SS-‐8: World History
Mid‐term Review Notes Student made! J (First draft Block C / Revised and amended by Block D) Ch.1: “The Legacy of the Roman Empire” Key Vocabulary: -‐Mural: A painting on a wall -‐Mosaic: a picture up of small pieces of tile, glasses, or colored stone -‐Fresco: a picture painted on the moist plaster of a wall of ceiling. -‐Vault: an arched structure used to hold up a roof -‐Dome: a roof shaped like half circle -‐Cathedral: a large and important church -‐Aqueduct: a pipe or channel built to carry water between distant places -‐Scribe: a person trained to write or copy documents by hand -‐Proverb: a popular saying that is meant to express something wise or true -‐Philosophy: stoicism (divine intelligence ruled all of nature) -‐Stoic: self control and courage Things to Know: The Roman Empire lasted from about 27 BCE to 476 CE. Although it was thought to be the greatest Empire ever, it still collapsed. Many Roman ideas still affect our life in art, architecture, engineering, language, writing, and philosophy, law, and citizenship. The first emperor of Rome was Caesar Augustus. The three problems that led to the fall of the Roman Empire were political instability, economic and social problems, and weakening frontiers. In 330 CE, The capital of the Roman Empire was moved to Constantinople when Constantine was in rule. The western part of Roman Empire collapsed from the attack by German tribes. Roman art was influenced by Greek art, murals, mosaics, sculptures, and frescos were popular forms of Roman art. Some of modern art is strongly influenced by Roman art. The Romans are good architects of building roads. They also set a new standard of building aqueducts, systems of aqueducts brought water far away to wealthy families and public baths. There are two basic types of architecture: a vault and a dome. The grand style of Roman building has inspired many architects throughout centuries. Examples of roman architecture: roman baths, public buildings, pantheon,
the coliseum, cathedrals, triumphal arch, engineering: built roads, bridges, and aqueducts The main language of Rome is Latin. Latin has an influence on modern languages e.g. English, Italian, and Spanish. Many English words were influenced by Latin prefixes, a prefix is a combination of letters at the beginning of a word that carries its own meaning. Influence of many Latin words we use today e.g. the names of months, prefixes, proverbs, and numerals Roman laws covered marriages, contracts between people. Roman laws influenced a lot of countries in Europe. Citizenship: Not everyone who lived in the Roman Empire was a citizen. All who were citizens were subject to Roman law, had the same rights, and were loyal to the emperor. Chapter 2: The Development of Feudalism in Western Europe Key Vocabulary: ‐ Barbarian: a person belonging to a tribe or group that is considered uncivilized ‐ Christianity: the religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ ‐ Roman Catholic Church: the Christian Church headed by the pope in Rome ‐ Pope: the bishop of Rome and supreme leader of the Roman Catholic Church ‐ Monarch: a ruler, such as king or queen. ‐ Fief: land granted by a lord to a vassal in exchange for loyalty and service ‐ Manor: a large estate including farmland and villages, held by a lord ‐ Divine Right of Kings: the belief that God gives monarchs the right to rule ‐ Noble: a person of high rank by birth or title ‐ Duke: the highest type of European noble, ranking just below a prince. ‐ Moat: a deep wide ditch often filled with water ‐ Hierarchy: a system of organizing people into ranks ‐ Armor: a covering, usually made of metal or leather, worn to protect the body during fighting ‐ Chivalry: the medieval knights code of ideal behavior including bravery, loyalty, and respect for women Things to Know: After the fall of the Roman Empire, the system feudalism began to develop. Europe was part of the Roman Empire, the rest of the continents were controlled by barbarians. The Middle Ages are divided into three parts: Early Middle Ages, High Middle Ages, and Late Middle Ages. The hierarchy of feudalism consists of the king at the top, then the lords, then the knights, and lastly the peasants. After the fall of Rome, barbarians started to attack. During Charlemagne’s reign, the Franks were a powerful group because of their new style of warfare.
One of the early leaders of the Franks was Clovis. He led the Franks in Christianity. The church at this time was the Roman Catholic Church. Charlemagne was an important leader and ruled for 40 years. Three main groups threatened Western Europe: The Muslims, the Magyars, and Vikings. The people of Western Europe need to defend themselves. By the High Middle Ages, Europeans had developed a system of feudalism. By the high Middle Ages, about 1000 CE, Europeans have developed the feudalism. The feudal system provided people with protection and safety by establishing a stable social order. All the land in the Kingdom belonged to the Monarch. The King kept some land for himself and gave some fiefs to his most important lords. In return, each Lord promised to supply the King with knights in times of war. A lord then enlisted lesser lords and knights as his vassals. Peasants were at the bottom of the social system. Some were serfs, which meant that they were not free (they can’t leave the land) Most medieval monarchs believed in the divine right of kings, the belief that god gives monarchs the right to rule. Since the Roman period, a number of groups from the continent including Vikings had invaded and settled England. William the powerful Duke of Normandy went on a battle to get the throne from his cousin Harold. When he conquered England, William brought feudal institutions from Europe with him. Diseases affected the rich as well as the poor. Lords lived in manor houses and castles, high walls and sometimes a moat surrounded and protected it. The manor's house was the center of the community, it was also a place for special celebrations. The responsibilities and daily life of lords and ladies: noblewomen had all the duties that lords had, they ran their estates and sat as judges in manor courts and sent their knights to serve in times of war. Some noble women were responsible for raising and training their children and sometimes the children of other noble families. The knights in training, called pages and squires, assisted the knights. Becoming a knight: the path to becoming a knight involved many years of training. First, a boy started as a page or servant, and then progressed along the way of becoming knight. Responsibilities of knights: they were expected to be loyal to their church and lord and to be fair and to protect the helpless. Tournaments and jousts were also a major part of knights' life. During the fight, knights will wear heavy suits of armor. In the 11th century, armor was made of metal rings linked together. In the 14th century, plate armor was more common and offered better protection. Peasants were legally classified as free or unfree, unfree peasants are called serfs. Peasants raised crops and tended livestock, there were also carpenters, shoemakers, and smiths. Lords demanded taxes, typical houses were made of strips of wood covered in straw or mud. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Chapter 1 1. What is a proverb?
Answer: A popular saying that is meant to express something wise or true 2. What part of the Roman Empire collapsed? Answer: Western Roman Empire 3. What are some of the most important things in Rome that influence present day Answer: Art, architecture and engineering, language and writing, philosophy, law and citizenship 4. When was Roman Empire formed? Answer: 27 B.C.E to 476 B.C.E 5. What are some of the problems in the Late Roman Empire that leads to its fall? Answer: Political instability and economic and social problems. Chapter 2 1. What is the divine right of kings? Answer: The belief that God gives monarchs the right to rule. 2. How are knights more than a profession? Answer: Knights lived by a strong code of behavior called chivalry, and were to be loyal to their church and lords, to be just and fair, to protect the helpless. They should also show respect to women. 3. What was feudal system for? Answer: Feudal system provides people with protection and safety by establishing a stable social order. 4. When did the Middle Ages start? Answer: 476 to 1000 C.E. 5. What is the three main group that threaten western Europe? Answer: Vikings, Muslims, Magyars. Ch. 3: “The Role of the Church” Key Vocab-‐ Persecute, Monastery, Monk, Clergy, Excommunicate, Sacrament, Pilgrimage, Relic, Convent, Nun, University, Rhetoric, Theology, Natural Law, Monasticism, Illuminated Manuscript, Religious Order, Friar Things To Know • Christian religion is believing in the existence of Jesus
• In 313, emperor Constantine issued a degree that allowed Christians to worship freely. • In 395, Christianity became the recognized religion of the Roman Empire. • In the clergy of the Roman Catholic Church, the highest rank is the Pope, who has assistants called cardinals. Next in rank are archbishops, who control areas called archdioceses. After them are bishops, who oversee areas, called dioceses. The lowest in rank are priests, who took care of one church. • The Church was the largest landholder in Europe and it had great power. It added its wealth by collecting taxes. • The official language of The Church was Latin. • When you receive the seven sacraments, you will be granted salvation, and go to heaven. • The seven sacraments are baptism, confirmation, Eucharist, matrimony, holy orders, penance, and extreme unction. • People go on pilgrimages and crusades to gain salvation. • During the Middle Ages, they usually make architectures for religious purposes the word cathedral comes from the Latin word cathedra, which means the throne upon where the bishop sat between 1150 and 1400, architects designed cathedrals in gothic style most cathedrals were built with a long central section called a nave and shorter arms called transepts • Cathedrals were usually the tallest buildings in town. • People studied in universities by the Church. Aristotle taught that reason or logical thinking was the path to knowledge Churches feared people might question their teachings Thomas Aquinas was an Italian scholar in philosophy and theology; he tried to fill the gap between reason and faith. Reason, Thomas believed, that it was to help people discover the truth about God’s creations, while faith was revealing its own truth about God Natural law stated that there was an order built into nature that could help people’s way of thinking about right or wrong • Churches didn’t teach reason, they only taught faith. • Christian holidays are usually dedicated to saints or an event in the life of Jesus. • Many people became monks to seek refuge from war, sickness, and sins. Friars are members of a certain religious order devoted to teachings and works of charity
Religious orders are brotherhoods of friars Mendicants were beggars • Nuns are women who take sacred vows and devote her life to the church Ch. 4: “Life in Medieval Towns” Keywords: Domain, Charter, Guild, Apprentice, Journeymen, Commerce, Jew, Leprosy, Bubonic Plague, Common Law, Minstrel, Mystery Play, Miracle Play Things to Know: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
In ancient world, town life was well established. Towns were busy trading centers. Trade in towns declined after the fall of Rome. At the beginning of the Middle Ages towns was part of a domain, lands controlled by lords or rulers. Trade and production are over seen by guilds. There are two kinds of guilds, merchant guild and craft guild. Guild members pay their duties to stay in the guild. At the age of 12, kids become apprentices to get in the guild. Commerce brought people to town Trade gave them money. Towns have markets Merchants grew powerful by commerce in the cities Jewish were discriminated by the Church. Houses were uncomfortable Houses were tall, narrow, black, and wooden, Medieval towns were overpopulated. Half of the children died before they became adults. Streets were dirty and people contaminated by the trash Bubonic plaque is a highly contagious and deadly disease that killed a lot of people, leading to the decline of feudalism Bad hygiene causes bubonic plague. Few hospitals in cities. People accused of crimes were held in jail. Trials by ordeal or combat were often used. They eventually developed the common law. They played chess There watched miracle and mystery plays for fun
Questions: Chapter 3 What Latin word does the word cathedral come from? What holidays do Christians celebrate in honor of the resurrection of Jesus? What are they followers of Jesus called?
What is the term used for the way of life, in which a person withdraws from the world and devote themselves to their faith? What is the sacraments in which you declare you belief of god called? Chapter 4 Where do mystery plays stories come from? How did the government deal with crime during the middle ages? What were the two main kinds of guild? What disease was impossible to cure during the middle ages? Ch. 5: “The Decline of feudalism” Key vocabulary: Magna Carta, Bubonic plague, Hundred year’s war, Habeas corpus, Commoners, Crossbow, Longbow, Truce, Heretic
Vocabulary Heretic-‐ a person who holds beliefs that is contrary to the teachings of a church or other group Crossbow-‐ a medieval weapon made up of a bow that was fixed across a wooden stock, which had a groove to direct the arrow’s flight, and operated by a trigger Longbow-‐ a large bow used for firing feathered arrows Truce-‐ an agreed upon halt in fighting IMPORTANT FACTS • The decline of feudalism was greatly influenced by the Magna Carta, bubonic plague and the hundred years war. • King Henry II made legal reform, like having a royal jury judge people, it slowly replace the trial by ordeal and combat his effort in strengthen royal authority led to conflicts with a church, and even lead to the death of Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury. • Magna Carta also known as the Great Charter was an agreement between the barons and King John, and future kings. It protected everyone’s right and limited the power of the kings. • The Magna Carta established the idea of rights and liberties that even the king cannot violate. The ideas from the document inspired many official documents, like the declarations of independence • Bubonic plague could have started in central Asia or China and travel using trade route to Europe. With ships it spread even further. • The symptoms of bubonic plague include a fever, vomiting, fierce coughing and sneezing fits, and egg-‐sized swelling or bumps. Because of the poor living conditions during that time, rats, fleas and animals often spread the disease. • The plague killed about a third of Europe’s population. • Jews were blamed(again lol), and many persecuted Jews or forced them to leave.
The plague not only takes poor people’s lives away but also rich people. After the plague there was a shift in power from nobles to common people, for as many workers died, workers demanded more rights and money. After the plague, when Lords tried to regain their power, led to a series of peasant rebellions. The hundred years war is a series of fighting between England and France in 1337~1453. The English had great success by using technic of archers to attack.
The French had a feudal army that relied on horse mounted nobles, or knights. French knights wore heavy armor, and they could hardly move when they were not on horseback. Their weapons were swords and lances. Some of the infantry, or foot soldiers, used crossbows, which were effective only at a short ranges. The English longbow had many advantages over the crossbow.
Anyone able could weild a longbow, and the longbow could easily kill a full armoured knight. The lords threatened people to obey with their knights failed, for the longbow could take them out easily. Joan of arc was a seventeen years old peasant girl that was inspired to save her country. She led the French to victory at the battle of Orleans. Joan of Arc was accused of being a heretic. Her death encouraged the French warriors to counter strike back and defeat England, in addition took the land back.
Ch. 6: “The Byzantine Empire” Vocabulary: Byzantine Empire: A great empire that straddled two continents, Europe and Asia that lasted about 500 C.E ~ 1453 C.E Constantinople: City on the Eastern edge of Europe that the emperor Constantine made the capital of the Byzantine Empire in 330 C.E Eastern Orthodox Church: A Christian religion that arose in the Byzantine Empire Public Works: Construction projects built by a government for public use, such as building, road and street Patriarch: in the Eastern Orthodox Church, the bishop of an important city Liturgy: A sacred rite of public worship Icon: A type of religious images typically painted on a small wooden panel and considered sacred by the Eastern Orthodox Christian Iconoclasm-‐ Emperor Leo III order the banned the use of religious icons in all Christian churches and homes, because people were worshipping the icons instead of God. Schism: A formal division in a church or religious body Hippodrome: Ancient Greek stadium for horse and Chariot race Caravan: group of people and animals traveling together
Things to Know: The Byzantine Empire (500 to 1453) 1.) The capital city of Constantinople • Site was chosen for its location • Surrounding by water on 3 sides, so was easy to defend. • Became a trade center of Europe and Asia. • Became the richest city in the region. • Technological advances made it an attractive place to live. • Sewer system made water clean. • Hospital, orphanages, and home for the elderly improved people’s live. • Unemployment people performed public services for food ration. 2.) The Reign of Emperor Justinian I • He ruled from 527 – 565 C.E. • Chariot race violence about a rebellion that destroyed Constantinople • He rebuild the city with huge works projects • Created systematic body of laws, known as Justinian’s Code. • Justinian Expanded borders and conquered much of old Empire 3.) The Eastern Orthdox Church • Based on believes dating back to Christ • Byzantine saw the emperor as both a religious leader and a head of states • Church played critical roles in people daily life • List of roles, Emperor, Patriarch, Bishops, Priests ( priest can marry in Eastern Orthdox) • Liturgy, or mass, was recited by both priests and worshippers Chapter 5 What is the series of fighting between England and France in 1337 to 1453 Hundred years war What is the disease that may start from central Asia and China to Europe. Bubonic plague King Henry II legal reforms led him argument with a church emeber and the church itself. Who was this church member and what happened to Him The man was Thomas Becket Archbishop of Canterbury four knights probably looking for the kings favor and kill him. In 1173 ��the church proclaimed him a saint. Chapter six What is the great empire that straddled 2 continent, empire and Asia that lasted about from 500 C.E to 1453 C.E Byzantine Empire
What is the event that emperor Leo III order to smash the Icon Iconolasm What is a type of religious image typically pointed on a small wooden panel and considered sacred by Eastern Orthdox Christians Icon They could do tasks like sweeping streets weeding public goods In exchange for bread Public work Ch. 7: “Geography of the Arabian Peninsula” Key Vocabulary Caravan – a group of people traveling together for mutual protection, often with pack animals such as camels Plateau – a raised area of flat land Nomad – a person who moves from place to place, often in search of water and vegetation. Sedentary – permanently settled in one place Barter – to buy and sell by trading goods or services rather than money Irrigate – to bring water to a dry place in order to grow crops Terrace – a flat strip of ground on a hillside used for growing crops Important Facts -‐ Arabia lies at the cross roads of Asia, Africa, and Europe -‐ Influence of Arabia became far more powerful -‐ Islam spread through out Middle East, North Africa, and part of Europe -‐ The Greeks, Romans, and Arabs had a major influence on the Middle East Desert: -‐ About 3/4 of the Arabian Peninsula -‐ Hot, dry, and harsh -‐ Summer (often > 120*F) and day temperatures are high -‐ Winter (can drop below 0*) and night temperatures are low -‐ Little rainfall, not more than 3-‐4 inches -‐ Droughts that can last for years -‐ Often swept by windstorms that causes sandstorms -‐ Sand dunes can rise 800 feet into the sky -‐ Nomads migrate through the desert, wore loose-‐fitting gowns and cotton headdresses to protect against heat and dust. Oases: -‐ Occurs in places where water is trapped underground -‐ Fertile land with plant life -‐ Nomads often settled there and gave up their farming live -‐ Towns flourish along the oases -‐ Dug deep wells
-‐ Grew date palm trees -‐ Rare and comes in various sizes -‐ People started small trading centers after settling there Coastal Plains: -‐ Ranges between 5 to 40 miles -‐ Damp and moist air with regular rainfall -‐ Ends at a series of rocky cliffs -‐ Large farming and trading businesses -‐ People built wells, dams, and systems to irrigate the land -‐ Most people were farmers in the 6th century -‐ Natural harbors attracted traders -‐ There were traders from various places, including India, East Africa, and surrounding lands Mountain: -‐ Cool temperature and moist winds -‐ Rises from 1000 to 12000 feet -‐ Dry riverbeds along mountainsides -‐ People farm on terraces -‐ Grow fruits like melons -‐ Built dams and irrigation systems -‐ Lived in mud brick houses/ houses made by mud bricks -‐ Moist winds from the Indian Ocean brought 20 inches of rain per year -‐ Settlers lived in houses made of mud bricks -Q: Where can 20 inches of rainfall be found each year? -A: It can be found in the Mountains. -Q: Where did people grow Palm date trees? -A: They grew it in the Oases. -Q: What did settlers in the Oases do for a living? -A: They farmed and traded. -Q: What are terraces -A: Terraces are flat strips of ground on a hillside used for growing crops. Ch. 8: “The Prophet Muhammad” Key Vocabulary Clan – a group of related families Polytheist – a person who believes in more than one god Tribe – a social group that shares common ancestry, leadership, and traditions Convert – a person who adopts new beliefs, especially those of a religious faith Monotheism – Belief in a single god Boycott – A refusal to do business with an organization or group Siege – an attempt to surround a place and cut off all access to it in order to force surrender Caliph – A title taken by Muslim rulers who claimed religious authority to rule Province – a division of a country or an empire. Dynasty – a line of rulers descended from the same family Garrison – a place where a group of soldiers is stationed for defensive purposes.
-‐ Muhammad created Islam -‐ Muhammad was born in Makkah or Mecca on 570 C.E. -‐ Islam spread quickly across the Arabian Peninsula. -‐ Makkah was a prosperous city famous for trading. 8.2 -‐ Islam started in Arabia -‐ Makkah is very rich, trade with Yemen, Syria, and Africa. -‐ Rich Family won’t share wealth with clan -‐ Mecca is a religious center, -‐ Most Arabs are polytheist believe in many gods -‐ Arabs live in deserts 8.3 -‐ Muhammad’s clan was poor, his father died -‐ His mother sent him to live with Arab nomads -‐ Learned to be kind, his mom died after meeting Muhammad -‐ Live with grandfather -‐ Live with uncle after grandfather died -‐ Started to be trader, know for honesty. -‐ Married at the age of 25 8.4 -‐ Muhammad made his living by trading -‐ Receive call to Prophet hood from Angel Gabriel when praying in a cave. -‐ First convert to Islam is Khadijah -‐ Islam has only 1 god-‐Allah, monotheistic -‐ Start sharing to family and friends, then to other Makkans -‐ Muhammad recite the message, messenger written in Quran 8.5 -‐ Most Makkan reject teaching, cause trouble to people -‐ Some tortured his followers; some people called him a liar -‐ Abu Talib protected the muslim community -‐ People made a boycott to make people quit -‐ Khadijah and Abu Talib died -‐ Horse carries Muhammad to meet Jesus, Moses, Abraham, 7 levels of heaven and god 8.6 -‐ Muhammad’s uncle died, his protector gone -‐ More Arab turn Islam -‐ Yathrib clan came and became Islamic converts. They invited the Muslims to Madinah. -‐ Makkans attempted siege on Madinah -‐ Muhammad captured Makkah and rededicated Ka’ba to Islam. -‐ Muhammad led last pilgrimage and performed his last sermon. -‐ Died after return to Madinah a.kjsdf;klj sa 8.7 -‐ After Muhammad died, most of Arabian is Muslim -‐ Caliph is the Muslim leader.
-‐ Abu Bakr, the first caliph unites all of Arabia under Muslim rule. -‐ Caliph Umar expanded Muslim empire beyond Arabian border. 8.8 -‐ Mu’awiyah, leader of the Umayyads, claimed the caliphate. -‐ Sunnis accepted him, but Shi’a(party of Ali) didn’t. -‐ Mu’awiyah put down a Shi’a revolt. -‐ Moved capital to Damascus, and maintained control with garrison towns. -‐ Founding of Umayyad dynasty -‐ Muslim took more Arab culture -‐ Place where Muslim, Jews, Christian scholar share idea Where was Muhammad Born? Makkah When was Muhammad Born? 570 CE Where did Muhammad go on his last Pilgrimage? Makkah What Trees did people grow in Oases? Date Palms When did Muslims lose their protection? Abu Talib Died What are 4 environments in the Arabian Peninsula. Desert, Oases, Coastal Plain, Mountain