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Brewers T H E

J O U R N A L

SPRING 2017 ISSN 2398-6956

Great Lakes thirty years young and still having fun

P.24

steamworks: pushing forward

P.40

all or nothing: beers and spirits

P.48

cbc & BREWEXPO: SHOW PREVIEW

the magazine for the canadian brewing industry


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l e a d er

happ y birthday

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t seems somewhat fitting that in 2017, Canada’s 150th anniversary, we paid a visit to Toronto’s Great Lakes Brewery. Celebrating its own special birthday, the 30th to be exact, we caught up with Peter Bulut, owner & chief brewing officer, head brewer Mike Lackey, and the team to find out just what makes the successful and respected brewery tick. “I am not a lot of hammering on the heads. Great Lakes is collaborative, it is looking at the bigger picture. To be here after 30 years, you need to have the right attitude. This industry is perpetual. You need your game hat on and you need to always be looking ahead. But to be even relatively comfortable going forward, you need to focus on the here and now, let alone three years from this point,” Bulut told us. Thanks to the Great Lakes Brewery family for their time, and for letting us take part in the ‘Alternative Facts’ collaboration beer, we appreciate it. This issue we also sat down with Jeff Dornan, co-founder of All or Nothing. The company’s journey started, like many breweries, with contract brewing. Jeff and Eric Dornan brothers used facilities in Saint Thomas and Cool Beer Brewing Co in Etobicoke before the acquisition of Trafalgar Ale’s & Meads enabled the team to move into a bricks and mortar proposition. Our journey to create a craft brewery began the same as most, with ambition and a vision for the future. However, all the ambition and vision in the world can’t produce a multi million dollar brewing facility on its own. By contracting other brewing facilities to produce our Hopfenweisse we grew the All or Nothing brand throughout Ontario and eventually acquired a brewery of our own. Now we are free to expand our ambitions to any and every type of Craft Beer, Mead, and Spirit imaginable,” explains Dornan. Special thanks also to Vancouver’s Steamworks. Still flying high following the success of its Flagship IPA, the team that includes founder Eli Gershkovitch, brewmaster Julia Hanlon and marketing manager Justin Van Mulligen, are on course for another great year as a key part of Canada’s ever-burgeoning beer scene. We are in a market where we have a local mature brand but need to adopt that start-up mentality somewhat, too,” Justin Van Mulligen told us. “There are new breweries popping up all the time and they are pushing new styles and new ideas, which keeps us on our toes. It’s a balance of keeping the focus on your core, while ensuring that you have an impor-

Editor's choice Steamworks discuss the balance of being part of the "old guard" in Vancouver and staying competitive in the increasingly crowded marketplace - Page 24

tant part to play with new drinkers and the growing market.” “It’s also not long now until more than 14,000 professionals from across the brewing spectrum will descend upon Washington DC for Craft Brewers Conference and BrewExpo America. Canadian visitors and manufacturers play a key role in making this event a success. Canada is a big deal for the US brewing industry. According to the Brewers Association, there are now more than 5,000 small and independent brewers in the States. When it comes to selling their beer, Canada is the largest export market for US breweries, accounting for just over 50% of sales. While North America is enjoying growth in its number of breweries, so is Canada and this year’s event represents a fantastic opportunity for the Canadian brewer to gain a wealth of business and product insights from the array of exhibitors, seminars and events on offer. Check out our preview of some of the main exhibitors, products and services worth checking out during your visit to Washington this April. Tim Sheahan Editor

Correction: In the Winter 2017 issue, on page 39 the 'Insure your craft beer' article was said to be authored by Kevin A Hutchison (and Hutchison Wealth/Raymond James). It was in fact authored by the IMBIBE team at KNOX Commercial Insurance.

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Spring 2017 | Brewers Journal Canada 3


C o n tac t s

contacts Tim Sheahan Editor tim@rebymedia.com+44 (0)1442 780 592 Richard Piotrowski Canada Bureau Chief richard@rebymedia.com +1 647 975 7656 Jakub Mulik Staff photographer Jim Moore Head of sales jim@rebymedia.com +44 (0)1442 780 593 Johnny Leung North American sales johnny@rebymedia.com +1 647 975 7656 Jack Young Publisher jack@rebymedia.com

Reby Media 42 Crouchfield, Hemel Hempstead, Herts, HP1 1PA, UK

SUBscriptions The Brewers Journal is a quarterly magazine mailed every Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter. Subscriptions can be purchased for four or eight issues. Prices for single issue subscriptions or back issues can be obtained by emailing: subscriptions@rebymedia.com

Canada One year: Ca$39, two year: Ca$59 Rest of the world One year: Ca$49, two year: Ca$65 The content of The Brewers Journal is subject to copyright. However, if you would like to obtain copies of an article for marketing purposes high-quality reprints can be supplied to your specification. Please contact the advertising team for full details of this service. The Brewers Journal is printed at Buxton Press Ltd, Derbyshire, UK.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or any information storage or retrieval system, without the express prior written consent of the publisher. The Brewers Journal Canada ISSN 2398-6948 is published bimonthly by Reby Media, 42 Crouchfield, Hemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire, HP1 1PA, UK. Subscription records are maintained at Reby Media, 42 Crouchfield, Hemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire, HP1 1PA, UK. The Brewers Journal accepts no responsibility for the accuracy of statements or opinion given within the Journal that is not the expressly designated opinion of the Journal or its publishers. Those opinions expressed in areas other than editorial comment may not be taken as being the opinion of the Journal or its staff, and the aforementioned accept no responsibility or liability for actions that arise therefrom.

4 | Brewers Journal Canada | Spring 2017

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c o n t en t s

c ontent s

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Cover story

32 - Celebrating its 30th anniversary, Peter Bulut, owner & chief brewing officer of Great Lakes Brewery tells us what makes the successful and respected Toronto-based brewery tick Photographer: Jakub Mulik; Wardrobe and stylist: Justin Harder news 9 - Industry news Comments 16 - Safety Compliance with Beverage Protect 17 - Women and Ontario Craft Brewing 18 - Steam Whistle talk financial guidance 20 - Kegshoe look at keg tracking 21 - Abell Pest Control on prevention 22 - Tonejet discuss the canning opportunity meet the brewer: Steamworks 24 - Steamworks discuss the balance of being part of the "old guard" in Vancouver and staying competitive in the increasingly crowded marketplace Brewery tour: All or nothing 40 - Co-founder Jeff Dornan talks us through the company's journey, its acquisition of Trafalgar Ale’s & Meads and how craft spirits will place a key part of the business going forward

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show preview: craft brewers conference & brewexpo 48 - More than 14,000 professionals from across the brewing spectrum will descend upon Washington DC for Craft Brewers Conference & BrewExpo America, with Canadian visitors and exhibitors playing a key role in making the event a success Crossing Continents: 71 brewing based in dundee, scotland 56 - 71 Brewing is Dundee’s first brewery in more than half a century. Co-founder Duncan Alexander discusses put ting the city back on the brewing map science 62 - Gary Spedding of BDAS, LLC puts the spotlight on the very complex, though simply elegant chemistry known as the “Maillard reaction” 70 - Pura DX talk Free Amino Nitrogen measurement and the ways it can provide the brewer with a valuable insight into quality and consistency

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canada in top ten brewing countries

T

he craft beer revolution is taking hold in more countries across the globe, with Canada ranking in the top 10 of craft brewing nations. According to a new survey released by Alltech and The Brewers Journal, the number of breweries worldwide has surpassed 19,000, representing 209 countries and territories surveyed. Some 17,732, or 94 percent, of these breweries can be defined as craft beer producers. For the purpose of the survey, a craft brewer is defined as: having fewer than 30 staff; or producing less than 5,000 hectolitres per year; or more than 50 percent of the brewery being privately owned. The craft beer movement has created a global surge in the number of new breweries opening, with the U.S. and the U.K. alone seeing a greater than 10 percent increase in the number of craft breweries year-on-year. This has drastically changed the fonts and fridges in pubs and bars on every continent. The thrill of innovation, experimentation and community engagement is creating a new market for brewers

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and retailers. The largest craft beer producer remains the U.S. with 4,750 craft breweries, of a total 5,025 breweries. However, among the major brewing nations, the U.K. has the most craft breweries per capita with 25 breweries per million people, compared with 17 in Canada. “The U.S. and the U.K. fermented their lead in craft beer production as a result of legislation that paved the way for craft brewers,” said Tim Sheahan, editor of The Brewers Journal. “In the U.S., the pivotal moment was in 1978 when President Jimmy Carter allowed home brewing for the first time since Prohibition. The U.K.’s watershed moment came in 2002 with Prime Minister Gordon Brown’s progressive beer duty legislation that reduced beer duty to nil for breweries producing less than 5,000 hectolitres.” Although the U.S. is recognized as the originator of the recent craft beer movement, and has heavily influenced the modern take on traditional styles, there are more craft breweries in Europe than North America. The top ten craft beer

producing countries are: the U.S., U.K., Germany, Italy, Spain, France, Canada, the Netherlands, Switzerland and Australia. The global momentum behind the craft beer craze has led Alltech, an international company with a brewing and distilling division renowned for its Kentucky Bourbon Barrel Ale®, to leverage its worldwide presence and create opportunities for craft brewers to network and showcase their creations. Alltech hosts multiple beer festivals around the globe, the largest of which is the Alltech Craft Brews and Food Fair in Dublin, Ireland. Now in its 5th year, the event featured 38 breweries from five countries and attracted more than 7,000 attendees. “It is fun to see what all of the other brewers bring to these festivals,” said Ken Lee, master brewer for Alltech Lexington Brewing & Distilling Co. “There is a real spirit of collaboration among craft brewers, and, for consumers, perhaps that sense of community is just as appealing as the diversity of flavor.”

Spring 2017 | Brewers Journal Canada 9


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MUSKOKA BREWERY FOUNDER DEPARTS

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racebridge, Ontariobased Muskoka Brewery has announced that its founder, Gary McMullen, is leaving the brewery. McMullen, who has headed up the company for 23 years, is passing the reins to his business partner and friend Todd Lewin. The brewery said in a statement: “Thank you to Gary for inspiring

us to always venture off the beaten path and make a difference. “For the past 23 years, Gary has been a pioneer in the craft beer industry and a true visionary, leader and mentor to us all. Cheers, Gary! We will carry on this amazing journey you started.” Late last year, Muskoka Brewery was been named one of Canada’s 10 Most Admired Corporate Cultures of

2016 by Waterstone Human Capital. The annual program recognizes organizations whose cultures have helped to enhance their performance and sustain a competitive advantage. Muskoka was one of over 600 Canadian organizations nominated for the program. Winners were based on detailed submissions, as well as nominee interviews.

Central City marks Canada’s 150th anniversary

Red Racer partner brewers

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entral City Brewers + Distillers, based in Surrey, British Columbia, is celebrating the country’s 150th Anniversary of Confederation with a Canada-wide beer collaboration. The brewery has teamed up with Canadian breweries from all 12 provinces on the ‘Red Racer Across The Nation Collaboration’ 12-pack, to commemorate the country’s milestone birthday. The Red Racer Across The Nation Collaboration features the joint efforts of 12 brewmasters and brewery operators, with 12 unique beers brewed at Central City’s brewery. Gary Lohin, Central City Brewers + Distillers’ brewmaster explained:

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“There is a great sense of camaraderie amongst us craft brewers in Canada, and what better way to show our pride in our country than to bring together some of Canada’s best breweries on a celebratory mixpack to commemorate this huge Canadian milestone. “We all know Canada is renowned for our great beer and it has been such an honour to work with each of the breweries. We can’t wait to showcase some spectacular beers and the brewing talents of all 12 breweries.”  The Red Racer Across the Nation Collaboration 12-pack will be available in liquor stores in most provinces in early May 2017, and as two unique six-packs in some provinces.

• British Columbia, Delta: Four Winds Brewing Company with Brewmaster, Brent Mills • Alberta, Calgary: Last Best Brewing & Distilling with CEO, Brett Ireland and Brewer, Phillip Hamilton Brian • Saskatchewan, Swift Current: Black Bridge Brewery with Coowners, Clayton and Kari Stenson • Manitoba, Winnipeg: Half Pints Brewing Company with Brewmaster, Chris Young • Ontario, Vankleek Hill: Beau's Brewing Company with Owner, Steve Beauchesne and Brewer, Kevin James • Quebec, Shawinigan: Le Trou Du Diable with Pilsner Brewer Specialist, Stephane Thibodeau and Co-owner, Luc Bellerive • Nova Scotia, Halifax: Garrison Brewing Company with Brewmaster, Daniel Girard • New Brunswick, Fredericton: Picaroons Traditional Ales with Sean Dunbar, Owner and Operator • Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown: PEI Brewing Company with Head Brewer, Chris Long • Newfoundland, St. John’s: Quidi Vidi Brewing Company with Brewer, Einar Holtet and Sales and Marketing Manager, Justin Fong • Yukon, Whitehorse: Yukon Brewing Company with Head Brewer, Jon Zaugg and Brewer, Troy Charlton • Northwest Territories, Yellowknife: NWT Brewing Company with Owner, Fletcher Stevens

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Great Western apoints Brewmaster

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reat Western Brewing Company (GWBC) has appointed Amanda Butt as its new Brewmaster and Innovation Ambassador. Amanda Butt, M.Sc. joins GWBC from the Boston Beer Company where she held the position of brewing manager and where she led the research and development brewing operations. There, she helped launch more than 20 new beers in two years. Her new role with Great Western Brewing Company in Saskatoon marks a return to Canada for the Newfoundland-born brewer. She holds a Master of Science degree in brewing and distilling from the world-renowned Heriot-Watt University in Edinburgh, Scotland. Prior to her role with Boston Beer Company, she worked with Labatt Brewing Company (AB InBev), where she held many different positions, primarily in brewing.

"I'm excited to be returning to Canada to join the award-winning team at Great Western. My focus throughout my career has been on brewing creativity, innovation and continuous improvement. Brewing is my passion and I plan to pour that passion into continuing Great Western's tradition of excellence," she said. Michael Micovcin, President & CEO of Great Western Brewing Company, added: “"We're delighted to welcome Amanda to the Great Western team. “Her extensive industry experience and expertise in product development, quality control and equipment and process upgrading will be instrumental for us as we take the brewery forward into the future. ”Bringing Amanda on board demonstrates our commitment to maintaining our international reputation of world class craftsmanship."

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YUKON LAUNCHES GOLD PANNER

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ukon Brewing, the brainchild of owners Alan Hansen and Bob Baxter, have celebrated 20 years in business with its latest release, Gold Panner. The 5% ale is the latest release in a 12 beer programme to help mark the brewery’s 20th anniversary. The brewery explained: “Originally brewed from 19981999 the Gold Panner was Yukon Brewing’s first dry-hopped brew. Light boddied with and added hop flavour lends a brisk profile without being over the top. “At 18 IBU and 5.0% alcohol the Gold Panner is light, easy drinking and refreshing while having a subtle hop character and classic Yukon beer flavour.”

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Highway 97 Brewery opens in Penticton

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ighway 97 Brewery has become the latest brewery to open in South Okanagan, British Columbia. Located on the site of former site of Tin Whistle Brewing, Highway 97 Brewery is now brewing its beer at the newly renovated facility at 954 Eckhardt Ave West in Penticton. “The newest edition craft brewery to begin serving Western Canadian residents and visitors takes it’s name from one of North America’s most iconic transportation routes – Highway 97. The Highway 97 Brewing Company Ltd is a small batch brewery producing a selection of premium all natural fresh hand-craft beer,” the brewery explained. Production began in the 2100 square foot brewery in December 2016 with Highway 97 Amber Ale, Highway 97 Red IPA, Highway 97 Pale Ale, Highway 97 Winter Blonde, Highway 97 Peated Scotch Ale and Highway 97 Premium Craft Pilsner all now in the tanks. Highway 97 owner and President

John Kapusty said: “We are counting on locals requesting Highway 97 beer when they are out enjoying local establishments because demand from them will ultimately determine how may establishments stock our beer.” The company’s stainless steel production equipment and brewhouse was all produced locally in the Okanagan Valley by Biron Stainless. Electrical work was carried out locally with Protek Electric, all heating and cooling equipment including the glycol system used to keep fermenting and conditioning tanks at proper temperatures was by RPR Heating & Air Conditioning, lighting by The Light Choice, Windows by First Choice Windows and Doors and construction supplies by RONA. “The name of the brewery is intended to represent the vitality of the region, the importance of the transportation network to the interior, the pride of residents and the countless recreational and lifestyle opportunities available to anyone

along the corridor,” said Kapusty. According to Kapusty, the brewery uses only natural ingredients in the making of it’s beer. From BC hops to the fresh BC water and Western Canadian malted grains that will form the basis for every batch – all products will be high quality and sourced as close to home as possible.

BREWER’S BACKYARD LAUNCHES ALIAS BREWING

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he organisers of Brewer’s Backyard have launches a new beer concept, Alias Brewing, pitched as a collaboration label. The Brewer’s Backyard, which was created to give drinkers the chance to learn about, try and meet the people behind the best beer Ontario has to offer, has unveiled Alias Brewing. According to the organisers, Alias is a new kind of brewing entity and one that isn’t a “bricks-and-mortar brewery, nor a contract brewery”. They explained: “Alias is strictly a collaboration label, one that works openly and publicly alongside brewing partners to create unique beers with friends, for enjoyment at the Brewer’s Backyard and elsewhere.” The first beer to emerge from

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the new label is Hocken’s Orange Winter Warmer, a collaboration with Henderson Brewing. The beer is in honour of Horatio Hocken, a visionary and creator who was the mayor of Toronto in the early 1900s. The company said: “Hocken was a founder of the Toronto Star, approved the Bloor Viaduct and was an early proponent of subways. For this we felt Horatio deserved his own local brew. “Hocken’s Orange Winter Warmer, a dark beer brewed with orange peel, cinnamon, star anise and vanilla, will be available in very limited quantities at this Monday’s Brewer’s Backyard, and a limited number of bottles will be available at Henderson’s retail store. “We are excited about creat-

ing interesting beers this year with our brewing friends, which will be available alongside the many other delicious brews that you can expect at each of our events.”

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THE EXCHANGE BREWERY TURNS ONE

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he Exchange Brewery, located in Niagara-on-theLake, has marked its successful first year in operation. More than 25,000 customers have passed through the doors of The Exchange Brewery in its first year in business. The brewery specialises in a number of beer styles from hop-forward IPAs to sour and funky Belgian-style ales. Each beer is also numbered rather than named. Head Brewer Sam Maxbauer, who hails from Michigan, has overseen the creation of more than 30 beers, that are frequently poured from two eight-tap bars that feature year-round brews alongside limitedrelease and seasonal offerings. “On behalf of Council and staff of the Town of Niagara-on-theLake, I would like to congratulate The Exchange Brewery on a very successful first year of operation.” explained Lord Mayor of Niagaraon-the-Lake, Pat Darte. “The brewery is a wonderful addition to Niagara-on-the-Lake’s business community.” The Exchange Brewery’s location, which is housed in Niagara’s first telephone exchange building, also allows the brewery to take advantage of the region’s unique assets: locally grown hops, barrels from local wineries, local fruit and fruit yeast cultivated from local orchards. “We are delighted to be sharing our beers with a wider audience and our popular Session Saison is now available at 40 Loblaw’s stores across Ontario,” added Robin Ridesic, founder and CEO of The Exchange Brewery. “In addition, a selection of our beers are also available at several praised bars, pubs and restaurants such as Bar Volo, Bar Hop, WVRST and Craft Brasserie to name a few.” The brewery has also released its 2016 Belgian Stout, the first of its vintage beers from last year. ‘’Our Belgian Stout has been carefully selected to be our first Vintage Reserve bottle because it is a higher-alcohol (7.2% ABV.) and

14 | Brewers Journal Canada | Spring 2017

full-bodied beer, hence well suited to aging’’, said Sam Maxbauer, Head Brewer at The Exchange Brewery. According to the brewery, the 2016 Vintage Reserve will surely please stout-lovers’ palates, in search of more complex and delicate flavours. ‘’The robust roasted malt flavours have mellowed over the last year, bringing forward more fruit notes. With age, we see a complex balance of malts, a slight tartness and some great funky notes starting to come through’, he added. In comparison, the more re-

cent 2017 version of the Belgian Stout lets the chocolate and roasty flavours dominate the palate, with roast malt giving almost a black cherry note, and French oak barrels imparting a very mild note of vanilla as well. Maxbauer said that The Exchange Brewery’s Belgian-style beers are bottle conditioned, and if properly cellared, have a shelf life of 3 years. The next Vintage Releases from The Exchange Brewery to look forward to include the 2016 Dubbel (in May) and the 2016 Belgian Pumpkin Ale (in October).

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BIG ROCK TIES WITH OLIVER & BONACINI FOR BREWPUB

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ig Rock Brewery has partnered with fine dining restaurant company Oliver & Bonacini to open a modern-day brewpub, Liberty Commons at Big Rock Brewery. The brewpub collaboration between Oliver & Bonacini and Big Rock is now open at the corner of Liberty St. and Atlantic Ave The venue has been designed by award-winning firm DesignAgency and combines contemporary and industrial elements, showcasing brewer’s tools that include six fermenting vessels. The brewpub is set in a two-level

heritage space with Liberty Commons occupying the entire lower level and featuring a bar and dining room. Also featured are two customizable private dining rooms: Barrel Room and Drink Tank. The main level houses Big Rock Brewery’s Beer Shop and tap room designed to allow guests to enjoy a pint while casually dining on select menu offerings from Liberty Commons. Liberty Commons’ culinary prorgramme is driven by O&B corporate executive chef Anthony Walsh, district executive Chef John Horne

(Canoe, Auberge du Pommier), and newly appointed Chef de Cuisine Ryan Lister (formerly of Canoe). Big Rock Brewmasters Connor K. Patrick and Dan Ellis are overseeing the brewing program at Liberty Commons. Ellis explained: “We’re thrilled to be working closely with Chef Ryan and his incredibly talented staff to craft beers that both complement and enhance the outstanding dishes being created.We are excited to brew under the same roof as such flavour experts and we fully intend on utilizing that tremendous resource to push the envelope.”

GREAT LAKES BREWERY TO SPONSOR TORONTO ROCK

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reat Lakes Brewery is sponsoring Toronto Rock, a member of the nineteam National Lacrosse League, for the 2017 NLL season. The move helps mark the brewery’s 30th anniversary and will see GLB as the official beer partner of the Toronto Rock with Canuck Pale Ale the official beer of the six time NLL championship team. Peter Bulut, owner and chief brewing officer at GLB, said: “We are extremely excited to work with the Toronto Rock and support Toronto’s championship team.

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“With lacrosse being Canada’s national sport, and our Canuck Pale Ale emulating Canada’s blossoming craft brewing industry, this is a great fit for our independent company.” In addition, to celebrate each To-

ronto Rock home game, tallboy cans of Canuck Pale Ale, a multi-award winning west coast style pale ale, will be available at Jack Astor’s Bar and Grill (St. Lawrence Market) for the official post-game party.

Spring 2017 | Brewers Journal Canada 15


C o m m en t

S afety

C ompliance

Protect your employees, your customers and the future of your brewery Breweries need to be proactive in their approach to safety compliance, explains Joshua Kearley, a program specialist at Beverage Protect powered by Benson Kearley IFG

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n 2009 an employee of a US based brewery died in a crawlspace that was over saturated with oxygen. According to Reuters analysis of federal Occupational Safety & Health Administration data, there were at least four other employee-related deaths at breweries in the US between 2009 and 2012. Fortunately in Canada we have yet to see incidents of this magnitude, but all breweries need to be proactive in their approach to safety compliance. As beer manufacturing continues to burgeon across Canada and the US, government regulators have heightened their focus on brewer’s safety compliance in both countries. Beverage Protect is a national insurance program offering specialized insurance coverage for Canada’s alcohol-based beverage manufacturing industry. We recognize the importance of staying aligned with industry trends and regulatory implications in terms of overall risk, and we endeavour to educate our clients, and prospective ones, about the important issues faced. Bill Godkin of CE Safety, one of Beverage Protect’s exclusive partners, has experience and connections within the Health & Safety industry, and makes the following comments about safe brewery operations: “The growth of the beverage industry has turned the attention of government regulators to the operations within the beverage industry. Specifically in early May, the Ministry of Labour in Ontario will begin a four month new and young worker safety blitz of businesses in the Recreational Facility group of industries. “These include: golf courses, campgrounds, restaurants, craft brewery and wineries because of the hiring of seasonal workers and a yearly turn over of staff. What the Ministry of Labour Inspectors will be looking for is PROOF of staff training of mandatory topics such as WHMIS 2015, Workplace Violence & Harassment, Worker & Supervisor Safety Awareness and Access for Disabled Persons. If you cannot prove you have achieved compliance, then you are not in compliance.

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They will also be looking for safety hazards such as compressed gas cylinders being unsecured, equipment, tools and storage areas in poor condition, machinery properly guarded, cluttered aisles and stairwells, just to name a few. “Fines and penalties for non-compliance alone can reach tens of thousands of dollars and if a worker is critically or fatally injured, the fines are even more severe. Late last year, the Ministry of Labour started charging employers under Federal Codes and if convicted, an employer could face a sentence in Federal Prison! As an employer, you need to be proactive to ensure your business is in compliance with all of the current regulations that govern your workplace. Not being aware of regulations is not a defence. There are safety regulations like Ontario’s in all the other parts of Canada and in the United States where OSHA sends out their own inspectors to ensure training in the Global Harmonized System (WHMIS 2015) has been done along with other safety training and measures.” Importantly, as Bill mentions above not being aware of compliance regulations is not a defence, and the resulting fines and penalties are not covered by an insurance policy. Protecting your employees and your customers will ultimately help your business continue to thrive and grow. Beverage Protect aligns our clients with companies like CE Safety to ensure our clients understand the risks they face, implement necessary programs, and do what is needed to protect their business. Beverage Protect was created to support the unique insurance needs, health & safety compliance and overall risk management of the alcohol-based beverage industry in Ontario and across the country. By teaming up with the right insurance companies we are able to offer craft breweries, wineries and distilleries a customized insurance program that offers the best coverage available with the best rates in Canada. Joshua Kearley is a Program Specialist at Beverage Protect powered by Benson Kearley IFG.

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Women and the Ontario Craft Brewing Industry Late last year, Ontario Craft Brewers (OCB) appointed Garnet Pratt Siddall, president & CEO, Side Launch Brewing Company Inc., of Collingwood, Ontario as chair of the Board of Directors. She became the first woman to chair the OCB board and in 2017, the association has announced a beer education scholarship program for women working in the Ontario craft brewing industry.

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his March Ontario Craft Brewers (OCB), the association of small, independent craft brewers in Ontario, announced its new beer education scholarship program for women working in the Ontario craft brewing industry. “Ontario’s vibrant craft brewing industry employs women in all areas of the business,” says Garnet Pratt Siddall, president & CEO of Side Launch Brewing Company and chair of Ontario Craft Brewers. “More women are choosing to work in this industry because of the excitement, the growth opportunities and the dedication to producing a quality product.” The program helps mark International Women’s Day 2017 and as part of its commitment to women in craft brewing, OCB will award up to six scholarships for women in OCB member breweries to obtain the first level of certification within the internationallyrenowned Cicerone program, an industry standard used for identifying those with significant knowledge and professional skills in beer sales and service. Founded in 2007 by brewer, author, and beer educator Ray Daniels, the Cicerone Certification Program seeks to ensure that consumers receive the best quality beer at every service occasion. To facilitate this, those who sell and serve beer are encouraged to acquire knowledge in five areas “A key foundation of the craft brewing process is a commitment to quality standards,” says Pratt Siddall. “The Cicerone training program offers independent assessment and certification for individuals working in the industry in order to elevate the craft beer experience for both industry professionals and consumers.” Each OCB scholarship award will cover course registration fees for the interactive e-Learning program, BeerSavvy as well as Road to Cicerone course book (Brewing Ingredients & Process) and a full set of Beer Style Flashcards. BeerSavvy covers key content for the Certified Beer Server program and exam which trains participants in the fundamentals of great beer service for quality craft beer.

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building the sector

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ate last year Garnet Pratt Siddall, president & CEO, Side Launch Brewing Company Inc., of Collingwood, Ontario became chair of the Board of Directors at Ontario Craft Brewers (OCB). She took over the chair role from Cameron Heaps, co-founder of Steam Whistle Brewing who held the position since 2013. “Garnet's fresh energy, collegial style, and unique experience will make her a strong chair,” Heaps said at the time. We've already made plans to meet and transition, and she knows she can call on me anytime. We're all looking forward to an exciting year ahead!” Also, elected to the OCB board in vice chair positions were: Steve Beauchesne, co-founder and president of Beau's All Natural Brewing Co., Jeff Dornan, president of All of Nothing Brewing and Darren Smith, president, Lake of Bays Brewing. Pratt Siddall, one of the founders of Side Launch Brewing (2014), has a background in investment banking, previously working in corporate finance and mergers & acquisitions in both New York and Toronto. A longtime advocate of craft beer, she served as a board member of Ontario Craft Brewers since 2015 and has been deeply involved in sector activities, particularly in the expanding retail segment of grocery and changes to the Beer Store. “I am honoured to have been elected by my peers to chair the OCB Board,” Pratt Siddall said of her appointment. “I will do my best to fill the steel-toed boots left by Cam Heaps and look forward to working with my industry colleagues to continue building this sector into a centre of excellence for craft brewing in North America.” Pratt Siddall, the first woman to chair the OCB board, leads the team in all areas including government lobbying, retail sector liaison, marketing the industry, OCB events, technical and quality assurance programming. She also oversees a women in craft brewing initiative and a beer scholarship program for OCB member employees.

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Finance, Banks and Helping Breweries Grow

Finance is one of the major issues when it comes to growing your brewery. In this article, Greg Taylor, co-founder at Toronto’s Steam Whistle discusses how working with RBC Royal Bank has enabled the company to grow to the successful point it has today.

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t Steam Whistle’s start-up in 1998, we approached Royal Bank for financing, having worked with them in our previous life at Upper Canada Brewing. The craft brewing industry wasn’t thriving at the time. There had been a lot of upstart breweries across North America in the 80s and 90s but the industry had gone through

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a huge retraction because many of the breweries were not well-run from a business perspective and/or suffered from product quality issues. That had not been the case with Upper Canada Brewing (named one of Canada’s Best Managed Companies, and delivering great return for our investors). We presented Royal Bank with a business plan for Steam Whistle Brewing that included our strategic plans, profile of the senior management team

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You Can...

Meet our newest innovation– the ACS X2 and 5 year proforma income statements. Concurrent to negotiating bank financing, we were also approaching private investors to join our Limited Partnership. Royal Bank actually approved our financing before we had completed our equity financing, which is quite rare, but I guess they believed in our business plans, and the industry veterans behind our brewery/brand. Our original equipment package was purchased from a defunct brewery in Montreal that included a 32 Hl brewhouse (lots of capacity to grow), fermenters, bottle washer and packaging equipment. We supplemented that with additional conveyors, kegging machinery and an electronic bottle inspector as well as new equipment for an in-house quality assurance lab. In year two we went back out to our investors to raise funds for some additional fermenters, and each year since then, we’ve self-financed to buy additional fermenters/aging tanks. In 2003 we replaced our original bottle washer with a new MAG bottle washer from Italy, and in 2005 we bought our first canning filler which was self-financed. In 2008 we purchased a new 65hl brewhouse from DIO in the Czech Republic- a big capital project and received Royal Bank financing for that. In 2010 we replaced most of our packaging line with more efficient and higher capacity components, investing in a Krones bottle washer, bottle filler and candle filter system as well as renovating our hospitality space, adding catwalks to accommodating our growing tour business. These were all essentially self-financed through cash flow. In 2015 we added two new vessels to our brewhouse, separating out the whirl pool from the brew kettle and adding a second mash tun to continue facilitating decoction brewing but on an increased capacity basis. This we self-financed through our line of credit with Royal Bank. We launched as a Limited Partnership and once profitable in year four, we rolled over into a Private Company. Since 2005, Steam Whistle has also offered an Employee Share Ownership Plan (ESOP) where once you have worked at the brewery for more than 12 months you can invest in shares in the company. We’re proud of the fact that we have for more than a decade allowed the people responsible for the success of our business to hold a part of that for their own. We’re grateful to Royal Bank for giving us our start in the beer business. It couldn’t have happened without them. We have a really great account manager, Claes Henrysson, who we call on regularly for advice and view as a trusted partner in our business.

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To date, we have installed over 700 canning lines in 44 different countries throughout the world

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Spring 2017 | Brewers Journal Canada 19


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T echnology

Future Flavours

Mike Eagar, co-founder and CEO at Ottawa, Ontario-based Kegshoe, looks at how technological advances in and around the brewing industry will help breweries make more consistently great beer.

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he art challenges the technology and the technology inspires the art.” John Lasseter definitely wasn’t talking about the craft brewing industry when he was quoted saying this, but as one of the world's oldest and most popular concoctions, the secret to beer may lie in its mix of artisanship and engineering. Everyone has their own opinion on where the future flavors and styles of beer should head next, but what about the tech? What’s out there already? What could be? New technology aiding in production continues to improve as systems become more precise and track more data — all while getting cheaper. Fantastic tools like BrewPi and other open source Raspberry Pi rigs are helping brewers bring more consistency to their brews by controlling temperature, tracking flow rates, or managing raw materials. They unfortunately won’t do any of the heavy lifting for you yet, but give Boston Dynamics a few more years and even that might be doable. The world will never do away with sales teams and the beer scene is no different. Yet just as carpenters upgraded from hammers to nail guns, sales teams will always be upgrading their tools. The front pages of Twitter and Instagram are plastered with anecdotes from fun-loving brew teams or pictures of new

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bottle designs (and for some reason everyone turning different brewing tools into coffee mugs). Behind the scenes, sales teams utilize tools like Slack to keep on track with each other and different CRMs to keep in contact with all their clients. Integration is key and new technology continues to surface making things quick and easy. Inventory management is nothing new when it comes to technology, and with legislation requiring many breweries to keep track of where all their inventory ends up it’s been in use throughout the beer industry for many years. Tools range from ledgers to barcode systems. Increases in access to this information and more precision to detail can be seen as this side of the industry takes to the cloud. As for the future? IntelligentX Brewing Company is even letting technology take over recipe creation. They’ve built some machine learning software to take customer feedback and directly relate it back to their next batch. Probably taking the human art out of things a little too much for some, but it’s a very exciting use of cutting-edge software. We can’t wait for HAL to list off a set of computer generated seasonals. Craft will never be able to do without the skill and style of it brewers, nor does anyone really want it to. Technology in the brewing industry just hopes to help everyone make more consistently great beer, and really, who can fault that?

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Cockroach Prevention Cockroaches are a common pest of breweries and restaurants due to the availability of food and their warm, humid environments that help this food safety pest thrive. Here, Steven Graff, quality assurance manager at Abell Pest Control, outlines what your brewery can do to help prevent this problem from arising.

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ockroaches are not only unsanitary they also carry food borne illness pathogens such as Salmonella and E. coli on their bodies, carrying bacteria to food contact surfaces. For this reason it is important to take a structured and proactive approach to their prevention and control. The following best practices will support a pest free environment: Store food properly: Cockroaches can access open food containers and packages due to their small size and ability to climb surfaces. Therefore, keeping these products in insect-proof containers and sealing up open bags will ensure the integrity of the food items.  Implement and follow an effective cleaning program: Maintaining a clean kitchen through identifying areas of regular food debris accumulation and consistently performing effective cleaning of these areas will greatly eliminate cockroach food sources. Ensure all staff know how to clean properly, have the right tools for the job and follow the schedule consistently. A monthly deep clean of equipment and harder to access areas is typically adequate to ensure control however this should be modified based on your operation and potential for food accumulation. Daily cleaning and sanitizing of floors, counter tops, etc. will help remove the bulk of food material from regular operation. Inspect incoming materials for cockroaches: Cockroaches are hitch hikers and could enter your

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facility in a variety of ways. Be sure to inspect containers holding food items, packaging and utensils as you receive them to verify they are free of infestation. Should a cockroach be found, contact your supplier immediately to alert them as well. Also to be considered is the fact that employees could have a cockroach issue in their home and may unknowingly bring them to work. Consider humidity: Cockroaches prefer humid environments, so any leaky pipes should be taken care of as soon as possible. Furthermore, summer months can usher in heightened pest management tasks, since humidity can remain at steadily high levels.  Focus on structural maintenance: Cockroaches like to hide in cracks and crevices and in warm, humid areas. Areas of preference include cabinet door hinges, junction points of counters and cabinets, refrigerator motors, gaps around plumbing pipes, under objects sitting on the floor etc. While not all these areas can be addressed through sealing, any crack or gap that can be eliminated through repair work, minimizing clutter or caulking will help reduce cockroach harbourage areas, make cleaning easier and improve control success. Work with your pest control provider: Pest control professionals such as those from Abell play an important role in these efforts as well. Frequent inspections will ensure that areas of cockroach activity and supporting conditions are identified. Be sure to address their findings and recommendations and work with them in gaining control should activity be detected.

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Global Beer Boom

With Increased focus on branding and customer communication, there is a huge opportunity for small batch canning operations, whether that be for small and contract brewers, beverage producers, printer converters or potential investors. Simon Edwards, vice president of sales and marketing at Tonejet Limited takes up the story.

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he boom of the small independent brewing industry shows no sign of slowing. New breweries are opening across the globe every few days with independent brewers planning to increase production, sales and turnover in the coming years. The trend is boosting economies across the world with the beer and pub market sectors now responsible for millions of jobs. With the various events and festivals now organised around craft produce throughout the world, it's near impossible to miss the craft beer explosion. Not only that, there are ‘craft beer clubs’ operating where, for a fee, beer drinkers are provided with a monthly supply of small batch, hand-picked craft beer from around the world, delivered to their doorstep. A recent report across the pond in the UK states that 56% of produced beer is supplied to free-trade (non-brewery owned) pubs while over 80% of all

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beer sold by members is sold within 40 miles of the brewery. 17% are now exporting beer with a further 53% interested in doing so. In such a competitive market with plans for increased levels of both production and sales, it’s no wonder then that most breweries made capital investments in 2015, with 13% investing over £100K ($165K CAD) mainly in expansion of production, modernising equipment and transportation improvements. To aid the entry into new markets and exports many breweries are looking to canning their beer. Of course, a growing market is a competitive one and while independent craft brewers continue to enjoy this rapid growth, larger brewers are also looking to capitalise on investments in this market, through mergers and acquisitions, and their own small batch brews. We saw this in early 2016, with the AB InBev takeover of UK-based Camden Town Brewery, a brewery which has taken on canning their product, alongside their bottling and keg products.

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small

While cans are undeniably becoming extremely popular, there is still a lack of ability to provide small batch brews in cans with the same print quality as mass produced product. This is due to traditional processes and the economic crossover point of the suppliers, with minimum order quantities of around 150,000 cans and long lead times creating a barrier to the fluidity and potential rapid growth of small, independent brewers who need batch sizes of 10,000 to 50,000. Until now, the only alternative for small batch brewing to be packaged in cans is to utilise indirect label printing at a considerable additional cost to conventional manufactured cans. New digital can printing technology addresses these issues while opening-up a whole new world of opportunity. Digital print technology for beverage can decoration, whether for craft beer or non-alcoholic craft beverages, wines or RTD’s can deliver the variety, flexibility and choice that producers need to succeed. In fact, with limited edition flavourings or one-off special brews increasing in popularity, packaging can help a brand stand-out. From a cost perspective alone, Tonejet direct to can digital printing is roughly 20 times cheaper than label printing for cans. With the inherent nature of digital print and minimum orders of almost one, brewers are now provided with virtually limitless personalisation

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batch

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opportunities. Not only that, but as the technology is capable of printing several batches a day, product time-to-market is decreased too, enabling brewers to respond quickly to seasonal trends or produce and can key beverage brands for events or social media campaign, opening-up new business opportunities. True personalised packaging, made available from printer manufacturers such as Tonejet, are key to unlocking significant investment opportunities, for a variety of craft beverage packaging business models – be that simply as a financial investor or in setting up individual custom digital can printing operations. In the USA, small batch beverages have been canned for some 20 years with a variety of mobile canning companies offering a canning service at the brewery when the beer is ready. By example, a recent Tonejet customer in North America is setting up a contract can printing company, buying in blank cans and printing smaller run orders for local craft brewers. With no order constraints, even before the system is installed, its order book was full for several months in advance. They are already expecting to invest in a second system to meet demands! With an increased focus on branding and customer communication, there is a huge opportunity for such canning operations, whether that be for small and contract brewers, beverage producers, printer converters or potential investors.

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Changing Of The Guard 24 | Brewers Journal Canada | Spring 2017

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Eli Gershkovitch: Steamworks going strong in BC and beyond

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When Eli Gershkovitch founded Steamworks in 1995, very few would have predicted the rate of growth to have followed in the Canadian brewing industry, especially in recent years. But for the team at Steamworks, with its original Gastown location and newer Burnaby brewery in tow, they are successfully marrying their position as part of the B.C. old guard with the launch of modern, award-winning beers. Justin Van Mulligen, the group’s marketing manager, takes up the story.

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think we’re proof that if you master the classics and are capable of quality, consistent output, then those styles will carry you. Success in those fields then allows you to branch out, experiment, and focus on producing other beers, and that’s what we’re doing here,” explains Justin Van Mulligen. “We work on a core of five yearround beers with our Pilsner, Heroica Red, Pale, Kölsch and Jasmine IPA. For many years these beers have proven to hit with our customers. People come back time and time again and I know that’s testament to the quality and consistency we place at the forefront of production.” Van Mulligen has been with the Steamworks family for a little less than two years, but you wouldn’t know it. The company’s marketing manager, who joined the world of beer from an advertising background, has a wealth of knowledge of the brewery’s broad operations and has a passion for Steamworks that is mirrored by a growing team, that includes brewmaster Julia Hanlon. He’s pointing out that while Steamworks came into being back in 1995, and is an established brand, the company feels that it is more important than

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ever to be competitive in a brewing landscape that is becoming increasingly crowded. “We are an in unique local spot, that’s certain. For me, we are part of the old guard, but more importantly the new, too. Sure, we have our Gastown microbrewery and restaurant that has been there for 22 years, but people often forget that we only started moving into a packaged product back in 2012,” says Van Mulligen. “But now, we are in a market where we have a local mature brand but need to adopt that start-up mentality somewhat, too. There are new breweries popping up all the time and they are pushing new styles and new ideas, which keeps us on our toes. It’s a balance of keeping the focus on your core, while ensuring that you have an important part to play with new drinkers and the growing market.” And ensuring they have a role to play with evolving drinkers’ tastes isn’t proving to be much of a problem for Steamworks when it comes to introducing new beers. Seasonal such as Killer Cucumber Ale, which is described as a light summer ale that is “dry hopped” with cucumbers in the conditioning vessel, is greeted with feverish anticipation each year. Wheat malts combine with citrusy and earthy hops support the

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Beer range Heroica Red Ale This Gold Medal award winning, robust Red Ale has beautiful citrus and pine notes that come from our generous additions of Centennial, Citra & Simcoe hops. It is smooth and velvety in the mouth with the toasted malts giving it a medium body with hints of roasted hazelnut, toffee and caramel malt flavours. Malts: 2-Row, Cara 20, Cara 45, Munich, Chocolate Hops: Cascade, Citra, Simcoe, Amarilloe Colour: Crimson Red IBU: 40 ABV: 5.6 Flagship IPA At last this steam-powered flagship has sailed into port. This Northeast style IPA is generously hopped with Mosaic, Galaxy & Citra and pours cloudy with an intense juicy, tropical fruit aroma that gives way to a balanced bitterness. Steamworks Flagship IPA is a confident and powerful brew perfect for discerning hop-heads and casual drinkers alike. This Flagship IPA recently picked up Gold for North American IPA as well as Best in Show from the 2016 BC Beer Awards. Malts: Premium 2-Row, Caramalt, Carapils & Oat Malt Hops: Mosaic, Galaxy & Citra Colour: Golden IBU: 67 ABV: 6.7 Kรถlsch Kรถlsch-Style Ale is fermented like an ale but matured like a lager, it goes down very easy, dry with a low but balanced bitterness and a light to medium body with a very delicate flavour. Our Kรถlsch has a clean, malty, chardonnay-like aroma with a dry, refreshing finish. Malts: Pilsner, Carapils & Wheat Hops: Magnum, Tettnang & Celeia Colour: Light Gold IBU: 20 ABV: 4.8

Julia Hanlon is helping keep Steamworks at the forefront of Canadian brewing

Jasmine IPA Pours golden in colour with a lively white head. It has a very floral and citrus nose from the hops and jasmine flowers while hints of spicy phenolics and fruity esters come through on the finish. The taste of caramel malt is balanced by the lavish dry hop character and refreshing jasmine flavours. Hoppy, refreshing and complex. Malts: Premium 2-Row & Cara 20 Hops: Cascade & Galaxy Unique: Jasmine Flowers & Ardennes Strain Colour: Golden IBU: 60 ABV: 6.5 Pale Ale This northwest style pale ale combines hints of lightly toasted malts with a beautiful floral & citrus hop aroma that tingle the senses. Undertones of malt sweetness & a balanced hop bitterness make for a very refreshing finish. Malts: 2-Row, Cara 20 Hops: Cascade, Chinook Colour: Light copper IBU: 40 ABV: 5.2

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Spring 2017 | Brewers Journal Canada 27


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refreshing cucumber nose and palate while Belgian yeast rounds out the profile with a hint of apricot and black pepper, while high carbonation and a mediumlight body add a thirst-quenching finish. While Bourbon Barrel Aged Imperial Stouts and its Illumination Series have proved a hit, it is the release of its Flagship IPA late last year that has resonated with drinkers, and judges alike. “As a brewery well known for its speciality IPAs, we felt it was high time Steamworks come out with a core

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IPA. Trial brews of Flagship IPA began over a year ago so that we could fine tune every aspect of the beer. After scale up to a full production brew, I couldn’t be happier with the result,” brewmaster Julia Hanlon said at the time. “Flagship IPA has a huge tropical fruit aroma that gives way to a juicy flavour and a balanced, soft bitterness and mouthfeel and a nice, dry finish. I’m very proud of our brewing team for making this beer and can’t wait for people to try it.” Hanlon is rightfully proud of the beer, which was

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Beer range Pilsner The most popular beers in the world call themselves Pilsners, but they barely resemble the original from the city of Pilsn in the Czech Republic that gave its name to the style in 1842. Steamworks’ version comes close, which explains why it has won Best Beer in BC for two years running. It is a rich, malty lager with a spicy, floral hop character – crisp, complex and delicious. Malts: Pilsner Hops: Magnum, Tradition, Tettnang, Spalt select, Saphir Colour: Golden IBU: 30 ABV: 5 Black Angel IPA At last this steam-powered flagship has sailed into port. Pours near black with a thick white head. Massively dry hopped, giving off huge floral, tropical fruit & spicy aromas exciting even the biggest of hop heads. A healthy dose of caramel malt gives balance and a delicious finish. Malts: Maris Otter, Cara 8, Munich & Midnight Wheat Hops: Nelson Sauvin, Ella & Centennial Colour: Nearly Black IBU: 70 ABV: 7 Blitzen This Winter Ale is an ode to the Belgian Tripel. Apple and citrus aromas along with a toasted malt character make for a refreshingly different holiday brew. So curl up closer to the steam pipes and warm up for the festive season. Malts: Pilsner Hops: Fuggles, Sterling Colour: Golden IBU: 20 ABV: 9 Salted Chocolate Porter The first release in our illumination series, this Salted Chocolate Porter offers chocolate and vanilla aromas and a full body with rich chocolate flavours from a wellbalanced combination of toasted and chocolate malts. While the addition of hand-harvested Pacific Ocean Fleur de Sel from Vancouver Island Salt Co. provides an intriguing flourish on the finish. It pours near black with a tan head and is a rich and robust brew sure to please classic porter lovers and adventurous imbibers alike. Unique: Hand-harvested Pacific Ocean Fleur de Sel Colour: Black IBU: 25 ABV: 6

entered into the B.C. Beer Awards as a pre-release sample, ahead of the event last October. Judges were so enamoured the beer that they awarded it winner in the North American IPA category. But the beer also scooped the ‘Best in Show’ award, beating 83 breweries and nearly 800 entries as a result. Not bad for a beer that hadn’t even been released at that point. “That was a particularly proud moment for us,” explains Van Mulligen. “To be recognised in an

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incredibly competitive category was one thing, but to be considered the best beer at an event, where so many of your contemporaries and other breweries have submitted such great beers, was an honour.” Van Mulligen cites brewmaster Julia Hanlon’s impact on Steamworks as a major reason for the company’s ongoing success with drinkers in B.C. and beyond. Hanlon joined Steamworks in May 2015. She studied chemical and biological engineering at the University of B.C., which put her on a path for

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a career in brewing. 10 years with Molson Coors followed, which gave Hanlon an in-depth insight into all areas of the brewing process, before taking on the brewmaster role at Steamworks to enable her to be more creative when it comes to the production of beer. “She is a massive part of the team. We are producing excellent, high-quality beer day-in day-out, year-in year-out, and I’m excited where we are going with her on board,” he adds. Scooping such prestigious awards and employing a growing team marks significant development since Steamworks was founded in 1995. When Eli Gershkovitch first took hold of its historic Gastown brewpub location, they discovered that the building

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had a rare steam heat system. A remnant from forward thinkers of a century past. Their brewmaster had only read of steam powered brewing, but had never seen a functional steam brewery as they are very rare. Gershkovitch and the team experimented, and created a unique steam generated brewery. The only one in Canada. Initial test brews were distinctively fresh and flavourful and more than 20 years later, beer drinkers have been migrating to Steamworks for these unconventional beers. Gershkovitch has overseen steady, impressive, growth at Steamworks over the last 22 years. The former litigation lawyer, who is a big aviation fan and holder of a pilot’s license, caught the beer bug, and the idea of having ownership in that space, during a

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trip to European breweries in the late eighties. Fast forward 30 years to 2017, the Steamworks brewery in Burnaby houses a 50hl Newlands Systems brewhouse, with around 100hl of beer being packaged each day. “We have grown from the brewpub to a brewery of a decent size. We are running a lot of hours on brewing and packaging so balance is key once again. When you are dealing with fairly significant volumes, you need to maintain the balance of putting out so many hectolitres with a focus on innovation and development. You need to do both,” explains Van Mulligen. Packaging their beer has allowed Steamworks to reach drinkers across Canada, as well as Europe and the US. Beer is on tap across B.C. while canning in-

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house on its Wild Goose setup, which features a shrink sleever, means the brewery can frequently experiment with new beer releases without the need for ordering in pre-printed cans. “We want our beer to reach as many drinkers as possible. We still sell 95% of our beer in B.C. but by packaging it, who knows, we could be the beer that helps convert someone to move from Molson Coors or Labatts,” he explains. “Going forward, we want to challenge the perception that we are only an older, established larger brewery and show drinkers the innovation and modern beers we are producing, too. We don’t only want to be seen as a veteran, but for market-pushing new beers. We want to challenge consumers, and want them to challenge us too.”

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30 Years Young 2017 is an important year for Canadians. This July marks the country's 150th Anniversary of Confederation but for Peter Bulut, owner & chief brewing officer at Great Lakes Brewery, 2017 is particularly special, signalling the 30th year in business for the Toronto institution. And for Bulut and his team, they are only looking forward.

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Birthday present: Great Lakes Brewery invested in a new 7bbl copper pilot system to help mark its 30th anniversary.

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Peter Bulut: "I run this business casually, there is no hammering of heads"

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he funny thing is that in the nineties, I don’t think the word ‘craft’ really existed in the world of beer. If you were making good beer, and people were enjoying it, then that was enough. I knew we were making good beer, drinkers were relating to our beer, and working with my dad (the late Peter Bulut Sr) helped me appreciate that more and more,” says Peter Bulut, owner & chief brewing officer at Great Lakes Brewery. There’s a palpable enthusiasm about everything Bulut says. He’s recalling formative years but he’s also excited about the brewery’s 30th birthday, he’s excited

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about Canada’s anniversary, and he’s excited about the future. So far in 2017, the brewery announced that it was the official beer partner of The Toronto Rock with Canuck Pale Ale the official beer of the six time NLL championship team. They also welcomed a number of beer personalities, including our own Richard Piotrowski and Jakub Malik, into the brewery to help kick off its 30th anniversary with a collaboration brew with head brewer Mike Lackey, a 3.8% English Mild with cocoa nibs called 'Alternative Facts'. Great Lakes also welcomed a new addition to the growing family of brewery ambassadors with Dani Cini as its new Taproom/Retail store manager.

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Beer range Canuck Pale Ale The minute you crack your can, aroma of grapefruit, mango and pine hit you in the face; like a beaver slapping his tail on a pristine small body of water in Ontario. Canuck pours a deep gold, bordering on burnt orange that produces a tight snowy white toque. Take one last nose before getting into the liquid, which you’ll soon find will be hard to put down. Soft carbonation leads into a sweet honeyish start before it gives way to more grapefruit, tropical citrus, canned peaches and pine. Light to medium body with a very dry finish. Drink at your local pub, in the fish hut, campground, the beach, in a canoe (responsibly), playing shinny, on a log…actually, anywhere north of the 49th. ABV: 5.2; IBU: 35; Serving Temp: 3-5oC Style: American Pale Ale Pompous Ass Pompous Ass is our version of an English Ale. We used an American ale yeast to brighten up the flavour and add our own contemporary blend of hops to ensure that even the most pompous ale drinker does a double take. ABV: 4.2; IBU: 28; Serving Temp: 3-5oC Style: English Pale Ale Red Leaf Lager Hints of caramel, nuts and toasted malt result in a fully flavoured yet deceptively smooth lager. A well balanced body makes it a perfect year-round beer. Red Leaf is an ideal match with burgers, stews, sandwiches and similar selections. ABV: 5; Serving Temp: 1-3oC; Style: Lager Blonde Lager Our extended aging process results in an incredible smooth and refreshing taste with little bitterness or aftertaste. Great for the warm weather or for those desiring a light bodied beer. Oh, and Bulut celebrated its anniversary with a brand new 7bbl copper pilot system and four new 15bbl fermenters. The investment allows Great Lakes to expand on the creativity of its experimental brews, going from 40-70 litres on the old pilot set-up to 700-1400 litres. This means that the brewery retail store and bars and restaurants will see more product on a rotating basis moving forward in its 30th year. Once it was installed, Bulut christened the kit by rolling up his sleeves to brew the inaugural batch of beer – Orange Peel Ale, a brand the brewery discontinued in 2014. A second beer, a pale ale, that features an experimental, as yet unnamed hop, followed. “Carefully considered investments like this

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ABV: 5; Serving Temp: 1-3oC; Style: Lager Swamp Juice A blend of our latest and greatest Pale Ale & IPAs, Swamp Juice is like Swamp Water (pop) for adults. ABV: Varies; ABV: Varies; Serving Temp: 3-5oC Style: Pale Ale and IPA blends

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give us the ability to have some fun and try out new styles. It promotes creativity across the board and keeps the whole team engaged,” he explains. Great Lakes Brewery in 2017 is in good health, and much has changed since Bulut Sr purchased the business that started as a malt extract brewery in Brampton brewing Great Lakes Lager and Unicorn Ale. Bulut Jnr today has fond memories of his initial involvement with the brewery, especially in the early days. “I was there, full of piss and vinegar, wanting to learn about the business. I was the first driver and probably the first drinks puller. I was also a cellarman wanting to gain knowledge of all sides of the operation before I felt comfortable in passing the torch to others. And even then, I did that slowly!” he says. The hard work that went into building the brewery and the Great Lakes brand nearly came underdone during the nineties, however. A bacterial infection, caused by bad procedures, resulted in the “beer, tanks, everything” being dumped, according to Bulut. “It was a challenging time, we had to change the brewing team and I went back into that side of things again. It helped me grow as a person and us as a business. We nearly lost everything and it woke us up.” But now, under the stewardship of head brewer Mike Lackey, Great Lakes’ brewing operations are in more than capable hands. Having spent his Kindergarten and school years with Bulut, Lackey took on various roles at the brewery from 1991. Much like Bulut, he covered all manner of positions from driver, to cellarman, to brewer. Towards the end of that decade, studies and travel took him to Europe and Australia, time that confirmed to Lackey that working at a brewery was where he wanted to be. “Mike has been our head brewer since 2012 and has put in his ten thousand hours for this brewery, that’s for sure. During his time he has knocked out countless brews, it’s incredible,” explains Bulut, who is full of praise for his friend and colleague. Despite the challenging period during the nineties, Bulut believes that he runs Great Lakes in a casual manner. “I am not into hammering on the heads. Great Lakes is collaborative, it is looking at the bigger picture. The infection situation was a time of huge learning through pain. It was tough and it sucked, but it has made us all stronger in the long run,” he explains. “But to be here after 30 years, you need to have the right attitude. This industry is perpetual. You need your game hat on and you need to always be looking ahead. But to be even relatively comfortable going forward, you need to focus on the here and now, let alone three years from this point.” Bulut believes that expansion at Great Lakes Brewery has been strategic, with gradual investment and growth each year. Alongside the new pilot kit, four new locally-built tanks arrive in 2017, increasing capacity by 20%. Being able to support local business

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Head brewer Mike Lackey stikes the pose of the Canuck Pale Ale mascot (above and top left). Left, the 30th birthday brew 'Alternative Facts' was brewed in collaboration with th Brewers Journal

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and “run the cheque down the street” is of particular importance to Bulut. And for the brewery’s owner, this considered approach to expansion puts the company in good shape, especially at a time where the industry is more competitive than ever. “There has probably been more breweries open in the last two years than the previous 20. We see a lot of people investing in brewing and there is a romantic notion about beer for many individuals. You’re seeing people leave high paid jobs to move into brewing on an understandably modest setup, but you can’t expect that to cover the high wages you’re used to, let alone a team,” he explains. “And the bar is rising in this industry. You’ll have a cellarman wanting $25 an hour but can you immediately cover wage demands for a team straightaway? Hey, brewing looks good and attractive on the outside but if you’re planning to make a go of it on that small setup, then it’ll be a challenge for you.” He adds: “We have stayed grounded during these 30 years. We’re not greedy, we are not getting into debt and, knock on wood, we only have small mortgage and everything else is paid for. It’s about being sensible. "For our size, we are one of the only breweries not exporting. We only sell our beer here in Ontario and a very small amount in places like Halifax. Other than that, it’s our focus to stay local. Too many breweries jam tanks in their setup then that look for other markets to fill that volume up. But for me, when you’re making IPAs, those IBUs and aromas are lost after time and the beer won’t taste great when it gets to drinkers further afield. That’s not a good thing.”

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Great Lakes Brewery beers reach drinkers on draught, cans and bomber bottles for special releases. Bulut says the split is slightly in the favour of packaged products, with canning and bottling enabling the brewery to offer different beers for different occasions. Regardless of the vessel, there are people on the ground to check that outlets selling its beers are doing so well within the date range that is best for the beer. And the type of beers that carry the Great Lakes Brewery name have developed over these 30 years. Built as a lagering brewery, the company has diversified in that time, with Devil’s Pale Ale 666 in 2006 and the introduction of Canuck Pale Ale in 2010 marking important points in the brewery’s journey. With bottling at Great Lakes starting in 2000 and canning commencing in 2007, the business has brewed with a raft of ingredients such as green tea, pumpkin and orange peel in that time. But it was the 5.3% Canuck (see box-out), which is still going strong, that brought the team’s love of West Coast hops to the fore. “We love that style and it’s a big part of what we do. In my opinion, it's nice to have an IPA go out and sell each time. But we are still committed to keeping that approach casual and not being too aggressive with it. "People seem to trust us regardless of the style we adopt, while sales figures in places like the Liquor Control Board of Ontario (LCBO) show us as much,” says Bulut. “We’ve helped lead a lot of creative brewing in Ontario during these 30 years, and I hope we can continue to do that.”

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Brothers Jeff and Eric Dornan founded All or Nothing with their core philosophy that with hard work any insurmountable obstacle can be overcome, no matter the odds. So now, with the acquisition of Trafalgar Ale’s & Meads and its sister companies – Black Creek Historic Brewery and Trafalgar Artisanal Distillery based in Oakville, Ontario last year, the team are ready to grasp the opportunity and take All or Nothing to the next level.

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ll or Nothing is not your conventional brewery. The Oakville, Ontario-based company was founded by brothers Jeff and Eric, who the came into beer and brewing from a sales background, but it’s that grounding that has informed many of their decisions in All or Nothing’s successful first years in business. Oh, and they have an impressive artisanal distillery to boot. “My brother and I are major advocates of the idea of localised products. When we were supplying products in the home improvement space, it would often prove to be a challenge to convince people to buy a locally-built piece of furniture that was superior to a similar product built overseas but carried a slightly higher price tag,” explains a pensive Jeff

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Dornan. He continues: “You would be selling bookcases to home depot, 30 dollars for an excellent local one or 25 dollars for one from another country. People could see the difference but they wanted to save those dollars. It was so frustrating to see that, but thankfully we were successful in that field, which has allowed us to do found All or Nothing. For us, fresh is best when it comes to beer so that passion for supporting and serving the local field drove us to this industry. And it’s exciting to be in.” The All or Nothing journey started, like many breweries, with contract brewing. The brothers used facilities in Saint Thomas and Cool Beer Brewing Co in Etobicoke before the acquisition of Trafalgar Ale’s & Meads enabled the team to move into a bricks and mortar proposition.

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“Our journey to create a craft brewery began the same as most, with ambition and a vision for the future. However, all the ambition and vision in the world can’t produce a multi million dollar brewing facility on its own. By contracting other brewing facilities to produce our Hopfenweisse we grew the All or Nothing brand throughout Ontario and eventually acquired a brewery of our own. Now we are free to expand our ambitions to any and every type of Craft Beer, Mead, and Spirit imaginable,” explains Dornan. And that brewery was Trafalgar Ale’s & Meads and its sister companies – Black Creek Historic Brewery and Trafalgar Artisanal Distillery based in Oakville, Ontario. “The acquisition allows All or Nothing Brewhouse to evolve from its contract brewing roots to a bricks and mortar facility. This move gives All or Nothing a new place to call home, where the company can

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experiment and expand its product portfolio,” says Dornan. “By acquiring an already talented and award winning brewery, All or Nothing has an additional leg up in the hyper competitive craft brewing industry.” With Trafalgar Ales & Meads, the Dornan brothers acquired a business that was founded in 1993 by Mike Arnold, and one that grown to be a respected part of the Canadian brewing landscape. In its 12,000 sq/ft facility, the brewery produces a variety of craft beer, cider, meads and artisanal spirits onsite. Trafalgar is seen as a pioneer of innovation by offering a diverse range of beers in its portfolio. The brewery is also decorated with many awards throughout its history, including the LCBO’s Elsie Award for Marketing Innovation in 2000, Canadian Agri-Food Award of Excellence for Innovation in 2004 and recently in 2015 winning seven Ontario Brewing

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Awards and “New brewer of the year”. Speaking at the time of the move, Dornan said All or Nothing would be making significant capital investments into the existing Oakville location through the installation of a state-of-the-art automated canning line as well as additional fermentation tanks to expand production capacity. True to their word, they have done just that with a stream of investment taking place. The business has a two vessel 20HL Canadian-manufactured setup with three new 40bbl vessels and also some 17bbl fermentors arriving this year. “One could make a very strong argument that craft beer is the most artistically driven alcoholic beverage in the world. By embracing beer purity, breweries across the globe have independently pushed the boundaries of cereal grains, hops and yeast to produce some of the most interesting beverages to touch your lips,” says Dornan. He explains: “When drinking a beer produced at our brewery you are experiencing a snapshot of our local culture, water and traditions. We strive to keep the essence of a true craft brewer alive by never cutting corners and strive to use the highest quality barley, hops, yeast, and water available to us. “In order to properly utilize the quality and history of these world-shaping ingredients, we use a Canadian designed and built two-vessel brewhouse. Operated by our experienced brewing team, we take premium quality grains, hops, yeast, water, (and local raw wildflower honey for our mead) to brew small batch award winning beer and mead every day.” In addition to that expansion, the team has also invested in a new canning machine from Cask Brewing Systems, which is allowing All or Nothing to output 473ml, 355ml and also 296ml cans, which makes the company the only one in Ontario to do so. That final format, 296ml cans, plays an intriguing and integral role in the supply of company’s spirits and ready-to-drink offering. “We do more than produce unique craft beer at 1156 Speers Rd. Since 2014 we have been exploring and pioneering our way through the world of craft spirits. Currently we operate one of the largest craft stills in the province of Ontario featuring a pot that has a capacity in excess of 5,000 liters,” says Dornan. “This Canadian made gem of a still features a copper lined 13-level distillation stack to produce a clean and pure tasting spirit. We proudly double distill all of our spirits which means the spirits produced at Trafalgar have travelled through 26 levels of distillation (once for each level of the stack). Once we are satisfied with the purity of the spirit we blend it with filtered water to achieve the desired ABV % and add natural fruits, flavours, and spices to produce an extremely smooth and drinkable spirit.” Craft spirits are playing an increasingly important role at All or Nothing but on the beer front, the original plan was just to produce wheat beers. “Nobody was just doing that, but we have shifted our focus somewhat,” says Dornan. “Diversification

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Hopfenweisse The flagship beer at All or Nothing is its Hopfenweisse, a lightly-hopped, highly sessionable wheat beer. “All or Nothing is like nothing you’ve seen before.Golden in colour, with a sparkling foamy head, the first sniff reveals notes of banana and bubblegum. Dig a little deeper and you’ll find hints of tropical fruit and a touch of citrus,” says Dornan. “When you finally bring that glass to your lips, you’ll be delighted by how the sweet and refreshing fruitiness is followed by more assertive tropical hops, creating a delightful hybrid of Hefeweizen and west-coast Pale Ale flavours.” He adds: Unlike some other wheat beers, All or Nothing is brewed without added sugars or flavours. Using 3 types of malt and 4 varieties of hops, we’ve crafted a beer that is complex yet approachable, refreshing yet bold, and always delicious.” Flavours & Aromas: Banana, Bubblegum, Pineapple, Papaya, Mango & Grapefruit Appearance: Unfiltered, hazy and opaque IBU: 25 SRM: 7 ABV: 5.1% Serving temperature: 4°-6°C/36°-46°F

is so important. The beer landscape is becoming increasingly cluttered so while we have many strings to our bow, we try to focus on only one or two SKUs in each business. Different business bring different taxes so we already have enough to deal with!”. While the company is mastering diversification, it still enjoys great success with its flagship beer, Hopfenweisse. It’s a lightly-hopped, highly sessionable wheat beer. “All or Nothing is like nothing you’ve seen before.Golden in colour, with a sparkling foamy head, the first sniff reveals notes of banana and bubblegum. Dig a little deeper and you’ll find hints of tropical fruit and a touch of citrus,” says Dornan. “When you finally bring that glass to your lips, you’ll be delighted by how the sweet and refreshing fruitiness is followed by more assertive tropical hops, creating a delightful hybrid of Hefeweizen and west-coast Pale Ale flavours.” He adds: Unlike some other wheat beers, All or Nothing is brewed without added sugars or flavours. Using 3 types of malt and 4 varieties of hops, we’ve crafted a beer that is complex yet approachable, refreshing yet bold, and always delicious.” All or Nothing’s impressive offering across the alcohol front helps ensure it remains competitive in an increasingly crowded Ontario beer market that Dornan believes plateaued last year. “There is a lot more expectation on breweries now

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and people are more demanding. In Ontario, many breweries that do most volumes are the ones that do styles like Kölsch or another fashionable mimicking of the macros, adding their own twist. Here, we want to be known for something, and for something different,” he says. That’s why meads and wheat beers are big for us. While the Trafalgar offering are UK style beers, malt-forward beers, we complement that with our other beers, meads and spirits.” Dornan adds: “Too many breweries are coming in with rose-tinted glasses. You need to sell a lot of beer to make profit and people are building Taj Mahalstyle breweries with little idea of how they are going to fill them. You need to do a lot to be successful, but people are thinking they can be a millionaire straightaway. I am still amazed with the amount coming into the market,” he stresses. "Craft beer is still only 5-6% of the market, sure, and grocery stores are widening those channels but if you are relying on sales solely from your own brewery and grocery orders, then that is going to be tough. You can’t expect success.” And for the Dornan brothers and their team, it looks like there is very little chance of them taking anything for granted. “We are always learning and building. I feel we are only starting to scratch the surface of what we can do. We are intent on learning to walk before we run. But we are here for the long-run, that's for sure.”

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Canada Calling More than 14,000 professionals from across the brewing spectrum will descend upon Washington DC for Craft Brewers Conference and Brew Expo with Canadian visitors and manufacturers playing a key role in making this event a success. Here, we outline some of the main exhibitors, products and services worth checking out during your visit to the Washington this April.

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anada is a big deal for the US brewing industry. According to the Brewers Association, there are now more than 5,000 small and independent brewers in the States. When it comes to selling their beer, Canada is the largest export market for US breweries, accounting for just

over 50% of sales. While North America is enjoying growth in its number of breweries, so is Canada and this year’s

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event represents a fantastic opportunity for the Canadian brewer to gain a wealth of business and product insights from the array of exhibitors, seminars and events on offer. One covert from across the pond is Logan Plant, founder and CEO of Beavertown Brewery, which is based in London, United Kingdom. He explains: “The Craft Brewer's Conference feeds my obsession as a brewer and brewery owner. From day one of home brewing I have wanted to learn as much as possible about brewing beer and the brewing

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industry at large. The CBC gives me everything. “Seminars teaching me new skills, procedures and techniques, the Expo showcasing the full diversity of equipment available in the market and the networking opportunities. The buzz of chatting to industry veterans or new start ups is massively inspiring and drives me to create and innovate. It feels like you're part of a family. “The CBC gives you all the tools to investigate new dynamics within the trade and translate them into brewing, packaging and selling great beer. I

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take as many of Team Beaver there as possible, from production through to sales, to feel the buzz and take that inspiration back into their roles at the brewery. There is something for everyone. Brewing is a way of life and CBC has been an essential part of our young journey so far at Beavertown. I can't wait until the next one!” Plant is sure to be one the 14,000-plus in attendance at this year’s event, which takes place at the Walter E. Washington Convention Center in the nation’s capital. Organised by the Brewers Association,

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the event comprises a comprehensive tradeshow and more than 70 educational seminars. These span subject matters such as Brewery Operations, Brewpubs, Export Development, Government Affairs, Packaging Breweries, Quality, Safety, Selling Craft Beer, Start-Ups, Sustainability and Technical Brewing. Bob Pease, president and CEO of the Brewers Association explains to The Brewers Journal how brewers from across the globe can benefit from the Craft Brewers Conference. “The Craft Brewers Conference and Brew Expo is an annual educational conference and trade show for professional craft brewers and the industry’s largest gathering for concentrated, affordable brewing education bringing together a record breaking 14,000 brewing professionals. Now in its 34th year, the CBC is the only event to serve both brewpubs and packaging breweries, he explains. Pease adds: “Affiliated to CBC is BrewExpo America, the premier trade show in the States for craft brewers featuring 800 vendors all in one place and offering the ideal opportunity to meet customers, vendors and leaders in the international brewing arena. “Taking place across two floors the size of 10 football pitches altogether, the trade show sets the stage for exhibitors and buyers to develop profitable business relationships and for brewing industry professionals to encounter the latest and best products and services that industry vendors have to offer. “Hosted by a different city each year, this year the CBC returns to Washington DC, April 10-13, one of the nation’s oldest beer cities and the centre of Government. It provides an unparalleled networking opportunity for brewers and brewery professionals to rub shoulders with the leaders of America’s craft brewing industry and gain valuable insights and inspiration from the experts.” According to Pease, small and independent brewers face unique opportunities and challenges in the marketplace, and CBC allows them to connect with their colleagues and comrades to share ideas and learn about relevant topics ranging from brewery operations to sustainability and government affairs. He says: “CBC brings the industry together in a collaborative and educational environment and appeals to all brewers, from novice to veteran. We welcome brewers and brewing industry professionals from all over the world, with its dynamic craft brewing scene.”

explorer and mountaineer. She has climbed the world’s highest peaks, skied across the Arctic Circle and, in 2008, made history as the first American to complete a 600-mile traverse from west Antarctica to the South Pole. She is the author of New York Times Bestseller On the Edge and is the subject of the PBS documentary Living Courageously (2007). As one of the industry’s well-respected and experienced craft brewers, Cantwell co-founded Elysian Brewing Company in 1996, where he served as head brewer until its sale to Anheuser-Busch in 2015. During his tenure, Elysian was named Large Brewpub of the Year three times at the Great American Beer Festival (1999, 2003 and 2004), and in 2004, he received the BA’s Russell Schehrer Award for Innovation in Brewing. He most recently served as Quality Ambassador for the Brewers Association, supporting and advocating to uphold quality in craft beer. According to the Brewers Association, there are now more than 5,000 small and independent brewers in the States. Canada is the largest export market with just over 50% with Sweden, Ireland and the UK each accounting for approx. 10% of exports. However, detailed and updated industry insights will be available at the CBC this April.

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n addition to the raft of content available to visitors, best-selling author and leadership guru, Alison Levine and brewing icon Dick Cantwell will deliver keynote speeches at CBC. The BA’s Director Paul Gatza and Chief Economist Bart Watson will also deliver the annual State of the Industry address. Levine is a former Wall Street executive and avid

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Canada at the conference ADI Systems | 3235

Cask Brewing Systems | Booth 2635

With more than 35 years of experience, ADI Systems understands the unique challenges faced by brewers. We offer innovative, custom-designed technologies to digest toughto-treat yeast and spent grains in wastewater. By investing in an on-site solution, your brewery can meet strict effluent limits to comply with environmental regulations, conserve water, and tap into green energy.

Cask Brewing Systems invented micro-canning. We offer affordable, compact canning systems for small to medium scale craft breweries, wineries, cider mills, coffee roasters and drink manufacturers worldwide. Cask has installed 700+ canning lines in 44 different countries throughout the world and we are the Official Agent for the supply of printed aluminum cans to our customers for Ball Corporation, the world’s largest aluminum can producer.

Aesus Packaging Systems | 3519 Aesus Packaging Systems offers one of the most complete range of automatic labeling equipments, including shrink sleeve applicators, patented Hybrid shrink tunnels, inline pressure-sensitive labelers and rotary labelers (PS and coldglue). Turn-key solution for shrink sleeve application on cans and bottles for speed ranging from 30bpm up to 400bmp. Our patented Hybrid Shrink Tunnel is combining steam and Infra-Red within the same chamber.

ASL | Booth 1563 ASL’s focus is to deliver an exceptional Total Customer Experience. It starts with a highly trained, experienced, and well-supported sales team that listens – and asks questions to ensure a complete understanding of your unique needs and objectives. We have an array of tools and resources to ensure you meet your goals, including a sophisticated prototyping system to facilitate the creative process.

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Coaster Factory | Booth 3445 Coaster Factory is your best choice for coasters: High Quality, Printing, Colors & Materials - Eco Friendly too! We manufacture the highest quality custom beer coasters at affordable prices. Our offset presses print full color process (CMYK) on both sides of your coasters (spot colors available). Not only do Coaster Factory's authentic European pulpboard coasters effectively absorb spills, but they are light-weight, firm, and look great too! 100% recyclable.

CPE Systems Brewing Systems | Booth 3835 We specialize in portable pumps for your brewery and have many different models to choose from. And yes we can customize your pump with options like digital controls, wired and wireless remotes, and auto remote controls. We also have heat exchangers, valves, hoses and many other items you use daily in your brewery.

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Custom Drink Carriers | Booth 3443

EZ Cap | Booth 3322

Custom Drink Carriers - a printing company dedicated to producing the best carriers and cartons. From small craft operations to larger corporations, we understand the needs of brewers - as well as the needs of other beverage companies. We work to keep our costs down so we can provide the highest quality carriers and cartons at the best possible price, with quick turnaround times.

E.Z. Cap bottles are thicker and stronger than regular bottles. Reusable with sturdy flip-top caps. Traditionally styled bottles call attention to the craftsmanship put into the contents. All our bottles have a dual finish and accept crown caps as well as our swing-top caps. Smooth sides for silkscreening or labeling. Available in amber, cobalt blue or flint (clear). 500 ml (16 oz.) and 1 liter (32 oz.)

Criveller Group | Booth 1001 For more than 30 years, Criveller Group has provided exceptional brewhouses in all sizes and configurations as well as stainless steel tanks and equipment for breweries around the world. In addition to new equipment and tanks, Criveller Group offers design services and experience phone and onsite technical support. Criveller Group supplies best-in-class brewhouse tanks, fermentation tanks, pumps, chillers, keg washers, keg fillers and distillation systems among others.

Falco Technologies | Booth 963 Falco Technologies is a recognized brewery custom tank fabricator. For more than 30 years, we are participating into our customer's growth by manufacturing fermenters & bright beer tanks, from craft brewers to majors international brands. From round to square, vertical to horizontal, market leaders recognize our expertise in manufacturing high quality tanks.

First Key Consulting | Booth 608 Descon Conveyor | Booth 4219 Beer manufacturing is tough on conveyors and equipment. Descon understands this and manufactures conveyor systems and products that can stand up to hard use day after day. We have tailored our products to meet the expectations and demands of beer production.

First Key is the leading brewing industry consulting firm. We have worked in over 50 countries and have assembled some of the most talented, interesting and experienced consultants to provide clients independent, comprehensive and integrated solutions in every area of their business.

Holsag Canada | Booth 2019 DME Brewing Solutions | Booth 2035 With an international reputation for high quality custom products designed and fabricated with detailed craftsmanship, DME Brewing offers three primary product lines. These include DME CraftBrew – CraftBrew systems are designed to meet performance, flexibility, and budgetary requirements of the most passionate brewer. CraftBrew systems are available in 5, 7, and 10 barrel sizes. DME MasterBrew – MasterBrew systems are known for quality and reliability. Robust, high performing, and built to last, this line offers DME’s world renowned engineering, design, warranty, and service. Available in sizes ranging from 5-100 barrels. DME MasterBrew Custom – MasterBrew Custom builds on the exceptional qualities and characteristics of the MasterBrew line, while allowing you to fully tailor your equipment to exact specifications. DME’s engineers, craftsman, and technicians will refine and develop MasterBrew Custom systems to create a versatile, attractive, and highly efficient brewery.

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Holsag Canada is a privately owned business that has been operating in Europe and North America for over 50 years. Manufacturing products from our 175,000 sq. ft. facility in Lindsay, Ontario, Holsag Canada services the North American market and has shipped more than one million chairs worldwide! Holsag chairs are made exclusively from 100% European beech and are truly built to last!

JustBeer | Booth 2807 JustBeer is a digital social community of beer lovers, focusing on all things beer. Through our applications, users can express their beer preferences and why, as well as provide real time feedback of their likes and dislikes. For breweries like yours, we can pinpoint target exactly the consumers that you want.

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Kegshoe | Booth 6338

Novaflex Hose | Booth 5639

Kegshoe Inc. is a software company for the beer industry that provides user-friendly, cloud-based solutions to manage the complex business of running a brewery. With features like keg tracking and brewery-specific CRM, Kegshoe Inc. is helping breweries solve their biggest and most expensive problems.

Novaflex offers a complete line of material handling, petroleum, food grade, chemical and mining hoses, marine hose products, expansion joints and connectors. Novaflex is a leading manufacturer of flexible ducting and hose products designed for superior flexibility; high temperature, chemical and abrasion resistance using advanced thermoplastics and textile technology.

MacDonald Steel | Booth 2407 MSL/HDP equipment including pilot and production scale malting and brewing plants. Single vessel and multi vessel malting plants. Water houses including treatment , brew houses and cellar tankage for breweries. Vapor condensers and energy recovery solutions. Split and packaged chiller solutions. De-aerated water skids, point carbonation units, malt mills, table top bottle fillers and crowners, keg washers, CIP skids, flash pasteurizing, spent grain conveyance, grist scales and conveyance.

Packaging Technology Integration Booth 3225 Packaging Technologies Inc. is a leading manufacturer of high impact graphic packaging for retail sales for the Craft Beer Industry. PTI Inc. offers 4pk/ 6pk carriers, 12pk/ 24pk beer boxes, beer trays and other Specialty items such as Point of Purchase Displays and Gift Items. Stock and Custom items available in small and large volumes. Our In-house design can help you create packaging that will make your Brand dominate on the shelf.

McRae Integration | Booth 3542 McRae offers high level Automation technology to breweries big and small. Our PLC and SCADA services anchor a product line that includes MES, Batch and brewing programming. Advanced reporting systems and brewing knowledge makes McRae a perfect fit for Brewers. We understand how a brewery works. We also support our brewing customers with planning, design and project management services to help get the best performance from brewing assets.

Newlands Systems | Booth 1601 Since 1990, Newlands Systems has distinguished itself as the premiere North American brewing equipment manufacturer. Newlands designs breweries from the brew master's perspective. Newlands boasts a long history with every brew system and has the brewing experience, engineering and technical background, and skilled craftsmanship to build your custom stainless steel brewery. From brewery design, to custom fabrication, vast experience in controls from completely manual to completely automated systems, to onsite installation and training; Newlands will be there with you step-by-step, throughout the entire process. Newlands' manufacturing facilities are ASME certified and utilizes ISO 9001:2008 quality management system, to ensure that every brewery is flawless. Furthermore, we will continue to help you grow with our diligent after sale support.

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Petainer USA | Booth 4318 Petainer will showcase its innovative one-way, recyclable petainerKeg, which allows beverage producers to deliver beer, wine, cider, cold-brew coffee, kombucha and low-carbonated soda anywhere in the world. No deposits. No contracts. No keg washer. No pay-per-fill programs and 100% eco-friendly. Embrace change and save on operating costs. That’s the benefit of the petainerKeg. 100% taste guarantee with O2 scavengers integrated in the PET plastic preventing oxygen ingress. Petainer Kegs are pre-purged with nitrogen, use the standard Sankey D valve, have one-year filled shelf life and can be tapped and re-tapped as many times as needed.

Slot Drain | Booth 4009 Slot Drain is used and trusted by brewers across North America. It is sanitary and is made of 100% stainless steel, which eliminates chances of trapping bacteria. We also provide optional cleaning packages (cleaning paddle/brush, flush valve and Clean-in-Place application) to enable the drains are easily cleaned and maintained. Slot Drain doesn't have any kind of grating and can handle forklift traffic. Its sleek and linear design is appealed to many clients.

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Specific Mechanical Systems | Booth 3601

United Bottles & Packaging | Booth 4348

Handcrafting the finest brewing and distilling systems for craft brewers and distillers since 1986. Welcome to Specific Mechanical Systems. Since 1986, Specific Mechanical Systems has handcrafted brewing and distilling systems for the craft beer and spirits industries. Started as a two person company, those two founders remain owners and employee a team of over 85 people. Our mission is to provide the world’s finest handcrafted brewing and distilling systems. Experience and quality has positioned us as industry leading manufacturers. Customer service has established us as the industry’s preferred choice. Our consultative approach ensures your involvement in our project and our assistance with your operation. We’re here for you.

Founded in 1994, United Bottles & Packaging has created a niche for itself in the industry of new & recycled glass bottles. Headquartered in Quebec, the company is active throughout 19 countries and spans 4 continents. Distribution and development of bottles, packing, shipping and bottlewashing: its field of activity is broad and its expertise is commendable. Because UBP is situated on the nearby outskirts of Montreal, and is in close proximity to the seaport, the logistics of receipt of European goods and overseas shipping are not complicated. What’s more, the company is located in a sector with easy access to major shipping routes leading to the USA. Our mission: To develop long-term relationships with our customers and to offer top-quality products at competitive prices. Whether you are a renown cidery, a vineyard ready to bottle its first vintage, a local microbrewery or an olive oil producer, we can ensure that you will find a high-quality product that will meet your requirements. You will also find unique packaging that will reinforce your brand and that will set you apart from the competition.

Sterling Packaging | Booth 3427 Sterling Packaging has been producing can and bottle cartons for the craft brewing industry for over 25 years. Providing a multitude of pack sizes ranging from 4 pack up to 24 packs for cans and single cartons to 12 packs for bottles. Your brand is unique and our packaging can help tell your story. Come by and create uniquely designed packaging and differentiate yourself on the shelf. Higher/ lower side walls, custom shaped cutouts, embossing, foiling or multiple coatings are points of difference and will add value and appeal beyond ink on paper. If your looking for a competitive and resourceful provider for 4 pack and 6 pack basket carriers we are your partner for packaging.

Our 80+ members follow the OCB Brewing Philosophy, which means that our over 500 beers are naturally brewed in small batches using no chemical additives, fillers or preservatives.

StickerYou | Booth 5606 StickerYou is the only online platform in the world where you can upload your own designs or artwork to create completely custom stickers, labels, large format decals, temporary tattoos, iron-ons and magnets. Order your sticky products in any shape, any size and any quantity you wish. StickerYou has no minimum order quantity on most products so you can order the right number of stickers or labels to fit your event. StickerYou’s custom die-cut algorithm allows them to die-cut around the edge of your sticker or label design creating a unique shape. You are not limited to standard shapes.The company began in 2008 and has since expanded operations twice. They are located in Toronto, ON, Canada but ship products all over the world, right to your door step.

ontariocraftbrewers.com Please enjoy our products responsibly.

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Scotland on the Brewing Map The people of Dundee, Scotland, have Australia to thank for the latest addition to the city’s brewing landscape. While Melbourne’s White Rabbit Brewery may not know it, they are responsible for the Scottish city’s first brewery in more than half a century. 71 Brewing is aiming to put lager, Dundee, and good beer back on the global brewing map.

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ust under 5,000km separate Canada’s capital and Dundee, Scotland, but like in so many cities across the globe, new brewers are determined to put their mark on the burgeoning beer landscape. For Duncan Alexander, co-founder of 71 Brewing, it was six years ago when he had his beer epiphany. He was visiting family in Melbourne, Australia, and a stop off at the city’s White Rabbit Brewery with his home brewing cousin changed everything. “It was an eye-opening moment. To see raw ingredients go in at one part of the process and turn into something quite fantastic at the other end was inspiring,” he explains. In his own words, Alexander admits that he always enjoyed beer but was more enamoured with, and aware of, the intricacies of wine. Beer, he says, was great, but a love of food and wine pairings was where his passion lay, until then. “I carried that enthusiasm and zeal back with me and started home brewing but even at that early point, I knew I wanted my own proper brewery to make my mark,” he says. So in 2011, Alexander ventured down south and picked up a 1bbl kit from a “metal basher” in Watford and before long, he had set up a community brewery in Portobello, Edinburgh. “At first I wasn’t sure what I’d do with the kit but after brewing lots of different recipes, the venture turned into something of a community brewery. Portobello is the hippie side of town, a bit of a Boho

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so someone donated some brewing space and we would end up bashing out all types of beers for local parties, bars and events,” says Alexander. “It allowed me to concentrate on the hop-forward beers that I was a fan of, and gave me a platform and an audience to allow people to try the beer I was making.” All good things come to an end, though, and the community venture tailed off naturally in 2015 with involved parties having their attentions diverted elsewhere. And it was at this point, that Alexander knew he had to act if he wanted brewing to play a key part of his future. He explains: “I went through a period where I was brewing intensively and then it stopped. But I had the realisation that to continue, I couldn't do it justice as a hobby, and in my spare time. As a software engineer, my career was dragging me more into the world of finance, which I didn’t like. So it was time to give it a bash, or let it pass me by. “I chose the latter.” But if it was going to be done, Alexander says, he wanted it to be done properly. So he contacted an ex-colleague, Mark Griffiths, a fellow beer fan and someone he knew was experienced in running companies incredibly well. Despite being a proud Dundonian, it was the start of the 71 Brewing journey that truly brought Alexander back to the coastal city after his career and life had moved him away. “It seemed to be going through a period of regeneration. For a town that had been very much

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Alexander: "If you are not on your A-game then you should be nervous."

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down on its luck for a few years, it felt as if the winds were blowing in the right direction, once again. It felt right, and after realising Dundee did not have its own brewery, it helped make that decision even easier,” he says. While exploring options for funding the venture, Alexander and Griffiths explored the various possible sites to call home. Some weren’t suitable. Some were functional, but were soulless. “We wanted to be an urban brewery and located centrally. We eventually came across a place in the DD1 postcode. A glorious building and something of an oddity and uncommon for the area as it looks more like something you would see in Brooklyn, not Dundee! We fell in love and we knew where we wanted to be. The owner of the building was on board with our plans and with with that in tow, we rolled it into our business plan. The building became a big buy-in for people,” he explains. And it is that which inspired the brewery’s name. The building is the last left of a huge complex which made up the Blackness foundry and was headquartered at No 71. “We liked the idea of using a number for our name that had connections to the industrial heritage of the building and the area. And yes there are 'secret' tunnels running somewhere under the surrounding roads which once connected all the disparate parts of the foundry complex. Be great for a taproom if we can find them!” Alexander says. The new brewery has been made possible due to funding from Scottish Enterprise, Regional Selective Assistance and The Scottish Investment Bank, as well as private investment. “There were a few hoops to jump through but thankfully Scottish Enterprise accepted our plans and gave us thumbs up. It’s a very long and drawn out process, but we are very grateful to them and they’ve been nothing but helpful,” adds Alexander. 71 Brewing has commissioned kit from both the brewing and winemaking industries for its facility. It called on a business called BevTech as equipment supplier for its 7,200sqft industrial warehouse that houses the 25hl brewhouse and integrated 12 tank system. The supplier’s managing director David Cowderoy is a qualified winemaker of 30 years and as a result, 71 Brewing has opted to include equipment more commonly used in winemaking than brewing. Cowderoy explains the rationale: “There are three main areas where we’ve leaned on technologies used in winemaking. Firstly, the pumps we have specified for moving wort/beer around the brewhouse come directly from the wine industry and are very new to the brewing world. “They come at a cost but have a number of advantages namely they have very little oxygen pickup, they generate very low shear forces which can chop up the yeast and proteins in the beer and they lose very little dissolved CO2 i.e. fizz. “Our fermentation vessels are also more closely

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related to wine fermentation vessels than those in a traditional brewery due to their shallow base cones. “It is pretty trend-setting in the craft brewing industry to have large cylindro-conical tanks but as wine yeast acts almost exactly like beer yeast we have taken a leaf out of the winemaker’s book allowing us to have lower, larger vessels. “And lastly, our kegging machinery was originally produced to handle Prosecco! The main benefit here being that it is designed to have extremely low levels of oxygen pick-up, far better than many equivalent kegging systems, leading to a beer with a much better shelf life.” The brewery also has a bottling line that was something of a last minute addition to its setup. The machine came from Cromarty Brewing and was built by Chappy, the father of the brewery’s founder, Craig.

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It is based around a Vigo 4 head counter pressure filler that has the addition of a flush and purge station, an automatic capper (built by a gunsmith on the black Isle no less) a rinser, drier and conveyors allowing semi automatic bottling of 4-500 bottles an hour. “It is truly one of a kind but we love it! A bit of Scottish brewing history, we like to think,” says Alexander. The initial setup at 71 Brewing gives Alexander and his team enough space to lead with lagers and to get up to schedule where they brew three brews a week. And its lager that is playing a key role in the formative stages of 71 Brewing. “It has been something of an important thread for us as this whole thing has developed. Growing up in Dundee as as boy, it was something of common knowledge that we had beautiful water here. So

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when it came around to it, we tested that theory and sure enough, the results proved to us how soft it was. It was akin to the water used in a Czech Pils,” he enthuses. “There are some nice connotations with whisky so it was no-brainer to lead with a Pilsner, as we don’t have to mess around with it.” The brewery is concentrating on a 4.4% Pilsner, 71Lager, that Alexander has been brewing for many years, calling on UK maltsters Muntons with malt and Hopsteiner on the hop front. Overseeing the installation of the brewery was David Smith, a brewing consultant and former head brewer at famous UK brewery Samuel Smiths of Tadcaster, who helped the team scale up the recipe. But with successful launch completed this past January, the team is more than aware that the hard work truly starts now.

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“The beer industry continues to change. It has metamorphosed a great deal in the time we have been putting this brewery together. So you have to be at the top of your game, nimble and willing to adapt,” he says. The company currently occupies three quarters of the building’s ground floors, with plans to take over the remaining part in due course. The upstairs floors also offer scope for packaging and events spaces. A taproom element is possible in the next 12 months, too. “If you’re not on your A-game, then you should be nervous. But I believe there is still room to grow in this industry. The market is crowded but you should be ambitious, and have faith in what you’re doing,” he says. “We want to build a local base, to prove ourselves and to make great beer. If we can do that, who knows where we can go next?”

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Toasting The Grains Very complex, though simply elegant chemistry known as the “Maillard reaction” (pron. “my-yard”), involves 100’s-1000’s of chemical reactions, dictates much of the flavor of all cooked foods, including the overall flavor profile of beer and grain-based distilled spirits. These reactions are also known as non-enzymatic browning reactions due to the colors imparted through the chemical components generated and, while they can occur at lower temperatures, most effectively take place under heating conditions. The basic processes, from start to finish, which can be considered a cascade of reactions are shown in Figures 1 and 2, with further explanation illustrated overleaf, in this article by Gary Spedding from BDAS, LLC

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simplified definition would run as follows: in food chemistry, any heating steps involving the presence of sugars and amino compounds (ammonia, amino acids, proteins or polypeptides) lead to the complex reactions originally demonstrated by Louis-Camille Maillard (1878-1936) ca. 1912. Maillard demonstrated to scientists at the French Academy the formation of a yellowish-brown colored liquid, via mixing amino acids and sugars. That the discovery failed to knock the academy scientists off their chairs is now well known and, likely in part due to two world wars, his work (1912-16) was not resurrected until the 1950’s. Since then the Maillard reaction has gained worldwide interest from both the food and medical fields with relevance to food flavor and coloring, digestibility of food and due to the toxicity of certain Maillard compounds and associated implications for several diseases. The modern era of research, starting in 1953, is attributed to a J. E Hodge who first defined three stages or phases to the Maillard process and then unraveled some of the overall complexities of the scheme within each stage. When the Maillard, non-enzymatic “browning reactions” take place they lead to the formation of reducing substances and a plethora of flavorful compounds which include; malty, toasted, bready and nutty flavors. The reducing substances, which were termed reductones, were shown to exhibit antioxidant behavior and thus to reduce the number of damaging oxidation reactions which occur during product aging. Brewers and maltsters have been aware of Maillardtype reactions since the early 1900’s even prior to Maillard’s own demonstrations. With respect to the malt kilning process the following provides a neat and familiar description: “The products obtained from the former are sugars and from the latter amino-compounds. When these amino-compounds are heated at 120—140° with sugars such as ordinary glucose or maltose, which are produced at this stage of the process, combination occurs. The precise nature of the compounds produced is unknown to me, but they are probably glucosaminelike bodies. When heated at the temperature to which the malt is subjected at the final curing stage these compounds are decomposed, forming dark coloured substances” Ling (1908). Clearly the Maillard reaction (as will be understood from the discussion that follows) is at play here in the quote. Moreover, it is known that darker beers made with the more highly roasted malts have more reducing potential, due to higher reductone content (also noted below), and thus longer shelf-life stability. Modern day brewers now have access to an everwider variety of grains, cereals and other ingredients that may have been “touched” by the magic of Maillard chemistry and they and maltsters should thus understand more about this topic.

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Figure 1. Many sugars and many amino acids lead to 1000’s of Maillard compounds

Figure 2. A simplified schematic of the processes involved in the Maillard reaction

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brief discussion of the overall Maillard scheme now follows. See Figure 1 (over leaf) for the initial steps and Figure 2 for a general outline and key to subsequent individual steps, stages and sub-reactions. As noted above, the Maillard reactions are initiated by the condensation (the joining together with the loss of water) of a carbonyl group of a reducing sugar and an amino compound. Depending upon the raw material source there are many sugars available to react and nineteen common amino acids plus one imino acid (proline) present which may lead to 100’s if not 1000’s of chemical components in the initial phase (Stage 1 – see Figure 2) of the Maillard chemistry. For example, the reaction of glucose with the simplest amino acid glycine alone can yield 24 different compounds. Some sugar chemistry: • Aldose – a monosaccharide (simple sugar) with an aldehyde chemical group (-CH=O) • Ketose – a monosaccharide (simple sugar) containing a ketone group (C=O) • Reducing sugar – sugars with a free aldehyde or free ketone group can act as a reducing agent and are thus called reducing sugars. Some amino/imino acid chemistry: Amino acid – an organic compound – building blocks of proteins and important in other biological reactions, containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups and a side chain (R-group) specific to each one. If the amine group is replaced by a -C-NH group, the compound is designated as an imino acid. There are 19 common amino acids and one common imino acid – proline with a cyclic rather than linear structure. In proline, the nitrogen is “locked up” in the ring hence only one hydrogen is directly attached to the nitrogen. Three stages are considered: Stage I: A – Sugar-amine condensation, B – Amadori rearrangement. Stage II: C – Sugar dehydration, D – Sugar fragmentation, E – Amino acid degradation (Strecker degradation). Stage III: F - Aldol condensation, G – Aldehydeamine condensation and formation of heterocyclic nitrogen compounds. Recent information adds H to the list which represents free-radical breakdown of Maillard intermediates (not covered further in this review). These reaction steps are discussed further in the text. Adapted from Hodge (1953) as referenced in Nursten (2005). Following the initial condensation step, a series of complex degradations, rearrangements and other reactions lead to the generation of many compounds which influence both the color and flavor of foods and beverages. The additional reactions lead to many important classes of flavor compounds including

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aldehydes and heterocyclic molecules including furans, pyrazines, pyrroles, oxazoles, thiophenes, thiazoles and other heterocyclic compounds. These components and the process in simplified form are discussed below. The sugar amine condensation reactions lead to relatively unstable glycosylamines (sugar-amine compounds) which then undergo a reaction known as an Amadori rearrangement. Amadori rearrangements are acid or base catalyzed isomerizations or rearrangement reactions of the N-glycoside of an aldose or the glycosylamine to the corresponding 1-amino-1-deoxy-2-ketose. Amadori reactions, which can occur spontaneously at a temperature as low as 25°C, are generally considered irreversible. Sometimes the term Heyns rearrangement will be seen in the literature and this refers to a situation whereby ketoses are rearranged to the corresponding 2-amino-2deoxyaldoses (in place of the ketoses). These reactions and many more are described in exquisite detail by Nursten (2005). The Amadori and the Heyns rearrangement products (ARP’s and HRP’s) are regarded as important intermediates of the early phase of the Maillard reaction. Aminoketones can react with each other to form various cyclic compounds called pyrazines (more on this later) characterized by potent flavor notes and which may be responsible for harsh and burnt flavor notes. Amadori and Heyns reaction products (ARPs and HRP’s) are, on one hand, regarded as relatively stable intermediates and have been detected in various heat-processed foods. That said, at higher pH values, ARPs and HRPs easily undergo cleavage of the carbohydrate chain, yielding fission products such as 2,3-butanedione (diacetyl), acids, aldehydes and many other components; ARP’s and HRP’s are thus good precursors for Strecker aldehyde formation. Such is the complexity of sugar chemistry including fragmentation. Of importance to this discussion is the plethora of compounds that are produced in the intermediate stage of the Maillard scheme. See Figure 2, where sugar dehydration (Symbol C), sugar fragmentation (D) and amino acid (Strecker) degradation reactions (E) are portrayed. The amino ketoses, through the removal of 3 molecules of water, may pass through an intermediate called a Schiff base to produce the compounds furfural (caramel, sweet and nutty nuances) and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) through an amino compound and further water molecule elimination. Sugars can also be converted to furfural and HMF via other routes. Note: these two compounds are also thus produced during caramelization. Sugars and, through sugar dehydration reactions, amino ketones can form reducing compounds known as reductones, which themselves can reversibly interconvert to dehydroreductones via hydrogen addition or elimination. Reductones are products formed from the loss of two molecules of water, unlike when three waters are removed which leads to the furfurals (as noted above). Also in the intermediate

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Amino acid

Strecker Aldehyde

Odor

Valine

2-Methylpropanal

Green, overripe fruit

Leucine

3-Methylbutanal

Malty, fruity, toasted bread

Isoleucine

2-Methylbutanal

Fruity, sweet, roasted

Phenylalanine

Phenylacetaldehyde

Green, floral, hyacinths

Methionine

Methional, methanethiol, 2-propenal

Vegetable-like aromas

Proline

Pyrrolidine, 1-pyrroline NO STRECKER ALDEHYDE

Important intermediates for bread-like aromas

Cysteine

Mercaptoacetaldhyde, acetaldehyde, H2S, ammonia

Important intermediates for meat-like aromas

Table 1. Selected examples of amino acids, Strecker aldehydes and their associated odors.

stage (or stage 2) the well-known Strecker degradation reactions occur. Strecker degradation is primarily a major pathway for the conversion of amino acids into structurally related aldehydes of significant flavor value. The amino acids are degraded by dicarbonyl compounds, also formed in the Maillard reaction, leading to deamination (amino group removal) and decarboxylation (CO2 elimination) of the amino acid. Aldehydes (and this also applies to ketones) are produced with one less carbon atom than they started with. The amino group is transferred to the other reacting species in the reaction. A listing of Strecker aldehyde flavor notes can be seen in Table 1 (above). As seen in Table 1, a veritable profile of fruity, floral, grainy, sweet, roasted, vegetable and bready and meaty flavors are associated with compounds of the chemical class known as aldehydes. Note also that the cyclic (ring-containing) imino acid proline does not degrade to a Strecker aldehyde. Proline instead forms other ring-containing molecules including the cyclic secondary amine tetrahydropyrrole (aka. pyrrolidine). The sulfur containing amino acid cysteine degrades into potent compounds including ammonia and hydrogen sulfide (rotten egg-like). Remember there are many other amino acids thus increasing the number of flavors which may be produced. Now for coloration and flavor production we move to the more interesting final stage (stage 3)

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of the Maillard scheme (reactions F and G). Fission products, furfural and HMF, dehydroreductones and aldehydes, through aldol condensation reactions (F), result in aldols and nitrogen-free polymers; these reactions represent a very large and complex area of chemistry (again see Nursten {2005} for more detail). An aldol is an abbreviation for an aldehyde and an alcohol – an organic compound containing an alcohol and a carbonyl group, especially a compound known as a beta-hydroxy aldehyde. Moreover, by aldol condensation of two sugar fragments or a sugar fragment and an amino acid fragment, heterocyclic aroma compounds are generated upon cyclization, dehydration and/or oxidation reactions. See Figure 3 and associated discussion for more on heterocyclic chemistry. Aldehyde-amine condensation reactions and formation of heterocyclic nitrogen compounds are illustrated in the reactions marked G in Figure 2 (see also Figure 3). The very final products of nonenzymatic browning are complex high-molecular weight brown nitrogen-containing polymers and copolymers known as melanoidins to distinguish them from the melanins produced by enzymatic browning. Unfortunately, the dark brown melanoidins have proven difficult to isolate, characterize and identify based on their overall complexity, though are considered responsible for the uniquely characteristic rich toasty-sweet notes in bocks, doppelbocks and other heavy-malt accented beers. From the above discussion, it is seen that a cascade of reactions produce a vast pool of compounds. These arise from early product rearrangements and then degradation, elimination, cyclization, dehydration, fission and fragmentation reactions. These many reactions all lead to a multitude of flavor and color compounds. Another major class of Maillard-associated chemical components, generated through cyclization reactions, is seen in Figure 3. This figure shows heterocyclic compounds which play a key role in beer and distilled spirits flavor. Simply defined, heterocyclic compounds are ring-like structures which contain atoms other than carbon in the ring; oxygen, nitrogen and sulfurs primarily being present in such molecules. Through reductone and dehydroreductone chemistry, and their resultant product interactions with ammonia NH3 and hydrogen sulfide H2S, the heterocyclic compounds; furanones (oxygen in the ring), pyranones (oxygen), pyrroles (nitrogen) and thiophenes (sulfur) are produced. The basic structures and general flavor notes associated with these compounds can also be seen in Figure 3. More significantly, each of these base heterocycles can have many different chemical substituents attached, thus vastly increasing the total number of possible compounds and potential flavor nuances detected in foods and beverages. Figure 3 also shows a few more details of the Strecker degradation reaction scheme. Interactions of aldehydes and aminoketones with a compound

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Figure 3. A simplified schematic of the processes involved in the formation of heterocyclic compounds via Maillard chemistry

called acetoin can lead to formation of pyrazines (dual nitrogen atom ring heterocycles), pyridines (nitrogen), oxazoles (oxygen), imidazoles (dual nitrogen’s in the ring) and thiazoles (sulfur). Once again, we note that base (simple skeleton forms) and more complex substituted heterocycles are formed. Furans (five membered oxygen-containing ring heterocycles) are also illustrated in Figure 3. They arise from rearranged sugars. Once again, note the main flavor characteristics for each type of heterocycle from this part of the scheme. These components may be present in very small amounts yet, with very low detection thresholds, can quite significantly impact beverage flavor profiles.

CONDITIONS FOR THE MAILLARD REACTION

A

s the Maillard process is a series of chemical transformations, factors that influence a chemical reaction also affect the Maillard reaction. The rates of chemical reactions depend primarily on temperature, pressure, time and concentration of reactants. Maillard reaction products increase with increasing temperature, with longer heating time and at pH values above 7.0. The relative moisture content is also important and metal ions such as copper and iron have been noted as stimulating the reaction. As temperature is a key condition for the Maillard reaction further details are presented in Table 2. Some similar products to Maillard compounds are produced during the caramelization process but we note here that caramelization reactions, unlike Maillard reactions,

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require the input only of sugars not amino acids. The topic of caramelization could form the basis of a paper of its own and we only point out here that, at higher temperatures (see Table 2), caramelization can interfere or compete with Maillard reactions. Finally, with respect to pH it is noted that the amount of reactive amino acids increases with pH and this thus leads to an enhanced Maillard reaction sequence at higher pH values. However, when Maillard reactions then occur the result is a lowering of the pH – the pH drops by formation of acids (through sugar degradation) and by the production of basic heterocyclic compounds. Further information regarding the conditions impacting and controlling the Maillard reaction has been presented by Ames, (1990).

BEER PRODUCTION AND THE MAILLARD REACTION

F

rom raw materials and from start to finish, in processing of beer, the Maillard reaction is likely to be involved at any stage involving significant heat input. Though the production and use of malt and other cereal grains is likely the most significant contributor to Maillardderived flavor compounds. Even maltsters do not yet have a complete picture of Maillard chemistry and its full contribution to beer color and flavor. Much more research needs to be done here! Malting/kilning: For cereal-based beers and malt beverages, the malts and other grains used provide the initial input of Maillard reaction components – the sugars (from starch degradation) and amino

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Reaction

Temperature

Conditions and Rate of Reaction

< 55°C (130°F)

Days, months, years (e.g., products stored on the shelf).

55-100°C (130212°F)

Water, high protein concentration. high sugar concentration and alkaline conditions -- pH above 7.0 – reaction over hours or days.

100-150°C (212-300°F)

Hours when close to the boiling point (BPt.) of water

150-165°C (300-330°F)

Fast – browning in mins. The “sweet spot” for Maillard.

165-200°C (330-400°F)

Increase in caramelization (sugar only reactions) – Maillard inhibited. Sugars interacting with amino acids limited!

200+°C (400+°F)

Caramelization and burning.

Table 2. Temperature and the rate and extent of Maillard reactions

acids (from proteolysis). Amino acids in green malt are transformed, in a pH dependent manner, to corresponding Strecker aldehydes (see Table 1). Model Maillard reactions in the laboratory have also revealed the classic cereal, corny and bready-like flavors that originate through the complex cascade of Maillard reactions. Brewer’s malts are often produced through variable high temperature kilning and roasting which leads to many specialty grains with a wide range of flavor compounds (including caramel, roasted, nutty, burnt, coffee and chocolate). The brewer today thus has a choice of dozens of specialty malts and many other cereal grains. The full complexity of Maillard chemistry and grain production is far from being completely understood, especially in relation to the set of high molecular weight color and flavor compounds noted above – namely the melanoidins. Cooking and mashing: Different cereal cooking systems are available to brewers, depending upon the need to gelatinize starches in non-barley malt grains and adjunct cereals. These cooking steps are of course run at high temperature. In addition to Maillard color and flavor compound formation, degradation or consumption of fermentable carbohydrates and amino acids occurs which may impact the amount of alcohol produced. Fermentable sugars are reduced in concentration – perhaps not in a huge way - but free amino nitrogen (FAN) concentration is also reduced which may also impact fermentation and thus alcohol production. Heavy adjunct sugar use will increase one of the two main reactants at the expense of nitrogen

68 | Brewers Journal Canada | Spring 2017

and here the FAN concentration may be too low for subsequent fermentation. Mashing operations may also produce Maillard compounds and impact ethanol yields for similar reasons noted above. Wort Boiling and Maillard reactions: Wort contains high levels of reducing sugars and enough amino components which can continue to participate in Maillard reactions during wort boiling. Maltose and maltotriose are the most abundant sugar compounds in wort and thus, these sugars and oligosaccharides form their own specific compounds induced by Maillard reaction chemistry. One main flavor compound generated by the Maillard reaction found in wort is furfural. This compound has frequently been regarded as an indicator for heat damage of wort. Strecker degradation reactions are also notable in the wort boil, producing the types of flavorful aldehydes as already discussed. Some of the Strecker aldehydes of low odor/flavor threshold detection concentrations are also highly volatile and may be evaporated off significantly with efficient wort boiling systems. If the brewer keeps the steam pressure during boiling at a low level, the corresponding temperature of the heating surface will be moderate and the occurrence of extensive Maillard reactions can be reduced. The use of the modern wort forced convection system is known to generate less Maillard reaction products when the steam temperature is lowered in comparison to conventional boiling. The brewer thus has a lot of potential when it comes to manipulating the extent of the Maillard reaction during the wort boiling process. More on this has been discussed by Spedding, et al, (2016). Concluding remarks: A neat, though complex, chemistry known as the Maillard reaction has been detailed here. We hope that this review has reduced some of the mystery of this oft noted, though little discussed, reaction as applied to brewing. Once again, a key understanding of flavor origins and changes can allow ultimate control of beer quality, and a big contributor to color and flavor is to be found through understanding Maillard chemistry. It started with a yellow-brown colored product and a French chemist back in 1912. Now it is up to the brewer to see what browning and Maillard flavor production can and does do for them. Let the brewery cooking begin.

References Ames, J. M. (1990). Control of the Maillard reaction in food systems. Trends in Food Science & Technology. December 1990; 150-154. Ling, A.R. (1908). J. Inst. Brewing. 14(6); 494-521. Nursten, H. (2005). The Maillard Reaction: Chemistry, Biochemistry and Implications. The Royal Society of Chemistry. Spedding, G., Weygandt, A. and Linske, M. (2016). Basic Quality Management – Wort Boiling. Getting Set for Efficient Fermentation – Part 2. Scandinavian Brewer’s Review. 73(4); 36-39.

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meas u r ement

Free Amino Nitrogen Measurement

70 | Brewers Journal Canada | Spring 2017

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meas u r ement

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Free Amino Nitrogen measurement on its own is a â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;blunt instrumentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, but if its used with other measurements, such as pH, IBU, EBC, ABV and microbiology screening, it can provide the brewer with a valuable insight into the quality and consistency of their product, explains Timothy Woolley, technical director at Pura DX

O

ther than sugar, nitrogen is probably the most important macronutrient required for yeast health and growth. Nitrogen deficiency is associated with several fermentation difficulties including stuck and incomplete fermentations, whereas excess nitrogen is related to the production of both off flavours and beer spoilage. Nitrogen is often assessed by measuring Free Amino Nitrogen (FAN) or to give it its other name Primary Amino Nitrogen (PAN). FAN or PAN assays, test for the concentration of amino acids and small peptides that are utilized by yeast for cell growth and proliferation. Together with ammonia, FAN/PAN makes up what is known as Yeast Assimilable Nitrogen or YAN. FAN compounds are formed naturally during malting and mashing by the action of protein degradation enzymes on hordein, a protein found in the grain. The level of amino acids available in the wort relies on several variables including grain variety, as well as malting and mashing conditions, but the overall types of amino acids available will be similar among all whole malt worts. Likewise the specific amino acids taken up by yeast follow a similar pattern during fermentation, although environmental changes can alter this. Using adjuncts, such as corn and rice, dilute FAN levels in the wort while increasing fermentable sugars. Consequently, high-adjunct worts are nitrogen deficient and fermentation can be adversely affected, leaving high levels of sugars in the beer. FAN levels in the wort are often regarded as the best indicator of potential yeast growth and are therefore directly related to fermentation efficiency. Yeast need FAN to grow and reproduce, so theoretically the more you have the quicker your yeast will grow, the stronger it will be and the more alcohol your yeast will produce. Yeast consume most of the FAN in the first 36-40 hours of fermentation, during its propagation phase. As they do so they can produce a range of metabolic by-products some of which affect flavour and stability of the finished beer.

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Studies appear to have resulted a general belief that a minimum level of 150 mg/L FAN is required for complete fermentation, with 200-250 mg/L being seen as ideal. However more recent data suggest wort FAN levels might need to be higher, especially in some higher ABV beers. Work published by Stone Brewing found that on average IPA samples tested had levels of approximately 250 mg/L in the wort and 133 mg/L in the pre-filtered beer samples. In contrast, the higher gravity double IPAs had even higher wort and pre-filtered FAN levels, 316 mg/L and 175 mg/L, respectively. Craft breweries (due to their use of all malt wort) have the opposite problem to macrobreweries, and need to monitor excess FAN levels to control haze and the production of off flavours, such as diacetyl, or higher alcohols like isoamyl alcohol, propanol, and isobutanolâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; all of which cause alcohol heat in your finished product. While excessive FAN levels produce a perfect growth environment for spoilage organisms. The traditional way to determine protein content in a beers was the Kjeldahl method, however it was both complex and expensive as such it has more or less been replaced by the ninhydrin method. The ninhydrin method estimates amino acids, ammonia, and the terminal nitrogen groups of peptides and proteins (YAN) and is listed by the European Brewery Convention (EBC), MEBAK, and American Society of Brewing Chemists (ASBC) as the method of choice for FAN measurement. However although an improvement on the older method, its still quite time consuming and there are a lot of reagents to buy. Apart from the spectrophotometer you would also need a hot water bath and a range of different reagents, in addition to this the assay itself takes about an hour to do from start to finish. An overview of the basic procedure is given below.

preparation of Reagents A. Ninhydrin Colour Reagent: Dissolve 10 g Na2HPO4, 6 g KH2PO4, 0.5 g ninhydrin and 0.3 g fructose in a total of 100 mL of

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distilled water. B. Dilution Solution: Dissolve 2 g potassium iodide in 600 mL distilled water and then add 400 mL of 96 % ethanol. C1. Glycine Stock Solution: Dissolve 107.2 mg glycine in a total of 100 mL of distilled water. C2. Glycine Standard Solution (working solution): Dilute 1 mL of the glycine standard stock in 99 mL of distilled water. This standard solution contains 2 mg/L amino nitrogen.

assay protocol

Pipette into cuvettes

Soln. 1 (NAC/ 3.00 mL buffer) 0.05 mL Distilled Water Sample/ Isoleucine standard

After all that there is a nice calculation to have a go at. However if your not really bothered about using ‘approved methods’ and all you want is a FAN level then there is another much easier way. The ninhydrin method measures YAN, but its time consuming and quite complex, especially if you don't have a scientific background. However evidence suggests that a newer method called NOPA (alphaamino nitrogen by OPA) gives almost the same result (99%), this method is quick and is available as a premade kit, in addition to that its also pretty cheap (£99.77/100 tests). The kit I looked at is available from Megazyme (Ireland), the benefit of this kit, is that the reagents are stable, there is an easy method to follow and the website includes both a spread-sheet to automate the calculation and an online ‘how to’ video. The reagents used are: Bottle 1 (Soln. 1): Tablets (100) containing N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). Stable for > 2 years at 4°C or -20°C. Bottle 2 (Soln. 2): Ortho-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) in 12 mL of ethanol (96% v/v). Stable for > 2 years at 4°C. Bottle 3: Isoleucine standard solution (5 mL, 140 mg of nitrogen/L). Stable for > 2 years at 4°C. The process is straightforward. Dissolve one tablet

72 | Brewers Journal Canada | Spring 2017

Sample/IQC 3.00 mL 0.05 mL

Mix, read the absorbance’s of the solutions after approx. 2 min and start the reactions by addition of: Soln. 2 (OPA)

1. Dilute 1 mL of beer in 49 mL (or 1 mL of wort in 99 mL) in distilled water. Use 50 mL distilled water for a blank. 2. Perform analysis of the sample, standard solution and H2O (blank value) in triplicates. 3. Pipette 2 mL of the diluted sample, the standard solution and blank solution into separate test tubes. 4. Add 1 mL of Ninhydrin Colour Reagent and mix. 5. Close each test tube loosely in order to avoid evaporative losses and heat the solutions at 100C for 16 minutes. 6. Cool the solutions at 20C for 20 minutes. 7. Add 5 mL of Dilution Solution and measure the absorbance within 30 minutes in a 10 mm cuvette at 570 nm against distilled water. 8. Read all of the blanks, standard and test samples on the spectrophotometer at 570nm

Blank

0.10 mL

0.010 mL

Mix read the absorbance’s of the solutions at the end of the reaction (approx. 15 min)

from Bottle 1 in 3 mL of distilled water for each assay planned and allow to dissolve over 2-3 min. Aid dissolution by shaking, stirring or crushing with a metal spatula. This is Solution 1. Prepare immediately prior to use. Use the contents of bottle 2 as supplied, this is Solution 2. This solution is stable for > 2 years when stored in the dark at 4°C. Use the contents of bottle 3 as supplied, this is the Internal Quality Control (IQC) and can be used as a check sample to ensure you have performed the assay correctly. Stable for > 2 years at 4°C.

beer metrics

P

erforming a pH is probably the easiest test you can do and once you have bought the pH meter its more or less free. In the last publication I also showed you how to perform IBU and EBC for less than £1. Both of these last 2 parameters require a spectrophotometer and although this bit of kit isn’t cheap (approx. 5K), you will get a quick return on your investment, especially if you currently use a contract lab for your chemistry. If you don't use a lab at all the saving will come from managing raw material usage and preventing wastage, for instance setting and maintaining an IBU level will prevent the overuse of hops, in addition your batch to batch consistency will improve and you will have a range of essential metrics to maintain your beers quality. FAN measurement on its own is a ‘blunt instrument’, but if its used the other measurements mentioned, such as pH, IBU, EBC, ABV and microbiology screening it can provide the brewer with a valuable insight into the quality and consistency of their product. Allowing the brewer to monitor the quality of their raw ingredients, yeast health and efficiency, shelf life and beer spoilage potential.

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dat e s

&

e v en t s

e v ent s

VCBW Festival is back at the PNE Fairgrounds June 3rd & 4th, 2017

2017 7 - 8 April Okangan Fest of Ale Penticton, BC festofale.ca

5 - 6 May Calgary International Beerfest BMO Centre, Stampede Grounds, Calgary albertabeerfestivals.com

8 April Brandon Beer Festival The Victoria Inn, Brandon, Manitoba www.brandonbeerfest.com

11 - 13 May Great Okanagan Beer Festival Okanagan Lake, BC www.gibbonswhistler.com

21 - 22 April Craft Beer & Cheese Fest Prairie Sun Brewery, Saskatoon www.prairiesun.ca

3 - 4 June Vancouver Craft Beer Week Various Venues vancouvercraftbeerweek.com

74 | Brewers Journal Canada | Spring 2017

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