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‘The City is our Factory.’ ‘Горад наш завод.’

Cities for People. Not for Profit. A Lecture by: Jon Iriondo Goena and Jack William Taylor


два тэзіса

London, UK ‘NO MORE PIGS ON THE WING’

Berlin, Germany FREIRAUM: AN URBAN MANIFESTO FOR LICHTENBERG


Freiraum: An Urban Manifesto for Lichtenberg Jack William Taylor


Establishing a Thesis...

Freiraum: An Urban Manifesto for Lichtenberg


ture will be implemented close to the Lichtenberg railway station ven its near redundant scale as the former main station of the dr the to no more than a point on the transit map since the reunification rlin esis this commercial and cold Berlin Hauptbahnhof. The station sityhas and is able to act as the node from which the Freiraum: stillSpace: District Repair Facility} can grow. ee

nd nmark. give an zens to he city;

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‘stadt in der stadt.’

Die Wende 1989

swerk ure and d with

Heute 2015

The program proposal is over a mixed use progressionally developed structure of cultural, economic, educational and dwellings that attempts to rethink the way in which the city can function outwith the pressures of influences of existential forces of the neoliberal system of today. This proposal attempts to bring the interests of the people and state closer together and question Frei Otto ‘Ecohouse’ the environment that could be possible to create under such conditions. IBA 1987 It is desirable to create an architecture promoting cooperation and contribution vs commodification; Architecture vs architecture. The role of the architect is to be seen as the facilitator of an architecture of exchange; not as the dictator of grand ideas. It is intended there to be are an architecture of participation and appropriation. The place is to be seen as a truly free space; and referencing the past present and the future, this also means for digital space. With its strict privacy laws, the Guardian reminds us Germany is the refuge of choice for those hounded by the security services making cities today as new frontier zones or ‘new political actors’. ^ ‘Villa Spatiale’ - Yona Friedman > ^ ‘Torre David’ Caracas, Venezuala As a form it is imagined that the intervention would be constructed by the state and ‘occupied’ or developed directly democratically by the inhabitants in a density worthy of the city referring to Lefebvres idea that - ‘cities are condensed differences; density multiplies intelligence.’ At the IBA {Internationale Bauausstellung IBA 87} the german architect Frei Otto built a series of seven metre high platforms in theisTiergarten in a use proposal that he imagined the structure City of of cultural, The program proposal over a mixed progressionally developed Berlin would construct the citizens expand build. Densifying the way urban economic,and educational andwould dwellings thatand attempts to rethink the in whilst which not the city can building on green couldoutwith help tothe preserve Berlin as the green archipelagoforces that itofis.the This thesis system of today. function pressures of influences of existential neoliberal also attemptsThis to answer theattempts questiontothat forms themeofofthe thepeople next IBA proposal bring the the interests and{Internationale state closer together and question Bauausstellung 2020} - ‘what to do be withpossible the outer city?’. Inspiration also taken directly theIBA environment that could to create under suchisconditions. from the vertical ‘Torre David’ in promoting Caracas, Venezuela, architecture It isinformal desirablecommunity to create an architecture cooperationsquatted and contribution vs of Christiania in commodification; Copenhagen, Denmark and the urban space of Berlin itself. Architecture vsradical architecture.

‘The struggle The between and the urban [Henri - can be architecture rethought - of asexchange; not as role ofthe thestate architect is to be seen as Lefebvre]’ the facilitator of an Christoph Schäfer summarises, asideas. a ‘cityItbuilt from imaginational the dictator of grand is intended there to be passions’. are an architecture of participation and ^ East German ‘Plattenbau’ appropriation. Prefabricated Construction In is envisioned that thisisstructure will as be aimplemented closeand to the Lichtenberg railway station The place to be seen truly free space; referencing the past present and the future, due to the CONTEXT, and given its nearspace. redundant scale as the former main station of the this also means for digital GDR, which has been reduced to no more a pointreminds on the us transit map since reunification With its strict privacy laws, thethan Guardian Germany is thethe refuge of choice for those and the opening of the by antithesis commercial cold cities Berlintoday Hauptbahnhof. The station hounded the security servicesand making as new frontier zones or ‘new political itself is the key to social mobility and is able to act as the node from whichSpatiale’ the Freiraum: actors’. Frei Otto ‘Ecohouse’ ^ ‘Villa - Yona Friedman > Bezirkausbesserungswerk {Free Space: District Repair Facility} can grow. IBA 1987 ^ ‘Torre David’ Caracas, Venezuala As a form it is imagined that the intervention would be constructed by the state and ‘occupied’ or developed directly democratically by the inhabitants in a density worthy of the city referring to Informal Architecture, Lefebvres idea that - ‘cities are condensed differences; density multiplies intelligence.’ Christiania, Copenhagen, Denmark. At the IBA {Internationale Bauausstellung IBA 87} the architect Frei Otto abuilt a series Thegerman program proposal is over mixed use progressionally developed structure of cultural, of seven metre high platforms in the Tiergarten in a economic, proposal that he imagined City ofthat attempts to rethink the way in which the city can educational and the dwellings Berlin would construct and the citizens would expand and build. Densifying the urban whilst not of existential forces of the neoliberal system of today. function outwith the pressures of influences building on green could help to preserve Berlin as the green archipelago that is. This This proposal attempts to itbring the thesis interests of the people and state closer together and question also attempts to answer the question that forms thethe theme of the next IBA {Internationale environment that could be possible to create under such conditions. Bauausstellung IBA 2020} - ‘what to do with the outer Inspiration is an alsoarchitecture taken directly It is city?’. desirable to create promoting cooperation and contribution vs from the vertical informal community ‘Torre David’ incommodification; Caracas, Venezuela, squatted architecture of Architecture vs architecture. Christiania in Copenhagen, Denmark and the radical urban space of Berlin itself. The role of the architect is to be seen as the facilitator of an architecture of exchange; not as ‘The struggle between the state and the urban [Henri can beideas. rethought - as there to be are an architecture of participation and theLefebvre]’ dictator of- grand It is intended Christoph Schäfer summarises, as a ‘city built from appropriation. imaginational passions’. ^ East German ‘Plattenbau’ The place is to be seen as a truly free space; and referencing the past present and the future, Prefabricated Construction In is envisioned that this structure will be implemented to the Lichtenberg railway station thisclose also means for digital space. due to the CONTEXT, and given its near redundantWith scaleitsasstrict the former of the reminds us Germany is the refuge of choice for those privacy main laws,station the Guardian GDR, which has been reduced to no more than a point on the transit map since the reunification hounded by the security services making cities today as new frontier zones or ‘new political and the opening of the antithesis commercial and cold Berlin Hauptbahnhof. The station actors’.

‘stadt in der stadt.’


A Political and Social Response.

Freiraum: An Urban Manifesto for Lichtenberg


A Political and Social Response ‘The aim throughout was to consciously challenge the hegemony of capitalist property relations in the city. They attempted through the dérive to counter the dominant perception of the city as a grid of real estate, and to explore its potential as the site of lived experience.’ Commment on the Situationist Vision of the City.

‘The aim throughout was to consciously challenge the hegemony of capitalist property relations in the city. They attempted through the dérive to counter the dominant perception of the city as a grid of real estate, and to explore its potential as the site of lived experience.’ Commment on the Situationist Vision of the City.

The Political Manifesto

An Architectural Response is based on the Ideas of the Right to the City Movement which is a reaction against the Neo-Liberalist Agenda of erroding Citizens ‘Right to the City’. This is summarised in the statements below:

A Political and Social Response ‘The aim throughout was to consciously challenge the hegemony of capitalist property relations in the city. They attempted through the dérive to counter the dominant perception of the city as a grid of real estate, and to explore its potential as the site of lived experience.’ Commment on the Situationist Vision of the City.

‘Space for Free Space’

reveals the sites low Value and libertyinability to attract investment priming it for a New Approach individualization in socialization to Rehabilitation

‘Space for Free Space’ Land Value Index The Political Manifesto ‘Space for Free Space’ Land Value Index

The Political Manifesto

reveals the sites low Value and inability to attract investment priming it for a New Approach to Rehabilitation

An Architectural Response is based on the Ideas of the Right to the City Movement which is a reaction The Political Manifesto against the Neo-Liberalist Agenda of erroding An Architectural Citizens Response ‘Right is basedtoonthe the City’. Ideas of the Right to the This City Movement which is a reaction is summarised in the statements below:

against the Neo-Liberalist Agenda of erroding Citizens ‘Right to the City’. This is summarised in the statements below:

The Right to the City (according to Dirck The Right Gerbhardt to the City (according Dirck Initiativen für ein Recht / AndrejtoHolm Gerbhardt / Andrej Holm Initiativen für ein Recht auf Stadt) auf Stadt)

Right to liberty Right to liberty Right to individualization in socialization in socialization Right to individualization Right to Housing Right to and Housing Right to participation appropriation Right to participation and appropriation Right to be different

The Right to the City (according to Dirck Gerbhardt / Andrej Holm Initiativen für ein Recht auf Stadt) Land Value Index

reveals the sites lowonValue andof An Architectural Response is based the Ideas the Right to theinability City Movement whichinvestment is a reaction to attract against the Neo-Liberalist Agenda of erroding priming it for a New Approach Citizens ‘Right to the City’. to Rehabilitation This is summarised in the statements below:

‘My Freedom is Your Freedom’ The Right to the City (according to Dirck Gerbhardt / Andrej Holm Initiativen für ein Recht auf Stadt)

Right to liberty Right to individualization in socialization Right to Housing ‘My Freedom is Right to participation and appropriation Your Freedom’ ‘My Freedom is Right to be different Your Freedom’ Right to ones own rhythms of life and time management Right to move and use space in its entirity Right to the creative excesses of the urban

Recht auf Stadt

Right to Right to Right to Housing Right to participation and appropriation Right to be different Right to ones own rhythms of life and time management Right to move and use space in its entirity Right to the creative excesses of the urban

Recht auf Stadt

Recht auf Stadt


(Economic) Subject-Object: Alienation from the product of labour

‘The struggle between the state and the urban [Henri Lefebvre]’ - can be rethought allsummarises, staying’ as a: as Christoph‘We’re Schäfer

(Economic) Subject-Object: Alienation from the product of labour

‘city built from imaginational passions’. Alienation from the means of production (object)

Alienation of labour powerbetween (subject)the state and the urban ‘The struggle [Henri Lefebvre]’ - can be rethought as Christoph Schäfer summarises, as a:

Object of labour‘The struggle between the state and the urban Instruments of Labour [Henri Lefebvre]’ - can be rethought

Society as Christoph Schäfer summarises, as a: Political Context ‘city built from Gesellschaft Marxs’ theory ofimaginational Alienation (ENFREMDUNG) passions’.

Alienation of labour power (subject)

Alienation from the means of production (object) Alienation of labour Object of labour power (subject) Instruments of Labour

‘city built from imaginational Rising rent prices in the City of Berlin risk a decrease in Social passions’.

Mobility. The state needs to recognise this and rebalance role that private ‘We’re allthe staying’ developers have in controlling the Citizens Right to the City.

Building Space based Alienation from the means on of production (object) Three Core Elements Object of labour Instruments of Labour

Marxs’ theory of Alienation (ENFREMDUNG) Marxs’ theory of Alienation (ENFREMDUNG)

‘We’re all staying’ THE CITY IS OUR FACTORY Christoph Schäfer

Society Gesellschaft

Society Gesellschaft Building Space based on Three Core Elements

Building Space based on Three Core Elements Cities for People. Not for Profit. Political Context Society Gesellschaft Rising rent prices in the City of

Berlin risk a decrease in Social Mobility. The state needs to recognise this and rebalance the role that private Building Space based developers haveon in controlling theIS OUR FACTORY THE CITY Right to the City. Three Core Citizens Elements Christoph Schäfer

‘We’re all staying’

Political Context Rising rent prices in the City of Berlin risk a decrease in Social Mobility. The state needs to recognise this and rebalance the role that private developers have in controlling the Citizens Right to the City.

Political Context Rising rent prices in the City of Berlin risk a decrease in Social Mobility. The state needs to recognise this and rebalance the role that private developers have in controlling the Citizens Right to the City.


Agency

ACTOR ACTOR Role of Role theofarchitect the architect in the inprocess the process of of incubation incubation as theas the facilitator facilitator

Personal Personal Identity Identity andand Expression Expression in Society in Society is is KeyKey To Belonging. To Belonging.

An An urbanism urbanism that that establish establish networks networks and and relationships that intend to address relationships that intend to address the the ‘ohnmacht ‘ohnmacht -- or or powerlessness’ powerlessness’ of of the the citizen citizen to to take take part part in in the the creation creation of of their own space. their own space. ACTOR ACTOR

State State funding funding for for the Initial the Initial Cultural Cultural Attractors Attractors and Structural and Structural Expansion Expansion

Positive Positive State/ State/ Societal Societal Relationship Relationship Role Role of of the the architect architect in the process in the process of of incubation as the incubation as the facilitator facilitator

Personal Identity and Expression in Society is Key To Belonging.

State State funding funding for for the the Initial Initial Cultural Cultural Attractors Attractors and and Structural Structural Expansion Expansion

ACTOR ACTOR

Positive State/ Societal Relationship

Collaboration Collaboration and and Participation between the

Collaboration Collaboration and and Participation between Participation between the the State State and and Society in a Mentoring Society in a Mentoring and Facilitatory and Facilitatory Relationship Relationship

Expansion of Economic Expansion of Economic and and Activity through SocialSocial Activity through Local Local NeedsNeeds and and Desires Desires


An Architectural Response.

Freiraum: An Urban Manifesto for Lichtenberg


An Architectural Response

Berlin Hauptstadt der DDR 1949-1990 1928

1964

DDR

D Today

Today A City Still Divided Physically and Mentally

Morphological Evolution


Facilitating Movement and Accessability through Nodal Relationships Centralised Power

Distributed Influence Links between Key Transport Nodes

Promotion of a Polycentric Distributed Network vs. Centralised 24hr

18hr

‘ein möglichst vollständiges städtisches Transportsystem macht dem Bewohner die gesamte Stadt an jedem Platz verfügbar’ ‘the most complete urban transport system makes any place available to the residents the entire city’ Oswald Matthias Ungers

‘No neighbourhood or district, no matter how well established, prestigious or well heeled and no matter how intensely populated for one purpose, can flout the necessity for spreading people through time of day without frustrating its potential for generating diversity.’ Jane Jacobs.

12hr

6hr

A Rejection of Tabula Rasa Free Green Space

Recreational Green

Derelict/Vacant

Denser Vegetation

Education

Retail

Industrial/Office

Residential

Cultural

Spatial and Zonal Analysis

Creating a Sectional Condensor


Creating a New Three-dimensional Spatial Syntax of Routes and Relationships

Unification of the Ground Plane through Infrastructure promotes a Renaissance in Occupation of Abandoned and Underutilised Buildings


Creation of Sectional Diversity through Intervention

Evolution of Occupation creates an Urbanism of Imaginational Passions


Banality

Originality

Anarchy

Density Promotes the Addition of Small Business and Shops to serve the Increase in Occupation

Addition of Simple Structural and Circulatory Elements lays the foundation and promotes a Language of Participation

Diversity is Facilitated through Combination of the same Structural Elements


‘Art is not a mirror held up to reality but a hammer with which to shape it’ BERTOLT BRECHT [East German Playwright]

‘The main thesis that I champion in architecture is that the central figure is no the architect but the user of the building, the inhabitant. This inhabitant is not the ‘average man’ - that imaginary entity dreamed up by statisticians - but a physcial person, an individual who is different from everyone else. What is more, he is different today from who he was yesterday or will be tomorrow. Architecture for with the people, for the people, by the people’ YONA FRIEDMAN

Inhabitation Forms Relationships and Realises the Potential of Re-Engagement of People with Creation of Their Own Space

Concept Model


The Vision.

Freiraum: An Urban Manifesto for Lichtenberg


Spatial Agency 1:2000

Former Stasi Areal

Frankfurter Allee [200m W]

MagdalenenstraĂ&#x;e Bowling Centre 1020hr Kaisers (Shop) 8-22hr

St MauritiusKirche

Small Independant Shops 8-20hr Peoples Archive of Wishes and Desires located opposite the symbol of state intervention in peoples lives - the Former Stasi Areal. A symbolic gesture.

Offices 9-19hr

Lidl 7-22hr

School 8-14hr

School 8-14hr Abandoned former railway yard utilised as a Peoples Planning Forum.

Lichtenberg Hauptbahnhof

Industrial 6-18hr

Kindergarten 7-13hr

Warehouses and Artist Residences

Peoples Construction and Political Knowledge Library intended build a involvement of the citizen in the formation of their own and collective space.

Community Washing Centre 8-15hr

Sectional Distribution of Interventions

Cultural Attractors

Industrial 6-18hr

[Existing Other] Existing Residential

NĂśldnerplatz [200m SW]

200m

Access Facilitators Instructional Initiators

0m


Rehabilitation

Occupation

Diversity


Drifting

Invention


Form follows Condition Berlin is defined by two distinct environmental factors. Firstly the city is incredibally green with it coming to be defined as the ‘Green Archipeligo’. Whilst in its simplist form this thesis could be described as a project of densification, it is intrinsically concerned with the promotion and continuation of an environmental resurgance. The elevation of structure above ground is intended to take pressure off the ground plane ensuring that the city can stay green whilst densifying at the same time.

Site location

Secondly the issue of groundwater in Berlin is a contemporary problem that increases to to be exacerbate with heightened construction activity since reunification. In this respect, having a very light strcuture impact on the ground plane will allow a densification process to occur without worsening this problem.

Former Flood Plain of the River Spree showing the sites exposure to groundwater levels of <2m.

Retention and Reuse

Rainwater Harvesting

The main sustainability aspect driving this project is the ‘rehabilitating’ the existing by supplementing it with new inteventions. Due to the collapse of the East German economy after reunification and the process of deindustrialisation that followed, the site is littered with abandoned industrial buildings, which on there own may present a challenge to find a new use for them, however with the addition of a attraction factor, this process could come to be completed over a longer time revealing the potential and otherwise structural stability of such structures.

It would be possible to utilise the space frame structure of the main structural trees to install rainharvesting systems such as the ‘Rain Pod’ due to the strength of such a structure. Space Frame allows for attachability and demountability as densification of the structure increases. Sun Shading Elements can be applied on a need by need basis.

Service Columns Trusses are utilised to span large distances with in structure before a process of infilling begins.


Respecting the Green Due to the large amount of pollutant damage caused to ecosystem of the former east germany, it is important to promote a resurgance by respecting the existing trees and green, allows the structural intenvention to touch the ground in the places with minimal impact.

Brown Field Impact It would be encouraged that most of any new structure would go into the ground already impacted from the historical industrial acivity on the site. Due to the large amounts of concrete present in certain areas of the site, it is imagined that this could be exploited to provide structural support for some steels as some sort of ‘large pad foundation’.

Consumption Board

City Electrical Grid

City Water Main

Heat Transfer Sub Stations

Due to the former presense of heavy industry on the site, the water mains present in the area should be able to cope with the increased need for water access with densification of the site.

Seasonal Thermal Storage Tank

Ground Water Discharge Promoting a resurgance in the green areas of the site will help to aleve surface runoff in heavily brownfield areas. Tree roots increase water saturation into groundwater reducing water runoff

Solar Potential of Existing Building Stock Due to the topography of Berlin being near to zero, and the exposed nature of the site, the state of Berlin has recognised the high solar potential of the Plattenbau (prefab) rooftops for solar generation. It is possible that as densification of the site grows, this solar potential could be exploited to the benifit of the existing and new residents. A similar scheme in the city already (around half the potential roof area in m2) of the site, generates enough power a year to run 10,000 refrigerators.

A Heating Strategy It is imagined that heating demands for the main tree structures could be met through the use of Geothermal Heat Exchanger utilising the depths gained within the structural piles. This could be made more efficient through the use of seasonal thermal storage tanks located within the ground plane (preferably on contaminated or brownfield land for minimal ecological impact) allows for storage of energy during the initial process of occupation. This would alos be preferable during times of low load on the system, such as in the summer months, when increased solar gain is anticipated.

Architectural Technology Sectional Strategy 1:200 Infrastructural Considerations It is imagined that some power supply would be supplied to the ‘first initiators’ to allow for initial construction. After that, in the densification of the structure, specific localised sustainable ‘add ons’ could be adopted and promoted by the residents on a need by need basis (in relation to aspect - solar and elevaton - wind) promoting citizen engagement with energy conservation and collaboration.

Power Supply

As with the power considerations, depending on the spatial circumstances that result from the occupation of the structure, it is imagined that individuals or groups of residents could employ different water collection strategies at different locations such as utilising the roof plane for rain water harvesting, installing grey water harvesting add ons, or simply supplementing the water supply with bottled water.

Water Supply

In the process of solving water issues it is hoped that consumption is cut due to increased knowledge about water use and recycling.

Personal Breaker

Secondary breaker

Water Pump

Main Breaker Personal Supply Hoses Connection to personal breakers Floor Distribution

Main Cables

Permanent supply Hoses

Service Column

Service Column

Main Water tank located near to lift access for accessability incase of manual refill

Shared or Individual Water Tank


Service Column and Signifiers Slip formed concrete service columns form the main infrastructural interventions into the site by providing water, power and structural stability for the primary structure. In an attempt to facilitate construction within the primary steel structure, it is imagined that ‘signifying elements’ are left visible for the citizens to interact with and build upon, offering an intuative starting point for expansion within the structure. These siginifiers could take the form of some of the examples below such as different plate or shear connections for attaching various metal elements to. In the detail below it is also possible to see a selection of different ways in which different constructional elements could be inserted and fixed within the structure before the application of vapour barriers and insulation depending on the requirments of the inhabitant. This chronicals the initial occupation of the structure by the ‘first adopters’. Demonstrated are some simple timber and steel connections and a concrete block and beam floor. The Isometric is visualised over an existing building showing the service column giving access to power for rehibilitation of the ground plain.

Isometric Extract of Service Column and Structural Infill


The Story.

Freiraum: An Urban Manifesto for Lichtenberg


‘Einsteigen Bitte... Nächste Station Bahnhof Lichtenberg.’ ‘Alight please, next station Lichtenberg’

Our Actor views the intial intervention by S Bahn and is met with intrigue.


‘Einsteigen Bitte... Nächste Station Bahnhof Lichtenberg.’ ‘Alight please, next station Lichtenberg’

Our Actor views the intial intervention by S Bahn and is met with intrigue.

Reclaim Your City. Participation is at its initial height. Our Actor is meeting and sharing ideas with new collaborators.


‘Einsteigen Bitte... Nächste Station Bahnhof Lichtenberg.’ ‘Alight please, next station Lichtenberg’

Our Actor views the intial intervention by S Bahn and is met with intrigue.

Reclaim Your City. Participation is at its initial height. Our Actor is meeting and sharing ideas with new collaborators.

Cultural Stimulation.

Our Actor is socialising in a newly opened cultural venue and meets another Actor...


‘The City is our Factory’ 1:500

100m

0m


‘Einsteigen Bitte... Nächste Station Bahnhof Lichtenberg.’ ‘Alight please, next station Lichtenberg’

Our Actor views the intial intervention by S Bahn and is met with intrigue.

Reclaim Your City. Participation is at its initial height. Our Actor is meeting and sharing ideas with new collaborators.

Cultural Stimulation.

Our Actor is socialising in a newly opened cultural venue and meets another Actor...

‘A City is not a Company.’

‘Eine Stadt ist kein unternehmen’

Our Actors decide to occupy some of the structure and build a home together.


‘Einsteigen Bitte... Nächste Station Bahnhof Lichtenberg.’ ‘Alight please, next station Lichtenberg’

Our Actor views the intial intervention by S Bahn and is met with intrigue.

Reclaim Your City. Participation is at its initial height. Our Actor is meeting and sharing ideas with new collaborators.

Cultural Stimulation.

Our Actor is socialising in a newly opened cultural venue and meets another Actor...

‘A City is not a Company.’

‘Eine Stadt ist kein unternehmen’

Our Actors decide to occupy some of the structure and build a home together.

‘Free Time!’

Weekends are spent enjoying life and involving themselves in further acting.


‘Einsteigen Bitte... Nächste Station Bahnhof Lichtenberg.’ ‘Alight please, next station Lichtenberg’

Our Actor views the intial intervention by S Bahn and is met with intrigue.

Reclaim Your City. Participation is at its initial height. Our Actor is meeting and sharing ideas with new collaborators.

Cultural Stimulation.

Our Actor is socialising in a newly opened cultural venue and meets another Actor...

‘A City is not a Company.’

‘Eine Stadt ist kein unternehmen’

Our Actors decide to occupy some of the structure and build a home together.

‘Free Time!’

Weekends are spent enjoying life and involving themselves in further acting.

‘Evolution.’

Our Actors are now fully involved in the process and spend time in the Kiez enjoying attractions with their young child.


дзякуй!

Jack William Taylor - The city is our factory  

Лекции прошли в рамках проекта URBAN DESIGN, подробнее о котором можно узнать по ссылке: http://urbanist.by/urban_design

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