Connection of Fairy Tales and STEAM - guide for preschool teachers

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Group of authors : Nataša Vrapčević, Ksenija Ulaga, Elpida Tamvaka, Nitza Sakellaki, Svetla Jordanova,Mojca Krajšek, Urška Mastnak, Suzana Adamič, Petra Narobe, Snežana Jocić, Jagoda Korać, Edina Đorović, Ana Pertet, Violeta Vrcelj Odri This guide book is the main product of two years lasting Erasmus and eTwinning project : “Connection of Fairy Tales and STEAM”

Book cover creator : Nataša Vrapčević Subotica, 12.12.2021.

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INTRODUCTION “If you want your children to be intelligent, read them fairy tales. If you want them to be more intelligent, read them more fairy tales.”

( Albert Einstein )

This guide book is created as a result of two years work on the international Erasmus project “Connection of Fairy Tales and STEAM”. The guide is designed in accordance with the national pre-school curricula of all countries involved. Even young children not only do they have a natural curiosity for STEAM, but they are also good at it! Preschool children are curious and Science encourages them to experiment, problem solving and exploring. They are familiar with computers and Technology which are a part of their life. Preschool children have so many questions and so many creative solutions, which is the main base of Engineering. Art develops children's creativity and allows children to illustrate concepts they are learning. Art is a part of every childhood and helps in learning. Mathematics deals with numbers, but also with shapes and organizational skills like graphing and sorting. Children's play is intertwined with math. Fairy tales are part of childhood and child development.and they boost a child’s imagination. Our intention was to implement STEAM activities in our preschool institutions, to share knowledge with colleagues and enable children, preschool teachers and other participants to develop their 21st century skills: (1) Life-long learning skills (2) Interactively using different tools and resources (intellectual, cultural, linguistic, material, technical, physical, virtual ) (3) Interacting with others (capacity to collaborate to face complexity, analyze demands, solve problems ) (4) Interacting with the world ( multiculturalism, multi-religious, multilingual perspectives) (5) Multi-literalness (6) Transdisciplinarity: capacity to enable sophisticated solutions that integrate knowledge from multiple multiple disciplines When we started the project, STEAM was relatively new for all of us but learning from each other and exchange of good practices resulted in better understanding STEAM approach and implementing STEAM approach in our preschool institutions as everyday practice. Fairy Tales are essential stories for childhood and they give them real moral lessons through characters. Fairy tales may bring children to a fantasy and many moral messages stay in their hearts. Many studies show that fairy tales have significant positive results in child development. Children like fairy tales. They are a part of everyday learning. Fairy tales are interesting and many mysterious things 3


happen in fairy tales. Many questions stay open after reading fairy tales. We concluded that they can be an excellent base for STEAM activities in kindergartens. Our intention was to implement STEAM activities in our preschool institutions, to share knowledge with colleagues and enable children and preschool teachers to develop their 21st century skills: Children are curious and very often they ask so many questions. Their imagination is further enhanced through listening to fairy tales. Fairy tales are an excellent base for exploring the traditions and culture of partner countries. There are so many opportunities to apply the STEAM method according to mystical elements and fenomena from fairy tales. Reading fairy tales develops children’s: 1.EARLY LITERACY DEVELOPMENT: Exposure to fairy tales will help preschoolers extrapolate common themes across everything else they read! 2.VOCABULARY : Fairy tales are written in pure and figurative language. https://pambarnhill.com/fairy-tales-preschool-development/ 3.PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS Children help characters to solve problems in fairy tales, they connect the situation with their own lives. Fairy tales also teach them critical thinking skills. 3. BUILDING RESILIENCE IN CHILDREN Fairy Tales are full of unfair situations and it helps children to understand that bad things can happen to everyone.On this way fairy tales show them that life is full of challenges and that they have to be ready to believe they can succeed and solve life problems. 4. CULTURAL LITERACY Fairy tales carry so many cultural and traditional elements and children can learn a lot about various cultures and traditions.. 5. FAIRY TALES TEACHES THE BASIC OF A STORY Fairy tales are excellent models of story development , conflict resolution, and the development of characters. This helps them to differentiate fiction from non-fiction.

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S Our project started on the etwinning platform a year ago and we continued to work on the same project implementing Erasmus activities. The Etwinning platform was the main place of exchanging materials, communication and collaboration of all partners. Children had occasion to watch materials of their peer, to discuss and analyse them and suggest new ideas, to create collaborative posters, digital stories.Children also had occasion to learn from their peers from partner countries using web 2.00 tools such us : Jigsaw Puzzle, Collorilo, Voicetheread, Story Jump ICT skills of children and preschool teachers, they learn from each other how to use web 2.00 tools. Also, teachers and children were communicating using video conferences and developing their digital, communication, collaboration and linguistic skills.

ABOUT PARTNERS

PRESCHOOL INSTITUTION “NAŠA RADOST” , SUBOTICA, SERBIA Preschool institution "Nasa radost" is located in Subotica, a multicultural and multinational town north of Serbia. It consists of 55 kindergartens which are placed in the town and surrounding villages.Three of them are Montessori kindergartens. The institution provides a physical and social environment for living and learning for about 4200 children one to seven years old. There are about 350 preschool teachers, a principal, 5 principal assistants and 10 professional associates - pedagogues, psychologists and speech -therapists who are responsible for implementing the state preschool program. A preschool program is carried out in three languages - Serbian, Hungarian and Croatian which are the official languages in the town. The institution's vision and mission is to be in trend, to follow pedagogical innovations in order to improve preschool education. STEAM (educational approach to learning that uses Science, Technology, Engineering, the Arts and Mathematics as access points for guiding student inquiry, dialogue, and critical thinking. Motivation of preschool institution "Nasa radost" for participation in this project is intention to implement STEAM in everyday educational process, to engage children, preschool teachers and parents in experiential learning, problem-solving, collaboration, and work through the creative process.

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Subotica is a town located North of Serbia. A major cultural center in Vojvodina and one of the most beautiful towns in Serbia, Subotica was even the capital of a fairy-tale-like empire in the 16th century. Through its long history Subotica often changed its rulers, countries and names. It has changed over 200 names – it was called Zabadka, Szent Maria, Maria Tereziopolis… It was under the governance of Hungarians, Turks, Serbs, and it was included in both Habsburg and Ottoman Empire, and then Yugoslavia. Once it was the capital of one almost fairy-tale empire. Subotica went a long way to being a Serbian most northern city and one of the most beautiful cities of Serbia. However, what remained the same during the course of all these centuries is the fact that it is a city worth being seen, a good place for a shorter or longer holiday, home of warmhearted and welcoming people of different nationalities who make Subotica look so charming and unique.

Three kindergartens of Preschool institution “Naša radost” participated in this project:

KINDERGARTEN DOBRNA Dobrna kindergarten is a part of Primary school Dobrna JVIZ OŠ Dobrna. In kindergarten Dobrna there are 8 groups of children, about 150 children. In kindergarten work 8 preschool teachers, 9 preschool teacher 6


assistants, 2 chefs, 1 headteacher. Preschool education is provided in two age groups: - First: children aged 1 to 3 and - Second: children aged 3 to school age (6). Dobrna kindergarten may implement full day, half day and shorter programs. Programs encompass education, care and meals. The curriculum in most of the kindergarten in Slovenia is based on the Curriculum for preschool Institutions. Curriculum is national based. It covers the following areas: movement, language, art, nature, society and mathematics but the kindergarten is enhancing it with advanced approaches, such as NTC learning, forest pedagogy, systematic monitoring of child development. Kindergarten Dobrna has a long experience in the field of theater, forest pedagogy, mathematics and movement. Kindergarten has a theater group of educators who each year prepare some theater and puppet shows for children. They connect all the sequences ,all areas of the curriculum. In recent years ,with natural sciences. All the activities are also performed in the forest playground.

Dobrna is a place with the oldest Slovenian health resort linked to the centre with a mighty chestnut alley, while pleasant walking, cycling and educational forest trails link it to the energy park, green nature and attractions in the surroundings. It is best known for its spa. It lies north of Celje and east of Velenje in an area that is part of the traditional region of Styria. The municipality is now included in the Savinja Statistical Region.

18th KINDERGARTEN OF RHODES, GREECE Teachers: Elpida Tamvaka, Kokonitsa Sakellaki

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The 18th Kindergarten of Rhodes, Greece is located in the centre of the city of Rhodes. Rhodes Island is the capital of the complex of the Dodecanese Islands in the southeast of the Aegean Sea. It is a small mainstream kindergarten, hosting, every year, up to 22 children aged 4 to 6. Here operates an Inclusion Class within the original class. Three to five children attend this class every year, who are diagnosed with special educational needs and are facing learning difficulties, physical disabilities or behavioral disorders. The educational staff consists of two preschool education teachers; one of them is responsible for the implementation of the curriculum for the whole class and also has the administrative role and the other one provides help and assistance to the children who attend the Inclusion Class. The 18th Kindergarten of Rhodes has taken part in competitions held by the International Center of Writers and Translators of Rhodes, Greece, which were based on book reading and creating crafts inspired by the books and has been awarded 1st, 2nd and 3rd prizes over the last five consecutive years. We participate every year in innovative programmes (Unicef, Helmepa, Road Safety, Mediterranean SOS Network, School Activities organized by the Greek Ministry of Education), actions and eTwinning projects. This kindergarten has been awarded the eTwinning National Quality Label, the European Quality Label and kindergarten has been characterized as an eTwinning School. Science and Math are two of the main interests of the staff and relevant activities take place every day in the school, in which children are deeply encouraged and supported to take an active role towards discovering, experimenting and learning. The teachers have participated in International and National Conferences in the field of Mathematics with paper presentations. The staff of the school is very well qualified.

The island of Rhodes is situated in the South Aegean Sea. It is the largest island in the Dodecanese and the fourth in Greece! It has a long history, a rich natural environment, beautiful beaches and modern tourist facilities, elements that have for decades made it one of the most popular tourist destinations both nationally and worldwide. With its bright green hills, rich green valleys and uninterrupted line of golden beaches (253 kilometers of coastline), Rhodes is truly a blessed place. The island’s special blend of cosmopolitan and traditional elements and numerous cultural and archaeological sites make Rhodes unique and unforgettable for every visitor.

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Thanks to its strategic position, Rhodes has been important since ancient times. Rhodes soon developed into one of the most important trading centres in the Eastern Mediterranean. In 1948 Rhodes officially became part of Greece. In 1988 the Medieval City of Rhodes was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site.

KINDERGARTEN “DETELINA”, VIDIN, BULGARIA The kindergarten is located in the north-west region of Bulgaria, in Vidin. Our town is on the right bank of the Danube river and borders both Romania and Serbia. “Detelina '' kindergarten is a public kindergarten that promotes modern, quality management standards in education. The institution wants to create a small universe in every child, to find a suitable framework for education, training their own personalities, discovery and enjoyment of native skills. Except for the main activities, our children have the opportunity to be trained in additional activities. These are English, folk and sports racing dances, football, arts and yoga. The pedagogical team consists of 15 teachers and one headmaster. It has170, from 3-7 years old. The kindergarten also has two nurses- responsible for children’s health and 14 other support staff. "Detelina" kindergarten puts into practice of ideas of combining both traditional pedagogy with alternative pedagogies, promoting children's overall development concept, meaning that the child prepares for school and life must take into account not only academic skills, related to intelligence cognitive, and equally, pedagogy and the modern, European intelligence related to socio-emotional development. The key persons involved in running this project will be principal and contact person. There are 3 more persons who could continue with the project if some of them leave. School and staff are experts in socio-emotional development. Children work in groups , collaborate, communicate, they solve problems together especially participating in Engineering activities .

The symbol of the city is “Baba Vida” – the only fully preserved Medieval Fortress in Bulgaria. It was built on top of a Roman fortress during the Xth century. It has never been conquered by an enemy army. Baba Vida rises proudly next to the Danube river and is often a first stop for the visitors of the town…

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FAIRY TALES AND STEAM During the period of two years our students introduced three Serbian fairy tales, one Bulgarian, one Slovenian and one Greek fairy tale. In the first phase all partners were working on their own fairy tales and in the second phase all partners were working on traditional fairy tales of partner countries. Traditional fairy tales have their roots in oral tradition. They have very similar plots, characters, and motifs are found spread across many different cultures. Fairy tales also tend to determine their location, through the choice of motifs, the style in which they are told, and the depiction of character and local color. During the realization of activities of this project we learned a lot about the culture and tradition of our partner countries through our traditional fairy tales. All of them are a good base for STEAM activities and it was not hard to motivate children to ask questions which were the starting point to all STEAM activities we provided for two years. One of the first tasks was to prepare the logo of the project. The Slovenian partner got an excellent idea and we accepted this.

All partners created project corners in their kindergartens. We send to each other photos of our towns, flags and text about our kindergartens. We sent to each other some information about our culture and tradition.

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BROTHER AND SISTER (Greek folktale, adapted from the tale with the same title from the Collection by G.A. Megas Folktales of Greece, 1999)

Once upon a time there were two poor siblings, a brother and his sister. The brother was a wood seller and the sister took care of the house. One day, while the brother was going to work, he met a stranger. The man asked the young man to do a chore for him and gave him some money for this. The young man bought three small fish and took them home. Later, three women knocked on the siblings’ front door. “We are very tired, can we rest here for a while?” The sister happily agreed and she offered them the three fish because she didn’t have anything else to treat them. The three women were very grateful, so they decided to give the girl some blessings. The first woman said “when she combs herself, pearls will fall off her hair”. The second woman said “when she washes herself, her basin will fill with fish” and the third woman said “when she dries herself, the towel will fill with roses‘’. After that, the three women left and the girl wondered if their blessings would in fact ever become true. She then picked up the comb to comb herself and she saw pearls all over the place! When she washed herself, similar but much bigger fish appeared out of nowhere in her basin! When she used the towel, it was filled with roses! The sister gathered all the pearls and the roses and she cooked the fish. When her brother came home, he was very angry to discover that the small fish had been replaced by other more expensive fish. His sister explained to him what had happened and they both felt very happy because they weren’t poor anymore. The next day the brother took the pearls to another town to an open market to sell them, but the people didn’t believe that they belonged to him. They thought that he had stolen the pearls and took him to the king to judge him. The young man then told the king the whole story and the king said ‘’Go and bring your sister. If she is telling the truth, I will marry her. Otherwise, I will kill you’’. The brother came back home, took his sister with him and they got into a boat to go to the king. But the girl got seasick! On the boat travelling with them, there was a witch disguised as a poor woman and cunningly offered to help the girl. She also asked her where they were going. When the witch heard their story, she put a magic pin into the girl’s head and the girl turned into a bird and flew away.

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After that, the witch put on the girl’s clothes and the brother didn’t recognize her. When the king saw the witch, he was terrified. He told the servants to bring her a basin to wash herself, a comb to comb herself and a towel to dry herself. The woman washed and combed and dried herself, but nothing extraordinary happened. The king was really furious and ordered his servants to put the young man in prison and make the woman work in the fields. The brother kept saying that that particular woman was not his sister, but no one believed him. The next day the king visited his garden and a small bird flew over him and started singing with a human voice I am that bird, that little bird which combed itself and pearls fell off which washed itself and fish appeared which dried itself and roses fell off. When the king heard these words, he ordered his servants to capture that bird and put it in a cage. The bird kept singing the same song and after a few days the king ordered to bring the bird in front of him. He started patting it on the head and he touched the pin with his finger. He pulled it out and immediately a beautiful girl appeared! “I am your wife and the other woman is an evil witch who turned me into a bird”. To prove her story, the sister combed herself and pearls filled the place, she washed herself and the basin filled with fish, she used the towel and roses fell off. The king ordered his servants to dress her in royal clothes and he put her on a golden throne next to him. He then freed her brother and punished the evil witch! And they lived happily ever after! ACTIVITIES OF PARTNER PRESCHOOL INSTITUTIONS ON THEME “ BROTHER AND SISTER” 18th Kindergarten of Rhodes,Greece ACTIVITIES BASED ON “BROTHER AND SISTER” FAIRY TALE MATH ACTIVITIES Activity 1: Small fish to larger ones Math Concept: Shapes - Similarity Math goal Children should be able to recognize similar shapes, i.e. shapes whose dimensions are proportional and one can derive from the other with appropriate reduction or enlargement Material

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Geogebra Software (for making the fish shapes), a small plastic basin, Small and large fish made of craft paper, worksheet Connection to the story We first referred to the fairy tale and more specifically to the fact that the brother brought small fish to his sister. After the wishes of the three women, every time the girl washed her hands in the basin, they appeared similar to the original fish, but larger. Process Phase A We presented the three original small different fish and three more, similar to the original, but larger. The children spotted the pairs of similar fish and made observations about their bodies and tails. Phase B In small groups we presented the three original fish, but with more versions of similarity, as well as two counterexamples for each fish, in which there was similarity in body or tail. The children had to choose the fish that would fall into the sister's basin when she washed, i.e. the similar ones. Phase C Each child filled in a worksheet and matched the original fish to the larger one, excluding shapes that were not similar.

Activity 2: The brother is buying fish Math Concept: Numbers- Multiplication Math Goal To understand the concept of multiplication as a repetitive addition Material Fish made of craft paper, a small crate, coins worth 1 unit, made of craft paper Connection to the story The teacher being “the fisherman” was selling the fish. The children being “the brother” asked for as many fish as they wanted and paid the price. Process We approached this activity with the method of theatrical play. According to the fairy tale the brother bought three fish. So the children had to find how much the brother had to pay for his fish if each one cost 1 coin.

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They then had to answer the same question only now the number of the fish changed and the cost was 2 coins for each (multiplication with 2). The amount of money they had changed too. ● The value of the fish was written on a piece of paper ● Each child was given a different amount of money. So there were cases when they asked for more fish they could afford and others when they had changed. ● Children were urged to make a representation of their purchase on their own.

Activity 3: What was the bird cage like? Can we make one? Math Concept: Geometry - Solid shapes Material A cage made of craft paper, Folded geometric solid shapes (cylinder, pyramid, cone, cube), a bag with wooden solid shapes, Foldouts of the cube in various forms (including some which cannot reconstruct a cube) Math Goal 14


To be able to identify and name solid geometric shapes: cylinder, pyramid, cone, cube Connection to the story The children are presented with the cage in which the king kept the singing bird. Process Phase A They identify the similar folded shape, the cube, among the others. Phase B Math Goal To be able to analyze and describe a solid geometric shape i.e. the cube, its elements and properties (vertices, sides, edges) by having the shape fold flat, allowing for the illustration of a three-dimensional shape's two-dimensional properties Process The children observe the cube closely and they feel it with their eyes open and closed. They pick out the cube out of a bag with wooden solid shapes, just by feeling them They name and describe its elements and properties. We unfold it flat and children follow the previous steps. Phase C Math Goal To be able to pick up the fold out shapes that reconstruct the shape of the cube to the original shape, excluding the ones that do not form a cube Process The children are given different foldouts of the cube and are asked to find only the ones that reconstruct a cube by observing them and through trial and error.

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TECHNOLOGY - ROBOTICS ACTIVITIES Going to the castle on a boat Goal Coding. To be able to move the brother and Sister/ pawn on a board of squares (4 by 4) vertically or horizontally starting from a certain square so as to reach the requested destination imitating the programming of a beebot. Connection to the story The Brother and Sister had to reach the palace to show the Sister’s magical abilities. They travelled on a boat but they came across a lot of difficulties. Process The children had to move the Brother and Sister pawn on the board so as to reach the castle. In various squares, which the teachers changed every time, there were obstacles such as rough waves, a storm and a witch. So the children had to find a route and alternative ones according to where the obstacles were put. In the end, some of the older children were able to follow and say orders to move the pawn around using expressions like: one square to the left, one square to the right and so on.

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ENGINEERING ACTIVITIES Activity 1. Making a bird cage Material plastic bricks, colored wooden sticks, cardboard, scissors, blue tac, glue Goal ● Το help them start to understand the thought, design and technology behind structural engineering ● To design objects more complex in terms of structure and shape while still having a simple function. Connection to the story The last time we talked about the cage, we came to the conclusion that we did not want to build a cage, because we do not want any animal to be imprisoned. This time, however, the children suggested that we make cages that would be like little nests and would have one of their sides open, so that the bird could decide when to enter and when to leave. Process We first brainstormed about how we could make the cages, what materials we would use and the children's ideas led to the creation of three groups: The first group made a cage out of plastic bricks, the second out of colored wooden sticks and the third out of cardboard. The third group proceeded with measurements using informal units of measurement, to complete the construction of the cage. In this way, they also developed their mathematical skills.

Activity 2. We make and send the mysterious object from our own fairy tale Material model paper, Water colours, beads Goal To design technology more complex in terms of structure and shape while still having a simple function. Connection to the story 17


With great ease the children chose the mysterious object that we will send to all countries: the pin of the evil witch who transformed the girl into a bird. Will children from other countries understand what this object is about? Process The teachers used model paper to create the object and the children used all their imagination to decorate it.

ART ACTIVITIES Making a book for the Greek fairy tale “Brother and Sister” Goal To create visual representations using their experiences, know-how, emotions and imagination individually and in groups. Connection to the story As the Greek traditional fairy tale constitutes an important part of our activities in our kindergarten, the children wanted to draw the most important scenes of the story and make a book of their own. Process Through discussion and recording of their initial ideas, the children decided which scene each one would draw, so that they could illustrate the facts. Then each child presented his/ her work. In the next phase, the children placed the drawings in the correct chronological order, a process from which creative discussions emerged! In the end we created the cover and put together our book! From now on it will be in the classroom’s library!

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SCIENCE ACTIVITIES Making Goal ● To experiment with different substances i.e. soap in any form, liquid and solid and to investigated the properties-uses of soap as a material ● To mix different substances using the appropriate quantities so as to create a new one for a certain purpose. Connection to the story ‘Soap ' gave us the opportunity to combine the experiments with it and our fairy tale "Brother and sister", as strange as it sounds! Creativity and experimentation in the natural sciences were our main goals. The expected result of the activities was to create self-adhesive figures from our fairy tale, to retell the story in a different way and to stick them on the windows of our classroom, with the possibility of reusing them, as they stick and come off easily and can be transferred on different surfaces. Process We introduced the ingredients of the mixture to the children 3 tablespoons of white glue 1 tablespoon of liquid soap 1 teaspoon of pastry color We first mixed the ingredients in plastic bowls. Then the children drew all the figures of the fairy tale on paper and we covered each design with lamination gel. With brushes the children formed the outline of the figures and they painted within the outlines of the figures. We let them dry for a whole day. Next we made 19


a time-line story by putting the pictures in the right order and we told our story. Finally, we decorated our windows

Kindergarten Dobrna, Slovenia MATH ACTIVITIES BASED ON “BROTHER AND SISTER” FAIRY TALE Activity 1: How many fish Math Concept: Numbers A: Fish in aquarium B: Fish different colors Goal: ● Children use names for numbers. ● Children acknowledge one-to-one correspondence and practise it.

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Process: A: The children place as many fish in the aquarium as there are numbers or dots on the aquarium. B: The children place the appropriate color and number of plastic stoppers next to the fish. Activity 2: Crown Math Concept: Sequences, geometric shapes, sorting A: Decorated crown B: Crowns of different sizes Goal: ● Children recognize the sequence and continue it. ● Children learn about geometric shapes. ● Children sort the crowns correctly from the smallest to the largest and in reverse order. Process: A: The child paints circles of different sizes accordingly (correctly). Then recognizes the pattern and continues it. B: The child sorts the crowns from the smallest to the largest and then from the largest to the smallest. Material: worksheet with a crown, crayons; crown of different sizes

TECHNOLOGY ACTIVITY Making ships and fish Goal: ● Children are acquainted with the plan of making the ship and the fish. ● Children follow the plan. ● Children make a fish or a boat. Process: The children look at the plan. Prepare the appropriate material. Follow the plan and make a boat or fish.

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SCIENCE ACTIVITY Experiment what floats and what sinks Goal: ● Children gain experience of how he or she can contribute to nature conservation by reusing packaging waste. ● Children learn about different materials. ● Children anticipate what floats and what sinks. Process: The children made fish and boats from natural and waste materials. We poured water into two containers. We put the fish in the first container of water and determined whether it would swim or sink. Before we put the ships in another container of water, we determined whether it would float or sink. We found that ships and fish sank from the stone, after a while also from paper. From other materials (plastic, cork, wood...) they floated.

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ART ACTIVITY CHARACTERS FROM THE STORY Goal: ● Children play, design, create, express themselves with natural material in space. ● Children depict the same themes in drawings and other natural materials. Process: The children drew characters from a fairy tale on cardboard. Different natural material was placed on the drawn figures.

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PRESCHOOL INSTITUTION “NAŠA RADOST” Activities based on “Brother and sister” fairy tale According to new preschool curriculum in Serbia all activities started from children’s questions and their interests. Children are the main leaders of project activities. Preschool teachers observe their work and motivate children to explore, to work in small groups, to communicate, to give ideas about their own learning. Based on “Brother and sister “fairy tale children from Subotica worked in small groups trying to find solution how they could cross the river. Groups were experimenting what floats and what sinks, they were creating tables of their exploring and according to them they created various kinds of boats. Children were free to choose materials for constructing their boats.

STEAM approach is interdisciplinary approach and during this work children were exploring, playing, learning about items which floats and sinks, they were counting sticks, pine cones, they were creating characters of plasticine. They were communicating and discussing possible solutions and created many group’s products. 24


The fairy tale "Brother and Sister" was an inspiration for building a castle from recycling ( paper rolls, paper boxes…). Teamwork and cooperation were at the top level. Older children help the younger ones and suggest ideas that turn into new innovations. Children were planning, drawing their plans , measuring length of paper tubes, predicting, designing.

Children were motivated to create collaborative stories and they were presenting parts of the story to each other and at the end connected the whole story. We prepared exhibition in our kindergarten and on this way other groups were able to be informed about our project activities.

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DETSKA GRADINA “DETELINA”, VIDIN Children were the most interested in art activities but as STEAM is integrative approach, many activities were covered with Science, Technology,Engineering, Art and Math.

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Children also created outdoor dramatizations on the theme.

THE GOLDEN GIRL ( Bulgarian folk tale )

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Once upon a time there was a family who lived in Bulgaria. The family consisted of a father and a beautiful daughter who was well behaved. Unfortunately the mother passed away and the father had remarried. The new step mother had a daughter of her own. The step mother wanted the father to love only her daughter and also wanted to get rid of his own daughter. So the stepmother hatched a plan to deceive the good daughter. She baked a loaf of bread with black ash-like flower and gave it to her husband. He was told to take the good daughter deep in the forest where there was a tremendous hill. Once there he was toroll the loaf of bread down the hill and when the good girl started to chase it down the hill the father would hide and leave the good daughter alone in the forest. The father did just that, he took the black loaf of bread and rolled it down the tremendous hill. The good girl ran after it with all might, chasing it so far that she was so deep into the forest that she got lost. When she realised this she could no longer see her father. The good daughter began to panic and started crying out for her father. After calling for him for a while with no answer, it began to get dark. Close by lived an old lady, she heard all the crying and sobbing. The old woman shouted out to the good daughter, “Who is crying in the forest. If you are a girl, come to me! If you are a boy go away!” The good daughter replied “I am a girl.” The old lady responded to come to her. The good girl found the old lady’s house, there she received a warm meal. The next morning when the good daughter woke, she was so grateful that she swept the floor and tidy up the whole house. The old woman was pleasantly surprised. The old lady told the good girl that she was leaving to go to church. While she was at church the a good daughter was to feed the old lady’s pets. These pets were snakes and lizards. The oldwoman told her not to be afraid because they were not a threat and that they were very clever.The good girl did exactly what was asked and fed the pets without being afraid. She even made small necklaces for the pets from a necklace that she was wearing. When the old lady returned her pets could not stop bragging about how well they were treated by the good daughter. The pets called the old lady Grandma. The pets said, “Grandmawe was fed well and the good girl even made us jewelry.” The old woman replied that she would repay the good daughter with a necklace of her own. After lunch the old lady took the good girl to a nearby river. When they reached The old woman told the good daughter that she was tired and needed to take a nap. She asked the good girl to brush her hair to help her fall asleep easier. The good my daughter replied, “With pleasure Grandma!” The old lady told the good daughter while she sleeps the good daughter should look at all the beautiful colours of the river. The old woman said not to wake her when the river turns red but only to wake her when the river turns yellow. So the girl did what she was told and woke the old lady up when the river turned yellow. The old Granny took the good daughter and dunked her into the river telling her to grab whatever she could. The good girl reached in and when she came out she was holding a chest. The old woman said because the good daughter was such a good girl the chest was her reward. The old lady wished her good luck, but she knew that the good daughter was homesick. At that point the old Grandma showed her the way back to her home. The girl left the forest and made it back to her father’s house. Both her father and step mother were surprised to see her. The good daughter was different, she turned golden from the yellow waters of the river and shined bright as the sun. The good daughter was now the golden girl. The golden girl gave the chest to her father. Once the Father saw the chest was filled with golden coins, he was overwhelmed with joy. The step mother on other hand was fueled with so much envy that she demanded her spoiled lazy

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my daughter went to the same place to also become golden. The stepmother rushed off to bake a loaf of bread, only this time it was made using white flour. Once finished she wrapped it in a clean towel and ordered the father to take the spoiled daughter to the forest. So off they went into the forest. The father rolled the loaf down the tremendous hill and the spoiled daughter ran after it. As the good daughter did, the spoiled daughter got lost and started to cry and scream. As the sun began to set the old lady heard the cries and went to help the girl. The old woman invited her back to the house and fed the spoiled girl. The next morning the spoiled girl slept late and did not help clean the house as her step sister did before her. Once again the old lady told the spoiled girl she was leaving for church and she asked her if she could feed her pets. The old woman said that did not need to worry because her pets were friendly. The spoiled girl prepared the meals. This time she served the meals very hot and the poor pets burnt their tongues and throats. When the old lady returned from church the pets told her all about their mistreatment. They knew this girl was not like the previous girl. The old Grandma wanted to go down to the river during lunch so she invited the spoiled girl. Her reply was, “I don’t feel like it but I guess I will come.” When they reached the river The old lady said that she was tired and needed to sit down. She asked the girl to politely brush her hair but the spoiled girl answered rudely, “Can’t you do it yourself?” The old lady proceed to take a nap, before she laid down she told the spoiled girl to watch the beautiful colours of water in the river. The old woman asked her not to wake her up when the redwater flowed but to wake her up only when the spoiled girl saw the black water. So the girl watched impatiently. She dipped the little finger in when the water was yellow and it turned gold. Finally the water turned black, she woke the old lady. The old lady told her to reach into the water and pull out whatever she could. Just like her step sister the a spoiled girl emerged with a chest. Only this one had snakes and lizards inside but the old woman didn’t tell her. She showed her the way back to her house. The spoiled girl made it back to her house, the step mother was furious to see her. The daughter was not pretty and golden but black at night. They frantically opened the chest only to find snakes and lizards inside. The step mother screamed at her husband and she demanded an explanation. The father explained he did exactly what he was told to do with both girls. He took them to the forest to the tremendous hill and rolled down the loaf of bread. Whatever transpired after that he could not say. The golden girl grew up and became a beautiful woman. So beautiful that the Prince wanted to marry her. The day came when the Prince went to the golden girl’s home to ask for her hand in marriage. Quickly the step mother hid the girl away and dressed the step sister in the wedding gown with the veil covering her face. The step mother told her only to show her little golden finger so the Prince and the guests would think she was the golden girl. Everyonewas fooled except for the family rooster. The rooster jumped on the fence and started to crow loudly. COCK-A-DOODLE-DOO!!! The golden girl is hidden and the step sister who is painted black is riding the horse. The wedding guest looked around in bewilderment. Therooster crowed again COCK-A-DOODLE-DOO! The golden girl is hidden and the painted stepsister is riding the horse. Once again the guests had no clue what was happening. Finally crowned one last time. This time the Prince asked the bride to show her face. The truth revealed itself, he was being tricked. The prince rushed to the house to find the golden girl hidden away by the stepmother. He swept the golden girl onto the horse and galloped to the castle. There they were married and lived happily ever after while the stepsister painted black stayed home.

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Kindergarten Dobrna, Slovenia SCIENCE ACTIVITY Blending colors Goal: ●

Children discover and learn about the properties of water and other liquids.

Children discover and learn how substances mix and how their properties change as a result.

Process: In the fairy tale, the colors of the river changed. We wondered if that was really possible. Can water be colored? HOW does this happen? HOW do colors mix? WHAT happens? WHY do colors change? The children predicted that water could not travel from pot to pot. They named the colors and predicted what would happen if the two colors were mixed. Material: ● Edible colors ● pots ● paper towels

TECHNOLOGY ACTIVITIES

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ENGINEERING ACTIVITIES Construction of ramps Goal: ●

Children learn about the effects of movement and what movement maintains.

● Children learn about the movement of objects. ●

Children learn about the properties of objects.

Process: In the fairy tale, bread rolled down the hill. So we started to get to know the movement of objects. WHAT rolled? WHY did they roll? WHAT causes rolling and HOW do we maintain it? The children first got to know different geometric bodies and figured out WHICH ones were rolling. They found they needed a ramp. We decided to construct them themselves.

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ART ACTIVITY Drawing with charcoal Goal: ● to learn about individual forms of art; o To foster curiosity and enthusiasm for art activities, art and diversity; o to develop the ability to express the same experiences in various artistic languages of dance, drama, fine arts, music, film, etc. to use and develop skills;

In the fairy tale, the girl was black as charcoal. We decided to get to know WHAT charcoal is and the process of HOW we extract it. The children then drew scenes from a fairy tale with charcoal.

18th Kindergarten of Rhodes, Greece ACTIVITIES BASED ON “THE GOLDEN GIRL” FAIRY TALE MATHS ACTIVITY Counting the treasure Material The mysterious object Bulgaria had sent to us: the chest with the coins Goal To be able to count given amounts of objects. To be able to execute subtraction and write the data with the help of representations. Connection to the story

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Granny gave the golden girl a chest full of gold coins which the golden girl took to her father and stepmother. This was the mysterious object the children from Bulgaria had chosen to send to us. Process We presented the mysterious object and the children immediately realised what it was. Then we counted the cons inside the chest. Only this time the teachers added a small twist: the stepmother, being greedy and jealous, kept taking coins in secret from the chest. So they had to count them again and again to check how many coins she had taken and how many remained in the chest.

SCIENCE-PHYSICS ACTIVITIES Rolling down a surface Material A frictionless surface, various items of different material, weight, shape and colour from the classroom (representing the loaf of bread) Goal To identify factors that may influence motion, to recognize what influences how fast something slides downhill and reach the conclusion that the material, weight, the starting point and the slope are important. To exclude factors such as the size of the contact area or colour as parameters that do not influence the motion. Connection to the story 33


The stepmother rolled a loaf of bread downhill and made the girl run after it and catch it. Process We used an inclined surface and various objects representing the "'bread" which the children themselves chose. We experimented on the conditions under which the item would roll further. We changed the angle of inclination, the item used or the starting point. First, children made predictions and then they confirmed them and came to conclusions. As a metagnostic activity, we first put all the objects in line according to which went further from the highest point of the surface. We chose two of them and asked children to decide which would go further (they had to take under consideration the order of the items in the line). We are happy to see that they got the answer correct each time!

ART ACTIVITIES Drawing scenes of the fairy tale Goal To express their thoughts and imagination through art Connection to the story The teacher read the fairy tale which was pictureless, so they decided to “retell” it by drawing the scenes . 34


Process After having read the fairy tale, the children drew beautiful pictures of various scenes of the tale. We hung them all on the classroom's board and each child presented his/ her work to the class. We also wrote the title of the fairy tale in Greek and english.

PRESCHOOL INSTITUTION “NAŠA RADOST” Activities based on “Golden Girl” fairy tale” Children enjoyed in listening the fairy tale and asked many questions. Following their questions we organized many STEAM activities encouraging their scientific thinking, critical thinking, problem solving skills, creativity.

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During these activities children were choosing materials and creating different necklaces and bracelets combining them on different ways. Also, one of very interesting activities was carving in soap.

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The Heaven River

( Author : Grozdana Olujić ) Rivers flow. Each of them in its own way: some of them flow to the East, some of them flow to West, some of them flow from mountains straight into the sea. The great river mother calmly supervised the birth of new rivers, predetermining their flow. There are no surprises with the rivers. The mother of all rivers smiles at her newly born daughter. She was confused when the little river said: -I don't want to flow on West!-O.K.-, mother of all rivers said , -Flow to the South, or to the North!The newly born daughter did not want to flow either West, East, North, South or mountain to sea. She wanted something else. - No, and no! '' said the little river. The big river mother was really confused and said: - All rivers can hardly wait to flow into the sea! The youngest daughter said: - Not me! - So where do you want to flow? - mother of all rivers was worried. The little head was silent. Than she whispered: - I would like to become a river of heaven!Mother of all rivers was terrified: - That was not, nor will be, my daughter! No river has yet climbed into the sky. Better hurry to get to the valley, into the sea, until the winter frosts have begun! - said the mother of all rivers, and decided to look after her newborn daughter. From that moment all the creeks and other rivers were guarding her. The shores kept her from escaping, the rocks crossed her path, the mountain stopped her on every moment when she tried to escape. Who can escape such a guard? She was sad and silent, and her days crowned like corn grains. The mother of all rivers believed that her youngest daughter had forgotten her crazy wish when a storm broke out one night. Lightning snakes leaped across the sky like fire snakes, and thunder rolled down rocks from the mountain. All the rivers were silent and frightened, and didn't dare to move. The next morning, the mother of all rivers realized that the bed of the small river is empty. - --How could she leave? Search her!- she ordered all the waters of the mountain. Then the great search began, even though it was still raining. They were looking in forests, into the rocks, into caves, but there was no sign of the little river! Suddenly, the rain stopped and all of them heard screaming of one small bird : - Look! Look in the sky!Across the sky, they saw a small river. She became the beautiful rainbow with beautiful glittering colors. She didn't belong to the mountain , nor to sea. She wanted to be the River of Heaven and she became it…

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PRESCHOOL INSTITUTION “NAŠA RADOST” The main interest of children after reading “Haven’s river” was the rainbow. What causes a rainbow? This question initiated many experiments and explorations. After many activities we concluded that rainbows are caused by sunlight and atmospheric conditions. Light enters a water droplet. The light reflects off the inside of the droplet, separating into its component. When light exits the droplet, it makes a rainbow. Children were interested to find out how it rains, is it the same water in clouds and in our rivers, seas, and drinking water. According to their questions, we prepared materials for experimenting and exploring to find answers on their questions. Science:

Colors of a rainbow motivated children to explore color mixing.

Inspired by the rainbow we got so many ideas for various activities. One of them was playing with “rainbow” parachute :

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Engineering, math, coding and programming: Children explored all possibilities to construct a rainbow in our classroom and at the same time they were counting colored lego constructors, they were programming, and learned about straight and curved lines .

We got so many art pieces on rainbow themes!

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Kindergarten Dobrna, Slovenia ENGINEERING ACTIVITY Bridge construction Goals: -

Children develop technical creativity.

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Children look for, perceive and use a variety of possible solutions.

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Children check if the obtained solution is reasonable.

The children made a river on the floor in the playground with blue fabric. Question: “how can we cross the river?” Replied: “with a boat, with a raft, we build a bridge.” The children were given the task of building bridges across the river. Materials: blue goods, newspaper, wooden cubes and lego constructions.

ART ACTIVITY Rainbow Goals: -

Children paint with transparent foil.

The child coated the transparent foil in a sequence of rainbow colors with a brush and tempera paint. He printed the transparent foil on paper. He observed the picture. Materials: transparent foil, brush, tempera paint and paper.

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MATH ACTIVITY The length of the river Goals: -

Children become familiar with the strategies of measuring length with different scales.

The children were thinking about how we can measure the length of a river when we don’t have a meter. They measured the river with sleeves, steps, cubes, chairs, sticks ... Children learned that length can be measured with different non-standard scales and which non-standard scales we need more and which less.

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ACTIVITIES BASED ON “THE HEAVEN RIVER” FAIRY TALE TECHNOLOGY ACTIVITIES 1. Are all rainbows the same as the one in the fairy tale? Goal To find information from the internet using search machines express their thoughts and imagination through art Connection to the story In the fairy tale the girl “became the beautiful rainbow with beautiful glittering colors”. So, the children wondered whether all rainbows are the same and if all rainbows have the same colours. Process We decided to look into it using the internet. We used “google search”and found the information we

needed. 2. Let’s draw the girl-rainbow Goal To use technology and more specifically, a smart phone and a computer application to express their imagination Connection to the story In the fairy tale the girl “became the beautiful rainbow with beautiful glittering colors”. So, the children decided to draw the girl-rainbow in a different way, using the computer and the application “mikroi kallitechnes” (Little artists) Process In small groups of three, the children referred to the information we had found about the rainbow and put it on the screen of the teacher’s smartphone so that they could draw the rainbow properly. They use the paintbrush and the bucket to draw and save their creations. We then presented all the rainbows.

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GRATEFUL BEAR ( Slovenian folk tale ) On winter days and behind their warm furnaces, people in Slovenian Carinthia would tell this true story that had happened once upon a time. There was a cottage up high in the mountains, at the edge of the forest. Its young master logged and burned charcoal. While the mother cooked, cleaned and took care of their first-born son at home. On an Autumn afternoon, the mother put the colorful crib in a meadow in front of the cottage, rocking it with her foot, while sewing and singing to lull the baby to sleep. “Rock-a-bye, my little son, the Sun in the skies is watching over you. Rock-a-bye, ma little son, a golden Star watching over you” Out of the blue. The bushes at the edge of the forest rustled before they were moved apart. The Mother looked around, freezing and falling silent, frightened. A big brown Bear was crawling through the bushes. The Mother did not scream, but only reached for her baby with shaking hands, pulling him close. The Bear was slowly limping towards the frightened woman. When it reached the Crib, it raised its front left paw. Dripping blood, a big black thorn had stuck into the flesh of the frightened woman softly. Seeing this, she picked a large needle and carefully held the bloody paw of the groaning animal before carefully pulling the sharp thorn out. The Bear grumbled happily and was already on the way back to the forest.. The animal was smart. It crawled back to the cradle and rocked it strongly. The mother took her son to her arms. While the Bear grabbed the cradle, taking it with him into the forest, leaving the mother open-mouthed! What was the clumsy brown animal going to do with a child's cradle? “This is a good one,” she thought to herself. “There you have it, real bear gratitude!” The baby fell asleep in his mother's arms. The sun was sinking behind the mountains, when the bear re-appeared from the bush. He was walking on his back paws and holding the cradle full of fragrant yellow wild pears in his front ones. Placing it on the floor before the amazed mother it wandered back to the forest. “Look at that,” mother rejoiced. “What a grateful bear. He brought me a brimful cradle of sweet pears in exchange for only one pulled out thorn.” Kindergarten Dobrna, Slovenia SCIENCE ACTIVITY Pear oxidation experiment Goals: o Children become familiar with the probability and use expressions to describe it. o Children look for, perceive and use a variety of possible solutions. o Children check if the obtained solution is reasonable. Process: With the children, we noticed that the pears darken at lunch. We wondered WHY. We talked about WHAT we can do to prevent this from happening again. We did an experiment on HOW to prevent the oxidation of pears. We selected a few liquids that the kids know and they themselves predicted WHAT would happen if we soak the pears in them. We made a chart and the kids put a yellow sticker in the square where the pear will oxidize the

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least and a red one in the square where it will oxidize the most. We performed the procedure and waited. The next day we checked and compared our predictions and the actual situation. Materials: ● Poster for chart ● Yellow and red stickers ● Pear ● Liquids (water, oil, vinegar, lemon juice, salt water, sugar water, milk,...)

TECHNOLOGY ACTIVITY Pear compote Goals: - The children read the pictorial recipe. - The children follow the process of preparing the compote. Process: The children made pear compote according to a pictorial recipe. They followed a series of numbers from 1 to 6 (wash the pear; wipe the pear; halve the pear; debone the pear; cut into smaller pieces; put in a pot and add water and sugar). Materials: pictorial recipe, dining board, kitchen cloth, knife, pot, pears, water, sugar, cooker.

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ENGINEERING ACTIVITY Labyrinth Goals: ● The children are trying to put together the right path. ● The children learn orientation. Process: The children try to put together the right path from one picture to another. They try to put together several different paths. They can also choose from several different images (for example: from bear to cradle, from mom to bear, from pear to cradle...). Materials: backgrounds with squares and pictures, pictures of different paths

ART ACTIVITY Puppet on sticks Goals: o to develop artistic visualisation and imagination through imagination and creation; o

to nurture and develop individual creative potentials in experiencing, imagining, expressing, communicating phases and enforcing in the art field;

o to encourage general creativity when preparing, organising and using means and space. Process: The children knew the fairy tale well and often became acquainted with its characters. We decided to make puppets on sticks and a mini theater. We talked about HOW to do it and WHAT we need. We offered the children the material they wanted and they made the puppet themselves according to their imagination and creativity. Materials: ● Sticks ● Felt ● Foam

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MATHEMATICAL ACTIVITY Pears - how many pears can we put in jars Goals: ● Children use names for numbers. ● Children from naming individual objects (pears) gradually move to counting. ● Children learn about graphical representations, which they make and read. ● Children look for, perceive and use a variety of possible solutions. Process: Four jars and a bowl of pears were prepared on the table. I asked the children how they could fill the jars with pears. Followed by the question of how we could put the most pears in the jar. The children found that they can be sliced, grated, dried… They then counted how many pears they used to fill the jars with individual procedures. We showed all this with pictures and with mathematical representations. Then we counted them all and compared them with each other. Materials: jars, pears, knife, scraper, dryer, cutting board, plate, bowl

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18th Kindergarten of Rhodes, Greece MATH ACTIVITIES The bear is picking pears Goal To count real objects and objects in images and other forms of symbolic representations and to recognise and match it with the equivalent number Connection to the story According to the Slovenian fairy tale, the kind bear wanted to thank the mother and filled the baby crib with pears which he cut from the forest. Process As in a theatrical play, our students were involved in math activities. Being the bear, each one had to answer questions related to how many pears the bear found in each tree, how many he cut and how many he put in the crib. In the assembly area of the classroom the children made assumptions, counted, recognized and matched numerical symbols with quantities. Later, each child filled in a worksheet on their own to help the bear cut the right amount of pears from the pear trees.

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ART ACTIVITIES Exploring traditional music and instruments Goal To approach the musical tradition and the musical instruments of their region and homeland as well as the music of other people and cultures Connection to the story In the traditional fairy tale of Slovenia the mother puts her baby to sleep singing a lullaby Process We searched for information and listened to lullabies from all the countries of the project. The children were thrilled with the tender words of the lullabies and thought of sweet words that would be sung to a baby which the teacher wrote down and read later. Then we dealt with the traditional music and traditional musical instruments, both of Greece and the collaborating countries. For each country we found and heard the sound from its traditional instruments and explored the musical wealth that characterizes the tradition of the Balkan countries.

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ENGINEERING ACTIVITIES We make the baby’s cradle Goal To plan, organise and choose the appropriate materials so as to reconstruct a given image of an object Connection to the story The mother used a cradle to put the baby to sleep. Also the front part of the cradle was the mysterious object Slovenia had sent to us.So, we decided to make it and put a baby doll in it. Process With the help of the children we first decided what material we could use and they suggested the cardboard. The teacher then drew and cut the outline of the cradle. Two children helped the teacher draw the patterns on the two sides while the others chose and painted with oil colours the other sides of the cradle. They then suggested and so we put a blanket and the baby in the cradle.

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PRESCHOOL INSTITUTION “NAŠA RADOST”, SUBOTICA After reading the “Grateful bear”, children had so many questions and according to their questions we prepared so many interesting activities such as: making fruit juice, exploring the colors of various fruits, painting with various colors from fruit and vegetable, cutting and measuring pieces of pears and apples. All activities were in accordance to children’s interests and they were leading the project and their own learning. Besides cutting pear, counting peaces, sorting peaces in small glass bowls , children noticed that the color of fruit change its color after few hours and the question was : “Why the pea changed its color?”. It was a good base to start exploring and experimenting with oxidation. These experiments guided us to experimenting with other fruits and colors we get squeezing them. During cutting, children were counting pieces, selecting the biggest and the smallest piece, they learned seriation and classification, because we were using pears and apples. Also they tried the taste of these fruits with closed eyes and guessing if it was pear or apple. Children were grilling pear ( half ), and cutting one half. They had to predict which of these had the higher weight. We used libre for measuring and approving hypotheses. After measuring, children concluded that both halves have the same weight even if the cutted half looked bigger.

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Science activities:

Math, chemistry, physics activities

Technology activities: Children drew on the theme “Grateful bear” and the preschool teacher prepared a JigSaw puzzle. They were excited to see their drawings after solving puzzles. During the Covid 19 isolation, parents were our partners and we were sending them digital puzzles created of childrens’ drawings. They were sending us photos of children and how they solved them.

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In the group of children “Ladybirds” we were using video bim for reading “Grateful bear” because this book has lovely illustrations. Also, we were enjoying solving Learning Apps ( memory game, pair game ).

Engineering activities: In the fairy tale a credle was a relatively unknown word. Children were speaking about their experience and describing where they have occasion to see credle. In “Grateful bear” Constructing a mountain cottage and credle in kindergarten “Zvončica”: When we got “mistery item “ from Slovenia, children were excited and very curious what could it be. At least, they guessed what it was and the main idea was to try to create credle from materials in kindergarten. After credle, children spontaneouslly started to create mountain cottages.

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Art activities: Children like stories where animals are the main characters. They were inspired with the fairy tale and thesy initiated dramatizations with different scenarios using costumes we have in our kindergarten. Also, we were singing an old traditional Serbian lullaby for a little baby in the creedle.

Math activities

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The Bird girl ( Serbian folk tale) Once upon a time there lived an old king with his son in a castle. The king told his son: " Dear son, it is time for you to find yourself a wife.Go and search!" The son was searching and searching for the right girl all around the world, but he had no success. He was so miserable that he decided to jump from a cliff. But then, an old man appeared in front of him. "I can help you,dear boy! Do you see those mountains? There lives an old woman who always carries a little bird on her lap. Get behind her, grab her, and ask for that little bird!” The young prince took the old man's advice. He got behind that old woman, pulled her hair and asked her for the little bird. The bird was so sweet that the prince kissed it! Then, the little bird became a beautiful girl. She was enchanted by that old woman, but now she was free! They immediately fell in love, and decided to go back to the old kings castle.The girl gave the prince a magic stick and told him: "Whatever you want, this stick will help you" First, on the way they were attacked by wolves. The prince took his magic stick, put it on the ground and a giant anthill appeared .The wolves got scared and ran away. When they came in front of a steep hill, full of large stones, the prince took out his magic stick again. The stones turned into golden coins. When they came in front of a deep river , again a stick helped them: it separated the water and they could cross it. On the other way their kingdom waited for them. They got married and lived happily ever after! SCIENCE ACTIVITIES Experimenting with materials: Sink or float How to build a raft, a boat, a ship? First of all, we had to choose the materials. We chose a SCIENTIX resource to help us. (http://www.scientix.eu/resources/details?resourceId=3181 ). In this resource, we find very good material for children’s experiments. This seven-sequence module offers the opportunity to study the floatability conditions for various objects. We learned about mass, volume etc. and had a lot of fun along the way. We shared our knowledge with other project partners: we made a “SINK OR FLOAT” quiz with SKYPE. TECHNOLOGY ACTIVITIES Coding activity with the Bee-bot The task was to help the Bird-girl and the prince to get to the castle by avoiding the dangers on their way.This Bee-bot coding challenge could be done on a worksheet , or on the Bee-bot mat. ENGINEERING ACTIVITIES Building a raft to help the prince and the Bird girl to get over the river.

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By experimenting with materials in science activities, we already learnt a lot about materials, to know which one to use for our raft: we made a raft from plastic bottle caps, from wooden sticks, and from foam plates. ART ACTIVITIES The children illustrated the story, and we used those drawings for our e-book made in Bookcreator. MATHEMATICS Comparison (length, height etc) By building the tallest castle of paper rolls or mountain of rocks, children compared their work with their peers,learning to notice which is higher, taller.

ACTIVITIES OF PARTNERS ON “BIRD GIRL” FAIRY TALE: 18th Kindergarten of Rhodes, Greece ENGINEERING ACTIVITY Building the castle where the king’s son and the bird girl lived Goal To make expansions and connections to a story. To plan and make a construction using wooden building blocks. Connection to the story According to the fairy tale, the king’s son and the bird girl got married and lived happily. But then we wondered “Where would they live?” Process The children discussed where the couple would probably live and what that might be like. Each child made a construction using wooden building blocks and we finally decided which one looked like the one we had discussed. It happened to be Panagiotis’!

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LTT-s in SUBOTICA and RHODES We planned to meet each other and share our experiences and knowledge in April 2020th, than in June 2020th, but we postponed these activities to October and it was the last moment before Covid 19 appeared again. Partners from Slovenia and Bulgaria were able to come. Partners from Greece couldn't come because decision of the Ministry of Education from Greece that they cannot travel to Serbia. We started our LTT with workshops in kindergartens „Zeka“ at 9.30 and in „Zvoncica“ at 10.30 Bulgarian and Slovernian partners held workshops with children, preschool teachers and parents . Bulgarian partner prepared a workshop on the theme “Bird girl” – engineering activities. Slovenian partner prepared art workshop on theme : “Grateful bear”

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A Serbian partner prepared Beebot workshops in all kindergartens based on fairy tales we used in the project.

Slovenian partner held an art workshop for children, preschool teachers and parents in kindergarten “Zvoncica”, Bulgarian partner held engineering workshop in kindergarten “Zvoncica”.

Kindergarten “Šumica” Bulgarian and Slovenian partners had occasion to see and learn how to use Bee Bot in educational work .

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As Preschool institution “Nasa radost” has many Beebots, we decided to send one of them to travel in partner’s countries , so that all children of all groups can learn coding and programming. Beebot will be sent back after his journey from country to country. The conference was held on 22nd October in “Big Terrace” on Palic. Because of COVID 19, only 30 people were present in the conference room, but we organized live stream on FB group and more than 100 people followed conference.

We prepared an online inquiry using Google Forms as evaluation. All participants got certificates that they attended the conference. Third day of LTT was devoted to the etwinning platform, web 2.00 tools and getting the Etwinning School Label. Presentations were held in the library of Preschool institution “Naša radost”.

INTRODUCING WITH SUBOTICA HISTORICAL PLACES

After workshops, partners and hosts went to the city center and it was organized for sightseeing of famous places in Subotica center ( City Hall, Raichl Palace, Sinagoga). Partners were introduced about the history of Subotica, about the period of Secession and had occasion to see the most famous buildings. 58


Greece partner was all time connected on live stream in FB group : “CONNECTION OF FAIRY TALES AND STEAM” - CONFERENCE In August 2021st LTT was held in Rhodes . The first day we visited 18th Kindergarten of Rhodes and discussed about our practice.

From 03.08.2021. To 05.08.2021. All partners held LTT in Rhodes. During 3 days of LTT all partners visited 18th Kindergarten of Rhodes and we were introduced with their space and we saw project corner and various products of the project made by children who participate in the project.

The first day of LTT was devoted to introducing with all participants who came, we were discuss about our educational systems, comparing them and concluding which are differences and similarities. Professor Konstanitinos Malliakis introduced all participants about integrative learning, especially how to integrate Math ( combinatorics ) in everyday work with preschool children.

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On the second day of LTT we had virtual visit to Museum of Pappets in Ljubljana, because this activity was planned in the project previously. Slovenian colleagues prepared video materials and guided us through museum. Also, colleagues from Bulgaria introduced us with their traditional lullabies and

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engineering activities connected with fairy tales of other partners.

Serbia prepared a workshop : “How preschool children learn?”. All partners were divided in small groups and had a task to prepare a creative game and plan of learning. At the end of the third day Natasa Vrapcevic presented and explained the connection between etwinning and Erasmus projects. We evaluated our LTT and all participants agreed that it was very useful to exchange good practice, that we learned a lot from each other . We agreed that we will organize one more etwinning event where we will present activities of our LTT in Rhodes.

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We were invited to Rhodes Government and we had a big honor to be guests in Rhodes Town Hall. Representatives of Rhodes presented us their history and guided us through their Town Hall.

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During our LTT we had occasion to try national dishes, to see historical places in Rhodes, to hear traditional music and to introduce Greece culture.

DISSEMINATION ACTIVITIES Dissemination is a very important part of all Erasmus projects. Preschool institution “Naša radost” organized dissemination for all interested preschool teachers on the Zoom platform . Also, we disseminated project activities on etwinning platform two times and invited all interested members.. The project is presented to preschool teachers, parents and representatives of the local community on Erasmus Days on 15th and 16th October in 2020th and in 2021st. 63


We also presented the project on etwinning platform for all interested members in January 2021.

We printed posters and exhibited them on various locations in our city such us National Library, Town Hall, and other places where people circulate. Erasmus Days were followed by local TV, regional TV , national TV and newspaper “Subotičke novine”. In May 2020th , Preschool institution “Naša radost” participated in the international conference “Horisons” and presented the actual Erasmus project and all Erasmus activities. The conference was held online and our article is published in “Collection of articles” . In May 2021st, we participated in the international conference “Horizons” again, focused on STEAM activities and good practice in accordance with the new preschool curriculum in Serbia, implemented in Preschool institution “Naša radost” in September 2020th.

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In May 2021. Preschool institution “Naša radost” participated again in the international conference “Horisons” and presented all activities of the project “Connection of Fairy Tales and STEAM”.

In June and in September 2021st Preschool institution “Naša radost” organized online conference for Association of Preschool Teachers of Vojvodina and presented activities and results of “Connection of Fairy Tales and STEAM” to all interested members.In December 2021st Preschool institution “Naša radost” from Subotica organized conference on Palic for preschool teachers, representatives of local community and associates from Subotica. On the conference we had an honor to have guests from “Radost” Novi Banovci and “Mastolend” from Novi Sad who presented their Erasmus experiences. Parents of children who participate in the project were informed and introduced with activities of the project and they also participated in realization of the project.

COLLABORATIVE PRODUCTS OF THE PROJECT

During the project all partners were working on various collaborative products such as a movie of the project, e-picture book, collaborative e-canvases, collaborative story and this guide for preschool teachers. One of the products is a STEM course on the Moodle platform. The link of this guide for preschool teachers is available on web sites of our preschool institutions, on etwinning platform, and it is shared on various platforms and groups of teachers on public nets such as National Geography, Slack, FB groups of preschool teachers.

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CONCLUSION Young children enjoy solving problems and exploring the world through science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM).STEAM is important because it helps teachers incorporate multiple disciplines at the same time and promotes learning experiences that allow children to explore, question, research, discover, and exercise innovative building skills (Colker and Simon, 2014).6. Through this project and exploring STEM with preschoolers, we can conclude that children are much more engaged in activities that support STEAM learning, young children become more curious, focused, communicative.They are much more active than in other activities. During this project, all participants (children, teachers, parents ) were one learning community and all of them gained new experiences, skills and knowledge which will be implemented in everyday practice. On disseminative activities we realised all participants also gained new knowledge and ideas. The results of inquiries show that number of teachers who even didn’t know what STEAM means , now use this method in their work.

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