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Brewers

the magazine for the canadian brewing industry T H E

J O U R N A L

SUMMER 2017 ISSN 2398-6956

GLutenberg first Montréal, then the world, for canada’s finest gluten-free brewers

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CBC & BREWEXPO: SHOW REVIEW

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VANCOUVER: BUOYANT WITH BEER

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Brewhouse: make the right choice


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help grow th don' t hinder it

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t HAS BEEN SOMETHING OF A TUMULTUOUS period for Canada and beer in recent months. Against a backdrop of the country’s triumphant 150th birthday celebrations, forces for good in beer have been fighting the possibility of never ending tax hikes on beverage alcohol being imposed by federal government. Led by Beer Canada, the Cork The Tax coalition has argued that Canadians already pay some of the highest taxes on beverage alcohol in the world. For example, they explain, the average price of 24 bottles of beer in Canada is 50% tax. That is over and above payroll taxes, income taxes, municipal property taxes, licensing fees and a myriad of other taxes that are built into the price. But at the time of writing, the Senate of Canada approved a motion to not proceed with its amendments to Budget 2017. This includes the removal of the ‘escalator’ tax on beer, wine and spirits, a hidden annual tax increase on beverage alcohol. Arguing in its favour, Finance Minister Bill Morneau said the effect of such increases would be “negligible”. "You will find that the impact is negligible. That’s the best I can say,” he said. “That’s the reality, because it’s flat over time. Unless you think inflation isn’t a real thing, that’s the only conclusion you can get to.” Such an outlook is both flippant and dangerous. It will hinder growth for many breweries, and also prohibit many drinkers from enjoying the beers they want to. "Two things in Budget 2017 negatively impact domestic brewers: a 2% increase to the excise duty on beer and a mechanism that will automatically hike excise by the rate of inflation every year, said Beer Canada president Luke Hatford earlier this year. I know the team at Beer Canada, as well as the rest of the Cork The Tax coalition, will continue to fight for breweries and drinkers alike. For a growing industry that is creating jobs, fuelling the economy in a myriad of ways and attracting food and drink tourists, its expansion should be encouraged, not obstructed. Elsewhere in this Summer issue of Brewers Journal Canada, we speak to some of the leading breweries in Vancouver and Montreal. Forward-thinking businesses making their way in this industry through a wealth of different ways. "The brewery scene in Vancouver has grown like crazy here in Vancouver. We are 5 years old and we are the old timers in craft beer, its crazy to think that,

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Editor's choice Montreal's Glutenberg discuss the desire to produce the the highest quality gluten-free beer and their global expansion plans - Page 24

we are still learning lots,” observes Bridge Brewing cofounder Leigh Stratton. “It’s definitely more competitive because of the increase in breweries and I think that’s a great thing. It keeps us, especially at Bridge, ensuring we are consistently searching and experimenting with new beers to stay ahead of the curve.” For more on this exciting beer scene, turn to page 40. We also look at the latest trends and developments in brewhouses. Investing in a brewhouse is one of biggest decisions a brewery will make in its lifetime. So knowing the specification that works for you, and the beer you will be producing, is key. "We have been asked for everything from souring kettles and decoction systems to custom vacuum evaporators. Cookie cutter brewhouses just don’t work for everyone," explains Loren Neufeld from Bridgetown Brew Systems. Find out more on page 24. Thanks for your support and enjoy your summer! Tim Sheahan Editor

Summer 2017 | Brewers Journal Canada | 3


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The Brewers Journal is a quarterly magazine mailed every Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter. Subscriptions can be purchased for four or eight issues. Prices for single issue subscriptions or back issues can be obtained by emailing: subscriptions@rebymedia.com

Canada One year: Ca$39, two year: Ca$59 Rest of the world One year: Ca$49, two year: Ca$65 The content of The Brewers Journal is subject to copyright. However, if you would like to obtain copies of an article for marketing purposes high-quality reprints can be supplied to your specification. Please contact the advertising team for full details of this service. The Brewers Journal is printed at Buxton Press Ltd, Derbyshire, UK.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or any information storage or retrieval system, without the express prior written consent of the publisher. The Brewers Journal Canada ISSN 2398-6948 is published bimonthly by Reby Media, 42 Crouchfield, Hemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire, HP1 1PA, UK. Subscription records are maintained at Reby Media, 42 Crouchfield, Hemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire, HP1 1PA, UK. The Brewers Journal accepts no responsibility for the accuracy of statements or opinion given within the Journal that is not the expressly designated opinion of the Journal or its publishers. Those opinions expressed in areas other than editorial comment may not be taken as being the opinion of the Journal or its staff, and the aforementioned accept no responsibility or liability for actions that arise therefrom.

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Cover story

24 - Glutenberg co-founder David Cayer talks gluten-free beer, striving to be the best, and the group's expansion into other styles, distilling and distribution news 9 - Industry news

Comments 14 - RBC talk small business banking 16 - First Key Consulting discuss growth in the beer market 20 - Fairtax focus on grants 22 - Beverage Protect talk wastewater City Focus: Vancouver 33 - Some of the finest breweries in Canada call Vancouver home.Brewers Journal Canada caught up with some of its leading lights to learn where they go next to stay on the top of their game.

show focus: craft brewers conference & brewexpo 42 - More than 14,000 professionals from across the brewing spectrum descended upon Washington DC for Craft Brewers Conference & BrewExpo America, with Canadian visitors and exhibitors playing a key role in making the event a success

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Crossing borders: tailgate beer 48 - How focusing on flavour has helped Wesley Keegan's brewery expand beyond Nashville, Tennessee TECHNOLOGY: BREWHOUSES 52 - Investing in a brewhouse is one of biggest decisions a brewery will make in its lifetime. So knowing the specification that works for you, and the beer you will be producing, is key. We speak to some leading brewhouse manufacturers and suppliers working in the Canada and North America. Science: Brettanomyces 61 - Gary Spedding of BDAS, LLC takes a closer look at the metabolic flavour production of Brettanomyces yeast strains Science: Bacteria 66 - Lallemand's Robert Percival on the increased prevalence of sour beer and the need for reliable and consistent production

Summer 2017 | Brewers Journal Canada | 5


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he Oxy 510 inline sensor extends the Anton Paar portfolio for multiple-parameter inline analysis of beverages. Anton Paar’s Oxy 510 sensor unifies two different measuring ranges in one sensor. To measure either in the wide range or in the trace range requires only a quick exchange of the sensor cap. Oxygen dissolved in beverages can react with certain components in beverages causing changes in color and taste. Measuring the dissolved oxygen (DO) level during production ensures the product’s quality and helps to minimize the potential of corrosion occurring in cans and storage containers. The Oxy 510 inline sensor measures dissolved oxygen in realtime and provides accurate, drift-free measurements throughout the entire production process. The Oxy 510 inline sensor enables accurate measurements in the trace range (0 ppb to 2000 ppb) and in the wide range (0 ppm to 22.5 ppm). Switching between the ranges is conveniently done by simply exchanging the sensor cap. The sensor caps use Toolmaster™ technology and are automatically detected by the sensor, which allows easy transfer of all parameters to the sensor. This reduces human errors and allows easy cap exchange. The Statemaster feature of Oxy 510 gives information about the current state of the sensor and the corresponding remaining service life of the sensor cap. Exchanging the sensor cap is therefore a predictable work step that can be planned for scheduled downtimes. Oxy 510 is designed to meet all requirements of the EHEDG guideline. All seals and O-Rings are compliant with the FDA. It is quickly back to work after CIP and suitable for hygienic applications in the beverage, pharmaceutical, and water treatment industries. As the same technology is used in Anton Paar’s process and laboratory equipment the direct comparison of inline and offline measurements is easily possible and separate calculations to allow this comparison are now obsolete. Oxy 510 can be easily added to already established Anton Paar installations, evaluation units, and data acquisition software without the need for additional equipment. Due to its robust and hygienic design the sensor requires minimum maintenance throughout its lifetime and helps to keep costs and downtimes low.

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Summer 2017 | Brewers Journal Canada | 7


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Senate refuses to remove tax escalator

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he Senate of Canada has approved a motion to not proceed with its amendments to Budget 2017, which included the removal of the ‘escalator’ tax on beer, wine and spirits. The ‘escalator’ mechanism is a hidden annual tax increase on beverage alcohol. “We are disappointed that the government has not listened to Canadian beer drinkers and the thousands upon thousands of Canadians across the country who work in our industry,” explained Luke Harford, President of Beer Canada. He added: “We fought to make sure legislators understood the economic value of our industry to this country and the impact bad policy can have directly on middle class

pocketbooks and businesses”. Beer Canada, alongside Restaurants Canada, Spirits Canada and the Canadian Vintners Association has worked tirelessly to fight the escalator tax mechanism on beer, wine and spirits buried within Budget 2017. Beer Canada previously explained that Canadians already pay some of the highest taxes on beverage alcohol in the world. The average price of 24 bottles of beer in Canada is 50% tax. That is over and above payroll taxes, income taxes, municipal property taxes, licensing fees and a myriad of other taxes that are built into the price. “Two things in Budget 2017 negatively impact domestic brew-

ers: a 2% increase to the excise duty on beer and a mechanism that will automatically hike excise by the rate of inflation every year,” said Hartford earlier in the year. “The 2% is not helpful but this escalator, the automatic annual tax hikes, will do far more damage and we are hopeful the Senate will stop it.” A hidden excise escalator that automatically increases the tax on beverage alcohol is unfair to lower and middle income Canadians, the organisation added. They add excise is a regressive tax and is based on volume, not on price. The hidden escalator will have the biggest regressive impact on Canada’s “value priced” wines, beers and spirit brands where excise makes up a higher proportion of the final price.

Canadian breweries succeed at 2017 U.S. Open Beer Championship

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ameron’s Brewing, Muskoka Brewery, Amsterdam Brewing Co and Nickel Brook Brewing Co were among the Canadian breweries that picked up awards at last month’s 2017 U.S. Open Beer Championship. Canadian breweries were well represented at the awards which included breweries from Vermont to Vietnam sending in more than 6,000 beers that represented more than 100 different styles. The competition included professional breweries and award-winning home-brewers, with judges from England, Canada and the United States. Key successes saw Cameron’s Brewing of Oakville, Ontario named one of the Top 10 Breweries 2017. Amsterdam Brewing Co of Toronto won Silver in the American Light category for its 3 Speed while Nickel Brook Brewing Co of Burlington won Gold in the American Style Fruit Beer category for its Raspberry Uber. Muskoka Brewery of Bracebridge

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won Bronze in the Oatmeal Stout category for its Shinnicked Stout. Looking at North America, Cherry Street Brewing Co-op of Cumming, GA was named Grand National Champion by winning three gold medals, one silver medal and two bronze medals. Its three gold-medal-winning beers were O.A.S.I.S Imperial Stout, Ta Ta Pilsner and Damebier Maple Strong Ale. Located in Cumming’s Vickery Village, in partnership with Rick Tanner’s Grille & Bar, Cherry Street began as a homebrew club in Fort Collins, CO until Georgia native Nick Tanner returned to his home state. Its name comes from the street in Fort Collins where the initial homebrew club met and brewed. The brewery established its identity by applying cooperative ideals to everyday life, focused on education, community, and sustainability. Black Tooth Brewing from Sheridan, WY placed second by winning 3 gold medals, a silver medal and a bronze medal.

Their gold medals were awarded to their Black Eagle Porter, Hot Streak IPA and Caught Looking Ale. Lynnwood Brewing Concern out of Raleigh, NC took home third by winning 3 gold medals and 1 bronze. Their gold medals were for their Hop Sauce IPA, Once You Go Black Ale and Hop on Top Strong Pale Ale.

Summer 2017 | Brewers Journal Canada | 9


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Keg rent-to-own program launches

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new business that enables brewers to own kegs without outlaying large amounts of capital has launched in Canada. North Keg is the brainchild of Matt Wowchuk, an idea that came about following a conversation with a friend who had recently finished brewing college and informed him of the time and cost issues associated with keg ownership. Wowchuk explained: “We opened North Keg with one goal in mind – to provide brewers with an alternative pathway to owning the best quality kegs in the industry. “After six months of planning and meetings with industry professionals, we realized we had found a niche that was in high demand.” North Keg has partnered with Canada Kegs to supply their clients with Franke Blefa kegs. Each keg comes silk screened with the breweries logo and a laser etched 2D matrix code that is compatible with most keg tracking software. “We chose Blefa kegs because we wanted to provide brewers with the

best keg. You can’t compete with a 30-year warranty or the customer service they provide,” added Wowchuk. The company is pushing its proposition based on a number of key selling points. These include low fixed monthly payments, the flex-

ibility to keg ownership and the low financial credit risk involved. He added: “I’m really excited about this business model. “I think we’re going to be able to help craft breweries grow as we’re able to solve a large cash flow issue for them.”

yeast platform advances

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lobal yeast technology company Renaissance BioScience is set to advance its next-generation yeast development platform after sealing $500,000 R&D funding from the Government of Canada. Renaissance BioScience has received a boost to its ongoing research and development through the advancement of its proprietary, non-GMO yeast strain development platform. The company will receive a multi-year, non-repayable contribution of up to Cdn$500,000 from the National Research Council of Canada Industrial Research Assistance Program (NRC-IRAP). As part of the company’s ongoing focus to develop innovative non-GMO yeast technology, Renaissance BioSci-

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ence is engaged in the research and development of novel yeast strains for commercialization. It is also involved in the discovery and utilization of advanced technology capable of improving the company’s proprietary strain development platform. Dr. Matthew Dahabieh, chief science officer at Renaissance BioScience, explained: “We are pleased to receive funding from IRAP in support of furthering our nextgeneration non-GMO yeast development platform. “The assistance offered by IRAP is an important catalyst for us to enhance our strain development capabilities and will enable us to take the next step in offering innovative next-generation yeast technology to our customers."

Picaroons Traditional Ales continues Pivot IPA series Picaroons Traditional Ales has expanded its series of Pivot Imperial IPAs, a range of beers with a foundation of Canadian 2-row barley and a dash of Canadian Toasted Wheat. Around this foundation the brewery pivots the hops from batch to batch as they experiment and play with different hop varieties. The third addition to the Pivot range relyes heavily on Mosaic and Equinox hops while still utilizing some Warrior and Azacca. “It features really complex fruity characteristics over it's simple pale malt bill. A little drier and more hoppily aggressive than the first two Pivots, Pivot #3 has rotated to a spot where we're really liking it,” they said.

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The Beer Store expands to home delivery

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he Beer Store has broadened its e-commerce offering with the addition of a home delivery offering through its Beer Xpress site. The company has launched a home delivery service in Ottawa and Scarborough as the first two test markets, offering same-day home delivery, with a targeted two-hour delivery window. "Home delivery is a natural evolution of our Beer Xpress program and we look forward to bringing it to Ottawa and Scarborough for the pilot," explained Beer Store

president, Ted Moroz. "The areas were selected based on a number of criteria including market demand and the number of stores in their delivery footprint." According to the company, Scarborough and Ottawa customers within the designated delivery areas can choose from among the 800 plus brands available and purchase the beer for home delivery via beerxpress.ca. All orders are completed within designated store hours and all sales are screened by the responsible sales program. In addition, orders are

delivered by licensed home delivery services who are prescreened and held to the highest standards. "This project will be fully backed by The Beer Store's award-winning ID25 responsible sale program," added Moroz. The Beer Store explained that Beer Xpress is part of its commitment to the Province of Ontario to modernize and improve the customer experience within its retail network. The Beer Store also used the new pilot project to make it easier for those in Ottawa to celebrate Canada's 150th birthday.

Merit opens with three flagship beers

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erit Brewing, based in Hamilton, Ontario, has outlined a trio of flagship beers that are available following its opening this summer. Its first three beers are 3% table beer SVP, 5.3% saison Chanan and the stronger 6% Young Rival IPA. Aaron Spinney, co-founder and head brewer at Merit Brewing Company, explained: “Our house table beer is our attempt at reclaiming the lunch time pint and reinventing the patio sipper. This is SVP, or S’il Vous Plait. “At 3% SVP is no heavy hitter in the alcohol department, but packs a flavour filled punch of love. For a 3% beer to be good you need to factor in a few things: ABV, mouthfeel, taste, aroma, and head retention. “At lower alcohol, it’s often hard for a beer to taste “big” or not too watery and thin. Using our French Saison yeast and a wallop of wheat, we created a beautiful, creamy, full-bodied baby Saison that some would refer to as a classic Grissette.” Merit’s Chanan is a dry hopped saison with Indian coriander and fresh orange peel and the brainchild of co-founder Tej Sandhu. Spinney added: “This beer is a 5.3% ABV Saison brewed with

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wheat and pilsner malt. It’s a classic style that we mixed up a bit by adding Indian coriander, fresh orange peels, and new world hops. “Compared to generic coriander, Indian coriander is not only an amazing throw back to Tej’s roots and love of exploring Indian culinary techniques, but it’s far fruitier and has a full bouquet of citrus, black pepper, fruit loop flavour (I know you love em), stone fruit, and spring flowers.” Elsewhere, its 6% Young Rival IPA aims to prove that the style doesn’t have to be “the caesar salad on a menu at a roadhouse diner”. Spinney explained: “Young Rival” reflects Hamilton’s position as a burgeoning city in Ontario. There is a determination that comes with

being a Hamiltonian. It also reflects Merit’s position in the brewing industry, as a brewery lead by a young team that is determined and unwavering in its goals and values. “The beer focuses on hops but is complimentary to the simple malt bill (with no Crystal or Caramel malts) that lends itself beautifully to an unforgiving head as well as a nice smooth balanced mouthfeel. “We use El Dorado, Mosaic, and Amarillo hops. To you those words might seem like silly things to say, but to us they are beautiful colours to paint with. This is our art, and we love using colour. The IPA boasts huge notes of cantaloupe, peach, mango, pine, fresh meadow, spring mornings, and warm hugs from your favourite aunt.”

Summer 2017 | Brewers Journal Canada | 11


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The Exchange Brewery launches first gluten-free saison

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ntario-based The Exchange Brewery has launched its first glutenfree saison, which is made from buckwheat and sorghum. The 5.8% beer has nutty and earthy flavours that blend with sweet sorghum, dark Belgian candi sugar and herbal hops (Hallertau and Styrian Celeia) for balance of sweetness while maintaining a refreshing finish. Sam Maxbauer, Head Brewer at The ExB, explained: “We began with a series of raw material testing of gluten free grains and sugar sources, both for colour contribution and flavour profile. “We tested quinoa, sorghum, buckwheat, amaranth and some various seeds. We then settled on sorghum and buckwheat as the best base flavour profile to begin build-

ing our recipe on. “The ExB Brewers meticulously cleaned and inspected all equipment for the brewing, fermentation and packaging. « Working in our regular brew house, an environment with gluten, made this challenging. “But with a few modifications to the brewing process, we were able to achieve our final goal of creating a high-quality gluten-free beer, that actually tastes good.” Prior to hitting the shelves, the beer were sent to a testing lab in Quebec with all bottles tested successfully below 10ppm gluten – while the CFIA (Canadian Food Inspection Agency) only requires gluten-free products to be less than 20 ppm. The Gluten Free Saison has recently been added to the brewery’s online store, and will continue to be brewed in the future.

Muskoka Brewery collaborates with Deerhurst Resort

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uskoka Brewery has collaborated with Deerhurst Resort to create a special beer for the Ontario-based destination. Antler Ale is said to have a light and refreshing body with hints of caramel and toasted and toffee malt notes that "coat your tongue" before finishing with a gentle but present bitterness. Steve Flagler, director of operations at Deerhurst Resort, explained: “The whole locally sourced movement is so inspiring and aligns so well with what we do here at Deerhurst that it only made sense to create our own brand of beer. “Because Deerhurst is so embedded in the Muskoka culture, partnering with Muskoka Brewery to help bring life to our vision was perfect. The process just clicked.

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Flagler went on to add: “Once we decided to go forward with this, and connected with Muskoka Brewery, everything fell in place.

“We wanted to create a beer that would reflect what Deerhurst represents – a woodsy, yet polished experience.”

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Keep it Simple Brewers are passionate about what they do and often enjoy getting out there to meet the people who love their brew. But as business owners it’s also important to take advantage of the right tools that help you manage smarter – even while you’re away from the office – with simplicity and convenience, says Jason Storsley, Vice President of Small Business, RBC.

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ith hot sunny days and peak patio season taking hold across the country, summer is the perfect time for enjoying the high temps with an ice-cold beer. It’s also the time when many cottagers stock up for the weekends, and promotional events, food and craft beer festivals are in full swing everywhere, from big cities to small urban towns. While everyone from tourists to locals enjoy some leisure time and the fruits of our labour, craft brewers are likely at their busiest. After all, someone has to manage the festival tents, brewery operations and supply during this key season, promoting the brand in a competitive market to ensure loyalty through the fall and winter months. And in addition, there’s still the administrative side of things that can’t be overlooked such as finances and banking. As we head into a busy season, here are some tips to help ensure you’re managing the business while on the go. Most of us are great at using our smart phone to stay on top of emails and getting day to day tasks completed. But take some time to learn about other tools that you might already have access to so that you can proactively work from anywhere. For example, you can pay suppliers for new product right from your

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banking app. Need advice on the go? Check to see if your bank offers video chat so you can get questions answered quickly by connecting live. Most business owners have mobile banking and use it for routine financial transactions like checking account balances. But did you know that you can easily complete other actions like pay invoices, taxes and payroll, manage cash flow and connect with book keeping software right from your mobile phone? By taking advantage of digital services and online options, your office is anywhere you are – from the beer tent to the restaurant. Today, accepting a wide variety of payment methods is efficient and easy, and if you’re not doing it you may lose out on clients who, increasingly, don’t carry cash. Digital wallets allow for a quick, seamless deposit into your bank account, allowing you to better manage cash flow. Look for a payment processing system that doesn’t require you to invest in new infrastructure, will allow you to streamline reporting and that is convenient and easy for your customers to use. Above all else, ensure that you choose a credible provider to ensure privacy and security. Brewers are passionate about what they do and often enjoy getting out there to meet the people who love their brew. But as business owners it’s also important to take advantage of the right tools that help you manage smarter – even while you’re away.

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A Coming Beer Boom? What in fact are the prospects for growth in the North American beer market overall? And what, if anything, can be done to encourage that potential growth? Mike Kallenberger from First Key Consulting explains all.

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n 2016 the merger between two global giants dominated the conversation in the beer industry. To the casual observer, at least in North America, the purchase of SABMiller by Anheuser-Busch InBev would seem to reflect a consolidation of almost every familiar name among the brands people see on the shelf every day. But (as events have since made clear) that same casual observer might not have anticipated one of ABI’s most important objectives in pursuing the merger: a way to rebalance their portfolio toward the rapidly growing beer markets of Latin America, Africa, and Asia, and away from North America -- where the beer category is well-developed but stagnant. The sell-off of North American assets mandated by the courts was neither unanticipated nor, in all likelihood, a cause of any particular unhappiness at ABI. The seemingly unpromising situation for beer in North America is not simply the result of a market

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reaching maturity. The total beverage alcohol market continues to grow; it’s just that beer has been losing share. Beer’s estimated share of total alcoholic drinks consumed in the United States peaked at 61% in 1998; as of 2016 it stood at 50%. Of course viewing North American beer in the aggregate obscures some powerful dynamics happening within the category, most notably the continued vitality of craft beer and the renewed interest in imports. While the Brewers Association reports that overall beer sales in the United States extended their long flat trend in 2015 with a decline of 0.2%, craft grew 12.8% and imports grew 6.2%. This means that domestic mainstream beer declined 3.4%. Since domestic mainstream still represents over 80% of U.S. beer sales, weakness in this segment amounts to weakness in the entire beer category. Even importers and craft brewers must be concerned about this, since eventually it will become difficult to grow

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by competing for a bigger slice of a shrinking pie. Those of us who care about beer as both a beverage and as the cultural institution it is, must acknowledge that a vital North American beer industry requires vitality in all its segments. What in fact are the prospects for growth in the North American beer market overall? And what, if anything, can be done to encourage that potential growth? To begin to answer those questions, we have to look at the root causes of the current situation. And it seems a key cause may be a problem with the collective image and personality of the whole beer category. As the culture changes, beer brands often find themselves with a dilemma. The themes in their marketing and their brand presentation that resonated so powerfully over the decades may not be as relevant as they once were. Yet changing too quickly or too overtly might alienate existing drinkers. This may be a

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good description of the situation in which mainstream beer brands have found themselves over the past two decades. Today, wine or spirits drinkers on the fringe of the category are certainly aware of craft beer, however when they think about beer their first and most vivid impressions are still largely shaped by their images of mainstream beers such as Budweiser, Miller, and Coors in the U.S., or Molson and Labatt’s in Canada. And what is the enduring image of beer? It’s always been seen to one extent or another as an unpretentious, no-nonsense drink to be enjoyed by any adult, an alternative to wine and spirits and their images of greater sophistication and, to some extent, exclusivity. The American culture of the 1970s and 1980s embraced the egalitarian image of beer. But every element of imagery can be framed as a positive or a negative, and as the culture began to change in the 1990s the staples of beer’s image began to be seen through a negative lens. “Unpretentious”

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seemingly mutated into “unsophisticated.” Beer’s ubiquity, rather than an advantage, started to be seen as an indication that it wasn’t special enough. Meanwhile, wine and spirits brands stepped up to fill the void. The premiumization trend of the 1990s found growing numbers of drinkers happy to buy wine and spirits brands at price points that had once been seen as deal-breakers. And the marketing for many of these brands presented aspirational imagery, a Hero much more so than an Everyman. The culture was ready to embrace aspiration, and the drinker’s brand of choice often served as a badge of that aspiration. It’s no coincidence that the most successful beer advertising campaign of the 21st century, Dos Equis’ “The Most Interesting Man in the World,” presented unabashedly Heroic imagery. So mainstream beer brands were often left in a quandary – attempt to evolve in ways that could strain drinker credibility and drinker loyalty, or stay the same and watch their pool of brand enthusiasts slowly shrink. Most mainstream brands not only chose the latter course, they reaffirmed their commitment to unpretentious, Everyman values. In more than a few cases it could be argued that they even overcompensated, with sophomoric humor and “frat guy” attitudes that gave even more credence to the notion that beer was just too unsophisticated for many. For any individual brand that chose this course, this is certainly a viable strategy and therefore not a decision that outsiders can criticize. However, when essentially the entire mainstream beer category marched more or less in lockstep down this path, the results were somewhat predictable. Today, mainstream brands are still passionately embraced by their drinker bases. But those drinker bases are shrinking, while a seemingly still-expanding group looks at beer and sees not lack of pretense but lack of sophistication; not Everyman values, but mundane values. When discussing cultural change the metaphor of a pendulum is certainly over-used, but it has its uses. Some cultural trends do swing back and forth. For example, the beverage alcohol landscape had been very different in the 1950s, when the Silent Generation was still in their 20s and 30s. Cocktails were the cool choice, based in part on their association with the Rat Pack – Frank Sinatra, Dean Martin, et al. Sophistication, not unpretentiousness, was the aim for most drinkers. Then in the 1960s, fueled by the coming of age of the Baby Boom generation, beer began a long run of strong growth, attracting the lion’s share of new drinkers but also stealing share from spirits and wine in the process. Working-class values were embraced by young adults of all social classes, and products associated with the working class (like beer, or jeans) became seen as cool. And while Generation X was very different from the Baby Boom generation in many ways, they did share an affinity for the

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unpretentiousness of beer, sustaining the growth of the category at the expense of wine and spirits well into the 1990s, until the Millennial Generation started taking their turn on the young adult stage. But “Millennial” no longer connotes “newly adult.” Depending on which source used, the oldest Millennials are now almost 38 years old. Generational cycles tend to last 15-20 years. A new, post-Millennial Generation is about to take the adult stage, and they may well be as different from Millennials as Millennials were from the Gen Xers who preceded them. But here’s one thing we know for sure: the postMillennials have never known a beer market in which craft beer wasn’t thriving. Craft beer began its current long boom in 2004, when the oldest post-Millennials were toddlers. Going forward, as craft continues to take share from mainstream beer (and even from spirits and wine), the meaning of beer will be shaped by craft beer far more so than by mainstream beer, despite the enormous advertising budgets wielded by the latter. Oddly enough, this may ultimately be a good thing for big beer brands. Those wine and spirits drinkers on the fringes of the beer category will start to see all beer through the lens of craft. “Beer” may well begin to connote a beverage that’s sophisticated without being pretentious, and broadly appealing without being boring. In fact, the much-discussed idea that we should stop dividing beer into “craft” and “mainstream” will more than likely happen as a bottom-up, drinker-led trend rather than a top-down, brewer-led initiative. So, assuming this line of reasoning has some validity, what can individual brewers do to encourage this potential beer boom? For craft brewers, the current message is right, but those who are able should consider doing more to ensure it’s heard far and wide. Is more television advertising in craft’s future? Television is often seen as anathema to craft’s authentic, independent image, but if done well TV ads can definitely reinforce that image. Efforts from Samuel Adams and Fat Tire and more recently Goose Island are prime examples. But there are many other ways, less expensive and perhaps more suited to craft’s sensibilities, to get the word out. For big brewers, to borrow from the Hippocratic Oath: first, do no harm. An individual brand can be as relentlessly unpretentious as it chooses as long as it doesn’t veer into unsophisticated territory. But brands choosing this option should be as tough on themselves as possible when it comes to deciding where that borderline lies. All of this reasoning may be pie in the sky, or it may represent a valid path forward for beer’s role in the culture. But there are parallels to what the spirits and wine industries accomplished in the 1990s, which ultimately led to a renaissance for both beverages that was bigger than any individual brand. Why not envision a future for the alcoholic beverage category in which beer, wine, and spirits are all thriving?

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USE GOVERNMENT GRANTS TO CREATE CAPITAL AND IMPROVE CASH FLOW

Grants have enabled small breweries to expand and larger breweries to update and improve processes. Putting a Grant Strategy in place will help you recoup capital and create more cash flow for your business, explains Alexandra Fitzpatrick, Fairtax Funding Analyst.

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he beer industry in Canada is booming, and there have been major shifts in the market. Governments, breweries and consumers have all benefited in some way or another. The rise in popularity might have something to do with the amount of choice consumers have. Consumers have more selection than ever before, craft beer specifically, has surged in popularity resulting in a shift in consumer behaviour. The greater selection and availability of craft beers sparked a sales increase of 36% from last year. Also, the loosening of liquor laws enabled up to 450 grocers to carry beer and ciders. This 5.6 Billion* dollar industry is only getting started. To help fuel the growth and success of breweries around Canada, the government has invested heavily in the beverage manufacturing and processing sectors. Government grants are becoming a major financial contributor in helping breweries expand, cover capital equipment costs and facilitate improvements. There are grants that cover new processes for cans and labelling techniques to grants that cover productivity, export market endeavors and innovation. There are additional

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grants for training, marketing and energy efficiency. These programs have had a significant impact on the industry and have enabled small and large breweries to stay competitive in a growing industry. It seems like there's a new brewery popping up every week and competition for consumer dollars is fierce. Grants have reduced the burden of upfront costs and enabled breweries to take a step back and think about their next steps. Governments are benefiting from this growing market. Aside from the taxes they receive from breweries, they also act as the wholesalers to grocery stores. Breweries are dealing with an increase in demand which has led to the need to expand and improve processes and efficiencies. Governments are aware of the importance of this growing industry which is why they have increased funding in this sector in the form of government grants. Grants have enabled small breweries to expand and larger breweries to update and improve processes. New Grant programs are announced each year, changing names and form which can be a challenge to navigate for a busy brewery owner. Putting a Grant Strategy in place will help you recoup capital and create more cash flow for your business.

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Wastewater: An Emerging Risk to Craft breweries With the continued rapid growth in our Canadian craft brewing industry, it is important to look at insurance and risk management as an investment in the protection of your reputation and business, not just another expense on your balance sheet, explains Joshua Kearley, program specialist at Beverage Protect powered by Benson Kearley IFG.

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s program specialist for Beverage Protect, it is my continuing goal to inform and educate the brewing industry on emerging risks, and areas that could impact the future of your business. A recent important topic of conversation, and subject of concerns, is wastewater and wastewater management for craft breweries. For this subject I reached out to one of our preferred risk management partners, Matt Marion of H2Flow, to provide his professional insight regarding this important topic. When asked about the risks craft breweries face when it comes to wastewater Matt had the following to say: “As a brewery you inherently have wastewater going down the drain. Knowing the effect this wastewater has on the receiving location can help you better take proactive steps to reducing the impacts after leaving your facility. “Starting with pH of your wastewater, the pH levels from your process can vary greatly throughout the day depending on the process in the brewery. These pH swings can land outside the spectrum of acceptable limits set by the city by-law on both sides of the spectrum.” The local municipality has set limits to the effluent discharge pH to help protect the infrastructure of the piping downstream from your facility. Continued acid or caustic conditions will affect the life span on this infrastructure. Just as important, the values outside of the confines can disrupt the receiving wastewater treatment plant process. Typical brewery effluent can be below the 5.5 pH level due to the acid level of the product and the cleaners being used during sanitation stages. Alternately, if a plant has a caustic bottle washer they will see high alkaline levels during operation of such equipment. Caustic cleaners could also elevate the pH out of compliance. There is a good chance that if a large enough tank was put in place to contain the various streams into one homogenous mixture, the tank could neutralize

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out the highs and lows throughout various process changes. However, this tank can take up a lot of space in the brewery, which may not be practical. A pH correction system may be the answer. Utilizing smaller mixing tanks and a pH controller with chemical addition pumps can complete the required pH neutralization. Having a collection sump pit with pump is the easiest way to collect the wastewater before leaving the facility. From here it can be pumped to a treatment system, and returned to the sewer by gravity (or pumped). The basic treatment system involves a pH Dosing tank(or tanks) with a mixer, a pH sensor, and a chemical Metering Pump system. Once the wastewater enters the tank the pH probe will read the pH and dose the appropriate chemical (acid or base) into the tank. The mixer insures complete mix into the solution and once the correct pH set point is met the chemical injection turns off. The system will typically be a proportional control to administer additional product when required and less as the set point is being reached. We work with Josh and the clients of Beverage Protect to offer an assessment of the current status of their wastewater and if required recommendation to help get them back to compliance. We pride ourselves in being able to offer each brewery options for risk management in this area and scale it to meet their budgets.” The last part of this equation that you may be asking yourself is, what are the implications or costs associated if your brewery is in breach of these bylaws? This can vary in each province however, in all cases there are no notifications or warnings of testing being done. The Ministry of the Environment has pre-scheduled timelines to test various bodies of water, sewer systems and independent businesses, such as craft breweries . Once the levels exceed the bylaw levels, surcharges and fines are applied immediately, and in worse case scenarios, operations are shut down until this can be corrected. Don’t be reactive with your wastewater, be proactive and ensure your outputs are within the acceptable levels.

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greatness without gluten A desire to produce the the highest quality gluten-free beer is at the heart of Montréal’s Glutenberg. The team, headed up by founders David Cayer and Julien Niquet, alongside brewmaster Gabriel Charbonneau, have the awards to back it up, too. With grand plans to make the Glutenberg a go-to beer both in Canada and overseas, the group also has its sights set on further expansion in the fields on distribution, brewing and distilling.

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hen David Cayer met Julien Niquet while studying business at Université du Québec à Montréal (UQAM), a French-language university in Montreal, neither would have guessed that they’d be running a successful brewery, distillery and distribution group less than a decade later. But that’s just what they are doing. They employ a team of 60, export to 25 US states and represent nearly 30 breweries distributing in Quebec. Not bad for a duo that had a background in neither beer nor spirits. “We studied business, and at that time Julien was telling me he wanted his own business. It ran in his family and he had the same desire, explains Cayer. “Following years in education and other roles, we took the decision to start a distribution company in another sector. While it didn’t go as planned, neither

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of us wanted to return to taking positions within big businesses. We had that experience of working for ourselves, of making decisions, and having your own goals. So that is where beer came in.” So in 2010, the duo initially came up with the idea of brewing a gluten-free beer. The reason? Niquet has been diagnosed with celiac disease a decade earlier and was “completely appalled” by what the market had to offer in terms of gluten-free beers, so he and Cayer saw a unique opportunity to fulfil an evergrowing need for quality and grasped it. “We knew it was surely possible to make quality beer that was both tasty and consistent. But there were just no options available for drinkers wanting gluten-free beer. The goal was to do something better than others so we could not just get a slice of the local market but to become the go-to beer in that space,” he says. “But we were not home brewers so we didn’t tread that well-worn path of starting brewing in a garage and then moving up from there, so that

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is pretty unique as it normally starts that way. For us, this the opposite. We were business first and came at it from that way.” And it is that business background and focus that has informed and educated the duo’s outlook since Glutenberg came into being. They brewed, by their own admission, a disastrous yet hilarious test batch of beer so swiftly set out to recruit a head brewer to steer the brewing ship in the direction they wanted. This team member came in the form of Gabriel Charbonneau who Cayer and Niquet actually found through Facebook. Charbonneau was working at Brasserie McAuslan but his desire to become part of the business saw him work a gruelling whole year that comprised day shifts at McAuslan followed by nights brewing at what would become Glutenberg. A period of comprehensive R&D followed with the team’s first beer, Blonde. By summer 2011, the team was happy with their inaugural beer and had the brewery fully set-up and operational. “Our first beer and flagship product, the Glutenberg Blonde, took on the Québec market. Its dry profile, its lemon peel notes and, most of all, its rich and powerful aromas made it an instant success. But despite the initial idea of having only one SKU, we soon realised that simply wouldn’t work. So the introduction of the American Pale Ale as well as the Red Beer followed shortly, allowing us to finish our first year of existence with three tasty and innovative gluten-free beers,” says Cayer. And shortly after the wheels started to turn, success started to follow. In May 2012, the team obtained its first international recognition. Its beers collected all three medals of the Gluten-Free Beer category at the prestigious brewing intercontinental competition, the World Beer Cup. Not only was this a new achievement for the brewery, it was also an all-time first in the competition’s history. “By winning the World Beer Cup and by sweeping the category, calls came from Italy and the East Coast. The first 5-10 states we distributed to were a consequence of that award, there is no doubt about it,” explains Cayer. “We have worked hard on building the business. Today we sell to 25 states in the US, across Canada and we seeing more activity in France, Sweden and Norway, too. There is so much potential for us but we feel that we are just starting. We genuinely believe that we make the make the best gluten-free beer in the world so it’s about getting them out there and getting seen. There is a big opportunity in Europe and it is part of our plans. We have confidence in what we do.” Montréal’s Glutenberg operate a 40HL NSI brewhouse and expect to have produced well upwards of 80,000HL of beer this year. All of Glutenberg’s beers are exclusively brewed with gluten-free grains such as corn, millet and buckwheat. They do not use wheat, barley or any other ingredients that contains or may contain traces of gluten, therefore ensuring a completely and 100% safe gluten-free beer. An ELISA test is done on each brew while every new style is

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Glutenberg Flagship Beers Blonde Glutenberg’s Blonde is the proud originator of the series, the pioneer of real good gluten-free beer. Airy and lemony, this golden-hued beer reveals floral and lightly herbal notes, making room for a dry and tasty finale. The brewery’s first creation, it paved the road to success and still imposes itself as a thirst-quenching beer that can charm any palate. American Pale Ale The American Pale Ale is Glutenberg’s first incursion in the universe of hoppy beers. A savoury concoction with citrusy notes, it perfectly showcases the brewery’s versatility. Its orange and grapefruit aromas softly temper the straight-up character of American hops by endowing it with a slight touch of bitterness. The result is a delectable, balanced, resinous and full-bodied beer. Glutenberg Red Proudly echoing British brown ales, the Glutenberg Red stands out by the great complexity of its creation and taste. Brewed using two types of chestnuts, each requiring a specific roasting method, this unctuous beer with a roasted nut fragrance reveals unique flavours of caramel and coffee. Holder of the title of the brewery’s most decorated beer, the Red triumphs with good reason! IPA Glutenberg’s IPA is a dream come true for microbrewed beer fans. A true little bomb of flavours, it presents a perfect harmony between citrus aroma, hop freshness and bitterness. It guarantees a soft contact with taste buds, releasing apricot and soft caramel notes. Its exacerbated dry side makes its bouquet of flavours shine and ensures its good aromatic persistence. To be consumed cold and in great quantity! Blanche The Blanche is a completely unique interpretation of a classic style of Belgian inspiration. Traditionally brewed with wheat, Glutenberg renewed the style entirely to put forward a 100% gluten- and wheat-free beer, a tour de force of which only we hold the recipe. White The Glutenberg White's distinction lies in its quinoa and amaranth composition, which endows it with a noticeable grainy profile, ensuring a steady mouthfeel. Soft and refreshing, with hints of coriander and curaçao, the White is the perfect nectar to quench your thirst.

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0,00 PPM-tested by an independent lab. Cayer has observed that focusing on the core has been key for the business. Especially at a time where the market continues to experience new beers hitting taps and shelves each week. “We used to sell a lot of our seasonal beers but today we are at a point where there are something like 10 or 20 new SKUs launching each week. They are all in the same game and in my opinion that is bad for the industry. If you enjoyed that beer, you rarely have the opportunity to have it again, it’s getting ridiculous. You need to focus on your core products and on keeping, and growing, your audience,” he says. Glutenberg’s core beers reach customers in cans. When the team started out in the market, these beers were bottled as it was the most convenient option but this approach has changed. “Moving to cans was one of the best decisions we ever made. When we were looking at export markets, and our US importer outlined the reasons to can, so we went with their advice. And when we moved to our newer brewery around three years ago, we invested in a GAI line through Prospero and have pushed on from there, explains Cayer “The only downside was that certain markets in Europe weren’t as ready for cans several years ago but that is changing. The market is shifting and people’s perceptions of canned beer have moved on.” But regardless of the vessel, Cayer believes that drinkers have connected with the brewery’s beers for a number of reasons. “One reason our beers stand out is because we do it 24/7. It is what we do. There are lots of breweries doing gluten-free beer but for us, it is our core. We don’t brew lots of different beers and then the odd bit of gluten-free. It is all we do here. We want to create amazing beer that is gluten-free but we are proud that we sell our beers to tolerant drinkers, too. People are drinking them by choice, whether they have an intolerance or otherwise. Drinkers want our beers because of the taste, not as a necessity,” he says. And Cayer is keen to stress that particular point. “When we were building Glutenberg, more and more people were being diagnosed with celiac disease. We have seen an uptake in our beers from that and we started this brewery due to the lack of quality gluten-free beers. But we have targeted consumers such as runners and athletes, also,” he explains. “They are drinking gluten-free beer for their own reasons such as them being less filling. So we are doing a lot more in that space. We are talking to people in that field and showing them that we are a viable option for people that want a beer that offers properties standard beers do not. And you need to give customers want they want.” While customers in the Glutenberg brewery sense are beer drinkers, the business-driven duo of David Cayer and Julien Niquet have broadened the demographic it serves with the addition of two new companies in recent years. Founded in 2013, Transbroue is the first private

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company to specialize in the distribution of microbrewed beer in Québec. Due to the lack of dependable large-scale beer distributor, Glutenberg’s founders decided to start their own distributor with near enough instant success. “We are looking for a distributor in Quebec, and were not able to find one. Most breweries have the same issues so as a result of our proposition we have 25 clients, six trucks, a wealth of reps and better representation and distribution for the breweries we work with. Transbroue, who handle distribution for Beau’s, Brasseurs Du Temps and Jukebox among others, have the ambition of distributing, in the Québec market, the best beers brewed here and elsewhere,” he adds. The duo’s other firm is Oshlag Brewery & Distillery. The very first establishment of its kind, Oshlag brews beer and distills spirits under the same roof. Its signature name comes from the Montreal neighbourhood of the same name, once a small Iroquois village discovered by Jacques Cartier in 1535.

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“Oshlag brings together our ancestor's fearlessness as well as today's montrealer's boldness, a combination that makes it truly unique. Intertwined, the brewery and distillery create a one-of-a-kind entity and ass of March 2017, Oshlag is a recognized member of the American Distilling Institute. We make our own beer but when we have capacity, we offer contract brewing, too. It is exploding with clients waiting for a capacity window to open, explains Cayer. He adds: “Glutenberg and its gluten-free proposition is great but we are so excited about these projects, too. We are a strange animal in this industry and we can’t stop finding opportunities. When you have a business background you learn to seize the opportunity but we want to keep grounded and keep growing. We want to do more in North America and overseas, to be the number one Gluten-free beer in as many markets as possible. And we want to be the best, but if you don’t put energy into what you do, you will get what you deserve and you will only get minimal returns.”

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CF_NewBrewer_Advert_MOTUEKA_Jan17 | 19/01/17 | PDF/X-1a

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32 | Brewers Journal Canada | Summer 2017

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Brewing Craft in BC Some of the finest breweries in Canada call Vancouver home. It’s a growing scene and one responsible for many excellent beers so Brewers Journal Canada caught up with some of its leading lights to learn where they go next to stay on the top of their game.

Leigh Stratton, Bridge Brewing Co, 2017

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’ve lived here for years and had no idea there was a brewery here!”. It’s something Ryan Mackey, owner of Vancouver Brewery Tours loves to hear when giving tours of the west coast seaport’s breweries. But for somewhere growing like Vancouver, you can’t imagine too many of the cities being able to keep a low profile for much

longer. For someone like Mackey and his business, he holds an interesting position in Vancouver’s craft beer scene. As a tour company, they connect a segment of the market that is not as familiar with our beer scene. They attract tourists coming to town seeking to experience our local breweries, many whom have heard of Vancouver’s growing reputation as a craft beer destination and the interesting things happening here. In fact, he explains, it is not uncommon for many of their tourist guests to arrive in Vancouver on a Friday evening, and the first activity they book for their stay is a brewery tour the next day. “I believe this says something about the priorities of these travellers and speaks to the potential for Vancouver as a city to capitalize on craft beer tourism, a rising segment of the traveling population world wide. All one has to do is look to the emergence of brewery tour companies in cities all over the world like Brewvana Brewery Tours in Portland, or Dave’s Brewery Tours in Australia, or in Victoria BC with Westcoast Brewery Tours to see the rise of the craft beer tourist and of our industry,” he explains. Mackey is also keen to draw attention to the amount of locals who have hopped on tour with them over the years. “While many tour companies cater almost exclusively to out of towners, we continue to host a high percentage of locals looking to explore their local breweries and of course drink great beer for an afternoon. “Vancouver’s craft beer scene started growing exponentially about four years ago, which is coincidentally the same time that Vancouver Brewery Tours started operations. The scene was much different back then. At that time, we had six craft breweries on our tour, mostly ran tours on the weekend and had two staff in total. Fast forward to today, and we currently have 19 breweries on our tour and counting. We host tours daily and have a staff of seven who all come from the craft beer community in Vancouver.” There is positive change taking place in Vancouver and it is being fueled by its growing family of breweries. “The brewery scene in Vancouver has grown like crazy here in Vancouver. Here at Bridge Brewing, we are 5 years old and we are the old timers in craft beer, its crazy to think that, we are still learning lots,” explains Bridge Brewing co-founder Leigh Stratton. “It’s definitely more competitive because of the increase in breweries and I think that’s a great thing. It keeps us, especially at Bridge, ensuring we are consistently searching and experimenting with new

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Bridge Brewing Co, 2017

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Steve Thorpe, Postmark Brewing

beers to stay ahead of the curve. An example is our Side Cut IPA, we were one of the first to brew a North East style in Vancovuer, and it recently won Silver at the CBAs. Bridge Brewing Company was Vancouver’s first ever nano-brewery when it opened in 2012. The demand for their great-tasting, high quality craft beer led it to exponentially expand and add to their brewhouse capacity. Despite this growth, they retain the artistry of a traditional, intimate brewery and are working as hard as ever to ensure the production of a top line of specialty beer. The company currently has a 30bbl brewhouse and can produce about 6000 hl annually. And they are looking forward to maxing out our fermenters within the year. In the brewery’s five years in business, Stratton says drinkers’ tastes, much like the brewing scene in Vancouver, has developed and evolved. “I’m proud that we are a brewery that is constantly brewing new and exciting beers for our drinkers.  Most had never had a milkshake or North East IPA and now they are some of our top sellers.  So I wouldn’t so much say they have moved from one style to another, but evolved their palates as we have introduced new beers,” she explains. “The growth here is coming from drinkers enjoying more craft beer.  Either they are becoming 19, moving towards beer from other

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You can't be just great beer, or just great marketing, or just great relationships. You need the full package.

Steve Thorpe, Postmark Brewing

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beverages, or discovering craft, away from Macro. The challenges lie in keeping up!  Our biggest opportunity is that we are able to grow and sell more, and the challenge is ensuring we have the correct beer in the correct format for our customers.  For example, we sell our Bourbon Blood Orange in 50, 30 and 20L kegs, 650ml and 355ml bottles and 473ml cans.  Making sure we have the correct inventory is a very in-depth spread sheet.” Steve Thorpe, co-founder and managing director at Postmark Brewing, agrees with Stratton. The company runs a 20HL system and has an internal capacity for about 6000HL and to use his words,

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Postmark is maxed. The company is currently working on some partnerships to help it grow, because they we want to grow, both in its backyard and Nationally/ Internationally. Postmark currently sells in Western Canada, Thailand and China, and are talking to Ontario, Quebec, Atlantic Canada, USA and other Asia Markets. All tied into the core value of the company that is "Consistency is Key". “The industry is still growing at a rapid rate. The biggest change I am seeing is the opening of more small town/rural breweries, filling small communities niches. Which is awesome! The medium sized production brands like Postmark are not opening like they were, likely because of competition at the distribution wholesale level,” he says. “We are seeing people explore more outside their regular tastebuds. People are still looking for what is next at the brewery. Which is fun, but makes production forecasting very hard for a brewery of our size. We have also seen a big adoption to Session style beers, which is fantastic for Postmark as our entire brand is built around Session beers. Low alcohol is a big trend across the entire beverage industry.” Jorden Foss is the co-founder Steel & Oak Brewing Co, located in New Westminster. The brewery runs a 17HL brewhouse, 4x34HL FV, 3x52HL FV, 3x100HL FV, and one 17HL FV, with several 50HL Brite tanks. Their biggest moving beer is a Red Pilsner which they give a full 6 weeks in the tank so, according to Foss, its production will never be as high as it could be if we they turning out IPAs in 3 weeks. This year they are looking to do around 4,700HL (up from 3,000HL last year and 1,500HL our first year) and figure that the facility will max out around the 6,000-6,500HL mark. “The biggest shift in the craft beer scene is the shift away from growlers. As more breweries package their product less people are bringing in growlers to be filled. I'd also say there has been a larger shift to cans. What used to be a heavy bomber market is now more 473ml based,” he explains. Foss notes that IPA is still king even though the brewery doesn’t produce on full time. “But people seem to be shifting to more sessionable styles that you can drink multiples of. I'd also say that the Vancouver drinker's pallet has matured over the past couple years considerably which is awesome. Also, like most other craft beer hotbeds, people want what's new, what's different, and what's not going to be around for a long time. So, for breweries like Bridge Brewing, Steel & Oak and Postmark Brewing, just what makes the Vancouver beer scene distinct? “We are both young and experienced.  We have amazing talent throughout the city and love working together.  Is this distinct from other cities?  I doubt it, but definitely distinct from other industries.  I don’t know anywhere else where I would call a competing brewery to let them know their beer is out somewhere so they can send more!  Vancouver is set apart from others as we are consistently trying new beers. 

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Postmark Brewing, 2017

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Bridge Brewing All Out Stout All Out Stout starts off sweet and finishes dry, with notes of coffee and bittersweet chocolate from a combination of roasted barley and chocolate malt. Flaked oats give this beer a smooth, rich body. 5% abv Bourbon Blood Orange Wheat Ale This American wheat ale is a crisp and refreshing beer, brewed with the addition of Bourbon and Blood Oranges. Zesty and floral, with a clean citrus flavour, this beer is ideal for any day. Enjoy the deep south way up north. 5.5% abv Hopilano IPA You’ll find our IPA is a Northwest style ale full of contradictions—a strong and clean flavour, with moderate bitterness and yet a soft floral aroma, displaying distinct tropical, citrus, lemon and grapefruit tones. We’re on the West Coast, and in keeping with our climate, our beer will leave your mouth lush and wanting more. We use Cascade, Centennial and Columbus hops. 6% abv North Shore Pale Ale Our North Shore Pale Ale is a local secret—full bodied with a golden colour and a sweet, mild caramel flavour. The finish is crisp and full of hops. This is a highly drinkable and approachable ale, great for making friends or buttering up family. We use Canadian pilsner malt and German Noble hops mixed with Northwest varieties. 5.5% abv Side Cut IPA This juicy IPA brings a brilliant bitterness with a cloudy appearance. Big notes of peach, tangerine and tropical fruit, with a fluffy and full mouthfeel. Our outstanding North East IPA is big on flavour and aroma, with no clarifying agents or filtering for this beer. It is meant to be enjoyed to the fullest! 7.3% abv Wunderbar Kolsch A craft beer that’s interesting and complex while still being light and refreshing, our Wunderbar Kolsch is a flavourful take on a German Kolsch. It offers up a lager malt profile fermented with an ale yeast and made with German noble hops. Prost! 5% abv

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Because we are so new, we aren’t tied to any strict traditions. It’s a challenge when people are always asking “what’s new” but that’s a challenge we are eager to meet,” explains Stratton. “I think it's a great mix of veterans making fantastic classic styles and young folks that have come from an experimental home brew scene that push the envelope,” agrees Foss. “The market and the scene are still young too so brewers and craft beer enthusiasts are excited and enthusiastic and I think that shows through in the beer being made and the vibe at Tasting Rooms around Metro Van.” And for Thorpe, he pinpoints styles of beer as a key differentiator. “We have a PNW influence, with a modern twist. We have lots of young breweries putting their own takes on classic styles. It makes for a very fun place to explore beer,” he explains. “Also the geographical area. We are so lucky to live and brew beer in one of the most beautiful settings in the world. It's a very memorable experience landing in Vancouver, renting a bike, hitting the seawall and visiting 15 breweries in a day. With that, Thorpe effectively encapsulates one of the key reasons why the beer sector in Vancouver continues to thrive. Canada as a whole is the leading the leading international market for American craft beer, accounting for 54.8 percent of total exports. But breweries helping grow scenes like Vancouver show

There has never been a better time to lift a pint of beer in Vancouver.

Ryan Mackey

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that excellent, consistent beer is being produced at every turn, and beyond. But companies like Postmark, Bride Brewing and Steel and Oak Brewing aren’t resting on their laurels. “People have always loved travelling to Vancouver, now they can say they are travelling to see the new craft beer scene, which puts us on the map for beer destination. With competition comes increased quality, you see this across all types of markets. This is helping all the breweries in BC steps up their game, thus getting the rest of the world excited about BC Craft Beer. I love this about competitive markets, everyone has to be better,” explains Thorpe. “The challenge will be staying out front of the other amazing brands and not being a "new" brewery anymore. With this comes the opportunity to better the experience to keep people coming back. The next challenge will be shelf space. To combat this you need to give accounts a full package. You can't be just great beer, or just great

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Steel & Oak Brewing, 2017

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Steel & Oak Brewing

marketing, or just great relationships. You need the full package.” And Ryan Mackey from Vancouver Brewery Tours concludes: “I think our guests put it best. When learning of the tremendous growth of our local beer scene many of our guests ask “don’t you think the market is saturated? Is there really room for more breweries?”. Our short answer is hell yes. By comparison if you look at Portland Oregon, the city has approx. 70 breweries in a town about the

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size of Vancouver proper, and one could argue that Vancouver has a much higher international profile than Portland. “What this says to me is that Vancouver is only starting to realize it’s potential for craft beer sales and tourism and can support many more local, neighborhood breweries. As long as demand is high from our local consumers, breweries will continue to open to cater to that demand. There has never been a better time to lift a pint of beer in Vancouver.”

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Canadian manufacturer and suppliers, as well as brewers, played a key role in making the most recent Craft Brewers Conference & BrewExpo America a success. Here are some of the key companies that played their part in ensuring the event was essential viewing for forward-thinking breweries.

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ighlights of this year’s event included successful keynotes, diversity committee meetings, an update to the BA’ marketing and advertising code, the latest CBC beer symposium and also fresh dialogue on government affairs. The association also used the event to confirm that the 2018 CBC will be held in Nashville, Tennessee from April 30 – May 3, in conjunction with the 2018 World Beer Cup. While Canadian businesses played an essential part at the recent event, the Brewers Association, revealed that more than 5,300 breweries are in operation in the US, with small and independent craft brewers representing 12.3 percent market share by volume. The number of operating breweries in the US last year grew 16.6% to 5,301, 2016 data showed. Small

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and independent craft brewers represent 12.3 percent market share by volume of the overall beer industry. These businesses produced 24.6 million barrels with a 6% rise in volume on a comparable base and a 10% increase in retail dollar value. According to Brewers Association, retail dollar value was estimated at $23.5 billion, representing 21.9 percent market share. With the addition of 1.4 million barrels, craft brewer growth outpaced the 1.2 million barrels lost from the craft segment, based on purchases by large brewing companies. Bart Watson, chief economist at Brewers Association, explained: “Small and independent brewers are operating in a new brewing reality still filled with opportunity, but within a much more competitive landscape. “As the overall beer market remains static and the large global brewers lose volume, their strategy has been to focus on acquiring craft brewers. This

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has been a catalyst for slower growth for small and independent brewers and endangered consumer access to certain brands. Small and independent brewers were able to fill in the barrels lost to acquisitions and show steady growth but at a rate more reflective of today’s industry dynamics." Watson added: “The average brewer is getting smaller and growth is more diffuse within the craft category, with producers at the tail helping to drive

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growth for the overall segment.” A breakdown of the 5,301 breweries in operation showed there were 3,132 microbreweries, 1,916 brewpubs, 186 regional craft breweries and 67 large or otherwise non-craft brewers in the US. 826 new breweries opened in 2016 while 97 closed. Craft brewers provided nearly 129,000 jobs, an increase of almost 7,000 from the previous year, the research showed.

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focus on flavour Beers brewed with fruit, flavours, and other ingredients are big business in Canada in 2017. TailGate Beer has made its name in Nashville, US, through beers such as ‘Watermelon Wheat’, ‘Grapefruit IPA’ and its best-seller ‘Peanut Butter Milk Stout’. But for Wesley Keegan, founder and brewmaster of the, Tennessee brewery, there is much more to the business and despite being a decade old, he feels like TailGate is just getting started.

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or anyone that has enjoyed a can of ‘Peanut Butter Milk Stout’, the runaway best-selling brew from TailGate beer, it might come as a surprise that the brewery’s main taproom in the US is home to no less than 50 taps. A range as diverse as Irish Red ales to a Cranberry Gose or Black Lager are frequently on offer. But Wesley Keegan, founder and brewmaster, studied finance when he was younger and this grounding has subsequently helped educate the outlook for his brewery. Knowing what will sell, what won’t, and identifying a market opportunity is key. But at all times, keeping quality and consistency of the beer remains paramount. And recent promotional tours to increase the brewery’s visibility have demonstrated just that, a gratifying and successful response to the increased availability of his best selling beers on these shores. “The people I’ve been speaking to have been really familiar with the brewery which is, of course, very humbling. But there has also been a genuine interest in what we are doing. One drinker was quizzing me on the breakdown of our Watermelon Wheat. A list of ingredients was not good enough for him, he wanted the malt bill, the whole lot! I was thinking ‘Is this for a home-brew or should I be worried about a new competitor on the field,” he laughs. “But seriously,

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such conversations have been sincere and come from the right place, it is very rewarding.” Keegan recently made the journey to Europe for a week-long tour to promote the three beers that he hopes will continue to make an impression with drinkers, ‘Watermelon Wheat’, ‘Grapefruit IPA’ and its best-seller ‘Peanut Butter Milk Stout’. Back home in Nashville, Tennessee, he has held every role across the brewery, quite the development for someone that is happy to admit he had few desires to move into professional brewing when he made a foray into home-brew in his early twenties. But Keegan was also more than aware that his late father, who had the trademark and copyright of TailGate Beer, had fended off many envious advances so when it came to a point where Wesley Keegan was offered the chance to take it on, he took the opportunity. And in the ten years since establishing that business in 2007, he has seen a lot change both at home in the US, and abroad. “We are seeing growth in the number of breweries in the US, we are seeing it in places like the UK, and it’s happening in many other countries, too. But while new breweries continue to open in the US, we are still in a position where around 90% of these breweries produce less than 3000 barrels a year, which is pretty small,” he explains. “But what is valid in the US, and most definitely valid elsewhere from what I’ve seen, is that new breweries continue to establish themselves.

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Tailgate: Flagship Beers Tailgate Peanut Butter Deep dark and decadent appearance, with aromas of peanut butter and chocolate. A big foamy head with medium body and good carbonation. Roasted peanut butter and chocolate ganache flavours, balanced by rich and toasty malts bringing a touch of bitterness on the finish to even out the sweetness. Rich, creamy, velvety, delicious. Type: Milk Stout; Available: 12oz cans; ABV: 5.8%; IBU: 33; Hops: Nugget; Malts: Pale, Victory, Chocolate, Roasted Barley; Availability: All year round Tailgate Grapefruit This West Coast style IPA has strong floral notes of lemongrass and mango. A generous amount of grapefruit added during the brewing process gives the beer a pungent, citrus kick. Type: IPA ; Available: 12oz cans; ABV: 6.2%; IBU: 58; Hops: Amarillo, Columbus, Centennial, Summit; Malts: 2-Row, Crystal; Availability: All year round

However, the ones that are growing are the ones making the best beers, making a quality product and giving the whole process from start to finish the attention it deserves. Making a quality product helps the growth process, and that is a constant in every industry.” Another trend Keegan has observed more of in Europe is the increased prevalence of taprooms as a way for breweries to serve their beers direct to drinkers, catching up with the US and Canada. “Taprooms, for me, have been one of the biggest evolutions in beer in the US. In 2007, no one really cared for them and so when we opened one around then I was interested to see the results, and they were incredibly positive. From then on they have really evolved over the last 10 or so years and they have become a huge component of many breweries. The best thing about them is the way they enable you to enter a dialogue with drinkers and get instant feedback on a new beers you have released, or the thoughts of someone new to quality, craft beer. It can be very validating,” he explains. Space, of course can be an issue for many breweries especially in the UK but where possible, people should grasp the opportunity where they can. I’m sure we will see more and more breweries do that.” Overseas TailGate beers are distributed through companies such as Heathwick, a personal recommendation made to Keegan by a mutual friend when he was looking to expand the brewery’s reach. “The distribution in general in the United States hypersegmented. So the way things operate in Nashville are completely different than they do in other parts, for instance. There is nothing like a company such as Matthew Clark in the US. Things

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Tailgate Watermelon Summertime in a can. A golden American Pale Wheat Ale that is golden in colour, melon on the nose but this is no over-sweet fruit beer. It’s like biting into a watermelon, with the big fruit flavours hitting upfront followed by a spicy, dry finish that really refreshes. Type: Wheat Ale; Available: 12oz cans; ABV: 4.9%; IBU: 20; Hops: Centennial; Malts: 2-Row, Wheat; Availability: All year round

are different from state to state and each one has its own interests to look after. So we distribute in Nashville, and that works for us,” he says. “Outside of the US, we export to Sweden and that’s party because they understand craft beer and they also understand canned craft beer. We spend a lot on exports but it is important to look after the beer. We also have to stay competitive on price but we take that on the chin on the margin, but that's the truth as beer can be a volume game.” He adds: “Either way, it is so important to pay attention to who you work with as it is very simple, things don't stop when we finish here at the brewery, that is only part of the journey.” Keegan has an acute attention to detail, and his approach to expanding the TailGate name will no doubt be a considered, methodical one. “We want to the best brewery we can be. I am a firm believer that if you produce the best beer you can, and create a positive culture, then you will get to the point you deserve to be at. There will always be people trying to tear others down. That’s why it is best to focus on building you own business, and nothing else,” Keegan concludes.

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the right brewhouse for your business Investing in a brewhouse is one of biggest decisions a brewery will make in its lifetime. So knowing the specification that works for you, and the beer you will be producing, is key. We speak to some leading brewhouse manufacturers and suppliers working in the Canada and North America today to get their advice, and observations of how this industry is changing and developing.

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e have recently seen is a shift in the craft beer market both for startups and the big boys. Currently the trend for a startup craft brewery is an entry size of around 10-15bbl and moving slightly upward over time. This is a noticeable contrast from 2013-2014 where many startups were averaging 3.57bbl and 2015-2016 where it was more common to see 7-10bbl”, explains Loren Neufeld who works in sales and engineering from at Portland, Oregon-based

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Bridgetown Brew Systems llc. Neufeld, like many in the industry, has witnessed a number of changes in what is being asked of them from customers both old and new. “The larger breweries seem to be rather steady and unaffected by the startup trends in the market. It is however far more common recently to get requests for 3-4 vessel brewhouses. Brewers are being more experimental with their recipes and techniques in order to stand out amongst their fellow brewers. Some just want the added capacity to ramp up production,” he says. “The diversity has been great from our standpoint because it also gives us the opportunity

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to show that we can to break from the norm and produce equipment that is tailored to the customer’s specific needs. We have been asked for everything from souring kettles and decoction systems to custom vacuum evaporators. Cookie cutter brewhouses just don’t work for everyone and that’s where we can come in and really excel.” His points are echoed by Chad MacIsaac, marketing and sales at Specific Mechanical Systems. The company has recently completed projects including Phillips Brewing and Malting 120 Hectolitre Brewhouse, Thirsty Planet 60 Barrel SpecBrew system, Sycamore Brewing Co. 50 Hectolitre SpecBrew system. MacIsaac says that existing customers, and customers new to Specific, are moving to larger systems to keep up with demand. “That can include a full automation package to ensure consistency in product from batch to batch and to maximize production. Over the past five years, we have recognized that many breweries offer higher gravity beers.  As an equipment manufacturer, we are careful to consider the engineering requirements necessary to meet these demands such as a wider diameter lauter tun to address ideal grain bed depths,” he explains. “In the last 18 months we’ve seen more and more breweries interested in producing sour beers.   This may include requirements for uniquely designed vessels such as a koelschip (coolship) or an inoculation tank. We’re also seeing many breweries expand operations to include distillation systems.  Specific Mechanical fabricates a full line of copper pot stills and related equipment, all done in-house.” At Burkert, brewers seem to be far more open to automation in today’s market, explains Paddy Finnegan, business development manager of the brewing segment - NAFTA. “They are far more open to automation. As the technology becomes more affordable the return on investment is strong and with the significant growth the craft brewing industry has experienced the need to be as consistent as possible is greater than ever,” he says. “We always try to be as collaborative as possible with our partners.  We really want them to have the opportunity to put their signature on the heart of their business.  Whether its modifying the layout, platform design, pipe runs etc they have full input.  We have done some really innovative stuff recently that we are really excited about.” While Prospero Equipment Corp, which has been selling brewery and winery equipment for over 40 years, is witnessing broad requests from customers both old and new. “We are seeing a diverse range of products being ordered from small 4BBL Brewhouses all the way to a 5 vessel 30BBL custom brewhouse we offer.  A 50/50 split of canning and bottling machines being ordered. Existing customers are expanding add in more tanks or upgrading their bottling machines and we do see a trend in bottling sour beers in smaller 330 or 500 ml bottles instead of a 750 ml bottle,” they explain. And for Jared Stretch, sales executive at Diversified

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Suppliers Alpha Brewing Operations Alpha Brewing Operations is an industry leading supplier of a comprehensive lineup of professional craft brewing and canning equipment. Located in Lincoln, Nebraska, Alpha has implemented equipment in over 200 breweries in the United States, Canada and other countries around the world. Through our entrenched, Midwestern work ethic we deliver professional tools for professional brewers. Whether the need is a single piece, or a complete project from design to execution, Alpha is the answer. The beating heart of a brewing operation is the brew house. A weak, inefficient heart cannot be exerted and doesn’t last. A durable and efficient brew house from A.B.O. ensures your brewery every opportunity to thrive. We outfit small brew pubs to regional breweries from 5bbl to 40bbl. They understand that each brewer has his, or her own brewing methodology and budgetary requirements, therefore Alpha offers varying levels of automation and customization of two, three and four vessel brew house configurations. Bridgetown Brew Systems After years of building equipment for some of the most reputable designers in the world, we decided to go into business for ourselves. Why? Because we are also brewers. The unfortunate truth is that most equipment designers and builders have never brewed or distilled a batch in their lives, and to be honest we find that a bit bothersome. So with a few thousand dollars, a very small shop, and lots of ambition, Bridgetown brew systems was born.​At Bridgetown Brew Systems llc, our goal is to maximize efficiency in the brewing process, and for every customer to be 100% ecstatic with the equipment we provide. Satisfied isn’t good enough. Every piece of equipment we build is designed with the customer’s specific needs in mind. Striving for perfection, quality, equipment efficiency, customer service, and on time delivery are our largest priorities. Now with a facility over 6,000 sq feet and breweries and distilleries installed nationwide, we are proud to say we have a 98% on time delivery record and 75% early delivery record. Cellar-Tek Cellar-Tek has grown from its humble beginnings to encompass 15 employees working from two fully stocked warehouses. They offer nano breweries as well as brewpub breweries, both from Spadoni. Spadoni has been producing filtration equipment for breweries for over 60 years and over a decade ago recognized the need for a quality manufacturer of small to medium sized breweries. To date they have produced and installed over a hundred brewhouses and have developed compact, efficient systems perfect for brewpubs including brewing automation software that allows the brewer to work in modes from fully manual to automatic.

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b r e wh o u s e

Suppliers Criveller Criveller has been manufacturing breweries since the 1970s. During this time, Criveller has built a large number of microbreweries and brewpubs throughout America, Europe and around the world. With more than 300 systems installed worldwide, we can easily say that we are one of the leading North American manufacturers of brewing systems. Its 2, 3, and 4 vessel brewhouses are custom made to customer requirements. They also provide clients with innovative and cost-effective solutions from simple plate filtration to the latest technologies available. Criveller provides a full line of labeling equipment. DME DME Brewing Solutions is the leader in the Craft Beer Brewing Industry with over 25 years’ experience and has become the preferred supplier of equipment to craft brewing customers around the world. DME prides itself in being a customer’s best resource for the planning, design, fabrication, management, and successful execution for each unique brewery project. DME Brewing Solutions has successfully completed over 700 projects in over 67 countries ranging in sizes from 5BBL to 100BBL. Our systems are robust, high performing and built with detailed craftsmanship to last. Trust our world-renowned engineering, design, warranty and service to guarantee your project’s success. HDP Established in 1947, by Ray Cressman, in Cambridge Ontario Canada, HDP began manufacturing grain milling/handling systems for the local agricultural industry. The desire by Ray Cressman for product diversification was the driving force behind launching into the manufacturing of stainless steel equipment for the dairy industry. Today, HDP offers a diverse portfolio of products servicing both domestic and international markets. One of the companies key strengths lies in the design, manufacturing and commissioning of complete turnkey systems. The company manufactures systems ranging from pilot plants to large regional breweries. Our brewing systems couple old world looks with state of the art engineering. Prospero Prospero Equipment Corp has been selling brewery and winery equipment for over 40 years. They provide turnkey solutions to outfit the entire brewery’s major equipment components including but not limited to Fermentation tanks, Brite tanks, Filtration systems, Broilers, Glycol Chillers, Brewhouses, Pumps, Bottling/ Labeling equipment, Keggers, Hoses, Fittings and MUCH more.

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Metal Engineering (DME), specification varies, of course, from customer to customer. “With our start up customers we are seeing a lot of folks purchasing 2 and 3 vessel brewhouses with provisions in place to expand easily to a future 3rd or 4th vessel as they grow. Another need/demand that we are meeting is the ability to have a some brewhouse automation,” he says. “We are still seeing a wide variety of sizes for brewhouse orders and over the last couple of years we’ve seen some very unique and different set ups, but as we are still seeing so many start ups globally the standard 2 vessel set up in the 15,20 and 30 BBL range seem to be the most common.” At Specific Mechanical System, the most popular setup continues to be a two vessel brewhouse configuration incorporating a mash/lauter tun and brewkettle/whirlpool. According to MacIsaac, the company builds expandability into its brewhouse designs that allows customers to easily add a 3rd and 4th brewhouse vessel if they so choose. “Specific Mechanical offers brewing systems ranging in size from 3 barrels to 120 barrels.  New brewery start- ups tend to go with systems in the 10 – 15 barrel range, however much depends on brewery location and market opportunity,” he adds. When it comes to the types of beers breweries are producing, MacIsaac says high gravity beers and sours are becoming more and more popular, a point reiterated by Bridgetown Brew Systems’ Neufeld. “Customers have opened their minds and palates to sours and other beer styles they normally wouldn’t have tried. But on that note, they are also becoming more critical of the craft beer quality that they drink and have raised their standards due to the many options they have to choose from.” he observes. “As a result, brewers are really trying to up their game and make a mark. Many of the larger breweries are buying complex 5-15bbl pilot systems so they can do small batch releases and experimental brews without the concern of throwing out 80bbls if it doesn’t pan out.” For Stretch and DME, they are seeing this shift in both ends of the spectrum. “Since we are selling equipment all over the world the styles tend to change. In North America you are still seeing a lot breweries doing hoppy high gravity products, but we’ve also noticed others that are really dialing in there lagers in an effort to expand their markets. In Asia where the craft scene is still blossoming it somewhat similar, but there are a lot of lighter craft beers with the “heavier” beers just breaking ground in certain areas. The beauty of craft beer is the ability and willingness to experiment and be bold with ingredients. Not everything is a homerun but there’s been some unique beers that have been very successful,” he explains. Neufield adds that many existing breweries are trying to diversify their product line to stand out, so the distilling portion of Bridgetown is picking up fast. “Existing breweries already have most of the equipment required to make mash, wash, or must, so

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t e c hn o l o gy

b r e wh o u s e

Suppliers Krones Krones offers a raft of brewhouses for breweries of all sizes. On the smaller front, its CombiCube B. Krones has brought together all the important process steps of a brewhouse in this compact unit. Output can reach ten brews per day and 250,000 hl/year. The key to this new system is the intelligent combination of steps in the brewing process with multifunctional containers in a space-saving frame layout. Elsewhere, its Steinecker MicroCube is designed especially for the craft brewing scene. The brewing system comprises a brewhouse and fermenting cellar, and is ideal for small batches of five or ten hectolitres of cold-wort volume per brew. At this stage, the MicroCube takes the word “crafted”, the motto of craft brewers, literally: For the entire brewing process is manual. Only the mashing, boiling and fermentation processes are supported by software with a recipe control.

they simply add a still and a few other ends and off they go. Luckily for others who don’t have anything preexisting in place, we are pretty much a one stop shop,” says Neufeld. “Craft spirits in general are becoming very popular and we are now seeing almost as many distillery/tasting rooms in the startup phase as breweries. That wasn’t something that came as a huge surprise. Most people in the industry saw it coming on some level, but it was a bit shocking to see them rising at this pace.” For many customers, however, there are common hurdles to overcome when investing in a brewhouse. “The most common brewhouse setup is still, and will likely remain a 2 vessel, mostly due to the higher cost of purchasing a brewhouse with additional vessels. Startups usually rely on investors or loans to float the bill so brewers can only ask for so much before someone pulls back the reins,” explains Neufield. “Like any new business capital is king,” adds DME’s Stretch. “And in some of the saturated markets we are seeing banks, and government agencies not as willing to back new breweries like they may have 3-5 years ago. The other piece to the puzzle that always seems to be a battle is finding the right location that can house the equipment properly.” MacIsaac adds that financing is always a barrier to entry for new brewery start-ups, however, the finance lenders are now beginning to see how successful our industry has become and loosening the strings a bit to help out. He says: “Sourcing a building and satisfying the requirements of municipal bylaws and regulations continue to be ongoing matters for brewery owners. We are also seeing waste water management increasing in importance among governments, necessitating brewery business plans to address this issue.”

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NSI Newlands Since 1990, Newlands Systems has distinguished itself as the premiere North American brewing equipment manufacturer. From brewery design, to custom fabrication, to onsite installation and training; Newlands will be there with you step-by-step, throughout the entire process. Newlands’ manufacturing facilities are ASME certified and utilizes ISO 9001:2008 quality management system, along with proven project management systems, to ensure that every brewery is flawless. Led by founder Brad McQuhae, microbiologist and trained brewer, and Christian Riemerschmid von der Heide, they are a team of brewers that understand how a system should perform and the most intuitive controls for a brewer to get the most out of it. From the moment you step on to the platform of a Newlands System, you’ll be able to tell it’s true: these systems are built for brewers, by brewers. Everything is right where you need it – and it works. Specific Mechanical Equipment Since 1986, Specific Mechanical Systems has handcrafted brewing and distilling systems for the craft beer and spirits industries, in addition to supplying various industries with complex processing equipment. Originally a two-person company, the founders remain owners and now employ a team of over 85 people. Whether it’s a brewpub or microbrewery, their 5 – 15 barrel systems are what you need to launch your business and share your passion with the world. While systems ranging from 20 – 100+ barrels, help your business to the next level with a production brewery capable of meeting the demand of your customers. Its All-in-One systems are ideal when space is limited. All brewhouse processes are combined into one vessel, optimizing space and convenience.

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BRETTANO M Y C ES

s c ien c e

Funk and Flavour While Brettanomyces yeast strains (the “British fungus”) have had a long history in British and Belgian ale production the details of their metabolic flavour production are only just now becoming understood. Gary Spedding, Ph.D. from Brewing and Distilling Analytical Services takes a closer look.

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he perception of beer and food aroma and flavour is the result of the presence of many chemical components and a multitude of interactions between this substantial set of chemical compounds. Compounds may interact and combine in synergistic and antagonistic ways. Synergistic is a situation whereby the presence of one compound enhances the perception of other(s). Antagonistic is when a compound suppresses the perception of other(s). Both synergism and antagonism will be in play in a complex matrix such as beer with over 1300 constituents of varying concentration and flavour threshold potential. Threshold. Chemically, a concentration of a compound where is it recognized or identified by the human senses. Some compounds have very low detection threshold concentrations, others have high threshold values. A compound of a chemical class alone may exist in beer below its individual detection threshold concentration but when present with others in the group may be perceived synergistically – such as in the case with “goaty” character found in beers made using Brettanomyces for example. Goaty flavour arises from the perception of a combination of medium chain-length fatty acids. With respect to Brettanomyces fermentation some unique and strange flavours add to the complex profile of “Brett” beers. Some of these flavours are noted here. We begin though with an introduction to the Brettanomyces yeast strains – the organisms responsible for producing such unique flavour profiles. Brettanomyces Yeast. Brettanomyces (re-classified as Dekkera): an organism with a solid history in beer production. Beer with “English character” - early cask beers and Porter’s for example gave rise to the name Brettanomyces = “British fungus”. Barrel wood providing a concentrated source of the organisms. Belgian beers are also noted for the production, by Brettanomyces species, of strong, fruity, estery-like aromas, and, also metabolites that produce the flavour notes known as “horse sweat”. Brief details concerning three Brettanomyces yeast strains are presented in the box (right).

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Flavour Production

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he chemical profile of most Brettanomyces associated beers is derived from the raw materials and the fermentation microflora (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), and then usually the secondary microbial fermentation by the Brett strains. Brettanomyces wild-yeast inoculations are not often the primary fermentative organism though they can be. Fermentation and maturation conditions also have a significant

Popular Brettanomyces strains Bruxellensis Isolated from brewing cultures in the Brussels region of Belgium. Produces the classic sweaty horse blanket notes. Used for gueuze, lambics and sour browns and used in secondary fermentation. Good attenuation and medium flocculation associated with this strain. Tolerates alcohol at 8-12%. Requires long aging periods of 3-6 months to develop a full flavour profile. Claussenii Providing low intensity “Brett” character and originating from English stock beer. Subtle Brett flavours – notable aroma though less flavour impact. Tropical fruity, pineapple and light peach and blueberry notes. Produces horse blanket, leathery and smoky characters. Can be used as the primary fermentation yeast though more often used for the secondary fermentation. Lower attenuation properties than bruxellensis. Low flocculation and tolerates 8-12% ABV. Lambicus High intensity Brett character conveying horsey, smoky and spicy notes. Produces a pie-cherry-like flavour and sourness also. Used in Lambic style beer production; Flanders and sour brown style beers. Very good attenuation and low-medium flocculation. Long aging period 3-6 months required to develop full flavour profile.

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BRETTANO M Y C ES synthesis of many flavour-active primary volatile chemicals (e.g., ethanol, glycerol, acetic acid, and acetaldehyde) and secondary metabolites (e.g., esters, higher alcohols, organic acids, volatile phenols and short to medium chain length fatty acids). Brett beers are initially characterized by simple primary descriptors – some of which are rather extreme terms and convey flavour notes of a clearly uniquely acquired taste. These primary terms are noted pictorially in Figure 1.

phenols and acids

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Figure 1. An infographic noting the key primary and generic flavour descriptors of Brett beers.

impact on the types of metabolic activity of the microorganisms. The Brettanomyces yeasts responsible for fermentation, contribute to “Brett” character” by several mechanisms: First, by utilizing grain-derived and possibly hop components and transforming them into aroma- or flavour-active compounds, secondly by producing enzymes that transform neutral grain (and adjunct) and hop compounds into flavour-active molecules, and thirdly by the de novo (“from new”)

he major notes associated with “Brett” character are the volatile phenols: 4-ethylphenol (4EP), 4-ethylguaiacol (4EP) and 4-ethylcatechol. The chemical structures and associated flavour notes are shown in Figure 2. Octanoic and decanoic acids and acetic, isobutyric, isovaleric and several other compounds have also all been ascribed to “Brett” character. These acids convey rancid, cheesy, dairy and sweaty (stinky feet) like aromas and flavours. Other chemical classes and example compounds and typical flavours also associated with Brettanomyces beers are shown in Figure 3.

amino acid metabolism

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major pool of aromatic volatiles, not well covered yet in the brewingliterature, arises from amino acid metabolism. The breakdown (catabolism) of amino acids, via several enzymatic routes, produces a variety of sometimes quite flavour active molecules.

Figure 2. The characteristic phenols contributing to Brettanomyces-associated flavour, together with their flavour descriptors.

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BRETTANO M Y C ES

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Figure 3. Other chemical classes, example compounds and flavour notes associated with Brettanomyces character.

These alone may convey pleasing aromas or quite unpleasant notes. The acids, aldehydes and alcohols produced from the amino acids are responsible for flavour nuances including: chocolate, green, fruity, fatty, fuselly, whiskey, coffee, nutty, caramel, floral, rose-like, onion, garlic, sour, sweaty, cheesy, dairy, buttery, animal-like, potato, earthy, vegetable, sulfury, eggy, tomato and even putrid and fecal-like flavours – yummy! Such is the complexity of beer flavour. Much more research needs to be done concerning such metabolic activities and Brettanomyces strains to better relate such flavour production to “Brett” beer flavour profiles. Furthermore, the topic of catabolism – the breakdown of amino acids - and “Brett” beer flavour production could also form the basis for an article of its own standing.

summary

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rewers in the US are experimenting with alternative, non-Saccharomyces, yeast species for fermentation and many are producing beers with “Brett” character. Readers may wish to search for the “Brettanomyces

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Project” for some original research results from a science-trained brewer and founder of the Crooked Stave brewery in Colorado. While Brettanomyces yeast strains (the “British fungus”) have had a long history in British and Belgian ale production the details of their metabolic flavour production are only just now becoming understood. This brief review has attempted to uncover details a few of the flavours associated with this ever more popular beer style. Much more could be written on this topic. The brewer wishing to make beer with nontraditional microorganisms should proceed with caution and learn a lot more about the potential outcomes from using such potent metabolic fermentative organisms. The beers, which are not easy to produce, are rather an acquired taste after all and, even when done right, are not pleasing to everyone’s palate. References used in this article: Spedding, G. and Aiken, T. (2015). Sensory analysis as a tool for beer quality assessment with an emphasis on its use for microbial control in the brewery. In: Brewing Microbiology: Managing Microbes, Ensuring Quality and Valorising Waste. (Annie E. Hill, Editor) Woodhead Publishing/Elsevier. Chapter 18: 375-404.

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B ac t eri a

Bacteria, sour beer and the results you want The production of sour beers is fast becoming increasingly prevalent and the requirement for reliable and consistent techniques and desirable flavour profile is highly relevant, explains Lallemand's Robert Percival, a qualified brewing professional with extensive experience in quality and technical roles in beer production.

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eer has been brewed for thousands of years and for the majority of this time has been produced using mixed culture fermentation via a complex spectrum of microflora, not just brewing yeast. Indeed, arguably, sourness (to some extent) has been an important and prevalent characteristic of beer throughout history. It is only in the last 500-600 years that hops have been used as the widespread and dominating flavouring of beer, with their bacteriostatic properties inhibiting the presence and activity of some bacteria in particular. In more recent history, the pioneering work of scientists such as Pasteur and Hansen saw the development of sterile culturing techniques and the isolation and purification of single cell cultures. This, coupled with technological developments in the midlate Victorian period, saw a move away from mixed cultures and the rise of pure culture fermentations and greater homogeneity in beer which still dominates the global landscape (bearing in mind that lager/ pilsner production accounts for 90%+ of world beer production). However, pockets of unique and iconic beers using mixed microflora remained in Europe. Sour beer is certainly nothing new. We would perhaps associate sour beers chiefly with Belgium with styles such as Lambic, Flanders Red, Gose etc but so to could sour beers be found in Germany (Berliner Weisse) and the UK (Oak aged ales). Fast forward to modern day and we are now seeing an explosion in the popularity of sours, nothing short of a renaissance. This, like most phenomenons in the modern craft beer movement, is being fueled and influenced by the US. In the 1990s beer imports saw an influx of Belgian beers into the US which had a profound effect on brewers and consumers alike. 2002 saw the first time sours were entered as a standalone category at the great American Beer Festival (with only a handful of entries) but since then great expansion and popularity in sour beers now sees hundreds of entries. The diversity in sour styles, flavours and creativity is now going global and having been influenced by iconic

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European styles and techniques modern brewers worldwide are taking sours to exciting new places which is being reflected in demand for these beers.

Key microorganisms

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actobacillus can largely be considered the primary souring bacteria and has a diverse range of subspecies (see R&D trials later in the article). Lactobacillus is at the heart and the dominating characteristic of sour beers such as Berliner Weisse and Gose but is also used as part of mixed fermentation in many sour styles. Lactobacillus produces lactic acid very rapidly, imparting a soft and tangy flavor. Temperature sensitivity is crucial for performance and this does vary by subspecies, 30-49°C being a common temperature range for Lactobacillus activity. They are typically very sensitive to hops (though again this is species dependent) and as little as c.8 IBU can inhibit growth and activity, though they can develop resistance. Lactobacillus can be categorised as hetrofermentative (producing lactic acid and other byproducts such as CO2 and Ethanol) and homofermentative strains which produce lactic acid alone. Pediococcus is also a common souring bacteria but by contrast to lactobacillus is much slower (potentially taking months to reach lower pH levels) which may influence the technique selected to sour. Although slower in activity it is more resistant to hops as well as acids and thus can achieve pH levels of 3.0 and lower (Lactobacillus typically achieving 3.2-3.5 pH). The result being that Pedicoccus produces a much harsher and sharper taste as compared to Lactobacillus. Most species will produce diacetyl to varying concentrations (as some species of Lactobacillus will), which is largely considered a negative by many brewers and in the right conditions can produce exopolysaccharides resulting in “sick” or “ropey” beer. Brettanomyces, wild yeast and not bacteria, is often used to ferment sour beers. Unlike common brewing yeasts (S. cerevisiae and S. pastorianus) Brettanomyces can utilize a broad range of sugars including dextrin material but is typically slower. A common

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B ac t eri a

misconception of Brettanomyces is that it contributes to acidity similar to bacteria. It does not on its own but is often used alongside bacteria. Depending on the subspecies Brettanomyces can produce a diverse range of esters, phenols and other compounds resulting in flavours that lend themselves well to sour beer styles. For example, B. bruxellenis tends to produce more earthy, woody and musty notes versus fruity, pineapple esters that would be associated with B. claussenii.

Sources of Lactic Acid producing bacteria

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n searching for preferable bacteria used for sour beer production brewers turn to many sources to achieve desired results. Some of the most common include laboratory, bottle cultures, nature, yoghurt, and un-mashed grains. Commercially available strains via laboratories are becoming increasingly available either as a pure or mixed culture (more common). For bottle cultures, brewers and microbiologists harvest cultures found in the sediment/dregs of unpasteurized sour beers and then grow these cultures up. These would typically be mixed and often complex cultures. In nature, exposing wort or beer to atmosphere and allowing naturally present bacteria and wild yeasts to sour is an option. This is a traditional technique especially favoured in Belgium. Elsewhere, a range of dairy products including yoghurt are fermented with Lactobacillus and adding yoghurt containing a spectrum to wort of beer has been used in sour beer production. And finally, Lactobacillus is often present on the grains/cereals used in brewing and the addition of crushed and un-mashed grains in the brew house can be used as a technique for souring.

lallemand research

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ith the increased consumption of sour beers (containing lactic acid) comes a demand to be able to produce such beers in a convenient and controlled way such as using dried bacteria in pitchable sizes. Based on encouraging results with a L. plantarum strain it was decided to evaluate a wider range of available dried lactic acid bacteria. The target is to achieve pH 3.5 or lower within 48 hours of fermentation with high lactic acid and low acetic acid concentrations. Here we test several lactic acid bacteria strains. L. plantarum (A) was included as a control because it was the best performer in previous trials. Sour beers are becoming more popular in the market today and brewers looking for an easy way to produce this beer style without propagating and maintaining their own lactic acid bacteria cultures. Using dried bacteria cultures in pitchable sizes would be a convenient solution. 6 lactic acid bacteria strains were fermented in 12 % unhoped malt extract at four

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s c ien c e

different temperatures. L. helveticus and L. acidophilus showed the highest activity at 40 ºC, which resulted in the highest lactic acid concentration. The highest acetic acid concentrations were produced at 20 ºC and in general decreased with increasing fermentation temperatures. L. helveticus and L. acidophilus seem suitable candidates for sour beer production. L. delbrueckii might be an interesting addition to the portfolio of lactic acid bacteria for sour beer production because it produced some interesting fruity notes. Beer fermentations with the samples were performed at 4 different temperatures (20 ºC, 30 ºC, 40 ºC and 50 ºC in 500ml media bottles. The wort was prepared from malt extract to 12° Plato

Techniques for souring Mash Souring Liquor, grain adjustment Bacteria from grain or inoculated 2 – 3 days Kettle Souring Wort inoculated with LAB 2 -3 days Co-fermentation Mixed sacc, LAB & Brett Typical fermentation time Barrel/Foeder/spontaneous ageing Often in wood (or Keolschip) Mixed spectrum of microflora Greater complexity

Example kettle sour process Mash Lauter Bring to boil/hear to pasteurize Cool to pitching temp 110-118F (43-48oC) Pitch lactobacillus CO2 purge - 2 hours at 3 psi Acidification Boil and kill lactobacillus

Strains L. plantarum (A) L. delbrueckii (A) L. delbrueckii (B) L. helveticus L. plantarum (B) L. brevis L. acidophilus

Summer 2017 | Brewers Journal Canada | 65


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Graph 1

Graph 2

and transferred into sterile bottles. Bacteria were rehydrated at room temperature for 15 minutes and pitched at 1g/hl except for L. plantarum (strain A) which was pitched at 10 g/hl as recommended. Daily measurements of gravity and pH were taken over the course of the fermentation. Samples were taken at the end of each fermentation and analyzed for lactic acid, acetic acid and glycerol. The analysis was performed by HPLC with a column Jolie Waters Ic-Pak Ion-exclusion 50A 7um 7.8X150mm Both Lactobacillus plantarum strains showed the highest activity at 20 ยบC and 30 ยบC resulting

66 | Brewers Journal Canada | Summer 2017

in the fastest pH drop and lowest pH after 3 days fermentation. At 30 ยบC and 40 ยบC all strains reached the target pH of 3.5 within 2 days with the exemption of L. brevis strain (30 ยบC & 40 ยบC) and L. delbrueckii (30 ยบC). L. helveticus and L. acidophilus showed the highest activity at 40 ยบC and were still active at 50 ยบC whereas all other strains were almost inactive at that temperature (graphs 1 โ€“ 4). HPLC results indicate that the highest lactic acid concentrations were produced at 40 ยบC by L. helveticus followed by L. acidophilus. At 30 ยบC all strains produced similar high concentrations of lactic acid. L. brevis is the most sensitive strain to higher fermentation temperatures producing the

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B ac t eri a

s c ien c e

Graph 3

Graph 4

highest concentration at 20 ยบC. The highest acetic acid concentrations were produced at 20 ยบC and in general decreased with increasing fermentation temperatures. The highest glycerol concentrations were measured at 30 ยบC produced by L. plantarum and L. helveticus. The fermentations were tasted after 3 days by a tasting panel. In general the fermentations with L. helveticus and L. acidophilus were described as having the most intense sour taste and smell. L. delbrueckii produced some interesting fruity notes. One of the two bottles of L. helveticus at 30 ยบC produced a biofilm and had a roasted aftertaste. The production of sour beers is fast becoming

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increasingly prevalent and the requirement for reliable and consistent techniques and desirable flavour profile is highly relevant. Diversity in Lactobacillus sub species is evident in terms of performance, temperature sensitivity and optimal conditions. By identifying, characterizing and understanding how these subspecies work and moreover what techniques for souring they are best suited for continuing research and development of easy to handle high performance bacteria cultures can be of benefit to brewers producing sour beers. A number of strains available in the Lallemand collection and produced in freeze dried form appear to be ideal candidates for use in brewing.

Summer 2017 | Brewers Journal Canada | 67


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The Brewers Journal - Canada edition, Summer 2017  

The magazine for the Canadian brewing industry

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