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CONTENTS O F

Improving

INDOOR AIR QUALITY The Easy and Inexpensive Way

56COVER STORY Best known as a football star, Michael “Pinball” Clemons is a husband, father, philanthropist and inspirational speaker who uses his talents off the field to give back to his community. Denise Deveau

92HVAC/R Making use of source control as part of the IAQ arsenal. Carol Fey

PRESERVING our resources

78PLUMBING Greywater recycling systems are water savers for residential and commercial projects. Chris Thompson

96HYDRONICS Putting geothermal to the test in Haliburton, Ont. Dan Vastyan

84REFRIGERATION

goes green with glycol

An environmentally friendly, glycol-based secondary refrigeration system is at the heart of Longo’s new distribution centre and head office. Henry Pellerin

On the cover: A four-time Grey Cup champion, philanthropist, author, entrepreneur and all-around good guy, Michael “Pinball” Clemons is an icon of sporting excellence, community leadership, character and integrity – and he has a ton of respect for the trades. Photo: The Michael “Pinball” Clemons Foundation.


TA B L E M O R E F E AT U R E S 24PLUMBING Moving forward with backflow technology Wayne Wilson

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CONTENTS O F

S P E C I A L I S T S 22

HIGH PERFORMANCE HVAC Avoiding dry, itchy air Gord Cooke Indoor air quality issues can be compounded by poor HVAC sizing and design.

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HYDRONICS The overs and unders of flow rates Bob “Hot Rod” Rohr Why exceeding the four-foot-per-second barrier could prove problematic to a hydronic system, and what happens when flow rates are too low.

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ASK ROGER Don’t run away from technology Roger Grochmal Technology is constantly changing and it’s difficult to keep up – but it’s not impossible.

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REFRIGERATION Retrofitting refrigeration equipment Part 2 Phil Boudreau A look at compressors and heat exchangers.

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MARKETING Selling protection plans Doug MacMillan How to put a dollar value on peace-of-mind when everything is working fine.

32REFRIGERATION Making the most of solenoid valves Ebbe Hassl

38PLUMBING Sizing sanitary drains Sam Steele

42HVAC/R The combustion analyzer: A technician’s best friend Carol Fey

46HVAC Exhausting fuel-burning equipment David A. George

58STYLE & DESIGN Success is in the details Adam Freill

62HYDRONICS

108 WORLD VIEW Thinking outside the bowl Jeff Patchell The search for an economically and environmentally safe way to deal with human waste.

Troubleshooting from the front lines Eric Riml

68FIND THE FIX 70HVAC/R The hidden costs of efficient motors Domenic Capobianco

76ROAD WARRIOR Parklane Plumbing’s Mike Covelli

86HVAC Putting off filter changes can be costly Tony Fedel

D E PA R T M E N T S 06From the editor’s desk 10News 20Profile: Brad Diggens 91Tool Tip 106The Info Page 107Calendar 110By the numbers

100THE BOTTOM LINE

P R O D U C T S 48,67,99 Hydronics 74,102 HVAC/R 83,104Plumbing 101Stuff you need

CHECK US OUT ONLINE

Don’t let your company suffer from BD David Cooke M e c h a n i c a l

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FROM Content Media Group Inc. 19 – 1525 Cornwall Road Oakville, ON L6J 0B2 CANADA Tel: 905.465.2919 Fax: 905.465.2913 www.mechanicalbusiness.com Nov/Dec 2011 Issue Published 6 times per year. Editor: Adam Freill, ext. 224 adam.freill@mechanicalbusiness.com Assistant Editor/Web Editor: Natalie Ann Comeau, ext. 225 natalie.comeau@mechanicalbusiness.com National Accounts Manager: Laura Goodwin, ext. 221 laura.goodwin@mechanicalbusiness.com Controller: Liz Mills liz.mills@mechanicalbusiness.com Art Direction: JJM Graphic Ltd. davem@jjmgraphic.com Circulation Manager: Shila Naik (905) 272-4175 shila.naik@mechanicalbusiness.com Publisher: Bruce Meacock, ext. 222 bruce.meacock@mechanicalbusiness.com PM:41536047 ISSN 1916-0674 MB (Print) ISSN 1906-0682 MB (Online)

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Submissions: Copyright in material submitted to the magazine and accepted for publication remains with the author, but Mechanical Business and its licensees may freely reproduce it in print, electronic or other forms. Mechanical Business also reserves the right to edit said submitted materials to suit the editorial needs and mandate of the publication.

THE

EDITOR’S

Best wishes for the coming year As the end of another year approaches, I cannot help but look back and marvel at all the activity that’s happened in a period of just 12 months. As a company, this has been the most successful one thus far. But our success has been a reflection of the market that we serve. In the midst of the economic uncertainty that is prevalent in most parts of the world, there is comfort to be found in the Canadian marketplace. This was quite evident during the recent Greenbuild show in Toronto. While most of the American speakers spoke of depressed housing and construction markets, David Kohler expressed his admiration for how our economy has managed to navigate these difficult economic waters, and gave us a nice pat on the back.

Merry Christmas, and best wishes for the New Year from the entire team at Mechanical Business!

Recent CMHC figures suggest that our rate of housing starts will continue to remain in a very good position, not far off the 200,000 unit plateau that’s oft cited as a benchmark for a strong market. And while that sector is expected to slow down slightly, the fundamentals remain strong enough to suggest a very respectable pace north of 180,000 units next year again, so the pat on the back has been well earned. Could things be better? Of course they could. We are not an industry without its challenges – like a lack of harmonized efficiency requirements from coast-to-coast – but we have solid fundamentals, and are very resilient. That said, more business is never a bad thing. Speaking of doing things to find and secure business, the Beautiful Heat campaign is in full swing with marketing efforts being aimed at consumers. Hydronic contractors might want to visit beautifulheat.com to get registered to learn more about the program, and to receive leads on hydronic projects in their area. With this being our last edition of the year, I’d like to take this opportunity to thank you for your continued support. Without you, our readers and supporters, we could not continue to provide the articles and industry news that you’ve come to expect from our magazine. So thank you, and our very best wishes for the Christmas season to you and yours. I look forward to seeing you in the New Year.

Notice: Mechanical Business is published for owners, managers and decision makers with mechanical contracting firms and the sector's supply chain partners in Canada. While every effort is made to ensure the accuracy of the information, Mechanical Business, Content Media Group Inc., its staff, directors, officers and shareholders (‘The Publisher’) assume no liability, obligation or responsibility for advertised claims, for errors and/or omissions, or for the results obtained from the use of this information. Manufacturers’ instructions take precedence over published editorial. The publisher reserves the right to publish a printed correction in a subsequent issue for editorial errors, omissions and oversights. Subscriptions are available for $90 plus taxes in Canada and the U.S. Single copies are $15.00. Outside Canada and the U.S., the rates are $150.00 (annual) and $25.00 (single copy).

Until next time,

From time to time, Content Media Group Inc. makes subscribers’ names available to reputable companies whose products or services may be of interest to readers. If you would like your name excluded from these mailings, please notify the publisher. © Copyright 2011. The contents of this magazine may not be reproduced in any manner without prior written permission of the publisher.

Adam Freill, Editor

Proud members of:

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Getting G etting gB Better etter all tthe time he time

Taco electronic controls have raised the bar yet again. Behind the sleek new composite cover you’ll find a whole new generation of advanced technology - now made even simpler.

Taco’s new contractor-friendly electronic controls feature reliable premium factor y sealed relays, low voltage circuits, plus a host of other smart refinements to simply make them better.

We’ve designed the interior to speak your language with industr y standard nomenclature clearly marked out. Plus we’ve placed the LED lights right out front for quicker, easier diagnostics.

Visit www.floproteam.com to discover all the unique products and contractor advantages we offer.

T . TACO CANADA LTD 8450 Lawson Road, Milton, ON L9T 0J 8 Tel. 905-564-9422 Fax. 905-564-9436 www.floproteam.com

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@EEFM8K@FE8J JFC@;8JJK<<C Down-fired Fire Tube The Trinity Fire Tube (TFT) heat exchanger is ASME certified and uses an innovative down-fired concept. The tubes have a dimpled design to optimize heat transfer, which increases energy efficiency. The Fire Tubes provide generous space for flue gas to pass, and significantly reduce the need for cleaning due to the vertical configuration and self-cleaning operation when in condensation mode.

Stainless steel design The wet leg combustion chamber enables up to 99% combustion efficiency. The ASME certified heat exchanger is constructed using 439 Stainless Steel, making it extremely resistant to corrosion. The Fire Tube design allows water to flow freely around the heating surfaces of the boiler, which significantly reduces pressure drop.

Efficiencies & performance The TFT provides AFUE efficiencies up to 96%. NTI was the first to develop the totally-sealed combustion system, whereby air is not drawn from the cabinet.

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12.11

News www.mechanicalbusiness.com

Pure Water available everywhere Previously offered only in limited markets, Watts Water Technologies (Canada) has announced the general availability of the complete line of Pure Water filtration systems. The purification and treatment solutions, which are specifically selected and branded for the wholesale plumbing market, offer products for both residential and light commercial applications.

Roadshow winds down in St. John’s Following record attendance in Edmonton and Regina, the CIPHEX Roadshow wound up its 2011 tour in St. John’s, Nfld., on November 3. The stop featured a seminar about the city’s recent cross connection and premise isolation bylaw, as well as exhibits from industry suppliers. The next set of CIPHEX Roadshows is planned for 2013. ciphexroadshow.com

wattscanada.ca/purewater

Check the flue Register with Beautiful Heat Hydronic heating contractors are now able to register as Beautiful Heat Professionals by visiting the organization’s website, which will allow potential customers to search a database of approved contractors and suppliers. A 20-minute online training session is part of the registration process, and membership in at least one of the following organizations is a requirement: Canadian Hydronics Council, Canadian Oil Heat Association, Thermal Environmental Comfort Association, Corporation des maîtres mécaniciens en tuyauterie du Québec, Heating Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Institute of Canada. The Beautiful Heat campaign was created to promote awareness of radiant heating as a heating option for homeowners. beautifulheat.com

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In Ontario, the TSSA has re-issued Director's Public Safety Order FS072-06-R7 that requires all G1, G2, G3, and GUT certification holders performing service, maintenance and/or emergency response work to perform a CO check in a boiler's flue (between the heat exchanger and the draft control device) and to take action when the level is above 100 PPM. The Order came into effect October 15, 2011 and will expire on May 1, 2012. tssa.org

Changes at Noble Brahm Swirsky, vice-president of procurement at Noble, has announced he will be leaving the company at the end of 2012 to spend more time with his family. Swirsky started Trade Plumbing Supply with his family in 1992. That company merged with Noble Plumbing Supplies in 1998, forming what is now Noble, a national wholesale distribution company with more than 50 locations in Canada. “I love the people that I work with and the company I helped build over the last 19 years,” stated Swirsky during a recent interview. “Noble will always be a part of me and my family. My greatest desire is to make sure we have smooth continuity and no hiccups in integrating someone into my responsibilities before I leave.” noble.ca

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Funding challenges remain for RMC

AHR Expo set to break records More than 1,700 exhibitors have booked in for the 2012 AHR Expo, set to take place in Chicago from January 23 to 25, 2012. With 414,500 square feet of exhibitor space already reserved, the show will be the largest in the event’s history. The exposition will cover all segments of the HVACR industry, including solar and sustainable technologies. ahrexpo.com

Sources of funding and the import of recycled refrigerants were two of the key topics discussed during the RMC chair Rob Flipse Refrigerant Management Canada (RMC) annual general meeting, held in Mississauga in November. A plan to put a levy on HFC refrigerants has consultations scheduled for later this year, but in the meantime the organization has made adjustments to the existing levy structure as an interim measure. RMC is also pursuing options in the carbon credit market as the destruction of ODS refrigerants is recognized as a means of generating carbon credits in some segments of that market. refrigerantmanagement.ca

Recognizing quality control The 2010 Rheem Zero Defect Award was presented to Taco at the 2011 Rheem Supplier Summit in Dallas, Texas. This is the second year in a row that Taco has won the award, which recognizes suppliers who produce no incoming or inprocess material rejections in products and services supplied to Rheem. taco-hvac.com

A world-class showing After four days of international competition, Canada’s top skilled trade and technology students took home four medals and 17 medallions of excellence at WorldSkills London 2011. Alberta’s Sean Donnan (pictured) earned a medallion of excellence for scoring more than 500 points in the refrigeration and air conditioning competition. The next WorldSkills competition is scheduled to take place in Leipzig, Germany, in 2013. skillscanada.com

Pro Kontrol marks anniversary Pro Kontrol’s Halifax branch celebrated its first anniversary in September with a cocktail party at the Saraguay House Yacht Club. Representatives from ACI, Belimo, Honeywell, Siemens, Honeywell Analytics (Vulcain), Prolon, Carlo Gavazzi, Johnson Controls, Viconics, Alltemp and Schneider Electric were in attendance to help celebrate and share news about their product lines. The branch is located at 100 Wright Avenue, Unit 10, in Dartmouth, N.S. Tel. 877-443-7097. prokontrol.com

Looking to hire? Check out MB’s online career section, home of the latest industry job postings. mechanicalbusiness.com

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Look to energy The Canadian dollar will remain high and global energy, specifically HVAC companies that focus on energy savings, will be a good long-term investment. Those CIPH Ontario president Dan Milroy and speaker Ted Karon. were some of the predictions made by investment counsellor Ted Karon at the most recent CIPH Ontario business meeting, held at the Mississauga Convention Centre on November 10. In addition to Karon’s global economic outlook, region president Dan Milroy updated the 100 attendees about CIPH’s three primary initiatives: government and industry relations; industry awareness; and education. John Bachmann also spoke about the Industrial Distribution Leadership Certificate, a series of six courses offered by Mohawk College for those whose responsibilities include key customer accounts and client relations. ciph.com

Eden opens TSX

Napoleon factories growing Napoleon Heating and Cooling unveiled its new lines of furnaces at a gala event in Barrie, Ont., in October. The launch of the new products, the only high-efficiency gas furnaces designed and currently being built in Canada, coincided with the announcement that Wolf Steel Ltd., Napoleon’s parent company, is expanding its Barrie production facility to accommodate growth and demand for its home heating and cooling equipment, as well as its backyard grilling products. The facilities will be expanded by 300,000 square feet, which will generate 200 direct and indirect new jobs over the next five years. As part of the event, the company donated $100,000 of furnace products to Habitat for Humanity Canada. napoleonheatingandcooling.com

Eden Energy Equipment Limited Toby Heaps, CEO of Corporate was invited to ring the opening bell Knights, and Grant Blackmore, at the Toronto Stock Exchange on president of Eden Energy Equipment. November 16th. The Guelph-based company is a distributor of This year's Greenbuild conference featured four days of WaterFurnace Geothermal equipment, whose manufacturer networking, educational sessions, green building tours, master has made the Corporate Knights’ Cleantech 10 list for green speakers and plenary events. Held in Toronto in October, technology in each of the past five years. Kimberly Lewis, vice-president of conferences and events with edenenergy.com USGBC, said, "We celebrated 10 years of the conference by taking a look at 'What's Next' for green building and the future of our cities and nations." The next Greenbuild is scheduled to take place November 13 to 16, 2012 in San Francisco, Calif.

Green the theme in Toronto

greenbuildexpo.org

CMX-CIPHEX adds to educational lineup The CMX-CIPHEX show, which will take place in Toronto from March 22 to 24, has added a series of morning forums featuring top-name speakers and leading-edge topics. The 3-1/2 hour programs will run Thursday and Friday morning. Topics include Renewable Energy and the HVACR Sector, the Symposium on Smart Controls, and A Practical Approach to Solar Thermal Combisystems. cmxciphexshow.com

Honouring Canadian distributors International Comfort Products recently recognized three leading Canadian distributors. Bardon Supplies was named Arcoaire Distributor of the Year; Source Atlantic was named Tempstar Distributor of the Year; and National Energy Equipment is the KeepRite Distributor of the Year. icpusa.com

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News www.mechanicalbusiness.com

Sound advice from TSSA in GTA

CMCEF launches webinar series

TSSA regional supervisor Sat Virdi (in photo) and his inspectors were on hand to answer questions and provide advice to contractors during the HRAI Greater Toronto Area Chapter’s October business meeting in Concord, Ont. Virdi came armed with photos of combustible appliance and venting installations gone wrong, sometimes with dangerous consequences such as carbon monoxide leaks and poisonings. “Problems won’t go away unless you do something about them,” he said. He advised the contractors in attendance to work with TSSA inspectors, and to take good notes, especially if they have a problem with a project or are called into a project that has been tagged or holds potential to be red tagged.

CMCEF is offering a webinar series to all MCAC members across Canada. Gregg Schoppman (right) recently led the first of the three seminars entitled New Day, New Strategy – Strategic Planning for Contractors. Upcoming topics include Improving Construction Productivity – A Senior Leader’s Workshop for Strategically Implementing Best in Class Productivity Tools, Processes and Metrics, and It’s a hrai.ca Hard, Hard, Hard, Hard, Hard Bid World – Estimating for Advantage. ecobee has once again been named a winner of the Technology Green 15 award, cmcef.org presented by Deloitte since 2007. The company was recognized for its residential Smart Thermostat. This is ecobee’s third consecutive time being recognized by the program.

ecobee receives green award

ecobee.com

Request your Request your free free A AquaSmart quaSmart fuel savings savings calculator: calculator: www.beckettcanada.ca 18 800 00 6 665 65 6 6972 972

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Radiant shakeup south of the border

Celebrating, mechanical style Whether it’s beginning to look a lot like Christmas in your part of the country, or has looked www.tradegreetings.com like Christmas for a number of weeks at this point, reaching out and touching others with a kind greeting to let them know they are appreciated is part of what the Christmas season is all about. Given the time of year, we thought we’d share some of the creative Christmas cards that we’ve seen that celebrate both the season and our industry.

pauloxmanpublishing.com

www.tradegreetings.com

The Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA), the largest organization of indoor environment and energy services contracting businesses in the U.S., has announced the launch of a new Radiant and Hydronics Council (RHC). The first chairman of the RHC Advisory Council will be Dan Foley, a past-chairman of the Radiant Panel Association (RPA). Mechanical Business hydronics columnist (and also an RPA past-chair) Bob “Hot Rod” Rohr is also on the committee. As of press time, the Radiant Professionals Alliance (formerly the Radiant Panel Association) was still in negotiations with the International Association of Plumbing & Mechanical Officials (IAPMO) with regards to a merger. Details are expected to unfold by the end of the year. In the meantime, a new Radiant and Hydronics educational track will be added to the 2012 ACCA Conference to be held in Las Vegas in March. acca.org

M Trusted Tr T rusted above al all.l.TTM

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Movers and Shakers www.mechanicalbusiness.com

Deschênes & Fils Ltée. makes acquisition Deschênes & Fils Ltée., a Montrealbased wholesale distributor of plumbing, heating and fire protection products, has acquired Plomberium Proulx & Fils. Proulx’s plumbing retail store and showroom, located in Mascouche, Que., will continue to operate in its current form with all staff remaining onboard. deschenes.ca

From left: Eric Findlay, Francois Deschenes, Grady Taylor (G.F. Thompson Co. Ltd.) and Brian Findlay.

G.F. Thompson recognized Canaplus named G.F. Thompson Co. Ltd. as its Supplier of the Year at the buying group’s recent awards night dinner. G.F. Thompson Co. Ltd. has been supplying products, many under the Masters brand, for more than 50 years and has facilities in Newmarket, Ont., Calgary, Alta., and Coquitlam, B.C.

Ceralux appoints Can-Mech Agencies Ceralux has announced that CanMech Agencies is now representing them in Eastern and Northern Ontario. Can-Mech can be contacted at Tel. 1-800-667-0419. ceralux.com

gfthompson.com

Roth announces new rep Roth Industries Inc. has added Hydronic Systems Canada Inc. as a new manufacturing representative. The company will represent Roth’s radiant/hydronic, oil heat, solar, geothermal, and plumbing products in Ontario. Hydronic Systems’ Toronto-based offices can be reached at Tel. 416-675-7651. roth-canada.com hydronicsystems.ca

Mission Rubber names Alberta agents

Desco Plumbing and Heating Supply has purchased 100 per cent of the assets of Guelph-based Ridler Heating and Cooling Supply Co. Ridler will continue to operate in its current structure, with all personnel, contact numbers and locations remaining unchanged. desco.ca

Mission Rubber Company LLC, manufacturer of couplings used in DWV applications, has hired two new agents for the province of Alberta. Val Temp Sales of Calgary will service southern Alberta and can be reached at Tel. 403-221-8181. Edmonton’s Wesmech Sales will service Alberta north of Red Deer as well as the Northwest Territories. Wesmech can be reached at Tel. 780-486-0114. missionrubber.com

HeatLink welcomes Centon Sales Centon Sales Corporation is now representing HeatLink Group Inc. throughout Ontario, with the exclusion of the Ottawa/Kingston and Thunder Bay regions. Centon has a staff of 10 and can be reached at Tel. 905-629-7072. heatlink.ca

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Desco buys Ridler

R.W. Beckett acquires Oil Equipment Manufacturing HVAC equipment manufacturer R.W. Beckett has announced its acquisition of Oil Equipment Manufacturing LLC, a manufacturer of oil storage tank accessories. Beckett will be integrating manufacturing, assembly and distribution into its North Ridgeville, Ohio operations. beckettcanada.ca

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12.11

People in the news www.mechanicalbusiness.com Moen Canada has announced the appointment of GARRY SCOTT to the position of vice-president of wholesale marketing and brand development. He brings more than 15 years of experience in sales, marketing and brand development to the company.

Blanco Canada Inc. has appointed WENDY MCPHERSON as national sales manager. She will be responsible for the development and implementation of the company’s annual sales plan, and for managing the sales force across Canada.

Novo Water Conditioning Products has named DAN CYR (LEFT) vice-president of commercial and industrial sales for Eastern Canada. He will also be responsible for operations in Eastern Canada, including the company’s Kitchener, Ont., facility. MIKE BERRY (CENTRE) has been appointed regional sales manager for Quebec. Fluently bilingual, he brings 13 years of industry experience to the Kitchener-based position. DENTON GAISER (RIGHT), vicepresident of water systems, will take on an expanded role with responsibility for sales in Eastern Ontario and the Maritimes.

International Environmental Corp. (IEC) has promoted DENNIS KLOSTER to the office of president following the retirement of LARRY JEWELL. Kloster joined IEC in 2003 as vice-president of sales and marketing, and brings 30 years of HVAC industry experience to the position.

Longstanding HeatLink employees ART PIETERMAN and COREY ABRAHAM have joined Centon Sales Corporation of Ontario. Centon recently began acting as representatives for HeatLink throughout Ontario, excluding the Ottawa/Kingston and Thunder Bay regions.

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Wolseley Canada has appointed GILLES PÉTRIN to its board of directors. Pétrin is Wolseley’s vicepresident, eastern region, and has 38 years of experience with the company.

ecobee has hired JASON MACKINNON as its new regional sales manager for Canada. He brings more than 15 years of related sales and technical sales experience to his new role.

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LELAND A. NICHOLS has joined Rinnai America Corporation in the role of senior vice-president of sales. With more than 25 years of experience in sales, marketing and product management, he will be responsible for the management of the North American sales organization.

Goodman Canada has promoted JIM MUNRO to commercial sales manager for Canada. Jim, who has already relocated to the Greater Toronto Area, brings a wealth of experience in commercial HVAC sales to his new role with the company.

PETER BOTTONI has been appointed national sales manager for Novanni Stainless Inc.


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Profile

Leading by example A man who believes that giving back is an important part of life, MCAC chairman Brad Diggens is always on the go. Whether he’s on the road for business, association work, or travels with his family, the president of MJS Mechanical in Calgary relies on the strength of the teams around

Q A

How did you get started in the industry?

Q A

My father was in the business, so when I completed high school, I went right into the trade.

Q A

Tell me about MJS Mechanical. We are a medium-sized institutional and commercial mechanical contracting firm. We can range from 100 or more employees, to sometimes less than 20 employees. Our size is totally dependent on work obtained.

him, plus a penchant for technology, to stay on top of projects at work and for the association. Currently supporting the Operation Eyesight Wells in Africa campaign as the MCAC chairman’s charity, under his watch MCAC has raised enough money for six wells (and counting).

What do you enjoy most about the industry?

payment, holdback retention, are things that are very important to all members. Promotion of the proper use of contract documents, promoting education, promoting our new service contractors group, as well as finding ways in which our contractors can help to affect their bottom line positively through all of this is critical to our members.

The diversity of not only the projects but also all other aspects of the industry. It is very challenging to juggle so many issues, so many various types of projects, as well as working with the various owners and generals, that you always keep on your toes. You have to be aware of all that is going on at all times.

Q

Being in the Calgary area, there are plenty of mountains to explore. What started your passion for mountain scrambling?

A

I have only mountain scrambled in the Rockies. I like the idea of the accomplishment of the scramble, to know that after trekking uphill for many hours and reaching the summit, that you have actually accomplished something. But then you humbly have to climb back down, which is often more difficult than the climb up. And each climb presents its own difficulties.

Q A

What activities are keeping you busy with MCAC? Our board is very active in promoting proper change to the industry. Changes to legislation such as lien acts, prompt

Q A

Any words of advice that you could offer to our readers? Become involved in your associations, whether it’s supporting them by being members and paying dues alone, or actually being involved in promoting positive change. It is important to know that the only real voice you have in your chosen profession is through this association involvement. One person can instigate change when promoted properly. And then become involved with helping others. We do not walk on this Earth alone, so we need to try to do our part to make the lives of others a little more comfortable.

BIO Name: Brad Diggens Company: MJS Mechanical Ltd. Title: President MCAC Title: Chairman Location: Calgary, Alta. Age: 54 Joined the industry in: 1975 Education: SAIT, plumbing, gas and interprovincial Red Seal tickets. Hobbies: Hiking, mountain scrambling, water rafting, mountain biking, Nascar racing, driving his Shelby cars, travelling and swimming. Family: Wife, Katie – Married 30 years this past June. And three daughters, Melissa, Jennifer, Samantha.

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HIGH-PERFORMANCE HVAC

By Gord Cooke

WHAT’S PROPER RH? The most recent studies have shown that, if all other airborne contaminants are kept at a low level, then occupants will report comfortable conditions at RH levels as low as 30 to 35 per cent. That is a good minimum humidity level target.

Gord Cooke is a professional engineer who has spent 20 years helping builders and HVAC contractors implement innovative technologies into highperformance homes. He has particular expertise in IAQ and air flow management in houses, and can be contacted at gcooke@airsolutions.ca.

AVOIDING DRY, ITCHY AIR With the leaves off the trees and winter on its way, I am reminded of a call I got late last fall from a company that had just moved their offices into a beautiful looking new two-storey, 20,000 sq. ft. building. While they were very excited by the move, a few of the 15 or so staff members almost immediately expressed concerns about what they referred to as “bad air”.

PROPER COMFORT NEEDS

PROPER HUMIDITY The thermal comfort of occupants in buildings is dependent, among other things, on the amount of moisture in the air. This is because up to one third of the total heat loss from the human body (at rest in normal indoor environments) is via evaporation from the skin and respiration. The lower the humidity level in the air, the greater the evaporation rate from the occupants and the less comfortable they feel. This is in addition to the common complaints of dry skin, sore throats and increased thirst and static electricity. Moreover, dry air can compound the effects of common volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which in this new office were already higher than normal.

This was disappointing to management since the new building had all the latest rooftop HVAC equipment, the spaces had wonderful high ceilings and great care had been taken to have natural lighting and spacious office layouts. In fact, the building had been built with future growth in mind and thus at the outset it was sparsely populated. When we got the call there were some obvious pollutant issues to consider. All of the new building materials, furnishings and office furniture would certainly be off-gassing. Beyond the VOC concerns, the HVAC systems were dramatically oversized. This was partly because the building was built for future occupancy, so extra air conditioning capacity had been installed. Just as culpable for the discomfort, however, was the fact that the designing engineer had not considered the high performance glass, the higher levels of insulation and the type of occupancy intended for this new building. Instead, they used the standard rules of thumb and ended up with three times the heating capacity actually required. This meant that although each of the six rooftop units had fresh air economizer dampers installed, the thermostats in the building were rarely calling for any heat. As such, there was overall poor circulation of air and only intermittent ventilation. The answer seemed easy enough; modify the control strategy so as to induce the air handlers to operate more often to induce more fresh air to dilute the offgassing of pollutants from the new building materials. Unfortunately more people started to complain about scratchy eyes, hoarse throats, cool temperatures and overall uncomfortable working conditions.

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• Sources of moisture • Calculating the load

Sources of MOISTURE The moisture balance in the air of buildings is a function of the moisture generated within the building by the occupants and their activities plus any moisture producing process equipment and humidification equipment, minus the drying effect of mechanical ventilation and natural air infiltration (air leakage).

The added ventilation during the cold fall months, combined with the low occupancy resulted in very low relative humidity levels throughout the building – as low as 15 to 20 per cent during occupied periods. In short, this otherwise beautiful new facility was out of balance. With respect to moisture, there needs to be a balance to maintain an RH high enough for occupant comfort but low enough to avoid any surface condensation on windows, ductwork, or within wall cavities or on cool foundation walls.

moisture balance. Self-contained steam humidification was the best choice in this retrofit application to enable humidity gains independent of heating cycles. This case demonstrated how a thorough, comprehensive HVAC design is needed to meet the comfort and health expectations of occupants. Proper sizing, controls, ventilation choices and, of course, humidity control are important elements of air quality and occupant comfort in all cases, and in all buildings.

This typical office setting had no meaningful sources of moisture compared to the losses due to ventilation, even with intermittently operating, oversized HVAC systems and therefore humidification was recommended.

Calculating the load If the air change rate is known (combined mechanical and air leakage) the humidification load calculation is straightforward using commonly available pyschrometric charts. For example, in Canada a typical design load per 100 CFM (50 L/s) of ventilation air for a 20°C day would be 2.2 lb. per hour (1 Kg/hr) to maintain a 20°C, 40 per cent RH indoor condition.

In order to avoid some of the potential issues related to the task of adding moisture to air – standing water, damp surfaces in duct work, the potential for water leaks, controls that require adjustment but are inaccessible to occupants – self-contained steam humidifiers were chosen to remedy the low humidity levels in this office.

Determining the load due to natural infiltration would require knowledge of the air tightness of the building, but in general, in properly ventilated commercial and institutional buildings, the humidification design load will be dominated by the mechanical ventilation load.

Steam systems have high humidification capacities and can deliver humidity effectively, even if the building isn’t calling for heat, without causing cool air complaints. Four systems matching the existing and planned occupancy were installed within existing electrical and mechanical closets, and with the addition of some simple duct plenums the humidified air was delivered into the return air plenum of four of the rooftop HVAC systems. Sizing the humidification system was based on the moisture loss due to mechanical ventilation plus added capacity for moisture loss due to natural air infiltration. This case demonstrated that indoor air quality issues can be compounded by poor HVAC sizing and design. That said, the ventilation requirements needed to ensure proper air quality in this office setting created a need for humidification to maintain a good M e c h a n i c a l

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PLUMBING

By Wayne Wilson

Moving forward with backflow technology

Wayne Wilson is the product manager for backflow, automatic control valves and WPRVs at Watts Water Technologies (Canada) Inc. He can be reached at wwilson@wattscanada.ca.

ou’ve heard the horror stories. In 2000, the backflow catastrophe in Walkerton, Ont., made headline news. E. coli bacteria found its way into the town’s drinking water supply, resulting in seven deaths and hundreds being admitted to the hospital. In 2005, a carwash in Stratford, Ont., leaked wash water into the drinking water supply.

Y

Despite broad awareness of the problem, and numerous codes in place to eliminate the risks of backflow infiltration, there are still many reported cases of backflow incidents in Canada and the U.S. each year.

BACKFLOW defined Backflow is the unwanted reverse flow of liquid in a piping system. Grey water or any other source of contamination can enter a potable water supply whenever outlet pressure or system pressure becomes greater than supply pressure.

Backflow prevention is the mainstay of safe water. This goes for both critical (health hazard) and low risk (non-health hazard) water supplies. The risk is especially high at cross-connection points. Without question, cross-connections are an integral part of all plumbing systems. The danger comes when these junctions are insufficiently protected.

Selecting a BACKFLOW PREVENTER

Assessing the degree of hazard Potential impurities could be anything from rusty water, highly concentrated herbicides, fuel, or even diluted manure from an agricultural facility. When determining the protection needed at any cross-connection, the key concern is the toxicity level of the possible contaminant.

The type of backflow assembly to be used varies according to the type of substance that may be at risk of flowing into a clean water supply. A “pollutant” may be any substance that would affect the colour or odour of water, but would not necessarily pose a health hazard. A true health hazard exists when a substance or “contaminant,” if ingested, could cause illness or death.

“Degree of hazard” is the first consideration when determining the level of cross-connection risk. All methods and devices of backflow prevention are rated for severe, moderate and minor hazard applications.

System hydraulics is the second factor to consider while selecting a backflow assembly. Hydraulics mandate whether a back-siphonage, backpressure, or a continuous pressure device is needed. In the case of back-siphonage, reverse flow is caused by negative pressure, or continued on page 26

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PLUMBING

continued from page 24

vacuum, in the supply piping. With backpressure, reverse flow happens when the downstream pressure is greater than the supply pressure. The types of backflow assemblies are broken into six categories:

Methods of backflow prevention 1

2

3

Air gap assemblies These use physical separation of drinking water and a potential source of contamination with an air space. Air gaps are applied in only those instances where the loss of system pressure is acceptable. It’s considered the best backflow system, but isn’t practical for modern plumbing systems. This system is approved for severe risk.

Double check valve assemblies DCVAs consist of two independent check valves. They protect against backsiphonage or backpressure. This type of valve is used under continuous pressure, low-risk connections. Typical uses of these devices include lawn sprinklers, non-toxic fire sprinkler systems, commercial swimming pools and similar applications. A DCVA is approved for moderate risk. A related device, the double check detector assembly is applied to prevent the reverse-flow of fire protection substances.

Pressure vacuum breakers A PVB is used on connections to non-potable systems. It protects against backsiphonage, but not against back-pressure. It may be used under continuous pressure, and for severe risk connections. Typical applications include irrigation

and laboratory equipment. A PVB is approved for severe risk if a reduced pressure zone backflow preventer is installed upstream as well.

4

Atmospheric vacuum breakers An AVB is used only on cross-connections where back-siphonage is a potential hazard. It doesn’t protect against backpressure. An AVB is approved for minor risk. The air inlet valve on the AVB closes when water flows in the normal, anticipated direction. But as water ceases to flow, the air inlet valve opens, eliminating the possibility of back-siphonage by introducing air into the downstream piping.

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This type of assembly must always be installed at least six inches above all downstream piping and outlets. Unlike a PVB, the atmospheric type cannot be used under continuous pressure. This device is suitable for minor hazard applications.

5

Reduced pressure zone backflow preventer An RP delivers the highest level of protection against backflow. These are applied in health-hazard cross-connections. An RP can be used on all direct connections subject to back-siphonage or backpressure, or a combination of the two, and on systems operating under continuous pressure. RP devices are approved for severe risk. A device of this calibre is required for conditions of extreme risk, when backpressure and back-siphonage may be combined with the fouling of both internal checks. With both checks fouled, the discharge capacity of the relief valve is left to safeguard the water supply. Typical RP installations include main supply lines, boiler feed lines, medical aspirators, and other health hazard connections.

Sizing the device

6

Specialty backflow preventers There are also a variety of specialty backflow preventers for point-of-use applications. Specialty backflow devices are approved for moderate risk only.

Sizing is determined by system requirement. In most cases, backflow preventers are sized to be line-sized, but not necessarily in all cases.

Handling water discharge A common problem with a reduced-pressure style backflow preventer involves the discharge of water. More often than not, improper flushing of the system during installation is the cause of the discharge. This serves to illustrate the importance of having certified installers. All too often RP manufacturers receive returned valves as defective when, in fact, the valves are designed to be serviced in-line. If discharge occurs upon installation, it simply needs to be cleaned and put back in service. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s not a matter of if the unit will discharge water, but when. When the valve discharges, itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nearly always fouling on the first check. If dirt has caused damage to the check, then the elastomer needs to be replaced. Adequate floor drain capacity needs to be provided to accommodate discharge water from the relief valve of the RP. As a contractor, itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s of utmost importance to complete the 40-hour certification course hosted by community colleges and trade unions. The safety and well being of communities is most important, but the last thing a contractor needs is the aftermath of a backflow incident pointing at them. M e c h a n i c a l

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HYDRONICS

By Bob “Hot Rod” Rohr

THE OVERS AND UNDERS OF FLOW RATES

Bob “Hot Rod” Rohr has been a plumbing, radiant heat and solar contractor and installer for 30 years. A long-time columnist and trainer, he is manager of training and education with Caleffi North America. You can reach Hot Rod at bob.rohr@caleffi.com.

Many people absorb information more readily when it is spoken, especially when the technical details are paired with an actual real-life story. The stories and questions that I get asked about are often very similar – just with different times and places. Here’s one of the mostfrequently asked questions that I’ve been hit with over the years.

Q:

I’ve always been told to keep the maximum flow rate to four feet per second or less in hydronic designs. Aside from the obvious noise issue caused by excessive flow rates, is there another reason why exceeding the fourfoot-per-second barrier could prove problematic to a system? And what happens when flow rates are too low?

Capture the big and the small I like micro-bubble resorbers as a central air removal device. They capture the smallest of air pockets, including the tiny, impossible to see, micro-bubbles. Devices with a large diameter body work well as the large body helps to slow the fluid flow, which facilitates air separation and removal.

This is an excellent question. Let’s start with low flow conditions. Several problems can arise from low flow velocity. The ability for a stream of fluid to move air along depends on flow velocity.

And it is important to have a good quality air removal device properly sized and installed to capture and remove the air that you hear in the system. A good fast-flow “power purge” is the first step. This eliminates the large pockets of air and any dirt and debris. Don’t worry about excessive velocity for this purge, it is just a quick first step and will not wear components.

Caleffi

Generally you want to design around a two to four feet per second flow rate. If you stay within this range you will have good air removal and equally important, good heat transfer from the fluid to the tube wall.

But provide your systems with a device that works to remove air after you walk away from the job. Excessive flow, on the other hand, will lead to noise problems, as well as unwanted wear in fittings and valves. Excessive flow rates can also cause hammer noises when a zone valve continued on page 30

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There are a number of combined air and dirt removal devices on the market. This type of device will have a large lower chamber to allow dirt particles to settle out without obstructing flow, unlike a cartridge or screen type device. You can find these combo units in very large sizes, 10” to 12”, and larger.


HYDRONICS

Mud, phones and other debris

continued from page 28

attempts to close. Perhaps the most common place to see this excess of flow is in DHW re-circulation piping where grossly oversized circulators often reside.

Ask me anything, anytime

The trick to all of this is knowing, or determining, your actual flow rate. A well-engineered design will indicate in the plans what flow rate is acceptable. But how do you know what the actual flow rate is when you flip the switch?

As I travel the planet presenting seminars on solar geothermal and hydronic topics I have noticed a handful of questions seem to come up over and over again. In more recent years, I have also been presenting a monthly webinar on these various topics, and I have noticed that I receive a lot more questions via the “type in your question” box on the Go-To-Webinar screen than I do at a live presentation.

There are more and more flow indicator and flow adjusting products on the market these days. I think the renewed solar thermal market has brought along some of these devices. Once you can see the flow rate, via a visual indicator or an electronic flow sensor, then you can use a table to calculate the velocity based on the pipe size or ID of the pipe. Feel free to drop me an e-mail if you would like a table to run this sort of calculation.

Mud, phones and other

debris

The need to purge applies to geothermal loop fields as well. With multiple large bore tubing loops manifolded together you need the “mother of all purge pumps” to be able to purge the loops all at once. Unfortunately, it is not uncommon to see large geothermal manifolds without a means to isolate individual loops. I was at the International Ground Source Heat Pump Association convention recently, and a company that specializes in purging and flushing problematic geothermal loop fields was showing off their equipment, and sharing stories from the field. Their “small” purge cart had a five-horsepower pump on a small four-wheeled cart. Their large purge cart was mounted on a 40-foot low-boy, semitrailer and was powered by a 160 hp Cummins diesel!

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HOT RODD’S NOTEPA there are

at I suspect th erforming r-p e d n u y n ma stems out sy hydronic ere never there that w rly at the pe purged pro do not d start up, an ate auto u q have ade capture any purgers to d from the air left behin initial fill.

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I can understand that, and have been shy about asking questions myself. Nobody likes to risk asking a question at a seminar to have all the other attendees turn to see who is posing the question. But there is no such thing as a dumb question, so please ask away, in whichever format you are most comfortable. We all learn from the questions that get asked, and the questions allow the presenter to note which topics need the most attention. If I don’t have a good answer, I’ll find the correct answer and get back to you. Or I’ll just make something up... just kidding, of course.

They also had a video running showing problematic, low-performing geothermal fields that they had been called out to fix. One job had a 14” diameter manifold buried under a parking lot. There was no means to access the manifold or to isolate the loops to purge them one at a time. On another job, they purged several wheel barrow loads of sand and dirt. They suspected that this debris got into the system when a 10” main was “pushed” under a roadway. In yet another job, a cell phone was purged. A worker must have dropped it down the piping, hopefully un-attached to the owner.


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REFRIGERATION M a k i n g

t h e

By Ebbe Hassl

M o s t

Ebbe Hassl has 27 years of HVAC industry experience, and is currently the product manager for controls and valves at Danfoss Refrigeration & Air Conditioning, North America. Ebbe can be reached at ebbe.hassl@danfoss.com.

o f

SOLENOID VALVES ne of the more common components in a refrigeration system is the solenoid valve. And while there are many models of solenoids available, they all serve a similar purpose in a cooling system – to control the flow of liquids or gases in either fully-open or fully-closed positions. To do this, a plunger in the valve is raised or lowered by energizing the solenoid’s coil.

O

The two basic principles used in designing solenoid valves are direct operated valves and servo-operated valves. Direct operated valves are simple in construction containing fewer parts than servo-operated and mostly used in smaller capacity valves with port sizes of 1/8” and below. Servo-operated solenoid valves have either a diaphragm or a piston as a part of the opening and closing function. Sometimes the piston type is called pilotoperated, but the basic opening and closing principle is the same. Before going into details about the above principles it is important to understand what a valve’s port size is. The port size is always listed in a solenoid valve’s spec sheet and means the diameter of the bore in the valve body through which medium flows when the valve is open. The port size is either listed in inches or millimetres. The direct solenoid valve assembly has a coil and a plunger with builtin valve plate inside an armature tube. For normally closed valves, a spring holds the plunger against the orifice, which prevents flow through the valve’s port. When the coil is energized, the plunger is raised by the generated magnetic field, which allows the flow through the valve. In a normally open valve, continued on page 34

GETTING THE INSTALLATION RIGHT Solenoid valves will only operate when installed correctly in the direction of flow. An arrow on the valve will indicate the proper direction for installation. Normally, solenoid valves installed ahead of a thermostatic expansion valve must be close to that valve. This avoids liquid hammer in the room between the solenoid valve and expansion valve when the solenoid opens, but liquid hammer can also occur on inlet side when the valve closes due to high liquid velocities with long and too small piping. When installing a solenoid, ensure that pipes around the valve are properly installed so that no fracture and leak can occur. The dismantling of solenoid valves when brazing or welding may or may not be necessary. That will be dictated by the design of the valve, and the recommendation of the manufacturer. Always follow the instructions of the manufacturer, especially if the valve in question does not need to be dismantled. The manufacturer’s instructions will include the steps required to ensure that the valve is not over heated during the brazing or welding process. And always protect the armature tube and inside parts against brazing or welding spatter. In installations with welded steel pipe, a close-couple strainer mounted ahead of the solenoid valve is recommended – on a new plant, flushing out before starting up is recommended.

FEELING THE PRESSURE When pressure testing a system, all solenoid valves must be open, either by applying voltage to the coils or by opening the valves manually, provided a manual operation spindle is fitted. Remember to screw the spindle back before starting up, otherwise the valve will be unable to close.

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REFRIGERATION

continued from page 32

the orifice is sealed by the plunger when the coil is energized and is open when deenergized.

selecting the correct valve size to have a proper functioning valve. Both minimum and maximum pressure drop must be factored into the valve selection as a too high pressure drop can cause improper operation.

The servo-operated solenoid valve uses a similar plunger but also has a diaphragm These valves are quite reliable and have a long which closes and opens for the flow. When service life, but there are times when solenoids the plunger is raised, the higher inlet will need to be swapped out or serviced, and pressure will be able to push the diaphragm handling them appropriately, and selecting the upwards and allow flow through the valve proper replacement parts or valve, is critical to until the plunger is lowered again and then ensuring that the the higher inlet pressure will go system will through a small hole in the continue to diaphragm to create a higher operate properly pressure on top of the within its design diaphragm, pushing it to close Cv-value is one of the industry parameters. Very the valve again. The same standards used for determining often when a principle is used in pilotvalve capacity. valve is replaced operated valves where the with a valve from another manufacturer, it is diaphragm is replaced by a piston. based on port size, connections and application. Knowing the application is always The direct operated valve doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t need a important to ensure the correct valve material differential pressure over the valve to stay and operating condition for the new valve, but open whereas both servo-operated and pilotfor the sizing, matching the flow rates between operated valves need a minimum differential old and new valve is a better option for pressure over the valve to stay open. For that selecting a replacement valve. reason, differential pressure over the valve becomes the most important factor in

FITTING THE COIL Ensure that the coil has been correctly fitted onto the solenoid valve following the manufacturerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s instructions as a loose coil can cause malfunctioning of the valve. Be careful with cable entries. It is imperative that water does not enter the terminal box. As such, the cable must be led out via a drip loop. And the entire cable circumference must be retained by the cable entry, so it is recommended that only round cable be used, since it is the only type of cable that can be sealed effectively.

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PLUMBING

By Sam Steele Sam Steele is a professor of plumbing at Humber College in Toronto. He is also a member of the Metro Area Plumbing Advisory Committee as well as an executive member of the Ontario Plumbing Inspectors Association. www.opia.info

n the old days of installing plumbing drainage systems it was common for the installers to oversize the drain pipes. Most thought the larger drain pipe would transport the influent more efficiently. This was later found to not be the case. The influent waste was not scouring the interior bore of the pipes needed to keep the pipes clear.

I

In the 1940s, Dr. Roy Hunter of the National Bureau of Standards developed and published BMS 66, a methodology for determining necessary pipe sizing by estimating maximum demand on the delivery and drainage systems. This was developed because one of the major code concerns was then, and is now, pipe sizing â&#x20AC;&#x201C; both for supply and drainage piping in a building. While "tweaked" over the years, Hunter's basic work is still used as the basis for pipe sizing in a plumbing system.

BY DEFINITION Influent: Liquid containing solids (i.e. human solid and liquid waste).

HOW FULL is too full? Numerous experiments over the years have shown that the most efficient flow rate is 65 per cent full for horizontal pipe and 29 per cent full for vertical pipe. For horizontal pipe, a minimum velocity of two feet per second, or 1/4" of fall per foot, or a grade of 1:50, would allow flow down the pipe to continuously wash the pipe while leaving the top 35 per cent free for air movement. It was also discovered that, due to different densities of liquids, suds, soaps, grit, paper and solids, in order to flow at an equal velocity and maintain water to wash away all debris together, a 35 per cent volume at two feet per second would prevent the influent from separating while being flushed down the pipe. For vertical pipe that flows at 29 per cent full, the maximum velocity is seven feet per second to maintain a scouring action swirling around the pipe while leaving the centre of the pipe 71 per cent free for air movement to prevent separation of the influent.

THE CODE BOOK ONTARIO PLUMBING CODE BO OK

Such flows are of sufficient depth to keep the drain clear, but not so deep as to cause airlocks and fluctuating pressures within the system.

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According to the Ontario Plumbing Code, section 7.4.10.8.(2), horizontal sanitary drainage pipe shall be designed to carry no more than 65 per cent of its full capacity. Section 7.4.10.6.(3) adds that vertical sanitary drainage pipe is to be designed to carry no more than 29 per cent of its full capacity. continued on page 40

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Once the efficient flow depth was determined, the next step was to establish a relationship between the discharge loads of the various plumbing fixtures and each pipe size. This necessitated the creation of a unit of measure, and thus the “fixture unit" was established. Through Roy Hunter’s research, it was determined that one fixture unit was equal to one cubic foot of water being discharged in a 1-1/4” pipe in a 60 second period at a velocity of two feet per second. This was calculated over a run of five feet from the weir of the trap to a point where air enters the system (i.e. the vent). With this new unit of measure it was now possible to have a comparison of one fixture with that of another different fixture. This would also help in establishing a load capacity for each size of pipe, both in the horizontal and vertical positions. This unit of measure is what we now refer to as a fixture unit. Although we consider a fixture unit a unit of measure, it is impossible to convert it to any other unit of measure. The definition of a fixture

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unit is based on the rate of discharge, time of operation and frequency of use of a fixture that expresses the hydraulic load that is imposed by that fixture on the drainage system. Traditionally, the time/frequency waste value of one fixture unit is one cubic foot per minute discharge rate. Lavatory The values for buildings of commercial use and during periods of heavy use, such as at hockey arenas, will be based primarily on "time factors" which do not remain constant for all fixtures. Sizing should be re-evaluated during any design or redesign processes. Trap This may be best illustrated by explaining how a fixture unit value or "load factor" was assigned to the various plumbing fixtures.

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THE INFLUENCE OF FLOW Each fixture was subjected to a series of tests in order to determine the volume rate of the fixture discharge – this establishes the amount of liquid waste that can pass through the fixture outlet in a given time period – and the time required to complete a "single drainage operation." With this information, it became possible to determine that a five-foot bathtub would have a fixture unit load of 1.5 whereas a flush tank water closet would have a fixture unit rate of four. Even though a five-foot bathtub may contain approximately 270 litres of water, and a regular water closet may flush approximately six litres of water, the bathtub would only require a 1-1/2” drain while the water closet that only flushes six litres of water The load placed on a section of drainage pipe by would require a one or more fixture units, and expressed in three-inch drain. fixture units. This is because the bathtub is not required to drain quickly, whereas the water closet has to drain quickly to keep the matter in suspension and prevent potential blockages. We could now say that a water closet with a fixture unit rating of four would discharge approximately 25 gallons per minute of flow. If one fixture unit is equal to 6.25 gallons per minute of flow and the water closet produces four fixture units, that equals 25 gallons per minute.

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HVAC

By Carol Fey

THE COMBUSTION ANALYZER

Carol Fey is a technical trainer who has worked as a heating mechanic in Antarctica and has published six books for the HVAC/R industry. She can be reached at carol@carolfey.com, or visit her website, www.carolfey.com.

A technician’s best friend combustion analyzer is the perfect tool to help quickly

A

tune-up and troubleshoot a furnace or boiler. It allows you to adjust a boiler or furnace for greatest efficiency

(oxygen/carbon dioxide percentage and the flue temperature), and safety (carbon monoxide level). These numbers can help keep you, and your customers, out of trouble.

WHAT A COMBUSTION ANALYZER TELLS YOU There are a number of results that a combustion analyzer can provide. The most useful measurements are carbon monoxide (CO), oxygen (O2), carbon dioxide (CO2), and stack temperature. These measurements will show on the combustion analyzer’s screen, but what are they telling you? The best way to interpret the numbers is to compare them to the specifications given by the equipment manufacturer. If you don’t have this paperwork, it is likely that you can get equipment specifications from the manufacturer’s web site. There are some general guidelines when it comes to some of the readings you’ll see though, and here’s a bit of advice about some of them. Carbon monoxide kills people. Code often allows 400 parts per million (ppm), but to be safe you would not want to see any more than 150 ppm. A reading above 150 ppm would be a red flag to double-check the combustion. High levels of carbon monoxide suggest that there is not enough oxygen for the amount of fuel being burned. Or, conversely, there is too much fuel for the amount of oxygen. High carbon monoxide levels also indicate that there is not complete combustion and that fuel is being wasted. Depending upon the appliance, you can generally adjust air, fuel or both. If you find high levels of carbon monoxide, either

increase the oxygen or decrease the fuel until you find safe carbon monoxide measurements in the flue. Oxygen naturally makes up about 21 per cent of our atmosphere. Generally, we need 10 cubic feet of air to burn a cubic foot of natural gas. In a flue, as reported by the combustion analyzer, you would want to find approximately six to eight per cent oxygen on an atmospheric natural draft boiler or furnace. This is oxygen left over from the combustion process. Carbon dioxide is typically a calculated number based on the detected amount of oxygen. Carbon dioxide is a normal byproduct of the combustion process. A seven to nine per cent range on the analyzer is typically desirable on a natural draft product. Keep in mind, these are approximate ranges and you should continues on page 44

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HVAC

continued from page 42

Buying a Combustion Analyzer

always comply with the appliance manufacturer’s recommendations. The guidelines above are for natural and propane gas. Fuel oil guidelines are different. These numbers can also change based on the type of burner used on the equipment. Mechanically mixing air and gas allows for lower oxygen levels and typically better efficiency.

Combustion analyzers used to be expensive and difficult to use. Now they are easy to use and can be priced quite reasonably. But with a range from $500 to over $5,000, it is easy to get confused. For an HVAC tool, make sure any model you choose has the basics, carbon monoxide, oxygen, carbon dioxide and stack temperature, well covered.

How to use a COMBUSTION ANALYZER A combustion analyzer can look a lot like a multi-meter. To sample the flue products, attach a probe to the analyzer and insert it into the flue. The probe tip has a built-in temperature sensor with a hose connected, through which the sample is drawn. The display tells you what is going on inside the flue.

When selecting a combustion analyzer, keep calibration in mind. Some designs must be sent in periodically for calibration. Other designs use replacement cartridges rather than recalibration. And some technology requires neither. Expect to periodically replace sensors.

AboutCombustion Most of the heat we create comes from burning fuel. We put fuel and oxygen together in a process called combustion. The result is heat – which we gladly take credit for – and other products of combustion – which we would prefer to ignore. But gases that go up the flue must be taken seriously because of concerns about efficiency and safety.

Simply set the dial to “flue test.” Drill a hole in the flue, about a foot above the boiler or furnace and at least a foot away from any elbow, but below any source of dilution air such as a draft hood bonnet. Be sure to plug the hole before you leave. Upon being powered, the analyzer begins a 60-second countdown. It is recommended that this be done outdoors. The analyzer’s pump draws ambient air for 60 seconds to clear the probe hose and the sensors. Turning the unit on and clearing it outdoors enables you to then walk into the mechanical room with the analyzer running and know whether the room is safe by checking for carbon monoxide. To perform the combustion test, let the furnace or boiler run for a couple of minutes. Then insert the probe into the flue, getting the tip as close to the centre of the flue as possible. If the pump has been turned off, turn it back on, and within 30 seconds you will see readings on the screen. Once the proper adjustments have been made and the combustion is within specifications, you can press the Save button. This records the realtime readings for printing or copying later. The flue test also indicates stack temperature, which can be another indicator of proper combustion. If, for example, the manufacturer says to expect a stack temperature in the 200ºC range, and the analyzer is showing you 120ºC, you know there is a combustion problem. A combustion analyzer might give you two pressures (gas and draft), two temperatures and allow you to perform a furnace heat exchanger test. The analyzer could also give you the difference, or delta, for pressure and temperature.

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THE COMBUSTION RELATIONSHIP A graph of combustion can clarify the relationship among the oxygen, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide gases. Notice on the graph how the levels vary as we approach “ideal combustion” (where we want to be with a boiler or furnace) and “perfect combustion“ (perfect to get all the energy out of the fuel, but dangerous because there is no excess air). The effects of “fuel rich” and “air rich” are shown along the bottom of the graph.


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BOILER ROOM DESIGN

By David A. George David A. George is a product manager at Lochinvar. He can be reached via e-mail at dgeorge@lochinvar.com.

UNDER PRESSURE:

Creating proper air flow Scenario: A small fast food restaurant calls for service; they are concerned about their tank-type, under-fired water heater. When it ignites, there is a flash of flame around the bottom. You inspect the installation. The water heater is installed in a closet. The closet is in the corner of the kitchen and access is open to the kitchen. There are air louvers high and low in the door. You open the door and the bottom of the water heater’s jacket is scorched. You fire the heater and flames roll out the bottom, then it settles down and the heater fires evenly. What is causing this? It is the negative air pressure in the room, most likely caused by the vent hoods in the kitchen. Tank-type, under-fired water heaters are atmospheric combustion appliances. They draw combustion air naturally from the room. The proper air flow direction through an atmospheric appliance is in at the bottom, up through the vessel and out through the vent pipe. The vent hoods in the kitchen were pulling so hard on the room that they were pulling air down the vent pipe, down through the water heater and out the bottom. When the water heater attempted to fire, it was doing so against its natural air path. When the flame finally stabilizes, the heat rises, correcting the air flow direction. The heater now fires and drafts properly.

Everyone understands that fire needs air; it’s the volume of air that surprises the uninitiated. The average person inhales 400 to 500 cubic feet of air in a 24-hour period. A one million BTUH water heater or boiler will draw 226.38 cubic feet of air every minute! A 20-by-20-by-8 foot equipment room holds 3,200 cubic feet of air. That’s enough air volume to last a single person more than six days. But a one million BTUH water heater or boiler will consume 3,200 cubic feet of air in 14 minutes. Therefore, a good, easy flow of clean air is 100 per cent necessary for clean, efficient combustion..

So, you explain the problem to the customer and he asks for a solution. In this case, the water heater is fairly new and, luckily,

Exhaust fans can create a down draft through the appliance

Many appliance manufacturers offer alternatives to the traditional atmospheric equipment. A vast array of fuel-burning appliances are constructed with fan-assisted, sealed combustion that can be installed in a direct vent configuration. With both supply and exhaust terminations in the same pressure zone for balance, and both pipes sealed gas tight, the combustion process is isolated from the equipment room. Therefore, a negative pressure in the equipment room has no effect on the appliance. .

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• A heavy breather • Staying positive • The calculations the back wall of the closet is an exterior wall. The solution here would be to install combustion and ventilation air openings in the back wall, and replace the louvered door with a solid door. This solution separates the water heater from the negative pressure in the kitchen and it supplies the water heater with the air it needs. If the water heater was old, it might be best to consider replacement. Many manufacturers offer direct vent sealed combustion products that can be isolated from the negative pressure in the equipment room. Just like us, fuel-burning appliances need air to breathe. Always correct harmful conditions so fuel-burning equipment can enjoy a long and healthy life.

Staying POSITIVE If fuel-burning equipment is drawing air from the equipment room, the room must be under a positive pressure. Exhaust fans and vent hoods push the air out of the equipment room at a high rate creating a negative pressure within the room. ANSI Z223.1/NFPA 54 – 2009, item 9.3.1.5 states, “Where exhaust fans, clothes dryers and kitchen ventilation systems interfere with the operation of appliances, makeup air shall be provided.” NFPA Code item 9.3.6.1 says it even better: “Where exhaust fans are installed, additional air shall be provided to replace the exhausted air.” That is the first line of defense, when proving combustion and ventilation air openings for fuel-burning equipment, it is important to add additional air for exhaust fans. The purpose here is to allow the exhaust fan to do its job while maintaining the necessary positive room pressure for the fuel-burning equipment.

A disclaimer about exhaust fans and other air flow devices

Correct combustion air openings allow proper air flow through the water heater

Do the calculations Codes provide calculation methods to determine the size of the combustion and ventilation air openings for the fuel-burning equipment. For example, if air is taken directly from outside the building with a combustion air opening low and a ventilation air opening high, we can calculate the openings for a minimum free area of one square inch per 4,000 BTUH input. If you have a 1,000,000 BTUH appliance installed in this configuration, divide 1,000,000 by 4,000 for 250 square inches of free area in the combustion air opening low, and 250 square inches of free area in the ventilation opening high. Additional calculations are available for air ducted into the room, air taken from an interior space, etc. For details, see the, “Air for Combustion and Ventilation” section in your local code.

You will find this type of disclaimer in installation manuals for fuel-burning equipment. There is also text in the National Fuel Gas Code on exhaust fans.

These calculations will provide sufficient air for the appliance only. If there are other fuel-burning appliances in the equipment room, their value must be calculated and added to the combustion and ventilation air openings. And the combustion and ventilation air openings must be sized to include the fuel-burning equipment and the exhaust fans.

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Isolation valve Webstone’s Isolator uni-flange ball valve features a snug-fit rotating flange designed to provide control over positioning during installation. The unit’s multidirectional main valve makes it possible to drain from either side of the pump. It is designed to fit most available pumps.

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Condensing boiler Lochinvar’s Crest condensing boiler is available in five models ranging in size from 1.5 to 3.5 million BTUH with thermal efficiencies as high as 99 per cent. Designed for both new construction and energy retrofit applications, the unit features fire-tube technology, a stainless steel heat exchanger and dual-system burner with up to 1:25 turndown.

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Air and dirt separators Caleffi 546 Series brass Discaldirt air and dirt separators automatically remove air present in the system down to the microbubble level while separating solid impurities. Units are available in 3/4”, 1” or 1-1/4” sweat and NPT connections, and are suitable for use with water or glycol.

www. caleffi.com 48

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with Roger Grochmal

Don’t run away from technology Between changes to the equipment we install and the latest personal and professional gadgets, I feel like I’m always two steps behind. My “old-school” paper invoices and customer files still work. Is diving into technology really worth it Roger? Frank V, Vancouver, B.C. Technology cannot be ignored. Whether we like it or not, the way we live our lives and run our businesses is being streamlined and improved by the use of technology. We’re always excited to tell customers about the latest in furnace improvements or air conditioner efficiencies. Why aren’t we as keen to adopt new technology to help better serve those same customers?

Roger Grochmal is the president of AtlasCare in Oakville, Ont. To submit a question about your company, business practices, or the industry in general, send an e-mail to Mechanical Business Magazine’s editor, Adam Freill, adam.freill@ mechanicalbusiness.com.

I think fear plays a big part in that hesitancy. We’re not comfortable (or perhaps familiar) with smartphones or tablets, or how they fit into the way we do business. Part of that fear also stems from the fact that technology is constantly changing and it’s difficult to keep up. But it’s not impossible. We are technical people working in a technical world, and while I am no stranger to computers and gadgets, I must admit that I too can find it daunting at times to keep up. I have an iPad and I find I spend equal time between it and my computer. And I can see the day when I won’t need a computer at all. I’ve seen the fax machine come and go in the past 25 years and the same fate will befall the desktop computer, probably within the next five years. I can’t remember the last time I sent a fax. Today we scan documents and e-mail them. I still keep a slide rule so I can show my grandchildren how we used to do

Technology meets sales Don’t underestimate the power of technology during a sales meeting. A wellloaded tablet means that you can instantly access considerable data on hundreds of products, calculators and PDFs of literature. You can e-mail these to your customer right from the kitchen table. You avoid the expense of printing, and you demonstrate a clear commitment to sustainable business practices.

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engineering calculations – It won’t be long before I’ll be able to add my desktop to the collection. At AtlasCare, we took the plunge and installed new software that will allow us to move towards more electronic transactions and greater efficiencies for our customers. We will be able to electronically send purchase orders, receive invoices and make payments from our bank accounts, all at a significant reduction in administrative cost. We will be able to price service agreements with an online calculator, create a quote form and e-mail it, along with marketing attachments, to our customers. Goodbye Canada Post. We will also be able to use GPS tracking to better match technicians with specific jobs and specific locations. Hello faster service. Technology is also giving me better control of my business. It’s leveling the playing field by taking away a significant advantage my larger competitors have enjoyed. They can still purchase better because of their volumes but even that gap is narrowing. My best piece of advice is to not shy away from technology. Take small steps if that makes you more comfortable, just don’t run away screaming. Today’s customers are savvy and they want to do business with modern companies who can successfully combine the efficiencies of technology with the old-school commitment to superior customer service.


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REFRIGERATION

By Phil J. Boudreau

Retrofitting Refrigeration Equipment

Phil Boudreau, is the Ontario sales manager for Bitzer Canada Inc. and also provides training and technical support for Bitzerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s clientele. Phil is also a refrigeration instructor at Humber College in Toronto, Ontario. Phil may be contacted at pboudreau@bitzer.ca

Part II

n the previous issue of Mechanical Business, we discussed the B52 Code, component pressure ratings and oil types as they apply to the retrofitting process. In this issue, we continue this discussion with a look at compressors and heat exchangers.

I

Metering devices, regulators and pipe sizing When a refrigerant conversion involves the use of a refrigerant that has properties that vary significantly from the original refrigerant (e.g. R-12 to R-404A) it may be necessary to replace some or all of the metering devices and pressure regulators.

Motor horsepower versus compressor displacement Compressors are produced for many applications. Some compressors can be used with multiple refrigerants, while others can only be used for one specific refrigerant and select applications. There are a couple of important factors that must be considered before converting from one refrigerant type to another. These two factors are compressor displacement and motor horsepower.

Typically, when converting between refrigerants that have similar properties (e.g. R-402A and R-507), it might only be necessary to adjust the component to adapt to the new mass flow rate or pressure requirement. With thermostatic expansion valves, it may be necessary to readjust superheat. With pressure regulators, the pressure setting may have to be adjusted. When adjusting regulators, the new refrigerant saturation pressures must be considered. In the case of crankcase pressure regulators, the maximum suction pressure limitations of the compressor must also be considered. In past articles, I have made some general comparisons between our relatively low energy costs compared with other countries. Moving forward, I believe that there will be some very nice opportunities for proactive contractors and equipment manufacturers that can offer more than just an equipment solution that satisfies temperature requirements.

Compressor Displacement Displacement is measured in terms of volume per unit of time (i.e. ft3/hr).The compressor displacement represents the volumetric throughput of a compressor. In order to circulate the same mass flow rate in pounds per hour for two refrigerants that have different densities, the refrigerant with the lowest density will require the largest displacement. If two compressors have the same displacement and operate at the same pressures, their mass flow rates will vary when using different refrigerants. For example, R-134a occupies approximately 234 per cent more space than R-507A when entering a compressor at 20°F SST and 40°F return gas temperature. Therefore, if we were to convert a system from continued on page 54

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REFRIGERATION

continued from page 52

R-507A to R-134a, the amount of refrigerant circulated will be lower. Conversely, if we were to convert from R-134a to R-507A, the mass flow will increase.

Motor Horsepower The horsepower available in the compressorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s motor is one of the factors that determines the application range and refrigerant types that may be used in a particular compressor. The actual horsepower requirement varies depending on the application and refrigerant. For a given refrigerant, the horsepower requirement increases with saturated suction temperature. Also, higher pressure refrigerants demand higher horsepower. If we were to convert from R-134a to R-507A, we would have to be careful that we do not exceed the HP capability of the motor. Generally speaking, this type of conversion would not be acceptable. In most conversions and retrofits, refrigerants are converted to other refrigerants that have similar pressures and enthalpies. However, retrofits may often involve more than this. Major retrofit projects may require the change-out of most, or even all, of the systemâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s components.

HEAT-EXCHANGER TO COMPRESSOR DISPLACEMENT BALANCE How the evaporator and condenser will match up with the compressor when a particular refrigerant is used in an application is an important consideration. Heat exchangers used in commercial and industrial refrigeration are rated in BTUH or tons. However, this represents the heat exchangerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s capacity at a fixed set of conditions. Evaporating temperature difference is the temperature difference between the boiling refrigerant and incoming air in a commercial unit cooler. For an air-cooled condenser, the temperature difference is the difference between the condensing refrigerant and the incoming air. Generally speaking, the capacity will vary with the temperature difference. As the temperature difference increases, the capacity will increase. When evaporators are selected based on higher TDs, the evaporating temperature will be lower. Other results of high evaporating TD are lower relative humidity (RH) in the refrigerated space, lower compressor efficiency, more frost build-up on fins, more demand on the defrost cycle, etc. It goes without saying that an undersized evaporator will result in less efficiency. However, it is quite possible to destroy food products, etc., that are stored in an area where the RH is not kept within a reasonable range. In many past cases, efficiency and long-term operating cost have not necessarily been thoroughly considered. As a result, there may be many systems that are operating inefficiently.

For example, a conversion to a CO2-based direct expansion system would require that the entire system is changed. Most of the conversions that I have experienced over the years have been either from CFCs and HCFCs to HFCs, or in situations where a contractor has purchased equipment that was originally used in another application. In either case, it is very important to understand the limitations of the compressor.

COMPATIBILITY OF HEAT-EXCHANGER CIRCUITING Heat-exchangers are circuited in such a way as to limit the refrigerant pressure drop while optimizing heat transfer. In the case of low temperature (LT) systems, the amount of flash gas that enters the evaporator circuiting is much higher than that of medium temperature (MT) systems, and especially so with high temperature systems. It is important to consider factors such as this when contemplating the use of an MT evaporator in an LT application. One should expect a higher than normal pressure drop through an evaporator in an LT system where the evaporator was designed for use in a medium temperature system.

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For the condenser, an undersized condenser will result in elevated condensing pressures. This reduces system efficiency and perhaps the longevity of the system. A condenser matched to a compressor in one application may vary significantly in other application. For example, a compressor may provide 20,000 BTUH at one set of conditions and 40,000 BTUH at another set of conditions (higher evaporating temp). When subjecting the compressor to higher evaporating pressures, the capacity of the compressor will increase. It follows that the condensing capacity must increase also.

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Inspiring the inspirer Pinball’s legendary energy and enthusiasm for making the world a better place is something that he says he got from his mom. “She had boundless energy; and was always there to give a helping hand to the community. Her generosity was just amazing.” A positive spirit pays for itself many times over. “When you get up and give to people, they give it back to you. It doesn’t happen 100 per cent of the time, but it does happen a majority of the time.” The best piece of advice he’s received? “I think a friend told me, be very careful about giving advice because the wise don’t need it and the fool won’t eat it,” he jokes. But he really learned the most simply by watching his mom. “It’s not about what someone says. It’s about what they do. She showed me the best sermon a kid could get.”

Photos courtesy of mpcf.ca and argonauts.ca

Cover Story

By Denise Deveau

The Michael "Pinball" Clemons Foundation The vision of the Michael "Pinball" Clemons Foundation is to quicken academic excellence, infuse depth of character, promote health and vitality, and inspire generosity in our youth. The foundation is committed to building 131 schools for marginalized children in seven under resourced countries through the Free the Children Adopt a Village development program and also participates in building homes in Canada through Habitat for Humanity. The foundation also offers scholarship programs, and is involved in a computer placement program ensuring that students have access to the resources they need to work at home. mpcf.ca

56

t’s not easy to catch up with Michael “Pinball” Clemons, but our conversation about life and the trades couldn’t have been better timed. He was running about half an hour behind time, but the reason gave an unexpected opening to our conversation. “Two days ago something erupted in the back yard, so I’ve spent a lot of time with the trades” he says.

I

Ever the optimist, it wasn’t the burst pipes that were on his mind. It was his admiration for their skills. “All I see is what happens above the ground. But when it comes to finding the real work you don’t actually see, and the level of detail and expertise, it’s overwhelming.” The four-time Grey Cup champion (three times as a player, once as a coach) and philanthropist is a man who has spent a lifetime giving more than he has received. His stellar sports career pales in comparison to his work with The Michael "Pinball" Clemons Foundation, which has become a beacon of hope for youth who are struggling financially to make it in the

DID YOU KNOW? To-date, the Michael "Pinball" Clemons Foundation has given out scholarships and endowments to 11 students.


world. The foundation provides assistance and support, connecting youth with educational opportunities, including offering scholarships to such schools as George Brown College in Toronto. Since his foundation has done a Habitat for Humanity build each year since 2007, you would think that he would have finally learned a few tricks of the trades, but he is the first to admit that he’s not a handy guy. “For me it’s not a natural talent.” So he leaves that to the folks that can do better – especially given that a good part of the crew are skilled tradespersons. “The trades and young apprentices are so willing to get involved. It’s part of their culture to give back and help others. The last time I spoke to 50 young apprentices, 10 of them were asking how they could get involved.” For his part, Pinball says, “I’m better at carrying things. I usually end up talking to everyone. Can you imagine that? I’m just more of a cheerleader and coach.” And Coach Pinball enjoys using his speaking talents to connect with trades groups, like his visits with HRAI and MCAC this past summer. He believes the trades have something special to offer the world. “They’re often taken for granted. But the reality is none of life as we know it would be the same without them.”

Pinball on achievements You can’t have a conversation with Pinball without asking him to tell you his greatest football-related achievement. While racking up three Grey Cups as a player, he says winning as a coach was the ultimate. “It’s one thing for you to win, but as a coach I got to celebrate the victory 40 times over because every one of my guys overcame obstacles to triumph.” Ask the same question about his off-the-field achievements, and his answer is simple. “Being a husband and father – bar none those are the greatest accomplishments of my life.”

Michael "Pinball" Clemons Born and raised in Florida, Michael Clemons is a College of William & Mary economics graduate. He began his career in the Canadian Football League in 1989, after a brief stint in the National Football League. Renowned as one of pro football's most electrifying players, Clemons achieved a brilliant career, including a pro football record for most career combined yards with 25,438. He retired in 2000 with 12 all-time Argonaut team records to his credit. As head coach of the Toronto Argonauts, he led his team to Grey Cup glory in 2004. In 2008, he was inducted into the Canadian Football Hall of Fame. Michael "Pinball" Clemons is an icon of sporting excellence, community leadership, personal character and integrity. He's an author, philanthropist, entrepreneur and currently the vice-chair of the Toronto Argonauts. Other honours include the Order of Ontario, but Mike's proudest accomplishment is to be the husband of Diane, and the father of Rachel, Raven and Riley.

Trading cleats for channel locks Helping isn’t confined to youth. Having close ties with the professional football community, Pinball says he’s a big proponent of finding off-season work for players, and the trades could be a big part of that. “We not only encourage U.S. players to stay here year round, we also try to help them with a transition plan for their careers. The challenge is nothing ever matches playing sports. But skilled trades can come close.” As he explains, “You go out and work on a project. It’s a team effort. And at the end of that project you can be proud of the work you’ve done. That really runs parallel to being on a sports team.” Having been a player, a coach and a mentor, Pinball says he has learned a lot about working with people – whether on the field or in business. “My advice is very simple. Look to the best interests of your people. Then the best interests of your business will follow.”

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STYLE & DESIGN

By Adam Freill

Ramsin’s Kitchen Reno Tips That space under the kitchen sink is extremely valuable, so do your rough-in wisely. “If we go through extra effort to tuck the pipes in properly so that they can get an extra five inches of depth in that cabinet, I’ll brag about it to the customer.” Shutoff valves are a big pet peeve of consumers – when they are non-existent. “I think it should be a standard that every fixture should have shutoff valves.”

THE HOME 3,700 sq. ft. 6 levels 4 bedrooms 3.5 baths Top level: Bedrooms Main level: Kitchen, family room, living room, dining room Lower level: Theatre, gym, wine cellar, storage and garage

amsin Khachi is a designer who takes pride in what he does. The principal of Khachi Design Group and Khachi Interiors, and a regular on CityLine on Citytv, he put his attention to detail, and his own budget, to the test when he decided to tackle his own project in Oakville, Ont., embarking on a major renovation earlier this year.

R

“I wanted to take an existing home and fix it up,” he said in a recent interview with Mechanical Business. “New homes are easy to do. Renos are a tough business.” The home he chose ended up having a lot of challenges, one of which was a mould concern. “That resulted from poor ventilation, and poor installation of a vapour barrier 23 years ago, he explains. “For a 23-year-old house to be in that shape; that’s shameful in today’s industry.” continued on page 60

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“Even if they don’t do it right now, we always make sure that we run the wires for accessories, like a waste disposer, instant hot water system or a chiller. It is an easy upsell later.”


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STYLE & DESIGN continued from page 58 After having to take the house back to a foundation and frame, he says it was the lack of attention to the little details that caused the initial problems in the building, and he wanted to ensure that his project did not suffer a similar fate.

A RADIANT BACKYARD In addition to adding electric in-floor heating in the bathrooms, Khachi has a heated, four-by-12-foot path in the backyard that leads to the barbecue. “You are not going to take a shovel out back, but having a path to the barbecue is perfect.”

“Those little details matter, especially when it comes to HVAC or plumbing, or any of the mechanical systems, which are becoming more and more important.” A modified backsplit, the home is unique in that it has six floors, something that made for a complicated HVAC design in the original structure. “What they had tried to do was run everything from one point, the furnace room in the basement, and run snakes of duct everywhere,” says Khachi. “We ran one straight run to the attic and separated the top of the house from the bottom, creating three zones.” Turning from HVAC to plumbing, he had about 400 sq. ft. to work with in the kitchen. “It’s not huge,” he states, “so I’ve had to be very creative in making the space work.” The room did have space for a proper-sized island, which allowed for two water stations, a cleaning zone around the main sink, and a practical food preparation zone on the island, which is equipped with a secondary sink. “Everybody teaches designers to design a kitchen based on a working triangle, but things are different today,” says the designer. “When designing for clients, I always consider what zones they need, and each zone has its requirements.” For his main sink in his cleaning zone, he’s opted for a large rectangular sink. “I find there’s more demand for that these days than the two-compartment sinks,” he explains. “People tend to like the big sinks since the bigger pots fit in them nicely.” And while the work zones in his kitchen serve different functions, they do share a design style to tie everything together. “I ended up going with the same faucet, using the lav one for my bar sink and the bridge one for my main sink, so I have some cohesiveness to the look and some continuity, but with a bit of difference.”

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CONSERVING ENERGY IN THE PLUMBING

PUTTING TECHNOLOGY TO WORK IN THE KITCHEN While conservation tends to be the name of the game in plumbing, there are times when a lower flow will not result in water savings, like when filling a pot for pasta. To get the best of both worlds, quick tasking and water conservation, Ramsin Khachi likes using multi-flow faucets in the kitchen. “You hit a button and it gives you a little added boost of water,” he explains. “For the most part, it uses oneand-a-half gallons per minute, but if you want to fill a pot, you push the button and it gives you two gallons per minute. So it is not always running at two gallons per minute, which I think is ingenious.”

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With an eye towards conservation, Ramsin Khachi opted for a DHW system with a 90 per cent efficiency rating, and asked his plumber to route the drainage for all upstairs bathrooms to a single four-inch stack. “I have one five-foot Power Pipe recovering all of that heat,” he says, adding that the system saves about 30 per cent of the water heating costs.

A CONVENIENT OPTION Ramsin is a fan of pot fillers in the kitchens he designs, but is not short on installation stories that leave much to be desired. “I cannot tell you how many times I’ve come across pipes on an exterior wall, and there’s no easy fix for that because the granite is done, the backsplash is a solid piece of stone, and you have this beautiful pot filler, but for three months of the year it doesn’t work.”


Actual prize vehicle may differ

Please Print Clearly

CANADIAN INSTITUTE OF HEATING TING PLUMBING & HEA AT T


HYDRONICS

By Eric Riml

HYDRONIC TROUBLESHOOTING from the front lines O

ver the course of many years of over-the-phone troubleshooting for hydronic systems, working with contractors and system designers of all stripes, I’ve managed to amass quite a collection of commonly-posed questions. And I never mind answering them. Better to answer even the most basic of questions than to have a system not functioning properly in the field, or having burned-out product returned to the shop because something was installed or maintained improperly.

Eric Riml works as a hydronic designer for Cronkhite Supply in Calgary, Alberta. He can be reached at feedback@hotwaterheating.info.

Do I need a heat exchanger? Heat exchangers are now being required in some municipalities on any system where heated potable water is also used for space heating, so if the rule says to do it, I would not advise skipping it. I know I’ve seen enough bad installations that taking a few extra precautions sounds reasonable, and if the rule says to use one, and you have not, the liability factor is going to fall on your shoulders if something goes wrong.

Here’s a snapshot of a few of the questions that come my way on a regular basis. Feel free to add to my collection. Drop me a line anytime.

This boiler I’m about to replace runs flat out when it’s cold out – should I replace it with a bigger one?

On a combustion appliance, what does it mean when the burner lights and goes out?

No! Unless the tenants have been complaining about it being cold, it’s probably perfectly sized. Boilers are most efficient when fired continuously in a steady state, rather than cycling on and off. Furthermore, the new boiler should be at least five to 10 per cent more efficient than an older one, giving you that little bit more capacity that you might be looking for.

This problem is usually caused by a limit switch failure (flame sensor or vent high limit). Do not immediately assume that the limit has failed! Check the venting for obstructions, and otherwise ensure that the unit has the proper gas and air available to it. You can check these problems by putting a jumper on the limit switch and looking for signs of improper operation. Do not leave the limit switch jumpered! If the problem is intermittent and you don’t spot it during your inspection, bypassing a limit switch can leave you liable for any dangerous conditions that may exist.

How can I avoid burning out pumps on new systems? Why is this happening to me? You’re probably getting an air lock at the pump, which usually occurs when you haven’t purged all the air at startup. I’ve even seen it happen on pre-made panels. The best solution is to add a better air separator to your installations, rather than relying on air vents. The time saved on air purging will more than pay for the cost of the separator. I recommend a large-bodied, float-style separator with some kind of micro-bubble-catching mesh, to help keep the system air-free for life. continued on page 64

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HYDRONICS

continued from page 62

ERIC’S TOP FIVE TROUBLESHOOTING TIPS

Partnering with professionals to create better human environments.

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1. ENSURE THERE IS A DEMAND Assuming there’s a demand on the system – especially where electronic controls are involved – can cost you a long wait on hold to technical support. Most systems and appliances have to be told to fire in some way, and there may be no issue with the system except that it’s not being told to do anything!

1

Don’t think that you can jumper every system to provide a demand. Some controls require you to apply power rather than connect two contacts. But check the documentation first – you’ll let the magic smoke out if you apply power to something you’re not supposed to.

2. CHECK COMBUSTION AIR, GAS AND SPARK All combustion appliances rely on these three things to start. Most of the time a failure to fire means that one of these three things isn’t working.

2

This area is also the one where contractors make assumptions, like, “The gas pressure is always okay in the city, so I don’t have to test it.” I’ve seen something as simple as a plugged gas line screen cost hours of troubleshooting time. Air delivery can be blocked by all manner of debris, from insulation fibres to honey bees. Don’t assume you have all of these three things until you’ve made sure.

3. MAKE SURE THERE IS FLOW So the appliance fires, but then shuts down. Stupid thing. Why won’t it keep going? Well, sometimes it’s not its fault – the heat it produces isn’t going anywhere, so the appliance reaches high limit and shuts down.

3

Check your pumps. No, a warm, vibrating pump doesn’t mean that it’s working. Really check your pumps – get a pump indicator, and ensure that there is power to the pump with a multi-meter. Feel the pipes before and after the pump for temperature – even cold water has a different feel from a system that’s gotten to room temperature, and can be used to confirm flow.

4. GET THE AIR OUT Air locks are one of the most frustrating things, because it’s not a problem you can visually see. Many flow problems are caused by air lock, and even a lot of “free air” in a system can cause some boilers to refuse to fire because it fools their pressure sensors into thinking there’s no flow (and they may even falsely show a flow error).

4

Despite flushing a system loop-by-loop, the “free air” might only come out using air separators and circulating the system.

5. GET THE MAKE, MODEL AND SERIAL NUMBER When you get stuck, and we all get stuck sometime, you’re going to have to look up documentation or call someone for the unit you’re fixing. It’s nearly impossible to find this information without the make, model and serial number. Write this down the first time you’re at the job site, and you’ll save yourself a lot of time.

5

In addition to troubleshooting, you’ll need this information to check warranty, get parts, and possibly find alternates to old components. I wish every plumbing instructor would hammer this into new students, because with so many products on the market, it’s becoming impossible to find parts without make, model and serial number. continued on page 66

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SYSTEM DESIGN TIPS Buildings should be zoned into areas according to function, usage, and outdoor and solar exposure. In a residence, bedrooms should be zoned separately from living and dining areas.

Whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s this about loop drawings for my permit? For those indignant about the idea that someone else has to tell them how to lay infloor pipe â&#x20AC;&#x201C; relax. The idea is to ensure that the homeowner is protected from shabby installations by having a certified hydronic designer, or an engineer, indicate what is required for the building in question, rather than risking having inexperienced installers (or homeowners!) install their own systems and end up with poorly-functioning heating systems. The drawings also document how the whole assembly should be built, including insulation, heat transfer plates, rebar, and the like.

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HYDRONIC Heat pump dehumidifier ClimateMaster’s ClimaDry modulating reheat and dehumidification option is a dedicated dehumidification mode that uses water in the reheat process to provide a constant leaving air temperature to the occupied space. The technology is available on most of the company’s heat pumps.

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Pump control stations The PSS Control Station from HPS Controls is a wall-mounted station featuring a primary loop with pump and one to six zone pumps. Boiler supply and return is available at either the bottom left or bottom right side of the station, and all field stations can be adjusted using jumpers.

www. hpscontrols.com

Commercial boilers Vantage condensing boilers from Fulton are available in 2 million to 6 million BTUH sizes, and offer up to 96.9 thermal efficiency. Operating weights range between 5,100 and 12,000 lb., and the units have flue outlet diameters between 10” and 14”, depending on the model.

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Joist space heating

Fan coils The Briza fan coil from Jaga Climate Systems measures 5-3/4” deep and is available in two-pipe and four-pipe configurations. Offered in a range of colours, the fans produce 30 dBA and can be mounted horizontally or vertically. Designed to minimize the mechanical equipment footprint and ceiling plenums, they feature low water volume and are constructed from recyclable materials.

The Rauplate joist space radiant heating system from Rehau features one pipe channel on each edge and a pre-drilled, single-plate design that accommodates two runs of half-inch barrier pipe. The unit has an aluminum plate that offers radiant heat output without striping.

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A primary/secondary conundrum The house needed a mod/con boiler, domestic hot water, a hot water air handler with A/C and a couple of zones of in-floor heating. There are two temperatures required for the in-floor heating, one for the air handler and one for the indirect water heater. The house is about 4,000 sq. ft., and there are four bathrooms. The master bath has a multi-head shower (6.5 gpm) plus an 80 gallon soaker tub. The other three bathrooms have a standard tub and shower combo (1.75 gpm each). The heat loss for the house is about 118,000 BTUH.

Jeff House is an experienced industry professional and hydronics trainer. He handles the sales territory from the Niagara region to the Greater Toronto Area for Jess-Don Dunford, a manufacturers’ rep in Ontario. He can be reached at jhouse@jessdondunford.com.

You choose a mod/con boiler with a net output of 146,000 BTUH and a 40 gallon indirect water heater. You opt to build the primary loop. Since the boiler has 1” connections you make the primary loop with 1” connections and start adding the four zones required. You decide on a manufacturer-built P/S “T” to make the install faster. Once up and running, the owner says the in-floor is not working properly and the DHW doesn’t recover as fast as he expected.

BASED ON THIS INFORMATION: 1. Based on the net input of the boiler and assuming a 20°F delta T, the primary loop should be: a) 1” just like the boiler connections. b) after “doing the math” you should have used 1-1/4”. c) 1-1/2” worked on the last job, should have used it here. d) it doesn’t matter because it is a modulating boiler, and the boiler will adjust the flow internally, right? 2. You are not sure why the DHW can’t keep up. The literature says you get 132 gallons per hour. That should be more than enough hot water. You used a priority zoning panel and the boiler goes to highfire for domestic hot water calls. The indirect connections are 3/4” and that is what you used to connect from the primary loop. You “do the math” and discover that the total flow could be: a) 5 gpm b) about 12 gpm c) It doesn’t matter, I have used this system on lots of jobs and it always works. d) You must have a bad indirect. Take it back to the wholesaler and get a new one. e) I will just put a flow restrictor on the roman tub filler, and slow the flow down. 3. The owner complains that sometimes the air handler blows cooler air. Not all the time, just when it starts to get much colder. You look at the piping and decide you should have: a) prioritized the air handler so the in-floor shuts off when the air handler is running. b) just turned the system temperature up when it got cold. c) put the high temperature load first. d) walked away. You can’t help this customer, he is just a complainer.

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4. The proper way to do this job would be to: a) take some basic hydronic training from manufacturers or trade associations. b) use a pre-built hydronic system using a low-loss header with pumping modules so that it is just plug and play and repeatable. c) follow the instructions. d) all of the above!

Answer and win! YOU COULD WIN! Just send us your answer key to this month’s puzzle by January 6, and you could be warm in 2012 in an M12 Cordless Lithium-Ion Heated Jacket, courtesy of Milwaukee Electric Tool. Send your answers, and jacket size (small to 3XL), to adam.freill@mechanicalbusiness.com and the jacket could be yours.

Congratulations to Trent Moore, of F.C. O'Neill, Scriven and Associates Limited in Halifax, N.S., a recent Find the Fix winner. He’s the proud new owner of a Milwaukee M12 Cordless No-Hub Driver. Be sure to pick up the next edition of Mechanical Business to see who claims the next prize, and for the next edition of Find the Fix!

Looking for the answers? The answer key for the September/October quiz is: 1-D, 2-A, 3-B, 4- B or C If you need the quiz, check it out in our issue archive at www.mechanicalbusiness.com.


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HVAC/R

By Domenic Capobianco Domenic Capobianco, B.Sc. is a product specialist at Carlo Gavazzi (Canada) Inc. He can be reached at dcapobianco@carlogavazzi.com.

The hidden costs of installing

s we strive to be more energy conscious, it is not unusual to look around a facility to find ways to reduce energy consumption. A common action is to take a look at motor loads throughout the facility and consider upgrading them to more energy efficient models.

A

Just installing a motor that is energy efficient will not necessarily reduce the monthly energy bill, however. There are a few points to consider when installing a new motor. It is imperative to ensure that the motor is 1, properly sized for the application, and 2, properly started. In industrial settings, motors make up a large percentage of the total electricity bill. Electrical motors will not only affect the electricity bill directly by increasing the amount of energy (kWh) used during the day, but if the motors are improperly sized, they will also negatively affect the bill by causing a poor power factor (PF). This increases the poor power factor penalties, something that the facility owner will have to pay for.

THE POWER FACTOR Under-loaded motors are one of the key reasons for a poor power factor in industrial environments. Power factor (PF) is the ratio between the amount of energy supplied (VA) to the actual amount of energy used (W). The result is known as reactive power (VAR), and is essentially wasted energy capacity. Power factor is defined as a number between 0 and 1. Typically, heaters or resistive loads will have a power factor of 1. The more motor or inductive loads on a Apparent Power (VA) system, the greater the Reactive likelihood that this Power VAR figure will be below 1.0.

Another negative effect that’s felt on the energy bill can happen if motors are started incorrectly. This could greatly influence the power demand charge (DMD). Motor loads make up a large portion of electrical equipment used in all types of settings from residential to industrial. By analyzing the motors we have, and taking such steps as upgrading them or changing our behaviors on how and when we start them, we can reduce the amount of energy we are consuming. These changes will drastically reduce maintenance and costly downtime and, at the end of the day, save a bit of money. continued on page 72

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For a motor to operate, two types of power are required, both W “real” and VAR “Imaginary” power. In the diagram, “apparent power” is what is supplied from the utility. Real Power (W)

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The windings inside the motor need to be magnetized in order for the motor to operate. This magnetic field does not do any useful work, but is necessary, that is why this portion of the energy used is called “imaginary power.” If the motor is over-sized for an application, this can drastically reduce the quality of the power in the entire facility. The larger the motor, the more imaginary power required to drive that motor.


HVAC/R continued from page 70

POWER FACTOR PENALTIES Many utilities charge a power factor penalty as power factor decreases.

Power Factor 0.9+ 0.88 - 0.9 0.85 - 0.88 0.80 - 0.85 0.75 - 0.80 0.70 - 0.75 0.65 - 0.70 0.60 - 0.65 0.55 - 0.60 0.50 - 0.55 0.50 or less

Surcharge Nil 2% 4% 9% 16% 24% 34% 44% 57% 72% 80%

100% 80% % POWER 60% FACTOR 40%

20% 0% 0

25% 50% 75% 100% % MOTOR LOAD

The graph above illustrates the reduction in power factor as the load is reduced on the motor.

A GOOD START The most basic way to start a motor is by applying full voltage to the motor terminals. This is known as a direct online start (DOL). Performing a DOL on a motor will have many negative effects on the system, including causing voltage drops on the supply system, due to the high inrush of currents created when initiating the DOL. New high-efficiency motors can have an inrush of up 15 times the motorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s normal running current. Even on standard motors, the inrush can be in the range of six to seven times the normal current. This means every time power is applied to a pump, compressor, fan, etc., the

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facility could experience voltage dips, light flickering, breaker trips, and the pitting and burning of contacts, all due to the current draws that can be many times the motor full load current. This can result in continuous maintenance of equipment, and a greater chance of unscheduled shutdowns, and increased costs due to the need to oversize mechanical and electrical components to cater to the power surges at start up.

SPIKING THE BILL With every start of the motor, the current will spike. For a motor controlling a pump or a fan that turns on and off multiple times a day, this can translate into quite a few spikes. So what? Well, the second-largest charge on a monthly energy bill is for the peak electrical demand (kWdmd). So, it may be possible to significantly reduce the total charge for electricity simply by reducing the peak demand charge, even if the total electricity use during the billing period remains the same. This charge occurs on the bill because the utility needs to be able to provide enough energy to sustain these spikes. If they donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t, we risk having brown out conditions. This is sometimes seen on the first hot day of summer when everyone in a neighbourhood turns on the air conditioning at the same time. All these large spikes at one time are too much for the utility to supply, and we end up with a brown out. The demand charge is calculated over a 15 minute window, so if the motor is started a few times in that time period, the spikes that occur are sensed and included in the calculation. The more spikes, the higher the demand, and therefore, the higher the energy bill.

Start softly A sure-fire way to drastically reduce power spikes is by correctly starting motors. A soft start is the best way to achieve this. A soft start works by varying the voltage by starting from an adjustable point and gradually increasing to the rated voltage in an adjustable period of time. Benefits of starting this way include eliminating water hammering in water pumps, reduced break downs, eliminating sudden stress on mechanical parts, and no more light flickering or the false tripping of breakers. With a soft start the spikes induced on a system at motor start up are reduced, which in turn eliminates the costly demand charges.

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HVAC/R The GMVC95 from Goodman Air Conditioning and Heating is a multiposition, two-stage variable-speed gas furnace that features a dualdiameter tubular heat exchanger. The cabinet is constructed of heavygauge steel with a baked-enamel finish and is fully insulated. The furnace offers multi-position installation, and is available in sizes ranging from 30,800 to 115,000 BTUH with an AFUE of up to 95 per cent.

Perfect-Platform Series media air cleaners from Rheem Canada are designed to remove atmospheric and household dust, mites, pollen and mould spores down to 0.3 microns in size. The 5-1/4” MERV 11 filter is equipped with two pull-out doors with handles to allow access from either side.

www. goodmanmfg.com

www. rheem.com In the movie Juno, Juno’s father is an HVAC technician.

Your Air-tight Home Might be a Health Hazard. We Have the Answer. Our HRVs move stale, contaminated air to the outdoors and replace it with fresh outside air with virtually no loss of heating or cooling. Protect your family and yourself from the effects of stale contaminated indoor air. We’ll show you how with a Lifebreath® HRV.

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Setting a new standard for energy efficient, clean air homes

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HVAC/R

Designed for HVAC applications, Aquatherm’s Climaderm SDR 17.6 is available in diameters ranging from six- to 24”. The fused pipe systems feature monolithic connections that do not require glues, resins or soldering.

www. aquathermpipe.com

Testo’s 6381 differential pressure transmitter is designed to monitor differential pressure in the measuring range from 10Pa to 1,000 hPa. Featuring metal housing, a multi-language operating menu, and automatic zero-point adjustment, the unit offers Ethernet, relay and analogue outputs, as well as integrated self-monitoring and early warning functions.

www. testo.com

SpacePak’s Chiller Series air-to-water reverse cycle heat pumps can be used in a variety of applications, including radiant floor systems, domestic hot water, dehumidification or conventional air systems with multiple air handlers. They are designed to produce up to 67,000 BTUH in ambient temperatures as low as 10˚F.

www. spacepak.com

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ROAD WARRIOR

By David Janzen

Photos: Lou Recine

What advice do you offer students who are writing the exam? Do not procrastinate; write it as soon as you possibly can. The best time to write is when you just finish trade school, since everything is still fresh in your head and you are still in the habit of studying.

Favourite car: Porsche Turbo

Name: Michael Covelli Title: Vice-president, Park Lane Plumbing Ltd.; Author, Plumber Certificate of Qualification Pre-Exam Workbook, Second Edition Born and resides in: Toronto, Ont. Age: 24 Family: Wife, Marina; father, Sam; mother, Vaselle; and sister, Monika. Education: University of Western Ontario, Bachelor of Management and Organizational Studies; George Brown College, Plumbing Apprenticeship & G3 Gas License Greatest Teacher: Rainier Blundel, George Brown College

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Author of Plumber Certificate of Qualification, Second Edition

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fter finishing his plumbing apprenticeship, and graduating with an A average in trade school, Michael Covelli thought passing the licensing exam would have been easy for him. That was not the case. “I was confronted with several questions on topics which were never taught to me in trade school,” he reports. “This was not the fault of my teachers, but was because the committee had changed the exam from being provincial to national.” The change means that every plumbing apprentice in Canada now writes the same plumbing licensing exam, which is based on the National Code. Since most trade schools teach the provincial code that is applicable in their part of the country, some parts of the test may not be covered under the various curricula under which each school teaches. “This means when you go to write the exam you could be given questions on subjects which your provincial curriculum may not have covered,” explains Covelli. “Even in trade school, the exam was shrouded in mystery. Guys in class would constantly talk about the latest rumour they heard about the exam. It was hard to decipher the truth from the fiction.” This, he says, was the main reason why he decided to write a book. He wanted to help those who wanted to join the trade, but had run into similar challenges as he and his classmates when trying to earn their Red Seal. The book aims to put rumours about the exam to rest, and to help future journeymen prepare for their Certificates of Qualification.

Looking for a copy of Mike’s book? Plumber Certificate of Qualification Pre-Exam Workbook, Second Edition can be purchased online at www.orderline.com, or at college bookstores and branches of Noble.

What prompted you to go to trade school following the completion of your degree? It was a decision to take my business knowledge and apply it to improving the family business. Most common mistake you’ve seen on jobsites: Improper backflow installations. What vehicles are in the company fleet? GMC Vandura 2500 series vans and Chevy Express vans Time behind the wheel per day: 2 hours Service area: Toronto and the GTA What do you drive? Audi A3 Favourite band/performer: Franz Ferdinand Celebrity to take to lunch: Quentin Tarantino, because his movies are genius. Favourite sports team: Toronto Maple Leafs When the Leafs win the Cup, how do you plan on celebrating? First, I’d probably pass out, and then I’d most likely join the party downtown. Blackberry, iPhone or Android? iPhone Do you have any pets? No, but I would like a dog.

Favourite movie: Inglourious Basterds Do you consider yourself a cook? Very much so, I lived on my own for four years, so I needed to learn. I enjoy cooking pasta dishes with different sauces. Where’s the best place on campus at George Brown to get a bite to eat? There’s an Italian place in the basement called La Dolce Vita. Where do you like to vacation? I haven’t been on a true vacation in a while, but we went to the Bahamas on our honeymoon. Closer to home, I like to go to Niagara Falls. What’s the best advice you’ve ever received? If you’re going to do something, do it well. Favourite Television series? The Office. Dwight cracks me up. If you won the lottery, what would you do? Buy a house and a new car. What message would you send to younger people about the industry? It is a good industry to get into, skilled tradesmen are in demand. What other college program practically pays your tuition for you, provides income assistance while you are in school, and offers several cash bonuses for finishing all the levels of your apprenticeship?

What’s on your radio? Top 40 z103 in Toronto

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PLUMBING

By Chris Thompson

PRESERVING our resources

I have never met anyone who has given me a good reason why we should use clean potable drinking water to flush toilets. Builders are beginning to realize that we don’t need to be flushing our fresh water, however, and some are now offering greywater recycling and rainwater harvesting systems in residential and commercial projects.

reywater recycling is one solution to water shortages and the high cost of water treatment. A greywater system captures used water from bathtubs and showers and uses it to flush toilets. A properly-sized system can nearly eliminate the use of any potable water for flushing. By reusing bath water to flush toilets, the average family can save 30 to 40 per cent of its potable water use, and similarly, 30 to 40 per cent of the water they send back out as waste.

G

Installation costs in homes that are already built is, perhaps, the biggest single issue that will slow the adoption of greywater recycling. For most homeowners, unless they live in a bungalow with an unfinished basement, or are already planning to do renovations, the cost of re-plumbing for a whole home greywater-recycling system may limit the potential to save water. Because shower and bathtub drains need to be rerouted separate from the main stack, some larger modern homes would simply require too much renovation to make a greywater recycling system practical. While the simple plumbing changes required to install a greywater system can be impractical in retrofitting some existing homes, it’s very easy to do in new construction or during a major renovation. One strategy that is becoming more common with builders is to rough in the plumbing for a greywater system in every house they build. This gives the customer the option to include a system at the time of construction or add one at any point down the road. With the cost of rough in piping often below $500 per house, this is a good way to educate customers and offer a “greywater ready” home. Many homebuilders are starting to offer fully-installed greywater recycling systems in all of their new homes now, and some municipalities are offering rebates. While this is great news, some builders are still reluctant to add technologies that will increase the cost of their homes, citing tough economic

continued on page 80

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Chris Thompson is the business development manager at Project Innovations Distribution Inc., the Canadian distributor of Brac Residential and Commercial Greywater Recycling and Rainwater Harvesting products, and is a member of the Ontario Plumbing Inspectors Association (OPIA) and the Canadian Water Quality Association (CWQA). He can be reached at cthompson@projectinnovations.ca.

PAYING FOR ITSELF Based on today’s water and sewage rates, a properly-sized greywater recycling system installed in a new residential application will yield a payback of somewhere between 7 and 10 years for an average sized family. As water rates increase, this payback will shorten.

Toilet flushing typically consumes 30 to 40 per cent of the water we use in our homes.


PLUMBING

continued from page 78

times and stiff competition even though many of these technologies can drastically reduce the longterm cost of home ownership. For the typical cost of about 50 feet of 2” ABS pipe and a similar amount of 1/2” PEX or copper piping, homes can be sold as greywater ready. In some projects, the traditional sewage stacks may be able to be reduced in size due to the reduction in fixtures they are serving.

With a greywater system, the typical annual savings for a family of 5 is about $250 per year.

ROUGHING IT IN Roughing in a greywater system typically is relatively simple. Bathtub and shower drains will need to be routed to a separate, vented stack (usually only 1-1/2” or 2”) that terminates at the building drain in the basement. The location in the basement should be one suitable for the installation of the system, such as a laundry room, furnace area or even under the stairs. Also, the toilets in the house will need to be supplied by a dedicated supply that branches off to each of the toilets. This supply line should be labelled or run using purple PEX, a product that is now available through most wholesale suppliers. This new supply line should loop past or terminate at the location of the system. If offering only a “greywater ready” home, this line would be fed by the traditional potable water supply and the collected greywater from the tubs and showers would go to the normal building drain.

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ROUGH IN


Flocor carries thousands of combinations and styles of valves, pipe, fittings and hangers along with a premier line of fire protection sprinklers and related equipment as well as water works pipe, fittings and valves. With this comprehensive product lineup, Flocor can continuously meet the needs of the industrial, commercial, fire protection and municipal markets. No one knows the PVF market or products better than Flocor. Expertise and technical support is easily accessible through over 100 professionals across Canada ready to help you make the right choice. To find out more, or to reach the nearest FLOCOR distribution office, please call us toll free at 1-855-FLOCOR-1 (1-855-356-2671). Or visit us at www.flocor.ca


PLUMBING

continued from page 80

INSTALLING IN A GREYWATER-READY HOME When it’s time to install the system in a greywater-ready home, the installer only needs to cut into the greywater stack and route the incoming water to the filtered input of the system and route the system overflow back into the building drain. The greywater line that supplies the toilets would be reconnected to the pumped output on the greywater system and the potable line would be fed into the makeup water system. Of course, all of these connections can be made at the time of rough in if the home is being outfitted with a whole system. INSTALL

PRESSURE ON OUR WATER INFRASTRUCTURE Canada seems to have an abundant supply of fresh water, but fresh water is not something that we should be taking for granted, especially since supply is not the only issue. Water costs are largely associated with the energy costs of treating it and pumping it to our homes.

SYSTEM XFR ® – The world’s first PVC DWV piping system rated for plenums & high rises

A

s any contractor or engineer knows, cast iron is heavy, cumbersome and prone to corrosion. That’s why we’ve created System XFR , a revolutionary PVC Drain, Waste and Vent piping system rated for high rises and plenums. ®

System XFR® is 75% lighter than equivalent lengths of cast iron, making it easier to handle and install. Very durable, it won’t rust, pit, scale or corrode like cast iron and its interior and exterior walls stay smooth, ensuring years of reliable service.

With a crumbling infrastructure leaking an average of 17 per cent of the fresh water it carries, and population increases raising the demand for water beyond what the infrastructure can supply, substantial investment will need to be made for expansion and repair of our fresh water and sewer systems.

And as the world’s first uncoated PVC DWV system fully approved for non-combustible applications, XFR® meets all fire-resistance and smoke development code requirements. Add up all the advantages and it’s clear that System XFR® is the preferred choice for DWV in non-combustible construction.

To find out more, call us at 1-866-473-9462 or visit: w w w. i pexinc.co m

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Products manufactured by IPEX Inc. System XFR® is a trademark of IPEX Branding Inc.

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Beyond expansion of treatment systems, conservation measures, like greywater reuse, are also a part of the solution. Municipalities have already begun to stress water conservation, and some are asking builders to reduce the fresh water draw in new subdivisions.


PLUMBING The Parker 60” tub shower has a smooth acrylic surface that is designed to resist fading and scratching. The unit is available in a standard 20” bathtub height or an easy-access 16” height. It comes with an sshaped grab bar for safety.

www. mirolin.com

Liquifit quick connect fittings and valves, distributed by Aggressive Water Technologies, feature EPDM D seals. Engineered polymer construction provides mechanical strength and chemical resistance, and the full stainless gripping ring eliminates the need for locking clips. The line includes fittings and valves in 1/4” to 1/2” OD sizes.

www. aggressivewater.com

Blanco Silgranit kitchen sinks are made of a composite material using 80 per cent natural granite. Manufactured in both Canada and Germany, the sinks come in a choice of six colours that are scratch-proof and heat- and stain-resistant.

www. blancocanada.com M e c h a n i c a l

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REFRIGERATION

By Henry Pellerin

d epa t o N ry ign f prima e used s e o b D can iety

GOES GREEN WITH GLYCOL W

s ar A v erant ased to g i r l-b tems ref glyco s al y h t s nment e. n a wit r o nc rige nvir forma ref ize e per im opt nergy e and

hen Longo’s Supermarkets set out to build a LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) certified head office and distribution centre, the company’s plans included an environmentally friendly glycol-based secondary refrigeration system for the warehouse.

With glycol, 100 per cent of the heat exchanger is used, since it is fully flooded. In a traditional DX system, 90 per cent of the evaporator is used, with the other 10 per cent being used to produce superheat.

Longo’s was already using glycol on the retail side of its business, but the new warehouse installation also yielded advantages, including increased useable warehouse space; decreased installation, capital and maintenance costs; and improved system redundancies. “We started using glycol three or four years ago in the stores, and have become more and more comfortable with glycol as a

Simplified

installation

and maintenance

The use of glycol as a refrigerant medium allows the use of such alternative piping materials as ABS and water-grade copper. This can help reduce installation costs. In addition, the system deployed by Longo’s eliminates the use of thermal expansion valves and EPR valves. With the use of food-grade glycol in the secondary loop, walk-ins do not require the leak detection systems that can be required in some jurisdictions. And since the system operates on low pressure (55 psi), it is not as prone to leaks, which minimizes a major maintenance concern.

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refrigeration medium,” explains Paul Collette, project manager, real estate and construction for Longo’s Supermarkets. “We also like the green aspects of the systems.” Longo’s chose a mechanical centre configuration that eliminated the need for a conventional compressor room and freed up more warehouse space for its intended purpose – warehousing product. Two roof-mounted mechanical centres were installed to house the refrigeration systems for the warehouse. Combined, the two secondary warehouse units provide 185 tons of refrigeration for more than 56,000 square feet of space. Each of the units has two medium-temperature racks and two glycol pump stations. A conventional low-temperature rack is also included in one of the units. Furthering the energy efficiency benefits of the system, the company is recycling waste heat from the refrigeration system racks. Waste heat is used to heat glycol, which is then circulated through pipes underneath the freezer to keep the ground from freezing and heaving. The same waste heat process is used to pre-heat air for the office space.

DIFFERENT FLUID, DIFFERENT PIPE Glycol-based systems use foodgrade, inhibited glycols as the heat transfer fluid. The use of these glycol products may allow for the use of alternate piping materials, including some plastics.


• New options • Simplified installation and maintenance

NEW OPTIONS

for warehouse refrigeration Until recently, the options for refrigerating large commercial and industrial facilities (i.e., cold storage warehouses, distribution centers, and ripening facilities) have generally been ammonia-based and HCFC, or more recently HFC, refrigerant systems. While these are both viable options, code requirements in some jurisdictions can call for full-time, on-site engineers for ammonia systems – for safety and other operational reasons. Over the years, alternative refrigeration systems, like glycol and CO2, have emerged as alternatives to ammonia and direct expansion (DX) systems for commercial and industrial operations. The systems can be deployed in numerous configurations, ranging from machine rooms and mechanical centres to distributed system enclosures for retail applications. Mechanical centres can be completely self-contained, factory-built and delivered to the customer pre-wired, pre-piped and preassembled. The “plug-and-play” format reduces installation costs. Glycol in a warehouse application allows for larger but fewer heat exchangers/air-units compared to a similar-sized DX system, effectively reducing capital costs, and possibly long-term mechanical maintenance. From a design standpoint, because a glycol system utilizes a parallel or multi-compressor system, redundancy is built-in.

within the motor room and the external condensers. Fluid-cooling heat exchangers in the motor room handle the entire load instead of individual heat exchangers. This means that refrigerant leaks cannot occur in the warehouse area, since no refrigerant is circulated in that space. Heat is absorbed in the heat exchangers through fully-flooded coils specifically designed for secondary system operation. The glycol is pumped from the warehouse through a low-pressure piping network back to the machine room where heat is transferred through chiller heat exchangers from the secondary system to the primary HFC system.

Medium temperature secondary refrigeration replaces the traditional refrigeration multi-circuited piping system with a chilled fluid loop system. The HFC refrigerant used by the system is contained entirely

Henry Pellerin is the director of marketing programs with Hill Phoenix. He can be contacted at henry.pellerin@hillphoenix.com.

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HVAC

By Tony Fedel

Photo: Kimberly-Clark Corporation

Putting off

Tony Fedel is the market manager for Kimberly-Clark Professional Filtration. He can be reached at tfedel@kcc.com.

FILTER CHANGES can be costly ustomers who want to reduce their building maintenance expenses may be looking at their HVAC system costs and wondering if there are things that can be adjusted to reduce costs associated with the equipment. A common question that comes up is whether buildings can save hundreds, or even thousands, of dollars a year by reducing the frequency of air filter change-outs, or by downgrading to a lower-priced filter?

C

The short answer is no. The amount that can be saved by reducing or eliminating air filter purchases, or by purchasing lower-priced (and lower efficiency) filters, pales in comparison to the additional expenses stemming from energy and operating costs associated with equipment that is not being properly maintained and serviced.

EXPLAINING AIRPRESSURE FILTRATION COSTS FEELING THE While purchasing fewer filters may reduce initial expenses, delaying filter change-outs can cause the filter to run more days at peak airflow resistance and energy usage. It doesn’t take long for peak energy usage cost to offset any savings in the filter price. This is because energy use is the largest operating cost involved in air filtration. In fact, a filter’s energy consumption accounts for 80 per cent of its total lifecycle costs. Moreover, the cost of energy used to operate the filter can be more than eight times the initial purchase price of the filter itself. It comes down to physics; the energy used to operate the filters is directly proportional to the airflow resistance of the filters. The more resistance, due to clogged filters that aren’t changed out as frequently as needed, the more energy is needed to push air through the filter. Resistance typically increases as filters remove more contaminants from the air. This filtration is essential for air quality and protection of HVAC equipment, but it comes at a high cost when filter change-outs are delayed. Delaying filter maintenance not only increases energy consumption, it also increases CO2 emissions. The extra energy consumed by dirty filters drives up energy production and greenhouse gas emissions, making delayed filter maintenance extremely costly to a company, and to the environment.

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The benefit of adequate filtration A proper filtration program is necessary to keep HVAC systems running cleanly and efficiently. Without adequate protection to HVAC equipment, particle deposits can build on fans and cooling and heating coils, a problem known as “fouling.” Fouling greatly reduces airflow through the HVAC system and prevents heat transfer in the coils, all of which can add up to a significant increase in energy costs. Fouling also leads to expensive and timeconsuming fan and coil cleaning. continued on page 88


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HVAC

continued from page 86

FILTER MAINTENANCE CRITICAL FOR GOOD PERFORMANCE Filters will support good indoor air quality and perform as specified only when they are maintained correctly. Proper filter maintenance is crucial to keeping HVAC ductwork clean. If dirt accumulates in the ductwork, and if the relative humidity reaches the dewpoint so that condensation occurs, then it can become a breeding ground for bacteria and mould.

Photo: Kimberly-Clark Corporation

It is therefore important to establish the appropriate filter change-out frequency. However, filters should be changed immediately if they become wet, if microbial growth on the filter media is visible, or when the filters collapse or become damaged to the extent that air bypasses the filter media. Pay close attention to filter installation during change-outs. The goal is to prevent bypass air (air that does not go through the filter media). This occurs when filter media is not properly sealed in the filter frame, when filters are not properly installed and

gasketed in filter racks, or when air handler doors and ducts are not properly sealed. Bypass air can cause contamination in housings, coils, fans and ducts, and can increase system operating costs. Fouled heat exchangers have diminished heat transfer performance and increased pressure drop, leading to significantly increased energy use and decreased heating and cooling performance. Bypass air can also decrease a filterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s in-use performance and negatively affect IAQ.

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• Filter Maintenance • Impact of bypass air

COMMUNICATION AND UNDERSTANDING Mechanical contractors should be aware that, in some companies, the department and budget responsible for purchasing air filters and filter service contracts may not be the same department, and budget, responsible for energy expenditures. The problem inherent in this system is that the filter purchaser can easily and innocently make a costly decision for the enterprise by choosing to buy filters without considering the energy consumption and system operating implications.

THE IMPACT OF BYPASS AIR

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Bypass air tends to have a larger effect on high-performance filters. A one millimeter gap can cause a MERV 15 filter to perform like a MERV 14, while a 10 mm gap can cause that MERV 15 filter to perform like a MERV 8.

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Marketing with DOUG MACMILLAN

Peace of mind that makes sense ast week, our HVAC technician arrived right on schedule to do our annual cleaning and inspection. No more than 20 minutes later, he popped his head into the kitchen to let us know the furnace and A/C are both in fine working order. After issuing our annual gentle reminder to clean the filter more often, he was on his way.

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“That,” I told my wife as the van pulled away, “costs us thirty-some bucks a month.” But we both understand we are buying assurance, and prevention of a costly and irritating furnace breakdown. If repair work is necessary, we know our protection plan (or is it a comfort plan? Or, a comfort protection maintenance service plan? I can never remember...) means we receive preferred pricing on parts and labour.

All in all, it’s a modest investment in peace-of-mind. These plans can be a tough sell, though. We’ll tune-up our cars and visit the dental hygienist regularly, yet homeowners struggle to see the same value in preventive care of their HVAC equipment. How do you put a dollar value on that peace-of-mind when everything is working just fine? Effectively marketed, however, your “Protection Comfort Service Maintenance Assurance Plan” can solve many business objectives, providing steady cash flow, a regular opportunity to identify new work, and an easy way to help your community.

Selling the plans, and selling them well Over the years, I’ve seen some contractors build their protection plan businesses very well. Here are some of the things I’ve learned from them:

Talk it up - Make these plans your lead marketing story. Make sure they are a dominant feature on your website, and that you have a special brochure for home visits, a decal on vehicles and a corner blow-out on lawn signs. Everything in your marketing should lead people back to the plans.

Give ‘em away - You heard me: A oneyear protection plan is a perfect donation for charitable auctions, fundraisers or to charities that themselves have HVAC equipment. Contractors can write-off the value and get a lot of brand recognition – and new customers – in the process.

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Do the math for customers - It’s tough to sell the soft benefits, so provide scenarios that quantify the savings. What’s the cost of an emergency call? What about repair or replacement costs? Shortened equipment life will cost more in the long run. Peace of mind is a free fringe benefit; not what they’re paying for. Keep it simple - Avoid offering too many levels, complicated price tiers or exclusions. It’s that fine print that can kill a deal.

Make it easy - Many small companies are reluctant to offer monthly pre-authorized payments because of the banking fees involved. These fees often outweigh the advantage of being able to give customers an easy monthly payment option that better fits their household budgets. Doug MacMillan is president of MacMillan Marketing Group in Guelph, Ont. To reach him, e-mail dmac@macmillanmarketing.com.

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Leverage emergency calls - For new emergency service customers, waive or reduce your “no heat” service call fee for customers who sign up on the spot. It will pay off over the long term.

Reach out to past customers Promoting protection plans is a perfect excuse to connect with previous one-off customers. Mine your old database and put a direct mailing and telephone sales program together. Make it an offer they can’t refuse, such as three months of free protection, or a free gift for a limited time.

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Offer them to real estate agents - It’s a great advantage to a real estate agent to be able to sell a home with a protection plan in place for the first year. Certain conditions will need to apply, of course, but it’s an ideal way to be the first – and possibly only – HVAC name associated with a new homeowner. Partner with others - As with real estate agents, homeowners rely on other trusted professionals such as insurance agents and mortgage brokers who truly understand that a protection plan can protect their interests. Offer free seminars to educate professionals. Include special offers or incentives when they promote your plans to their clients.


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hether you’re into plumbing, HVAC, or both, at some point in time you’ll have run into a brick (or cement) wall, and needed to make a sizeable hole. Anything in the one-inch and smaller range is easy enough – grab the drill and a decent masonry bit and grit your teeth for a while. When it comes to bigger pipes and vents, however, a solid bit is not going to cut it, and that’s where a core bit gets the call.

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Like a hole saw, but significantly stronger, a core-drilling bit only cuts with the kerf of the blade. It has an open centre that allows the concrete to enter inside the bit. Some bits have a smaller usable depth than others, but deeper drilling with more-shallow-cupped bits can generally be accomplished with the help of an extension. Just remember to remove the inside core before doing any deeper drilling.

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Since these bits use a perimeter or kerf cut, manufacturers of these bits have worked not only on the type and orientation of the teeth, they’ve also come up with different wall thicknesses. This makes it possible to do a bit of concrete removal with a hand-held tool, regardless of whether the concrete is well-seasoned or relatively fresh. Core bits can be used on core drills, as well as small and large rotary hammers. If the hole is smaller than a six-inch diameter, it might be possible to go with a hammer drill and a coring bit, or even some standard drills – just check your RPM range and torque if you are thinking about dropping one of these bits onto your “old standby” drill.

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HVAC

By Carol Fey

Improving

INDOOR AIR QUALITY

Carol Fey is a technical trainer who has worked as a heating mechanic in Antarctica and has published six books for the HVAC/R industry. She can be reached at carol@carolfey.com, or visit her website, www.carolfey.com.

The Easy and Inexpensive Way ventilation or maintaining filters are often difficult and expensive.

hen there is an indoor air quality (IAQ) problem, it is often seen as the HVAC industryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s responsibility to fix it. After all, it is indoor air quality, and HVAC is responsible for the air in a building.

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Thatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s where source control, the third IAQ method, comes into play. This is all about keeping pollutants from getting into the building, since once they are in the building they are going to get into the air.

The HVAC industry often takes on the difficult and expensive solutions, such as adding equipment or re-routing ductwork. But a lot can be gained by looking at solutions that are easy and cheap, or even free. The primary methods for addressing IAQ problems are ventilation (dilution), filtration and source control. The first two, ventilation and filtration, land squarely in the lap of the HVAC professional. These deal with getting pollutants out of the air once they are there. Sure, cleaning the air can be a good business, but it is on the reactive end of things. It is about cleaning up the mess that someone else made. Sometimes the mess gets made faster than air handling equipment can clean it up, and the HVAC profession looks ineffective. And fixes such as adding

True, source control is not usually seen as HVAC turf by either building management or HVAC contractors, and it is not like the HVAC guy can control the location of the loading dock or the fact that the foundation is full of cracks. But the HVAC technician can recommend that trash containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) not be stored on the loading dock under the fresh air intake. And he can advise that cracks in the foundation are a source of multiple air pollutants, all the way from unconditioned air to radon. continues on page 94

PLANTS FOR FRESH AIR You will recognize this idea from elementary school science. Excess carbon dioxide (CO2) is a common indoor pollutant, a result of people breathing. Plants breathe in carbon dioxide and exhaust oxygen. We were made for each other! It is hardly high tech, but it helps get the IAQ job done, while making the place look better, too.

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1

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HVAC

continued from page 92

Another source of VOCs is materials that are used inside the building, especially during renovations. This can include paint, solvents, glues and cleaning products.

The HVAC professional can and should also take responsibility for source control by advising building management of problem situations, of the steps that can be taken for resolution and, perhaps most important, the IAQ consequences of not addressing the problems.

Certainly a properly-sized ventilation system is ideal for making sure that fumes are immediately removed from the building rather than recirculated. But there are simpler and less expensive ways. It can be recommended that cleaning products only be used when the building is unoccupied, and with all possible ventilation active for at least a couple of hours after their use.

This approach may apply in particular to buildings that have been “repurposed,” such as those 1970s manufacturing buildings that have been converted into those expensive upscale lofts. Building management may be unaware of outgassing. Similarly, they may not be aware of the benefits of sealing the building envelope. From the HVAC professional’s perspective, paying attention to indoor air quality just makes sense. It is a way to ingratiate yourself to your client, and to show that you deliver more value than your competition might.

Trash accumulation and VOC storage should be outdoors, but never near fresh air intakes. Be sure that building management understands that it may be cheaper to move a storage area than to upgrade the ventilation system.

Source control of VOCs and outgassing

Outgassing usually pertains to fumes that come from newlyinstalled building materials, furniture and carpeting. Recommend that products be checked for outgassing before being purchased. If that is unavoidable, suggest maximum ventilation after they are installed, and that occupants stay out of the area until outgassing is minimized.

Source control is a simple concept – don’t let the bad stuff into the building. Trash and storage are two prime sources of VOCs. Even if they are outdoors, resultant VOCs can be pulled into the building either through the ventilation system or through infiltration via inevitable tiny cracks in the building. Foundations and along windows and door frames are prime locations.

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SICK BUILDING SYNDROME

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The World Health Organization (WHO) identified sick building syndrome back in 1984, and said that at least 30 per cent of buildings, both new and old, have it. A syndrome by definition is a combination of ailments. Some of the factors that can contribute to sick building syndrome include the HVAC system (think flue gasses such as carbon monoxide), outgassing of building materials and furnishings, VOCs such as paint and cleaning products, mould and other allergens, bacteria and viruses (together called pathogens), ozone from office machinery (all electrical devices create some amount of ozone), and excessive carbon dioxide (CO2) from human breathing and too little fresh air.

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Todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s â&#x20AC;&#x153;greenâ&#x20AC;? buildings attempt to prevent sick building syndrome as part of the design and construction process. For existing buildings, treatment consists of filtering, ventilating, or perhaps best of all, source control by removing problem substances.

MOISTURE CONTROL Because of the alarm caused by Legionnaireâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s disease and mould allergies, HVAC professionals accept the responsibility of moisture control within HVAC systems. But there are many moisture sources, and the HVAC professional is in an ideal position to identify them to property owners as sources of IAQ problems. Who has more occasion to notice water-stained ceiling tiles than the HVAC technician changing filters? It can be part of a professional added-value program to point out that there are 1) signs of moisture and 2) exactly what problems those moisture signs suggest. The HVAC professional also has opportunities to notice mouldy odours, foundation problems, and condensate around windows, exterior walls and cold surfaces.

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GEOTHERMAL

By Dan Vastyan

hree things that Haliburton, Ont., doesn’t lack are water, cottages near water, and cold weather. The area is known for pristine wilderness, wide expanses of forest, and some of the purest fresh water on the planet.

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When Dave Hatherton, CEO of Next Energy, a geothermal distributorship, decided to build a lakeside cottage three years ago, he took it upon himself to create the ultimate geothermal playground. “I wanted to see just how efficient a geothermal system can be,” says Hatherton. “Since my wife and I have done much of the work ourselves, only now have all the pieces of the puzzle begun to come together. We’ve only just begun to see how substantial the energy savings are.” His 280-acre property is home to a 30-acre lake, a 7,000 sq. ft. cottage and two detached shop buildings, each about 1,200 sq. ft. in size. All of the buildings are maximally insulated, while being entirely heated and cooled by an in-floor radiant system connected to a state-of-the-art geothermal system.

GEOEXCHANGE LAKE a t

WATER TO WATER… TO WATER “The cottage and shops sit about 100 feet from the lake,” says Hatherton. “With the ease and low cost of installing a lake loop, there was no reason to even consider another means of geothermal exchange.” Since the cottage has an extremely tight building envelope, and because the system is using low-temperature radiant loops, the large home can be heated and cooled by a four-ton ClimateMaster Tranquility water-towater unit connected to in-floor loops spaced at five-inch centres. An additional three-ton ClimateMaster Tranquility 27 water-to-air unit equipped with dehumidification technology handles summer humidity and supplemental cooling. “Humidity control is extremely important any time in-floor cooling is on a job,” explains Chris Link, owner of Link Heating and Air Conditioning Limited, the company that handled the ductwork, in-floor and lake loop for the cottage. Without the dehumidification system, the floors would run the risk of

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sweating, ruining the hardwood and making surfaces slippery, he added. All three buildings are connected to their own pond loop. The cottage exchange loop is 2,400 lineal feet of inch-and-a-quarter polyethylene pipe. Split into three circuits, the pipe is zip-tied to a heavy rebar frame. Before being trenched toward the cottage, the three circuits come together at a two-inch header. The geoexchange for the first shop’s threeton ClimateMaster unit is a plate-type Slim Jim unit. “My wife and I installed that loop ourselves one winter,” says Hatherton. “We actually had to drive around on the ice with an Argo amphibious vehicle, breaking it up to get the frame in the water.” Continuing with the geothermal laboratory theme, Hatherton wanted to mix it up when planning the geoexchange systems for the outbuildings. So, for the second shop, with a geo unit identical to the first shop, a different means of exchange was used. Instead of coiling pipe on a frame, a boat was used to stretch 1,700 feet of pipe out into the lake. Once the lines were purged of air and filled with a mix of ethanol and water, they simply

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sank to the bottom of the lake. The lake reaches a depth of 28 feet at its deepest, but the exchange loops rest at about 20 feet. Incoming water temperatures in the winter average 37 degrees. In the summer, loop temps never exceed 75 degrees. According to Hatherton, only one loop remains uninstalled. Currently, a desuperheater on the cottage’s main unit supplies some of the domestic hot water, but Hatherton wants his entire domestic supply to be geo-powered.


• Wa t e r t o w a t e r … t o wat er

• In su lat in g t h e savin gs

INSULATING

THE SAVINGS

“We never have to run more than 85 degree water through the floor,” says Dave Hatherton. “There’s so much thermal mass in the floor and walls that, on most winter days, the indoor air temperature never changes more than five degrees even if we don’t run the system at all.” The design temperature for the system is -12 degrees. The basement slab sits on four inches of rigid foam insulation, with an R-value of 25. On top of the insulation, six inches of concrete wraps the PEX tubing, which is spaced at five-inch intervals. The walls of the basement are even thicker. Four inches of foam insulation is sandwiched between two layers of concrete; four inches on the outside and seven inches inside. On the first and second floors, PEX tubing is set in two inches of gypcrete, and covered by two-inch-thick reclaimed barn boards. Most of the tubing in the cottage is 3/8”, but for the large loops, such as the great room, 1/2" was used. The two-by-six walls are spray-foamed for a total R-value of 35.

The vaulted ceilings, with the same Icynene insulation, come in at R-60. “With our long, harsh winters and stifling humid summers, a traditional HVAC system would cost us $12,000 to $15,000 a year to operate,” says Hatherton. “Our utility bills are now only $2,000 a year, and we’re still not finished with the work of reducing energy consumption.”

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GEOTHERMAL

Minimizing consumption costs “I wanted to be able to use all off-peak electric to run geothermal heat pumps,” reports Dave Hatherton. “But to do that, I had to get creative.” Under the cottage mechanical room is a 4,000-gallon, heavily insulated water tank, used simply for storing geothermally produced BTUs. At night, when the cost of electric is six cents per kWh, the four-ton unit extracts energy from the lake, and through the use of a nine-ton copper heat exchanger, dumps the energy into the storage tank. During the day, when electric is 15 cents, the only energy consumed is used to power circulators.

STATE OF THE ART CONTROLS “Another major piece to the puzzle is the control system. We can monitor and control all 22 zones for in-floor and airflow. So there are, in reality, 44 zones being controlled based on occupancy, humidity, in-floor and air temps,” reports the cottage-owner, Dave Hatherton. “Through the control system, all the data can be compiled and analyzed to optimize the system to take advantage of time-of-use rates without compromising comfort.” Over an 18-month period, Automated Logic designed and installed the control system in the home. It compliments the load-sharing and BTU storage capabilities of the geothermal system. “The Hathertons can change settings on their cottage system from anywhere with an internet connection, including mobile devices,” explains Steve Martin, president of Automated Logic’s Canadian division.

“One of the most unique things about the HVAC system is its ability to respond to weather conditions and electric rates,” continues Martin. If local weather information suggests a drastic drop of temperature in the winter, or a heat wave coming in a day or two in the summer, the system responds accordingly. Several days before a weather shift, the system will start either heating or cooling the home, fully utilizing the BTU storage capacity in the floor, walls, and storage tank.

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HYDRONIC Pipe systems Taco’s LoadMatch single pipe system features a primary distribution system with a single pipe loop and a secondary distribution system with a decoupled secondary piping loop for each terminal unit. The unit replaces control valves and most balancing valves with small, low kW circulators that deliver water on demand to terminal units.

www. taco-hvac.com

Wall-mount gas boiler Weil-McLain Canada’s WM97+ Wall Mount Gas Boiler is available in either 70,000 or 110,000 BTUH models, both of which feature a 97 per cent AFUE rating. The units are equipped with a self-cleaning, down-fired condensing stainless steel fire tube heat exchanger, a built-in primary/secondary piping option, and indoor/outdoor multi-zone reset control.

www. weil-mclain.ca

Plug-in panel Heatlink Group Inc.’s TMP panels allow for connection of up to four thermostats and zone valves. The HEP series is available in a 25,000 BTUH model for smaller applications, as well as a 95,000 BTUH option for larger spaces, or for heat sources with high flow resistance. The CDP series is available with three or four pumps and can accommodate larger projects with a floor circuit maximum of 160,000 BTUH.

www. heatlinkgroup.com

Boiler fill fitting A one-piece brass service and isolation valve, the RBFF from Watts Water Technologies (Canada) combines a three-way ball valve, drain port, pressure gauge, and standard 1/2” NPT connections. The valve has a maximum inlet temperature rating of 250°F and a maximum working pressure of 125 psi.

System control The House Control 406 from tekmar is designed to operate the equipment in a two-pipe, single tank, hydronic heating and cooling system. The unit can operate two heat pump stages, either water-to-water or air-to-water, with a backup boiler or electric resistance heat source. It operates four onboard heating and cooling zones, and is expandable up to 52 zones.

www. wattscanada.ca

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BOTTOM

Line with David Cooke

Don’t let your company suffer from BD In my line of work, I speak with a lot of company owners, across many sectors of industry. One challenge they all have in common is finding, training, and retaining good employees. In the case of contractors, they speak of “Buck-an-hour-more Disease” or BD. This is losing a good, long-term employee because a competitor offers them a dollar or two more an hour. BD is costly. Losing a good employee means having to take the time to replace and train someone, or to promote someone from within your company, which means you could be training two people in new job functions. This is time taken away from building your business. How else could BD cost you? Your now-gone field technician may have relationships with your customers, and these could drift to his new employer. An office administrator may share valuable pricing information about your suppliers.

Get creative with your retention plans For one client of mine, we implemented a shared ownership structure making use of a life insurance program. Funded by the employer, the plan builds a significant life insurance policy with considerable tax-deferred cash values. If the employee remains with the company for the agreed period, 15 years, for example, then he or she receives the entire policy to use in retirement. If they leave, the policy goes back to the company. In the case of my client, any competitor would need to offer a considerable wage increase that would beat this plan.

Employers have indicated to me that a loss of a key employee can mean losses in the tens of thousands of dollars in the short-term, and more than that in the long-term. Retaining top employees is one way to ensure the continued success of your business. Considering proven strategies to ward off competitor’s offers, like those listed below, is a good way to retain key employees, and that’s the bottom line….

After years in the HVAC industry, David Cooke is now a partner with Qualified Financial’s Wealth Strategies Group. He can be reached at david@wsgcanada.com.

Want to avoid BD? There are a number of strategies a business owner or manager can use to keep good employees from falling prey to BD. For example:

higher wages only. These are easy to set up and administer, and help keep good employees.

• Health benefit plans are a proven way to retain good employees, and are an incentive to remain with a company even when offers of higher wages come from a company that does not offer a benefit plan. Even the smallest of firms can implement plans that are cost effective.

• Share purchase or profit sharing. If you have a good employee, why not have them buy into the business, earning shares along with wages? This may become part of your succession plan. If shares are not possible, profit sharing provides a way for your employee to buy into the success of the company, shutting out competitors coming along with trivial offers.

• Employee RRSP or Pension Plans. When you offer plans with a matching component, your employee will consider the fact that they will be losing “free money” if they move for

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Diagnostic camera

Cordless rotary hammer The Dewalt 20 Volt Max lithium ion cordless rotary hammer features an active vibration control, a chipping function, and an LED light. The unit operates in drilling, hammerdrilling and chiselling modes at zero to 1,000 rpm and zero to 4,100 BPM. It weighs 6.4 lb., measures 10.5” front to back, and is compatible with both 12 Volt Max and 20 Volt Max batteries.

Milwaukee Electric Tool Corporation’s M-Spectator 360 inspection camera has a rotating screen that can be adjusted with one hand. The camera features a 2.7” LCD display and a 9mm 640 x 480 digital probe with four surround LED lights. Probe options include a three- or nine-foot cable. A mirror, hook and magnet are also included in the kit.

www. milwaukeetool.com

www. dewalt.com

Chop saw The 15 AMP Chop Saw from Porter-Cable features a ball bearing designed, high-torque motor that delivers 3,800 rpm. It is capable of cutting through cast iron pipe, angle iron, threaded rod, conduit, and square tubing. The 35.2-lb. saw is equipped with a “D” handle design, 45-degree mitre adjustment, depth adjustment and quick release clamp. A heavy-duty guard, adjustable spark deflector and onboard tool storage are also included.

www. portercable.com

Inspection camera Hydraulic benders Ridgid Manual Hydraulic Benders are designed for the cold bending of standard gas pipe (DIN 2440), black steel schedule 40 pipe (ASTM A53) and stainless steel schedule 40 pipe. Equipped with bending angle indicators, the tool is available in two sizes – 3/8” to 2” capacity (model HB382) and 3/8” to 3” capacity – and offers a wide range of accessories for special applications.

www. ridgid.com

The Bosch PS90 12V Max Inspection Camera features a 48” waterproof imager with 17mm metal head to allow inspection inside of pipes, duct work and utility boxes. Offering bright illumination and a 2.7” LED screen with four times magnification, the camera comes with a 17mm hook, magnet and mirror attachments, cable for a video out connection, and a 30-minute battery charger.

www. boschtools.com

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HVAC/R Smart thermostat The ecobee smart thermostat features a touch screen as well as wireless internet capability for remote programming and regular uploading of new features. A web tool allows contractors to manage installations remotely, and sends customers alerts and service reminders featuring the contractorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s logo and contact information.

www. ecobee.com

Available in heating capacities of 30,000 to 400,000 BTUH, LF24 unit heaters from Lennox provide up to 81 per cent thermal efficiency. Featuring sidewall venting and a stainless steel heat exchanger in units 100,000 BTUH in size and larger, the unit can be used with either natural gas or propane applications. A compact cabinet design is offered for 30,000 to 75,000 BTUH models.

www. lennoxcommercial.com

The Coleman Echelon CP9C 98 per cent AFUE modulating gas furnace, measuring 33â&#x20AC;? in height, is designed for applications with limited space. It features high-level self-diagnostic fault codes, a fully-supported slide-out blower assembly, and insulated blower compartment. The electronically commutated motor operates as low as 47db. The unit is available in models ranging from 60,000 to 120,000 BTUH.

www. colemanac.com

The Thermo equipment pad is a light weight plastic pad designed as a mounting base for HVAC and pool equipment. Manufactured of blowmoulded polyethylene, the pad protects condensing or outdoor heat pump units. The units are designed to reduce vibration noise.

www. thermopan.com

The KE2 Therm Solutions Evaporator Efficiency Controller is designed to reduce defrosts by up to 86 per cent. The system can be remotely managed from a smart phone, tablet or PC using standard Ethernet (TCP/IP) communication protocols, with the ability to send alarm alerts and text messages directly to the customerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s cell phone or computer.

www. ke2therm.com 102

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HVAC/R Carrierâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Infinity gas furnace line features modulating and variable-speed technologies and AFUEs up to 98 per cent. The furnaces are designed to operate at noise levels down to 38.4 decibels in low-fire mode and offer capacities between 60,000 and 120,000 BTUH.

Available in fixed and variable speed models, Danfoss commercial scroll compressors offer a capacity range from 7.5 to 30 tons, and in tandem/trio configurations up to 60/90 tons. An internal reverse vent valve prevents the compressor from reverse rotation when wrongly powered, and internal motor protection is embedded in the motor windings.

www. carrier.com

www. danfoss.com www.

The Napoleon 9600 series gas-fired furnace is a two-stage unit that fires at 60 per cent in low-fire mode. It has a variable speed, DC drive, ECM motor and is rated up to 96 per cent AFUE. The furnace is available in sizes from 45,000 to 120,000 BTUH and can be installed as a single pipe or two pipe system. The unit measures 32-7/8â&#x20AC;? high, is adaptable to any configuration, and can be used with single- or two-stage thermostats.

www. napoleonheatingandcooling.com

The GeoComfort Compass Series ST indoor split units are available in sizes ranging up to six tons, with heating capacities to 52,400 BTUH. The series incorporates both air handler and A coil matches to fit the system to any application requirements.

AXC in-line duct fans from Continental Fan Canada are suitable for residential, commercial or industrial applications. Available in four-inch to 14â&#x20AC;? sizes, with airflows ranging from 147 cfm to 1,400 cfm, the fans feature a shielded ball bearing motor in a galvanized housing.

www. geocomfort.com

www. continentalfan.com

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PLUMBING The TM-2020B-LF ECO-MIX thermostatic water mixing valve from Leonard Valve Company is designed for use in commercial, institutional or industrial applications. It delivers precisely mixed water temperature with a minimum flow of 1.0 GPM (3.71 LPM). The ASSW valve has an adjustable high temperature limit stop, inlet checkstops, wall support and an outlet ball valve.

www. leonardvalve.com Wilkins Next Generation backflow preventers from Zurn feature a 304-grade stainless steel body available in grooved or flanged end shut-off valve configurations. The shorter lay length is designed to fit new or existing installations. Shutoffs are available as NRS, PIV, OS&Y or butterfly valves.

www. zurn.com

The Flush Clicker Lavatory Drain from OS&B is a drain stopper that uses a click mechanism to engage. The unit features cast brass construction and is available in a chrome, brushed nickel or polished nickel PVD finish.

The Speedrooter 92 from General Pipe Cleaners is capable of driving and retracting 3/4”, 5/8” and 1/2” cables. The drum, which is changeable, holds 100 feet of cable. The unit has a 1/2 horsepower motor and can be loaded into a truck by one person. A cord wrap on the handle is provided for storage of the power cord and foot pedal.

www. osb.ca

www. drainbrain.com

The BASYS Sensor Faucet Line from Sloan Valve, available through Dobbin Sales, features five modular faucets with above-deck access and selectable operational modes. Components are interchangeable and different power source options are available. Four deck-mounted types of varying heights are offered along with one wall-mounted model. Additional options include three spray modules, two sensing technologies, four crowns and four power choices.

www. dobbinsales.com 104

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PLUMBING

The 475 Pro Series Reverse Osmosis Drinking Water System from Novo comes with labelled tubing and quick connects on the fittings, inlet saddle and drain saddle. The four-stage filtration system has a five-micron sediment pre-filter, carbon block pre- and post-filter, and a 75 gallon per day membrane. A faucet and three-gallon storage tank are also included. A booster pump model with inlet solenoid is also available.

Taco’s WAGS (Water and Gas Shut-off) valve can be used with new or existing water heaters to protect against water heater leaks. The mechanical valve can be installed with or without an electric harness. If a leak occurs, the internal water-soluble fibre element dissolves, releasing a springloaded piston that shuts off water supply to the tank. By adding a wiring harness for gas-fired appliances, the gas supply can also be shut off.

www. novowater.com

www. wagsvalve.com

Dahl’s Water Hammer Arrester Valves are designed to control water hammer created by fixtures with quick closing valves. They can be used in both retrofits and new installations. Available in more than 50 models and sizes, they can be installed upright, horizontally, or at any angle in between.

www. dahlvalve.com

Carlin, Cody and Crista highefficiency toilets from Contrac feature water consumption rates of 1.28 gpf (4.8 lpf) with MaP scores from 800 to 1,000 grams. All three models are made of vitreous china and feature a 12” rough-in, two-inch ball pass trapway and three-inch flapper with siphon jet flush action.

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THE INFO PAGE PAGE #

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AHR Expo January 23-25, 2012 Chicago, Ill. www.ahrexpo.com IDS 2012 January 26-29, 2012 Toronto, Ont. www.interiordesignshow.com BUILDEX Vancouver 2012 February 8-9, 2012 Vancouver, B.C. www.buildexvancouver.com International Builders’ Show February 8-11, 2012 Orlando, Fla. www.buildersshow.com CIPH Ontario Business Meeting February 9, 2012, Mississauga, Ont. April 12, 2012, Orillia, Ont. www.ciph.com CIPH Gala March 21, 2012 Toronto, Ont www.ciph.com CMX/CIPHEX March 22-24, 2012 Toronto, Ont. www.cmxciphexshow.com KBIS 2012 April 24-26, 2012 Chicago, Ill. www.kbis.com MEET 2012 May 2-3, 2012 Moncton, N.B. masterpromotions.com 2012 CIPH Ontario Region Conference May 25-27 Collingwood, Ont. www.ciph.com

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RLDVIEW Jeff Patchell

Worlds apart at the loo n November 2001, World Toilet Day was declared. Now just passed its tenth year, it is difficult to see what, if any, impact has been made. I dare say it likely hardly registered on your radar when it passed a few weeks ago.

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World Toilet Day In 2001 WTO declared November 19th World Toilet Day (WTD). Today it is celebrated in over 19 countries with more than 50 events being hosted by various water and sanitation advocates. World Toilet Organization created WTD to raise global awareness of the struggle 2.6 billion people face every day without access to proper, clean sanitation.

The lack of insight into World Toilet Day mirrors that of the Western world’s knowledge, or lack thereof, of the non-existent or sub-standard sanitation that is prevalent across half the world’s population. The issue actually affects every continent but is masked by supposed economic development. Just because the likes of Shanghai, Beijing or Mumbai are seen as becoming more sophisticated, with abundant traditional western type building projects, what we are not privy to are those people suffering at the margins of these cities. Most of the popular areas where the tourists gather are now serviced by municipal toilets, but walk a few hundred metres off the main roads and things quickly change for the worse. Head out to the rural areas and you have to wonder if things have advanced much at all.

FUNDING SOLUTIONS The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation recognises water, sanitation and hygiene as a major global health issue. The Gates Foundation is doing some remarkable work with various disease and social research projects, and sanitation is one of the largest issues they tackle. To-date in 2011 alone, the foundation has awarded close to $50 million to a range of water and sanitation projects.

The sanitation issue cannot be overcome with technology alone. These regions are extremely poor and cannot afford to implement the usual Western solutions.

There are many projects going on in India, China and around the world to try and solve this problem. I’ve seen a few of the attempts displayed at exhibitions in recent years, but they appear to have a long way to go in their development.

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Canada is home to one of these imaginative projects. The University of Toronto’s Faculty of Applied Science & Engineering recently accepted a Gates Foundation invitation (and a $400,000 research grant) to build a more environmentally friendly toilet. Of course, there is always a catch – the scope of the project is to find a solution that uses no running water, no sewerage system and no electricity. It also must be self-contained. And it must give back: human waste goes in, clean water, carbon dioxide, mineral ash (for fertiliser) and energy comes out – all in about 24 hours. And you can add to that a further financial constraint. It must cost only five cents per user, per day. Wow, that’s some assignment to accept.

Professor Yu-Ling Cheng, the project leader at the University of Toronto, is thoroughly committed to the challenge. “The prevalence and spread of water-borne diseases like dysentery and cholera are important, so is the lack of clean drinking water. But the lack of a way to safely deal with human waste is even more pressing,” said Cheng. It is certainly going to require some clever thinking outside the bowl.

Jeff Patchell is managing director of Connection Magazines Pty Ltd. He operates www.worldplumbinginfo.com, an online plumbing industry knowledge bank.


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Compiled by Mechanical Business

GO MO BRO

$22 MILLION

HAPPY FEET

70%

Canadians who would like to have heated floors in their home.

Funds raised during last yearâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Movember campaign for prostate cancer in Canada.

TOO HOT, TOO COLD

4 IN 10 Number of couples who argue daily about the temperature in the home. Two thirds of couples disagree because he finds it too hot and she finds it too cold.

$551.1 MILLION

POSITIVE THINKING

49%

Percentage of Canadians who believe the economy is in good shape.

82%

Percentage of AHR Expo exhibitors who expect sales to increase in 2012.

JUST RIGHT

sales of toys, games and hobby supplies in Canada during the Christmas season.

$120.1 MILLION sales of tools in Canada during the Christmas season.

20o The most common thermostat setting.

Sources: Movember Canada, CMHC, Honeywell, Angus-Reid, Ipsos, AHR Expo, Beautiful Heat. PM# 41536047 Postmaster: Please send all address changes or undeliverable copies to: Mechanical Business, 19 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 1525 Cornwall Road, Oakville, ON L6J 0B2

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12" Wide Trench Drain Just Got a Whole Lot Easier

Introducing the New Dead Level DX 12" Trench Drain TM

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ustomers who have used our unique Dead Level™ Trench Drain system call it the best trench drain ever. And understandably so. The Dead Level™ system cuts installation time by more than half, and makes floating, pinching, and misalignment things of the past. Now we’ve made a great product even better. Dead Level™ Trench Drain is now available 12” wide. With radiused bottoms and smooth interiors, the new DX channels generate maximum hydraulic flow. For additional information, click on over to wattscanada.ca

A Watts Water Technologies Company

November/December 2011  

CFL legend Michael Pinball Clemons; Geoexchange at the lake; Refrigeration with glycol; Moving forward with backflow technology; Letting fue...