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  The  Lykling  Micro -­‐ homestead  Experiment                      

Using permaculture  and  ecological  design  to  create  a   regenerative  food  system  right  in  the  front  yard  

by Mike  Conover  

2014 –  2015  







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2 The  Lykling  Micro-­‐homestead  Experiment          

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                                                 Mike  Conover  


IMPLEMENTATION AND  PHASING   YEAR  1:  2015   YEAR  2:  2016   YEARS  3–5:  2017  -­‐    2019  

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                                   Fall  2014  -­‐Spring  2015  


OVERVIEW In  the  face  of  the  combined  global  crises  of  a  changing  climate,  peak  oil,  and  ecosystem   collapse,  this  project  represents  a  glimpse  of  an  alternative  way  of  inhabiting  the  Earth.      It  is   meant  to  demonstrate  that  by  living  and  working  with  the  natural  processes  and  ecological   dynamics  at  work  in  a  given  space,  we  can  create  a  productive  food  system  that  requires  much   less  maintenance  than  conventional  approaches  to  growing  food.    By  mimicking  ecosystem   dynamics,  we  can  create  systems  that  are  somewhat  self-­‐maintaining  and  actually  improve   themselves  over  time,  becoming  more  resilient  as  they  grow  and  evolve.       By  using  plants  and  especially  perennials  that  are  well  adapted  to  the  conditions  of  the   site,  and  incorporating  a  high  diversity  of  plants  that  all  serve  a  variety  of  ecosystem  functions,   we  can  let  Nature  do  what  it  does  best,  and  do  some  of  the  work  for  us.    Instead  of  having  to   spread  so  much  fertilizer  for  example,  we  can  use  plants  that  fix  nitrogen  into  the  soil  or  plants   that  accumulate  nutrients  and  minerals  in  their  leaves  and  make  them  available  for  other  plants.   We  inoculate  our  space  with  edible,  nutritious  mushrooms  so  that  we  can  go  foraging  right  in  our   yard.   Rather  than  coming  in  with  a  predetermined  idea  of  what  we  want  to  grow  in  a  given   space,  this  approach  emphasizes  thoughtful  observation  and  analysis.  That  way  we  can  have  a   solid  understanding  about  what  is  actually  taking  place  in  a  site  and  how  we  can  use  that  to  our   advantage.    What  is  the  shape  of  the  land,  and  which  direction  does  it  face?  How  does  the  sun   move  across  the  space  and  how  do  the  shadows  change  through  the  year?  How  does  the  water   flow?  What  are  the  soil  conditions?  These  are  just  a  few  of  the  relevant  questions  that  help  us   understand  how  we  can  best  optimize  a  space.       The  main  objective  for  this  project  was  to  create  a  living  human  habitat  that  could   produce  a  substantial  amount  of  food  on  1/5  acre  while  being  relatively  low  maintenance  in  the   long  term.    In  the  following  pages,  I  describe  all  my  observations  and  analyses  of  the  site  and   outline  a  potential  design  for  the  land  that  optimizes  this  space  for  a  perennial  based  ecological   food  system.    I  hope  you  find  it  inspiring.      

4 The  Lykling  Micro-­‐homestead  Experiment          

           ~  Mike  Conover  

                                                 Mike  Conover  

SITE CONTEXT   Location   Address:  1  Rupert  Street,  Waterville  Maine,  04901   Geographical:  44°  33’  44”  N      69°  38’  34”  W   Size:  1/5  acre  


Climate   Temperature:   USDA  Hardiness  Zone  4b       (avg.  annual  min.  temp.  range  -­‐25°  to  -­‐20°  F)   Average  last  frost:  May  11-­20     Average  first  frost:  Oct.  1  -­10       Precipitation:     41  inches  annually,  evenly  spread  through     the  year  –  about  3.4  inches  per  month   Averages  of  the  monthly  extremes  (1971-­‐2000):   Avg.  maximum    -­‐  8.5  inches   Avg.  minimum  -­‐    .60  inches    

          Figure  1:  Site  in  context  of  Waterville,  Kennebec  County,  and  Maine  

                                   Fall  2014  -­‐Spring  2015  


SITE ANALYSIS   Landform   The   site   features   a   very   slight   slope   in   the   front   yard   towards   the   road   (east),   and   from   the   deck   sloping  down  towards  the  driveway.       Along   the   north   side,   between   the   cedar   hedge   and   the   road   there   is   about   a   14%   grade   that   merges   with   a   more   gradual   slope   downwards   towards   the   west.     The   lowest   point   is   in   the   northwest  corner  of  the  site   The  west  and  south  sides  of  the  site  are  relatively  flat.        

Solar Exposure   The  house  faces  towards  the  southeast   and   receives   a   good   amount   of   sunlight.     The   main   features   of   the   site   that   block   sunlight  are  the  house  itself,  a  large  maple   tree  at  the  south  side  of  the  property,  and  a   large   deciduous   tree   from   a   neighboring   house  towards  the  southeast.       Assessing   the   solar   exposure   throughout   the   site   and   the   shadows   cast   by   existing   vegetation   or   infrastructure   is   especially   important   for   any   kind   of   design   involving   plant   life.     I   observed   the   site   at   different  times  of  the  day  to  get  a  sense  on   how   shadows   were   cast.   I   also   used   a   solar   pathfinder  to  determine  the  way  the  sun’s   Figure  2:  Diagram  of  the  solar  path  throughout  year   position  in  the  sky  changes  throughout  the   day   and   how   the   sun’s   arc   in   the   sky   changes  throughout  the  year.     The   front   yard,   based   on   solar   exposure   and   also   proximity   to   the   house   is   the   most   ideal   place  for  growing  anything  that  requires  full  sunlight.    However  the  shade  created  by  the  maple   tree   and   the   neighbor’s   tree   will   hinder   the   growth   of   anything   requiring   full   sun,   so   I   determined  areas  of  the  yard  that  will  receive  at  least  6  hours  of  sun  starting  May  1st  until  mid   August   (beginning   and   middle   of   the   growing   season),   as   well   as   the   area   that   will   receive   at   least  6  hours  of  sun  at  the  equinoxes  (around  March  20th  and  September  22nd  ).    This  will  be   useful  for  knowing  the  best  sites  for  late  season  growing.       See  Figure  3  for  a  basic  depiction  of  the  varying  degrees  of  solar  exposure  received  by  the  site.      

6 The  Lykling  Micro-­‐homestead  Experiment          

                                                 Mike  Conover  

Figure 3:  Solar  exposure  throughout  site  


                                   Fall  2014  -­‐Spring  2015  


Water Flow     The  most  significant  aspect  of  the  site  in   regards  to  the  way  water  flows  through  it  is   the  size  and  shape  of  the  roof.    Beyond  this,   water  mainly  flows  down  towards  the  street   through  the  front  yard,  and  down  a  small  hill   to   a   low   point   at   the   northwest   corner   of   the   property       Roof  surface  area  catchment     Front  of  the  house  (east  side)     The   roof   design   for   the   front   half   of   the   house   sends   the   majority   of   water   towards   the   middle   of   the   yard,   with   a   smaller   amount  flowing  towards  the  south  and  north   sides  of  the  property.     Of  the  water  that  runs  towards  the  center   of  the  yard,  77%  of  that  water  flows  directly   off   the   roof   while   the   other   23%   flows   through   a   gutter   and   downspout,   is   sent   under   the   porch,   and   flows   towards   the   middle   of   the   yard.     With   about   780   ft2     of   roof   area   channeling   water   towards   the   front   yard,   this   would   mean   between   16,000   –   20,000   gallons   per   year,   1,300   –   1,600   gallons   per   month,   or   between   390   –   490   gallons   in   a   1-­‐inch   rainstorm.     Some   of   this   water  flows  down  a  slight  slope  towards  the   driveway,  but  the  majority  flows  through  the   front  yard.       3,000  –  3,600  gallons  per  year  flow  from   the   south   side   of   the   garage   onto   the   path   before   spreading   out,   absorbing   into   the   ground   and   flowing   into   the   neighbor’s   property   1,600  –  2,000  gallons  per  year  flow  from   the  northeast  corner  of  the  roof  per  year  and   is   either   absorbed   or   flows   down   a   slight   slope  to  the  west  and  off  the  property  

8 The  Lykling  Micro-­‐homestead  Experiment          

1,200 –  1,500  gallons  per  year  flows  out   through  the  downspout  by  the  side  entrance   and  into  the  neighbors  yard  to  the  south     Back  of  the  house  (west  side)                 The   back   of   the   house   has   a   much   simpler  roof  design,  where  the  water  flow  is   divided   between   a   single   downspout   at   the   northwest   corner   and   one   at   the   southwest   corner.     The   roof   will   likely   receive   somewhere  between  14,000-­‐  20,000  gallons   annually,   and   is   split   between   the   two   downspouts   on   either   corner.       If   the   water   flow   splits   fairly   evenly   between   the   two   gutters,   you   can   expect   between   7,000   –   10,000  gallons  annually  flowing  through  the   northwest   gutter,   amounting   to   580   –   830   gallons  a  month  and  200  -­‐  250  gallons  in  a   1   inch   storm   event.     While   some   is   surely   absorbed   into   the   ground,   much   of   this   water   flows   off   the   site   and   towards   the   neighbors  to  the  west.    This  gutter  would  be   the   best   location   for   a   rainwater   catchment   tank  if  you  eventually  decide  to  install  one.       Due   to   the   extra   roof   area   above   the   room   adjacent   to   the   kitchen,   you   can   expect   between   8,200   -­‐   11,500   gallons   of   water   annually   from   the   downspout   in   the   southwest  corner  by  the  pine  tree.    Much  of   this   water   flows   off   the   site   towards   the   south.       Note:   the   annual   rainfall   amount   I   used   to   determine   the   volumes   include   snow,   so   the   actual   rainwater   flowing   through   each   section   of   the   property   would   be   less   than   the  annual  estimates.      

                                                 Mike  Conover  

Figure 4:  Water  flow  through  site  


Existing Vegetation     In   order   to   develop   a   design   that   fully   integrates   with   the   site,   knowledge   of   the   existing   vegetation  is  essential  in  order  to  know  what  should  be  kept  and  what  can  be  replaced.    The  most   predominant  plants  and  trees  include:     

   

A large  maple  tree  on  the  south  side  of  the  driveway,  with  little  or  nothing  growing   beneath  it,  likely  due  to  the  shade  cast  by  the  fence  and  tree  as  well  as  compaction  of   the  soil   Two   perennial   garden   beds   in   the   front   yard,   one   larger   containing   Echinacea,   black   eyed   Susan’s,   sedum   “autumn   joy”,   lupine,   gooseneck   loosestrife,   hydrangea,   and   hostas;  the  smaller  bed  containing  Montauk  daisy,  sedum,  and  chives   A   hedge   of   cedars   that   runs   parallel   to   the   north   side   of   the   house.     While   I   am   not   100%  positive,  they  appear  to  be  Eastern  White  Cedars  or  Arborvitae  so  Cedar  Apple   Rust  should  not  be  a  concern  (this  is  a  damaging  disease  that  affects  apple  trees  but   which  is  only  hosted  by  Eastern  Red  Cedars)   Two  small  blueberry  plants  at  the  northwest  corner     Two  large  unidentified  shrubs  along  the  west  side  of  the  house   A  row  of  4  elm  trees  and  a  conifer  along  the  southwest  wall   Three  annual  beds-­‐  two  4’  x  8’  raised  beds  and  one  8  ½  ‘  x  25’  keyhole  style  garden   bed        

Soil Conditions   The   different   wild   plants   that   thrive   on   the   site   (aka   weeds)   provide   an   indication   of   the   quality,   structure,  and  nutrient  composition  of  the  soil.    Plantain  and  dandelion  were  found  throughout   the  yard  and  wild  strawberry  was  found  towards  the  north  side  of  the  cedar  hedge.         

Plantain (Plantago  sp.)                                      -­‐        wet,  cultivated/tilled,  clay,  acid   Dandelion  (Taraxacum  vulgare)            -­‐        cultivated/tilled,  clay,  acid     Wild  Strawberry  (Fragaria  sp.)                  -­‐        acid  

(Kourik, 36-­‐38)   Keep   in   mind   that   these   soil   indictors   can   only   provide   a   general   sense   of   what   the   conditions   of   the   soil   may   be.   They   are   obviously   not   100%   accurate,   as   some   of   them   may   be   growing   in   more   marginal   conditions   compared   to   where   they   are   commonly   found.       We   can   however   see   a   general   trend   among   them   and   so   it   is   probably   safe   to   derive   that   the   soil   is   clay   based,  relatively  acidic  and  at  some  point  in  the  past  may  have  been  cultivated.   A   soil   drainage   test   was   conducted   where   a   6”   wide   x   1’   deep   hole   was   dug,   filled   with   water,   and   then   filled   again   to   assess   the   drainage.     It   had   also   been   raining   for   three   days   so   the   soil  was  well  saturated.    Despite  this  and  the  predominantly  clay  based  soil  (which  often  does  not   drain  well),  the  water  drained  relatively  quickly.  

10 The  Lykling  Micro-­‐homestead  Experiment          

                                                 Mike  Conover  

A soil  test  performed  by  the  University  of   Maine   Soil   Testing   Service   can   be   found   in   the   appendix.     According   to   the   report   the   soil  is  in  a  good  condition  and  has  moderate   levels  of  most  nutrients  and  micronutrients.       The   main   improvements   suggested   (where   garden  beds  will  be  located)  are  to:  

Increase nitrogen  levels  

Increase organic  matter    

-­‐ -­‐

-­‐ -­‐ -­‐ -­‐

Generally always  good  for  improving  soil   health   Feeds   beneficial   microorganisms   and   insect  populations     Improves   soil   structure   as   it   is   broken   down  into  humus   Helps   create   a   soil   that   is   well   draining   but  retains  sufficient  moisture  


Necessary for  plant  and  leaf  development    

Add phosphorus     -­‐

Necessary for   balanced,   healthy   plant   growth  and  formation   Aids  in  plant  uptake  of  other  nutrients   Is  usually  abundant  in  most  soils,  though   not   in   a   form   that   is   easily   or   quickly   taken  up  by  plants    

Supplement micronutrients     -­‐

Necessary in  smaller  quantities  for  all  life   processes    


The importance  of  soil  biodiversity:   It  is  also  important  to  consider  that  soil  health  goes  far  beyond  the  numerical   quantities   of   the   different   macro   and   micronutrients.     A   healthy   and   productive  soil  is  characterized  by  a  high  diversity  of  life  forms,  for  example   microorganisms,   earthworms,   and   other   insects.     Ecological   diversity   helps   ensure  that  no  one  insect  population  or  type  of  bacteria  takes  over  and  grows   disproportionately  to  the  rest.       A  sterile  soil  for  example  is  just  waiting  to  be  occupied  by  whatever  life  form   quickly  takes  advantage  of  it  and  experiences  a  population  explosion.    This  is   not   a   balanced   ecosystem   and   is   more   conducive   to   unhealthy   plants   and   bacterial  disease.    A  soil  with  a  high  amount  of  diversity  on  the  other  hand  is   much   more   balanced   and   stable,   as   all   life   forms   keep   each   other   in   check.     Healthy   soils   lead   to   healthy   plants,   which   have   greater   immunity   to   pests   and   disease.        


The online   soil   database   SoilWeb,   which   accesses   USDA-­‐NCSS   soil   survey   data   through   the   country,   described  the  small  region  around  the   site   as   SkB,   or   “Scio   very   fine   sandy   loam”   and   classified   it   as   moderately   well   drained   and   as   farmland   of   statewide   importance.     Because   of   the  large  scale  of  an  online  database,   we  should  use  this  information  with  a   grain   of   salt,   but   any   information   can   help  us  in  some  way.    

Figure  5:  Soil  class  according  to  USDA-­‐NCSS  


Useful Microclimates   Microclimates   are   particular   areas   of   a   landscape   that   exhibit   slightly   different   climatic   conditions   than   the   rest   of   the   site.     Because   of   existing   elements   or   features,   a   certain   area   may   be   especially   warm,   cold,   dry,  wet,  windy,  or  protected,  etc.     A  few  microclimates  observed  were:   Because   the   porch   faces   southeast,   morning   sunlight   will   be   reflected   off   the   porch   and   will   create   a   slightly   warmer   microclimate  directly  in  front  of  it.   Obviously   all   the   areas   that   are   shaded   will   be   cooler   than   the   rest   of   the   site.     The   north   sides   of   the   fences,   the   house,   and   the   hedge  will  therefore  be  cooler.    

The   south-­‐facing   row   of   cedar   trees   creates   a   warm,   and   well-­protected   microclimate  in  between  the  hedge  and  the   house.     This   is   because   their   dark   color   absorbs  sunlight  and  radiates  it  as  heat,  and   their   tight   spacing   helps   reduce   any   winds   coming  from  the  north.    The  effectiveness  of   the   cedar   hedge   at   creating   a   warm   microclimate   was   evident   in   the   way   the   snow   melted   on   the   site.     The   snow   melted   more  quickly  in  the  area  south  of  the  hedge,   especially   on   the   southeast   portion   of   it,   beyond  the  shadow  of  the  house.      


12 The  Lykling  Micro-­‐homestead  Experiment          

                                                 Mike  Conover  

PLANNING AND  CONCEPT  DESIGN   Design  Criteria             What  do  we  want  to  achieve  through  developing  this  site?       From  the  Background  Profile  Questionnaire  you  filled  out  this  is  what  I  gathered:   Main  priorities  expressed  

Secondary priorities  

Food production  

Growing medicine  

Increasing self-­‐reliance  

Attracting beneficial  pollinators  and  insects  

Reducing environmental  footprint  


Entertaining guests  

Wildlife habitat  

Relaxation space

SWOT Analysis    



-­‐Centralized location  in  town  and  community   and  town     -­‐Cedar  hedge  acts  as  a  suntrap     -­‐Southeast  facing  house  provides  good  solar   exposure  in  front  yard     -­‐Already  have  experience  gardening  and  with   permaculture  design    

-­‐Size   -­‐Little  privacy   -­‐Much  of  the  site  has  poor  solar   exposure   -­‐Soil  compaction  is  severe  in  certain   places    


Threats -­‐Small  size  provides  an  opportunity  for   -­‐  Unwanted  browsing  from  deer,   experimenting  with  design  ideas  that  utilize   birds,  and  curious  neighbors   space  most  efficiently  to  produce  food     -­‐Erratic  and  unpredictable  weather   -­‐Proximity  to  neighbors  provides  great   due  to  climate  change   opportunities  for  building  community                                                                                                                           -­‐The  site  can  serve  as  a  testing  ground  and   demonstration  site  for  permaculture  principles   in  practice    

                                   Fall  2014  -­‐Spring  2015  


PROPOSED DESIGN                  

                  14   The  Lykling  Micro-­‐homestead  Experiment          

                                                 Mike  Conover  

MAIN DESIGN  ELEMENTS  AND  FEATURES   Descriptions  of  many  of  the  plants  mentioned  below  can  be  found  in  the  Plant  Guide  section  of   the  appendix.    

Planted Zones   Perennial  beds   These   areas   would   be   great   for   establishing   perennial   vegetable   polycultures  and  edible  ecosystems.    There   is   a   surprising   number   of   edible   and   medicinal   perennial   species   so   I   have   compiled   a   list   of   some   perennial   edibles   that  may  do  well  in  this  site.      Descriptions   of   most   of   these   can   be   found   in   the   Plant   Guide,   however   because   you   own   Toensmeier’s   book   Perennial   Vegetables,   for   those   that   he   describes   I   refer   you   to   the   appropriate   page   as   he   provides   excellent   and   thorough   descriptions   far   beyond   the   scope   of   my   guide.   Obviously   it   is   not   necessary   to   plant   all   of   these,   this   is   only   a   suggestion   of   possibilities   that   may   Figure  6:  Turkish  Rocket  is  a  very  hardy,  resilient   do   well   at   this   site.     You   can   also   seed   perennial  that  can  be  cooked  and  eaten  like  broccoli   annuals   such   as   leafy   greens   into   the   beds   whenever   there   are   openings.       Shrubs  




 Egyptian  onions  (aka  walking  onions)  


 Good  King  Henry  (leafy  green)  


 Sea  kale  (perennial  kale)  


 Skirret  (root  crop)  

 Alpine  strawberry  

 Turkish  rocket  (broccoli-­‐like)  

 Dutch  white  clover    


                                   Fall  2014  -­‐Spring  2015  


Annual beds   There   are   two   annual   zones   in   the   design,   an   annual   keyhole   bed   along   the   south   side   of   the   cedar   hedge   and   a   set   of   three  raised  beds  in  the  middle  of  the  yard.     The   raised   beds   will   a   good   amount   of   sun   for  the  beginning  and  middle  of  the  growing   season,  with  the  northern  bed  receiving  the   most   sun   and   the   southern   most   receiving   slightly   less.   The   keyhole   beds   will   receive   full   sun   throughout   the   entire   growing   season   and   into   the   fall   and   winter,   so   would  be  best  for  winter  production.   In   terms   of   special   efficiency   keyhole   beds   are   the   most   efficient   use   of   space,   however  you  would  be  planting  annuals  in  a   circular   type   pattern   rather   than   straight   lines.     That   being   said,   either   spot   could   be   planted  in  either  garden  style.       Planting  techniques  for  keyhole  beds   If   you   are   intercropping   or   planting   different  crops  together  in  the  keyhole  beds,   one  way  to  optimize  this  way  of  growing  is   to  plant  what  is  most  often  harvested  along   the  edge  of  the  path,  for  example  your  herbs   or   salad   greens.   Just   beyond   that   plant   things  that  you  will  harvest  from  less  often,   for   example   beans,   bush   peas,   or   tomatoes.     In   a   ring   around   these   plants,   plant   the   crops  you  will  harvest  one  time.    If  you  end   up   needing   to   step   on   the   garden   bed   to   harvest  them,  it  is  only  once.    These  may  be   you   cabbage,   potatoes,   carrots   etc.     While   not   the   most   conventional   way   of   planting,   this   way   optimizes   space   and   creates   garden  beds  that  are  much  more  interesting   to  be  in.    

Creating the  beds   There   are   many   ways   to   create   garden   beds.     Use   whatever   method   you   feel   most   comfortable   with,   whether   sheet   mulching,   double   digging,   or   tilling,   etc.       I   would   recommend   sheet   mulching   as   it   avoids   disrupting   the   soil’s   ecology   and   over   time   the   layers   will   break   down   and   create   a   rich   and   fertile   soil.     By   using   natural   processes   of  decomposition,  it  will  save  you  quite  a  bit   of  work.    Toby  Hemenway  has  developed  a   great   recipe   for   sheet   mulching   which   can   be  found  on  his  website:­‐ garden/how-­‐to-­‐the-­‐ultimate-­‐bomb-­‐proof-­‐ sheet-­‐mulch       Annual  polycultures   If   you   want   to   experiment   with   different   annual   polycultures,   here   are   a   few   examples.     Carrots,   lettuce,   and   onions   grow   well   together   because   their   rooting   habits   are   all   different   and   so   wont   interfere   with   each   other   One   of   the   most   well-­‐known   and   longstanding   polycultures   is   that   of   the   “three   sisters,”   and   was   used   by   the   Native   Americans.     This   involves   planting   corn,   beans,   and   squash,   together   to   create   a   mutually   beneficial   relationship   among   them.     Corn   provides   the   structure   and   support  for  the  beans  to  trellis  up,  beans  fix   nitrogen   into   the   soil,   and   squash   acts   as   a   groundcover.      

16 The  Lykling  Micro-­‐homestead  Experiment          

                                                 Mike  Conover  

Espaliered fruit  tree   Espalier   is   the   practice   of   training   a   fruit   tree   to   grow   horizontally   along   a   fence   trellis.     This   is   a   somewhat   advanced   technique   for   growing   a   fruit   tree   and   will   require   some   maintenance   and   care.     The   effort   put   in   however   may   be   balanced   out   by   the   ability   to  grow  fruit  in  a  way  that  takes  up   very  little  space,  and  is  somewhat  of   an  art  form  as  well.         While   many   different   fruit   trees   or   ornamentals   can   be   espaliered,   apple,  plum,  or  pear  trees  would  be   best   suited   to   this   climate.   The   Fedco  catalog  (21)  writes  that  most   Figure  7:  Apple  espalier   apple   varieties   will   work   on   an   espalier   but   that   a   semi-­‐dwarf   rootstock  may  be  necessary  to  restrict  its  growth.    Most  apples,  pears,  and  plums  need  multiple   plants  to  cross  pollinate  with,  but  that  should  not  be  an  issue,  as  you  can  plant  multiple  trees  to   espalier  and  even  graft  several  apple  varieties  onto  the  same  plant.     Through   talking   to   orchardists   and   reading,   Liberty   apples   are   a   particularly   good   variety   for   disease   and   pest   resistance.     In   terms   of   hardy   apple   varieties   for   Maine,   the   University   of   Maine  Cooperative  Extension  writes,   “…apple  varieties  suggested  for  northern  Maine  are  Beacon,  Chestnut  Crab,  Duchess,   Snow,  Wealthy,  Honeycrisp  and  Honeygold.  The  varieties  Black  Oxford,  Fireside,  Jonathan,   Keepsake,  Liberty,  Lodi,  Milden,  Paula  Red,  Northern  Spy,  Pristine,  Snowsweet,  William’s   Pride,  Wolf  River,  Yellow  Transparent,  and  Zestar!  also  have  good  winter  hardiness.       Varieties  not  listed  here  may  also  be  sufficiently  hardy  for  your  area.”  1  

Other fruits  that  would  work  well  on  the  fence  trellis  are  grapes  and  blackberries.       You  can  also  under  plant  the  espalier  with  herbs  and  greens  that  like  the  shade  in  the   heat  of  summer.      Dutch  white  clover  would  be  a  great  groundcover  beneath  the  espalier  to  fix   nitrogen  for  the  fruits.    Whenever  planting  nitrogen  fixing  plants,  its  helps  to  inoculate  the   seeds  to  ensure  that  the  specific  nitrogen-­‐fixing  bacteria  are  present.       In  the  additional  resources  is  a  helpful  guide  that  gives  a  great  overview  of  espaliers,  what  it   takes  to  construct  and  establish  them,  and  how  to  maintain  them.                                                                                                                        


                                   Fall  2014  -­‐Spring  2015  


Plum tree  guild   The   concept   of   a   guild   involves   creating   a  mini  plant  community,  where  each  plant  is   intentionally   included   to   contribute   some   function   to   the   whole.     They   are   often   created   around   a   central   tree   and   because   each   plant   serves   a   different   function,   guilds   lessen   some   of   the   work   necessary   to   maintain   and   care   for   the   tree.     The   more   diversity   and   interconnections   among   species,  the  healthier  and  more  resilient  the   ecosystem  is.           Figure  8:  Plum  tree  in  bloom         Some  of  the  functions  that  certain  plants  might  serve  in  an  ecosystem  are:     Fixing  nitrogen   Providing  habitat  for  wildlife                         or  beneficial  insects     Attracting  pollinators  

Loosening and  aerating  the                                             soil  with  deep  taproots  

Bringing nutrients  to  the  soil  surface   Producing  lots  of  biomass  for  mulch                                                

Repelling animals  or  pests  

  Figure  9:  Sample  guild  diagram  

18 The  Lykling  Micro-­‐homestead  Experiment          

                                                 Mike  Conover  

The plum  guild  is  located  in  between  the    A   semi   dwarf   apple   tree   would   also   do   espalier   and   the   fence,   where   it   will   receive   well   here,   but   would   need   a   second   tree   for   full  sunlight  and  yet  not  shade  out  many  other   cross-­‐pollination.     If   you   were   espaliering   plants.     Most   plums   require   multiple   trees   to   apples  as  well  this  would  not  be  an  issue  but   cross-­‐pollinate,   however   a   few   varieties   such   it  depends  on  how  many  apple  trees  you  want   as   Mount   Royal   are   self   fertile,   which   is   to  be  growing.    This  is  the  same  case  for  pear   essential  if  there  is  only  one  tree  so  keep  this   and  Asian  pears  and  Asian  pears  would  be  at   in   mind   when   selecting   a   variety.     Based   on   the   very   limit   of   their   hardiness   range   my  research  I  would  suggest  Mount  Royal  as   (recommended   in   5,   but   may   be   able   to   it  supposedly  produces  delicious  sweet  plums   tolerate  4),  so  this  might  not  be  a  good  choice.           and  is  naturally  semi-­‐dwarf  so  would  fit  well   in  that  location.           To  increase  diversity  and  utilize  the  abilities  of  plants  to  perform  ecosystem  functions  and   reduce  labor,  some  good  understory  plants  for  these  guilds  would  be:     Comfrey  -­‐   Mulch   producing,   dynamic   accumulator   (N,   K,   and   Ca),   medicinal.     *don’t   plant   until   you   are   certain   you   want   it   there.    It  propagates  by  cut  roots,  so  it  is  almost  impossible   to   get   rid   of   once   its   established.       Plant   one   or   two   4-­‐15’   from  tree  trunks  (Fedco,  66).  Use  a  sterile  variety.    

Daffodils -­‐    

Have a   toxic   compound   so   if   planted   around   the   base   of   a   tree  they  help  repel  voles  and  other  animals  

Deep-­‐rooted wildflowers  -­‐    

Attract pollinators,   deep   taproots   help   loosen   soil   for   tree   roots.   Examples   are   chicory,   purple   hairy   vetch   and   Dutch   mustards  

Dutch white  clover  -­‐    

Nitrogen fixing  leguminous  ground  cover,  spread  all  over  

Garlic -­‐  

May help   repel   plum   curculio,   a   weevil   that   affects   plums   and  apples  

Ramps -­‐    

Allium bulb   that   when   planted   in   a   dense   ring   around   the   trees  drip  line  will  prevent  grasses  from  spreading  towards   the  tree      

Sweet cicely  -­‐      

Attracts and   provides   habitat   for   beneficial   insects   (including  predatory  insects)  

Yarrow -­‐  

Dynamic accumulator   (N,   K,   P,   Cu),   attracts   pollinators,   groundcover,  medicinal  

                                   Fall  2014  -­‐Spring  2015  


Nut production   In   between   the   cedar   hedge   and   the   To   plant   larger   trees   and   give   them   house,  where  the  raised  beds  currently  are,   more  space,  my  suggestion  is  to  harvest  the   is  a  great  location  for  small  to  medium  sized   cedar   trees   west   of   the   annual   garden   bed   nut   trees   or   bushes.     Because   that   area   is   for   rot   resistant   posts   and   plant   the   north   of   the   house   and   gets   partial   shade,   almonds   or   hazelnuts   where   the   cedar   you   can   plant   taller   shrubs   that   would   hedge  was.    This  would  free  up  more  space   escape  the  shade  and  effectively  get  full  sun.     for   the   trees   to   grow   but   would   take   more   One   to   two   almond   trees   or   two   to   four   time   and   energy   in   terms   of   cutting   the   hazelnuts   would   fit   well   into   this   space,   trees   and   prepping   the   spots   where   the   depending   on   the   variety   used   and   how   trees   would   go   with   compost   and   tightly  spaced  you  want  them.    If  you  prefer   woodchips.     Plant   the   new   trees   at   least   3   to   keep   the   cedar   hedge,   you   may   need   to   feet   from   the   cedar   stumps   to   ensure   that   prune   the   trees   regularly,   or   make   sure   to   their  roots  have  room  to  grow.     choose  small  varieties  (which  are  generally   less  hardy).       Hazelnuts   Hazelnuts   are   a   great   option   as   far   as   a   cold   hardy   nut   tree   goes,   and   hazelnuts   are   hardier  than  almonds.    There  are  many  different  varieties  of  hazelnuts  but  I  will  summarize  the   ones  I  think  are  best  suited  to  your  site,  and  what  growing  each  one  might  entail.            





  Figure  10:  Hazelnuts  make  a  delicious  and  very  hardy  crop      

20 The  Lykling  Micro-­‐homestead  Experiment          

                                                 Mike  Conover  

Beaked hazels  

American hazels    


(Corylus cornuta)    

(Corylus americana)  

These are   the   smallest   hazel   variety   (6-­‐12   ft   x   same)   and   two   or   three   of   them   would   fit   well   in   between   the   cedar   hedge  and  the  house,  planted   6   feet   apart   in   line   with   the   hedge.   They   are   very   hardy   (zone  3)  and  not  prone  to  any   diseases   or   pests.     They   produce   the   least   amount   of   the   hazels   (10   –   13   lbs/tree)   and  the  nuts  are  fairly  small.    

Larger than  beaked  hazelnuts   (12-­‐18'   x   10-­‐15’)   and   more   productive   with   larger   nuts.     Also   very   hardy.   Attached   with  the  Additional  Resources   is   a   great   article   about   hazelnuts   in   Maine   by   Will   Bonsall   at   MOFGA.   He   recommends   the   American   hazel   over   the   beaked   hazel   for   its   quality   of   nuts   and   its   hardiness   to   Maine’s   conditions,   and   has   no   experience   with   hazelberts.     These  could  still  be  planted  in   between  the  cedar  hedge  and   the   house,   but   may   need   to   be  cut  back  occasionally.    

(Corylus   americana   x   Corylus   avellana)  


These are   a   cross   between   American   hazels,   which   are   very   cold   hardy   and   disease   resistant,   and   European   hazels,   which   are   larger   and   easier   to   process.   They   grow   to   be   around   12   feet   tall   and   can   produce   20   –   26   lbs   per   bush.      If  you  value  hazelnuts   and   want   to   plant   a   larger   size   bush,   the   hybrid   produces  larger  nuts  than  the   American   hazel   and   is   a   similar  sized  bush,  so  I  would   choose  this.        

Knowing  this,  essentially  the  three  main  options  are:   1. Plant  beaked  hazel  in  between  the  cedars  and  the  house.  It  will  be  low  maintenance  and   hardy  and  will  not  produce  very  much,  but  it  will  provide  something.       2. Plant  hazelberts  parallel  to  the  cedar  hedge,  realizing  that  you  may  have  to  keep  them   cut  back  so  they  don’t  grow  to  their  full  size  and  grow  into  the  cedars     3. Replace   the   back   half   of   the   cedar   hedge   with   the   hazelberts.     This   involves   the   most   work  and  cost  but  may  be  the  best  option  in  the  long  run,  depending  on  how  much  you   value   nut   production.       I   do   not   know   if   the   roots   of   the   cedars   and   hazelberts   would   cause  problems  for  each  other  if  the  hazelberts  were  planted  parallel  to  the  cedars,  so   simply   replacing   the   cedars   with   the   hazelberts   would   give   the   hazels   plenty   of   space   to   grow  to  their  fullest  form.       Because  you  would  only  be  removing  half  the  hedge,  the  suntrap  qualities  of  the  cedar   hedge  would  still  warm  the  annual  garden,  and  if  you  space  the  hazelberts  4-­‐  6  feet  apart   they   would   effectively   create   a   new,   edible   hedge.       If   aesthetics   are   a   concern,   this   hybrid  hedge  would  end  up  looking  fairly  non  conventional  so  it  is  necessary  to  consider   this   as   well.     In   this   location,   the   hazelnuts   would   get   full   sun   and   may   produce   between   20  –  26  lbs  of  nuts  per  plant.  With  this  option,  the  cedar  would  not  need  to  go  to  waste   because  cedar  makes  great,  rot  resistant  posts  and  could  be  used  to  create  the  espalier,   provided  they  are  thick  enough  when  you  cut  them.          

                                   Fall  2014  -­‐Spring  2015  


Also worth   mentioning   is   the   fact   that   hazelnuts   cannot   serve   as   the   central   plant   in   a   guild  in  the  same  way  that  a  larger  tree  can  because  hazelnuts  are  dense  shrubs  and  cast  a  great   deal  of  shade,  so  companion  plants  would  have  to  be  planted  around  them,  rather  than  under   them.   In   addition,   because   you   would   have   to   rake   the   nuts   up   off   the   ground   in   the   fall,   perennial   plants   would   likely   be   damaged.     Herbal   and   medicinal   self-­‐seeding   annuals   would   therefore  make  better  guild  plants.         Almond  guild       Depending   on   the   variety,   almond   trees   can   be   cold   hardy   and   are   usually   naturally   semi-­‐dwarf   so   could   fit   well   in   this   spot.   There   are   a   few   Ukrainian   varieties   of   almonds   that   are   especially   cold  hardy  and  would  be  good  to  zone  5.       It  is  important  to  note  however,  that  this   site   is   right   on   the   border   between   4b   and   5a,   so   there   is   a   risk   that   an   especially   cold   winter   could   kill   wipe   them   out.     Choose   a   smaller   variety   because   anything   larger   than   12’   would   be  too  large  for  this  spot,  or  would  need   to   be   pruned   and   kept   small.     Also   any   of   the   plants   mentioned   above   in   the   plum   Figure  11:  Almond  tree  in  bloom   guild   could   be   planted   beneath   or   near   the  almonds  to  perform  various  ecosystem  functions.      When  you  shake  the  almonds  from  the   trees   in   late   summer   and   early   fall,   place   a   tarp   beneath   the   trees   to   catch   the   nuts   and   prevent   them  from  getting  lost  among  the  other  plants.                 You  could  plant  any  of  the  plants  listed  above  in  the  plum  guild  section  under  or  near  the   almonds  to  create  almond  guilds.    Some  shade  tolerant  perennials  that  could  also  work  well   are:     Blueberry   Lemon  balm     Chamomile  



Solomon’s seal  

22 The  Lykling  Micro-­‐homestead  Experiment          

                                                 Mike  Conover  

Swale and  planted  berm     Because   there   is   so   much   water   flowing   off   of   the   roof   and   though   the   front   yard,  the  best  way  to  take  advantage  of  this   free   resource   is   in   the   form   of   an   on   contour   swale   and   berm.     This   is   essentially   a   trench   that   would   run   along   the   contour   line   of   the   yard,   capturing   water  and  allowing  it  to  percolate  into  the   ground   rather   than   run   off   site   into   the   driveway   or   street.   Filled   with   woodchips,   it   would   also   function   as   a   main   path   through   the   yard.   The   berm   is   the   mound   created  with  the  dirt  dug  up  from  the  swale   and  would  function  as  a  raised  bed.       Creating  the  swale  and  berm  

The swale  should  be  dug  at  least  10  feet   away   from   the   house   to   avoid   flooding   the   basement.   However,   because   the   porch   addition   is   completely   above   ground,   the   10   feet   rule   may   not   be   as   necessary.     An   A-­‐ frame   can   be   used   to   determine   the   exact   contour   of   the   slope   and   they   can   be   made   with  just  a  few  scrap  pieces  of  wood  (there   is   a   lot   of   information   about   making   A-­‐ frames  and  mapping  contours  online).       Before   digging   the   swale,   line   the   area   where   the   berm   will   be   with   a   layer   of   cardboard   to   keep   weeds   and   grass   down.     Dig   the   swale   3   feet   wide   and   1   foot   deep   and  flip  the  sod  and  soil  onto  the  cardboard   as   you   dig   to   create   the   berm.     Make   the   berm  about  4  feet  wide  to  allow  for  a  wide   planting  bed.       Afterwards,   even   out   the   contour   of   the   swale   and   berm   with   a   rake   to   create   a   smooth   gradient.       Before   filling   it   in   with   anything,   observe   the   swale   during   a   few   big  rainstorms  to  make  sure  it  is  filling  and  

Figure 12:  Swales  aid  in  water  infiltration                       into  the  soil.  They  prevent  runoff  and                                                                         keep  the  soil  hydrated  for  longer  

draining well.      Also  make  a  note  if  the  swale   is   filling   levelly,   or   if   there   are   spots   that   need  to  be  raised  or  lowered.         To   prevent   erosion   in   the   event   of   very   large   rainstorms   the   swale   should   have   an   overflow   channel   built   into   it,   which   can   also   double   as   a   path   across   the   berm.     When   you   create   the   berm,   leave   an   area   about  2  or  3  feet  wide  somewhat  lower  than   the  rest  of  the  berm  and  add  gravel  or  rocks   to  make  the  overflow  channel  into  a  durable   path.       Fill   the   swale   with   woodchips,   which   will   retain   moisture   and   release   it   gradually   into  the  ground  and  berm.    The  swale/path   should   be   3   feet   wide   to   allow   for   a   wheelbarrow   or   garden   cart.     Because   the   woodchips   will   decompose   over   time   you   may  need  to  add  to  it,  every  year  or  so.  You   can  fill  the  bottom  of  the  swale  with  a  layer   of   gravel   as   well   to   facilitate  drainage  so  the   woodchips  don’t  get  too  wet.  

                                   Fall  2014  -­‐Spring  2015  


Planting the  berm     The  berm  is  now  a  brand  new  raised  bed   and   so   should   be   augmented   with   compost   to   improve   the   soil’s   structure   and   its   fertility.     Because   the   main   function   of   the   berm   is   to   help   retain   water   caught   by   the   swale   it   is   more   suited   for   perennials,   whose  deeper  and  more  extensive  roots  will   hold   the   soil   in   place.     In   order   to   optimize   the   space,   planting   multiple   levels   of   beneficial   plants   together   will   make   best   use   of   the   space   as   well   as   provide   little   space  for  any  unwanted  plants  to  enter.      

This means   a   shrub   layer,   which   could   include   low   maintenance   berry   bushes,   an   herbaceous   layer   of   edible   and   medicinal   herbs,  and  a  groundcover  layer.       Below   are   some   suggestions   for   what   might  do  well  along  the  berm.    It  is  a  mix  of   edible,  medicinal,  and  ecosystem  benefiting   plants.   Obviously   you   do   not   need   to   plant   every   one   of   them-­‐   look   through   the   Plant   Guide   section   of   the   appendix   and   read   the   descriptions  and  see  what  appeals  to  you.  


Herb layer  


 French  sorrel    

 Alpine  strawberry  




 Creeping  thyme  

 2  Juneberries                                 (full  sun)  


 Dutch  white  clover

 2  Chokeberries                     (part  sun)      2  Blue  false  indigo         (full  sun)  

Figure 13:  Juneberries  tolerate  a  wide  variety  of  soil  conditions  and   produce  berries  with  a  taste  similar  to  cherries,  blueberries,  or  raisins  

24 The  Lykling  Micro-­‐homestead  Experiment          

                                                 Mike  Conover  

Edible and  medicinal  berry  production    The   area   north   of   the   cedar   hedge   actually   gets   surprisingly   good   sunlight   through   much   of   the   year,   but   is   only   really   accessible   by   a   tall   shrub   or   tree.   Using   a   solar   pathfinder,   I   determined   that   about   a   spot   6   feet   from   the   hedge   and   6   feet   off   the   ground   gets   6   hours   of   sunlight  at  the  equinoxes.    Therefore  from  mid  march  to  mid  September  any  shrub  over  6  feet   tall  will  be  getting  at  least  6  hours  of  sun  per  day.    This  area  is  towards  the  edge  of  the  property   and   will   likely   receive   less   attention   than   much   of   the   front   yard   simply   due   to   proximity;   hardy,  disease  resistant  and  low  maintenance  shrubs  and  bushes  would  therefore  do  well  here.      Below   are   a   few   low-­‐maintenance,   multifunctional   shrubs   that   would   do   well   in   this   location.   You   can   find   descriptions   of   each   one   in   the   Plant   Guide   in   the   appendix.     The   elderberries   and   Nanking   cherries   both   need   multiple   plants   for   cross   pollination,   so   plant   at   least  two.        At  least  two  Elderberries  planted  towards  the  low  spot  on  the  slope,  as  they   generally   like   wetter   soils.     Use   varieties   that   don’t   get   any   larger   than   10   feet   tall  and  space  them  4  –  6  feet  apart.     One  to  three  Juneberries  spaced  6  -­‐  8  feet  apart     At  least  two  Nanking  cherries,  spaced  3  -­‐  5  feet  apart   A  row  of  raspberries  would  also  do  well  in  this  space,  and  could  be  combined  with  a  few  of  any   of  the  plants  above.    


Figure 14:  Nanking  cherries  are  disease  resistant,  very  hardy,  and   can  tolerate  shade,  drought  and  most  soil  types.    Oh,  and  they're   delicious.  

                                   Fall  2014  -­‐Spring  2015  


Mushroom cultivation     Growing   mushrooms   is   a   great   way   to   turn   an   unproductive   shaded   area   into   a   low  maintenance  source  of  highly  nutritious   food.     Once   established,   mushrooms   will   often   produce   for   years.     There   are   a   few   different  ways  to  grow  mushrooms.    

species include   sugar   maple,   oak,   beech,   hop   hornbeam,   and   ironwood.     Aim   for   between   10   to   30   logs,   depending   on   how   much   you   and   your   family   enjoys   mushrooms.    Just  to  provide  a  sense  of  what   the   yields   could   be   like,   if   you   are   forcing   them   (explained   below)   8   logs   should   provide   about   ¼   -­‐   ½   pound   of   mushrooms   per   week   while   32   logs   could   provide   between  1  to  2  pounds  (Gabriel,  2014).

One method   is   to   drill   holes   in   hardwood   logs   and   inoculate   them   with   spawn,   and   seal   the   inoculated   areas   with   wax.   There   are   a   few   different   types   of   mushrooms  you  could  use,  but  Shitakes  are   often   recommended   as   a   good   starting   point.      

The spawn   run   could   take   from   6-­‐18   months   before   fruiting   but   then   fruit   for   years,   depending   on   type   of   the   wood   and   its   density.   For   example   poplar   may   produce   mushrooms   for   4   years,   oak   could   be   productive   for   8.     (Judd,   39).       The   logs   need   to   be   stored   in   a   shaded   area,   so   the   whole   area   along   the   north   side   of   the   fence   under   the   maple   tree   would   be   a   great   spot.     If  more  shade  is  needed,  you  could  drape  a   shade   cloth   over   the   logs.     The   area   on   the   west   side   of   the   house   between   the   house   and   the   large   shrubs   is   another   prime   location.      

   Figure  15:  Shitake  logs  ready  for  harvest  

You can  do  this  yourself  but  the  process   is   much   more   fun   and   goes   much   faster   when  you  have  help.    You  will  need  a  source   of  relatively  fresh  hardwood  logs  around  6”   in  diameter  and  40”  long  (if  they  have  been   sitting   for   too   long   and   starting   to   rot,   other   types   of   fungi   will   have   already   colonized   them).     Downed   trees   from   the   winter   snow   could  be  a  good  source  and  would  allow  you   to  start  in  early  spring.       Many   species   of   hardwood   would   work   but  according  to  Gabriel  and  Mudge  (2014)  

26 The  Lykling  Micro-­‐homestead  Experiment          

Once the   logs   have   been   colonized   and   are   ready   to   fruit,   they   need   to   be   thoroughly   soaked   to   produce   the   mushrooms.     The   logs   can   either   be   allowed   to  fruit  naturally,  which  could  happen  after   a   heavy   rain,   or   forced   to   produce   by   soaking   them   in   water.     The   tradeoff   is   in   the   work   of   transporting   the   logs   to   a   water   source   in   order   to   have   more   control   over   the   process   and   get   a   higher   yield,   vs.   less   work   and   a   smaller,   more   unpredictable   yield.     If   you   would   like   the   larger,   more   consistent   yields,   a   simple   and   cheap   option   would  be  to  buy  or  find  a  plastic  kiddie  pool   and   soak   them   in   that.     If   not,   a   heavy   rain   will  cause  them  to  fruit  and  the  mushrooms   will  come  as  a  pleasant  surprise  to  you.      

                                                 Mike  Conover  

Another method   is   to   inoculate   fresh   hardwood   chips   or   straw   with   Wine   Cap   Stropharia   spawn.       This   involves   layering   wood   chips   or   straw   with   the   mushroom   spawn   and   making   sure   it   stays   moist,   by   mulching   it   and   occasionally   watering   it.     Every   tree   that   you   mulch   with   woodchips  

as well   as   the   paths   could   theoretically   be   inoculated   with   spawn.     Unlike   Shitakes,   Wine  caps  do  well  in  sunny  or  partly  shaded   areas.    As  you  can  probably  tell,  this  method   is   very   simple   and   straightforward,   and   does   not   require   very   much   maintenance,   aside  from  keeping  it  moist  and  harvesting!  


Figure 16:  If  you  inoculate  your  woodchip  mulch  and  paths  with  Wine  Cap   mushrooms  you  may  find  them  spreading  throughout  your  yard  and  popping   up  in  unexpected  places.    

Obviously this  is  just  a  quick  primer  on  what  mushroom  cultivation  might  entail  but  if  you   are   interested   in   learning   more,   a   really   great   source   is     They   also   sell   everything  you  could  need  for  starting  mushroom  production.    This  is  a  great  breakdown  from   their  website  of  some  of  the  different  varieties  and  methods  according  to  the  level  of  difficulty.   Easiest   Lion's  Mane  on  logs   Oysters  on  logs   Oysters  on  straw   Shiitake  on  logs   Wine  Cap  on  straw   or  wood  chips  

A Little  Less  Easy   Almond  Agaricus  on   compost   Box  Elder  on  logs   Nameko  on  logs   Reishi  on  logs    

Least Easy   Blewit  on  organic   matter   Maitake  on  logs    


                                   Fall  2014  -­‐Spring  2015  


Nursery One   of   the   keyhole   beds   in   the   perennial   zone  could  be  used  as  a  small  nursery  if  you   decide   to   start   some   of   your   shrubs   or   trees   from   cuttings   instead   of   buying   more   mature   (and   more   expensive)   plants.   This   can   be   an   area   where   you   grow   and   give   extra  attention  to  younger  plants  before  you   transplant   them   to   their   final   location.     According   to   Sean   Dembrosky   who   runs   Edible   Acres,   a   plant   nursery   in   New   York   State,   the   nursery   should   be   the   best   site   on   the   property   and   should   have   full   sun   in   morning   and   late   day   shade.     One   option   would   be   to   dedicate   the   northern   most   keyhole   garden   bed   to   be   a   nursery,   as   It   would  get  a  great  deal  of  sun  in  the  morning   and   into   the   afternoon,   but   because   it   is   just   east   of   the   house,   would   be   shaded   in   the   late  afternoon.    

Trellises There   are   multiple   trellises   throughout   the   design   for   vining   and   climbing   annuals   and  perennials.    To  minimize  shading  other   plants,  they  are  located  on  the  north  side  of   various   garden   beds   and   along   the   porch   wall   Annuals   that   could   be   grown   on   the   trellises   include   beans,   cucumbers,   peas,   or   tomatoes.     Larger   plants   such   as   squash   or   melons  can  be  trellised  as  well  as  their  vines   grow   strong   enough   to   support   the   weight   of  their  own  fruit.     Groundnut   and   Chinese   mountain   yam   are   two   edible   vining   perennial   vegetables   fit  for  this  climate.        

A nursery   should   also   be   very   fertile   so   Sean   recommends   using   a   compost   tea.     There   are   many   recipes   online   for   this,   but   it   essentially   involves   soaking   compost   and   nutrient  rich  plant  matter  in  water  for  a  few   days,   straining   out   the   organic   matter   and   using   it   to   improve   the   fertility,   nutrient   levels,  and  microbiology  of  the  soil.    You  can   also   use   composted   manure,   amendments   such   as   alfalfa   meal   or   soybean   meal,   or   urine.     Note:   for   the   keyhole   garden   beds   in   front  of  the  porch,  make  sure  to  create  them   beyond   the   roofline,   so   rainwater   doesn’t   flow  directly  off  the  roof  onto  the  beds.  

Figure   17:   Groundnuts   produce   a   protein   rich   tuber  and  also  fix  nitrogen  


28 The  Lykling  Micro-­‐homestead  Experiment          

                                                 Mike  Conover  

Basic lead  remediation   The   ground   along   the   north   side   of   the   house   is   likely   contaminated   with   lead   due   to  a  good  amount  of  chipped  paint  from  the   windows.      If  you  would  like  to  grow  edibles   in   this   area   eventually,   get   a   lead   test   done   for   this   area   and   a   few   feet   away   and   if   sufficient   levels   are   found,   dig   out   and   replace   the   top   6   -­‐12   inches   of   top   soil.     However,  because  it  is  in  the  shade  and  isn’t   an   ideal   growing   space   anyways,   I   would   grow   dynamic   accumulators   and/or   mushrooms   to   help   remediate   the   soil.     Whatever   you   grow   there,   keep   it   out   of   the   compost   and   dispose   of   the   biomass   in   an   appropriate   way     (check   with   Waterville   to   see  if  there  is  any  specific  protocol).       Toby   Hemenway   has   written   that   most   dynamic   accumulators   that   take   up   metals   such   as   copper   and   zinc   also   take   up   lead   (131).     Depending   on   what   is   available   and   what   you   can   find,   plant   a   combination   of   bentgrass,   eastern   bracken,   duckweed,   red   fescue,   scented   geranium,   alpine   pennycress,   mustards,   rapeseed,   or   sunflower.     Unfortunately,   and   ironically,   because   some   of   these   plants   are   considered  to  be  weeds  it  may  be  somewhat   difficult  to  acquire  some  of  them.          

Remember   also   that   this   area   gets   little   sun   because   it   is   right   on   the   north   side   of   the   house.     Another   option   is   using   oyster   mushrooms,   which   sequester   heavy   metals   and  could  be  inoculated  into  wood  chips  in   the  area  (Hemenway,  238).    Just  make  sure   to  dispose  of  any  mushrooms  you  are  using   for  lead  remediation.      

Winter vegetable  growing   The   keyhole   style   annual   garden   bed   in   front   of   the   cedar   hedge   would   be   the   best   place  for  winter  growing.    This  area  receives   the   most   sunlight   out   of   anywhere   on   the   property   and   the   south   facing   dark   cedar   hedge  will  absorb  and  radiate  the  sun’s  heat   creating   a   warm   microclimate.     It   will   also   act   as   a   miniature   windbreak   and   protect   any  plants  growing  in  front  of  it.       I   would   build   a   low   tunnel   using   bent   galvanized   metal   conduit.     Depending   on   how   permanent   you   want   the   structure   to   be,   you   can   reinforce   the   structure   with   wood.        In the appendix you will find some pictures of a couple different designs for a low tunnel and a diagram depicting how you can build a simple one.

            Figure  18:  A  simple  low  tunnel  can  provide  season   extension  and  greens  all  winter  long  

                                   Fall  2014  -­‐Spring  2015  


Soil Fertility     Compost  facility      Composting   in   its   most   basic   form   would   be  creating  a  pile  with  all  of  your  food  scraps   and   waste   organic   matter   where   it   can   decompose.     To   minimize   pests   and   rodents   entering   the   pile,   it   would   be   best   to   either   build  or  buy  a  composting  enclosure.    A  simple   and   cheap   (or   free)   set   up   would   be   to   use   old   recycled   wooden   pallets   and   build   a   two   or   three   bin   system.     Because   you   will   want   to   eventually   use   the   finished   compost   in   your   garden   beds,   a   one-­‐bin   system   will   not   work   because   it   will   never   be   able   to   decompose   if   you   are   always   adding   to   it.   In   order   for   the   Figure  19:  Example  of  a  three-­‐bin  system  made   pile  to  have  enough  mass  and  reach  a  sufficient   from  recycled  pallets   temperature,  the  bins  should  be  a  minimum  of   3’  x  3’x  3’.       Make   the   pile   in   contact   with   the   ground,   allowing   earthworms   to   move   in   to   the  pile   Maintaining   a   balance   of   carbon   rich   (“brown”)   to   nitrogen   rich   (“green”)   materials.    A  basic  ratio  to  shoot  for  is  2/3  brown  to  1/3  green  material   Brown   materials   are   often   dead,   brown   and/or   woody,   such   as   dried   leaves,   branches,   cardboard   (ripped   up),   sawdust   or   wood   shavings,   shredded   brown   bags,   tea   bags,   coffee   filters,   egg   shells.   They   provide   the  light  fluffy  structure  of  compost  and  the  carbon.     Green   refers   to   the   nitrogen   rich   material   –   generally   anything   fresh,   with   some   life   still   in   it.     These   are   your   vegetable   and   food   scraps,   fresh  leaves,  grass  clippings,  etc.       It  is  beneficial  to  cover  the  compost  pile  with  a  tarp  or  lid,  keeping  the  rain  out   which  could  over  saturate  the  pile  or  leach  nutrients,  and  keeping  heat  in.   Make   sure   it   stays   relatively   moist-­‐   think   of   a   moist   sponge   that   has   been   wrung  out  already.    If  you  squeeze  it  you  should  only  be  able  to  wring  out  a   few  drops  of  water.   Aerating  the  pile  with  a  pitchfork  or  flipping  it  is  not  always  essential  but  will   add  oxygen  to  the  pile  and  speed  up  decomposition.    

30 The  Lykling  Micro-­‐homestead  Experiment          

                                                 Mike  Conover  

If it  is  smelly  or  slimy,  it  may  just  need  more  carbon  rich  materials.  Smells  can   be  reduced  by  covering  new  additions  with  dry  grass  or  a  similar  mulch.   At   such   a   small   scale,   meat,   bones,   or   oils   won’t   break   down   very   well   so   should  be  kept  out  of  the  compost.     You   can   camouflage   the   bins   and   hide   any   odor   with   fragrant,   flowering   shrubs  or  vines,  for  example  honey  suckle.       If  you  want  to  really  boost  your  compost  production,  increase  the  soil  fertility  in  your   garden  beds,  and  reduce  landfill  waste,  one  idea  would  be  to  ask  your  neighbors  to  save  their   food  scraps  for  you  as  well.    You  could  even  give  a  few  of  them  a  bucket  with  a  lid  to  make  it   easy  and  convenient  for  them,  and  pick  it  up  once  or  twice  a  week.    That  may  not  be  practical  as   you  are  usually  very  busy  with  Zora  but  it’s  an  idea.    If  you  were  to  do  that,  you  would  probably   want  to  create  a  three-­‐bin  system  to  account  for  the  extra  biomass.      


Incoming biomass  storage   In   a   suburban   context,   there   are   many   opportunities   for   utilizing   “waste”   biomass   and   converting   it   into   productive   soil.     Biomass   can   be   often   sourced   for   free   or   very   cheap,   so   having  a  designated  zone  for  this  imported  material  may  be  useful.    During  the  first  few  years  of   implementation   and   system   establishment,   this   space   could   hold   large   piles   of   materials,   for   example   leaves   in   the   fall   or   woodchips   during  pruning  season.         The   area   to   the   south   of   the   driveway   in   between   the   driveway   and   fence   is   quite   compacted   and   has   poor   soil   so   would   be   a   great   location   for   this.     The   rectangle   of   gravel   and   compacted   soil   adjacent   to   the   road  and  driveway  would  also  be  a  great  spot.       After  a  few  years,  when  there  is  less  need  for   large  quantities  of  biomass,  the  decomposing   biomass   on   the   rectangular   space   will   have   added   to   and   improved   the   soil   beneath   it   and   so   can   be   planted   with   hardy   insectary   plants.      

Figure 20:  You  can  never  have  too  many   woodchips…  well  maybe  sometimes.  

                                   Fall  2014  -­‐Spring  2015  


Soil improvement  through  cover  crops  and  dynamic  accumulators   One   way   to   start   building   fertile   soil   is   through   the   “lasagna   style”   sheet   mulching   method   that   I   mentioned   before,   and   incorporating   rich   compost   and/or   manure   into  the  layers.    You  may  also  want  to  utilize   cover   crops   to   improve   soil   structure   and   increase  the  nitrogen  content  in  the  case  of   alfalfa  and  clover.       You   can   plant   grasses,   oats,   millet,   barley,   or   clovers   esp.   Dutch   white   clover   in   the   beds   to   then   cut   down   and   incorporate   into  the  soil.       Comfrey   is   an   amazing   plant   and   will   provide   a   great   deal   of   biomass,   which   you   can   use   as   a   mulch,   in   compost,   or   in   compost   teas.     It   is   a   dynamic   accumulator   and   its   leaves   are   rich   in   silica,   nitrogen,   potassium,  calcium,  and  iron.  Plant  comfrey   in   year   2-­‐5,   or   once   you   are   certain   you   know   where   you   want   it   to   be   because   once   it  is  planted,  it  is  near  impossible  to  remove.     Because  it  can  propagate  itself  through  root   cuttings,  trying  to  dig  it  up  or  till  it  into  the   soil  will  only  help  it  spread.    Wild  Folk  Farm  

has a   sterile   variety   of   comfrey   that   isn’t   supposed   to   spread   through   its   seeds   so   that   would   be   a   great   source.   When   composting   comfrey,   add   extra   dry,   fibrous   matter  to  keep  compost  well  aerated.   Comfrey   also   has   powerful   medicinal   properties:  it  is  also  called  “boneknit”  and  is   very   good   for   binding   things   together,   whether   for   closing   an   open   wound   or   helping   heal   broken   bones.   You   can   use   it   in   salves,  oils,  or  as  a  poultice.       You   can   line   the   annual   keyhole   bed   with   a   border   of   sterile   comfrey.     This   will   help   prevent   weeds   and   grasses   from   creeping   into   the   garden   and   will   also   provide   you   with   a   constant   supply   of   nutrient  rich  biomass  to  use  as  mulch  or  in   compost  teas.  It  is  very  hardy  and  resilient:   you   can   chop   the   whole   plant   down   to   mulch   your   vegetables   and   it   will   grow   back.          


Figure 21:  Comfrey  is  a  hardy  multifunctional  plant  –   dynamic  accumulator,  mulch  maker,  and  wound  healer.    

32 The  Lykling  M  icro-­‐homestead  Experiment          

                                                 Mike  Conover  

To increase   the   available   nutrients   and   build   soil   in   the   front   yard,   Kourik   (278)   provides   some   beneficial   ornamental   dynamic   accumulators.     These   would   be   both   aesthetically   pleasing   and   also   functional.     You   can   seeds   these   to   grow   and   cut   them   down   before  they  go  to  seed  to  use  for  mulch,  building  the  soil.  I  have  also  listed  the  nutrients  that   each  one  accumulates.       Chamomile  –  Ca,  K,  P  

Mullein –  S,  Mg,  K,  Fe  

Chicory –  Ca,  K  

Primrose -­‐  Mg  

Crimson clover  –  N,  P  

Savory -­‐  P  

Lupines –  N,  P  

Yarrows –  N,  K,  P,  Cu    

Marigolds -­‐  P      

Kourik (280)  also  suggests  planting  certain  wildflower  plants  under  and  around  fruit   trees  as  “cultivators,”  as  they  have  deep  roots  that  can  grow  to  4  feet  or  deeper,  improving  the   soil  as  the  tree  is  growing.    If  you  experiment  with  these,  plant  them  beyond  the  mulch.    As  the   tree  grows  over  the  years,  you  can  expand  the  mulch  ring  and  cover  them,  where  they  will  rot   in  place  and  build  soil.         Chicory       Mustards   Dock  

Purple hairy  vetch

Dutch white  clover    

Herbal ley  /  Insectary  zones   An  herbal  ley  (pronounced  “lay”)  is  an  area  dedicated  to  growing  nutrient  rich  grasses,   legumes,  wildflowers,  or  herbs  to  harvest  and  use  for  improving  the  soil’s  fertility.    You  can  use   the  biomass  as  mulch,  for  compost,  or  in  green  manure  for  the  various  garden  beds.    It  can  be  a   great  way  to  grow  your  own  fertility  and  speed  up  soil  building.    Robert  Kourik  (180)  mentions   many   different   leguminous   wildflowers   that   function   as   dynamic   accumulators   and   would   be   suitable   for   this.     Many   of   these   would   also   serve   as   insect   and   pollinator   attractors,   which   would  improve  pollination  for  your  trees  and  garden  beds.    Of  Kourik’s  suggestions,  some  good   options  for  your  site  would  be:   Alfalfa  



Birdsfoot trefoil  

Perennial sweet  pea  

Wild licorice  

As  this  region  is  more  for  long-­‐term  soil  improvement  and  less  of  a  priority  than  the  garden   beds  for  example,  establish  this  area  sometime  in  years  2-­‐3.  

                                   Fall  2014  -­‐Spring  2015  


Paths If  you  plan  to  spend  a  good  amount  of  time  outside  in  your  yard  whether  caring  for  your   gardens,   harvesting   produce,   carting   mulch   or   compost   around,   or   just   relaxing   and   enjoying   the  space,  the  layout  of  the  paths  and  the  material  you  use  for  them  is  fairly  significant.  There   are   a   number   of   different   options   for   what   the   paths   can   be,   depending   on   the   level   of   permanence,  cost,  and  flexibility  vs.  durability.    Kourik  (50)  provides  a  nice  comparison  of  the   pros  and  cons  of  less  permanent  and  more  permanent  paths,  which  I  have  summarized  here:   More  permanent     Pros  –  Keeps  to  clearly  designated  areas  and  limits  soil  compaction,  lowest  ongoing   maintenance,  less  likely  to  grow  weeds,  increases  property  value,  can  take  much   more  traffic/abuse,  may  be  considered  more  beautiful   Cons  –  More  upfront  cost  and  effort,  requires  more  upfront  planning,  not  easily  changed   Examples  –  Bricks  in  sand,  bricks  in  mortar,  poured  concrete,  flagstone,  slate,  wood,   cobblestone     Less  permanent   Pros  –  Easily  changed,  low  cost  and  effort,     Cons  –  Higher  maintenance  and  more  likely  to  grow  weeds,  less  durable,  may  be   considered  unaesthetic,     Examples  –  Dirt,  grass,  clover,  old  carpet  covered  in  wood  chips,  crushed  rock,  sand     My  suggestion  for  main  paths  would  be  to  use  at  least  the  majority  of  year  1  to  observe   your  own  flow  through  the  site  and  let  the  most  efficient  paths  become  evident.  Leave  it  as  dirt,   grass,  clover,  whatever  is  there  and  experiment  with  the  ideal  locations  for  where  the  paths   run.      In  year  2  or  at  the  end  of  year  1,  develop  the  main  paths  and  make  them  more  permanent.       One  option  could  be  to  put  down  flagstone  slabs  and  plant  Dutch  white  clover  or   creeping  thyme  in  between.    These  paths  will  be  able  to  take  a  lot  of  traffic  and  abuse,  and   require  little  maintenance.    The  clover  will  fix  nitrogen  and  prevent  other  plants  from  creeping   in  but  will  be  somewhat  protected  from  foot  traffic  because  most  will  be  on  the  stones.      A   cheaper  and  simpler  option  would  be  to  use  woodchips,  which  will  eventually  break  down  and   add  organic  matter  to  the  soil.    If  you  use  woodchips,  you  can  also  inoculate  them  with  Wine   Cap  Stropharia  mushrooms.     The  primary  paths  should  be  wide  to  allow  for  wheelbarrow  or  garden  cart  access  (2  ½  ’  –  3’  )   For  secondary  paths,  make  them  as  wide  as  feels  comfortable  (probably  around  1’  –  2’)    

34 The  Lykling  Permaculture  Experiment            

                                                 Mike  Conover  

Rainwater Harvesting   Instead   of   relying   on   city   water   for   all   your   irrigation   needs,   harvesting   rainwater   would   be   a   great   way   to   reduce   your   water   consumption   and   make   good   use   of   the   rain   water   that   flows   off   of   your   roof,   through   your  gutters,  and  off  your  property.    The  best   location  for  a  rainwater  collection  tank  is  the   Northwest   corner   of   the   house,   along   side   the   house.     Some  details  of  the  calculations     After   calculating   the   rooftop   catchment   for   the   back   half   of   the   roof,   assuming   that   rain   water   from   the   back   roof   is   fairly   split   between   the   northwest   and   southwest   downspouts,   the   northwest   downspout   may   receive   between   580   to   830   gallons   of   water  a  month.    This  is  much  more  than  you   would   need   for   your   irrigation   purposes,   so   what   you   could   do   is   start   small,   and   see   how   much   water   you   end   up   using.       You   can   always  add  another  tank  adjacent  to  the  first   and  connect  them.       Between   April   and   October   the   average   amount   of   precipitation   is   3.6   inches   per   month,   which   means   about   .9   inches   per   week.     A   rough   estimate   for   determining   water   needs   of   a   garden   bed   is   1   inch   per   week   so   with   the   amount   of   rain   that   Waterville  receives,  it  does  not  seem  like  you   would   need   to   irrigate   very   much,   perhaps   supplementing   an   extra   30   gallons   per   week   over   all   the   beds.     During   especially   hot   weeks   or   a   drought   however,   where   you   would  need  to  provide  all  the  water  for  all  the   beds,   you   could   be   irrigating   up   to   275   gallons.      This  is  just  to  give  you  a  very  rough   estimate   on   what   your   water   needs   may   be   when   you   are   looking   into   buying   a   rain   barrel.      

Finding a  barrel   A   brief   look   into   the   costs   of   different   rain   barrels   shows   that   most   new   rain   barrels   sized   between   40   –   60   gallons   cost   between   $80   -­‐   $150.     A   much   cheaper   option   would   be   to   call   around   and   search   for   a   55   gallon   HOPE   barrel,   which   are   commonly   used   by   food   distributers   for   soda,   juice,   soap,   marinades,  pickles,  etc.  They  seem  to  be  fairly   common   in   the   food   industry   so   there   is   a   chance   that   a   large   food   distributer,   soda   manufacturer,   or   even   car   wash   may   have   some   for   free   or   very   cheap.     I   would   also   check  Craig  list.    Make  sure  that  it  is  not  clear,   as   a   clear   one   will   allow   algae   to   grow.     A   helpful  Instruct  able  for  finding  and  making  a   cheap   rainwater   barrel   for   under   $15   can   be   found  at:­‐to-­‐ make-­‐a-­‐rain-­‐barrel-­‐1/                            

Figure 22:  Two  55-­‐gallon  food  grade  barrels   for     rainwater,  raised  2  feet  off  the  ground  

                                   Fall  2014  -­‐Spring  2015  


For a   larger   size   container,   food   grade   275  gallon  IBC  totes  are  fairly  common  and   you   may   be   able   to   find   one   on   Craig   list   or   from   a   large   food   distributer   as   well.     They   will  likely  cost  between  $25  -­‐  $100.       Also   consider   that   if   you   want   the   water   pressure   to   be   created   by   gravity,   you   will   need   to   build   a   simple   platform   to   raise   the   container  up.    The  higher  it  is,  the  more  water   pressure.      

This would   not   be   a   huge   project,   but   it   will   definitely   require   a   bit   of   time   for   acquiring   the   materials   and   learning   exactly   how   to   set   it   up.     Depending   on   how   much   time  you  have  and  how  ambitious  you  are  in   taking   on   new   projects,   I   would   suggest   tackling   this   sometime   between   year   2   and   year  4  (2016  –  2018).    In  the  meantime,  keep   your  eyes  peeled  and  be  on  the  lookout  for  a   free  or  cheap  container  and  materials  (for  the   platform,  ex.  wooden  pallets).  

Figure 23:  A  300  gallon  IBC  tote  painted  black  to  prevent  algae  growth  

36 The  Lykling  Permaculture  Experiment            

                                                 Mike  Conover  

Solar Food  Dehydrator      A   solar   food   dehydrator   would   allow   you   to   very   easily   dry   and   preserve  fruits,  vegetables,  meat,  or   fish,   using   only   sunlight.     They   are   fairly   straightforward   in   terms   of   how   to   build   them   and   there   are   lots   of   different   plans   online   to   choose   from.     Below   is   a   link   to   a   particularly   thorough   set   of   plans   from   a   man   that   has   been   building   and   experimenting   with   them   for   many  years.    Its  more  complex  than   other   models   but   it   will   just   give   you  a  sense  of  what  one  could  look   like.          

Figure 24:  Solar  dehydrator­‐food-­‐dehydrator-­‐plans-­‐zm0z14jjzmar.aspx    

Sitting  Area  /  Micro  Yard   This  is  an  area  where  you  could  retain  some  of  your  lawn  if  you  ever  want  to  sit  out  on  a   blanket  or  set  up  some  chairs  or  a  table.    You  could  also  put  bricks  or  stones  down  to  create  a   small  patio.      The  plum  tree  would  provide  some  shade  during  the  summer  months  and  the   fence  would  provide  a  sense  of  privacy.  You  could  plant  some  climbing  vining  plants  such  as   hops  or  clematis  to  trellis  up  the  fence  and  complement  the  space.            

                                   Fall  2014  -­‐Spring  2015  


IMPLEMENTATION AND  PHASING   Obviously  you  will  implement  elements  of  the  design  at  your  own  pace  and  some  you   may  choose  not  to  implement  at  all.  Regardless,  this  section  can  provide  a  potential  time  frame   for  what  implementation  of  this  design  could  look  like  over  the  coming  years.    Depending  on   your  available  time  and  energy,  adjust  this  as  you  see  fit.    

YEAR 1:  2015     Because  you  still  have  not  had  much  time  to  live  on  this  piece  of  land  and   observe  it,  spend  this  year  paying  close  attention  to  the  site.    I  have  provided   a  basic  sense  of  the  different  processes  and  dynamics  of  the  site  but  it  will  be   beneficial  in  the  long  run  to  observe  the  land  through  the  seasons  before  you   implement  some  of  the  more  permanent  elements.    How  exactly  light  shines   on  different  areas  and  how  water  flows  through  the  site  will  obviously  change   through  the  year  so  be  extra  cognizant  of  this.    These  are  the  elements  I   would  focus  on  this  year:     Building  a  2  or  3  stage  compost  facility  next  to  the  kitchen  door.   Begin  creating  annual  and  perennial  beds:  sheet  mulch  for  annual/perennial  planting  zones   and  nursery.    Start  planting  some,  cover  crop  the  rest.  Adding  soil  amendments  according  to  the   soil  test  recommendations,  and  composted  manure  for  the  garden  beds  would  be  beneficial.   Begin  preparing  planting  spots  for  some  of  the  major  trees  and  perennial  bushes  –  plum,   almond,  hazelberts,  Nanking  cherries,  elderberries,  chokeberries.  This  could  be  as  simple  as   digging  some  holes  and  filling  them  with  woodchips,  compost,  and  any  soil  amendments.     Inoculate  any  wood  chips  with  Wine  Cap  Stropharia.    This  is  a  simple  and  quick  way  to  set  the   productive  landscape  in  motion.       Observe  the  most  traveled  paths  throughout  yard   Observe  rainwater  flow  through  the  front  yard,  in  order  to  get  a  clear  sense  of  where  exactly   the  swale  would  be  most  effective   Continue  collecting  biomass  for  mulch,  compost,  sheet  mulching  etc.     Begin  gathering  materials  for  water  catchment  (ex.  wood  for  support  structure,  275  gallon   IBC  tote/  rain  barrels),  and  trellises/espalier  (posts,  cables).    The  fact  that  these  aren’t   priorities  means  you  can  use  the  few  years  to  keep  your  eyes  peeled  for  free  or  cheap  materials.   Gather  logs  for  shitake  mushroom  inoculation  in  the  winter  to  inoculate  spring  of  year  2   (2016).      

38 The  Lykling  Permaculture  Experiment            

                                                 Mike  Conover  

YEAR 2:  2016   Inoculate  shitake  logs  in  the  early  spring     Plant  the  main  trees:  plum  tree,  almonds  and  begin  developing  guilds.    Planting  the  almond   trees  will  depend  on  where  you  decide  to  site  them.    If  you  decide  to  site  them  adjacent  to  the   cedar  hedge  I  would  plant  them  this  year.    If  you  decide  you  would  like  to  replace  the  cedar   hedge  with  the  almonds,  you  can  cut  and  remove  the  cedars  this  year  and  plant  the  almonds  or   hazelberts.  However,  if  you  plan  to  eventually  harvest  rot  resistant  posts  from  the  cedars,  you   can  let  them  grow  for  a  few  years  until  they  are  big  enough,  harvest  them  and  then  plant.     Build  raised  annual  beds   Continue  planting  and  developing  perennial  beds     Continue  planting  perennial  trees  and  bushes   Dig  swale  and  create  the  main  path  and  berm,  plant  with  cover  crop  or  perennials     Sheet  mulch  for  raspberry  patch  and  plant  it         Gather  materials  for  water  catchment  system  (wood,  275  gallon  IBC  totes,  rain  barrels)        

YEARS 3–5:  2017  -­‐  2019   Continue  planting  perennials  in  the  beds,  berm,  and  throughout  the  yard   Use  what  you  have  been  observing  in  the  perennial  gardens  to  guide  further  actions.  Observe   what  is  working  well  and  what  is  not  working  well  and  help  guide  the  evolution  of  the  space   based  on  that.     Create  espalier  trellising  and  plant  nitrogen  fixing  legumes  to  improve  soil  fertility   Create  more  permanent  paths     Build  rainwater  catchment  system     Sheet  mulch  for  herbal  ley  and  plant     Plant  out  lead  remediation   Build  solar  dehydrator  

                                   Fall  2014  -­‐Spring  2015  


MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES   Slow  and  steady  


The features   and   elements   described   above   create   a   glimpse   of   a   potential   landscape   for   your   yard   after   years   of   development.       Even   if   you   get   the   help   of   friends   or   hire   people   to   implement   the   design,   it   would   be   more   beneficial   to   develop   it   slowly,   rather   than   all   at   once.     That   way   you   can   adjust   things   as   you   develop   them   and   observe   how   they   integrate  into  the  landscape  as  a  whole.      

Mulching has   a   number   of   benefits   for   both   annuals   and   perennials:   it   prevents   weeds,   helps   keep   moisture   in   the   soil,   fosters   an   environment   for   soil   microbiology,   adds   organic   matter   into   the   soil  as  it  decomposes  and  protects  bare  soil   from  the  sun’s  rays.    

Observe and  interact   As  you  know,  ecological  systems  are  not   static:   they   are   dynamic   continue   to   grow   and  change  through  time.    Some  plants  will   do   poorly   or   die,   some   will   do   well,   and   some  will  thrive.      Thoughtful  observation  is   therefore   essential   to   understand   which   features   or   species   are   working   well   and   which  are  not.    While  we  can  make  educated   guesses   based   on   a   site   analysis,   it   is   impossible   to   know   ahead   of   time   exactly   what  the  land  will  favor  or  reject.    We  must   be   ready   to   change   and   adapt   our   plans   based   on   what   we   can   observe   and   learn   from  the  landscape.    

Protecting trees   In   the   fall   to   prevent   rodents   from   girdling  the  trees  in  the  winter,  wrap  plastic   cylinders   or   1/4-­‐inch   hardware   cloth   around   the   trunks.     To   adequately   protect   the   trees   cut   it   to   be   at   least   12   inches   tall   above  the  soil  and  bury  it  a  few  inches  into   the  ground.  

Spread mulch  once  or  twice  a  year  with   whatever   biomass   you   may   have,   favoring   more  woody  material  rather  than  leaves  or   grass   clippings,   although   most   anything   is   better   than   nothing.     Woodchips   are   one   of   the   best   mulches   for   perennial   plants   because  as  they  decompose  they  help  create   a   fungal   dominant   soil,   which   is   ideal   for   perennial   plants   (think   of   a   forest   –   mostly   perennials  and  a  soil  rich  with  decomposing   wood  and  fungus).       If   you   have   access   to   it,   an   ideal   mulch   is   hardwood   racial   wood   chips,   which   are   wood   chips   chipped   from   branches   2   ½     inches  in  diameter  or  less.    These  contain  an   especially   high   level   of   nutrients,   minerals,   and  an  optimal  carbon  to  nitrogen  ratio  for   perennials.     When   mulching   your   plants   and   trees,   mulch   to   about   the   drip   line   of   the   tree   (as   wide  as  its  canopy  spreads)  and  leave  a  gap   of   a   few   inches   between   the   mulch   and   the   tree   trunk,   i.e.   a   donut   shape.     If   you   apply   mulch   right   up   to   the   trunk,   it   will   rot   the   tree  trunk.      

40   The  Lykling  Permaculture  Experiment            

                                                 Mike  Conover  

APPENDIX Plant  Catalog   These  descriptions  were  created  using  information  compiled  from  the  books  Gaia’s  Garden  (T.   Hemenway)  and  Perennial  Vegetables  (E.  Toensmeier),  the  Fedco  Trees  catalog,  the  St  Lawrence   Nurseries  catalog,  the  Plants  for  a  Future  Plant  online  database  and  John  Kitsteiner’s  plant  index   on  his  website  Temperate  Climate  Permaculture  (    Thank  you  to   all  of  these  sources  for  sharing  this  knowledge!    Credits  for  all  of  the  photos  can  be  found  at  the   end  of  the  guide.       In  the  descriptions  below,  “self-­‐fruitful”  means  that  the  plant  does  not  need  other  plants  of  the   same  species  near  it  for  pollination  and  fruiting.    Most  plants  produce  more  when  there  are   others  of  the  same  species  nearby  but  while  certain  plants  of  some  species  require  multiple   plants  for  pollination,  others  can  produce  fruit  alone.       Also,  because  you  own  Toensmeier’s  book  Perennial  Vegetables,  some  of  the  plants  in  the  guide   refer  you  straight  to  the  page  in  his  book  as  he  has  provided  a  wealth  of  information  for  each   species,  far  more  than  the  scope  of  this  guide.     Almond  trees   Prunus  dulcis   10-­‐12’  x  same,  or  larger  depending  on  variety.    Make  sure  to  select  the  Ukrainian  varieties,  which   are  the  most  cold  hardy.    Almond  trees  produce  fragrant  whitish/pinkish  flowers  and  delicious   nuts.    They  prefer  well-­‐drained  soil  and  partial  to  full  sun.    They  are  self-­‐fertile  but  it  is   recommended  to  plant  at  least  two  for  best  nut  production     Alpine  Strawberry   F.  vesca   4-­‐8”  tall.    Low  growing  herbaceous  perennial.    Produces  sweet  edible  berries  from  early  spring   to  late  fall.    Does  best  in  full  sun  and  slightly  acidic,  well-­‐drained  soil.    Great  as  a  ground  cover  but   should  still  be  mulched.  Leaves  are  considered  to  be  blood  purifying  and  diuretic.    Zone  3-­‐  10.       Arnica   Arnica  chamissonis   Groundcover.    Daisy  like  flowers  bloom  in  July  and  can  be  used  in  salves  and  oils  for  bruises,   sprains,  and  inflammation.  Do  not  use  internally.    Full  sun,  space  1’  apart.  Hardy  to  zone  3.           Blue  False  Indigo   Baptisia  australis   3-­‐4’  x  same.  Small  deciduous  shrub.    Sends  out  vibrant  bluish/purple  flowers.    Develops  an   extensive  root  system  so  is  especially  good  for  holding  soil  and  preventing  erosion.    Full  sun.     Hardy  to  zone  3.      

                                   Fall  2014  -­‐Spring  2015  


Butterfly Bush   Buddleia  davidii   3x5’  x  same.  A  beautiful  and  colorful  herbaceous  perennial  shrub  that  will  attract  bees,   butterflies,  and  hummingbirds.    Blooms  in  late  summer  and  flowers  into  the  fall.    Tolerates  part   shade  but  prefers  full  sun.         Chokeberry     Aronia  melanocarpa   Size  varies  by  cultivar,  between  3-­‐10’  x  same.    Chokeberry  is  a  relatively  low  maintenance  shrub   with  edible  and  medicinal  berries.    It  is  native  to  eastern  US,  tolerates  many  different  conditions,   and  is  not  prone  to  any  diseases  or  insects.    It  begins  fruiting  in  its  third  year,  and  its  berries  can   be  harvested  in  late  July  and  early  August.    They  must  be  cooked  and  are  high  in  antioxidants   and  other  health  benefits.    Black  chokeberry  (compared  to  red)  is  better  in  terms  of  its  edible   berries.      Chokeberry  also  provides  habitat  for  birds  and  attracts  beneficial  insects.    For  the   perennial  berm,  choose  a  compact  variety  that  wont  grow  past  3  or  4  feet  such  as  ‘Iroquoius   Beautiy’  or  ‘Hugin.’  Plant  5  or  6    feet  apart.  Self  fruitful.    Tolerates  many  conditions:  wet,  dry,  sun,   partial  shade.   Creeping  thyme   Thymus  serpyllum   Low  aromatic  ground  cover.    Many  varieties  are  resilient  enough  to  withstand  occasional  foot   traffic  and  will  release  a  lovely  scent  when  you  trod  on  it.    A  great  plant  for  in  between  the   stones  of  the  paths.      Depending  on  the  variety  can  be  hardy  to  zone  2.         Daylily   Hemerocallis   Perennial  bush  that  produces  beautiful  bright,  edible  flowers  and  flower  buds.    The  leaves  and   roots  are  also  edible  but  less  appetizing.    Attracts  hummingbirds  and  does  well  in  a  variety  of   conditions-­‐  wet,  dry,  sunny,  or  shaded.  Low  maintenance  and  does  well  in  poor  soils.     Dutch  white  clover   Trifolium  repens   Nitrogen  fixing  leguminous  ground  cover.    Great  for  improving  and  building  soil  and  tolerates  a   range  of  conditions   Elderberry   Sambucus  sp.     6-­‐12’  x  same.    Large  herbaceous  shrub  with  edible  and  medicinal  berries.  Valued  throughout   history  for  its  medicinal  value;  both  its  berries  and  flowers  have  medicinal  properties.    Relatively   low  maintenance,  although  may  need  pruning  depending  on  cultivar.  Add  compost  to  the  hole   when  planting  it  and  give  it  compost  every  spring.      Very  disease  resistant  and  has  very  few   insect  issues.  Tolerates  many  conditions  depending  on  the  cultivar.    Self-­‐fertile  but  more   productive  when  planted  in  a  group  and  can  cross  pollinate  with  different  species.    Provides  bird   habitat  and  attracts  insects.  Full  sun/part  shade.        

42 The  Lykling  Permaculture  Experiment            

                                                 Mike  Conover  

European Plum   Prunus  domestica   8-­‐12’  x  same.    Most  plums  require  at  least  two  trees  for  cross-­‐pollination,  however  the  “Mount   Royal”  variety  and  a  few  others  are  self  fertile,  which  is  essential  because  there  is  only  space  for   one  tree.    “Mount  Royal”  is  naturally  semi  dwarfed  and  very  winter  hardy,  to  -­‐50˚F.    It  produces   beautiful  deep  blue  fruit  that  are  sweet  and  tender,  good  fresh  off  the  tree,  in  desserts,  jams,  or   preserves.    Fruits  in  early  September.    For  a  fruit  tree,  plums  are  relatively  low  maintenance  as   they  require  little  pruning  and  are  not  susceptible  to  many  diseases  or  pests,  however  there  are   two  main  issues  to  watch  out  for.  One  is  plum  curculio,  a  weevil  that  damages  trees  and  can   combated  with  Surround,  an  organic  clay  based  spray.  The  Fedco  Trees  catalog  (pg  27)  mentions   that  planting  garlic  around  the  tree  may  do  a  good  job  at  repelling  the  weevil  and  they  are   experimenting  with  this.    The  other  issue  is  black  knot,  which  looks  like  black  chewing  gum  and  is   not  necessarily  fatal,  but  must  be  dealt  with  by  removing  and  destroying  infected  branches.         Fruit  trees  like  well-­‐drained  soil  so  would  benefit  from  the  addition  of  organic  matter  to  the  soil   where  it  will  be  planted.    St.  Lawrence  Nursery  is  a  good  source  for  the  Mount  Royal  variety  as   they  are  grown  in  zone  3-­‐4  and  are  especially  hardy.       French  Sorrel   Rumex  acetosa   Low  maintenance  herbaceous  perennial  with  slightly  sour,  edible  leaves.    Good  in  salads  or   cooked  like  spinach.   Good  King  Henry   Chenopodium  bonus-­‐henricus   1-­‐3  feet.  Small  herbaceous  bush.    Low  maintenance,  perennial  leafy  green  related  to  spinach,   chard,  quinoa,  and  lambs  quarters.    Its  leaves,  shoots,  and  flower  buds  are  edible  and  are  similar   to  spinach  when  cooked.  One  source  suggests  planting  30  plants  for  4  people.    Does  well  in  full   sun  to  partial  shade  and  tolerates  a  wide  range  of  soil  conditions.      Space  them  18  –  24  inches   apart.    No  disease  or  pest  problems.    Zone  3-­‐9     Groundnut   Apios  Americana   Amazing  plant:  nitrogen  fixing,  vining,  protein-­‐  rich  perennial  tuber.    These  may  do  well  trellised   up  the  L  shaped  fence.    See  Perennial  Vegetables,  pg  146.       Hazelnut     Corylus  sp   6-­‐15’  x  same,  depending  on  variety.    Deciduous  shrub.  Full  sun  will  help  it  to  produce  the  highest   quantity  nuts  but  it  does  tolerate  some  shade.    Not  susceptible  to  many  diseases  or  pests.   Requires  little  maintenance  other  than  standard  perennial  care  and  occasionally  pruning  the   suckers  to  prevent  it  from  turning  into  a  thicket.    There  are  a  few  different  varieties  of  hazelnut   and  hybrid  hazelnuts  so  make  sure  you  select  one  that  is  at  most  12  feet  tall  and  wide  for  this   space;  bigger  shrubs  will  not  fit  unless  you  keep  them  cut  back.    Does  well  in  most  soil  types  and   prefers  moist  soil.  Nuts  ripen  in  September  and  October  and  can  be  eaten  raw,  cooked,  or  

                                   Fall  2014  -­‐Spring  2015  


ground into  a  flour.    Make  sure  to  harvest  them  before  all  the  squirrels  do!  Will  usually  start   producing  3-­‐5  years  after  planting  and  can  produce  for  30  –  50  years.    Needs  at  least  two   produce  nuts  but  apparently  you  can  plant  two  in  the  same  hole  and  they’ll  grow  together  into   one  bush  but  you  will  still  have  cross-­‐pollination.    Hardy  to  zone  3.     Juneberry   Amelanchier  alnifolia   4’-­‐25’  depending  on  variety.    Juneberry  is  a  deciduous  shrub  hardy  to  zone  4  that  produces  juicy   edible  berries  with  a  sweet  flavor.    Berries  ripen  around  mid-­‐July.    Tolerates  many  different   conditions  but  prefers  well  drained  fertile  soil  and  full  sun.    Leaves  are  susceptible  to  leaf  spot   rust  but  this  doesn’t  affect  the  fruit.  Birds  also  love  the  berries,  which  can  be  very  positive  if  you   like  bird  watching,  or  negative  if  you  like  lots  of  berries.  Some  varieties  can  get  very  large  (25’)  so   for  the  berry  hedge  choose  a  variety  that  will  be  between  6  to  10  feet  tall.    ‘Regen’,  ‘Lee  #8’  or   ‘Prince  William’  would  be  good  choices.    Space  them  6  to  8  feet  apart.    Self-­‐fruitful  but  produces   better  with  more  than  one  planted.     Nanking  Cherry   P.  tomentosa   6-­‐10’  x  same.    Edible  and  ornamental  shrub  that  produces  ½  inch  edible  scarlet  berries  in  early   summer.    Good  fresh,  for  jams,  jellies,  fruit  leather,  or  pies  (although  has  a  pit).    Prefers  full  sun   and  well  drained  soil.  Relatively  low  maintenance  but  may  need  pruning  to  keep  it  down.     Attracts  birds  and  beneficial  insects,  and  provides  wildlife  habitat.  Needs  2  or  more  for   pollination.    Hardy  to  zone  2       Ramps         Allium  tricoccum   6-­‐12  inches  high.  Ramps  are  an  herbaceous  perennial  allium  (onion  family)  native  to  eastern   North  America.    Both  its  bulb  and  leaves  are  edible  and  apparently  have  a  taste  in  between   onions  and  garlic.    It  grows  well  in  shaded  areas  and  prefers  rich,  somewhat  moist  soil.  As  part  of   a  guild  they  can  help  prevent  grasses  from  invading.    Very  resistant  to  most  pests  and  diseases.   Zone  4-­‐8.     Sea  kale   Crambe  maritima   Low  maintenance  perennial  kale!    See  Perennial  Vegetables  pg  109  -­‐110.         Solomon’s  seal   Polygonatum  biflorum   Perennial  shrub  with  many  medicinal  properties.    According  to  the  Fedco  Trees  catalog,  “Native   Americans  used  the  root  tea  for  ailments  of  stomach  and  lung  and  for  general  debility,  and  used   washed  from  the  root  for  eternal  injuries.    Western  herbalists  use  the  root  as  a  connective  tissue   anti-­‐inflammatory  and  to  strengthen  weak  joints  and  ligaments”  (pg  65).    Does  best  in  shaded  or   woodland  areas.        

44 The  Lykling  Permaculture  Experiment            

                                                 Mike  Conover  

Skirret Sium  sisarum   See  Perennial  Vegetables  pg  88  -­‐  89     Turkish  rocket   Bunias  orientalis   See  Perennial  Vegetables  pg  109     Valerian   Valeriana  officinalis   2-­‐4’  tall.    Medicinal  shrub  with  white  and  pink  flowers.  Used  for  its  antispasmodic,  nervine,  and   sedative  properties:  good  for  anxiety,  nervousness,  and  sleeplessness.  Plant  12-­‐15”  apart  in  well   drained  soil.  Full  sun.           Walking  onion   Allium  cepa  proliferum   Perennial  onion  that  propagates  itself  when  it  becomes  too  top  heavy  and  falls  over,  planting  a   new  bulb.    See  Perennial  Vegetables  pg  83.     Yarrow   Achillea  millefolium   Low  growing  herbaceous  perennial  with  great  medicinal  properties.    Its  leaves  and  flowers  are   used  as  an  anti-­‐inflammatory  and  as  an  effective  styptic  (stopping  bleeding).        As  most  bitter   herbs,  a  tea  of  its  flowers  or  leaves  aids  in  digestion.    Its  name  refers  to  its  supposed  use  by   Achilles’  army  for  healing  their  battle  wounds.  In  the  garden,  yarrow  acts  as  a  groundcover  and   living  mulch.        


                                   Fall  2014  -­‐Spring  2015  


Building a  low  tunnel  for  vegetable  production   There  are  a  few  ways  to  go  about  creating  a  low  tunnel  depending  on  whether  you  want  it  to  be   permanent  and  durable  or  have  the  ability  to  take  it  down  during  the  summer.    You  could  just   build  a  low  tunnel  or  small  scale  greenhouse  and  use  it  for  the  warm  loving  fruits  or  veggies  in   the  summer  like  tomatoes,  peppers,  eggplant,  or  melons  and  then  keep  it  through  the  winter  for   your  winter  greens  and  vegetables.       Here  are  a  few  examples  of  possible  low  tunnel  designs:           This  is  a  more  permanent  style.    You  can  find  a   basic  description  of  how  this  was  built  at:      http://www.everyday-­‐vegetable-­‐­‐greenhouse.html         This  is  a  much  simpler  style  that  would  allow   you  to  take  it  down  during  the  summers.     This  one  uses  bent  PVC  tubing  however  I   would  suggest  using  galvanized  steel   conduit  is  stronger  however  and  is  probably   a  better  option  for  winter  growing.           The  owner  of  this  tunnel  suggested  installing  a   ridge  pole  that  runs  the  length  of  the  top  of  the   tunnel  to  provide  extra  support  under  snow.     Designing  the  tunnel  to  be  more  of  a  triangle  shape   rather  than  a  semi-­‐circle  will  help  prevent  snow   from  settling  on  top  of  it.      

46 The  Lykling  Permaculture  Experiment            

                                                 Mike  Conover  

Here is  a  link  to  a  very  quick  and  helpful  video  clip  to  give  you  a  better  sense  of  what  a  simple   and  less  permanent  one  could  look  like  and  the  basics  of  setting  one  up.      This  is  a  helpful  diagram  created  by  Eliot  Coleman  and  Carl  Skalak  Jr.  that  is  very  similar  to   what  is  shown  in  the  video.­cover-­veggie-­gardenjpg-­ 206799eb6a6bcaca.jpg  

                                   Fall  2014  -­‐Spring  2015  


RESOURCES Falk,  Ben;  Krawczyk,  Mark;  Dembrosky,  Sean;  Angelini,  Mark;  Koch,  Erika;  Shellenberg,  Erik.  Whole   System  Design  Permaculture  Design  Certification  Course.  Rochester,  VT.,  2014.         Fedco  Trees  2015  Catalog.  Waterville,  ME.   Google  Earth  for  satellite  imagery   "Hardy  Fruit  Trees  Nursery."  Our  Fruit  Trees.  Accessed  December  18,  2014.   Hemenway,  Toby.  Gaia's  Garden:  A  Guide  to  Home-­scale  Permaculture.  2nd  ed.  White  River  Junction,  Vt.:   Chelsea  Green  Pub.,  2009.   Judd,  Michael.  Edible  Landscaping  with  a  Permaculture  Twist.  Hong  Kong:  Chelsea  Green  Pub.,  2013.   Kitsteiner,  John.  "Permaculture  Plants:  Hazelnuts  (aka  Filberts)."  Temperate  Climate  Permaculture.   January  16,  2013.  Accessed  December  12,  2014.­‐plants-­‐hazelnuts-­‐aka.html.   Kourik,  Robert,  and  Mark  Kane.  Designing  and  Maintaining  Your  Edible  Landscape  Naturally.  Santa  Rosa,   CA:  Metamorphic  Press  ;,  1986.   NOAA,  National  Climatic  Data  Center.  Climatography  of  the  United  States  No.  20  1971-­‐2000.  Feb  2004   Plants  For  A  Future:  7000  Edible,  Medicinal  &  Useful  Plants.  Accessed  December  10,  2014.   "SoilWeb."  :  An  Online  Soil  Survey  Browser.  Accessed  October  20,  2014.   St.  Lawrence  Nurseries:  Northern  Climate  Fruit  and  Nut  Trees  2013  Catalog.  Potsdam,  NY.   "SunCalc  Sun  Position  and  Sunlight  Phases  Calculator."  SunCalc.  Accessed  November  25,  2014.   Sun  Seeker  iPhone  application     Rodale's  Garden  Answers:  Vegetables,  Fruits  and  Herbs.  Pennsylvania:  Rodal  Press,  1995.   Toensmeier,  Eric.  Perennial  Vegetables.  White  River  Junction,  Vt.:  Chelsea  Green  Pub.,  2007  

48 The  Lykling  Permaculture  Experiment            

                                                 Mike  Conover  

Photo credits   Cover  page­‐content/uploads/2013/06/hazelnuts-­‐and-­‐their-­‐foliage.jpg­‐05-­‐ 19_Stropharia_rugosoannulata_Farl._ex_Murrill_183478.jpg   Figure  1:  Self  created  with  Google  Earth   Figure  2:­‐content/uploads/Sun-­‐path-­‐solar-­‐PV-­‐tracker.JPG   Figure  3:  Self  created     Figure  4:  Self  created   Figure  5:  Courtesy  of  SoilWeb   Figure  6:­‐content/uploads/2014/02/Turkish_Rocket_15.jpg   Figure  7:­‐photo.jpg   Figure  8:­‐content/uploads/2013/04/Flowering-­‐Thundercloud-­‐Plum-­‐Tree.jpg   Figure  9:­‐e1385024111702.jpg?w=470&h=570   Figure  10:­‐content/uploads/2014/01/How-­‐To-­‐Easily-­‐Peel-­‐Blanch-­‐Hazelnuts-­‐6.jpg   Figure  11:­‐content/uploads/2013/01/almond-­‐tree-­‐blossoms-­‐ centralvalleyfarmscout1.jpg   Figure  12:   Figure  13:   Figure  14:­‐srv/photo/gallery/090609/GAL-­‐09Jun09-­‐2154/media/PHO-­‐ 09Jun09-­‐165104.jpg   Figure  15:­‐content/uploads/2014/01/Shiitake++mushrooms+logs.jpg   Figure  16:­‐content/uploads/2009/05/1-­‐stropharia-­‐rugoso-­‐annulata-­‐92760042-­‐2.jpg   Figure  17: _americana_mess_of_12.jpg   Figure  18:   Figure  19:­‐capacity-­‐wooden-­‐compost-­‐system-­‐swallows-­‐cute-­‐ plastic-­‐co.html   Figure  20:­‐content/uploads/2012/05/Wood-­‐Chip-­‐Fall.jpg   Figure  21:   Figure  22:   Figure  23:­‐06-­‐18_14-­‐08-­‐50_201.jpg.html   Figure  24: _10_completed_solar_dehydrator.jpg  

                                   Fall  2014  -­‐Spring  2015  


The Lykling Micro-Homestead Experiment  

Performed a site analysis of a suburban property that involved assessing the site's climate, geographic context, water flow, solar exposure,...

The Lykling Micro-Homestead Experiment  

Performed a site analysis of a suburban property that involved assessing the site's climate, geographic context, water flow, solar exposure,...