EL MODELO BARCELONA DE ESPACIO PÚBLICO Y DISEÑO URBANO: EL ÁRBOLADO EN LA CONFIGURACIÓN DE ESPACIOS PÚBLICOS/ TREES IN CONFIGURATION OF PUBLIC SPACES
UNIVERSITAT DE BARCELONA
Trabajo final para la obtenación del grado de master en diseño urbano: Arte, Ciudad, Sociedad Facultat de Belles Arts
Autor: Nahal Fathi / Tutor: Dr.Nuria Ricart Ulldemolins /JUNIO 2011
SUMMARY It’s almost impossible to refer to the landscape of Barcelona without mentioning it’s trees, those which stand in the parks and gardens and those planted to line avenues, squares and streets. Having had a presence on the city map, since the end of the nineteenth century, they are an essential feature and are fully integrated in the city planning. The second half of XX century in Barcelona, was particularly respected for the structuring the green areas, big landscaped areas (areas with park and gardens),during this time the planting of street trees reached beyond 150,000. These trees which forms the streets, ramblas, avenues, paseos and parks are one of the signs of identity of Barcelona, and they are currently increasing most resistant specimens to weather conditions in the city. The trees are,undoubtedly,the most important vegetation patrimony of the city. The development of the trees in public spaces stands with the evolution of the city. Trees as an urban element of the city have a significant impact on the public spaces. One of the significant models of the street trees, is the plan of Eixample which is designed by city planner Ildefonso Cerdá in 1859, it’s one of the well known in the world: The proposal to provide trees in the streets, which with landscaped open spaces of the blocks, aimed to a make a garden city. To analyze this important factor of the city, it concerns a global view of the green structure of the city which was proposed by N.M. Rubió i Tudurí who create a complete system of green areas divided into different levels according to their use and characteristics. The main aim of this investigation is to document the role of trees in the configuration of more quality public spaces in the city under the term of Barcelona model and the strategies that were taken during time to enrich this important factor by use of different species in different type of urban spaces. Keywords: Barcelona model, Trees, species, urban spaces.
RESUMEN El paisaje de Barcelona difícilmente se puede definir sin hacer referencia a sus árboles. Los que se encuentran en parques y jardines y los que están plantados en avenidas, plazas y calles. Presentes en la trama urbana desde finales del siglo XIX, son un elemento esencial, plenamente integrado en el planeamiento urbanístico de la ciudad. La segunda mitad del siglo XX,fue especialmente decisiva respecto a la estructuración del verde urbano de Barcelona, ya qua, al margen de las grandes superficies ajardinadas,durante este periodo se consolidó el arbolado viario hasta llegar a superar los 150,000 árboles. Estos árboles que forman las calles, ramblas, avenidas, paseos y midparts de Rondas son una de las señas de identidad de Barcelona, y actualmente están aumentando especies más resistentes a las condiciones climáticas en la ciudad. Los árboles son, sin duda, el patrimonio vegetation más importantes de la ciudad. El desarrollo de los árboles compaña con la evolución de la ciudad,Arboles como un elemento urbano de la ciudad tienen un impacto significativo en los espacios públicos. Uno de los modelos significativos de los árboles de la calle, es el plan del Eixample, que ha sido diseñado por el urbanista Ildefons Cerdá en 1859, es uno de los bien conocidos en el mundo: La propuesta de concesión de árboles en las calles, que con espacios ajardinados abierto de los bloques, con el objetivo de un hacer un jardín city. To analizar este importante factor de la ciudad, se trata de una visión global de la estructura verde de la ciudad que fue propuesta por N.M Rubió i Tudurí que crean un sistema completo de áreas verdes divididas en diferentes niveles de acuerdo a su uso y características. El arbolado viario de Barcelona está compuesto por 141 especies, lo cual, además de fomentar la biodiversidad, multiplica el encanto del paisaje urbano y permite a la ciudadanía disfrutar de una gran riqueza arbórea. El objetivo principal de esta investigación es documentar el papel de los árboles en la configuración espacios públicos de mayor calidad en la ciudad bajo el término de modelo de Barcelona y las estrategias que se tomaron durante de tiempo para enriquecer este importante factor por el uso de distintas especies en diferentes tipos de espacios urbanos. Palabras clave: Modelo de Barcelona, los árboles, las especies, los espacios urbanos.
INDEX 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1. JUSTIFICATION OF THE SUBJECT 1.2. OBJECTIVES 1.3. STATE OF ART 1.4. METHODOLOGY
08 09 09 10 11
2. BARCELONA MODEL, GREEN PATRIMONY AND STREET TREES 2.1. BARCELONA MODEL -URBAN TRANSFORMATION OF THE CITY 2.2. GREEN PATRIMONY -EVOLUTION OF PARKS -TYPOLOGY OF ACTUAL GREEN SPACES -THE GREEN IN PLANNING 2.3. EVOLUTION OF STREET TREES
12 13 13 16 16 21 22 23
3. BARCELONA TREES 3.1. TREES IN URBAN LANDSCAPE 3.2. SELECTION OF SPECIES OF STREET TREES -SUSTAINABLE CRITERIA -ENVIRONMENTAL AND SPATIAL CONDITIONS -ENHANCING THE BIODIVERSITY 3.3. NEW MILESTONES -DISTANCE OF PLANTING OF STREET TREES -INVENTORY OF TREES -TREES SIGNAGE 3.4. NEW LODGING OF 22@ 3.5. NEW CHALLENGE FOR THE FUTURE
27 27 28 31 31 32 33 33 34 35 36
4. CASE STUDY 4.1. ACTUAL GREEN SPACES OF THE CITY 4.2 MOLL DE LA BARCELONETA 4.3. PARC DE LA DIAGONAL MAR
37 39 47
5. CONCLUSION 6. BIBLOGRAPHY 7. NAME INDEX
58 60 62
1. INTRODUCTION The second half of XX century in Barcelona, was particularly respected for the structuring the green areas, big landscaped areas (areas with park and gardens), during this time the planting of street trees reached beyond 150,000. An important part of these street trees consist of the old trees which were planted long time ago in the more favorable urban and environmental conditions. The trees are,undoubtedly,the most important vegetation patrimony of the city. The development of the trees stands with the evolution of the city. Trees as an urban element of the city have a significant impact on the public spaces. In Barcelona one of the significant models of the street trees, is the plan of Eixample which is designed by city planner Ildefonso Cerdà in 1859, it’s one of the well known in the world: The proposal to provide trees in the streets, which with landscaped open spaces of the blocks, aimed to a make a garden city. To analyze this important factor of the city, it concerns a global view of the green structure of the city which was proposed by N.M. Rubió Y. Tudurí who create a complete system of green areas divided into different levels according to their use and characteristics. Trees act beneficially on the urban environment and are essential to improve environmental quality. they are an important element in the identity of the city. Trees have significant effect on the public spaces of the city they provide shadow, control the wind protects the people and ornaments out streets by their texture, color and different type of foliage. Moreover, in the 10 major objectives of Agenda 21 in Barcelona there are many aspects directly associated with urban green spaces and their management. Thus the application of sustainable criteria being imposed on the management of public green, also apply to the management of street trees. These criteria include the rationalization of maintenance tasks, saving material and energy resources, and application of principles of environmental protection and improving quality of life. In different type of species of the trees, we can find wide variety of leaf types,form,dimentions,texture and different size of trunk and different type of flowers, which make each type of the tree special. In the cities with Mediterranean climate and compact structure like in Barcelona, trees help to soften the temperature thanks to their shadow and the their ability to evaporate the water. also they fade the noise and intercept the wind. On the other hand the trees of different type give personality to the city and in smaller scale to the specific kind of spaces, moreover they enrich the urban landscape. They allow the citizens to capture the seasonal changes and bring closure between people and human. From the perspective of design to provide a city as a habitable spaces. it is necessary to go beyond the idea of green in the city not only as an added element to satisfy the public neither the green open spaces of the city are to offset the prevailing gray. This investigation concentrates on the tree planting in public spaces in the city of Barcelona, which is an important task in Barcelona in the formation of the public spaces. The research will analyze the characteristics of trees in the two type of public spaces which are Moll de Barceloneta and Parc de la Diagonal Mar. Parks and gardens of Barcelona are the natural heritage of the city .they need restoration, conservation and design which is the common task in gardening, also they contain a network of services which help us to enjoy and stay in this green spaces: furniture,infor mation,playground and etc. In Barcelona there are 1035,73 ha of green in the city including urban parks, neighborhood gardens, plaza and 155.279 trees in the streets. In the street of Barcelona there are a significant number of plátano to order these species we can mention the almez, sófora, olmo de siberia, tipuana, acasia, chopo, melis and ligustro, which all of them together presents 41% of the whole number of trees and the rest 25% forms other 109 specimens. The districts of Sant Marti and Eximple, contain 20.4% and 14.5% of the total of the trees which are the districts with the most amount of trees. On the other hand, the districts of Ciutat Vella and Grácia because of the structure of their streets have the least amount of trees which are 4.2% and 4.5%.1 One of the important species of the streets and the parks of Barcelona are palm trees which are 1 Listosella Jaume, Los arboles de las calles de Barcelona(Universitat De Barcelona2007)
very characteristic plants, these trees have very big size and from the botanic point of view they canâ€™t be considered as trees. Some of these trees are native and can grow in different environment and ecosystem in Spain but the majority of this species are from different continents. 1.1. JUSTIFICATION OF THE SUBJECT In Barcelona there 14 kind of green spaces which the classification of these urban green spaces requires specific maintenance plan, management according to each type of spaces. Among these 14 type of spaces the two specific parts which are the tree in urban parks and street trees will be study, which the impact of trees in these two selected spaces will be discussed. The first area of studies are urban parks, in Barcelona there are 37 urban parks these areas contain significant size of landscaped spaces and are facilitated with both sport and entertainment activities. These areas included most adaptable trees(plants) to Mediterranean climate and the vegetation grow with their natural treetop. The second area of studies are the street trees which consist of over 150.000 trees in the streets, boulevards, avenues, Ramblas and mediants of Las Rondas which is one of the signs of identity of Barcelona and are currently increasing the species most resistant to the weather conditions of the city. Parcs i Jardins is an entity municipal formed with the basic objective of creating and maintaining of green spaces of Barcelona, by promising that each year they will enforce to increase and improve green spaces and trees in the city according to the sustainability criteria of Agenda 21. The big cities almost all have in common, that the density of people living in it is very high and large amount of human being living in few m2,so the aim is to find out how the politic of green spaces in Barcelona can provide nice environment condition for the people to live in it by choosing specific and suitable specimens that balances their environmental conditions of the cities which is the problem of the most populated cities in the world and they suffer from lack of quality of public space. 1.2. OBJECTIVES General Objectives 1. The evolution of public spaces of the city and the strategies that were taken to develop the city structure. 2. Studying the general green structure of the city during the history of Barcelona and how they were developed according to the city context and the important people who influence this green patrimony. 3. Understanding the role of green in public spaces of the city. Specific Objectives 1. Identifying the principles species which are used in Barcelona and the strategies that were taken for the selection of these species and their distribution in the city. 2. Studying the strategies of the institute of the Parcs i Jardins to protect and enrich the trees in the city of Barcelona. 3. Determine the function of trees, different usage of the trees according to their type and conditions. 4. Analyzing the environmental impact of the trees in different type of spaces by the analysis of the case studies of Moll de la Barceloneta and Parc de la Diagonal Mar.
1.3. STATE OF ART: One of the most serious attacks that originate cities is the noise. Noise, but less alarming than air pollution, causing discomfort and cause pathologies in conditions when it exceeds a certain level. The main source of noise in cities is road traffic, generating over industry or in public activities. The vegetation masses, they function as screen sound isolating certain spaces,park,plazas and street with the trees. In open spaces, woodland with 12 times greater that the height of the trees can be affective protection against the wind blows perpendicular to it.2 (fig I) Microclimate controller: Open spaces with trees have a powerful regulatory effect on the microclimate, altering the temperature, wind, moisture and evapotranspiration. This undoubtedly contributes to improving the environment of a city neighborhood and contrasting the effect of buildings and asphalt, superheated by domestic, industrial and transportation. (fig II)
Fig I-Antoni Falcon
Fig II-Antoni Falcon
Landscape: Trees become more functional urban architecture in cities and megalopolis. Allow a better definition of the spaces, break up the monotony of the landscape, give a sense of depth, creating isolated and quiet environments, protect and provide visual centers of attraction for its multiple forms, volumes, shadows, textures and colors. Allow traffic environments and rest. (fig III) Appreciation of the property: Trees can pose a significant economic benefit represented in increased economic value of the property and land as they provide services or functions that can be appreciated by the buyer. (fig IV) The seasonal effect of the trees: Scheme of colour distribution of some plants as an example for analysis of the case studies: Agencia dâ€™Ecologia Urbana de Barcelona. (fig V)
2 Falcon Antoni. Espacios verdes para una ciudad sostenible (GUSTAVO GILI, 2007) p26
Fig III-Antoni Falcon
Fig IV-Antoni Falcon
1.4. METHODOLOGY 1. Barcelona city structure and public spaces: This section is divided into four important urbanizations periods of Barcelona, Period of 1975 till 1986, 1986 till 1992, Post Olympic period 1992 till 1999,1999-2004. To determine the important events and programs to develop the city structure and public spaces under the phase of “Modelo Barcelona” there are a wide variety of resources such as Barcelona un modelo de transformación urabana 1980-1995 by the Ayutaminto de barcelona”, O.BOHIGAS:Reconstruccio de Barcelona, Barcelona espacios publicos, Homenaje a Josep Maria Aerra, Ayutamiento de Barcelona. 2. Green structure of the city and streets trees: In order to gain better understanding of the role of trees it public spaces it concerns a wide knowledge about the green structure of the city which is mentioned in the research under the term of green patrimony and also the evolution of trees in the street which both are part of the research criteria. Gathering information in this part will gain by documents analysis of the resources such as: GUIA DELS ESPAIS VERDS DE BARCELONA,APROXIMACIÓ HISTÓRICA, Joan Villoro/Luis Riudor, Los arboles en el paisage urbanos, congreso n’8,Madrid, Pla de espais Verda de Barcelona, Ajutament de Barcelona, institut Municipal de Parcs i Jardins. 3. Species of the city and the strategies of the institute of Parcs i Jardins: In this category which is important task of the further analysis of the selected public spaces it will represent the identifications of the species of the city and district distribution and the role of Parcs i Jardins to protect the green. Gathering of information in this section also is based on documental analysis of the resources such as a series of documents of Parcs i Jardins which is available in the web page http:// www.bcn.es/parcsijardins. 4. Case studies: First phase in this part rely on the direct observation in the site, combined by collecting notes in the field and the drawings of the plans, sections and measurements, photographic documents and the checklist to record the type of tree and other vegetation elements. The selected case studies are Moll de la Barceloneta and Parc de la Diagonal Mar which belongs to two different urbanization period of Barcelona which are Olympic period and post Olympic period.The second phase is the utilization of the primary drawings, notes and photos and the checklist to draw the plans and sections and specific details and gathering information about the environmental impact of the trees in the selected area by the following terms:(using the book of espacios verdes para una ciudad sostenible by Antoni Falcon and El Verd Urbà: com i per que?Un manual de ciutat verde, Fundació Territori i Paisatge, as a manual for the analysis of the spaces) (1) studies of the accesses,path,pavement. (2) Identifying and presenting the vegetation elements(trees) (2.1) Type of trees and their singular characteristics. (2.2) Description of the use of the urban vegetation elements in the group. (2.3) Description of seasonal affect. The third phase consist of interpretation of these informations together with the obtained information that were published to obtain the basic characteristics of trees in the formation of the public spaces in the model of Barcelona.
2. BARCELONA MODEL, GREEN PATRIMONY AND STREET TREES 2.1. BARCELONA MODEL The Barcelona City image was changed from 1979 after the municipal elections when the socialist won the Barcelona City council. The first socialist mayor was, Narcís Serra and also his replacements Pasqual Maragall and Joan Clos with their sensibility in architecture of the city together with Oriol Bohigas Catalan Spanish architect which has been director of planning of the city of Barcelona (from 1980 untill 1984) had played an important role in the transformation of the city.3At this level Oriol Bohigas by the approval of Narcís Serra started to define a new urban policy for the city. His policy guide lines where concentrated in different criteria, in the first place, besides major projects of global transformation, regenerating the urban fabric by series of small interventions, also providing more balance and gentle mobility system, with conciliatory of personality and old system of Gràcia and Sarrià and taking into account the pedestrians. Finally, the program of the homogenization and sanitation for more quality planing under the slogan of “sanear el centro y monumentalizar la periferia”. The axis of the Barcelona model has been to promote great events, in promoting an understanding between the social will of the public initiative and private enterprise interests. (Josep M. Montaner,EL Pais 2007) In other words, “Barcelona Model” could be defined as an architectural and urban policy enforces under public control, which it’s intention are providing a city without losing the human scale, re balancing the regional growth and ensure curtain levels of dignity both in the center and the periphery.
3 Llátzer Moix, Sobre el “Modelo Barcelona”,<http://www.periodistes.org/files/Sobre%20 el%20Modelo%20Barcelona%20-%20desembre%202009.pdf>
General Metropolitan Plan (PGM)1976(WHOLE PLAN) source:Ajutament Barcelona
Urban transformation of the city Modern Barcelona is the fruit of the demolishing of old roman and medieval walls which surrounded the old city and the plan of Ildefonso Cerdà “Eixample”. This project extended Barcelona by 7.46 square kilometer which is formed by chamfered blocks and divided the space by fifty percent between pedestrians and vehicles and set free the Barcelona with terrible and unhealthy levels of density. His plan of 1857 for the city remained the legal plan until 1953 his plan was often criticized in the succeeding century, the most important of those was Leon Jaussely(1903), the modernist in GATCPAC which tackled wider metropolitan region as much as the city itself.4 Plans for Barcelona: a. Cerdà 1860 b. Jaussely 1905 c. Rubio i Tudury 1932 d. Macia(Le corbusier/GATCPAC)1934 e. Pla commarcal 1953 f. General Metropolitan plan 1976 The exhibitions of 1888 and 1929 provided significant opportunities for the growth of Barcelona. The 1888 exhibition, implied the disappearance of military fortress of the citadel. The 1929, The urbanization of the mountain of Montjuïc.
4 Marshal Tim. Transforming Barcelona, discussion:The planning project: bringing value to the prephery,recovering the center(Routledge,2004)
Period of 1975 till 1986 Perhaps the most significant point of urban transformation of the city can be established the period of the transition of dictatorship of franco to democracy (1975-1979). Some of the classical instruments that they used were: strict application of the encompassing plan, defining the future city, el plan General Metropolitano, approved in 1976, drafting the special plan of the reforming the district (PERI) for all the districts, control of license and urban district. In Barcelona the idea of taking public spaces as basis for “hacer la ciudad”was without doubt, the principal characteristic in democratic town planning in 1980s, one that continued to predominate into 1990s with the requirement for accessible, quality public spaces included in the great projects towards 1992.5 “Among the methods and specific instruments of the urban planning department we have a clear direction. we will proceed directly with public spaces with two goals: to make spaces of quality and the to create focus that can generate spontaneous transformations. it is evident that when public space is built or rebuilt in a degraded neighborhood of environment, stimulated by the users themselves.” (O.Bohigas, reconstrución de Barcelona, 1985) The strategy of public spaces at all possible scales, from the “mini squares to parks, was based on politicians and experts confidence in the positive impact such actions has on environment. It was also a programmatic response to social demands, reinforced by decentralization and the use of existing planning to reclaim land for public spaces and services, optimizing employment of the few financial resources available. The municipality of Barcelona began the work based on the strengthening of it’s technical resources while taking advantage of framework of Plan General Metropolitano. The actions that were taken in this period were in small scale but vary important are known under the name of “acupuntura urbana”. These are some of the diversity of actions which permits the strategic policy of public spaces:6 • • • • •
Opening of squares to promote regeneration of degraded old centers. (pla de Raval, plaza del Angels) Appropriation of empty spaces or road infrastructure works, to create high quality avenues in the periphery (Via Julia, Rambla de Prim, Ronda del Mig, Avenida Brasil, Avenida Rio de Jenario, Les rondes) Rehabilitation of inner courtyards of city blocks as a public space (Eixample district) Creation of public spaces trough the private commercial operation (Edificio la l’lla, Maremàgnum). Creation of city parks and walks by converting port and railway zones and rehabilitation obsolete facilities (sea front, Estacio del Nord, Joan Miró)
“No one can survive merely by conservation. if there is no new construction, the city cannot stand; not even the old will endure. Each City must find its own formula for combining existing symbols with new ones. Without the latter, antiquity becomes more repetition” (Margall, Mayor of Barcelona 1982-97)
5 Borja Jordi, El Espacios Púplicos: ciudad y ciudadanía (Ayutamiento de Barcelona, 1941) 6 Marshal Tim, Transforming Barcelona, discussion:public space development in Barcelona, Routledge,2004, p.161
Olympic period: 1986 till 1992 In 1984 Barcelona released it’s candidature for the Olympic games, The program Olympic games of 1992 insisted on the issue that has been raised earlier by events (universal exhibitions) of 1888 with the citadel and the 1929 with the conquest of Montjuïc. The program for the Olympic games of 1992 came into being first as general goal or objective, to then become an urban Plan or program in the form of series of separate projects, each with different content, but of great ambition and scope. These projects were very important for organizational development, economic scope. During this period we observe different renewal strategies: First the creation of “areas of new centrality”(Ayutamiento, 1991),the Olympic Ring, The Olympic Village, Vall d’Hebron, Poble Nou, Diagonal Area, with minor development, and also Mutnjuïc which allowed complete urbanization of the mountain. Second the opening the city to the sea and the remodelation of Pot Vell and the conversion of port use areas for recreation and tourism. Third the intervention in the city road system, Las Rondas, a 35 kilometer ring is surrounding the city which distributed the traffic and relieved the center of the city and other projects focuses on major infrastructure. Fourth providing special conditions to accommodate new type of tertiary sector buildings and facilities in areas with obsolete and good accessibility. Post Olympic period 1992 till 1999 The main urban development scheme of this period, post Olympic, had their origin in earlier programs or projects and were marked by predominance of private initiatives. The major changes of this period can be grouped in tree blocks:7 •
Redefinition of road system, The implementation of the Ronda promoted by the Olympic games which increased the traffic, As a result major urban axes such as Meridiana and Gran via, among others, change their section in order to reduce their road capacity and recover spaces for pedestrian, cyclist and vegetation. The culmination of some areas of new centrality. New large urban axes.
The plan of Delta del Llobregat is a global transformation project of Delta del Llobregat planned to resolve the needs of set of logistic activities, transportation, new infrastructure, environmental and territorial. Another features of this period was the campaign “Barcelona posa’t guapa”, according to ex-Mayor Paequal Maragall, the establishment promoted trough this campaign ‘consolidate the citizen perception of public spaces as a common good, contributes to the improvement of collective heritage and increases the comfort, tranquility and sociality of the city. On the other hand it needs to be mentioned the important projects of the airport, high speed train and the area of the La Sagrera and the operation of Diagonal Mar. (A.B, Barcelona Regional, 1999.) New centralities 1999-2004 In this period accrued two important projects Fòrum 2004 and 22@ the innovation district. The Fòrum 2004 de Las culturales represented the final consolidation of the opening of Barcelona to the sea, initiated in 1992. The development of the Besòs Coastline, situated to the South mouth of the river, was carried out on a surface area of 214 hectares, five times larger than the Olympic Village. 22@ gives new prominence to Poblenou district, regains it’s role as the city’s economic engine, located around the section of the recently Diagonal open to the sea and communicates with the main space of Fòrum Universal de Las culturas.8 7 Busquets Joan, According to The urban evolution of compact city, Actar-D,2006,p.418 8 Costa Guim,Barcelona 1992-2004, Gustavo Gili, 2004, p.195
Barcelona’s new projects FRONTO COMTAL
JARDI D` EUTERPE
JARDI DE L A NIMFA
JARDINS DEL TIVOLI GRACIA
1r TEATRE TIVOLI¼
FONT DE JESUS
TEATRE SARSUELA TEATRE COMEDIA
JARDINS DEL CRIADERO
JARDI DE LES DELICIES TEATRE VARIETATS TEATRE ESPANYOL JARDI ESPANYOL
PRAT CATALA 2n TEATRE NOVETATS
CINEMATOGRAFIC BELIO GRAFF
2.2. THE GREEN PATRIMONY
TEATRE DELS CAMPS ELISIS
Plaça de les Glòries Catalanes, shortened as Glòries, designed by lldefons Cerdà to serve as la city center but now it changes it’s role as a secondary space. In the early 2000s and as of 2007, renovation of Glòries has begun, which has given new role to it. The first installation was the project of the controversial Torre Agbar and is facilitated by parking lots, shopping center and a secondary school. AVE is the service of high speed train which will permit direct connection outside the Spain in future. The Madrid–Zaragoza– Barcelona line was inaugurated in 2008, after parts of the line had operated since 2003 (Madrid–Zaragoza–Lleida) and 2006 (Lleida–Tarragona). Other important project in the construction of the la sagrera station, the largest building in Barcelona, this great facility will be the station with six levels of the various railways (highway, local and middle distances) as well as car parking and a large central atrium that will connect the station with bus station and subway.
2n TEATRE TIVOLI
EVOLUTION OF PARKS
A DE SANT
1r TEATRE NOVETATS
While gardening has always existed in cities, either as private gardens, allotments and greenhouses, Green spaces and equipments of the area of Passeige de Gràcia 1860, source:(Feliu Rosa, 2009) small squares or in street trees, not possible to speak properly of public green space until after Industrial Revolution. The work in series of the big factories attracted big quantity of workers to industrial cores, causing the creation of cities with living conditions often very deficient. Also the industrial revolution, over time, creates all series of social and economical improvements, the creation of the social security, retirement and insurance of unemployment, that allow to elevate power of purchasing of the citizens and the apparition of the concept of recreation. The conjunction of the need of oxygenate the city for more healthier place, and the one to create free and recreation spaces, is what appeared the concept of the ‘Public Garden’, understood as a space created and founded by the city government for the free will of citizens. In Barcelona, the creation of green public spaces started from the development of the city After demolishing of city walls in 1854 however the garden of general (1816),unfortunately is entirely disappeared, was the first public garden of Barcelona but the Ciutadella park (1862), projected by Josep Fontseré and transformed as the result of the universal exhibition of 1888, started the true history of public green spaces of the city. The plan of Cerdá (1859) provided a large park in Besos of 250 ha and green mountain of muntjuïc, also the military restriction began to consider several projects of urbanization of city-garden sponsored by different landlords.9 The trees and green spaces as central instrument of ruralization of urban that is on one hand extended cores of cities in such way that the new fabric implemented the system of green spaces at all scales. On the other hand he designed street with trees and blocks with interior gardens. Over time, the model of green spaces of Cerdá suffered from the occupation of interior of blocks and the loss of important parks such as Besos and l’Hipodrom as well as minor was replaced by 9 LECEA Ignasi, Barcelona espacios publicos, Homenaje a Josep Maria Aerra, p26
equipment. During the urbanization of Passeig Maritim, which replaced part of Parc de Besos or the new design of Diagonal street as a green avenue and recovery of the interior of islands, as planting trees on roof tops and extension of urban gardens can make the Eixample of Cerdà recovery of principle of ruralization of urban. Cerdà had a clear conception of the role of trees in green spaces: ”The plantation of trees are the most effective means of preventing the infection of soil, sanitation of territory and even purify the whole atmosphere“ for him the use of trees in the streets is an essential element of relation with nature: ”The green spaces decrease the density of population and we must look at the ample air deposits contribute strongly to air circulation within the streets and dwelling. Today the urban axes is enhanced with trees and passages that are called green ways.10 On the other hand, he considered” it is essential that each island is intended, at least (green spaces) an area equal to buildable area. In synthesis Cerdá proposed the following scheme:” In every street there should be a plaçeta, each neighborhood one plaza, and every quarter one garden. (Feliu and Magrinyà, 2009) After the affix of municipal plan of Barcelona, the city was planned. With this reason it called an international contest for plan of the links which Léon Jaussely won in 1905, but finally it did not affect the plan of cerdá. However, the draft of Jaussely had a big influence and, with the reason of universal exhibition of 1929, projected some of the most symbolic streets of Eixample according to his model: Avenida Misteral,Avenida Diagonal between placa de Francesc Macia i el Parc de Pedralbes, Grácia Gardens, Gardens of passeig de Sant Joan, Avenida Gaudi between Sagrada Familia and Hospital of Sant Pau. The universal Exposition of 1888 untill civil war The year 1873, the consistory of Barcelona approved the project of Josep Fontseré to build the Ciudadella Park, (Parc de la ciudadella). The author presented his project under the name of “ The gardens for the city are like the lungs for human body” reference to the lack of green spaces that suffered the Barcelona of that period. Fontseré designed a park of thirty hectares that was taken advantage of laster as a headquarter of the universal Exhibition that, the 1888, organized the city of Barcelona. With reason of this big event it was built Parc de la Ciutadella pavilion and buildings, some of those still from part of this space. After the construction of the Parc de la Ciutadella, beginning of twenty century, the public green spaces have not ceased in extension and number. The new international exhibition, the 1929, it caused the landscaping of an area of Barcelona which was very popular among the citizens: the mountain of munjuïc, where the abundance of vegitation and natural resources had led the appearance of big number of allotments and the use of mountain as a place of recreation and walk. The necessity of landscaping of one part of muntjuïc, At the request of the architects Josep Amargós and Josep Puig i Cadafalch, the organizers of the Exhibition commissioned the French landscape engineer Jean-Claude-Nicolas Forestier, park keeper of the Paris parks, to create gardens on a part of the mountain. In order to carry out this project, the French engineer was helped by Nicolau Maria Rubió I Tudurí, a tandem which left behind an important legacy within the green areas of Barcelona. Thus, as well as the creation of the Montjuïc Gardens: the Laribal Gardens, Font del Gat (today integrated into the Laribal Gardens), the Amargós Gardens-today the Teatre Grec Gardens and others, we should add the Plaça d’Armes Park (1915) the Parc de la Ciutadella and the historical part of Guinardó Park (1918). In 1923 Parc Güell, designed by Antoni Gaudí, was inaugurated.11 However, the importance of Nicolau Maria Rubió i Tudurí in gardening of Barcelona is not only for the parks and gardens that he designed, he designed important green spaces as Font del Racó Park (1922-28), the Palau de Pedralbes Park (1925-27), Plaça Francesc Macià (1926) and Turó Park (1934). During this period began to undertake studies and projects highlighting the agronomic and lanscape. Thus,green areas no longer considered as a simple need hygiene on the urban structure, they were converted to 10 FELIU Rosa and MAGRINYÀ Fransecs, Cerdà: 150 años de modernidad (Actar,2009) p219 11 The histroy of parks and gardens, <http://w110.bcn.cat/portal/site/MediAmbient/>
become a fundamental aspect structuring of urban fabric. During this period there are two main planners of green spaces the French engineer Jean Claude Nicolas Forestier and architect Nicolau Maria Rubio i Tudurí.12 Since his apperanc in 1917, and until his exile to France in 1937, Rubió i Tudurí was the director of the Barcelona Public Parks Department, from where he made a great effort to procure as much land as possible to be destined to the creation of municipal parks and landscape reserves. To give coherence to the policy of municipal acquisition of land, Rubió created a rational structure of distribution of open spaces which he set down in a paper titled “The problem of open areas,” presented in 1926 at the eleventh National Congress of Architects. In this document, Rubió I Tudurí records the general idea which had been presented in the Linking Network Plan by Léon Jaussely in 1905, on the need to create a complete system of green areas divided into different levels according to their use and characteristics (woods, parks and children’s gardens, etc). The structure proposed by Rubió i Tudurí distributed open space into two main parts:
RESERVAS DE BOSQUES DE LA SIERRA DEL TIBIDABO
CINTURA DE PARQUES EXTERIORES
• The small urban gardens, neighborhood garden and children playgrounds, which were spaced at not more than 500 m in between. • The large space, like the urban and suburban parks, the outdoor parks and the landscape reserves. The urban and suburban parks were to have an extension between 8-10 He, and were to be located, at most, a quarter of an hour by tram (public transportation) from the area of influence. The outdoor parks were located about half an hour by public transport from the center.
CIN -‐‑ TURA DE PARQUES SUBURBANOS
PARQUES INTERIORES 4
MAR MEDITERRANEO 1 Parc de Munjuic 2 Placa Letamendi 3 Placa de les Glòries 4 Sagrada Familia 5 Parc de la Ciudedella 6 Hipódrom 7 Turó park 8 Turó Gil 9 Font del Racó 10 Vallcarca
11 Parc Güel 12 Parc del Ginardó 13 Parc del Llobregat 14 Parc de Pedralbes 15 Parc de Villvidrera 16 Parc de Tibidao 17 Parc de Sant Medir 18 Parc d'ʹHorta 19 Parc del Besòs
Finally, the landscape reserves were the large woods areas that surrounded the city and were distributed along the neighboring municipal limits. This ta very clear distribution within the city
Green system of Barcelona proposed by Rubió i Tudurí
DE TURA CIN
The largest square indicates the area of the city and the green square represents 10%of the urban space,which is reserved as an open space. Rubió i Tudurí.
Distribution of 10% of open space. Rubió i Tudurí.
Graphic of ideal park system. Rubió i Tudurí.
12 Pla dels espais verds de Barcelona,Ajuntament de Barcelona, Institut Municipal de Parcs i Jardins,p.25
surface. Framed by the natural limits configured by the sea, the rivers Llobregat and Besos and the mountains of the Collserola inland, it established a gradation of the size of the open spaces as they got closer to the city. The result was a semicircle closed by the landscape reserve of the Collserola that was followed by concentric arches formed by the outdoor parks, the urban and suburban parks and, at the heart of the city, the neighborhood gardens. From the 40’s to the end of 70’s Franco dictatorship The Civil War involved a transition period in the development of new green areas in the city of Barcelona. Once ended and to the arrival of the democratic councils, the development of public areas of the city was addressed to the regeneration of the existing green areas but that were lacking infrastructures of equipment that allowed them to be used as parks. Therefore, even though they were already conceived in the Jaussely Plan from 1905, it will not be until the end of this period that the gardens of the Turons de la Peira, Monterols and Putxet will be made suitable and the new parks of Guineueta and Cervantes will be developed. Also belong to this period the new gardens at Montjuic, in the area right above the one arranged by Forestier for the 92 Exposition. The land in this area presented large topographic gradients due to the exiting quarries from roman times that took advantage of the Montjuic stone to build the most important constructions of the city. By the end of the 60’s and beginning of the 70’s the interest for collecting will allow the creation of the Gardens of Mossen Costa i Llobera nad Mossen Cinto Verdaguer. The practice of acquiring private properties that had gardens to increase the green areas of the city it would be a common one of the Administration of Public Parks and Gardens of Barcelona. The Gardens of the Palau of Pedralbes, the Turó Parc and Parc Guell have their origins in the adaptation of private gardens for public use. The decade of the 60’s and 70’s will represent for Barcelona the continuation of this policy and the incorporation to the green patrimony of the city the Gardens of the Quinta Amelia (1970) and the parks of Castell of Oreneta and Les Aigues (1978). Not to forget the historic garden by excellence, the Parc of the Laberint d’Horta, acquired in 1967 and opened to the public in the spring of 1971.13 The Democratic Councils
Urbanization project of the Turó area(1932)
Although, the large increase in green zones arrived in Barcelona from the 80’s with the new town-planning policy established by the Barcelona Council after the first democratic elections took place. Eleven years separate the first park created during this stage, the Parc de Joan Miro, built in 1983 on the premises of the former central slaughterhouse of Barcelona, and the last one, the Gardens of the Tamarita, completed in June 1994. In between, twenty new parks have spread over the geography of Barcelona, occupying all those open spaces given to the city either by old industries, like the Parc de l’Espanya Industrial (1985), or by former private gardens, like Vil-la Sicilia (1986) and Can Altimira (1991). Also land that was used by obsolete railway installations will transform into new parks, like the Parc de l’Estacio del 13 Ajuntament de Barcelona. Institut Municipal de Parcs i Jardins. Pla dels espais verds de Barcelona, p.27
Nord (1988) and the Parc de Sant Marti (1985). The urban renovation that took place in Barcelona due to the 1992 Olympic Games will allow, as did the Universal Expositions of 1888 and 1929, to renew those parts of the city that lacked the most in urbanism and green space. The area in which the Anella Olimpica was located, as well as the Viles Olimpiques (Olimpic Villages) of Poble Nou and Vall d’Hebron, have transformed from residual land and barred spaces into main areas of the city. Within them new parks, of different styles and characteristics have surfaced giving the citizens the opportunity to practice sports and come in contact with nature without having to leave Barcelona. The Can Dragó Sports Park (1993), the Nou Barris Central Park (1999) and the Diagonal Mar Park (2002) are three further examples of the creation of new public green areas initiated at the beginning of the nineteen nineties.(parcs i jardins)14 The Barcelona Olympic left in late 1993, more than 283 hectares of green spaces this number presented by Lluis Armer in may 1992. (the deputy mayor’s office) in total, Barcelona faced with 967 hectares of green,5.5 m of green for each habitant.15
One of the policy guidelines and environmental programs of the city of Barcelona(1994-995)was to ensure the conservation and improve nature and parks of the city. The quality of natural heritage of the urban environment relates to the identification of citizens with the city. In Diagonal Mar park. 2002 addition to the aesthetic function, The urban green spaces has a high symbolic value in establishing link between nature and city. It is clear that provide attractive environment should be an important objective of a policy of urban environment. on the other side it contribute actively purification of the atmosphere of the city and balance heat. the starting point of the Barcelona contemporary the amount of green spaces according for habitants was unfavorable. The enormous effort in green spaces was enhanced especially for the Olympic games. some of these actions were planting native and Mediterranean spices and the new pruning or documentation of the most interesting trees that demonstrate a sensitivity ecological conservation and enhancement green heritage.16
14 According to Hiatory of parks and gardens, <http://w110.bcn.cat/portal/site/MediAmbient,The history of Parks and gardens> 15 According to La Barcelona de Maragall, zonas verdes, p.139 16 BORJA Jordi, Barcelona un modelo de transformación urbana 1980-1995, p.124
The Fòrum 2004 The Fòrum represented the final consolidation of the opening Barcelona to the sea. The creation of more green ares is based on a concept of unity and continuity within the city areas and the parks. The remodelling of areas housing the Fòrum de les cultures 2004 included the construction of tree new large areas: the García Faria Lineal Park, the Auditoris Park and the Northeast Coastline Park, situated on the limit between Barcelona and the neighboring district of Sant Adrià de Besòs. TYPOLOGY OF ACTUAL GREEN SPACES The green spaces that are considered in the studies will be analyzed within typology which allows a systematic work. In this studies as trees in public spaces,those,who being part of open green spaces or public accessibility which is characterized by plant will be distinguish in four type of green which only two type will be considered: • • • •
Forestry Urban green Green road Green building, archaeological and equipment
Green road (Verde viario) The green road is the format for those areas intended to travel, and have trees alignment which configures the space with lineal character.The word “Via”mean the path of habitual transit. The green roads are confined by green elements, normally alignment of the trees. Within this criteria it can note: Rambla, Passeig and streets with trees. Urban green The urban green is kind of green space which incorporates to urban plot and often generates by the transformation of the space. Within this concept we can distinguish the following spaces: • • • •
Urban park: In the current definition of the concept of park emphasize in three aspects: it’s size and configuration as encircle spaces, the relationship with the constructed spaces and the purpose, contact with the nature and recreation the implies. Urban garden Plaza Green hall
THE GREEN IN PLANNING The green spaces play an important role in the planning(urbanism)basically as a legal requirement in order to reserve, in regional planning of the territory, the available spaces for transforming into green spaces for public use. To gain this the urbanist legislation and the management plans are based on it; green spaces are typified to be able to classify them as public green spaces. here we will review the urbanization actions that were taken in the life of city and their parallel action according to the green spaces: Pla comarcal, 1953: In regional urban plan of the Barcelona, a classification of green spaces and concepts in several area was made as following:17 • Urban park area: green area destined for public use • Forest Park: green area of large extension destined for public use. • Private green area: green are for private property • Landscape protection area: Green area with restricted construction to avoid disappearing landscape perspectives and views of special interest. • Road protection area: Adjacent green areas with access, roads or railway tracks, existing or planned, that prohibits edification. • Forest Area: existing or planned areas which contain large amount of trees which is necessary to preserve them. Llei de Sól 1956: With the introduction of Llei de Sól, the green spaces covered by urban land are divided into two kinds: • a) Parks and Gardens • b) Roads intended for streets and squares: considered minimum provision of these open spaces, being necessary space for parks and public gardens in each polygon, with appropriate proportion to the collective need and not less that 10% of the planning area. In general Llei de Sól, considered the green spaces in two categories one as open spaces intended for public parks and gardens (public green) and the other open spaces intended as streets and squares, introducing the road green (also with the character of public green).This plan was later revised in 1976, with new regulations according to the green spaces. The planning regulations provide further detail for green spaces as a part of general system of open spaces. The new regulations were emphasized on the type of land reserves. so they introduced a system open spaces, of public use and property such as residential land: garden and playground, Industrial land:Gardens, Land of tertiary uses: Garden, pedestrian areas, etc. Also Llei de Sól introduces different type of open spaces provided according to the type of land such as,Gard ens,playgrounds,pedestrian areas. Pla General de Metropolitana 1966: This master plan of metropolitan area includes within the structure of open and agriculture spaces with the following parts: Forest park, Metropolitan green, Urban parks, which was also revised.
17 Villoro Joan and Riudor Luis, GUIA DELS ESPAIS VERDS DE BARCELONA, APROXIMACIÓ HISTÓRICA (Collegi Oficial d’Arquitectes de Catalunya,1984)
2.3. EVOLUTION OF STREET TREES The urban reforms in the second half of the XIX century adopted the alignment of the trees as a nessacery urban element for the definition of the space in the modern cities. streets and plazas, not only public park and garden, needed street trees for different reasons: converting the principal streets to the paths that connect the principal cores of the urban life and articulation of the different neighborhood, they should be wide and comfortable for the walking of citizens like the circulation of the cars, the dimentions of the street couldn’t be controlled only by the buildings which formed the front built,perhaps,too far to shape the intermediate empty part. The alignment allows forming front development of smaller scale, the intermediate height between the buildings and pedestrians, they noticed at the same time some continuity and consistency of the treatment of the facades and some kind of contrast thank to the greenish and texture of foliage and crown, visually superimposed in the colours of the plants and ornaments of them. They were also hygienic and climatic balancers. Renewal the derived air from biological functions of the vegetation’s started to be precious as a factor of public health in the urban studies of the time, on the other hand, the shadow of the trees in the warm months, facilitate the passing of the people under it’s plant canopy, provided by the width and right type of the streets.
Tree planting in Eixample proposed by Cerdá
“It’s obvious that the modern concept of the city based on the identity of the public spaces.” (Oriol Bohigas, reconstrución de Barcelona, 1985)
Passeig de Gràcia, 1926
Trees of Barcelona which forms the streets, Ramblas, Parks, avenues, Paseos and midparts of Rondas are one of the signs of identity of Barcelona, and they are currently increasing most resistant specimens to weather conditions in the city. During the nineteenth century, Georges-Eugene Adolphe Alphand Haussmann in Paris, atto Wagner in Vienna and in Barcelona IIdefons Cerdà, were responsible for major expansions of urban construction rural areas, previously located in the suburbs, combined with wide avenues with large trees and green areas that penetrated the air and light. In 1826 Paseo de Grácia, became the gateway of the city with alignment of 1500 pine trees that did not survive long but it consider as the first street with the alignment of the trees, the second planting the paseo was more varies with acacias, plátanos. fresnos, moreras, chopos, sauces llorones, adelfas and some encina. Twenty years later the lighting was installed to avoid the
Passeig de Gràcia 1953
darkness of the city in the evenings. Then it took the opportunity to the trees again and eliminated the Moreoras after that the plátano was introduces as the dominant specie of this paseo. After the acceptance of the demolishing the city walls Cerdà accepted the challenge for the extension of the city of the barcelona. The original draft of the Cerdà provided building of the blocks in only two opposite side or forming an angle. The maximum height of buildings, 16 meter, consisting of air and sunshine in every room of every floor. At the same time proposal provided trees in the streets, which with landscaped open spaces blocks, had made Barcelona a citygarden.18 As for the trees, Cerdà foresaw shadow of the streets, the convenience of pedestrians was one of his concerns, providing a tree for every 8 meter. Cerdà edited the corners of the blocks to get rid of the corners, had calculated the future needs of traffic. The width of the sidewalks, with five meters on each side of the street, allowed the tree widespread in the new city.
source: congreso n’8,Aboricultuta
Since the beginning of the urbanization of Barcelona, the ‘plátano’ (Platanus x hispanica) was introduces as the dominant specie of the streets.The City began to grow, and the adjacent neighborhoods were annexed to configure the city as known today, made of ten districts.19 In the second half of 90’s N. M. Rubio i Tudurí (who was mentioned in previous chapter), was concerned by the well being of the garden’s users and vegitation.In may 1926 he publishes an article “Progresos de la urbanization en Barcelona”(Urbanization progress in Barcelona) which he mentioned that the planing for the city should be handled by professionals and mentioned the plátanos in Paseo de Gràcia that they are sick. The second half of the XIX Century, was particularly crucial on the urban green structure of Barcelona, given that, apart from large landscaped surfaces, during this period the roadside tres was consolidated to well over 150,000 trees.(Parcs i Jardins, 2008) In this century, palm trees became one of the most important species of plants of parks and gardens, town and streets in holiday localities in main European capitals .In Barcelona Palm trees forms an important part of the vegetation, Specially in Ciutat Vella and Sant Marti which both district have a share of sea front, they have the highest number of palm trees.
El Árbol y la Ciudad, source: (Parcs i Jardins,2008)
18 Los Árboles en el Paisage urbanos, congreso n’8, Madrid,p.149. 19 The districts of Barcelona: 1. Ciutat Vella, 2. Eixample, 3. Sants Munjuic, 4. Les Corts, 5. Sarrià-Sant Gervasi, 6. Gràcia, 7. Horta-Guinardó, 8. Nou Barries,9. Sant Andreu, 10 .Sant Marti.
Since the mid-eighties, the City Council has a special focus in its planning and execution. The work done by Project Services has been fundamental in order to qualify and improve public space generalizing their design criteria and establishing the proper shape and character, to give a clear idea of City. One of the policy guide line and programs of the city hall of Barcelona related to the environment of the city is respect and empowerment of urban green spaces ensuring the same time the characteristic of plant diversity of the city and planting the native specimens, which was followed by the these actions: Development of Jardin Botánico, production and plantation of native and Mediterranean specimens, Catalogue of trees of the interest of Barcelona, Parc de Clleserola, new system of pruning, Hundred garden of neighborhood, program of creation of parks. (Jordi Borja, Barcelona un modelo de transformacion urbana, 1995) On June 2, 1995, with the occasion of the Congress ‘El Árbol y la Ciudad’ (The Tree and the City) LA CARTA DE BARCELONA: Declaración Del Derecho al Árbol en la Ciudad (LETTER OF BARCELONA: Declaration of the Right to Trees in the City) is signed, which 40 municipalities have adopted committing to manage the roadside tree-clads.(Parcs i Jardins,2008)
The evolution of street trees of Barcelona. Source: Ajutament de Barcelona, Pla gestió de l’arbrat viari de Barcelona, 2008
Conclusion: In the municipal area of Barcelona where live more that 1.5 millions of people it is provided by 25.068.337 m² of public green spaces. which from this amount, 66% correspond to the Collserola and 34% of the rest to parks, gardens and other green spaces included in urban fabric .This would provide for each citizen the 10,04 m² of green forestry and 5,21 m² of urban green.20 The following table shows the surface which belongs to each kind of green spaces.
Distribution of green in the city. Source: Pla dels espais verds de Barcelona
The mass plantation of street trees in Barcelona was in parallel with the increase of the green spaces of the city. The street trees together with the park and other green area gave new image to the public spaces. The street trees had an important role in connecting the urban park in the city where there was no sign of vegetation, only vehicle access, the appearance of trees provide pleasant passage to reach the green nodes of the city. One obstacle in landscaping of the city was the lack of space for planting trees in narrow streets of the old city. Barcelona like other European cities has a dominant specie which is repeated in street and parks of the city, later by the purpose of biodiversity and neighborhood characteristics the plàtano, dominant specie of the city, stands with other species. In the case of urbanization of Turó (Turó park) area was clear that street trees ware considered as an important factor of urbanization of this area in relation with the park. The importance of green spaces does not depend only it’s dimension or vegetation it contain, but it’s compliance function that has been allocated in the green system, made up of parts of uses and sizes. Certainly these parts can assign one or more function in diverse areas both increase the environment quality of given area or the necessity of social use connect with leisure. Thus the function to be fulfilled is what really determines the different typologies of urban spaces, both in term to plant structure and constructive regarding the equipment that is available and of course it’s location in urban fabric.
20 Ajutament de Barcelona, institut Municipal de Parcs i Jardins, Pla de espais Verda de Barcelona, p34
3. BARCELONA TREES 3.1. TREES IN URBAN LANDSCAPE The city which we live in, it has trees in itâ€™s parks,gardens,boulevards,the streets and squares and on many occasion we take advantage of their shade, with different sizes and colour contrast of their leaves with seasonal changes. At other times walking in the city we can be surprised in any street or boulevards with the tree species chosen, with the tops of the trees are still young and so near to the facade of the buildings. The man puts into practice town planning when they feel the need to manage the spaces who has to live in it. Later he emerges concerns to incorporate some nature elements, so that cities end up being a space in which trying to give priority to comfort of the man. The city grew and populated by people, the trees have been planted in narrow sidewalks and parks, in the paved streets and atmospheric pollution all for the reason to sanitize the city. Tree needs to develop harmoniously in living space to form the crown and root system .The size and the volume that forms in adult stage was made up for thousand of years of evolution and living space which is different for each species. Tree is a part of the genetic code of the collective unconscious. Human born and lived in jungles and hunt in the bush. Produce feeling of peace and privacy,communication,vital stimulus to the seasonal change, security. All plantations requires advance planning, a design compositional development of the alignment, where in some cases will have to provide shade, in other hide unpleasant views and some cases behave as monumental elements. Every tree would require, before being planted, to be known the way of life and its growth enough to know weather place chosen for the coming decades is the most appropriate. Each trees planted in any city was taken, perhaps in known valleys, rivers and mountains and taken as a seed or small plant in a city of Europe or the Iberian Peninsula and there began to grow. The tree management, which local authorities apply promotes important changes the future appearance of the parks and streets. These plans determine the function to be fulfilled by the trees in each physical space, thus promoting, the planting of suitable species for each of these areas of the city.21 The urban plans of the cities and new planting should consider the management plans and of course be subject to it. The designers(landscape,urban,architects,engineers)of the streets,alignment,tree forest,parks,urbanization,etc. It should be considered the guidelines, choosing and planting the trees that could be citizen model by the pass of time. Trees in the city play an important role in the same, they should have a landscape value above all, if at least quantifiable and most of all, they should have remarkable safety level and these three parameters should be considered to make the cities livable for the convenience of the people and the citizens trees.
21 Los Ă rboles en el Paisage urbanos, congreso nâ€™8, Madrid, 2004,p.8
3.2. SELECTION OF SPECIES OF STREET TREES In the streets of Barcelona there are over 150,000 roadside trees in existence. This makes it one of the European cities with the highest amount of roadside trees and makes it a key part of its urban patrimony, of which management encompasses all the organization of Parcs I Jardins.22 Among them we can mention: climatic conditions, the type of ground (texture and drainage), the availability of water, pollution resistance, and the proximity to buildings, the width of the sidewalk and streets, the conflict with the street furniture (traffic lights, street lighting, etc), vehicle parking (trunk impacts) or the circulation of tall vehicles (impacts to branches). The majority of Barcelona roadside trees consist of adult trees, which where planted many years ago in more favorable environment conditions (permeable ground, less polluted air, less built density).Today the criteria for sowing and maintenance of the trees are more respectful to the biology of the trees and the sustainability parameters from the moment of selection of the species besides the roadside trees must adopt both climatic and environmental conditions of the city which influence their development. As part of the Barcelona roadside trees it is necessary to use species adapted to the physical and spatial constraints of the urban environment. Therefore, species resistant to treetop development,growth,drought and pollution, easy healing capability and etc, will always be selected. On the other hand it is important to enrich the selection of species to confront the hazard of plague surface that threatens the life of tree-clad. In Barcelona, Platanus x hispanica forms almost the whole of roadside trees in the city (especially in some districts).Even today it still constitute the 33% of road side trees in the city. Base on those needs,Pla de Gestió de l’Albrat Viari de Barcelona, sets the selection of indigenous species of trees which grow more healthy and requires less maintenance. “SINCE THE YEAR 2001, Parcs i Jardis has ISO 14001 certification in an issue of management and maintenance of public green areas and trees” (Barcelona Verda, no 90, 2003) The following table indicates the principal species of Barcelona trees Scientiﬁc name
Platanus x hispanica
pl‡ tano de sombra
acacia del Jap— n
Populus nigra Ô italicaÕ
olmo de Siberia
‡ rbol botella
Table source: Ajutament de Barcelona, Pla gestió de l’arbrat viari de Barcelona, 2008
22 Ajutament de Barcelona. Document of La gestión del arbolado viario en la ciudad, 2008 <http://w110.bcn.cat/MediAmbient/Continguts/Continguts_Contextuals/Documentacio/ Documents/Fitxers/gestio_arbrat_2008_Medi_Ambient.pdf>
Distribution of the street trees species. Source: Ajutament de Barcelona, Pla gestió de l’arbrat viari de Barcelona, 2008
According to the charts the Plátano has the most number of the trees, this is not exceptional in most european cities, between 60% and 80% of alignment trees are the same species, and after Plátano, Lledoner and Acácia del japó have the most number of trees. In the District of Eximple there are big number of plátano which are used in the wide street such as Passeige de Gracia. Plátano can grow in it’s natural shape since it has a wide foliage it can be problematic in the narrow streets but in the case of passeige the Gràcia we can see they are alignment have not interfered with the road system. In Eximple district while it is also composed of different residential areas, to provide them with more urban quality, seek to introduce a touch of colour with the planting of flowering trees in the corners, That allows to establish particular identity for each district, trough specific specie, which give a colour characteristic. Among this flowering species we can mention Sòfora, Árbol de amor, Tilia, Melia, Jacardana.
Palm trees The reason to keep the palm trees in different category is that the biology and growth of the palm trees differs from the other trees and they are mostly form different continents. Palm trees form 3.2%of the alignment trees which are distributed according to the following table: ESPECIE
Africa N/Asia O
Califor. S ./ Arizona O.
Illes Canˆ ries
Source: Ajutament de Barcelona, Pla gestió de l’arbrat viari de Barcelona, 2008
On 29th of September was held in Barcelona a day dedicated to maintenance and conservation of palms organized by l’Associació Espanyola I’Arboricultura i Parcs i Jardins. On this day, Claudio Littardi,head of Parcs i Jardins, presented a paper about the palms and the evolution of Mediterranean cities from two aspects: provide elements that promote understanding of the process that have led to the transformation of coastal landscape over time, with special attention to the exotic vegetation, among which predominate palms. The presence of palms goes back in time. In XIV century, palmera datilera (Phoenix dactylirera) had great importance in the local economy, especially for the production of leaves, which were used for religious celebrations. But not until the late XIX the palms, with an emerge of tourism and the link with coastal with France by train, assumed an important role a true icon and near the landscape. Transforming the coastal landscape emphasizes because of the introduction of a large number of exotic species that replace the orange and olive trees, creating evocative to host high level clientele.23 “The introduction of exotic species has been element of transformation of the coastal landscape” (B Verda, 2006) Soon the palms were involved in a fashion spread outside of the botanic collectors, they become representative plants of parks,gardens,villas,houses,streets and avenues of holiday villages and winter gardens in the capitals of European cities. In the case of Barcelona, the growth of the city, the progressive deterioration of life conditions of trees had very bad impact on the population of Plátano they suffered from numerous disease.This fact coupled with the desire to promote biodiversity,had led to the Pla de Gestió de l’Arbrat Viari which provides the gradual replacement of Plátano to more resistant street trees, also in the case of other big trees such as the Ulmus sp, and this specie maintain only in the large avenues while 23.B Verda, No 108, octubre 2006.
Distribution of the trees by district. Source: Barcelona Verde, no 98, february 2005
smaller trees sets are reserved for less spacious streets. This section indicates how the species of the street trees have been chosen to be part of the street trees, which parameters have been considered. SUSTAINABLE CRITERIA Sustainable gardening intends to optimize natural resources, human and economic, by considering this criteria it helps to gain more natural spaces and better adapted to natural environment. it is very useful technique and it requires costly maintenance. In the selection of species of streets trees following bases of sustainable criteria are:24 • • •
Using trees originating from the same area or very well adapted. The plants grow healthier and more resistant and need less natural resources and more integrated to the landscape. Using the species resistant to different dangers of trees like pest and sickness in order to minimize the use of chemical products to protect them. Increase biodiversity,beside avoiding mono population, diversity of trees provides wildlife.
Environmental and spatial conditions Species that are used in Barcelona are those adapted to the physical and spatial conditions of the city. The environment factors such as: weather condition, soil type, water availability and resistant to the pollution. The spatial conditions are considered, such as, the proximity to building, the width of the sidewalk, the width of the street, the parking of the vehicle (considering the trunk dimentions) and traffic which is the impact of the branches.
24 Ajutament de Barcelona.Document of La gestión del arbolado viario en la ciudad, 2008<http://w110.bcn.cat/MediAmbient/Continguts/Continguts_Contextuals/Documentacio/Documents/Fitxers/gestio_arbrat_2008_Medi_Ambient.pdf>
Enhancing the biodiversity
In 1994, Parcs I Jardins drafted the ‘Plan de Espacios Verdes de Barcelona’(Plan for the Green Spaces of Barcelona) that presents the management model for all typologies of green zones of the city. Regarding roadside trees, one of the objectives is substitution of some species for more resistant one according to the following criteria: (according to Parcs I Jardins documents) • •
Replacement of the species with grand portage, reserving them for use in large avenues or landmarks spaces. Promotion of species with less poise in less spacious streets, taking into account the resistance to urban environment and disease.
Some of the trouble maker species are Platanus x hispanica and Ulmus pumila unless, the platanus x hispanica is the dominant specie of the street of Barcelona it’s fast growth and it’s great poise prevent it from developing properly in the most of streets. In the case of the Ulmus pumila, its fast development, treetop size and inappropriate location has cause leaning that represents a hazard for circulating traffic, therefore it has continued to their replacement for more adequate species. By the gradual replacement Platanus x hispanica and Ulmus pumila as urban trees in each district anticipated one or more specific species according to the characteristics of the streets, This achieved by grouping trees by district, at the same time improves the biodiversity in the city of Barcelona.25 (table 1) The relation of the species by districts is modified by the width of the side walk or street the Plan considered that no plant in the sidewalks of a width less than two and a half. Apart from the species of plan the transformation, there is also provide a list of other species for planting in case of remodelling of a street and a list of plantation for the exceptional cases justified the incorporation of an unusual tree species, either for aesthetic reasons or traditional and symbolic for neighbors. (table 3)
-‐‑Prunera de tulles vermelles (Prunus cerasifera var.atropurpurea) -‐‑Arbre de I'ʹamor (Cercis siliquaslrum) -‐‑Troana (Uguslrum lucldum) -‐‑Hlblsc de Sina (Hlblscus synacus) -‐‑Taronger (Cltrus aurantium)
Lledoner (Celtis australis)
Sófora (Sophora Japonica)
Lledoner (Celtis australis)
-‐‑Sófora (Sophora japonica ) -‐‑Troana (Ligustrum lucidum) -‐‑Brachychiton populuneus
-‐‑Prunera de fulles vermelles (Prunus cerasifera var atropurpurea) -‐‑Arbre de I'ʹamor (Cercis siliquastrum) Troana (ligustrum lucidum) -‐‑Hibisc de Siria (Hibiscus syriacus) -‐‑Taronger (Citrus auranlium)
Sófora (Sophora japonica)
Lldoner (Celtis austrails)
Melia (Melia azedarach)
Lledoner (Celtis auslralis)
Table 1. Source: Barcelona Verda, octubre2003
Sófora (sophora japonica)
Arbre de l’amor
Xicranda (jacaranda mimosfolia)
Table 2. Source: Barcelona Verda, octubre2003
In the case of Xamfrans of the district of Eixample, the Pla de Gestió de l’ Arbrat Viari provides the plantation of the flowering trees in different neighborhood for more quality landscape and to establish identity for each of them. Selection of the tree species in the street of Barcelona, which is published in 2004, aims to clarify doubts that may arise while project of the plantation in the streets. The selection of these species comes from the technical experience of Parcs i Jardins in recent years and is the subject of periodically review that may change some depending on the result. (table 2) 25 Barcelona Verda, no.90, OCTUBRE 2003.
Sidewalk 2.5 to 3.5m Trees with small port planting distance:7m
Sidewalk between 3.5 to 6m Trees with medium port planting distance:9m
Sidewalk from 6 m Tree with grand port Planting distance:13m
Arbre de l'ʹamor (Cercis siliquastrum) Taronger (Cilrus aurantium) Hibisc de Siria (Hibiseus syriacus) Troana (ligustrum lucidum) Prunera de fulles vermelles
Brachyehiton populneus Lledoner (Celtis australis) Arbre de I'ʹamor (Cereis sitiquaslrum) Troana (Ligusltum lcidum) Sófora (Sophora japonica)
Lledoner (Celtis auslralis) Melia (Melia azedarach) Plàtan (Plalanusxhispaniea) Sòfora(Sophora japonica)
Magnólia (Magnolia grandiﬂora) Baladre (Nerium oleander) Cirerer del Japó (Prunus serrulata)
Acacia taperera (Albizia julibrissin) Xicranda (Jacaranda mimosifolia) Sapindal (Koelreuteria paniculata) Magnólia (Magnolia grandiﬂora) Álber (Populus alba var piramidalis) Alzina(Quercus ilex) TiI·∙ler (Tilia sp.)
Vernis del Japó Ailanthus altissima) Xicranda (Jacaranda mimosifolia) Populus simonii Alzin(Quercus ilex) TiI·∙ler (Tilia sp.) Tipuana(Tipuana tipu)
Acacia saligna Auró negre (Acer monspessulanum) Tamariu (Tamarix gallica)
Acacia saligna Garrofer(Ceratonia siliqua) Ficus retusa Ginkgo biloba Grevillea robusta Morera(Morus alba ‘Fruitless’) Palmera datilera(Phoenix dactylifera) Pollancre gabatx(Populus nigra var.italica) Washingtonia sp
Eucaliptus(Eucalyptus sp.) Ficus retusa Palmera datilera(Phoenix dactylifera) Pi pinyer(Pinus pinea) Washingtonia sp
3.3. NEW MILESTONES The new lines of action plan incorporate into the Gestió de l’Arbrat Viari of Barcelona aim to improve quality rather that quantity so the damage trees where replaced by better species adapted to the climate, which represent 15000 new planting.26 When choosing species of the decisive factor it will promote biodiversity. According to the management tools, the Data Bank of Parcs i Jardins has initiated the project GAVI (Gestió Arbrat Viari), a new inventory that had better regulator the distance of planting and selection of species and management of catalogue d’arbres d’interes local. Distance for planting of tree road In 1854 Cerdà arranged the planting of the trees every 8 meter, This distance however, has been changed due to appearance of driveways,services,traffic light, sign and beans which in most of the cases a distance of 7 m between them. Also it is necessary to fulfill the objective of action of promoting biodiversity. So planting of the streets of the city, considered tree type:
Table 3. Source: Barcelona Verda, octubre2003
Width of pavement
Type of trees
Sidewalk less than 2.5m Sidewalk between 2,5 and 3,5 m Sidewalk between 3,5 and 6 m Sidewalk more than 6 m
tree with small portage tree with medium portage tree with grand portage
Distance of plantation 7m 9m 13 m
Inventory of trees “The Council produced a catalogue that comprises the trees and planting that due to their particular characteristics of beauty, antiquity, rarity and history deserve to be preserved. The land owner cannot proceed with the removal of trees or plantations included in the aforementioned catalogue without the corresponding municipal authorization” (Parcs I Jardins, 2008) The tree that selected to join the catalogue because of their longevity which they remained without altering their location till they reached adulthood. During the urbanization period of Barcelona the old parks and gardens were disappeared and only their trees were remained which are presentative of the history of those places. One of the basic objective of cataloguing the trees according to the Parcs I Jardins:
26 Barcelona Verda magaine, NO. 98, FEBRER 2005
“The trees, thanks to its longevity are very often the only living witnesses of the history of neighborhoods and cities. The inclusion of a tree or planting in the Catalogue of Trees of Interest assumes its preservation is of interest, whether is an example of municipal property as if of private property. In no case can trees or plantations that are included in this catalogue be removed or affected.” (Parcs I Jardins,2008) The cataloguing committee prepares the tab of the selected species which contain the following information: IDENTIFICATION • Tree species (scientific name and the name Catalan) • Dimentions(height,barrel, vault,crown)-estimate age LOCATION • Municipality (Barcelona) • Street or square • Park or Garden RARING • Justification of parameters measured for cataloguing PHOTOGRAPHY MAP Following by cataloguing the trees department of greenery protection proposed: • • • • •
New signage of trees of local interest of public property especially for road side trees and vertical signs for parks and gardens. Periodically review the tree listed Updating the informations: photos, tree data and location map. Digitalizing the data Studying new cataloguing proposals.
Tree signage Continuing to promote the classification of trees of the trees that deserve special attention, it also renewed the basis for making signage for the trees in catalogues. On the other hand According to the guideline of Agenda 21 Barcelona green management should be accompaniment with education program,training,information and awareness campaigns aimed at diverse people with the objective of promote the involvement and collaboration in public. In order to spread the relationship of citizens with he natural environment, protection of green spaces and improve it’s quality and encourage the attitude of responsibility. In the area of urban green, street trees are key issue of great impact on public opinion. That’s why they launched the campaign of “Els arbres tenen nom” (The trees have a name),an initiative attempt to the tree thats tree is not the great unknown so by placing the signage of trees with their name they integrated the trees in the daily journey of the people. So far they have identified 3000 trees of 128 species and have chosen the 51 most significant one.
The mayor Joan Clos the first plate
“New lines of action included in the Management Plan of the Barcelona street trees (Pla de Gestió de l’Arbrat Viari) have as main objective the qualitative improvement” The trees that were labeled have been selected depending on their situation, frequent pass and well visibility, and important specie of each district of Barcelona. Identification of so high number of trees permits the pedestrians familiarize with the characteristics of diverse species and remember the name. The repetition of the tree labels along the street facilitate achieving the objective of the campaign:”that the locals knows big part of 147,000 “citizens green”which with it’s big port and their green canopy they decorate the city and improve the quality of life.27 3.4. NEW LODGING AT 22@ In the new ares of 22@ it was introduced new species in the planting of trees such as an excessive percentage of Celtis australis.At the time of commencement of work, in 2002, the trees in the 22@ were distributed as follows:28 Platanus x hispanica (plàtan) Celtis australis (lledoner) Catalpa bignonioides (catalpa) Ulmus pumila (om) Sophora japonica (sòfora) Quercus ilex (alzina) Tipuana tipu (acàcia de flor groga) Altres espècies
77% 12% 4% 2% 1% 1% 1% 2%
Some of the streets with the pavement width to keep the ‘platano’ are the Ave. Diagonal and Icaria. As for the corners because the idea is to make the crossings into areas of relationship and meeting, therefore they must be areas with shade, intends to maintain Platanus x hispanica (platano) anywhere it finds itself in optimal conditions, and introduce Tipuana tipu (acacia of yellow flower) in the corners to be planted. All other streets treatment will adequate to the following condition: for parallel streets to the sea Grevillea robusta (Australian oak) and streets perpendicular to the sea Gleditsia triacanthos ‘Inermis. Parcs I Jardins in 2006 launched project to restore or introduce new species of street trees and the aim was to ensure biodiversity in the complex urban fabric, so in 2006 they planted 173 units of trees of 4 different species.
27 Barcelona Verda, no. 63, abril 1999. 28 Parcs i Jardins de Barcelona, Institut Municipal.ARBRAT VIARI: SELECCIÓ D’ESPÈCIES,2004 <http://w110.bcn.cat/MediAmbient/Continguts/Continguts_Contextuals/ Documentacio/Documents/Fitxers/arbrat_viari.pdf>
3.5. NEW CHALLENGES FOR THE FUTURE: The green of Barcelona reached to XXI century integrated with the global challenge of the city for sustainability. Thus came the concept of green corridors. It is known the positive effect of green spaces on the environment within urbanized zone. In compact city like in Barcelona as was mentioned before, it contributes to improve the air quality buffer temperature changes, reduce noise,etc. These environmental benefits and enrichment to wildlife are conditioned by size and characteristics of space and negative pressure of urban environment. The positive effects of green spaces are important as they are more extensive and dense. However, the connection of green spaces in the city among themselves and with the natural spaces and extra-urban agriculture forming a network significantly increases these benefits. Good network connectivity allows the input of nature in the city, The solid lines of green create micro environments that counteract the negative effects of urban environment and, at least, offer the public perception of a continuous and extensive green. Each city has specific features that allow approximately easily promote it’s relations with the environment that surrounds it. Barcelona is in contact with large areas that have varying degrees of naturalization, as Collserola, river Besos or Montjuic Mountain, In this sense in Barcelona it is promoting the green corridors. The green corridors of vegetation link park and gardens of the city and will make circuits between the park and walking parks. They Will be areas where the traffic calming and foster the quality of routes. The city council is working to interconnect and link the different green spots of the city,parks,gardens,avenues with trees so make possible the creation of itineraries of green. The goal is to define “the green belt of Barcelona” and to protect against the loss of biodiversity caused by the expansion of built-up areas that break up natural habitats. Some of them are prefigured, especially in the Green coridors limits of the city, and other are in the planing process, including thickening the vegetation of the street trees. The provision of green spaces in urban plot shows some of the green lines that are being studied and will be completed in future:29 Corridor Mar-Trinitat(Barceloneta, Parc de les Cascades, Ciutadella, Estació del Nord, Bosquet dels Encants, Plaça de les Glòries, Parc del Clot, Parc de Sant Martí, Parc de la Sagrera i Parc de la Trinitat) Corridor Poblenou-Sagrera (Parc de Carles I, Parc del Port Olímpic, Parc dels Ponts, Parc del Poblenou, Parc Diagonal Mar, Diagonal Pere IV, Rambla Prim i Parc de Sagrera). Corridor Estació de Sants-Montjuïc (Parc de l’Espanya Industrial, Parc de Joan Miró, Av. Tarragona, arbreda Montjuïc).
29 Ajutament de Barcelona. MOUR’S A PEU PER BARCELONA <http://w3.bcn.es/fitxers/mobilitat/pacte/pacte1c.796.pdf>
4. CASE STUDIES
4.1. ACTUAL GREEN SPACES OF THE CITY location of case studies
4.2. MOLL DE LA BARCELONETA
Plataunus x Hispanica
District: Ciutat Vella Project: 1990 Execution: 1991-1992 Area m²: 60.065 Autors: ordi Henrich and alga Tarrasó Architects: Santiago Gassó y J. Manue1. Moll de la Barceloneta surrounded by Paseo Juan de Borbon,extended from Palau de Mar to Moll del Rellotge. This project is part of the development plan of special Port Vell and which was the first step in redefinition of the relationship between the port and the city, a relationship which began with the ordering the Moll de la Fusta. The demolishing of pier huts of the muelle intend to open the ancient boundaries that isolated the rest of Barcelona. Moll de la Barceloneta, together with Moll de la Fusta,are important spaces around the port vell that extends as continuous urban item of the city. The way that is described by it’s authors30 The project of Moll de la Barceloneta forms a large linear space, with the double work of the Paseo which link the Barcelona and the port by keeping the character of “open” spaces which is decorating and forming the port with trees.” It is working as a side walk on the side of the Barceloneta which extended to 15 m of width and contain the row of Plátano trees, In this it recovers the historical setting of the Paseo (paseo Juan de Borbo) and at the same time qualifies the relationship between pedestrian spaces and the traditional neighborhood. Under this space there is an underground car parking which is accessible by ramps. The section of the paseo between the circulation space and water reflects a change of scale. A sidewalk of 11 meter related the side of Barceloneta by group of Ombús, palm, Washingtonia and Tipuana Tipu and parquinsonias breaking the traditional alignment of the space street and represent a new large area with different image and forming the area of shadow contrasted with rest of the space. From this part the paseo opens to the port of the city, formed by the group of palm trees, datilaras and Washingtonias. Which with their large scale give a picture to the space. The woodland has a defining role in changing the scale between Bacerloneta and the Port emptying gradually form the first to second. At the ends of the paseo, two large plazas slightly inclined upwards towards the water and distribute the circulation of the pedestrians to the sides of the paseo. The level change between Las plazas and the paseo part rides closer to the water and form a grand staircase oriented to the port and the city. The existing trees according to their numbers are: plátano de sombra, Tipuana Tipu, parquinsonias, Palmera datilera, Washingtonia, ombús and Falso Pimentero. 1. Plataunus x Hispanica (plátano de sombra) : They are magnificent ornamental trees, which are used as a shade tree in the linear form. According to the previous studies of the trees in Barcelona, they are the majority trees in the Barcelona which they are mostly used in lineal form to give direction like in Ramblas,Gran Viade Les Corts Catalanes and Diagonal Street, also in the right side of the Moll they create passage for the people which direct them until the end of the this space which by joining the branches of their tops they create a whole piece. 2. Tipuana Tipu (Tipuana): It’s a flowering tree with yellow colour which they are magnificent for alignment and they provide a pleasant feeling in the sense of colour in the paseo and they provide very nice shadow for the pedestrians. 3. Parkinsonia aculeata (Parquinsonia): It’s a flowering plant which are in yellow colour that they grow in mid spring and summer, so in this period they give a touch of yellow colour to the space and they provide very light shadow which with green tipuanas they create pleasant color combination. It has a medium height with very umbrella shaped portage. 4. Phytolacca dioica (ombús) : It is an ever green tree so the paseo will take advantage of this char30 Barcelona espacios publicos, homenaje a Josep Maria Serra Marti, this section written by Olga Tarrasó, Jordi Henrich
acteristic and will have this tree green for whole year without loosing it’s leaves. It has a white flower which it grows in the spring time. It’s a perfect specie near the sea .As you see they are in separate groups and just a few of them. They have a big tree protection because of they heavy and big roots .They provide a big shadow for the pedestrians. 5. Washingtonia robusta (Palma Mexicana): They have a special characteristic according to their fine and very long trunk which are the highest trees in this space and their height can reach more than 30m. It is the fastest growing palm and cheaper. In this space we can see that they are standing in linear form together with palma datilera they are repeated in the last line of the trees of the paseo and nearest to the water. As they are very high trees their combination with palma datilera brings more closure to the human scale so they work as two different levels which creates gradual change of height in human eye, their sudden change of height can’t be so much appreciate in the places for resting and moreover that they can not provide nice shadow for the people but it’s combination with other type of palm make more smooth environment. 6. Phoenix dactylifera (Palma datilera): They can be used alone or in group which in this context they are use in group that forms the last line of the trees. As mentioned before they are standing together with the Washingtonias. They provide nice shadow which can give the people pleseant shady place to stay which is facilitated by benches, to enjoy the port view. Also we can consider them as an ornamental tree in this case. Apart from their combination with the Washingtonias they are combined with the tipuanas and parquinsonias on the opposite side of the Plataunus. 7. Falso pimentero (Schinus molle) is the single tree in this space which is used for ornamental purpose in the paseo, the size of it’s portage makes it attractive and it’s leafy canopy provides good shade. It usually measured 6-8m in hight and it’s optimum condition reaches 25m. It’s fern shape leaves divided into many narrow fine leafs which creates smooth and bright green.
According to the distribution of trees, the paseo is divided in two different parts area 1 and area 2. In area 1 (A1) the arrows indicate the type of circulation in the paseo which is direct and linear and connects the beginning to the end of the of the paseo. Which is more used for walking and running and cycling purposes. In the second ares(A2) we observe different type of circulation which more random and in different direction, which is designed with different group of trees in different type and provides shadow for sitting purposes that people can rest and take advantage of the port view.
Platanus x hispanica
Desidous trees Specie Schinus molle
Seasonal effect: As you see in the seasonal colour distribution of the species of the paseo during the year is very green and in the spring and summer has itâ€™s optimum colorful time because of itâ€™s flowering trees.
The vegetation and shading effect In the section we can see the most shady area of the paseo which the majority of the shade is provided by Plátano and Tipuana trees. According to the studies of the Antoni Falcon this shady area can reduce the temperature to 2% to 4% and make it cooler especially in the hot days of summer. The distance between plátanos which varies between 5 to 6 m creates a continuos shade that facilitates the linear circulation with cool air which is provided under this continuos shade. On the interior part of the passage near the sea(port) the shading effects are more disperse, the location of the Tipuanas and Parquinsonias which are not planted in linear form like in the case of Plátanos creates different definition in the spaces.
Vegitation and shading effect
Paseo Juan de Borbo
Platano x hispanica
Platano x hispanica
The vegetation and wind effect The vegitation has great potential to control the air movement as we can see in this passage the last row of tree are palms which are the most resistant trees to the wind. The wind that is blowing from the sea area is reduced by palms and they get the strongest part of the wind and then it blows to the second row of trees which are deciduous trees, they filter the wind with their grand portage. In general the trees deflects the wind that blows from the sea and direct it to the to the other side of the passage and creates more comfortable walking area for the people.
Wind block: Directing and softening the wind towards Barceloneta residential blocks
Deflection of wind by vegetation of the passage.
Environmental:The cooling effect of the trees and the sea breeze blowing to the passage
4.3. PARC DIAGONAL MAR
DISTRICT: Sant Marti LOCATION: Diagonal Mar DATE: 1997-2002 SURFACE: 14 ha ARQUITECTOS: Enric Miralles and BenedettaTagliabue. EMBT arquitectesassociars This park it has a size comparable to the big gardens of Barcelona, it’s proximity to the Diagonal Avenue and the street Taulat and, above all, it’s direct connection to the beach make it seems even more bigger space. To join the Diagonal Avenue, which crosses the entire city, with the beach, it was decided to project the park of the diagonal mar. The park project merges with urban fabric, ordering trough a series of roads that, like tree branches, are directed towards different directions. The park is fully accessible and is divided to five different parts, The largest part spreads out between Carrers Llull, Josep Pla and Taulat. There are two smaller parts that are separated by an island of homes between calle Taulat, Josep Pla and the Garcia Fària Linear Park. The other two pieces divided by Carrer Taulat, are next to Carrer Selva de Mar with the Garcia Fària Linear Park on one side and Carrer Llull on the other. The principal passage of the park connects directly the Diagonal Street with the beach, crosses the Ronda litoral by a pedestrian bridge. This passage like the other roads that crosses the park, is changing it’s section to become a series of games areas, bike lanes or skating, and the rest with benches and pergolas. The vegetation,inspired by marshes, combined with grass, grows in height and density to the surrounding streets. Through out the park, a metal tube structure circular section redefine the space by creating a play of unique light and shadows. In the areas of park boundary it forms a series of small plazas which large ceramic jars mix with the existing vegetation.31 The entrances to the diagonal mar park are very large, the largest is the one at the Carrer Llull (main entrance). If you enter this main entrance and cross the large patio, you will arrive to the great pond of water. The park is divided into two parts by the Passeig del Taulat that is called the North park and the South park which will analyze these two areas according to their vegitation. (See the map on the following page)
31 Costa Guim. Barcelona 1992-2004 (Gustavo Gili,2004)p150
Vegetation: Sustainability was well considered while designing the park by using native plant species or species that survive well in Barcelona .The largest part spreads out between Rosewood(Tipuana tipu) burst in Diagonal mar park, especially as a shade tree on the paths of the biggest part and to the right of the main entrance on carrer llull there are Parkinsonia aculeata. Surrounding the water area, there are poplars(populus alba)and black poplars(populus italica nigra), and in different places there are many holm oar trees(quercus ilex and quercus suber), also you can find eucalyptus tree (Eucalyptus camaldulensis), Aleppo pines (Pinus halepensis), umbrella pines (Pinus pinea), olive trees (Olea europaea) and French tamarisks (Tamarix gallica) in the park. Other tree species in the park include honey locusts (Gleditzia triacanthos), Chinese parasol trees (Firmiana simplex), ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima), coral trees (Erythrina crista-galli), Japanese pagoda trees (Sophora japonica) and European hackberries (Celtis australis). Because they are not very common in Barcelona, the few Canary Island pine trees (Pinus canariensis) are quite noteworthy. Gardening of the park The vegetation of the park consist of three different levels which apart from the trees they will be mentioned to get the thorough understanding of the park design, which are trees, shrubs and sub shrubs, marsh plants. The area occupied by garden is 57,235 m2,spread in parterres32 grass and shrubs, climbing plants in the vase and parterres of aquatic plants which hereinafter referred by marsh. The marsh33 is located in the area of lakes in the North park and the South park. The garden surface of Parc de la Diagonal Mar is: • • •
30 751 m2 of grass 22 963 m2 of shrubs, sub-shrubs and herbaceous plants. 3 521 m2 of marsh (water plants)
Trees In this project includes the trees in the North park and south. In this areas there are 1006 units trees and palm, arranged as irregular masses or alignment on the parterres zones and on sand pavement. The tree species planted in alignment are: • • • • •
Plátanos (Platanus x hispanica) Álamo (Populus alba) Sófora (Sophora japonica) Pimentero-falso (Schinus molle) Melia (Melia azederach)
32 A parterre is a formal garden construction on a level surface consisting of planting beds. 33 In geography, a marsh is a type of wet land which grows aquatic plants in it but in this garden it refers to the lake and the special vegetation that grows there.
In the park are represented a total of 51 species of trees that are distributed as: • • • •
13 species of evergreen trees.(perennifolios) 28 species of deciduous trees 5 species of palms 5 species of conifer
In general, the number of species planted in the Diagonal Mar Park, increase the diversity of plant species in the area and is, among other things, an attractive potential of fauna (birds and insects), by the shelter, which produce flowers and fruits trees and shrubs in this park. Among 51 species of the trees in the park, 63% are representatives of the exotic species and 37% belong to the indigenous especies of the European Mediterranean area. In the park the vegetation is distributed according to certain criteria, the proximity to the sea, resistance to the harmful effects of east winds, exposure, ornamental characteristics, etc. In general, the vegetation of is based mainly of species of palms (Phoenix dactilifera, P. canariensis, Washingtonia robusta), which present 42% o f the units of trees in this area of the park and they are species resistant to the east wind. The vegetation of the south park creates a barrier to the north park’s vegetation. Thus in the north park, vegetation that have been planted are more sensitive to the harmful effects of salt and surfactants that carry the east winds. As singular vegetation element in the park we can mention the Drago (Dracaena draco) which is from canary island. Drago de Canàries(Dracaena draco): the Drago has 5 meter height and 54 cm width of it’s trunk and 3,5 m the size of the crown and the estimate age is between 120 to 150 years. The plantation is in the center of the park just next to the large lake.
Shrubs, sub-shrubs, climbers and Herba Ceous In the park of Diagonal Mar there are 154,000 units of the species of the shrubs,sub-shrubs,climbers and herbaceous in the parterres of the park. (Parcs i Jardins,anejo15). In general the climbing plants in the park are distributed as follows: • Jars of the pergolas (Actinida chinensis, Campsis grandiflora, Jasminum nudiflorum, Lonicera sp., Vitis vinifera) • Green walls (Aptenia cordifolia) • Slope areas with steep slopes (Hedera helix) Shrub species, sub-shrubs and herbs have been distributed in the park under the same aesthetic criteria that the distribution of tree species. Thus we find species most resistant to the East wind (Myoporum acuminatum, Atriplex halimnus, Gazania rigens, Yucca aloifolia, etc) in the South park and more sensitive species in the North park and protected areas by dunes.
Marsh plants In the lakes of the North park and south, a parterre planted with marsh plants. These parterres flooded and allow the development of the species planted. In the parterres of marsh have planted of 7 species of aquatic plants, which are: butomus umbellatus, caltha palustris, Carex pendula, Iris pseudocorus, Juncus effusus, Pontederia cordata, Sagitaria latifolia.
Units in north park
Units in south park
Gleditsia triacanthos 'inermis'
Units in south park
Jacaranda mimosifolia 15
Morus alba Parkinsonia aculeata
Phytolacca dioica Platanus x hispanica
Populus nigra 'italica'
Dicidous trees, source: Parcs i Jardins database. Units in north park
Units in south park
Quercus ilex ilex
Units in north park
Units in south park
Palm trees, source: Parcs i Jardins database.
Salix alba 'caliempde'
Units in north park
Ever green trees, source: Parc i Jardins database.
Eleagnus angustifolia Erythrina crista-galli
Species Pinus canariensis
Perennials trees, source:Parcs i Jardins database.
Description of utilization of vegetal elements.
1. POLY FUNCTIONALITY: The entrance of main area which is marked by a group of phoenix canariensis (palmera canaria) that are planted as ornamental plants in this area.
4. REFERENCE : In the children playground the group Platanus hispanica with it’s grand portage and Quercus ilex creates a shady area for the children. and the lake.
2. DIRECTIONALITY: The group of Platanus hispanica (plàtanos) together with single species of Tipuana and Encina creates a shady passage along the lake.
5. SYMBOLIC: Drago de Canàries is the single specie of the whole park. and the lake.
3. The vegetation on the left side of the lake are creating tree levels which are Quercus suber trees and the grass and the shrubs which are creating the boundary between the passage and the lake.
6. REFERENCE: These isolated Palm trees (Washingtonia robusta)marking the entrance of the park from passage del Taulat.
7. ORDINATION: The combined group of Washingtonia robusta and Elaeagnus angustifolia (angustifolia) order the final part of the park.
8.DIRECTIONALITY: The linear form of washingtonia Robusta directs the people in the pasaage.
Space division 1. Entrance space: this area is the main entrance space designed by pergolas and big number of palm trees. 2. Representative:This area is the most significant area of the park includes resting areas which are facilitated by benches and shading tree and grass hill for the people to sit and get advantage of the area around the big lake and also contains playground area for children.on the right side of the lake, it is directed by linear trees which directs people to the end of the North park. 3. Residential:The yellow areas are the residential towers which are connected to the park. 4. Resting area 5. Children playground Road network and paths In order to allow accessibility to buildings, facilitate the maintenance of the park and enrich the sector, provided a network of the roads and paths that allow circulation, track and pedestrian, inside the park.
Pedestrian road The main pedestrian axis of the park linking the entrance from Calles Llull and Josep Pla, in the Northwest Plaza, until Calle Taulat and crosses trough south park and comes down until Paseo García Faria.The axis is basically a passage with horizontal section and ramps, along the lake, both in north park and south park. The closest edge in north lake, is a short height above the water surface giving the pedestrians a close contact with lake water. From the Taulat street the axis reaches different branches: • • • •
Road network and paths
To the Josep plá,following the path of Taulat street. To Paseo García Faria in the corner of Josep pla. To Paseo García Faria To Selva de Mar street, bordered with south lake and following the path of Taulat street.
Another important axis linking the street of Selva de Mar with Taulat street. Other axis completes the pedestrian roads of the park. The pavement run on most these lines of pedestrian roads is stabilized and compacted saul over a layer of gravel. Although most of the executed pavements, as mentioned before, is saul, also there are small zones of ADA pavement, of in situ concrete and sardinel en espina. The walking areas are constructed, of variable width, not less than 5 m and irregular shape, which interrupt the areas of grass and shrubs which forms the major part of the park. Vial Species Diagonal street which is one of the main street and an important axis of the city, provide the main access to the park. The tree species of the street are continued all around the park as the vial species which mark the park boundaries and as a continuation of the street which connect these two urban elements together by their vegetation. Signage of the park
Platanus x hispanica
Celtis australis Platanus x hispanica Washintonia robusta
Platanus x hispanica
Platanus x hispanica
Washintonia robusta Washintonia robusta Washintonia robusta
Celtis australis Washintonia robusta
Celtis australis (19u)
Washintonia robusta Celtis australis
Sophora japonica Platanus x hispanica
Phoenix dactylifera Sophora japonica
Platanus x hispanica
Sophora japonica Acacia cyanophilla Celtis australis (
Washintonia robusta Acacia cyanophilla Tamarix africana
scale Â 1/5000
Vial species of the park and Avenida Diagonal
The park has high quantity of signage of vegitation, almost all the trees has their signage with their name in Catalan, Spanish and their scientific names. As it was mentioned before the intervention of signage of trees of street trees and parks intends to involve people with their surrounding vegetation.
Signage of the vegetation in the park
Avenida Diagonal vegetation
5. CONCLUSION The investigation started with a brief review of urban transformation of the city of Barcelona and the evolution of it’s public spaces and afterwards the formation of green structure of the city together with street trees. It is clear that the concern about the trees in the city, the form of parks or street trees, was first shown in “Eixample plan” by Cerdà and since then the professionals who were in charge of planning have always been concerned about the green structure of the city. After Cerdà, Rubió i Tudurí proposed the current green system of the city. The idea of the city of Barcelona is intimately related to the idea of public space as a meeting place of most urban functions, which brings together the complementary: people, regardless of their social status, the economic activities, the different means of transport, the biodiversity, etc. The public space, when supports the set of uses and functions can develop the city to becomes the ‘common house’ and gives meaning to the idea of the city. When public space is void of content and only provides access to buildings we no longer speak of the city, we denominate it urbanization. The green patrimony in Barcelona took it’s milestone since the country reestablished democracy by the designing big number of landscape areas (parks and gardens) in the geography of the city and mass plantation of street trees. It is quite clear that green spaces play an important role in Barcelona’s great urban renewal program. The city has discovered it’s green identity and Citizens find it hard to remember the closed and gray city from 1980, lack of parks and street trees, where there were areas to walk for long time without receiving a blade of green, space where young and old play and relax in the sun. The city has reigned it’s identity through the green Mediterranean and it’s natural heritage has been enriched both qualitatively and quantitively. The role of trees in configuration of urban spaces of the city can be discussed on two levels. The first level is it’s capability of organizing the urban plot of the city.Trees mark the limits of the city streets, they separate the functions of the city such as pedestrian and vehicles spaces by their linear form and by their different combination create different meaning in the spaces such as parks that contains high number of trees together with other vegetation or pedestrian passages by their more disperse form of combination which creates a smooth connection between built areas of the city’s parks or other green areas.In the regional configuration of the city the focus is more on the type of trees.they provide identity for each region of the city by their different form, color and other environmental effects.In the case of Barcelona we can see each region of the city has it’s own characteristic.The appearance of exotic espies like Palm trees in the sea front areas of the city, the Ciutatvella and Sant Marti,or the use of Plàtano trees in the main axis of the city and the plantation of flowering trees in the corners of Eixample. Consideration of suitable type of trees in the right location provides regional and urbanistic advantages for the city and creates an identical image.Urban spaces with their different trees together with other levels of vegetation configure basically different type of green spaces and moreover their internal functionality. On the second level, we refer to the internal functionality of the trees in the green spaces, their environmental effect in public spaces by considering the human which are the main protagonist of these spaces.They create shade in the needed area to protect the people from the solar radiations or deflect the wind force in the space and by their group combination create different functionality of spaces.In some cases they create passing roots by their linear form and direct the people from one place to other place, or the sense of staying in the place by their shade with the help of urban furniture.Indeed the mention case studies indicates the internal function of the trees in public spaces.
TABLE: Characteristic of trees, yesterday and today Yesterday
Improve the quality of city
Conﬁguring the space by their singular and group characteristics
The municipal institute of “Parcs i Jardins” is one of the key figures of the enhancement of the green spaces of the city which is an essential structure that takes care of the green patrimony of the city.It’s a global management, ranging from the planning to maintenance.They collected the “Catàleg d’arbres d’interès local”of the important trees of the city and suitable place for plantation according to their physical characteristics of the trees.For the maintenance and improvement of green patrimony,Parcs i Jardins apply criteria of the sustainable gardening.The institute considered the biodiversity of espies of trees in the green planning, which in the area of 22@ by this aim introduced new espies other than other districts of the city. The improvement of the green patrimony of Barcelona has always been in progress, Currently, the city considering a green system: a sustainable Mediterranean green, useful for people, aesthetically innovative, balance urban links and resistant to heavy use and easy maintenance and with the trees as it’s main protagonists.in this sense they are promoting new structure which is called “green corridors”. Barcelona may be can be a model of a dense structure which is growing greener.To overcome it’s geographic limitation the municipal focuses on establishing new green spaces generates by major urban reforms in the city, strategic recuperation of small spaces, converting them into local public green zones, increasing plant biomass by growing vegitation in existing spaces. The big cities almost all have in common, that the density of people living in them is very high and large amount of human being living in few m2.This research could help to improve to know the strategies of Barcelona to enhance public spaces by their green improvement not only in the form of big parks also the linear green such as street trees and green corridors and consider the tree as an important urban element by focus on their physical characteristics and individualities and also in the bigger scale the cohesion of the green structure which is based on the criteria of sustainability in the preparation for the future.
6. BIBLIOGRAPHY Books: AJUTAMENT DE BARCELONA. pla dels espais verds de Barcelona,Barcelona:AJUTAMENT DE BARCELONA, Institut Municipa de Parcs i Jardins, 1995, p.25-31. AJUTAMENT DE BARCELONA. Àrea de Medi Ambient. La gestión del arbolado viario en la ciudad de Barcelona, 2008. BORJA Jordi. Barcelona un modelo de transformación urbana 1980-1995, Discussion: Directrices y Programas de Politica Ambiental del Ayutamiento de Barcelona,1995. BORJA Jordi and Zaida Muxi. El Espacios Púplicos: ciudad y ciudadanía, Diputació de Barcelona,2001. BUSQUETS Joan. The urban evolution of compact city, Actar-D, 2006, english version. BOHIGAS Oriol. Reconstrucción de Barcelona, Mardid: Ediciones del MOPU, Ministrio de Obras Públicas y Urbanismo, 1985. COSTA Guim. Barcelona 1992-2004, Gustavo Gili,2004. Congreso de la Asociación Española de Arboricultura. Los Árboles en el Paisage urbanos, congreso n’8,Madrid, Asociación Española de Horticultura, 2004. FALCON Antoni. Espacios verdes para una ciudad sostenible, GUSTAVO GILI, 2007. FELIU Rosa,MAGRINYÀ Fransecs. Cerdà,150 años de modernidad,Francesc Magrinyà, Fernando Marzá(EDITORS), Actar,2009. p219-236. FAVB, La Barcelona de Maragall, Discussion: Zonas Verdes, 1997, p.139. LECEA,Ignasi de. Discussion:Los parques de Barcelona, Barcelona espacio público:homenaje a Josep Maria Serra Martí, Barcelona: Ajutament de Barcelona, 1993, p26. LISTOSELLA Jaume and SÀNCHES-CUXART Antoni. Los arboles de las calles de Barcelona, Universitat De Barcelona 2007. MARSHAL Tim. Transforming Barcelona, selection and editorial material, Routledge, 2004. Villoro Joan, and Riudor Luis. Guia dels espais verds de Barcelona: aproximació historicó, Collegi Oficial d’Arquitectes de Catalunya, 1984.
Journal Articles (PRINT): Parcs i Jardins de Barcelona, Institut Municipal, Barcelona Verda, No 85, Barcelona: Ajuntament de Barcelona, 2003. Parcs i Jardins de Barcelona, Institut Municipal, Barcelona Verda, No.98, Barcelona: Ajuntament de Barcelona, FEBRER 2005. Electronic Biblography (Online): AJUTAMENT DE BARCELONA, Pla de Gestió de l’Arbrat Viari de Barcelona, 2008,<http://w110. bcn.cat/MediAmbient/Continguts/Continguts_Contextuals/Documentacio/Documents/Fitxers/gestio_arbrat_2008_Medi_Ambient.pdf> AJUTAMENT DE BARCELONA,MOUR’S A PEU PER BARCELONA, <http://w3.bcn.es/fitxers/mobilitat/pacte/pacte1c.796.pdf> AJUTAMENT DE BARCELONA. ARBRAT VIARI : SELECCIÓ D’ESPÈCIES, 2004,<http://w110. bcn.cat/MediAmbient/Continguts/Continguts_Contextuals/Documentacio/Documents/Fitxers/arbrat_viari.pdf> Flores, Jardinería, Plantas y el Jardín. <http://www.infojardin.com/> Llátzer Moix, Sobre el “Modelo Barcelona”,<http://www.periodistes.org/files/Sobre%20el%20 Modelo%20Barcelona%20-%20desembre%202009.pdf> Monclús Francisco-Javier. EL “MODELO BARCELONA” ¿UNA FÓRMULA ORIGINAL? DE LA “RECONSTRUCCIÓN” A LOS PROYECTOS URBANOS ESTRATÉGICOS (1979-2004)<http:// www.etsav.upc.es/urbpersp//num03/art03-3.htm> Moll de La Barceloneta, <http://www.portvellbcn.com/ca/sp_moll_barceloneta> Parcs i Jardins. Memoria2003, <http://www.bcn.es/parcsijardins/castella/institucio/in_presentacio.htm> Parc de Diagonal Mar. <http://es.wikiarquitectura.com/images/d/d5/Parque.jpg> Josep Selga. El árbol en el diseño urbano, <http://www.santacole.com/resources/downloads/ fichero_3.pdf> Jono Wardoyo. Vegetation Configuration as Microclimate Control Strategy In Hot Humid Tropic Urban Open Space. <http://dtap.undip.ac.id/index.php/Artikel/vegetation-configuration-as-microclimate-control-strategy-in-hot-humid-tropic-urban-open-space.html> Joae Manuel sánches. Algunas consideraciones sobre el árbol en el diseño urbano, <http://www. arbolesornamentales.es/Arbolurbano.htm>
Parcs i Jardins Database: Parc Diagonal Mar, Informacio 2001, 2002
Trees Majority of pages
22@ 15,35, 59
Industrial 10, 16, 19, 22, 36
Barcelona Majority of pages
Jaussely 13, 17, 18, 19
Barcelona Model 4, 12
Jordi Borja 14, 20, 25
Cerdà 4, 5, 8,13, 16,17, 23, 24, 33, 58
Muntjuïc 16, 17, 25
Collserola 19, 26, 36
Moll de la Barceloneta 39, 41, 42, 43, 51, 53
Park Diagonal mar 8, 20, 49, 51, 52
Olympic 11, 15, 20
Oriol Bohigas 11, 12, 14, 23
Eixample 4, 5, 8, 13, 14, 17, 23, 24, 32, 58
Park majority of pages
Environment 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 20, 25, 26, 28, 31, 32, 34, 35, 36, 42, 45, 58
Public space 4, 8, 23, 25, 26, 58
Palm tree 8, 24, 30, 33, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45 51, 52, 53, 55, 56, 57, 58
Fòrum 15, 20, 21
G Green system
Rubió i Tudurí 4, 5, 8, 17, 18, 24, 58
18, 26, 58, 59
Green patrimony 9, 11, 12, 16, 19, 58, 59
Street tree 4, 8, 9, 12, 16, 22, 23, 25, 28, 30, 34, 36, 57, 58, 59
Identity 4, 8, 9, 23, 29, 32, 58, 59
Sustainable 9, 28, 35, 51, 59 Social 12, 14, 16, 26, 58 Spain 16 Signage 34, 57 T Transformation 12, 13, 14, 15, 21, 30, 32, 33, 58 Tree maojority of pages Typology 21 U Urban parks 8, 9, 18, 19, 22 Urban fabric 12, 18, 26, 35, 49