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SS-­‐8:  World  History

Mr.  Choquette

Mid‐term  Review  Notes   Student  made!  J (First  draft  Block  C  /  Revised  and  amended  by  Block  D)     Ch.1:  “The  Legacy  of  the  Roman  Empire” Key  Vocabulary: -­‐Mural:  A  painting  on  a  wall     -­‐Mosaic:  a  picture  up  of  small  pieces  of  tile,  glasses,  or  colored  stone     -­‐Fresco:  a  picture  painted  on  the  moist  plaster  of  a  wall  of  ceiling.     -­‐Vault:  an  arched  structure  used  to  hold  up  a  roof     -­‐Dome:  a  roof  shaped  like  half  circle     -­‐Cathedral:  a  large  and  important  church     -­‐Aqueduct:  a  pipe  or  channel  built  to  carry  water  between  distant  places     -­‐Scribe:  a  person  trained  to  write  or  copy  documents  by  hand     -­‐Proverb:  a  popular  saying  that  is  meant  to  express  something  wise  or  true     -­‐Philosophy:  stoicism  (divine  intelligence  ruled  all  of  nature)     -­‐Stoic:  self  control  and  courage   Things  to  Know: The  Roman  Empire  lasted  from  about  27  BCE  to  476  CE.  Although  it  was  thought  to   be  the  greatest  Empire  ever,  it  still  collapsed. Many  Roman  ideas  still  affect  our  life  in  art,  architecture,  engineering,  language,   writing,  and  philosophy,  law,  and  citizenship. The  first  emperor  of  Rome  was  Caesar  Augustus. The  three  problems  that  led  to  the  fall  of  the  Roman  Empire  were  political  instability,   economic  and  social  problems,  and  weakening  frontiers. In  330  CE,  The  capital  of  the  Roman  Empire  was  moved  to  Constantinople  when   Constantine  was  in  rule. The western part of Roman Empire collapsed from the attack by German tribes.   Roman  art  was  influenced  by  Greek  art,  murals,  mosaics,  sculptures,  and  frescos   were  popular  forms  of  Roman  art.  Some  of  modern  art  is  strongly  influenced  by   Roman  art. The  Romans  are  good  architects  of  building  roads.  They  also  set  a  new  standard  of   building  aqueducts,  systems  of  aqueducts  brought  water  far  away  to  wealthy   families  and  public  baths.  There  are  two  basic  types  of  architecture:  a  vault  and  a   dome.  The  grand  style  of  Roman  building  has  inspired  many  architects  throughout   centuries.  Examples  of  roman  architecture:  roman  baths,  public  buildings,  pantheon,  

the  coliseum,  cathedrals,  triumphal  arch,  engineering:  built  roads,  bridges,  and   aqueducts The  main  language  of  Rome  is  Latin.  Latin  has  an  influence  on  modern  languages  e.g.   English,  Italian,  and  Spanish.  Many  English  words  were  influenced  by  Latin  prefixes,   a  prefix  is  a  combination  of  letters  at  the  beginning  of  a  word  that  carries  its  own   meaning.  Influence  of  many  Latin  words  we  use  today  e.g.  the  names  of  months,   prefixes,  proverbs, and  numerals Roman laws covered marriages, contracts between people. Roman laws influenced a lot of countries in Europe. Citizenship:  Not  everyone  who  lived  in  the  Roman  Empire  was  a   citizen.  All  who  were citizens  were  subject  to  Roman  law,  had  the  same  rights,  and   were  loyal  to  the  emperor. Chapter  2:  The  Development  of  Feudalism  in  Western  Europe Key  Vocabulary: ‐  Barbarian:  a  person  belonging  to  a  tribe  or  group  that  is  considered  uncivilized   ‐  Christianity:  the  religion  based  on  the  life  and  teachings  of  Jesus  Christ   ‐  Roman  Catholic  Church:  the  Christian  Church  headed  by  the  pope  in  Rome   ‐  Pope:  the  bishop  of  Rome  and  supreme  leader  of  the  Roman  Catholic  Church ‐  Monarch:  a  ruler,  such  as  king  or  queen.     ‐  Fief:  land  granted  by  a  lord  to  a  vassal  in  exchange  for  loyalty  and  service     ‐  Manor:  a  large  estate  including  farmland  and  villages,  held  by  a  lord     ‐  Divine  Right  of  Kings:  the  belief  that  God  gives  monarchs  the  right  to  rule     ‐  Noble:  a  person  of  high  rank  by  birth  or  title     ‐  Duke:  the  highest  type  of  European  noble,  ranking  just  below  a  prince.     ‐  Moat:  a  deep  wide  ditch  often  filled  with  water     ‐  Hierarchy:  a  system  of  organizing  people  into  ranks     ‐  Armor:  a  covering,  usually  made  of  metal  or  leather,  worn  to  protect  the  body   during  fighting     ‐  Chivalry:  the  medieval  knights  code  of  ideal  behavior  including  bravery,  loyalty,  and   respect  for  women   Things  to  Know: After  the  fall  of  the  Roman  Empire,  the  system  feudalism  began  to  develop.  Europe   was  part  of  the  Roman  Empire,  the  rest  of  the  continents  were  controlled  by   barbarians. The  Middle  Ages  are  divided  into  three  parts:  Early  Middle  Ages,  High   Middle  Ages,  and  Late  Middle  Ages. The  hierarchy  of  feudalism  consists  of  the  king  at  the  top,  then  the  lords,  then  the   knights,  and  lastly  the  peasants. After  the  fall  of  Rome,  barbarians  started  to  attack. During  Charlemagne’s  reign,  the  Franks  were  a  powerful  group  because  of  their  new   style  of  warfare.

One  of  the  early  leaders  of  the  Franks  was  Clovis.  He  led  the  Franks  in   Christianity.  The  church  at  this  time  was  the  Roman  Catholic  Church.  Charlemagne   was  an  important  leader  and  ruled  for  40  years.  Three  main  groups  threatened   Western  Europe:  The  Muslims,  the  Magyars,  and  Vikings.  The  people  of  Western   Europe  need  to  defend  themselves.  By  the  High  Middle  Ages,  Europeans  had   developed  a  system  of  feudalism. By  the  high  Middle  Ages,  about  1000  CE,  Europeans  have  developed  the  feudalism.   The  feudal  system  provided  people  with  protection  and  safety  by  establishing  a   stable  social  order.   All  the  land  in  the  Kingdom  belonged  to  the  Monarch.  The  King  kept  some  land  for   himself  and  gave  some  fiefs  to  his  most  important  lords.  In  return,  each  Lord   promised  to  supply  the  King  with  knights  in  times  of  war.  A  lord  then  enlisted  lesser   lords  and  knights  as  his  vassals.  Peasants  were  at  the  bottom  of  the  social  system.   Some  were  serfs,  which  meant  that  they  were  not  free  (they  can’t  leave  the  land) Most  medieval  monarchs  believed  in  the  divine  right  of  kings,  the  belief  that  god   gives  monarchs  the  right  to  rule.  Since  the  Roman  period,  a  number  of  groups  from   the  continent  including  Vikings  had  invaded  and  settled  England. William  the   powerful  Duke  of  Normandy  went  on  a  battle  to  get  the  throne  from  his  cousin   Harold.  When  he  conquered  England,  William  brought  feudal  institutions  from   Europe  with  him.  Diseases  affected  the  rich  as  well  as  the  poor.     Lords  lived  in  manor  houses  and  castles,  high  walls  and  sometimes  a  moat   surrounded  and  protected  it.  The  manor's  house  was  the  center  of  the  community,  it   was  also  a  place  for  special celebrations.  The  responsibilities  and  daily  life  of  lords   and  ladies:  noblewomen  had  all  the  duties  that lords  had,  they  ran  their  estates  and   sat  as  judges  in  manor  courts  and  sent  their  knights  to  serve  in times  of  war.  Some   noble  women  were  responsible  for  raising  and  training  their  children  and sometimes  the  children  of  other  noble  families.   The  knights  in  training,  called  pages  and  squires,  assisted  the  knights.  Becoming  a   knight:  the  path  to  becoming  a  knight  involved  many  years  of  training.  First,  a  boy   started  as  a  page  or  servant,  and  then  progressed  along  the  way  of  becoming knight.   Responsibilities  of  knights:  they  were  expected  to  be  loyal  to  their  church  and  lord   and  to  be  fair  and to  protect  the  helpless. Tournaments  and  jousts  were  also  a  major   part  of  knights'  life.  During  the  fight,  knights  will  wear  heavy  suits  of  armor.  In  the   11th  century,  armor  was  made  of  metal  rings  linked  together.  In  the  14th  century,   plate  armor  was  more  common  and  offered  better  protection.    Peasants  were  legally  classified  as  free  or  unfree,  unfree  peasants  are  called  serfs.   Peasants  raised  crops  and  tended  livestock,  there  were  also  carpenters,  shoemakers,   and  smiths.  Lords  demanded  taxes,  typical  houses  were  made  of  strips  of  wood   covered  in  straw  or  mud.     QUESTIONS  AND  ANSWERS   Chapter  1     1.  What  is  a  proverb?  

Answer:  A  popular  saying  that  is  meant  to  express  something  wise  or  true   2.  What  part  of  the  Roman  Empire  collapsed?   Answer:  Western  Roman  Empire   3.  What  are  some  of  the  most  important  things  in  Rome  that  influence  present  day   Answer:  Art,  architecture  and  engineering,  language  and  writing,  philosophy,  law   and  citizenship   4.  When  was  Roman  Empire  formed?   Answer:  27  B.C.E  to  476  B.C.E   5.  What  are  some  of  the  problems  in  the  Late  Roman  Empire  that  leads  to  its  fall?   Answer:  Political  instability  and  economic  and  social  problems.   Chapter  2   1.  What  is  the  divine  right  of  kings?   Answer:  The  belief  that  God  gives  monarchs  the  right  to  rule.   2.  How  are  knights  more  than  a  profession?   Answer:  Knights  lived  by  a  strong  code  of  behavior  called  chivalry,  and  were  to  be   loyal  to  their  church  and  lords,  to  be  just  and  fair,  to  protect  the  helpless.  They   should  also  show  respect  to  women.   3.  What  was  feudal  system  for?   Answer:  Feudal  system  provides  people  with  protection  and  safety  by  establishing  a   stable  social  order.     4.  When  did  the  Middle  Ages  start?   Answer:  476  to  1000  C.E.   5.  What  is  the  three  main  group  that  threaten  western  Europe?   Answer:  Vikings,  Muslims,  Magyars.       Ch.  3:  “The  Role  of  the  Church”   Key  Vocab-­‐  Persecute,  Monastery,  Monk,  Clergy,  Excommunicate,  Sacrament,   Pilgrimage,  Relic,  Convent,  Nun,  University,  Rhetoric,  Theology,  Natural  Law,   Monasticism,  Illuminated  Manuscript,  Religious  Order,  Friar   Things  To  Know   •  Christian  religion  is  believing  in  the  existence  of  Jesus  

•  In  313,  emperor  Constantine  issued  a  degree  that  allowed  Christians  to  worship   freely.   •  In  395,  Christianity  became  the  recognized  religion  of  the  Roman  Empire.   •  In  the  clergy  of  the  Roman  Catholic  Church,  the  highest  rank  is  the  Pope,  who  has   assistants  called  cardinals.  Next  in  rank  are  archbishops,  who  control  areas  called   archdioceses.  After  them  are  bishops,  who  oversee  areas,  called  dioceses.  The  lowest   in  rank  are  priests,  who  took  care  of  one  church.   •  The  Church  was  the  largest  landholder  in  Europe  and  it  had  great  power.  It  added   its  wealth  by  collecting  taxes.   •  The  official  language  of  The  Church  was  Latin.   •  When  you  receive  the  seven  sacraments,  you  will  be  granted  salvation,  and  go  to   heaven.   •  The  seven  sacraments  are  baptism,  confirmation,  Eucharist,  matrimony,  holy   orders,  penance,  and  extreme  unction.   •  People  go  on  pilgrimages  and  crusades  to  gain  salvation.   •  During  the  Middle  Ages,  they  usually  make  architectures  for  religious  purposes   the  word  cathedral  comes  from  the  Latin  word  cathedra,  which  means  the  throne   upon  where  the  bishop  sat   between  1150  and  1400,  architects  designed  cathedrals  in  gothic  style   most  cathedrals  were  built  with  a  long  central  section  called  a  nave  and  shorter  arms   called  transepts   •  Cathedrals  were  usually  the  tallest  buildings  in  town.   •  People  studied  in  universities  by  the  Church.   Aristotle  taught  that  reason  or  logical  thinking  was  the  path  to  knowledge     Churches  feared  people  might  question  their  teachings   Thomas  Aquinas  was  an  Italian  scholar  in  philosophy  and  theology;  he  tried  to  fill   the  gap  between  reason  and  faith.     Reason,  Thomas  believed,  that  it  was  to  help  people  discover  the  truth  about  God’s   creations,  while  faith  was  revealing  its  own  truth  about  God     Natural  law  stated  that  there  was  an  order  built  into  nature  that  could  help  people’s   way  of  thinking  about  right  or  wrong   •  Churches  didn’t  teach  reason,  they  only  taught  faith.   •  Christian  holidays  are  usually  dedicated  to  saints  or  an  event  in  the  life  of  Jesus.   •  Many  people  became  monks  to  seek  refuge  from  war,  sickness,  and  sins.   Friars  are  members  of  a  certain  religious  order  devoted  to  teachings  and  works  of   charity  

Religious  orders  are  brotherhoods  of  friars   Mendicants  were  beggars   •  Nuns  are  women  who  take  sacred  vows  and  devote  her  life  to  the  church     Ch.  4:  “Life  in  Medieval  Towns”   Keywords:  Domain,  Charter,  Guild,  Apprentice,  Journeymen,  Commerce,  Jew,   Leprosy,  Bubonic  Plague,  Common  Law,  Minstrel,  Mystery  Play,  Miracle  Play   Things  to  Know:   • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

In  ancient  world,  town  life  was  well  established.   Towns  were  busy  trading  centers.   Trade  in  towns  declined  after  the  fall  of  Rome.   At  the  beginning  of  the  Middle  Ages  towns  was  part  of  a  domain,  lands   controlled  by  lords  or  rulers.   Trade  and  production  are  over  seen  by  guilds.   There  are  two  kinds  of  guilds,  merchant  guild  and  craft  guild.   Guild  members  pay  their  duties  to  stay  in  the  guild.   At  the  age  of  12,  kids  become  apprentices  to  get  in  the  guild.   Commerce  brought  people  to  town   Trade  gave  them  money.   Towns  have  markets   Merchants  grew  powerful  by  commerce  in  the  cities   Jewish  were  discriminated  by  the  Church.   Houses  were  uncomfortable   Houses  were  tall,  narrow,  black,  and  wooden,   Medieval  towns  were  overpopulated.     Half  of  the  children  died  before  they  became  adults.   Streets  were  dirty  and  people  contaminated  by  the  trash     Bubonic  plaque  is  a  highly  contagious  and  deadly  disease  that  killed  a  lot  of   people,  leading  to  the  decline  of  feudalism   Bad  hygiene  causes  bubonic  plague.   Few  hospitals  in  cities.   People  accused  of  crimes  were  held  in  jail.   Trials  by  ordeal  or  combat  were  often  used.   They  eventually  developed  the  common  law.   They  played  chess   There  watched  miracle  and  mystery  plays  for  fun  

  Questions:   Chapter  3   What  Latin  word  does  the  word  cathedral  come  from?   What  holidays  do  Christians  celebrate  in  honor  of  the  resurrection  of  Jesus?   What  are  they  followers  of  Jesus  called?  

What  is  the  term  used  for  the  way  of  life,  in  which  a  person  withdraws  from  the   world  and  devote  themselves  to  their  faith?   What  is  the  sacraments  in  which  you  declare  you  belief  of  god  called?   Chapter  4   Where  do  mystery  plays  stories  come  from?   How  did  the  government  deal  with  crime  during  the  middle  ages?   What  were  the  two  main  kinds  of  guild?   What  disease  was  impossible  to  cure  during  the  middle  ages?   Ch.  5:  “The  Decline  of  feudalism”     Key  vocabulary:  Magna  Carta,  Bubonic  plague,  Hundred  year’s  war,  Habeas  corpus,   Commoners,  Crossbow,  Longbow,  Truce,  Heretic    

Vocabulary   Heretic-­‐  a  person  who  holds  beliefs  that  is  contrary  to  the  teachings  of  a   church  or  other  group   Crossbow-­‐  a  medieval  weapon  made  up  of  a  bow  that  was  fixed  across  a   wooden  stock,  which  had  a  groove  to  direct  the  arrow’s  flight,  and  operated   by  a  trigger   Longbow-­‐  a  large  bow  used  for  firing  feathered  arrows   Truce-­‐  an  agreed  upon  halt  in  fighting     IMPORTANT  FACTS     • The  decline  of  feudalism  was  greatly  influenced  by  the  Magna  Carta,  bubonic   plague  and  the  hundred  years  war.   • King  Henry  II  made  legal  reform,  like  having  a  royal  jury  judge  people,  it   slowly  replace  the  trial  by  ordeal  and  combat  his  effort  in  strengthen  royal   authority  led  to  conflicts  with  a  church,  and  even  lead  to  the  death  of  Thomas   Becket,  Archbishop  of  Canterbury.   • Magna  Carta  also  known  as  the  Great  Charter  was  an  agreement  between  the   barons  and  King  John,  and  future  kings.  It  protected  everyone’s  right  and   limited  the  power  of  the  kings.       • The  Magna  Carta  established  the  idea  of  rights  and  liberties  that  even  the   king  cannot  violate.  The  ideas  from  the  document  inspired  many  official   documents,  like  the  declarations  of  independence     • Bubonic  plague  could  have  started  in  central  Asia  or  China  and  travel  using   trade  route  to  Europe.  With  ships  it  spread  even  further.   • The  symptoms  of  bubonic  plague  include  a  fever,  vomiting,  fierce  coughing   and  sneezing  fits,  and  egg-­‐sized  swelling  or  bumps.  Because  of  the  poor  living   conditions  during  that  time,  rats,  fleas  and  animals  often  spread  the  disease.   • The  plague  killed  about  a  third  of  Europe’s  population.   • Jews  were  blamed(again  lol),  and  many  persecuted  Jews  or  forced  them  to   leave.  

The  plague  not  only  takes  poor  people’s  lives  away  but  also  rich  people.  After   the  plague  there  was  a  shift  in  power  from  nobles  to  common  people,  for  as   many  workers  died,  workers  demanded  more  rights  and  money.  After  the   plague,  when    Lords  tried  to  regain  their  power,  led  to  a  series  of  peasant   rebellions.   The  hundred  years  war  is  a  series  of  fighting  between  England  and  France  in   1337~1453.  The  English  had  great  success  by  using  technic  of  archers  to   attack.  

The  French  had  a  feudal  army  that  relied  on  horse  mounted  nobles,  or   knights.  French  knights  wore  heavy  armor,  and  they  could  hardly   move  when  they  were  not  on  horseback.  Their  weapons  were  swords   and  lances.  Some  of  the  infantry,  or  foot  soldiers,  used  crossbows,   which  were  effective  only  at  a  short  ranges.  The  English  longbow  had   many  advantages  over  the  crossbow.    

 Anyone  able  could  weild  a  longbow,  and  the  longbow  could  easily  kill  a  full   armoured  knight.  The  lords  threatened  people  to  obey  with  their  knights   failed,  for  the  longbow  could  take  them  out  easily.   Joan  of  arc  was  a  seventeen  years  old  peasant  girl  that  was  inspired  to  save   her  country.  She  led  the  French  to  victory  at  the  battle  of  Orleans.  Joan  of  Arc   was  accused  of  being  a  heretic.  Her  death  encouraged  the  French  warriors  to   counter  strike  back  and  defeat  England,  in  addition  took  the  land  back.    

  Ch.  6:  “The  Byzantine  Empire”       Vocabulary:     Byzantine  Empire:    A  great  empire  that  straddled  two  continents,  Europe  and  Asia   that  lasted  about  500  C.E  ~  1453  C.E     Constantinople:  City  on  the  Eastern  edge  of  Europe  that  the  emperor  Constantine   made  the  capital  of  the  Byzantine  Empire  in  330  C.E     Eastern  Orthodox  Church:  A  Christian  religion  that  arose  in  the  Byzantine  Empire     Public  Works:  Construction  projects  built  by  a  government  for  public  use,  such  as   building,  road  and  street     Patriarch:  in  the  Eastern  Orthodox  Church,  the  bishop  of  an  important  city     Liturgy:  A  sacred  rite  of  public  worship     Icon:  A  type  of  religious  images  typically  painted  on  a  small  wooden  panel  and   considered  sacred  by  the  Eastern  Orthodox  Christian   Iconoclasm-­‐  Emperor  Leo  III  order  the  banned  the  use  of  religious  icons  in  all   Christian  churches  and  homes,  because  people  were  worshipping  the  icons  instead   of  God.       Schism:  A  formal  division  in  a  church  or  religious  body     Hippodrome:  Ancient  Greek  stadium  for  horse  and  Chariot  race       Caravan:  group  of  people  and  animals  traveling  together    

Things  to  Know:  The  Byzantine  Empire  (500  to  1453)     1.)  The  capital  city  of  Constantinople     •  Site  was  chosen  for  its  location     •  Surrounding  by  water  on  3  sides,  so  was  easy  to  defend.   •  Became  a  trade  center  of  Europe  and  Asia.     •  Became  the  richest  city  in  the  region.   •  Technological  advances  made  it  an  attractive  place  to  live.     •  Sewer  system  made  water  clean.   •  Hospital,  orphanages,  and  home  for  the  elderly  improved  people’s  live.   •  Unemployment  people  performed  public  services  for  food  ration.       2.)  The  Reign  of  Emperor  Justinian  I   •  He  ruled  from  527  –  565  C.E.   •  Chariot  race  violence  about  a  rebellion  that  destroyed  Constantinople     •  He  rebuild  the  city  with  huge  works  projects   •  Created  systematic  body  of  laws,  known  as  Justinian’s  Code.   •  Justinian  Expanded  borders  and  conquered  much  of  old  Empire                                     3.)  The  Eastern  Orthdox  Church   •  Based  on  believes  dating  back  to  Christ     •  Byzantine  saw  the  emperor  as  both  a  religious  leader  and  a  head  of  states   •  Church  played  critical  roles  in  people  daily  life   •  List  of  roles,  Emperor,  Patriarch,  Bishops,  Priests  (  priest  can  marry  in  Eastern   Orthdox)   •  Liturgy,  or  mass,  was  recited  by  both  priests  and  worshippers     Chapter  5   What  is  the  series  of  fighting  between  England  and  France  in  1337  to  1453   Hundred  years  war   What  is  the  disease  that  may  start  from  central  Asia  and  China  to  Europe.   Bubonic  plague   King  Henry  II  legal  reforms  led  him  argument  with  a  church  emeber  and  the  church   itself.  Who  was  this  church  member  and  what  happened  to  Him     The  man  was  Thomas  Becket  Archbishop  of  Canterbury  four  knights  probably   looking  for  the  kings  favor  and  kill  him.  In  1173 ��the  church  proclaimed  him  a  saint.       Chapter  six   What  is  the  great  empire  that  straddled  2  continent,  empire  and  Asia  that  lasted   about  from  500  C.E  to  1453  C.E   Byzantine  Empire  

What  is  the  event  that  emperor  Leo  III  order  to  smash  the  Icon   Iconolasm   What  is  a  type  of  religious  image  typically  pointed  on  a  small  wooden  panel  and   considered  sacred  by  Eastern  Orthdox  Christians   Icon     They  could  do  tasks  like  sweeping  streets  weeding  public  goods  In  exchange  for   bread   Public  work     Ch.  7:  “Geography  of  the  Arabian  Peninsula”     Key  Vocabulary     Caravan  –  a  group  of  people  traveling  together  for  mutual  protection,  often  with  pack   animals  such  as  camels   Plateau  –  a  raised  area  of  flat  land   Nomad  –  a  person  who  moves  from  place  to  place,  often  in  search  of  water  and   vegetation.   Sedentary  –  permanently  settled  in  one  place   Barter  –  to  buy  and  sell  by  trading  goods  or  services  rather  than  money   Irrigate  –  to  bring  water  to  a  dry  place  in  order  to  grow  crops   Terrace  –  a  flat  strip  of  ground  on  a  hillside  used  for  growing  crops     Important  Facts   -­‐  Arabia  lies  at  the  cross  roads  of  Asia,  Africa,  and  Europe   -­‐  Influence  of  Arabia  became  far  more  powerful   -­‐  Islam  spread  through  out  Middle  East,  North  Africa,  and  part  of  Europe   -­‐  The  Greeks,  Romans,  and  Arabs  had  a  major  influence  on  the  Middle  East     Desert:   -­‐  About  3/4  of  the  Arabian  Peninsula   -­‐  Hot,  dry,  and  harsh   -­‐  Summer  (often  >  120*F)  and  day  temperatures  are  high   -­‐  Winter  (can  drop  below  0*)  and  night  temperatures  are  low   -­‐  Little  rainfall,  not  more  than  3-­‐4  inches     -­‐  Droughts  that  can  last  for  years   -­‐  Often  swept  by  windstorms  that  causes  sandstorms   -­‐  Sand  dunes  can  rise  800  feet  into  the  sky   -­‐  Nomads  migrate  through  the  desert,  wore  loose-­‐fitting  gowns  and  cotton   headdresses  to  protect  against  heat  and  dust.     Oases:   -­‐    Occurs  in  places  where  water  is  trapped  underground   -­‐    Fertile  land  with  plant  life   -­‐    Nomads  often  settled  there  and  gave  up  their  farming  live   -­‐    Towns  flourish  along  the  oases   -­‐  Dug  deep  wells  

-­‐  Grew  date  palm  trees   -­‐  Rare  and  comes  in  various  sizes   -­‐  People  started  small  trading  centers  after  settling  there     Coastal  Plains:     -­‐  Ranges  between  5  to  40  miles   -­‐  Damp  and  moist  air  with  regular  rainfall   -­‐  Ends  at  a  series  of  rocky  cliffs   -­‐  Large  farming  and  trading  businesses   -­‐  People  built  wells,  dams,  and  systems  to  irrigate  the  land   -­‐  Most  people  were  farmers  in  the  6th  century   -­‐  Natural  harbors  attracted  traders   -­‐  There  were  traders  from  various  places,  including  India,  East  Africa,  and   surrounding  lands     Mountain:   -­‐  Cool  temperature  and  moist  winds   -­‐  Rises  from  1000  to  12000  feet   -­‐  Dry  riverbeds  along  mountainsides   -­‐  People  farm  on  terraces   -­‐  Grow  fruits  like  melons   -­‐  Built  dams  and  irrigation  systems   -­‐  Lived  in  mud  brick  houses/  houses  made  by  mud  bricks   -­‐  Moist  winds  from  the  Indian  Ocean  brought  20  inches  of  rain  per  year   -­‐  Settlers  lived  in  houses  made  of  mud  bricks     -Q: Where can 20 inches of rainfall be found each year? -A: It can be found in the Mountains. -Q: Where did people grow Palm date trees? -A: They grew it in the Oases. -Q: What did settlers in the Oases do for a living? -A: They farmed and traded. -Q: What are terraces -A: Terraces are flat strips of ground on a hillside used for growing crops.     Ch.  8:  “The  Prophet  Muhammad”     Key  Vocabulary     Clan  –  a  group  of  related  families   Polytheist  –  a  person  who  believes  in  more  than  one  god   Tribe  –  a  social  group  that  shares  common  ancestry,  leadership,  and  traditions   Convert  –  a  person  who  adopts  new  beliefs,  especially  those  of  a  religious  faith   Monotheism  –  Belief  in  a  single  god   Boycott  –  A  refusal  to  do  business  with  an  organization  or  group   Siege   –   an   attempt   to   surround   a   place   and   cut   off   all   access   to   it   in   order   to   force   surrender   Caliph  –  A  title  taken  by  Muslim  rulers  who  claimed  religious  authority  to  rule   Province  –  a  division  of  a  country  or  an  empire.   Dynasty  –  a  line  of  rulers  descended  from  the  same  family   Garrison  –  a  place  where  a  group  of  soldiers  is  stationed  for  defensive  purposes.  

-­‐  Muhammad  created  Islam   -­‐  Muhammad  was  born  in  Makkah  or  Mecca  on  570  C.E.   -­‐  Islam  spread  quickly  across  the  Arabian  Peninsula.   -­‐  Makkah  was  a  prosperous  city  famous  for  trading.     8.2   -­‐  Islam  started  in  Arabia   -­‐  Makkah  is  very  rich,  trade  with  Yemen,  Syria,  and  Africa.     -­‐  Rich  Family  won’t  share  wealth  with  clan   -­‐  Mecca  is  a  religious  center,   -­‐  Most  Arabs  are  polytheist  believe  in  many  gods   -­‐  Arabs  live  in  deserts      8.3   -­‐    Muhammad’s  clan  was  poor,  his  father  died   -­‐    His  mother  sent  him  to  live  with  Arab  nomads   -­‐  Learned  to  be  kind,  his  mom  died  after  meeting  Muhammad   -­‐  Live  with  grandfather     -­‐  Live  with  uncle  after  grandfather  died   -­‐    Started  to  be  trader,  know  for  honesty.   -­‐  Married  at  the  age  of  25     8.4   -­‐  Muhammad  made  his  living  by  trading   -­‐  Receive  call  to  Prophet  hood  from  Angel  Gabriel  when  praying  in  a  cave.   -­‐  First  convert  to  Islam  is  Khadijah   -­‐  Islam  has  only  1  god-­‐Allah,  monotheistic   -­‐  Start  sharing  to  family  and  friends,  then  to  other  Makkans   -­‐  Muhammad  recite  the  message,  messenger  written  in  Quran     8.5   -­‐  Most  Makkan  reject  teaching,  cause  trouble  to  people   -­‐  Some  tortured  his  followers;  some  people  called  him  a  liar   -­‐  Abu  Talib  protected  the  muslim  community   -­‐  People  made  a  boycott  to  make  people  quit   -­‐  Khadijah  and  Abu  Talib  died   -­‐   Horse   carries   Muhammad   to   meet   Jesus,   Moses,   Abraham,   7   levels   of   heaven   and   god     8.6   -­‐  Muhammad’s  uncle  died,  his  protector  gone   -­‐  More  Arab  turn  Islam   -­‐   Yathrib   clan   came   and   became   Islamic   converts.   They   invited   the   Muslims   to   Madinah.   -­‐  Makkans  attempted  siege  on  Madinah   -­‐  Muhammad  captured  Makkah  and  rededicated  Ka’ba  to  Islam.   -­‐  Muhammad  led  last  pilgrimage  and  performed  his  last  sermon.   -­‐  Died  after  return  to  Madinah  a.kjsdf;klj  sa     8.7     -­‐  After  Muhammad  died,  most  of  Arabian  is  Muslim   -­‐    Caliph  is  the  Muslim  leader.  

-­‐  Abu  Bakr,  the  first  caliph  unites  all  of  Arabia  under  Muslim  rule.   -­‐  Caliph  Umar  expanded  Muslim  empire  beyond  Arabian  border.     8.8   -­‐  Mu’awiyah,  leader  of  the  Umayyads,  claimed  the  caliphate.   -­‐  Sunnis  accepted  him,  but  Shi’a(party  of  Ali)  didn’t.   -­‐  Mu’awiyah  put  down  a  Shi’a  revolt.   -­‐  Moved  capital  to  Damascus,  and  maintained  control  with  garrison  towns.   -­‐  Founding  of  Umayyad  dynasty   -­‐  Muslim  took  more  Arab  culture   -­‐  Place  where  Muslim,  Jews,  Christian  scholar  share  idea     Where  was  Muhammad  Born?   Makkah     When  was  Muhammad  Born?   570  CE     Where  did  Muhammad  go  on  his  last  Pilgrimage?   Makkah     What  Trees  did  people  grow  in  Oases?   Date  Palms     When  did  Muslims  lose  their  protection?   Abu  Talib  Died     What  are  4  environments  in  the  Arabian  Peninsula.   Desert,  Oases,  Coastal  Plain,  Mountain    

Wolrd History Midterm Review Notes - Revised