplane Dock Logistics connection to seaplanes for delivery

Storage Various storage spaces for museum and cultivation spaces

Intentions

T

The productive museum

Service Space Back of house for service oriented functions

Prep and Packaging Cultivation preparation areas for distribution and delivery

Casual dining experience with views to the lake

Commons Lounge and relaxation spaces for visitors and employees

Cold Stores Storage for perishables and sensitive goods

Tactility In an increasingly digital world the rift between tactile and virtual continues to grow. Exploring the relationship between materiality and place is thus a topic of investigation for this programme. 57

58


TI AG O DA COSTA VASCO N CELOS 5th Year Thesis Student 170120 Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts School of Architecture, IBT Tutor | David A. Garcia

Spring 2019

Architecture and Extreme Environments

PRO GRA


TI AG O DA COSTA VASCO N CELOS 5th Year Thesis Student 170120 Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts School of Architecture, IBT Tutor | David A. Garcia

Spring 2019

Architecture and Extreme Environments

PRO GRA


Blueprint Anchorage 2050 Cultivating Social Capital