We Climb High Vol. 2

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We Climb High Volume 2

A chronology of the Mazamas 1965–2015



We Climb High Volume 2

A thumbnail chronology of the Mazamas, 1965–2015 With contributions from: Ryan Abbott, Tom Bard, Charles Barker, Hana Binder, Peter Boag, Andrew Bodien, Mathew Brock, Rick Craycraft, Ken DuBois, Kate Dunn, Kate Evans, Diana Forester, Sara Gille, Ali Gray, Daniel Hafley, Eric Hall, Nathan Herzog, Eric Jacobson, Jeff Litwak, Kati Mayfield, Laurence Spiegel, Ray Sheldon, Claire Tenscher, Kim Taylor, Jeff Thomas, and Shannon Wages. Edited by Mathew Brock, with assistance from Jonathan Barrett, Sarah Bradham, Rick Craycraft, Ali Gray, Brian Goldman, Chelsea Rohweder, and Jeff Thomas. Design and layout by Mathew Brock, with assistance from Sarah Bradham.

Published by the Mazamas in their one hundred and twenty-seventh year 2021

MAZAMAS 527 SE 43rd Avenue Dedicated to the Mazamas, past, present, and future. May you continue to hike far and climb high.

Portland, Oregon 97218 www.mazamas.org


Front cover: Mazama climbing party on the Hogsback on Mt. Hood. Photo courtesy of Eric Jacobson. Back cover: Party reaching the top of Cooper Spur, Mt. Hood, July 19, 1894. VM1993.006.

Copyright © 2021 by the Mazamas Requests for permission to reproduce material from this work should be sent to library@mazamas.org Published by the Mazamas 527 SE 43rd Ave., Portland, Ore., 97215 mazamas.org All Rights Reserved


Table of Contents 1965 ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 1 1966 ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 2 1967 ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 4 1968 ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 6 1969 ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 7 1970 ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 9 1971 ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 12 1972 ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 13 1973 ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 15 Is a Mazama an Antelope, a Deer, or a Goat? ������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 17 1974 ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 18 1975 ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������20 1976 ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������22 1977 ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������23 1978 ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������23 1979 ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 24 John D. Scott ����������������������������������������������������������������������������25 1980 ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������26 1981 ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������28 1982 ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������29 The 1894 “Mazama” Route ���������������������������������������������������30 1983 ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������32 1984 ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������33 Donald G. Onthank ���������������������������������������������������������������34 1985 ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������36 1986 ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 37 1987 ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������39 1988 ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������40 Women in the Mazamas ���������������������������������������������������������42 1989 ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������46 Arlene Blum ������������������������������������������������������������������������������47 1990 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������49 Up We Go? ������������������������������������������������������������������������������50 1991 ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������52 1992 ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������53 Margaret Griffin Redman �������������������������������������������������������54 1993 ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������55 1994 ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������56 1995 ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������58 1996 ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������59

1997 ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 61 The Sholes’ Ice Axe ������������������������������������������������������������������62 1998 ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������64 1999 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������66 2000 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������67 Mazama Explorer Posts ����������������������������������������������������������67 2001 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������68 2002 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������69 Christine Mackert ���������������������������������������������������������������������70 2003 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������72 2004 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������73 2005 �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 74 Cooper Spur 1894: The Photo & People ������������������������������� 76 2006 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������78 The Founding Documents ���������������������������������������������������������80 2007 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������82 Another Mt. Hood Summit Register Returned ������������������������84 2008 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������85 2009 ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������85 2010 ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������86 Toyama Mountaineering Association ������������������������������������87 2011 ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������88 2012 ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������89 Mazama Instructional Climbing Walls ����������������������������������89 2013 ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 91 2014 ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������92 2015 ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������93 Mazama Lodge ����������������������������������������������������������������������96 Mazama Trail �������������������������������������������������������������������������99 Contributors & Editors ���������������������������������������������������������103 Appendices ��������������������������������������������������������������������������107 Honorary Members �����������������������������������������������������������������������108 Presidents of the Mazamas �����������������������������������������������������������109 Mazama Executive Directors ��������������������������������������������������������109 Service Awardees ���������������������������������������������������������������������������110 Montague Conservation Award �������������������������������������������������110 William P. Hardesty Leadership Cup ������������������������������������������110 Parker Cup ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 111 Margaret Redman Cup ���������������������������������������������������������������� 111 Climbing Awardees ������������������������������������������������������������������������112

Continued on page vi We Climb High Vol 2 • v


15-Point Leadership ���������������������������������������������������������������������112 Leuthold Award ����������������������������������������������������������������������������112 Vera and Carmie Dafoe Award �������������������������������������������������113 Terry Becker Award ����������������������������������������������������������������������113 Sixteen Major Northwest Peaks �������������������������������������������������113 Cooper Spur Photograph ���������������������������������������������������������������117 By the Numbers ����������������������������������������������������������������������������� 120 Mazama Committee Timeline �������������������������������������������������������� 122 Odds & Ends ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 124 Mazama Abbreviations ����������������������������������������������������������������� 125

Index ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 127 Acknowledgments ��������������������������������������������������������������� 131

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Preface We Climb High volume 2 is the work of many based on the inspiration of one. The Mazamas owe a considerable debt of gratitude to John Scott. His first volume, We Climb High: a chronology of the Mazamas 1894–1964, is an indispensable resource to anyone who wishes to know the early history of the organization. Scott worked alone on volume one for over four years and had firsthand knowledge of the people, places, and events he covered. He wove in his wit and infused the narrative with his personality. For reasons known only to him, Scott also chose to leave out specific events and people from his work, the sole detractor from an otherwise excellent book. We Climb High stands as a testament to his love of climbing and his many years of dedication to the Mazamas. Vera Dafoe first proposed the idea for this second volume. She worked on several authors over the years, trying to coax them into taking on the project single-handedly as Scott did. Unsurprisingly given the scope of the project, Vera couldn't find any takers. In the spring of 2015, the Mazamas hired me as the Library and Historical Collections Manager. Shortly thereafter she suggested I take on the task. At the time, I felt wholly unprepared for the project, to say nothing of lacking the in-depth historical and institutional knowledge needed to do it justice. Yet, the idea stuck with me and when the one hundred and twenty-fifth anniversary came about, the book took on a life of its own. In the fall of 2018, I put together a proposal to crowdsource the work and floated it by Lee Davis, the Executive Director at the time. He liked the idea and said, put it out there and see if anyone expresses interest. Pretty quickly a dozen or so people did. I knew at that point we might have the making of a second volume. Using an analysis of Scott's original work, I wrote up contributor guidelines that detailed the information we'd want to include in the second edition. Given the nature of a "thumbnail chronology," I knew we couldn't get too far into the details and needed to keep the narrative pretty high level. I asked the contributors to tackle two consecutive years and focus on the outings, expeditions, and notable

events while keeping an eye out for overarching trends and exciting photographs. I also asked that they try to include any funny or heartwarming personal interest stories. Pretty soon, people were emailing, calling, or dropping by the library to express interest and offering to help. I started sending them away with copies of the library's bound Bulletins, Annuals, contributor guidelines, and Mazama style guide. I shipped copies to Alaska, where one member recently took a new job, and to South America, where another contributor was on an expedition and wanted something to read in her tent. Another author, at the time enrolled in a graduate program in Europe, asked for digital copies so she could also contribute. Several people dropped out due to work, life, or family obligations, but for the most part, everyone who started carried through to the end. Within a few weeks, my email started to ping with draft summaries. Generally, the majority were well researched and written. Only one or two need significant work, and I struggled with how much to insert my voice into their writing. In the end, I tried to maintain their voice while conforming to our style guide. I am deeply grateful to the twenty-four other contributors for their hard work and enthusiasm for this project. As part of my initial inquiry, I'd asked several longtime Mazama Library volunteers if they wanted to help out. Most understandably demurred. However, one couldn't resist. It was not long after I compiled the first draft that I got an email from the climber, author, and longtime library volunteer Jeff Thomas asking if he could read it. Roughly the next day, Jeff showed up in the library and said, "it's kind of boring." To his credit, and my enduring gratitude, he offered to help. Our conversation that day led to the inclusion of his six standalone essays on Mazama history and his elaboration of numerous yearly summaries. Jeff 's long association with the Mazamas and interest in mountaineering in the Pacific Northwest helped bring some need depth, personality, and context to the narrative. We Climb High Vol 2 • vii


I would also like to take this opportunity to thank another contributor who went beyond the call, Rick Craycraft. A talented author in his own right, Rick insisted that we get the story right and spent many hours in the library factchecking the narrative. He also argued, rightly so, that we not leave out anything potentially embarrassing or unflattering from our account, as we know Scott did on several occasions. This second volume is better because of his insistence on that point and his efforts to tell the whole story. I'd optimistically thought we could pull this project together in nine months, a year at tops. As the weeks turned into months, and the months into years, WCH2, as the project came to be known endured numerous edits and rewrites. Soon the deadline became the end of the Mazamas 125th year. In the spring of 2019, still within that window, I felt like the narrative was in a good place and started working on layout. I was still hoping that we'd wrap up the project before the July 19 anniversary. Then the COVID-19 pandemic struck and everything ground to a halt as the Mazamas worked to adapt to an ever changing environment. But here it is, at long last. It's taken longer, been more work, and more complex to pull off than I'd initially thought. But then that's often the nature of large multifaceted projects. I'm proud of the work all the contributors have done. I hope future Mazamas find this volume a useful and valuable historical resource. It's been an honor and a pleasure to see this book through to completion. Mathew Brock Mazama Library and Historical Collections Manager Portland, Ore. September 20, 2021

viii • We Climb High Vol 2


1965

By Mathew Brock The year 1965 began with Dorothy Greenwood heading up a special Bylaws Committee attempting to simplify the bylaws for easier reference to help the organization run more smoothly. The committee presented their first round of recommendations to the Executive Council in May. By July, Dorothy lamented that only four members had offered opinions on the proposed changes. Nevertheless, the August Bulletin printed the changes and a guide explaining them. One change of note in Article V, Section 2, letter H put the library in charge of all historical records, including photograph albums. This change established what would become the Mazama Library and Historical Collections.

signatures of people you know, yet so far from them, is like getting mail from home.” Wilderness conservation continued to grow in the minds of Mazamas. The March Bulletin featured the year’s first, of many, From my Viewpoint monthly columns. March’s column, written by Jim Goodsell, asked, Is the

The Long Range Planning Committee, formed in 1964, continued their work seeking input on their draft committee function guide, basic philosophy document, and revisions to the Mazama handbook. In June, Chair Helen Wirtanen asked, Where is your club headed? She requested idea submissions on how to engage more people in committee work, among other things. Skiing continued to be a major force in the Mazamas in 1965. The Ski School got underway in January and ran five training sessions out of the Mazama Lodge. The Ski Committee also organized several events, including a showing at the Benson High School Auditorium of Skis Over McKinley to raise money for their activities. The April Bulletin announced the 72nd Annual Outing to Idaho’s Sawtooth Mountains. One hundred and seven people, including thirty-one children age 14 and under, headed to Redfish Lake in late July for the outing. For two weeks, they climbed, hiked, and relaxed. Nineteen climbing parties reached every summit they attempted— some did two on the same day! Along the way, climbers installed a Mazama summit box and register on the apex of Thompson Peak. Due to lack of supplies, both Grand Mogul and McGowan Peaks received improvised boxes. Based on their new experiences, Carmie Dafoe and Lyman Dye penned A Climber’s Guide to the Sawtooth Range, one of a series of small guides published by the Mazamas in the 1960s. Other outings headed to the Owyhee River, the Northern Pickets, the High Sierra, and Mt. Jefferson. On a climbing trip to Mexico, Ed Johann and Roy Kenzie stopped for groceries at a local store near their objective, Pico de Orizaba. While there, they found and signed a climbing register and saw the names of Bill and Margaret Oberteuffer, dated Dec. 26, 1964. As Ed noted, “Seeing the

Mazamas exploring the Sawtooth Mountains, 1965. Betty Parker Collection, VM2006.014 wilderness really crowded? In the article, Jim advocated for getting off the beaten path to explore more remote areas. The following month, Bill Lynch’s column noted that the pendulum of public opinion was swinging towards conservation and outdoor recreation, away from exploitation. Ed Dolan’s column called attention to the excessive logging along the Larch Mountain Road and asked the Mazamas to voice their opposition to county officials. Bill Lynch returned to pen the October column, in which he urged members not to shoot the endangered Oregon Wolverine, and Donald McKinley wrote the year’s final column, warning about the dangers of creating a national park in the North Cascades. Donald McKinley returned to ask the question Why Conservation? in the 1965 Annual. He made the case that, among other things, human impact on the environment is difficult to see until it’s too late. Don also advocated We Climb High Vol 2 • 1


for electric automobiles and warned against the dangers of air and water pollution. Furthering the topic of conservation, the Annual presented several interesting research reports. A notable article included the findings of several studies concerning New Zealand’s glaciers by husband and wife team Donald and Elizabeth Lawrence. Their research, funded in part by the Mazama Research Committee, used tree ring dating and photometry to try to understand if southern hemisphere glaciers expand and contract in sync with their northern counterparts. Vivian Staender recounted her summer in the Alaskan bush studying the effects of pesticides on arctic wildlife, work she did alongside her husband, Gil. Dr. Ruth Hopson presented an update on her ongoing glacier research on the Collier Glacier on Oregon’s North Sister. Concluding this impressive array of scientific reports was Dr. Olson Miller’s article on snow bank mushrooms in the Three Sisters Wilderness Area. The Annual featured an interesting account of a climbing trip to the Northern Pickets by Harold Deery, an ascent of Mt. Rainier via the Success Cleaver by Warren Wilson, a pack trip to Mt. Jefferson by Dorothy Greenwood, and a climb up the Center Rib of Willis Wall on Mt. Rainier by Dean Caldwell. Articles on Cerro Rashuillca in Peru by Fred Ayers, Columbia Peak by Nick Dodge, Fin and Horn Sawtooth Pinnacles by Jim Craig, and Mt. Washington in the Olympics by Don Eastman wrapped up the year’s climbing reports. The discussion about limiting enrollment in the Basic Climbing School, started the year before, carried over into 1965. A motion to limit enrollment to 200 failed to pass the Executive Council—rather, they passed a motion to set an enrollment goal of 400 students. The March Bulletin featured the first notice for the upcoming Basic Climbing School. The registration fee was set at $3, and the textbook was Mountaineering, Freedom of the Hills. There were four scheduled lectures and four field trips to Horsethief Butte and Timberline Lodge. To help standardize instruction across the Mazama programs, Erwin Rieger held a 1-day seminar on standardized teaching techniques at the Mazama Lodge. Later in the spring, 247 students graduated from the Basic Climbing School. For the first time ever, the March Bulletin also announced an Advanced Climbing School. Bill Cummins came up with the concept and mapped out the classes and field trips, stating from the beginning that they were meant to be “ …highly technical.” Rock climbing dominated his schedule in order to answer the increasing demand for this branch of the climbing game, but there was one token training session on the Eliot Glacier for ice climbing. Eventually his original school morphed into the separate disciplines of Advanced Rock and Advanced Snow and Ice. 2 • We Climb High Vol 2

Wrapping up climbing news, the February Bulletin contained the first request from author Nick Dodge for information for his upcoming A Climber’s Guide to Oregon. The September Bulletin contained almost two full pages of successful climbs, evidence of the committee’s hard work. The Climbing Committee ended the year with 156 climbs, which put over 1,900 people on mountain summits. Sadly, at the end of the year Joe Leuthold—one of the most gifted climbers and beloved individuals in any Mazama generation—passed away on Dec. 12, 1965. It is no accident that after his death the Mazamas honored his memory by changing the name of their most coveted climbing trophy to the Leuthold Award. He was also a member of The Wy’east Club—an elite group of climbers in the 1930s through 1950s—and they had this to say about him, “Backbone of the Wy’east. Does all the work, climbs all the mountains, does most of the skiing in tournaments.” In real life there has seldom been a personality who is truly and universally admired by his contemporaries. Joe Leuthold was one of those rare individuals.

1966 By Peter Boag

The passage of the Wilderness Act in 1964 and growing environmental awareness nationwide placed considerable emphasis in the mid-1960s on one of the primary purposes of the Mazamas since its founding in 1894: “The preservation of forests and other features of mountain scenery in their natural beauty.” Clint Harrington devoted much of his president’s report to wilderness, quoting at length environmentalist and writer Wallace Stegner on the benefits of wild lands. He was unanimously re-elected in the fall for a second term in 1967. The Annual included a three-page psychological argument for wilderness penned by 1966 Conservation Committee Chair Donald McKinley, a medical doctor. The Bulletin featured a monthly column called Library Corner. The essays highlighted significant publications throughout the year concerning preservation, including most favorably Supreme Court Justice William O. Douglas’s 1965 book, A Wilderness Bill of Rights. The Conservation Committee led numerous efforts in 1966. These included support for increasing the newly proposed Mt. Jefferson Wilderness Area, North Cascades National Park, the creation of Redwood National Park, additions to the recently-designated Three Sisters Wilderness Area, and the protection of Idaho’s Sawtooth Mountains. In addition, the committee led efforts to facilitate cooperation among Portland-area conservation


clubs, created the Conservation Award (to be bestowed at the Annual Banquet), and financially assisted the Nature Conservancy in finalizing the purchase of two regional natural areas. Farther from home, the committee advocated for the protection of lands from Hawaii to Lake Michigan to Great Smoky Mountain National Park. The committee also wrote to Oregon’s U.S. Senators in support of the Sierra Club that, due to its highly controversial 1966 campaign to prevent the damming of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park, had its tax-exempt status called into question by the IRS. The “clubhouse” issue, which had divided the organization in the 1950s and was put on hold by the destruction of the Mazama Lodge in 1958, reappeared in 1966. Despite efforts by some, it was decided that an undertaking would be too great at this time due to the financial demand and diversion from Mazama activities. The issue was tabled until the organization’s current property lease expired in some five years. Nevertheless, there was much to celebrate in 1966. Membership climbed to a new high of 1,683. Skiing continued to grow in interest with the Ski Committee operating the Basic, Advanced, and Mountaineering Ski School. The Executive Council granted the Ski Committee its own treasurer, and in January gave it permission to join the Mt. Hood Ski Club. Through the winter months, the Ski Committee organized a series of ski films, and hosted both a ski carnival and the Hughes Cup Races, which included events in slalom, downhill, cross country, and ski jumping. The year saw seventy-four Trail Trips with 1,837 participants, the Basic Climbing School had 254 of 265 participants graduate, and six successfully completed all the requirements of the Intermediate School. The Climbing Committee also added a new Advanced Climbing School, limited to eighteen participants, for those who had reached the Intermediate level and had several B– and C–level climbs under their belts.

the three climbs were young Mazamas. In fact old timers would have called them outlaw climbers because they had met and learned how to climb on Mazama climbs but did all their major rock climbs on private trips. This trend—the growing interest and skill of younger climbers in difficult rock climbing—has continued to grow right up to the present day. During the 157, climbs some 2,074 climbers reached their goal, among them eight who made the first Mazamaled winter climb of Mt. Rainier. The climb, led by Walter Eriksen (who died later that year) also included one woman, Helga Brading. Brading’s achievement made her the second woman known to have ascended Mt. Rainier in winter. Julia Herrmann, a University of Washington student and former Mazama Youth Association member, was the first. Women made another first in 1966: the first Powder Puffs climb of Mt. Hood on July 24. Although the first all-woman Mazama ascent of Mt. Hood occurred back in 1932, the Powder Puffs was somewhat different. The twenty-two participants, spurred by Dorothy Harrington, donned or otherwise carried with them “ … gaudy jewelry, flowery hats, a lacy apron … ribbons and lace on ice axes, eyelash curlers, and packs full of goodies.” On the summit, they bestowed prizes for unusual costumes, placed an apple

By October, there were 157 scheduled climbs, of which 150 succeeded. These included trips to British Columbia’s Tantalus Range, a 9-day expedition in the Olympics, and an ascent of Mt. Jefferson via the Milk Creek Glacier. Three feature articles in the Annual concerned major rock climbs including the first ascent of a new route on the Monument at Smith Rock by Ted Davis, Steins Pillar in the Ochoco Mountains by William Pratt, and the first ascent of Turkey Monster by Eugene Dod. None of these three formations are popular today either because of their isolation, their absolutely and unconditionally horrible rock ,or both. There are standing bets as to when the gravity defying Turkey Monster will topple over. Anyway, none of these three climbs were Mazama climbs. What was important was that all of the climbers involved in

Dorothy Harrington, on the summit of Mt. Hood, June 1966, holding a Mazama pennant autographed by Powder Puffs climbers. Photo from the Dorothy Harrington Collection. We Climb High Vol 2 • 3


spice sachet in the registry box to mark the second allwoman ascent, and raised a Mazama flag signed by all the climbers. Other firsts in 1966 included the first Executive CouncilCommittee Chairs’ Workshop, the first Grandparents Climb of Mt. Hood, and the first 10-year reunion for those who joined the Mazamas in a given year (1956). Additionally, members Lorraine Heller and Grace Houghton began organizing weekly Mazama dance lessons, advertised as both a way to have fun and condition oneself for the climbing season. They were a hit. Seventy-two Mazamas and their families participated in the Annual Outing to Tuolumne Meadows in Yosemite National Park from July 31 to August 14. The Outing’s conditions were reportedly ideal, in part because mosquitoes, never invited anyway, did not make an appearance. A number of participants, especially teenagers, remained in camp playing guitars, lolling about the meadows, sunbathing on enormous boulders, and taking dips in the pools and waterfalls of the Tuolumne River. The more adventurous scaled several area peaks including Mt. Dana (13,061-foot), Mt. Lyell (13,120-foot), and the grand prize, Mt. Whitney (14,508-foot). Several members waxed poetic in the Annual about the beauties they had observed, and others remembered the visit by a bear on the outing’s second night. Amongst other various topics, the Annual carried a significant geological study by a University of California geologist on Mt. Hood’s last eruptive phase, which had been responsible for creating its distinctively long and gently sloping southwestern flank. The Annual Meeting saw Don Eastman receive the prestigious Alfred F. Parker Cup, given annually for service rendered during the preceding year. Eastman had joined the organization in 1954, served as council member, president, vice president, and treasurer, and was the first member to earn the 50-Peak Award. He also drafted the organization’s first comprehensive budget. A record crowd gathered for the Annual Banquet to celebrate the bestowal of 151 awards and to hear world-renowned French mountaineer Gaston Rébuffat narrate his riveting color film, Between Heaven and Earth. Rébuffat was a Chamonix guide, famous for his books displaying beautiful black-and-white photos of the author in heroic climbing poses. He was also part of the successful 1950 French Annapurna expedition, which, with the help of over a hundred porters, was the first expedition to reach the summit of one of the world’s fourteen 8,000-meter peaks. On the sorrowful side, 1966 brought the deaths of a number of Mazamas. Among the especially notable were the passing of former president (1943–44) Dwight 4 • We Climb High Vol 2

J. Henderson. He was an ardent Local Walks participant and attended numerous Annual Outings and practically all the Annual Banquets. Walter D. Eriksen, who was only 40 and serving as the Mazama vice president at the time, died in a tragic car accident on August 30. The accident also claimed the life of one of his daughters and seriously injured his wife. Eriksen, who achieved the 15-Point Leadership Award in 1964, was known for his organizational skills, his perseverance in the face of adverse climbing conditions, and for his self-effacing nature. Another tragic blow to the organization was the death of L. Lisle Walker on September 17. Walker joined the Mazamas in 1959, served three years on the Climbing Committee, and was chairman of the Basic Climbing School in 1966. The membership admired him so much that he was elected posthumously to the Executive Council (though a replacement was subsequently chosen). He was also presented the 15-Point Leadership award. Lisle succumbed to pulmonary edema while leading a climb in difficult conditions on Mt. Adams while the group waited out an overnight storm in a shallow crevasse on, ironically, Mazama Glacier.

1967 By Peter Boag

With the death of Lisle Walker still fresh on everyone’s mind, two more climbing accidents in Washington State shook the organization in 1967. On May 28, 42-year-old Elmer E. McCormick’s life ended in an accident on Temple Mountain, and on July 30, 47-year-old Michael Boyko fell to his death on Glacier Peak. The string of fatalities haunted the pages of the 1967 Annual. Climbing Committee Chair Jack Grauer reminded the Mazamas of the need to be more careful and disciplined while climbing. Outgoing two-term president Clint Harrington posed a string of introspective questions about climbing leadership, safety, and the whole of the climbing program itself. Theodore Lathrop, member and medical doctor, penned an extensive treatise on hypothermia and explained how pulmonary edema, Walker’s official cause of death, was also typically associated with advanced hypothermia. Perhaps because these climbing accidents were on the minds of so many, the year 1967 otherwise turned out to be relatively uneventful. The most “controversial” issue concerned a proposed redesign of the official Mazama emblem. The impetus for the change may have begun in 1966 when a handful of members humorously debated in the Bulletin whether (and why) the emblem’s mountain goat smiled, whistled, smirked, or wore a perpetual frown. The April 1967 Bulletin carried a page-one story about the


origins of the emblem (reprinted from the March 1938 Bulletin), and one month later the Executive Council approved a committee to analyze and suggest changes to it. Work progressed through the summer and fall, but by year’s end no final decision had been reached. As it had the year before, conservation remained a conspicuous issue in 1967. The Conservation Committee brought matters regarding wilderness, national parks, scenic rivers, the Willamette Greenway, and land laws to the Executive Council, which repeatedly endorsed them. Among the major Mazama environmental highlights was the hosting of the annual Federation of Western Outdoor Clubs (FWOC) conference—established in 1932 for the promotion and protection of wilderness and outdoor recreation—at Marylhurst College over Labor Day weekend. Environmental-minded U.S. Senator Henry “Scoop” Jackson from Washington State provided the banquet address. President Clint Harrington’s year-end report, as it had in 1966, devoted more time to conservation than to any other issue. Both Harrington and the Conservation Committee focused especially on the issue of the growing popularity of the outdoors, which posed something of a philosophical conundrum for the Mazamas. On the one hand, the organization advocated for going into the outdoors, and reveled in its growing membership and the large numbers of participants in its varied activities. In fact, membership in 1967 stood at 1,876, another all-time high. Trail Trips through October had 1,764 hikers participating, and the number of official climbs numbered 212, covering eighty different mountains with 2,416 reaching their goal. On the other hand, the Mazamas increasingly realized the negative consequences of too many people in the outdoors. President Harrington alluded to this when he asked whether the “club’s unique quality and character” could be maintained in the face of a membership that had nearly doubled in 10 years. Notable climbs included the first Mazama-led climb of White Chuck Mountain in the North Cascades and the first Mazama ascent of Mt. Rainier via Sunset Ridge. About a week later, two Mazamas, Ted Davis and Steve Heim, made the harrowing first ascent of the west face of Canada’s Mt. Robson. Another first was the Annual Outing in British Columbia’s Selkirk Range, with a total of eightyeight people in attendance. Four climbers, including Outing leader, Carmie Dafoe, successfully scaled the highest peak, 10,818-foot Mt. Sir Donald. All participants reportedly enjoyed evening campfires, around which they discussed the day’s activities, sang songs, and played guitars. The greatest concern during the outing seemed to be the bears that willfully raided the garbage cans day and night.

Arguably the most notable accomplishment in 1967 was spearheading an effort, which would involve the U.S. Forest Service and U.S. Geological Survey, to officially name the eleven definable glaciers draping the higher elevations of Mount St. Helens. By November, the U.S. Geographic Names Board had approved them all, including Nelson Glacier for Lorenz Nelson, a 50-year Mazama and two-term president; Dryer Glacier for Thomas Dryer, the first known person to climb Mount St. Helens in 1853; and Leschi Glacier in honor of the Native American man who served as a guide on an 1893 climb. The all-women’s Powder Puffs followed up on their initial success in 1966 with another climb in 1967, this time of Mount St. Helens. When the women-only party of twentyeight, led by Dorothy Harrington and Dorothy Rich, reached the summit from the south, they were met by President Clint Harrington, who secretly ascended the north face to surprise the Powder Puffs. The presence of a man did not change any of the women’s plans: “Feminine finery popped out of packs. There were flowered hats, a lace apron, a muumuu and several ice axes decorated with enormous sprays of plastic flowers. Prizes [were awarded] for the youngest (14) and oldest (64), the most giddily dressed … and for all the first-time climbers.” There were several other notable happenings in 1967. The council made allocations of $700 in January and $2,800 in June for nylon cords and an electrified motor for rebuilding the rope tow at the lodge. By the beginning of fall, the old 1947 Chevrolet engine that had pulled countless Mazamas up the lower slopes of Mt. Hood over the years was history. The organization also acquired a 5-watt base station and two 2-watt walkie-talkies for official functions. At an Old-Timer event, Frank Branch Riley (92) gave the after-dinner talk at which he told of being on the first Mazama climb that reached the summit of Mt. Hood in 1894. A different event recognized Beulah M. Carl as the longest-term member present at the gathering—she had joined in 1913. The Annual Banquet saw 143 awards presented. The Alfred T. Parker Cup award went to Ann Wendlandt for her extraordinary service to the organization. She joined in 1953, with service on the Lodge Committee and Annual, as well as working as the editor of the monthly Bulletin. After the awards, Nick Clinch, a new member of the Mazamas but a climber of vast experience, spoke to the audience about the expedition he led to the Antarctic the previous winter for the American Alpine Club. Noteworthy publications this year include William W. Barker’s Plants and Glaciation, Bill Lynch’s report on the forest fires that ravaged the Mt. Washington Wilderness during the previous summer, and a summary of Joseph E. Harry’s doctoral dissertation in sociology. For his We Climb High Vol 2 • 5


research, Harry had conducted a survey among the Mazamas to learn more about who they are, why they join the organization, and what benefits they derive from it. He found that the members in 1967 were well-educated, urban, middle-class, and held romantic ideas about the outdoors. The greatest attraction of the organization was the “sociability” it afforded “in the course of carrying on intrinsically enjoyable outdoor activities.” Finally, note should be made of Jim Goodsell’s promotion to chief editor of the Annual. Jim introduced several changes to the yearly publication the most striking of which was a complete makeover of the front cover. Since 1913 the cover had featured the Mazama logo on a mundane Mazama blue background. Jim reasoned that first impressions were important and substituted a striking full cover black-and-white photo. It was an instant success and has become a Mazama tradition.

1968

By Ken DuBois and Jeff Thomas It was a year of growing pains for the Mazamas, as the organization struggled to accommodate an influx of new members—and many non-members—interested in enjoying all that the organization had to offer. Membership reached 1,933, up 500 from just three years prior. The Executive Council briefly considered the idea of expanding the Mazama Lodge, completed only eight years earlier. But while the surge in participation helped many committees show a profit, Mazama leaders ultimately decided that they should reduce capacity to help ensure that programs and activities were sustainable and met Mazama standards. To that end, in his year-end notes for the Annual, President Jim Angell proposed that the membership requirements be changed from one peak to three. Mazama ski activities surged in popularity, thanks to the tireless efforts of organizers and the completion in December 1967 of a new electric motor system on the Mazama Lodge ski hill. The upgrade greatly increased capacity, and Mazamas stepped up to manage the program: eighty-eight families volunteered to operate the tow and sell tickets during the season. The organization held the family friendly Ski Carnival (which included novelty races, a snow sculpture contest, and a torchlight parade), ran the Mazama Ski Races, sponsored a ski trip to Mt. Bachelor, and offered classes in ski mountaineering and ski touring. At season’s end, the Executive Council stated that they could not continue at this pace without increasing the number of instructors. The lodge and ski 6 • We Climb High Vol 2

program were financially successful but co-dependent, and Jim Angell noted, “I don’t think anyone would seriously consider selling the lodge or abandoning skiing.” The Climbing Committee also expressed concern about the high levels of interest—citing safety concerns— and frustration with the many interested parties who signed up for climbs but didn’t show up. The committee recognized that their policy of no-cost signups by mail had perhaps made it too easy for uncommitted climbers to fill openings and suggested more restrictive policies for the coming year. The committee also suggested reducing the size of their climbing school and charging a nonrefundable sign-up fee. At the same time, the Mazama Expedition Endowment Fund was established to provide serious climbers with financial support. Inhospitable weather and poor or unsafe climbing conditions resulted in fewer climbs than in recent years. Of the 184 scheduled climbs, 45 percent were unsuccessful due to conditions, with the total number of individual ascents at only 1,825 (400 fewer than the previous year). The weather had an impact upon the climbing school as well: of the 401 students who enrolled in the Basic Climbing School, only 24 percent graduated. Trail Trips were less impacted by conditions, with eighty out of eighty-two trips completed by over 1,700 participating hikers. The Conservation Committee was active on many fronts, petitioning for the Save Oregon’s Beaches Forever campaign, and presenting the State Park Director with a proposal to curtail State Park and Highway Commission plans in the Cape Lookout and Netarts Bay area. The committee drafted a resolution creating a Redwoods National Park, to be presented at House committee hearings in California and urged Mazama members to contact representatives about the issue. They also met with officials of the Mt. Hood Forest to express concerns about the Eagle Creek and Larch Mountain areas and drafted a proposal for the dedication of an Eagle Creek road less recreation area. In his Annual essay Four Peaks in the Beartooths, Lyman C. Dye recounted a harrowing Annual Outing in the area northeast of Yellowstone National Park. In their attempts to climb Mt. Zimmer (11,550-foot), Granite Peak (12,799foot), Mt. Fox (11,245-foot), and Mt. Wolf (11,820-foot), the climbers were drenched by rainstorms, dodged hazardous rock fall, rode out a thunderstorm while rappelling, and experienced “rotten rock” that caused holds to break. The trip was cut short by continued rain and snow. The Climbing Committee’s annual report noted, in its list of official climbs, one of the weirdest Mazama climbs on record. The intended line was an unclimbed route on the southwest corner of Beacon Rock. The members of the


climb were Dave Jensen and Robert Martin. Long after the climb both Dave and Robert related the facts of this ascent, which started when the Washington State Park System closed Beacon Rock to climbing in 1964. Circa 1965, Dave’s father, Charlie Jensen—who was a member of the Mazama Climbing Committee—contacted Jim Whittaker of Everest fame about the Beacon Rock closure. Because of his public recognition after he returned from Mt. Everest in 1964, Whittaker was appointed a member of the Washington State Parks Recreation Commission. Using his influence Whittaker managed to convince the Parks Commission to re-open Beacon for rock climbing. The catch was that only climbing parties from recognized climbing clubs such as the Mountaineers and the Mazamas were allowed to climb. They were required to submit to a pre-climb inspection and carry extra gear such as a bolt kit that most climbers did not need. Because Dave and Robert badly wanted to do the first ascent of the southwest corner, and because they were not allowed to do this climb as a private party, they organized an official Mazama climb and were therefore legally allowed to do the first ascent. Today the route is considered one of the better climbs on Beacon Rock, but in 1968 it was one of the first—if not the first—rock climbs ever done as a first ascent by an official Mazama party. The commitment of the Mazamas to ski programs was represented in the Annual with the article Ski-Touring, Key to Winter Adventure by Arnold Stenerson, who established his bona fides in an account of his ski-happy childhood in Norway. Dorothy Harrington contributed two adventure stories, The Account of Monte Cristo and Adams and Eves. In the latter, Dorothy detailed a Powder Puffs ascent of Mt. Adams in August, with the twenty climbers prevailing against freezing temperatures and icy slopes in order to reach the summit and plant the traditional “ladies only” Mazama flag. The Parker Cup was awarded to Dorothy C. Rich for her overall service to the Mazamas and an unparalleled list of accomplishments. In her nine years as a member, she served on the Executive Council, helped to run the Basic Climbing School, held positions on the Annual Banquet, Trail Trips, Outings, and Library committees, and achieved the status of being the first Mazama to earn all the climbing and trail trips awards. At the Annual Banquet on November 9, members had the honor of hearing from keynote speaker Frank Branch Riley, who was among the 183 climbers who ascended Mt. Hood on the first Mazama climb 74 years earlier on July 19, 1894. Riley was a silver-tongued old school orator from the early 1900s who created a role for which he would earn his greatest acclaim. His one-man show traveled the United States for over 40 years with a presentation about the

beauties of the Pacific Northwest. He promoted a “See America First” message, especially the western mountains. Malcolm Montague was one of the individuals who attended the Banquet in 1968 and recalled the ending of Riley’s speech, “ … with a lump in his throat and tears in his eyes.”

Shortly I will pass on to the glittering ice crescent that leads to Heaven. My friends have all gone before me, leading the way, and have left steps chopped for me. As I pass upward, I will chop the steps even wider for you, who will, indeed, follow after me one day, so that we may all be reunited at the summit. –Frank Branch Riley

1969

By Ken DuBois and Jeff Thomas The 75th anniversary year of the Mazamas inspired a variety of celebrations and tributes, with many looking back to the organization’s origins with a sense of pride and continuity. The Executive Council set the tone by announcing at the start of the year that the Annual Outing would be one such tribute, with festivities planned for the Mazama Lodge and an opportunity to re-create the historic Mt. Hood climb of July 19, 1894. Others saw the anniversary as a time to take stock and look forward, soberly considering the current state of the Mazamas and whether the organization was both maintaining its core ideals and learning to change with the times. In 1969, the Climbing Committee directed its efforts toward the education of new climbers and continued training through the climbing schools. The Basic Climb School had 395 students, and 143 completed the course with the help of 81 volunteer instructors. An unusually warm climbing season with shrunken snow fields limited climbing opportunities in the summer months, but of the 208 scheduled climbs 146 were successful, with a total of 2,151 climbers reaching various summits. The Trail Trips Committee played a large part in the anniversary celebration, scheduling a series of hikes on Mt. Hood for members and the public. Crowds of people, newly interested in the Mazamas and its history, joined in eagerness to have their own adventure, even if just for a day. The committee offered 91 trips, with 2,125 hikers participating. On Saturday, July 19, the much-anticipated 75thanniversary celebration went into high gear at Mazama We Climb High Vol 2 • 7


Fireworks over Mt. Hood in celebration of the Mazamas 75th anniversary. Photo by Leonard Conkling. Lodge and Cloud Cap Inn, as nearly 200 climbers prepared to ascend Mt. Hood under ideal weather conditions. One hundred and seventy-three individuals from seven teams reached the summit. Those climbing the South Side passed a sign at Triangle Moraine which read in part, “Please note that the summit has been removed for repairs.” The Cooper Spur party was led by Charles Jensen, but it should be noted that one of his rope leaders was Luther Jerstad of Mt. Everest fame. Later that evening, spectators from as far away as Beaverton and Salem were treated to a massive display of fireworks and flares on the south side of Mt. Hood. All 3,000 pounds of gear used for the show were ferried to about 9,000 feet by snow cat. From there teams of Mazamas, organized by Bob Millus, backpacked upwards of 90 pounds across the upper south side and into the crater. At about 10:50 p.m. ten teams from ten positions on the south side of Mt. Hood set off 150 flares each, while from the Hogsback, Millus, Neal Olson, Dick Trusky, and Jim Trusky used mortars to launch rockets that burst around the summit1. According to Dick Trusky, the process was exhausting as the mortar tubes had to be dug out every other rocket because the force of the launch dug them into the snow, 1 The Forest Service had forbidden launching rockets from the actual summit.

8 • We Climb High Vol 2

making them impossible to use. While the rockets exploded, Barney Keep, from Portland radio station KEX, described the scene live from the summit. The display was immortalized by photographer Leonard Conkling in a color photo taken from Tom, Dick, and Harry Mountain, which appeared on the masthead of that year’s Annual. The celebration continued at the lodge on Sunday afternoon, where a large feast featured a Mazama Lodgeshaped cake and volume one of We Climb High—written by John D. Scott and published by the Mazamas—was officially released. The organization’s full-throated celebration of exploration, adventure, daring, and first ascents coincided with another momentous event, similar in spirit. During the dinner, the Apollo 11 lunar module landed on the moon. The Conservation Committee focused again this year on questions of public land management policy in Oregon and Washington. Ongoing issues that occupied the committee included the protection of public rights to beaches and the conservation of natural areas throughout the Columbia River Gorge and the Cascades. After years of study, the committee presented a proposal for an Eagle Creek semi-wilderness, a roadless recreation area of 35,000 acres, to Mt. Hood Forest officials. The committee also took action when it learned about the threat of mining development in the Alpine Lakes area of Washington. Twenty-nine Mazamas embarked on a week-long outing to the area, venturing into the still roadless forest to visit


the site of the proposed mine. The group prepared a set of recommendations for the Forest Service to incorporate into their planning. Editorial choices for the monthly Bulletin also reflected the organization’s focus on issues of conservation, with pages in every issue devoted to concerns and action. A conservation issues section, …. in their natural beauty, continued to be a regular feature, as well as stories and reports about efforts to protect land through regulation and designation. The Annual included conservationfocused articles as well, including Bill Lynch’s Gentleness is Asked about the impact of agriculture in the Willamette Valley, and Rugged Yet Fragile: The Alpine Lakes, a look at issues in the Central Washington Cascades by Jerry Tanquist. In Collier Glacier Report: 1966–69, Dr. Ruth Hopson Keen shared an update on her long-term research project, which had been chronicled in numerous Mazama publications beginning in 1960. Nick Nicolai contributed the exciting first-hand account, New Route on Mt. Jefferson.2 Four articles were devoted to the 75th anniversary and Mazama history in general, from contributors Larry Mills, John D. Scott, Don Eastman, and Robert C. Millus. Also appearing in the June Bulletin on page 6 was a short article with the intriguing title New Route on Monkey Face. This was the second year in a row—and only the second time ever—that an “official” Mazama climb involved a first ascent on a rock formation. As part of the Mazama Advanced Climbing Class Jim Nieland, John McCormick, and Bob Millus opened a new route out of the northeast side of Monkey Face’s West Face Cave to the summit. Finally, right next to the article on Monkey Face was an expanded article on waist slings for use in climbing rock. Both articles, like the three in the 1966 Annual, demonstrated the organization’s younger members’ growing interest in rock climbing. In the annual year-end message, retiring President Chad Karr wrote of the challenge of adapting the organization to accommodate growing interest while maintaining the interpersonal ties so important to Mazama culture. With membership at an all-time high of 2,141 and a steady 10 percent growth each year, Karr noted that the organization risked becoming impersonal. At the same time, he advocated for the evolution to a more decentralized and specialized organization, with the goal of reaching a point where “rock climbers and snow climbers, or beach conservationists and mountain conservationists made up separate groups.” 2 Despite the title of the article, this climb was not a first ascent. See Mt. Jefferson, Route 6, Whitewater Headwall, on page 54 in Oregon High. New route information in Oregon in the 1960s was not as readily available as it is now in 2019 with the internet.

The Parker Cup was awarded this year to Jim Goodsell, citing his outstanding service to the organization as editor of many Mazama publications, including the previous two years’ Annuals. Most notably, Goodsell was recognized for his editorial work with author John Scott to complete and publish in its 75th anniversary year the first comprehensive history of the Mazamas, We Climb High.

1970

By Peter Boag and Jeff Thomas The 1970 calendar year began with several crises. First, President John N. Salisbury, who began his term in October 1969, resigned in January due to heavy demands in his work. The council chose Vice President Carmie R. Dafoe to replace him. Also, by January, the House and Entertainment Committee had lost its leadership and was failing. The council turned to Maxey and Louise Gatewood to take over. They had joined the Mazamas in 1936 and 1942 respectively, and both had significant service experience, including previously on the House and Entertainment Committee. For their long service to the organization, their willingness to step in again in 1970 and then make that year one of the “most successful” in terms of programming in Mazama history, and also for the countless hours they spent in 1970 refurbishing the clubrooms, the organization honored the Gatewoods by year’s end with the Alfred F. Parker Cup Award. The third crisis that hit the organization came on January 22, when between three-quarters and one inch of rain fell on Portland in under two hours. The sudden downpour caused flooding in the basement at the Mazamas and resulted in considerable damage to materials that the Publications Committee stored there. Much of the next several months passed without major incident. Some two hundred signed up for downhill skiing lessons. Poor snow conditions in March led the Mazamas to simply move the Hughes Cup Ski Races to April. Over the year, 1,183 Mazamas and guests completed eighty-three trail trips. Some sixty-four percent of the 329 who enrolled in the Basic Climbing School finished their training under the guidance of 106 instructors. Fifteen completed Intermediate Climbing School and thirteen finished Advanced School. Outside of the recently inaugurated winter climbing schedule, which saw only one of its scheduled ten climbs succeed in 1970, the Mazamas organized 191 climbs during the year. For the 138 of these that succeeded, 2,359 climbers out of 2,753 reached their summit goal. The most spectacular outing was the first Mazama-led expedition to Europe. In late July and early We Climb High Vol 2 • 9


August, climbers summited Mont Blanc, The Eiger, The Monch, The Jungfrau, and the Matterhorn, among other alpine peaks. Another group of Mazamas headed to Hawaii in June and scaled Mauna Kea. The annual outing took place in Nevada’s Ruby Mountains between June 28 and July 11. Although snow fell on camp the first day, for the most part conditions were delightful. The seventy participants enjoyed a profusion of wildflowers, many trout dinners (thanks to the abundance of that fish in the area’s lakes and streams), visits from locals who told stories around the evening campfire, and a choice of eighteen different climbs. Based on the annualouting experience, leader Carmie Dafoe published a climbing guide to the Ruby Mountains in the Annual. Significant issues confronting the organization arose again in the latter months of 1970. It was clear by August, in part due to complaints from the U.S. Forest Service personnel who lived below the Mazama Lodge, that the lodge’s septic system was failing and that some $8,000 to $10,000 would be needed to rebuild it. Second, due to persistent issues with delinquent dues, a petition circulated to change Article VIII of the bylaws, altering the process for dropping people from the rolls. Another petition recommended changes to how amendments to the bylaws might be made, simplifying the process when more than one amendment was being voted on at a time. Members approved both petitions by large margins at the October annual meeting. Finally, the Mazamas confronted the serious issue of whether to retain the organization’s tax-exempt status. The organization had been spooked by the recent struggle and court battles that the Sierra Club found itself in when the U.S. Internal Revenue Service, judging that organization to have become too political for weighing in as it did on conservation issues, attempted to revoke its tax-exempt status in the mid-1960s. The Mazamas appointed a special committee to study its own tax-exempt status in 1970, and the council took up that committee’s recommendations at its November meeting. It chose to retain the tax-exempt status by affirming that the organization, its committees, and its officers would not participate in propaganda, attempt to influence legislation, or participate or intervene in political campaigns. The council next began the process of amending the articles of incorporation to reflect these sentiments and then, on a split vote, terminated its long association with the Federation of Western Outdoor Clubs, which it viewed as a threat to its newly voiced non-partisan stance. Even so, environmental and conservation issues remained of central importance to the Mazamas in 1970. The Conservation Committee’s made use of its monthly column, …in their natural beauty to share important 10 • We Climb High Vol 2

issues. Over the year, the column focused on the Eagle Cap and Hells Canyon wilderness areas, mining, the preservation of Oregon’s French Pete area, the Nature Conservancy, logging practices, and the state of estuaries among other topics. When environmentalism began sweeping the country in the 1960s, the Conservation Committee began shifting its direction. In 1968 the committee decided to focus less on national issues and more on local and regional concerns. The committee’s major issues in 1970 were Mt. Hood National Forest roadless areas, wilderness areas in and around the North Cascades National Park, and protecting Portland’s Oaks Bottom from an expanding sanitary landfill site. Most notably, the Conservation Committee’s study on conservation of the Columbia Gorge, which it published in 1969, pushed the Oregon and Washington Columbia Gorge Commissions to call for the Columbia Gorge Conference on October 9, 1970. Governors Tom McCall from Oregon and Daniel Evans from Washington spoke there. Both state legislatures made appropriations for further studies. And the first calls for designating the Gorge a National Recreation Area came out of this conference. Years later, in 1986, the U.S. Congress would create the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area, an act that in part traced back to the work of the Mazama Conservation Committee in 1969 and 1970. As an organization, the Mazamas wanted to continue to encourage its members to independently advocate for conservation issues, regardless of its official neutral stand. In November 1970, at the very time when the Executive Council decided to affirm a more impartial environmental stance for purposes of preserving its tax-exempt status, Oregon voters approved the Oregon Scenic Waterways Measure, which Mazama Don Willner had initiated. Willner, also a state senator, had previously gotten nowhere when sponsoring a waterways protection bill in the Oregon legislature. He therefore decided to take it through the initiative process, beginning to collect signatures for his cause on the summit of South Sister during a Mazama-sponsored climb. Although the National Wild and Scenic Rivers Act had become federal law in 1968, Willner’s initiative gave the Oregon governor the ability to make local designations, prohibiting dams and reservoirs on rivers without the need to go through the federal process. Robert H. Peirce wrote an article about Willner’s efforts for the 1971 Annual. The year’s principal festivities culminated at the annual banquet, held at Portland’s Hilton Hotel on November 7. Yvon Chouinard, world-renowned climber, founder and owner of the Chouinard Equipment Company in the mid-1960s, and later founder of Patagonia (1973),


was the featured speaker. He hosted the prize-winning film Fitz Roy: First Ascent of the S.W. Buttress, which recorded the 1968 climb of that iconic Argentine peak by four mountaineers known as the “Fun Hogs.” Annual awards bestowed at the banquet included twelve Sixteen Major Northwest Peaks Awards and two 15-Point Leadership Awards. And although not yet conferred, in 1970 the Climbing Committee created the 100-Peak Award since several members were nearing that mark. The organization also granted Honorary Member status to Charles Paul Keyser. Born in 1878, Keyser served for many years as the director of Portland Parks. A longtime Mazama, he oversaw the rapid expansion of the park system, for which the Mazamas were especially grateful. At fiscal year’s end, the Mazama membership stood at 2,333. But during the year, three notable members had passed away. One was 79-year-old Warren P. Forman, a former president of the organization, five-time council member, and chair and member of various committees. Forman had joined the Mazamas in 1916. Life member Mary C. Henthorne, who had joined the Mazamas in 1913, also passed away in 1970. In addition to having served on the council from 1914 to 1916, she had acted as the organization’s historian and had been instrumental in founding its library. One other notable Northwest mountaineer who died in 1970 was 88-year-old Elijah “Lige” Coalman. He had reportedly climbed Mt. Hood 586 times, beginning with his first climb in 1897 when he was 15. He also designed and built the U.S. Forest Service lookout on Mt. Hood’s summit in 1915 and 1916, where he spent the summers of 1915, 1916, 1917, part of 1918, and 1919 working as a Forest Service fire guard during World War I. Coalman’s significance to mountaineering on Mt. Hood led the Oregon Geographic Names Board to recommend on December 3,1970, less than six months after his death, that the highest glacial body on Mt. Hood—the ice sheet nestled between Crater Rock and the South Wall of the summit and forming the Hogsback—be named in his honor. Member Lewis L. McArthur wrote a lengthy tribute to Coalman in the Annual. Frightening and sad news came in the February Bulletin. During a climb of Mt. Hood in December, members Latham Flanagan, Jr. and Dale Moon were trapped for several days in a snow cave. After the relentless weather finally lifted, the two, with severely frozen feet, made their way out. Flanagan wrote about their ordeal in a lengthy piece that appeared in the 1970 Annual. Finally, in a moment of inspiration, Vera Dafoe decided on her own volition—without consulting and obtaining council’s support or permission—that the organization needed a museum. In a method that is familiar to all who

Lige Coalman on the summit of Mt. Hood, August 2, 1923. Photo from the George Hartness Photographs Collection. knew or came to know her she called her good friend Jim Goodsell, told him that the Mazamas were going to start collecting old gear for a museum, and said he was the perfect person to volunteer to carry out her idea. She finished by asking—without Jim saying yes or no to her proposal—“So when are you going to start?” After some lobbying Jim agreed to take on the challenge; however that changed when he moved to Washington, D.C. for a new job and passed the museum idea back to Vera on his way out of Portland. On March 19, 1970 Vera accessioned her first item—an alpenstock from the 1920s. For the next 45 years she persistently developed the collection to the point where it has become nationally known. We Climb High vol 2 • 11


Some of the highlights of her 45 years included moving the nascent collection out of her basement to storage closets in the Mazama headquarters basement. Later the original storage closets were replaced, and when the Mazamas moved, the new cabinets moved also and are currently still in use in the MMC. During the 1984 headquarters remodel two display cabinets were constructed in the main hall, the perfect answer to those who complained about not being able to view the collection. Still later, Vera purchased a large glass case, which doubled the amount of room for displays. The move of this giant, heavy glass display case up the headquarters fire escape by two relatively small men was a vertical hauling miracle worthy of the most complicated Yosemite big wall and riskier than crossing a 45-degree snow slope right after a heavy snow fall. If you were to ask Vera what her most satisfying exhibit was of the over 100 she assembled in her time, she would choose two. The first she put together after visiting a display in Seattle of the equipment of George Lee Mallory, whose remains were found on the North Ridge of Everest in 1999. Inspired, she assembled artifacts used on the 1963 American Everest expedition or related to Everest including a set of jumars, the first as far as is known mechanical ascenders ever used on a climb by North American climbers. The other exhibit she would choose would be a display of items found in the 1966 REI catalog, all of which were purchased by Mazamas at that time3.

1971

By Peter Boag Carmie R. Dafoe, Jr. continued as Mazama president in 1971. For the Mazamas as a whole, 1971 proved to be a calm year. In June of 1970, Ken Hague stepped forward to reinvigorate the all but defunct Youth Committee by founding the Vigorous Young Mazamas (VYM). The group espoused the objectives of the larger organization, including appreciation of the mountains, conservation, and promoting climbing, skiing, and hiking. In 1971, under the guidance of Ken Hague, the VYM began hosting climbs and summer outings. On one such outing, dubbed the Yeti Retreat in the Sisters, the VYM camped at Green Lakes and made ascents of South Sister and Broken Top. They explored the area’s “mysterious lava flows from 3 As of July 2019, there are a total of 6,328 objects in the collection. They range in size from a tiny Mazama lapel pin to a Warren Harding designed Bat Tent. The collection contains many one-of-a-kind objects including the first figure-eight rappel device in North America and the first set of front point crampons made in Oregon and used in the Northwest.

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ages past” looking “for the imprints left in by-gone days and search[ed] for signs of the legendary ‘YETI’." In his 1971 President’s Report, Dafoe referred to the formation of the VYM as “one of the best things which [sic] has happened to our organization in years.” The Mazamas lauded Hague for his leadership, inspiration, and service to Mazama youth by awarding him the Parker Cup. The Mazamas continued to grapple with the issue of its tax-exempt status raised by the Internal Revenue Service. At the Annual Meeting, the membership voted in favor of the Executive Council’s proposed amendment to the organization’s articles of incorporation, affirming that the Mazamas would refrain from influencing legislation and political campaigns. A month later in anticipation of future interactions with the IRS, the council retained legal counsel. In June the Mazamas published a statement about its Conservation Committee asserting its political neutrality in light of the IRS concerns. The statement explained the committee’s role was to conduct field studies and apprise members of conservation issues and activities. It also explained that the committee would only encourage individual members to act on environmental issues to whatever extent the individual might wish. Regardless, the Conservation Committee continued a degree of advocacy for conservation causes. For example, it sent a letter to President Nixon urging him to sign the Alaska Wilderness Bill. It sent reports and letters to the Forest Service and the BLM concerning logging roads, the impact of a proposed expansion of the Mt. Hood Meadows Ski Area, and the management of the Three Sisters and the Steens Mountain. In addition, it’s …in their natural beauty column carried numerous items about conservation causes across the Pacific Northwest. While 1971 was a quiet year, the council did initiate various reforms. They created a new Publications Committee and streamlined their banking processes. They adopted a new policy that Mazama expeditions would now be required to pack out more refuse than they packed in. A new Special Mazama Lodge Committee was appointed “to step back from day-to-day problems” and make financial assessments and recommendations on the lodge’s future. In November and December, the council announced new caretakers, approved new carpets in the dormitory area, new landscaping, and programs to encourage more volunteerism. By the end of the year, the Mazamas had also purchased a new snow-packing machine that expanded the skiable area and announced a reduction in the speed of the rope tow to better accommodate beginners. The price of ski passes would, however, remain the same as in the recent past: 50 cents


for a half day, $1 for a full day, and $25 for a family season pass. While mountaineering continued as central to the Mazamas in 1971, the organization had mixed results with its climbing programs. On the one hand, the climbing schools remained robust. The Basic School saw 212 of 354 students complete their course, while the Intermediate School successfully graduated 21 students. No data is available for the Advanced Climbing Program. On the other hand, exceedingly poor weather conditions throughout the climbing season forced the cancellation of many of the more than 200 climbs that the Mazamas sponsored. Only 141 of these succeeded with 2,180 climbers reaching summits. The Winter Climbing Program also struggled, with only two of fifteen climbs succeeding. Like mountaineering, skiing remained popular among Mazamas in 1971 with more than 150 members and their guests signed up for beginning, intermediate, and advanced classes. The annual Hughes Cup races faced whiteout conditions at the lodge on race day, forcing a last-minute relocation of the event to Multorpor in Government Camp. Bad luck with the Hughes Cup came not only in the form of weather. The chairperson of the event, Barbara Schmaling, had earlier sustained an injury that left her confined to traction in a Portlandarea hospital during the festivities. The good news for Schmaling, as the Bulletin related, is that while in the hospital, someone found a watch that she had lost on the Mazama ski hill some weeks back. It was reportedly still ticking, “just as advertised by the manufacturer.” Trail Trips offered 102 hikes for total participation of 1,830. Although the organization does not appear to have had one single outing designated as its “Annual Outing” in 1971, it did host several multi-day trips. Six of these were designated for climbing—the previously mentioned VYM “Yeti” trip to the Sisters, Enchantment Lakes in the Washington Cascades, the Canadian Rockies, Idaho’s Sawtooth Mountains, the Olympics, and Mt. Rainier. Additionally, forty-six Mazamas and guests floated 45 miles of the Owyhee River Canyon in June. They had prepared for their voyage with several training sessions during the spring on the Clackamas River. Others met with worse misfortune while climbing this year. On August 11, an avalanche on the Yukon’s Mount St. Elias claimed the lives of two former Mazamas. Three days earlier, 39-year-old Harry Carson, who had only joined the organization the previous November, led his wife and two sons, ages 12 and 13, on a climb of Mt. Hood’s Cooper Spur route. During their descent, they suffered a terrible fall; the accident claimed the life of Carson and his younger son, his wife and other son survived. In all, eleven Mazamas lost their lives in 1971. Notable among them

were life members William S. Bush and Louis Waldorf. Another especially tragic death was that of member James G. Shanklin who won the Sixteen Major Northwest Peaks Award in 1963. Just shy of his 57th birthday, Shanklin suffered a heart attack and died while playing squash at the Oregon Athletic Club. He had joined the Mazamas in 1956. There was much for the Mazamas to enjoy in 1971. Membership expanded to 2,473 by the end of the fiscal year. In September the lodge hosted Tenzing Norgay. The mountaineer, famous for making the first ascent of Mt. Everest, shared stories about his experiences in an informal program. The Annual included a story about Norgay as well as ample, interesting reading materials about the previous summer’s outings. Highlights included an account of a route on South Sister’s north face;4 a report on the shrinkage of Mt. Hood’s Eliot Glacier; and a threeyear account of Lathrop Glacier, Oregon’s most southerly ice body. At November’s Annual Banquet, held at Portland’s Sheraton Motor Inn, the organization bestowed a host of awards. Members received fourteen Sixteen Major Northwest Peaks Awards and one 100-Peak Pin; five 15-Point Leadership Awards, and one 1,000-Mile Trip Award. Renowned climber Dean Caldwell was the guest speaker. Known for being in the first party to climb El Capitan’s Dawn Wall, he spoke about his more recent climbing adventures in the Peruvian Andes.

1972

By Mathew Brock This year found the Mazamas out of compliance with the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). In the fall of 1971, the IRS audited the organization and suggested revoking the exemption for “scientific and educational” work and changing the status to that of a “social club.” The implication of such a change would be wide-ranging and the financial impacts long lasting. The change would tax all the Mazamas income and “social clubs” cannot make their facilities available to the general public. The recommendation was to split the Mazamas into two parts: one a club, the other a foundation. The club would continue to operate the club rooms, Wednesday night programs, and Trail Trips among other activities. The foundation would handle the trust funds, research, and educational programs.

4 Thought to be a first ascent at the time it was later discovered to have been climbed by another party in the 1960s.

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The Executive Council took the issue to the Tax Committee. The committee’s recommendation was to hire a lawyer to fight the decision. To that end the council hired Gerald Froebe to review the IRS decision. Mr. Froebe believed that the decision was worth fighting. A series of meetings between the IRS, the Mazamas, and Gerald Froebe took place over several months.5 While the negotiations with the IRS went on, so did the work of the Mazamas. In January, the Mazama Lodge announced a contest to name the ski area’s runs. Also in January, the State of Oregon announced the Larch Mountain Bull Run Management Plan. The plan, as defined at the time, preserved the main hiking areas from Devil’s Rest to the Multnomah Basin and made allowances for the development of the Columbia Gorge Rim Trail. February saw the publication of the year’s Outing schedule, listing eleven outings over four months. Carmie Dafoe recounted, in the Annual, that year’s climbing outing to the Teton Range. A falling rock struck Dafoe above his right elbow, severing an artery. He had the good fortune of standing between Latham Flanagan, MD and Ed McAninch, MD when the accident occurred. As Dafoe wrote later they were, “good company on any climb, but a real godsend here!” Once off the mountain, Dr. Flanagan converted the folding table at the local laundromat into a makeshift operating table and put twelve stitches into Dafoe’s arm. Other articles of note included Harold Deery’s account of climbing the Clark Mountain High Route and Joe Throop told of seven Mazamas who undertook the Ptarmigan Traverse in Washington starting from Cascade Pass. Dave Jensen wrote about Columbia Pictures' trials and tribulations in filming Lost Horizon in the North Cascades. At one point during filming, to make the weather look more extreme, the director had a helicopter hover over the climbers, creating violent winds and blowing clouds of stinging ice particles. Several climbers felt as though the weather was bad enough without adding synthetic storms to the mix. In April in Alaska, T.C. Price Zimmermann recounted several days and nights trapped in a tent during storms on Mt. Skarland. Steve Phinney told of the 1972 Mazama Goat Rocks Outing and Tour while Gordon Doty recounted climbing the Blue Glacier Ice Fall on Washington’s Mt. Olympus. Verle Duckering, Sue Schaffer, and Trish Evenson told of the Mazamas six-day trek into and out of Idaho’s Hells Canyon. Along the river, an outing member shot two rattlesnakes. They were then skinned, cooked, and eaten by fifteen of the outing members. Others, Schaffer notes, “preferred crunchy granola.” Rounding out the Outing articles was Don and Jeanine Steiner’s Ten Mazamas and Seven Devils. 5 In February of 1973 the IRS notified the Mazamas that it would keep its tax-exempt status as a scientific and educational institution.

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The March Bulletin carried the winners of the ski hill naming contest. The winning names were Telemark, The Main Drag, Sitzmark Bowl, Christie Ridge, Miseria, and Gentle Ben. Bob Wilson gave a two-part presentation at consecutive Wednesday evening programs on his travels from Paris to Kathmandu. Other interesting programs for the year included The Soviet Union on Quasi Candid Camera in February by Ray Polani, and Norm Green’s techniques for lightweight backpacking in April. The July council minutes noted several amendments to the bylaws to establish a Publications, Expeditions, and Nordic Ski committees. John Scott recommended combining the Annual Publications and Bulletin Publications Committees into one to oversee all Mazama publications. Back in March, Scott had also recommended that the Mazamas transfer copyright of A Climber’s Guide to Oregon to Nick Dodge and get out of the book publishing business. Come November, the membership approved all the proposed committees. In December the newly formed Publications Committee awarded John Scott the title of Editor Emeritus for his many years of service. Speaking of awards, the 1972 Parker Cup went to Dr. Ted Lathrop in recognition of his publication of Hypothermia, Killer of the Unprepared. The small booklet, published by the Mazamas, sold over 14,000 copies and was of tremendous value to the Mazamas and the general public. The Annual carried two feature articles of note. The first, Erwin Rieger’s Up Is The Mountain Part 1, featured a series of essays originally from The Columbian, the Vancouver, Washington newspaper where Rieger was associate editor. His essays covered a wide range of outdoor related interests and are still a pleasure to read. He wrote with a prose that verged on poetry and left the reader with a feeling that the author loved the outdoors. His 1972 essays cover his first climb of Mt. Rainier at the age of 17, his attempt to answer the question Which is Your Favorite Mountain?, and the romance of clouds among other topics. In the second article, Lewis L. McArthur penned a study of Mt. Hood place names. Known to Pacific Northwest Native Americans as Wy’east since time immemorial, McArthur recounted how the mountain got its English name. William Broughton named the mountain for Lord Samuel Hood during Vancouver’s 1792 voyage along the Pacific Coast. Samuel Hood was a member of the Board of Admiralty and the man who signed Vancouver’s instructions. McArthur took the reader on an armchair survey of Hood’s many features and gave the background and origin of their names. Also in the Annual, Paul Hammond outlined the Mazama Research Assistance Program. In 1965, the Research Committee initiated a program to help individuals conducting research intended to reveal information about the nature


of Pacific Northwest mountains. A one-page description was sent to 500 science, geography, anthropology, and other institutions in the northwest. One requirement of the program was the sharing and publishing of research findings with the Mazamas. The Annual contained two such reports: Some Effects of Snowmobiles in the High Cascades, by Jay Bowerman, and A Tale of Two Chipmunks, by Don H. Meredith. The Mazamas lost several notable members in 1972. John Roy Leach, a pharmacist by trade, was an avid hiker, scoutmaster, and engaged Portland citizen. John and wife Lilla were often accompanied by their pet donkeys, Pansy and Violet, on local trails. In their will, they donated their beautiful home to the City of Portland and it is now the Leach Botanical Gardens. Also lost this year was Edwin “Eddy-Pete” Peterson, a tough climber unafraid to tackle hard climbs. In his obituary John Scott wrote that Ed was an old school climber and the only man he knew who could cut steps in hard ice with an alpenstock and climb steep ice in hobnailed boots. Mazama Thomas Raymond Conway died March 24, 1972. Because the 1971 Annual went to press late, his obituary appeared in the 1971, rather than 1972 Annual. In a glowing essay reviewing Conway’s life, author John Scott paid his friend the ultimate praise, noting he “was one of the most enthusiastic and colorful outdoorsman ever to make his mark in Mazama climbing history.” John also wrote that Conway believed that anyone could and should climb Mt. Hood. Conway spent much of his free time as a young man teaching and guiding anyone who wanted to achieve that ambition. But despite that selfless goal, Ray’s true legacy will remain the fact that he was the first Mazama—and perhaps Oregonian—to explore unclimbed rock spires. This was long before the concept of roped belaying, climbing protection, and indeed the distinct game of crag climbing, became common in Oregon after World War II. Among his many climbs, he is best know for making the first ascent of Rooster Rock in 1915 and for being the first to reach the top of Illumination Rock. Also, many believe, he was the first person known to experiment with climbing harnesses and belaying for his followers. Given this, it is not too far a stretch to call Ray one of Oregon’s first modern rock climbers. Trail Trips also had a successful year, getting 1,964 members and non-members out on trails. To engage more people, the committee tried some new special-interest trips. These efforts included backpacking, trail work, wildflower, and climber conditioning hikes. Rounding out the year, climb leaders put 254 of 359 scheduled climbs on mountain summits. The committee also dove into the merits of climbing awards and

wrestled with putting awards for climbing in the proper perspective. In the end, the committee recommended that council abolish the 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-peak awards while also limiting the 5-, 10-, and 15-Point Leadership Awards to the Sixteen Major Peaks. The council declined the first and passed the second. The committee also renamed the Sixteen Peak Leadership Award for Joe Leuthold and made it something presented, rather than applied for.

1973

By Mathew Brock “Yes, but she sounded like she meant it” was the remark overheard by Bill Eubank that Janet Johnson would rather die than go home without having climbed Aconcagua. The mountain granted her request. The death of Johnson and fellow climber John Cooper on Aconcagua would set the tone for 1973. In the Annual, Carmie Dafoe authored a feature article on the expedition. One lighthearted passage, in an otherwise somber recounting, noted that their route up the highest peak in the world outside of Asia would have received a Mazama “B” rating “if it were ten to twelve thousand feet lower and 45 miles closer to a road.” Janet Johnson of Denver, Bill Eubank of Kansas City, and John Cooper of Houston joined Mazamas Carmie Dafoe, Jim Petroske, John Shelton, Bill Zeller, and Arnold McMillan on the climb. Due to a series of decisions and avoidable circumstances, Johnson and Cooper lost their lives on the mountain from pulmonary edema. The deaths of Johnson and Cooper, efforts to redevelop a sound fiscal policy, and an emphasis on wilderness ethics marked 1973 for the Mazamas. Richard Laird, in his President’s Report, struck a somewhat rambling tone as he attempted to describe his—and others’ place—within the Mazamas. After drifting for four paragraphs, he finally landed on, “And no one really cares what a Mazama is outside the Club; it’s what he is INSIDE that counts.” Laird recapped the council’s primary focus for the past year: an in-depth examination of the organization’s financial health and the redevelopment of sound fiscal policy. He noted that the council “reached the reluctant conclusion” that annual membership dues needed to be increased. In an echo of more recent discussions, he wrote about the council’s struggle with defining indirect costs as they relate to Mazama activities. Later in the year, the membership would vote 2-to-1 in favor of the dues increase. Laird then turned to the issue of safety and the fatalities recorded that year. Besides the two Aconcagua expedition We Climb High Vol 2 • 15


members killed, Sharon Herner died during a climb of Three Fingered Jack and a third, a young man named Matt Thomas, drowned during a Mazama whitewater rafting trip on the Clackamas River. Laird ended his report by urging all Mazamas—committee members, activity leaders, and participants alike—“to reaffirm and rededicate themselves to the concept of safety above all else.” The Mazamas also lost two notable individuals in 1973: Ole Lien and Verne Ketchum. In the late 1920s and early 1930s Ole started the Climb-Mt.-Hood-Once-A-MonthClub. Others soon joined him and in 1930 he and Mazama Jim Mount became the first people to climb Mt. Hood every month in one calendar year—that is January to December.6 Not content with just holding the record for one year, Ole went on to grind up Mt. Hood every month for five years in a row from January 1932 to December 1936; if he had not missed December 1931 his record would have been 7.5 years. Anyone wishing to repeat or break Ole’s record should know that the majority of Ole’s climbs were done before there was a useful road from Government Camp to Timberline. After World War II, Ole served for a while as the fire lookout at the Lone Fir Lookout above Timberline Lodge on Mt. Hood. Hiking and climbing were his first loves—he reportedly made over 400 ascents of Mt. Hood during his lifetime. Verne Ketchum received the Parker Cup in 1931 for his work to plan and supervise construction of the first Mazama Lodge near Government Camp. As the Bulletin noted, “Probably no other member was ever so really a part of Mazama Lodge, both the original structure as well as the present building, as was Verne Ketchum.” Jim Petroske, another member of the ill-fated Aconcagua expedition, wrote a follow-up article on acute highaltitude illness, noting that “high altitude cannot be ignored. It must be recognized as one of the risks that climbers accept and be dealt with as safely as possible.” Other featured articles in the Annual included a recounting of the 1973 Swiss Alps outing by Dave Hieter, Park Creek Pass by Russ Lamb, Olympic Hoh Headwaters by George Robinson, Monte Cristo by John Salisbury, An American Ramble in the B.C. Alps, 1971-72 by Nicholas Dodge, Canoeing by the Rules, Barkley Sound, 1973 by Trish Evenson, and Canadian Climbing by Ed Johann. Several articles deserve special mention. Ted Lathrop authored a fun story about a Trails Trip hike along the Broughton Lumber Company’s log flume near White Salmon in the Columbia River Gorge. Due to the dangerous nature of the flume—having a narrow walkway 50 feet off the ground with water rushing past at 30 miles 6 Mazama Clem Blakney was the first person to climb Mt. Hood every month but not continuously over the course of one year.

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per hour—access was understandably limited. At the time, the Mazamas were the largest single group ever allowed to make the trip along the flume, the last functioning lumber flume on the continent. In total, they “hiked” 5 miles along the flume and gained 500 feet in elevation. Erwin O. Rieger returned with several more essays on the mountaineering experience in Up is The Mountain Part 2. His recollections span climbs on Mt. Hood, memories made while climbing, and how mountaineering shows one’s real character. Two of his more notable recollections feature the story of a tin Sierra cup, and his many encounters with a mountaineer who always carried a small, black umbrella. In passing, the Bulletin noted that the City of Vancouver awarded Rieger its Citizen of the Year Award in 1972. The last high point of the 1973 Annual was Linda Wagner’s inspirational tale about a climb of Mt. Hood by six students from Vancouver’s School of the Blind. Eleven leaders, nine of whom were Mazamas, assisted the four young men and two young women up the mountain. As they neared the peak, Wagner writes, “They met such a challenge with guts and determination. They were about to accomplish something a lot of adults couldn’t do.” When it was all over and everyone was safely back at the lodge, a beaming Viola Cruz said, “I did what I wouldn’t believe I’d do, stand almost at the top of the world for a few minutes.” As always, the Annual featured scientific articles and reports. The Little Glacier that Couldn’t by Malcolm Montague detailed the resurgence of glaciers on several northwest peaks. As he noted, the “discoveries are but a continuum of at least 75 years of Mazama research and observation on glaciation.” How Far Is It? by Professor U.C. Farr attempted to answer the age-old mountaineer’s question of how far it is between peaks. Using topo maps, aeronautical charts, and articles from past Annuals, he reported that distances from Portland’s Council Crest are given as follows: Mt. Rainier 102 miles; Mount St. Helens 56 miles; Mt. Adams 74 miles; Mt. Hood 50 miles, and Mt. Jefferson 77 miles. Rounding out the Annual’s scientific contributions was an article on the geology of the Matterhorn (Eagle Cap Wilderness Area) by Kenneth Neal. The Conservation Committee spent the year responding to requests from the U.S. Forest Service and other land management agencies for input on specific planning units. Committee members visited the areas in question, discussed possibilities for use, and submitted their extensive reports on watershed protection, wilderness, recreation and trails, wildlife, and timber management.

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Is a Mazama an Antelope, a Deer, or a Goat? By Jeff Thomas Perhaps the most common misconception about the Mazamas is that the name of the organization was derived from a Spanish word for mountain goat. However, research has shown that Mazama was never a Spanish word and never had anything to do with the North or South American mountain goat. Instead Mazama is the Latin for the genus of deer or antelope found from Mexico to South America.1 The roots of the derivation are even more complicated than outlined above. In spring of 1894, Martin Gorman and his newly formed Committee on the Constitution hit a dead end. What they really wanted when they started researching was a Northwest Indian name for mountain goat. The summary of that effort, written April 6, 1894, said that nothing suggested at that point could be easily pronounced by English speakers. Some days later, William Steel was walking down First Street in Portland when he spotted Louis B. Akin. Akin was not a part of the Planning Committee, but Steel knew him as a mountain lover who spent his summers at Spirit Lake near Mount St. Helens. Steel asked him if he might have a name for the proposed organization, and Akin immediately offered the word “Mazama.” Note that Louis B. Akin did not join the Mazamas until 1895. The year he joined he was appointed as a committee of one and was responsible for designing the current Mazama logo. Thus one man both suggested the name of the organization and created its logo. Further research by Martin Gorman suggested that “Mazama” was connected to a South American mountain goat, although he did comment on the, “…unsettled nature of generic names.” In 1894, communication between biologists from different areas was difficult, and there were often multiple family and genus names for the same animal. Despite some hints the name had more to do with deer or antelope, Gorman wrote, “…Mazama was the most appropriate and euphonious title that could be adopted for our organization.” Put another way, the founders adopted the name because it was easy to say and pleasing to the ear. Today, little is remembered about the 1894 academic confusion of what a Mazama was and it hardly seems to matter. The Mazamas, having embraced the name for 125 years, have in fact changed or evolved its meaning from antelope or deer or mountain goat to a subspecies of Homo sapiens that is a sure-footed climber commonly found dancing in the northwest United States on steep snow, ice, and rock. 1 Mazama: a genus of South American deers ( family Cervidae) comprising the brockets. Etymology Latin, from Nahuatl maçam-, maçatl, mazatl deer

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States. Before 1969, if a climber was confronted by steep ice, the laborious, time consuming, and insecure process of step cutting was usually necessary to earn progress. After 1969, the redesigned axe allowed for faster and more secure progress in conjunction with the early 1930s German technique of front pointing. To stimulate more interest in the Mazamas, Trail Trips attempted to cater to peoples’ interests by scheduling a more extensive range of activities. They planned evening, youth-and-adult, and overnight backpacking trips. All proved popular. Trail Trips also had a leadership course in development to produce more competent and confident leaders. Conservation and wilderness ethics were a common theme throughout the year. Every Bulletin had an article on conservation or wilderness ethics. For example, in February there was a short article on appreciating old growth forests, while the May issue contained a short essay on backcountry dishwashing. Lastly, the December issue contained a thoughtful piece on forest management practices titled More Wood from Land.

Ole Lien in front of the Timberline Cabin, January 1933. Photo by Al Monner Collection. The Climbing Committee reported a successful and productive year. Participation continued to expand, despite recommended reductions in party size. The Rock Climbing Program completed a successful ascent of Steins Pillar, near Prineville, the first time an official Mazama party had climbed the formation. Basic Climbing School enrolled 314 students and in April, thirty climb leaders attended a leadership seminar at Mazama Lodge. The committee continued to wrestle with the problems of getting eager members on climbs and, adversely, climb cancellations due to lack of interest. The committee also began planning for an accident management training program, likely a result of this year’s fatalities. In the summer, Yvon Chouinard visited the Northwest and taught ice climbing seminars on Eliot Glacier on Mt. Hood. Thirty-four students attended the Eliot Glacier seminars sponsored by the Climbing Committee, including twenty Mazamas. During the seminars, Chouinard demonstrated various ice climbing techniques and gear, including his new ice axe with its drooped and notched pick. This axe was introduced commercially in 1969 and overnight completely revolutionized ice climbing in the United 18 • We Climb High Vol 2

The 1973 Annual Banquet, held in the Grand Ballroom at the Sheraton Motor Inn, featured Tom Frost as the guest speaker. He presented a slideshow detailing his historic 1970 Annapurna expedition. During the expedition, each climber ascended the mountain four times while their porters hauled five tons of food and equipment between camps. One climber, Mike Burke, set a record for spending 31 days above 20,000 feet. The program, with Jack Grauer as master of ceremonies, also featured dinner and award presentations. Eleanor Heller received the Parker Cup for her work as chair of the Conservation Committee. A Mazama since 1936, she was also an active hike leader and editor of the Bulletin for two years. Tanya Miller, 11 years old, earned her Guardian Peaks Award and Don Onthank, after 45 years of not winning a door prize, was given an actual door, with a brass plaque that read, “Mr. Mazama.”

1974

By Diana Forester In October 1974, Ken Hague assumed the presidency just as many oil-producing countries around the world stopped exporting oil, creating shortages and skyrocketing costs across the United States. No one could count on filling their gas tank, which affected Mazama climbing, hiking, and outing programs. At the same time, the Mazamas increasingly wanted to address the environmental consequences of an exploding number of people using wilderness and backcountry areas in


the Pacific Northwest. These twin concerns resulted in assorted innovations throughout the organization. Some climb leaders tried to rent vans to transport participants, but private vehicles remained the only practical transportation method for most activities. However, for the first time Basic Climbing and Intermediate Climbing schools used buses to transport students to field sessions. In addition, for the past few years the Climbing Committee had worked to increase the number of climbs on more popular routes in order to reduce the size of climbing teams, following plans by both the National Park Service and the U.S. Forest Service to limit party size in their districts. The Mazamas had remarkable success in cutting the average size of Mt. Hood, Mt. Adams, and Mount St. Helens climbs from 24–26 people down to 15–18 between 1971 and 1974. Continuing the work of the 1972 committee, the members in 1974 again voted to end the 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100Peak awards. This time around, the Executive Council approved. At the same time, the Climbing Committee began to experiment with a non-refundable payment when signing up for climbs. Too often, members were signing up for multiple climbs to ensure a spot and then dropping out at the last minute, making it impossible to fill their vacated spaces. Climbs cost $2 each in 1974. Despite the gas shortage, the Mazamas scheduled 223 climbs with an 81 percent success rate, the highest percentage in the organization’s history. Even with the unfilled spaces, 2,367 people participated on climbs at a time when total Mazama membership was 2,673. Adding to this success, three Mazamas made three first ascents of peaks in the Mt. Deborah region of the Alaska Range, with financial help from the Expedition Committee. The organization’s non-climbing programs continued to be very active. In 1974, the newly-formed Whitewater Committee started a Whitewater School, with 117 students attending the school’s six sessions. The Nordic Ski Committee continued its very popular program with 300 students, plus a weekend of activities at Mazama Lodge, ten single-day trips, and an overnight outing. The Ski Committee continued its downhill ski school with two sessions of four lessons each, as well as the annual Hughes Cup downhill race. A used equipment sale held on December 7 was the first of its kind for the Mazamas. Jack Koder set up the sale with little fanfare, and it netted $183. Gas shortages most likely affected the Trail Trip and Outing Committees’ offerings more than other Mazama programs. Trail Trips led 134 trips including snowshoeing, backpacking, a multi-day car camping trip to the Painted Hills, conditioning hikes, and work parties. There were 14 snowshoe trips with two overnight stays. Perhaps most

remarkable was the great popularity of backpacking trips. Trail Trips held nine overnight hikes of one to three nights each, and averaged more than 13 people per trip. Concern about gasoline, as well as a rainy summer, negatively affected the Outing program. In January 1974, 11 Outings were planned but only 7 took place. The most successful Outing was a two-week canoe excursion to Nootka Sound on Vancouver Island with 48 members. Less happy were the 11 climbers in Boston Basin in the North Cascades. During the week-long outing, there was only one successful summit—Sharkfin Tower—and only a few reached the top. A few weeks later, another group planned to climb Clark Mountain in the Glacier Peak area. A deep snowpack, fog, and several days of hard rain prevented everyone from climbing except for Bob Lathrop, who reached the summit after the rest of the outing had left. There were two successful outings involving backpacking—one group explored the newly-completed north end of the Pacific Crest Trail (PCT), and the other spent five days in the Three Sisters Wilderness traveling the PCT from Devil’s Lake to Cultus Lake. Late in the summer, things improved and 18 climbers spent Labor Day weekend traversing the Three Sisters from east to west, climbing both North Sister and Middle Sister—a Mazama first. While signing the summit register on North Sister, the group was joined by a happy, pregnant Weimaraner and her owners. The Mazamas helped her put a paw print in the register, and then assisted in roping up the pup and lowering her, yipping, through the Bowling Alley. On November 9, Peter Schoening, a well-known and highly experienced climber, spoke about his recent climb in Russia at the Annual Banquet, with 500 in attendance. Schoening was famous for saving five climbers’ lives on K2 in 1953. His incredible ice axe belay was known simply as The Belay in the climbing world. The Mazamas awarded the Parker Cup to Ed Johann. Ed, over his 12 years with the Mazamas, had earned the Joe Leuthold Award for successfully leading climbs of the Sixteen Major Northwest peaks, chaired eight different committees and Intermediate Climbing School, and served on the Executive Council. Alfred Parker presented the award. Also that evening, 21 Mazamas received the Sixteen Major Northwest Peaks Award. The very active and large Conservation Committee took on the fight to stop a proposed tram that would have run from Cascade Locks to the 3,200-foot elevation point of Ruckel Spur. Committee members also worked toward developing long-range planning for the Gorge, and planning for wilderness areas with the Forest Service. The committee provided numerous articles for the Mazama Bulletin, advocating for low-impact camping and We Climb High Vol 2 • 19


travel. The Conservation Committee also opposed the construction of a Palmer Ski Lift, citing that it would allow unequipped and untrained persons to attempt a Mt. Hood climb with the potential for disastrous consequences. During this period, the Forest Service created a number of new trails and snowshoe routes in the Portland area to handle increased pressure from the city’s growing interest in outdoor activities. Furthermore, a group of Mazamas assisted in exploring and setting aside what is now the Trapper Creek Wilderness. They helped build the first two miles of trails in that area between 1972 and 1974. Two well-known and active Mazama leaders died this year. Bob Millus, an extremely popular climb leader and Basic Climbing School instructor—affectionately known as “Honeybear” for his sweet disposition and size—died in a logging accident. Bob was famous in the Oregon rock climbing community for replacing the nearly-unusable bolt hangers on the Pioneer Route of Monkey Face during an official Mazama climb on March 18, 1972. The new hangers were distinctively homemade by another Mazama from thick steel, but were a piece of cake to clip and came to be called “the chrome bolt line” because of their shiny finish. As a result, the route became a popular climb for beginning to intermediate leaders due to the extraordinary exposure— yet complete safety—and the full 150-foot rappel off the forever-laughing Monkey. By the mid-1970s, the Pioneer Route had developed into a popular training climb for the Mazamas and college outdoor programs. Al Clapp, the second Mazama member to lose his life this year, was membership secretary and head of the winter climb program at the time of his death. When Clapp organized a 1974 outing to the Tetons, so many wanted to go that the week-long outing had to be extended to three weeks—and it could have been even longer if the National Park Service had been willing to allow the Mazamas to camp for four weeks. Following the oil embargo, the stock market collapsed and lost 36 percent of its value. The Trust Committee moved all the Mazama funds managed by the trust departments of two Oregon banks out of stocks and bonds and into short-term government securities, preventing further losses. Despite only losing 6 percent, the Trust Committee realized that working with the banks’ trust departments was cumbersome and expensive, and that the long-term performance was very poor. The committee put together a proposal for some major changes in the way the committee worked, which would be voted on in 1975.

1975

By Diana Forester In 1975, gas shortages became less of an issue but the price of gas increased precipitously. The Mazamas also continued to deal with the ongoing dramatic increase in outdoor recreation in the Pacific Northwest. The Climbing, Trail Trips, and Outing Committees increased their offerings while at the same time working to lessen their impact on the environment. After finishing his year as Executive Council President, Ken Hague set up a committee to start the Explorer Post7 program. As soon as the council agreed to the program, the committee recruited 20 young people to participate. Lectures began immediately, along with snow and rock practice, and by late May the group had climbed Mount St. Helens. That summer, Explorer Post students also climbed Mt. Hood, Mt. Washington, Three Fingered Jack, and were preparing to cross-country ski as soon as the snow flew. The last living Mazama to have signed the 1894 club charter at the summit of Mt. Hood died in early 1975. Frank Branch Riley was 99 years old, and had attended the 1974 Annual Banquet only three months before. On July 19, 50 Mazamas summited Mt. Hood in honor of this man who had been president of the Mazamas 50 years earlier. Another notable and shocking death was that of Carmie Dafoe, who died in an automobile accident in Montana while returning from a climb. Carmie led many climbing outings, was on the Executive Council, and chaired Basic and Intermediate Schools as well as the Climbing Committee. At the Annual Banquet, he was awarded the Parker Cup posthumously. Although she did not have an obituary in the Annual, a Basic Climbing School instructor, Sallie Hee, suffocated in an avalanche during the school’s snow practice. Following an investigation, the committee decided to send a handful of members to the National Avalanche School to improve the organization’s avalanche safety instruction. High snowpack levels and poor weather hampered the year’s climbing season. Only 60 percent of the 240 scheduled climbs went as planned, putting about 2,300 people on a summit. The Climbing Committee continued to work on the perennial problem of climber “no shows” by extending the non-refundable signup fee to all climbs. Unfortunately, other than bringing in some much-needed income to cover the costs of the climbing program, this did not resolve the problem. The majority of scheduled climbs were on the 16 major peaks, and the Bulletin made special mention of Mike Skreiner’s climbing activities. Mike, who had graduated from Basic Climbing School 7 For more on the Mazama involvement with the Explorer Post Program see sidebar "Mazama Explorer Posts" on page 67

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The Nordic Committee scheduled 34 single-day tours, five overnight trips away from Mt. Hood, and two overnight trips at Mt. Hood. Nordic School had fewer students than in past years, but the classes now had two instructors per group. The committee also offered a five-week class in sport orienteering after ski season. It was very popular and they planned to offer it again. The Expedition Committee helped fund trips to Alaska, Canada, and Pakistan. James Wickwire, who three years later became the first American to summit K2, wrote in the Annual about a four-man trip in the Alaska Range in which two party members made a first ascent and traverse of Mt. Geist. Wickwire described the ascent as “the finest ice climb yet done in Alaska.” Another expedition traveled to the Coast Range of British Columbia, where the weather was so poor they did not attempt any technical routes.

Frank Branch Riley, 1923, Pardise Park. Frank Branch Riley Collection, VM2000.011 earlier in the year, climbed 21 peaks, including 13 of the 16 major peaks, before he moved to Philadelphia in mid-October. The Climbing Committee also experimented with how it organized the Intermediate Climbing School. Teams of seven students spent the year with a single instructor, who was to help the students develop mountaineering skills that progressed, not to graduation, but to a point in which each student had “grown away from the program.” In the Annual, the Climbing Committee chair reported that this innovation was not very successful, and recommended a more formal program in the future. The Trail Trips Committee scheduled 143 events, including 11 overnight backpacking trips that were very well attended. Efforts to disperse hikers and reduce numbers on popular trails meant that the committee scheduled a number of new and often overlooked hikes, including Davies Peak, Round Top Mountain, Gold Peak, Craggy Peak, Elkhorn Ridge, and Broughton Mill Flume (a 10-mile catwalk hike with some exposure). In mid-May, the Trail Trip Committee offered a Yocum Ridge conditioning hike. The hike’s Bulletin announcement stated that ice axes were required, and that hikers should “bring a sling and carabiners, and wear climbing boots—we may be roped.”

Eighteen outings were approved for the year, but three had to be canceled. Two of the climbing outings, one held in Wyoming’s Wind River Range and another in the Tonquin Valley of Canada, did not attract as many participants as the committee had expected, perhaps due to the long driving distances and increasing gasoline prices. Altogether, 181 people participated in the 1975 outings. While this was more than the year before, the Outing Committee was disappointed, and believed that the schedule had not met the needs and desires of many members. By 1975, large-scale, commissary-style family outings that had historically attracted 50 to 100 people and often involved very long car trips were becoming harder and harder to arrange. New wilderness restrictions, increased understanding of environmental impact, and finding members willing to put in the long hours to arrange such outings was becoming a thing of the past. Still, eight climbing and seven non-climbing outings demonstrated the hard work on the part of the Outing Committee. President Kenneth Winters wrote that the $6,000 deficit for the Mazama Lodge (not including insurance or depreciation) concerned the council and would need to be dealt with. In late 1975, a night’s stay at the lodge went up to $3, and the building received some needed updates. The Conservation Committee continued to oppose the tram that would have entered the Eagle Creek Wilderness, and the council approved funds to support the lawsuit working to stop the tram. The committee also continued to oppose the plan for Timberline’s Palmer Ski Lift, expressing that “recreation use on the slopes of Mt. Hood is approaching the saturation point.” In addition, this very large and active group continued lobbying to remove horses from hiker camps, and to establish Marquam (Ravine) Park. Six projects received research funding in 1975. The projects included studying the last We Climb High Vol 2 • 21


eruption of Mt. Mazama, conducting a wildlife inventory of the Sky Lakes Wilderness Area, and studying the Black Rosy-Finch. Jim Whittaker, leader of the 1975 American K2 Expedition, was the featured speaker at the 1975 Annual Banquet.

1976

By Daniel Hafley The year marking the United States’ bicentennial was another eventful year for the Mazamas. In January, the Executive Council voted to pay Jim Whittaker, the previous year’s Annual Banquet speaker, an honorarium of $500—the majority for speaking and expenses, plus $140 to be donated to Whittaker’s 1978 American K2 expedition. Later in the year, Fred Beckey (premier climber, author, and persistent explorer) presented his talk, Alplands to Canyonlands, at the 1976 Annual Banquet. The Mazama climb schedule featured 197 listings, a number of which were led by Mazama stalwarts Bob Hyslop, Terry Becker, and Christine Mackert. The climbing season began with an ascent of Pinnacle and Castle Peaks in January, led by Bob Hyslop, and wrapped up in October with a climb of Gilbert Peak led by Don Jeffery. Some of the more challenging climbs included the Coe Icefall on Mt. Hood, as well as Mts. Formidable and Johannesburg in the North Cascades. The Dog’s Head route on Mount St. Helens was well-represented as an early-season climb. As noted in the Annual, early-season climbs had mixed results due to unstable weather, with most of the successful climbs happening throughout the summer and into the fall. In addition, 13 “experience climbs” were offered for recent Basic Climbing School graduates. The largest climb of the season—39 brave souls ascending Avalanche Gulch on Mt. Shasta on May 30—experienced high winds and poor visibility. A slightly smaller group (27) returned in July for a successful summit. An Annual article by Tim Carpenter detailed the attempt for a new route on Alaska’s 17,400-foot Mt. Foraker. The expedition encountered difficult climbing conditions— bad weather, steep ice, and crumbling cornices—and, ultimately, an impenetrable feature called The Fin. The party turned back, having completed 95 percent of the route. According to Carpenter, “We tried very hard and enjoyed some of the most difficult climbing any of us had ever experienced.” The route was successfully completed in 1977 by a group of climbers from Olympia, Washington.

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Eleven Mazama members participated in a 1976 Outing to Banff and Jasper National Parks. In the Annual, Sarah Alvis marveled at the variety of available trails. Highlights of the Outing included ongoing encounters with a roving band of black bears, a lakeside lunch under magnificent Mt. Temple, and frequent views of Mt. Robson, the highest peak in the Canadian Rockies. Vera Dafoe penned an article for the Annual describing a European Alps Outing. The July summit of Switzerland’s Mönch, led by Tom Dinsmore, represented an important milestone—the first time that members of a Mazama outing had ascended a serious mountain in Europe without professional guides. Mazama parties also successfully climbed Mt. Blanc and Monte Rosa. Especially noteworthy was the sharing of a “highest kiss” by two party members at 15,767 feet. To commemorate America’s Bicentennial celebration, Peg Oslund led 15 Mazamas through Alaska’s Chilkoot Pass, retracing the steps of the nearly 30,000 men and women who used the pass to reach gold fields along the Klondike River during the frantic Gold Rush years of 1897–98. In the Annual, trip member Charles Shell quoted a Robert Service poem, “This is the Law of the Yukon that only the Strong shall survive.” In the President’s Report for 1975–76, Ray Snyder noted that “the committees are, in general, blessed with conscientious, hard-working, and capable chairmen, bolstered by equally industrious and dedicated members.” He continued, “Though increasingly tardy to the point of causing significant concern, our Annual publication continues to be of good quality and worth waiting for.” Vera Dafoe also provided an update on the nascent Mazama Alpine Museum, noting that an original plea for its formation appeared in the 1932 Annual. She reported that nearly 80 items had been collected, and concluded that the Museum collection “is finally underway.” The Executive Council approved a new award for outstanding Mazama conservationists—the Richard Ward Montague Conservation Award. The award was a silver bowl that would bear the awardees’ name and be retained by the organization. In creating the award, the council noted Richard’s long service to the Mazamas and the remarkable fact that he only had one lung, the result of virulent pneumonia in the 1880s. The inscription on the bowl reads, “And here in the wilderness, Of all places in the World, We learn to know one another’s Naked Souls.” Much of the Conservation Committee’s time in 1976 was spent reviewing and commenting on land use plans in various national forests around the Pacific Northwest. In addition, the committee made critical comments on an environmental statement for planned expansion of Mt. Hood Meadows Ski Area. The Research Committee


reviewed 35 grant proposals, elicited from the mailing of 400 brochures to college science departments in the Pacific Northwest and California. Seven grants were awarded, totaling $2,745. Expedition Committee expenditures during the year amounted to $2,100, supporting expeditions to four iconic peaks—Mts. Deborah and Foraker in Alaska, Lotus Flower Tower in the Northwest Territories of Canada, and Mt. Burkett in the Canadian Coast Range. Controversy surrounded the Honorary Membership, which went to Ed Johan. Ed won the award was because he prepared a petition and personally carried it around asking people to vote for him as Honorary Member. When the Executive Council found out what had happened, that back-door method of earning the award was quickly eliminated. Mazama Lodge finances continued to be of concern. The Lodge’s ongoing deficit was reduced by raising rates, which also unexpectedly resulted in a decrease in usage over the year. On the positive side, improvements included completion of the inner tube run, new locks on lockers, and installation of a fire detection system. The year ended on a tragic note. In November, Mazamas Ken Stroud and Steve Carey died while attempting a late-season climb of Forsyth Glacier on Mount St. Helens. Their bodies were found at 8,300 feet. While the climbers were experienced, accident reconstruction suggested that a failure to place ice screws, which they had carried but apparently did not use, probably contributed to their fall into the bottom of a crevasse.

1977

By Daniel Hafley In June, an article first appeared in the Bulletin addressing potential reorganization of the Mazamas, the subject of an ongoing discussion within the Executive Council and larger membership that resulted in a controversial vote at the Annual Banquet. The proposal stated that the organization be divided into two entities—an assetholding, educational-scientific trust or foundation, and an activity unit—each administered by a separate board of directors. The new activity-oriented organization would be called the Mazamas Alpine Club. There were strong feelings both for and against. On October 3, 858 members cast their votes, 375 for reorganization and 483 against. The proposal failed and the issue was put to rest. Noted climber and outdoor artist Dee Molenaar was the featured speaker at the 84th Annual Banquet with his presentation High Adventures with Ice Axe and Paint Brush.

In words and images Dee recounted a life of climbing, including the second ascent of Mount St. Elias and the legendary 1953 American attempt of K2, during which the climbing team was saved by Pete Schoening’s famous ice axe belay while retreating from a storm high on the mountain. Marlin Icenogle became the new Mazama president. Incoming council members Bus Gibson, Jim Averill, and Lois Gibbons were elected to three-year terms. In his President’s Report, the outgoing Bob Hyslop concluded his service with “good feelings” about the council and its ability to surmount future challenges with integrity and humor. The year closed with a court-adjudicated compromise. After a day of trial in federal district court, the Mazamas and the Oregon Environmental Council negotiated a settlement in the Palmer Ski Lift lawsuit. The controversial lift would be built, but with restrictions on the management and future development of the heavily-used south side of Mt. Hood. The Mazamas had filed suit against the planned expansion of ski facilities on Mt. Hood, seeing this as the latest step in the ongoing commercialization of Oregon’s highest peak. Expansion plans initially called for a lift with gondola cars extending as high as 9,200 feet, 500 feet closer to Crater Rock than the final compromise. The settlement provided that no permanent structure could be placed higher than 8,540 feet, and that the permit area above could be used only for temporary activities such as ski races. Development was limited to a two-person chairlift, and expressly precluded the use of gondola cars. A pivotal figure in the Mazamas, Neil Baldwin, passed away this year. His contributions to the Mazamas included chairing a number of committees, Executive Council service, and serving a year as president (1960). A Parker Cup recipient, Neil was an active climb leader well into his 60s.

1978

By Ryan Abbott With one exception, 1978 was a fairly run-of-the-mill year for the organization. Mazama parties scaled local peaks, embarked on expeditions to places like Mt. Hunter in Alaska, and even took a break from the cold to trek through Hawaii. Climbing education classes surged, research proposals came in, and plans for future expeditions were made. One approved proposal was for an expedition to Annapurna I, which would mark the first major expedition sponsored by the Mazamas, and even amid Cold War tensions a suggestion was made for an We Climb High Vol 2 • 23


expedition to Russia would include a climb of Mt. Elbrus set for July 1979. As adventurous and persistent as always, the Mazamas seemed to be flourishing—but all of that adventure costs money. Past tensions about the cost of rebuilding Mazama Lodge, the cost of publishing the Mazama Bulletin, inflation, and other operations came to a head in 1978. The new lodge, which was opened and dedicated in 1960, was operating at a loss. Every effort to balance the controversial operation was made, including a survey of the membership for ideas. This survey garnered responses geared toward alleviating previous bad experiences at the Lodge, adding resort amenities, and even holding eccentric events such as wet t-shirt dances on Saturdays and marijuana plant shows with hash brownie recipe exchanges. Overall, the Mazamas had been operating in the red to the tune of $10,000 every year, a hole that had routinely been filled in by trust funds despite the stock market crash in 1973–74. Historically, that dip in national finances had been cited as arguably the second worst financial disaster in the country, rivaling the infamous stock market crash of 1929. Even so, the general feeling amongst the membership was to press forward without cutting any programs for the sake of offsetting the organization’s financial deficit. The quickest way to increase revenue without cutting expenses or programs was to increase membership dues, which at the time paid for less than half of basic operating costs. The original proposal to amend the bylaws for a dues increase of $5 was voted on by the council in January, and was submitted to the membership for a vote. Shortly after, it was noted that the Mazamas lost as many members as it gained every year. The proposal was updated to include another amendment to lower the initiation fee by $5 to encourage more people to join, who would then pay annual dues at the increased rate. Six months later, the results of the vote were published. The dues increase passed and the proposal to decrease the initiation fee failed, with members citing unfairness to those who paid the original amount in previous years, and the belief that if someone wanted to be a Mazama they would pay the fee at whatever price. This would mark the first dues increase for the Mazamas since 1973, but with only three months left in the fiscal year, the effect of the increase would ultimately have to wait until 1979. The organization closed the year with only 13 more members than it had started with, and with a $15,000 deficit.

Martha Platt and Lois Gibbons at the 1979 Mazama Annual Banquet. Photo by Ken Hollingsworth.

1979

By Ryan Abbott The financial issues of 1978 prompted more austere decisions about the allocation of funds by the Executive Council. One such change was the funding given to the Annapurna I expedition, led by Bob Wilson, the only Mazama member on the trip. The Mazamas as an organization was to act mainly as a nonprofit sponsor that helped with financial contributions—in other words as a conduit to make the funding for the expedition tax deductible. The new financial climate turned a request for a $15,000 loan, repayable with interest, into approval for a $1,000 donation. Due in part to financial backing from various sources and despite decreased funding from the Mazamas, the team still had enough resources to meet in Nepal that August, becoming the smallest Annapurna I expedition to date. The expedition proceeded fairly smoothly until September 17, when a storm developed that fractured the team. Bob Wilson decided it would be better to descend from Camp IV and wait out the storm at the lower Camp III. This would allow for better rest, less consumption of valuable food at Camp IV, and provide more protection from the storm. By September 19, five of the eight team members were at Camp III. The remaining three members, despite attempts to convince them to descend, decided to stay at Camp IV until the following day. Radio contact was lost and the storm didn’t subside until September 22. The team members who had descended were finally able to ascend to Camp IV, and found nothing. Maynard Cohick, Gil Harder, Eric Roberts, and all of the gear from Camp IV were swept off the mountain, leaving

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John D. Scott By Ryan Abbott & Daniel Hafley On October 17, 1977, the Mazamas suffered the loss of a towering figure in the organization’s history—John D. Scott. There was no part of the organization that John hadn’t touched and left an indelible mark on. He joined the Mazamas in 1920, was elected to the Executive Council in 1925, and was president in 1928–29. In 1934, he was appointed by the council to head the thennascent Climbing Committee, an outgrowth of Local Walks. The next year, he was awarded the Parker Cup. John was again elected to the council in 1950, and chaired the Conservation Committee in 1951. Many of his ideas about educating climbers would eventually become part of Mazama culture and the courses offered. Besides the fight to form the Climbing Committee in the early 1930s, John’s biggest impact was in the realm of publications. He was the editor of the Annual 16 times, culminating in 1966 as chair of the Publications Committee. He wrote about the organization’s history in a publication titled We Climb High: A Thumbnail Chronology of the Mazamas from 1894 to 1964, which was released in 1969 on the organization’s 75th anniversary. In the prologue, he ended by stating, “I offer the following accounts to all Mazamas, present and future, in the hope that they will find it readable, interesting, and reasonably accurate.” The 1978 Annual featured an obituary written by John’s daughter, Stephanie Williams. She wrote candidly about her father, describing a person who embodied the spirit of the wilderness. The obituary chronicled an extremely active and accomplished membership that spanned from his first year in 1920 and through his presidency, years as an editor for the Annual and Bulletin, and Executive Council terms. John seemed most at home in wild places, playing the guitar, telling stories, and imparting his knowledge and love of the mountains to anyone who would listen. He had a social and compassionate nature that made his love of the outdoors synonymous with the people who find themselves drawn there. The central picture Stephanie painted of her father made his widespread reach, his unrelenting activity, and subsequent success within the Mazamas seem like more of a natural byproduct of John being John than as a result of any intention or effort.

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Continued from page 24 the area with the appearance that nothing had ever been there. This is a sobering reminder of the possible outcomes faced by climbers, and an absolute nightmare that every team leader of a climb at any level can identify with. The Annapurna I expedition was shattered. Two team members decided on their own to make a push for the summit, but were forced back by waist-deep snow and lack of adequate warm clothing. On the home front, the Mazamas had much to celebrate in the way of social progress. The organization had historically been ahead of its time, and gender equality issues were no exception. October 1979 saw the election of Lois Gibbons as the new president. Lois would be the second female president of the Mazamas, preceded only by Martha Platt (1953–54). The magnitude of these two elections can easily be seen in an October Mazama Bulletin article written by Vera Dafoe, in which the author was asked by a woman who approached her climbing team whether she also “hiked” or was only along to cook the food. Vera had just completed a climb of Bonanza Peak, a “C” climb, in the North Cascades. It was her 186th climb. To further the renown of women in the high mountains, the previous year had seen a successful all-women’s expedition to Annapurna. The leader of that expedition was Arlene Blum, a local climber who was set to be this year’s Annual Banquet speaker, leaving Vera to sarcastically wonder in her article if Arlene just went along to do the cooking. After 40 years, the Hughes Cup Award was retired because space had run out where recipients’ names were engraved. The award was previously bestowed on a nominee who had participated in the greatest number of Trail Trip activities for the year. The last member to receive this award was Emily Schieve. A new award, the Hardesty Cup, was created in honor of former Mazama President William Hardesty (1916–17), to be awarded for leadership and participation according to a new point system. Also this year, Loy MacIver, a new Mazama, earned her Guardian Peaks award. It seems strange to make historical mention of this, but for Loy, being blind, this was a special accomplishment. Loy wasn’t born blind. She had lost her sight to retinal deterioration just a few years earlier, forcing her to adapt to blindness. Nevertheless, it wasn’t until after this change that Loy decided to become a climber. With the help of a few key Mazama members and her guide dog, Genie, she took on conditioning hikes, learned how to pack her equipment, and completed the Basic Climbing School. Loy was not merely guided to the summits, she climbed them like any other climber. 26 • We Climb High Vol 2

The Mazamas had Loy’s summit certificates and her Guardian Peaks award printed in Braille. As of 1979, the Mazamas believed that Loy was the only blind person to have accomplished this feat. The success stands as a testimony to Loy’s adaptability and perseverance, especially in a social climate where most organizations would have told a blind woman who wanted to climb mountains to go home. The Mazamas remains a place where anyone can reach their aspirations if they have it in them to do so.

1980

By Rick Craycraft Early on the morning of May 18, 1980, Mount St. Helens, which had been stirring for several months, awoke from a 123-year slumber and let loose an unexpectedly large volcanic blast that spread devastation for miles. Fiftyseven people (although that figure is in some dispute) were caught in the wrong place at the wrong time and perished, including our then Mazama Bulletin editor Jean Parker and her husband, Bill. The Pacific Northwest was suddenly in the national and international news. This seismic event also left a crater in the Mazama climb schedule. Between the loss of access to Mount St. Helens and the attendant restrictions on Mt. Adams, about 15 percent of the year’s planned climbs were wiped out. Climb leaders scrambled to find other peaks to ascend. The Annual, understandably, was dominated by recollections of Mount St. Helens. First was an account of the first Mazama ascent in 1898, which put 31 climbers on top of the now non-existent summit, including the ubiquitous Charles Sholes. Following were articles about the history of the Spirit Lake Camp/Camp Meehan, which had introduced young people to the wilderness for decades, a thorough scientific account of the event by Dr. Paul Hammond, and a look behind the scenes at rescues needed in the wake of the blast. Most compelling, however, was a first-hand account by Marianna Kearney of a harrowing drive out of the blast zone, with the understated title of One Sunday in May. Besides a handdrawn sketch of their escape route, this article featured iconic sequential photos by Ty Kearney of the initial explosion. Despite this excitement, we are Mazamas and the climbing must go on—with or without the cooperation of Mount St. Helens. Of the 192 scheduled climbs that left town, including outings, 151 were successful and put a total of 1,406 climbers on a summit. Our rock climbing program topped out on 23 of its own climbs, allowing 132


participants to accomplish their goal. Vera Dafoe and Cloudy Sears made history by being the first Mazama mother-and-daughter climb leaders. But tragedy struck, as well. Dick Sawyer, a newer but enthusiastic and involved leader, was killed on a climb of Mt. Shuksan in July. Mazama schools flourished. Basic Climbing School, led by Roger Sackett, graduated 142 people. Larry Stadler led 63 students through the rigors of Intermediate School, and Brian Holcomb completed his fifth year of leading Advanced Climbing School with 20 enthusiastic climbers. The organization also continued to support Explorer Post 859 under the guidance of Jack Samper. Trail Trip hikers were not deterred by exploding mountains, either. Under the direction of Ed Schultz, the program staged 115 events and got 1,275 people outside, not only on trails but also on snowshoe trips, trail-tending outings, backpacking trips, snow bivouacs, car camps, and educational trips. Again, Mazama Outings were able to sprawl across the globe with adventures including hiking in Britain, climbing in the Alps, and hiking and climbing in Norway. More regionally, many participants got out for an extended time to places like the Grand Canyon, the Lower Salmon River, the Tetons, the Sawtooth Mountains in Idaho, and Hawaii. One notable event this year was the reestablishment of an old tradition—the commissary outing, for those of us “who no longer wish to run up the hills, hop over streams, and climb rocky, steep trails.” Fittingly, this outing was held on the slopes of Mt. Hood. Mazama Lodge, meanwhile, continued to be “our home on the mountain.” Well, except for a few minor problems— the furnace failed in sub-zero weather, a leaky fuel line had to be dug up from under five feet of snow, a January storm knocked out power for four days, and a cranky water heater blew up. This was all resolved before a first-time “adults only” weekend in mid-February. Soon, however, the results from an organization-wide survey brought the Lodge Committee up short. Great difficulties were illuminated both in the vague alcohol policy and with chronic causes of discomfort for Lodge visitors. The alcohol policy was ironed out, with great effort, and with help from the Executive Council. Other issues were addressed by undertaking a remodel that continued into the following year. Someone had to coordinate all of the above, and this year’s committees and Executive Council worked at peak capacity to make it happen. Under the leadership of President Lois Gibbons, the council grappled with every issue presented to it. One of the major accomplishments was the reinstatement of the Long Range Planning Committee to help with “organization and management, financing, programs and services, and facilities,” and to

have a working relationship with the Trust Committee. The council also stood by the Lodge Committee through a difficult year. At the year’s Annual Meeting, Lois, following tradition, passed the ice axe on to Christine Mackert, thus marking the organization’s first back-to-back women presidents. In addition, Mazama membership passed a bylaw allowing Life Members to be exempt from annual dues. Special mention has to be made of Mazama secretary John Salisbury, who stepped in as Bulletin editor after the untimely death of Jean Parker, and by the end of the year was Executive Secretary to the council. The Annual clocked in at 120 pages, ably guided by Toby Weiss. Besides the wave of information about Mount St. Helens, there were journal entries by Mazama member Dr. Cameron Bangs, a participant on an attempt on Muztagata in China, an ascent of Mt. Robson by Curt Haire and Stacy Allison (later to be the first American woman to summit Mt. Everest), and another Canadian Rocky, Mt. Marlborough, climbed by Jim and Bill Petroske. A key member of the Muztagata expedition, Galen Rowell, was the speaker at this year’s Annual Banquet. He enthralled 413 attendees with his tales of a climb and ski circumnavigation of Denali (then Mt. McKinley). Six new Sixteen Major Northwest Peaks recipients were added to the books, as well as 10 for the Cascades Peaks and 11 for the Guardian Peaks. The Montague Cup winner was Ray Davis, and Linda Wagner, who sometimes seemed to be everywhere at once, took home the Parker Cup. Of note was the recounting by Ken Winters of a pilgrimage he made with other Mazamas to place a brass plaque dedicated to John Scott near Camp Scott in the Three Sisters Wilderness. Besides those who were lost “in the field” (the Parkers and Dick Sawyer), another passing of note was Irving Lincoln, a member since 1933 who, in the mid- to late-1930s was a climbing photographer of some renown. The Mazamas is fond of handing out awards, and make a point of highlighting the accomplishments of individual members. In 1980, the glacier discovered on the flanks of Mt. Thielsen in 1966 by the late Dr. Ted Lathrop was named after him by the Oregon Geographic Names Board. In addition, the American Alpine Club recognized our own “Mr. Mazama,” Don Onthank, as the first-ever Endowed Life Member, a fitting capstone to a life dedicated to the mountains. There was one more direct effect of the Mount St. Helens closure on the Mazamas. Members wishing to earn the Guardian Peaks Award and Sixteen Major Peaks Award would no longer be able to do so if they had not already reached the top of Mount St. Helens. A partial solution was found two years later in 1982 with the creation of the Warrior Peaks Award for climbing Mt. Adams and We Climb High Vol 2 • 27


Mt. Hood, and with a revised Sixteen Major Peaks Award called the 15-Peaks Award. Finally, most climbers sensibly walked away from Mount St. Helens, but one climber in particular ran toward the danger. Several days before the explosion, Robert “Pooh” Rogers (not a Mazama nor a bear) reached the summit from the south side. The jaw dropper was that several days after the May 18, 1980 explosion, he again reached the summit rim from the south side and took an out-offocus but interesting photo of the glowing and still very active crater. Thus Robert was one of the few—if not the only—human in recorded history to ever make the last ascent of a mountain and the first ascent of the child of its destruction. “So the last shall be first, and the first last.”

1981

By Rick Craycraft This was a challenging year for the Mazamas. The organization faced difficulties on many different fronts. None were harder to absorb than the events of June 21. On this particular Father’s Day, a Mazama party led by George Anderson was descending from a successful summit via the Cooper Spur route on Mt. Hood, when the trailing rope team slipped and swept three other teams down the mountain and on to the Eliot Glacier. Four climbers died in the fall and five others were injured. One of the injured climbers subsequently died at a local hospital. Like true Mazamas, the survivors organized themselves to go for help and tend the injured. With support from the Crag Rats, Alpinees, Portland Mountain Rescue, and the 304th Aerospace Rescue and Recovery Squadron, all parties were evacuated just after nightfall. At the time, this was the worst climbing accident not only in Mazama history, but in Mt. Hood history itself. Many Mazama hearts were already heavy because less than a month before, beloved climb leader Ken Winters had succumbed to a heart attack and died while climbing Mt. Shasta. Ken was completing a heroic comeback from quadruple bypass surgery he’d had just a few years before. The climbing season got off to a late start this year. There was very little snow over the winter—reducing the number of plausible winter climbs—then too much fell late in the season, creating severe avalanche conditions. Nevertheless, and despite the fact that Mount St. Helens was still unclimbable, the Mazamas persevered. By season’s end, there had been 153 successful climbs with 1,473 happy climbers. The rock program completed 14 climbs with 48 climbers reaching their goal.

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The organization’s climbing schools were as strong as ever. Basic Climbing School, under the direction of Tom Jones, graduated 138 students. Intermediate School, led by Lon Nelson, had 65 enrollees, and Advanced was in the capable hands of Pat Haythorne and Jon Maybell. By year’s end, 27 new climb leaders had been added to the list. We also supported three healthy Explorer Post programs. The Expedition Committee and those it supported had another successful year. With some Mazama financial support, Alan Kearney and partner Bobby Knight became the fourth party ever to stand on the summit of the Central Tower of Paine in Patagonia. A party of four Mazamas traveled to the Canadian Yukon, seeking out and summiting Mt. Kennedy. In the process, Toby Weiss became the first woman to successfully climb the peak. Expedition fixture Bob Wilson remained active, this year as an assistant with Rainier Mountaineering Inc. on a successful climb of Hiunchuli in central Nepal. On the home front, a decision was made to reign in expedition spending, and to concentrate more on trips primarily involving Mazamas. The Outings Committee, on the other hand, sent adventurers all over the West. Besides Thyrza Pelling taking people to Nepal in search of rhododendrons, others kept it close to home. Groups explored the Trinity Alps, beaches on the Olympic Peninsula, the Ptarmigan Traverse, the Monte Cristos, the Sawtooth Mountains, the Alpine Lakes Wilderness, sections of the Pacific Crest Trail, the Pasayten Wilderness, and the Grand Canyon. Trail Trips was not to be outdone, pulling off 119 various events involving a whopping 1,714 participants. One especially ambitious undertaking was to hike the 39mile Timberline Trail around Mt. Hood in one day. Unfortunately, the date they chose fell on the hottest recorded day in Portland history—107 degrees! Sixteen of 24 brave souls completed this daunting task, all within 12 to 23 hours. A particularly busy group this year was the Conservation Committee. At one time or another, they were participating in reestablishing the Historic Columbia Gorge highway, responding to Congressional proposals for additional wilderness areas in Oregon, advocating for the protection of Forest Park, and considering Mount St. Helens for National Monument status. The Mazama Bulletin contained many lengthy and detailed columns from this involved committee. Financial difficulties continued to plague the organization while it struggled to reconcile erratic cash flow and the ongoing relationship with the Trust Fund. Many committees were requested to tighten their budget belts. The dormant Budget Committee was reactivated and, in


conjunction with the Trust Committee, hoped to plan a financially-stable future. One area hit especially hard was the Mazama Lodge. The year started with hope, as the recent remodel and subsequent celebration raised spirits. However, by May support had tapered off, and the Executive Council responded by relieving the existing committee of their duties and replacing them. Still, usage and volunteer support waned to the point that members opened their December Bulletin to a boldface announcement of a proposed Lodge closure, effective the spring of 1982. Despite the myriad challenges 1981 brought the organization, the Mazamas staged a successful and wellattended Annual Banquet. John Roskelley regaled the robust crowd of 620 with tales of his ascent of Makalu, the fifth highest peak in the world. Keith Mischke took the reins of leadership from outgoing Pesident Christine Mackert. The Conservation Cup was presented to Rosella Danzer, and the Trail Trips Leadership Cup to Julia Ferreira. Finally, both the Parker Cup and the Joe Leuthold Leadership Award were bestowed to Ray Snyder, the first time both awards were given to the same person in the same year. The Annual, with Toby Weiss as editor, chronicled all of the above, plus other accomplishments as well as sorrows. Besides coverage of the Cooper Spur tragedy, there was a cautionary article by Dr. Lath Flanagan about judgment and accident prevention. Also included were touching and poignant articles about the late Ken Winters, and a reflection on 59 years of climbing by Denes Eszenyi, Sr., also known in the community as Old Man of the Mountain. Scientific articles of note covered giardia, planktonic algae in Crater Lake, an examination of the newly-named Lathrop Glacier on Mt. Thielsen, and another installment in an ongoing series by Dr. Ruth Hopson Keen about the status of the Collier Glacier on North Sister. The Mazamas lost two giants of Northwest climbing this year. One such loss was the mountaineer, ski pioneer, and outdoor equipment entrepreneur Everett Darr, a Mazama since 1931. The other was Don Onthank, who slipped away from us on December 7, just as winter was descending. With the death of Don Onthank and the poor health of Martha Darcy—both Mazama Library super-volunteers— the Library Committee had almost disappeared by 1981. Lacking enthusiasm from the membership, the council decreed that without an active committee, the library would cease to exist. Gary Beyl stepped up to solve the emergency by recruiting professional librarians Bob Lockerby and Virginia Seiser. They, along with various

Members of the Mazama Tirich Mir Expedition on the summit with Pakistani and American flags. Photo from the Robert Wilson Collection. other concerned members, reformed the Library Committee. This particular crisis was averted.

1982 By Kate Dunn

This was a year of leadership success. After a few years of tight funding, the organization found itself in need of a financial action plan and better ways to communicate. The Executive Council spent the majority of the year juggling income and expenses to meet operational needs without going in the red. In 1982, the council reestablished the Budget Committee to help prepare the budget and make recommendations on non-budgeted expenditures. This resulted in a 30-day “cooling off ” period in which the council could consider requests and funding sources. Limited funds led to only two grants given out by the Expedition Committee: $800 for Bob Wilson’s Tirich Mir Expedition to Pakistain, and $200 for Tim Carpenter’s Denali Expedition. Also, the Outing Committee raised fees to $10 per outing for members and $20 for non-members (up from $8 and $15, respectively). The Climbing Committee had a particularly productive year. They decided to require climb leaders to complete four skill review activities within four years to qualify to lead climbs. One hundred and two leaders completed all the requirements and were able to lead this year. The new climb leader selection process added another ten leaders, for a total of 112. Another change led to the Intermediate Climbing and Advanced Climbing Schools beginning in November rather than January. This reduced the previous

Continued on page 32 We Climb High Vol 2 • 29


The 1894 “Mazama” Route By Jeff Thomas The history of climbing on the south side of Mt. Hood is long and complex, and the number of ways to reach the summit is even more complicated. In fact, the proximity of the possible variations a climber can take from inside the crater could almost be likened to a modern sport climbing crag, where clipping bolts on adjacent routes is often possible. The Mazamas have a history with three such variations that start from the Hogsback. From east to west (climber’s right to left), these routes are the Chute (paired with the Pearly Gates), an unnamed route, and the Old Chute. Note that the primary south side climbing route shifted between 1915 and the late 1940s, during which the Hogsback completely disappeared.1 The route again changed when, like magic, the Hogsback slowly reappeared in the 1950s. Climbers in the latter half of the 19th century were not in the habit of naming climbing routes, at least nothing published in news articles of the day. The 1880s were the first time any names other than Crater Rock appeared in print. There were two terms—the Devil’s Backbone and the Hogsback, that were more of a description of the prominent crater feature we know today than a proper name. By the 1890s, the term Hogsback had been adopted over Devil’s Backbone by simple popular use. Note that it is possible the name Devil’s Kitchen was derived from the alternate historical term. At any rate, the lack of specific route names on Mt. Hood’s south side carried through the 1910s. During the 1920s, climbers started using language to the effect of “we followed the chute west of the Hogsback.2” Through constant repetition, the chute properly became the Chute. By the time the Hogsback had reappeared in the late 1950s, climbers naturally wished to follow the most direct route to the summit. They shifted to climbing the gully straight above the reformed Hogsback, rather than traversing to the Chute (today called the Old Chute) further to the west. Although it was a different route, climbers continued to use the same name—”we followed the Chute above the Hogsback.” Around 1975, the United States Forest Service published a foldout brochure with the title Climbing Mt. Hood: A Guide to South Side Routes. In the brochure, they identified the Hogsback as the primary route, with the word “chute” just above it in much smaller letters. They also identified the gully off to the west as a variation, and labeled it “Mazama.” The so-called Mazama Route followed the line climbers had used from the late 1910s through the 1950s. No sources were given as to who named the variation the Mazama Route, and as far as I know there had never been any reference to the route by that name—either written or oral—before the brochure. It’s possible the Forest Service was under the mistaken impression that the “Mazama” route was the original route of the organization’s 1894 inaugural climb, and was bestowing the name to honor the organization. Whatever the case, the alternative gully to the west was often referred to as the Mazama Route through the 1980s, and some still use the name today instead of the its prevalent name, the Old Chute. But here’s the problem: The Mazamas had nothing to do with the route’s establishment as the main summit route in the mid-1910s. If credit is due anyone for developing the Old Chute as a climbing route, it should probably go to Lige Coalman. Coalman, who was attempting to build a Forest Service fire 1 This is not an exaggeration. Photos up until 1914 show a fully-formed Hogsback. By 1916, the Hogsback was gone. The disappearance was likely due to changes in regional temperatures. 2 The first recorded instance of a climber using the term “chute” was by Mazama Jim Mount on August 19, 1928, although it was likely used before that date.

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Fred Routledge’s drawing of routes to the summit taken by Mazamas in 1901. Image from the Mark O’Neil Scrapbook.

lookout on the summit in 1915–16, had to move his fixed ropes further west in order to safely get his supplies to the top. When I wrote Oregon High: A Climbing Guide to Nine Cascade Volcanoes in the late 1980s, I attempted to alleviate the confusion about the fact there were two routes called the Chute leading to the summit. My solution was to name the two distinct variations the Old Chute (the gully west of the Hogsback) and the Chute (the gully directly above the Hogsback). I’d also heard a contemporary climber or two refer to the towers above the Chute as the Pearly Gates. On a whim, and without any historical basis, I included the name—which stuck. Sometimes it does create confusion to have one route with three names, but most climbers understand that at the top of the Hogsback you head west for the Old Chute, or continue straight up the Chute through the Pearly Gates. Sometime after Oregon High was published, I started looking carefully at two photos taken from the lower lip of the bergschrund during the 1894 Mazama inaugural climb. I had always assumed they had gone through the Pearly Gates. I was surprised to see that, although subtle, it’s obvious the climbers did not climb either the Old Chute or the Pearly Gates. Rather, they climbed a narrow gully between the two. This was a logical route in 1894. The bergschrund was much longer and wider than it is today—due to the fact that the Coalman Glacier itself was much larger at the time—so it was more direct to move west around the crevasse and up into the unnamed gully, which remains unnamed to this day. Later research turned up a drawing by Fred Routledge rendered from one of his photographs, and published in the 1901 Oregonian. The drawing confirms this was the route the Mazamas followed in 1894 and 1901. In winter and early-spring conditions, climbing the unnamed gully between the Old Chute and the Pearly Gates is a thrill due to the narrow passage’s crystalline beauty. As the Mazamas marks its 125th anniversary, this is the route that could rightfully, and fittingly, be called the Mazama Route.

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Continued from page 29 year’s hectic late winter and early spring activity load. The newly-created First Aid Subcommittee offered Red Cross Standard First Aid and CPR certification. On March 12, the Climbing Committee hosted Ian Wade who entertained the 69 attendees with tales from his epic climb of the Eiger’s North Wall. In international mountaineering news, the first team of an American women’s Himalayan expedition summited Ama Dablam on April 20, with the second team summiting on April 22. Both groups did so without support above base camp, and were the first women to climb Ama Dablam. In addition, this year saw the first high-altitude Himalayan expedition comprised entirely of Mazama members. The team spent two years planning, fundraising, and preparing for what would be the first American ascent of Tirich Mir. Their approach to the highest peak in Pakistan’s Hindu Kush included a harrowing ride along treacherous roads and over rickety bridges. From the end of the road they hiked four days to base camp. The team spent another 20 days climbing the 25,263-foot peak, establishing four more camps along the way. They summited on August 10. Afterwards, the team credited Tang drink mix with rescuing them from severe dehydration. Closer to home, the Mazama Lodge raised funds for a new roof by renting space to ski groups during the slow summer months. Also, the Executive Council proposed a dues increase for members from $15 to $20 annually, effective in the 1984 fiscal year. It additionally proposed an increase for out-of-state members from one-half the in-state annual dues to three-fourths the annual dues. The previous increase was in 1978. Interest in Nordic skiing continued to rise. The year’s cross-country ski program was one of the largest in recent history. Over 180 people participated in the program, led by 31 instructors. Besides the regular program, the committee organized a Cross-Country Downhill Clinic for 30 people, as well as a successful Ski Touring program. The committee anticipated more outings and snow camping sessions in the future. Another successful program was the summer orienteering course on Larch Mountain—with 30 participants, the course was so popular the committee anticipated making it an annual event.

To help communications between the council and committees, the Mazamas held two potluck dinners to discuss the state and future of the organization. One outcome of these potlucks was a Certificate of Appreciation given by the council to those Mazamas who contribute admirably to their respective committees, but don’t get the recognition they deserve. The Annual Banquet, held on December 13, brought Lou Whittaker as the guest speaker. Guests loved his slide presentation of the Mazama-sponsored 1982 ChinaEverest Expedition. The team set a new route on Mt. Everest, but never summited due to storms, injuries, accidents, and the tragic death of Marty Hoey. Each table at the banquet featured a live plant. The Banquet Committee grew the plants, hand-glazed the pots, and gave them away during the event as door prizes. High attendance at the event resulted in a substantial profit for the organization.

1983 By Kate Dunn

Compared to the ups and downs of the previous year, 1983 was rock-solid. The Mazamas led and sponsored climbs, outings, and expeditions on every continent except Antarctica and Africa. With no monumental decisions on the horizon, the organization was able to focus on climbing, classes, and activities. It was a year of financial success thanks to lucrative summer ski schools and tight budget management in 1982. The organization was able to do quite a lot with this freedom. Climbing education programs got a new addition—courses in mountaineering first aid. In a remarkable feat, all of the winter climbs got off the ground, resulting in a success rate of 100 percent. The Whitewater Committee saw success and increased interest in their activities, and the Trail Trips Committee struck a deal with the U.S. Forest Service on trail maintenance. This effort, called the Adopt-A-Trail Program, saw collaboration with all other local outdoor groups to take on the workload of maintaining many Oregon trails. The Mazamas chose three trails, and signed agreements with the USFS to provide a minimum of two work parties per year per trail to keep them open to the hiking public and in safe, usable condition. The trails chosen were the Salmon River Trail in the Zigzag District of Mt. Hood National Forest, the Angels Rest Trail in the Columbia River Gorge, and the Hart Cove Trail in the Hebo District of Siuslaw National Forest. Aside from this excellent work, the real highlights of the year were the expeditions, climbs, and outings. A Mazama

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group summited Mt. Kinabalu (Borneo, Malaysia) in the winter of 1982–83. The 13,400-foot “highest mountain in Southeast Asia” was kind to its guests. While the route taken was easy, requiring only the stamina of a healthy hiker, members noted many potential rock climbing crags and pinnacles. The New Zealand outing took place in March, and included such destinations as the Franz Josef Glacier, the Milford Track (trail), and the Routeburn Track at Lake MacKenzie. Luxury hotels abounded, much to the delight of the Mazamas. On May 16, the Mazamasponsored Alpamayo Expedition in Peru departed for Lima. They summited exactly two months later after a relatively calm, but strenuous, effort. The Alps outing began in Zurich and included such classics as the Eiger, the Monch, the Jungfrau, Mt. Blanc, and the Matterhorn. In early April, a ski traverse began at McKenzie Pass, travelled south through the Three Sisters Wilderness, and ended at Mt. Bachelor. As with the rest of the Mazama outings of 1983, it went off beautifully, without any hitches or accidents, all of which was narrated in lively detail by the participants. The future of the Bulletin and Annual was called into question in the Annual itself by Editor Dick Miller. With readership waning and content hard to come by, the editor wondered whether to continue putting out the publications. He asked members to give ideas, send photos, reinstate a Photographic Committee, and contribute the reports they’re (in fact) required to submit as a condition of grant funding. Keith Mischke, in his President’s Report, urged members to remember that the Mazamas is a volunteer organization. He urged members not to take things too seriously, and to keep it fun.

1984

By Laurence Spiegel and Jeff Thomas The organization turned 90 this year! To celebrate, the July Bulletin featured a full-page cover photo of the July 19, 1984 founding climb. Many did not expect the organization to survive this long—but it did, and showed no signs of shuttering its doors anytime soon. A range of outings highlighted the year for many Mazamas. The outing to Australia, with hiking and climbing in Cradle Mountain/Lake St. Clair National Park in Tasmania, was a hit with many attendees. Climbers were within 100 feet of the summit of Cradle Mountain, Tasmania’s highest peak, when a sudden, fierce gale struck, forcing them to retreat. Along the way, the Mazamas also visited Auckland, Sydney,

Canberra, Melbourne, and Tahiti. Members on the outing to northern Alaska’s Brooks Range experienced wilderness in its purest form. Similarly, remote and rugged also described the Mineral Ridge traverse, a bushwhacking, cross-country outing in the North Cascades east of Mt. Shuksan. Unfortunately, one member’s sleeping bag fell off a 1,000-foot cliff into a stream. Luckily, other members came to the rescue with warm clothing for the night. The outing to Canyon Creek and Enchantment Lakes in the Trinity Alps offered members plenty of occasions to climb. Backpacking opportunities abounded during outings to the Goat Rocks, Mt. Rainier National Park, and Banff and Yoho National Parks in the Canadian Rockies. Of particular interest were outings along the coast of Olympic National Park, and a rugged rim-to-rim hike across the Grand Canyon. For members wishing to do a full outing in a single day, the organization sponsored an Around-Mt.Hood-in-One-Day trip. Fifty-five hearty souls started the one-day hike, and 30 completed it. The Mazamas had an active Whitewater School, with week-long outings to the Lower Salmon (Idaho) and Grand Ronde Rivers, and weekend trips to the John Day, Deschutes, McKenzie, and Sandy Rivers. Canoes, rafts, and drift boats experienced calmer waters on the Willamette River between Harrisburg and Independence. The Whitewater program was profitable—bringing $1,000 to the organization’s treasury this year. The July Bulletin carried an article by Bob Fox with the intriguing title Two Bushwhacks off Eagle Creek Trail. One of the off-trail routes left the main trail near Punch Bowl Falls and headed generally east, eventually intersecting the Ruckle Creek Trail. The second off-trail route left just after crossing the High Bridge, went generally west, and eventually intersected the Tanner Butte Trail. The author recommended the routes as great climb conditioners, or as perfect scrambles to experience true wilderness. A member pointed out in the next month’s Bulletin that one of the trails referred to by Bob Fox had been abandoned. The article noted that off-trail hikers should be careful not to cause unintended damage, and to remember that excessive use of established trails also caused environmental degradation. Due to a leaking roof and other problems with the clubrooms on NW 19th, the organization considered moving to a different location. After investigating possible locations, the council decided that staying at the present site and remodeling was the best option. Construction began, and the organization temporarily located to the nearby Northwest Service Center. At the cost of $100,000, the remodeled space provided new air conditioning

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Donald G. Onthank By Jeff Thomas No history of the Mazamas would be complete without mention of one of the organization’s most well-respected members, Donald G. Onthank (1892–1981). The Mazamas have given countless honors and awards to many outstanding personalities over the years, but Don is the only one who earned the unique nickname “Mr. Mazama.” But what exactly did this mean during his lifetime, and why should we remember him today? The best overall answer to these questions was written by the committee who nominated Don for Honorary Member in 1958: The kind of service Don has volunteered for three decades simply cannot be bought nor produced by anything less than fanatical devotion to the club and its stated purposes.

(3), Banquet (4), Climbing (10), Library (41), Membership (16), Membership Promotion (11), Monthly Publication (8), Nominating (16), and Publications (6). Remember, these numbers don’t take into account the 23 years Don spent continuing to volunteer before his death in 1981. He could at times be abrasive and sarcastic in social situations, was exceedingly frugal, and a bit old fashioned. He also wasn’t known to be a smiler (except on the folk-dance floor), and the sheer amount of time he spent volunteering with the Mazamas was known to ruin his marriage and damage his business. Nevertheless, Don was known to be dignified and rarely displayed anger, and the high quality of service he dedicated to the organization helped get it to where it is today.

If there is any other member Don would have been the first who has served more years to say that he was not a great on more committees, whose technical climber, even by the name appears on more standards of his day, nor did he membership applications, seek the leadership limelight. who has pioneered and Yet he had more to offer the scouted more trails and Mazamas than pure climbing Don Onthank on his last climb. climbs, who is more of an talent, as he related to Jim Photograph from the Vera Dafoe encyclopedia of Mazama Collection. Goodsill in 1969: mountaineering, who has I never gave a thought to helped nominate more accumulating leadership points either Executive Council members, and who before or after awards were offered, in has spent more hours on the telephone fact I frequently went along as assistant giving helpful advice to members and leader in order to encourage and prospective members, we do not know help new leaders, which accounts for who it could be.1 most of the assists prior to 1964 when I The committee was correct—Don probably had sat on more committees than anyone else in Mazama history, as this list from 1958 shows: Annual (15 years), Audit and Budget 1 September 1958 Mazama Bulletin

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attempted to retire from all leading. Don would, however, become enthusiastic and interested when he discovered anything significant was going to happen in Oregon


climbing. Two such events that occurred during his lifetime were the first ascent of the Pearly Gates Route on St. Peter’s Dome in the Columbia River Gorge in 1958, and the first ascent of the Pioneer Route on Monkey Face on January 1, 1960. When a phone call from one of the participants alerted him in Portland the night before that the Monkey’s summit was imminent, he dropped everything and rushed to Central Oregon. Don not only witnessed the event, but took an iconic photo while the party was celebrating on the summit. Even if Don was no superman while rock climbing or mountaineering, he may well have been while hiking. When Don was in his prime—and even into his 50s, 60s, and 70s—he was a master of offtrail “hiking” in the Columbia River Gorge. Along with a pair of clippers and a small hand axe, he was responsible for scouting, maintaining, and sometimes naming routes that are now labeled “adventure hikes.” The net result of all these trips was to create numerous routes in the Gorge where current and prospective Mazamas could work themselves into mental and physical shape for the climbing season without having to travel far from the city. Some mention must be given to Don’s love of books—and the place dearest to his heart where he discovered these books—the Mazama Library. Don wrote the following to Mathew Nelson in 1957: I climbed Mt. Hood in 1912 and some other mountains in the following years, but did not join the Mazamas until 1927. Soon after becoming a member I started reading mountaineering books and journals in the club’s then rather small library and found it intensely interesting… Probably reading led to more active climbing and the climbing inspired more reading and for the next 25 years I did a lot of both. Somebody noticed my interest so I was put on the library committee; I have forgotten when…and have been a member of it off and on since then with a few years off when I was too busy with other activities…

In total, Don served on the Library Committee for nearly 60 years. By the 1940s, the time he spent reading and climbing increased, and intense interest gave him nearly unprecedented knowledge of mountaineering and Mazama history. Longtime Onthank admirer Dave Bohn states that when it came to mountaineering books, Don’s mind was encyclopedic. Dave often witnessed someone asking Don a question about a climb or a passage in a book. Don could either tell them what the book said off the top of his head, or walk over—without any reference—to pick the correct book off the shelf. This ability to accurately recall events and facts lasted nearly until his death. Because of this encyclopedic knowledge, Don was often consulted by authors, map makers, and even the U.S. Forest Service for his advice and editorial assistance. At the same time, Don didn’t hesitate to contact others with unsolicited advice when he encountered incorrect information. Like all of us have or will have to do, Don eventually had to give up climbing. He wrote about this in a 1971 letter to Darryl Kuhns: This past weekend I was out doing some mountain climbing of two small mountains in the Goat Rocks Wilderness between Mt. Rainier and Mt. Adams. I found out just what I expected to learn, that I am no longer fit for that sort of activity as I got very tired, so I decided then and there that I was through, after 59 years from my first climb of Mt. Hood in 1912. Vera and Carmie Dafoe led that climb, and Vera later remembered that everyone on the ascent knew this would most likely be Don’s last. Every effort—without any overt act or even a wink and a nod—was made by the rest of the party to ensure that Don made it to the summit and back. Don’s final comment on having to retire from climbing says it all for those of us who also have had to throw in the towel: “Father Time is hard on my trail.”

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Continued from page 33 and heating systems, a separate balcony for the library, improved meeting rooms, better security, and fire protection for rare books. The Mazamas expected the improvements to meet the organization’s needs for 15 years, and extended the lease for that period. Bob Lockerby made the Mazama Library more useful by adding subject headings for books in the card catalog. Before, catalog records contained only the title and author, making it difficult to search for books by subject. This huge project would continue into the next year. One volunteer did a complete inventory of all the summit registers; to his dismay he found that that at least four precious volumes were missing. In the future, one of these amazing documents would be recovered, and three previously-unknown books would be found. Also this year, researchers studied the retreat of the Collier Glacier between North and Middle Sisters. While the Collier Glacier has been retreating rapidly, other nearby glaciers are retreating more slowly or not at all. In the years ahead, continued study of this and other glaciers would assess the speed of glacial melt, a sign of climate change. Another study looked at the vegetation on Miller Island located at the mouth of the Deschutes River on the Columbia. A small section of the island contains undisturbed native bunchgrass, while the rest shows signs of disturbance by livestock. The Mazamas had an active Explorer Post program, with 276 members in an Eastside Post8 and 26 members in a Westside Post. The young people participated in the full gamut of Mazama activities. The Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife sponsored its first-annual garbage cleanup on Oregon beaches, and 65 Mazamas showed up to assist. A chartered bus delivered 40 Mazamas to Sand Lake, south of Cape Lookout, while another 25 worked at Netarts Spit. Despite the Reagan administration’s environmental stance, Oregon and Washington both received new or expanded wilderness areas. Oregon’s Siuslaw National Forest, North Fork of the John Day River, Lower Minam, Sky Lakes, Bull-of-the-Woods, Table Rock, and the Menagerie all received new protection. Sections of the Owyhee and Illinois Rivers received Wild and Scenic River status. In Washington, new or expanded wilderness areas included the Goat Rocks, Tatoosh, Trapper Creek, Indian Heaven, Glacier View, Mt. Adams, and the appropriatelyrenamed William O. Douglas Wilderness. One interesting climbing story came out of the extensive lobbying involved in this wilderness bill, the primary 8 Drawn from seven area schools.

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Mazama members clean up beach plastics. Photo from the Vera Dafoe Collection. sponsor of whom was Senator Mark Hatfield. Mazama members Vera Dafoe and Nick Dodge met with Hatfield’s aide, Tom Imeson, to decide whether the Menagerie—a de facto wilderness climbing area—should be included in the bill. The sticking point in previous discussions was that the Menagerie, at barely 5,000 acres, was thought to be too small. At the beginning of the meeting, Vera retold a humorous story Imeson had related in a prior session. Apparently, his one and only climbing experience was at Carter Rock, a small practice area near Washington, D.C. A friend had belayed him to the top, where an older gentleman was watching. During a conversation after the climb, the gentlemen casually remarked that it was the first time he had ever seen anyone use a rope on that particular route—most people just walked up. The atmosphere in the room warmed as they laughed once again at the punch line, and Imeson began asking questions about the proposed boundaries. At that point, Vera knew the Menagerie would make it into the bill. Unfortunately, several other worthy areas near the Menagerie on the South Santiam River were not included. Nevertheless, the bill eventually passed, and one of the best set of climbing crags in Oregon became wilderness. Indeed, it has been said that if the Menagerie was in the Midwest or on the East Coast of the United States, it would be worthy of National Park status. It’s ironic that at the time of this writing, the Menagerie—with as much potential as any climbing area in Oregon—is little-known and seldom visited. Finally, in perhaps one of the most curious and unexpected announcements about a Mazama member passing, the July 1984 Bulletin stated that Linda Frazier, while attending a press conference in Nicaragua, was killed by a bomb blast aimed at rebel leader Eden Pastora. Linda had joined the Mazamas in 1961, and was a reporter for the Associated Press in San Jose, Costa Rica at the time of her death.


1985

By Laurence Spiegel In what may have been the most ambitious undertaking in the organization’s 91-year history, two Mazama expeditions entered Pakistan’s Karakoram region in 1985. Bob Wilson led a group of eight climbers to Hidden Peak (Gasherbrum I), located near K2. At 24,470 feet it is one of the 14 peaks in the world that exceed 8,000 meters. Although unable to summit due to bad weather, unfavorable snow conditions, and medical issues, the spectacular scenery and cultural interchange made the trip a success. At the same time, Dan Kemper and eight others trekked 180 miles from the last road, to Gasherbrum I Base Camp at 16,750 feet. In addition to visiting villages along the way and getting to know the porters, the trekkers entered “the throne room of the mountain gods,” surrounded by some of the highest peaks in the world. While the trekkers paid a bundle of money for this trip, they came home feeling much richer for the experience. The two leaders regaled attendees at that year’s banquet with tales from the Hidden Peak climb and Karakoram trek. Europe drew Mazamas on three different outings. One group traveled to England’s Lake District and the Scottish Highlands. Another explored the Dolomite Mountains and the coast of Cinque Terre in northern Italy. The mountains of Norway attracted more Mazamas, where the system of mountain huts was well-appreciated after days of wet weather and rocky trails. Traveling abroad with fellow Mazamas provides a nice mix of hiking as well as historical and cultural attractions. Alaska’s Denali and Prince William Sound drew another Mazama outing up north. Little did they know that in four years, the Sound would be the site of the nation’s worst oil spill. Closer to home, Mazamas backpacked the Pacific Crest Trail from Timberline Lodge to the Columbia River, and circled the Three Sisters and Mt. Hood. Sixteen Mazamas floated on seven rafts for 116 miles down the Lower Salmon and Snake Rivers. Besides forest fire smoke at the start of the trip, and bundling together under a tarp in a fierce (but short) storm, all considered the rafting trip a “joy ride.”

climb, there were not enough leaders to meet the demand. The organization decided to look into ways to recruit and keep more leaders. Mazama Lodge turned 25 years old this year, and 250 Mazamas gathered on a beautiful summer day to celebrate. The Lodge hosted a huge lamb barbeque, recreating the original dedication. Marjorie Walker (then Lynott) even threw a snowball at the side of the Lodge to dedicate it, just as she had 25 years earlier. The Mazama Museum display cabinets debuted at the remodeled clubrooms. Rotating exhibits of artifacts showing a rich history of hiking, skiing, climbing, and Mazama memorabilia were again on display for all to see. Although the Museum was established back in 1970, there had been no place to display these items up until this year. The display cabinets were made possible solely due to the persistence of Museum curator Vera Dafoe. There were several members of note this year. Margaret Redman climbed Mt. Hood and joined the Mazamas in 1915. Seventy years later, she celebrated her 100th birthday with fifty fellow members who braved the ice and snow to gather for her party. The Redman Cup, sponsored by and named for Margaret, honors the artistic or literary excellence of the Mazama members who receive it. Alfred Parker, another old timer who joined the Mazamas in 1914, passed away at age 104. The Parker Cup, which he donated in 1925, honors the Mazama who gave the most outstanding service to the organization during the previous year. Following are a few miscellaneous items to round out the year. The Computer Selection Subcommittee suggested that the organization buy its own computer, the first in its history. The price range they recommended was $9,000 to $11,000! There are hundreds of species of flowering plants to be found in the Mt. Hood area. The Annual detailed one study, and published a comprehensive list for those who were interested in finding them for themselves. Finally, Portland mayor Bud Clark honored the success of Mazama mountaineering by declaring April 21, Dare Mighty Things Day.

Not to be overlooked are Trail Trips—this year the committee sponsored 142 events, in which 2,050 hikers walked 1,279 miles of trails. Due to new U.S. Forest Service regulations and concern with overcrowding on the trails, the Mazamas ceased publishing notices of upcoming hikes in local newspapers. As far as climbing is concerned, there was a worry that while more people than ever wished to We Climb High Vol 2 • 37


1986 By Eric Hall

This was a tragic year for Oregon mountaineering. Four Mazamas lost their lives in three separate climbing and hiking accidents, and the worst disaster in the history of Mt. Hood climbing played out over several days on the south side. Together these events had a profound and lasting effect on the Mazama community. In March, the Mazamas were stunned by the death of climber Pat Haythorne. Pat, accompanied by her husband Dave Schermer, was descending to Eliot Glacier using the steep slope on the northern flank of lower Cooper Spur. Pat’s front points caught on her gaiter—she tripped and fell, and dragged Dave down with her. She died instantly while Dave tried valiantly to revive her. Afterward, he lay nearly helpless on the Eliot for two days, unable to move because of severe injuries. Help eventually arrived. Pat had completed an unusually long list of both Mazama and private climbs, in part because she and Dave kept themselves extremely fit. She served on the Climbing, Research, and Expedition committees, and had shared her mountaineering knowledge by instructing for both the Intermediate and Advanced Schools. Pat’s loss was deeply felt by her climbing colleagues. In May, a trust fund for climbing education was established in her name. At 3 a.m. on May 12, a group of 20 climbers from the Oregon Episcopal School (OES) set out from Timberline Lodge. The three adults and 17 teenaged students made slow progress. Several climbers turned back before reaching the top of the Palmer Lift. Between 2 and 3 p.m., with conditions deteriorating above the Hogsback, and with several climbers struggling, the group leaders decided to turn around. Descending in a whiteout, they became confused about their location, and chose to dig in. The 13 climbers sought shelter in a 6 ft. by 8 ft. snow cave. The following morning, two members of the group left the cave to get help. By mid-morning the two had reached help, but were unable to tell rescue teams the location of the ice cave. Meanwhile, volunteer and military resources mobilized a massive search and rescue effort. On May 14, as the weather cleared, searchers found the bodies of three climbers on the White River Glacier. The following afternoon, at the 8,200-foot level of the glacier, searchers discovered the cave and the eight remaining climbers. All were airlifted to area hospitals, but only two survived. All told, the incident claimed the lives of nine people—seven OES students and two faculty members. The OES tragedy prompted mountaineers to take a hard look at climbing practices. The Clackamas County Sheriff ’s Department and an OES investigative committee each 38 • We Climb High Vol 2

produced follow-up reports. Dr. Cameron Bangs and Don Batten summarized the report in an Annual article. The authors noted the importance of faithfully adhering to proven climbing practices, such as those taught in Mazama climbing and leadership training courses. In his annual report, Climbing Committee Chair Ed Holt observed that the OES tragedy had prompted serious reflection among Oregon climbers—compelling all climb leaders to ask, “What would I have done?” He added, “This emphasizes the importance of setting and maintaining high standards for the Mazama Education Program, the climbing schools, and performance on Mazama climbs.” The second fatal Mazama climbing accident of the year occurred in the Karakoram in June. The K2 South Pillar Expedition was organized by members John Smolich, Alan Pennington, and Jon Dasler. The Expedition Committee had sponsored and endorsed the trip. The expedition’s eight climbers traveled to Pakistan and arrived at base camp on May 31. On the morning of June 21, while ferrying loads to Camp III at 6,800 meters, Smolich and Pennington were caught in an avalanche and killed. Fellow climbers located and retrieved Pennington’s body, but no trace of Smolich was found. Steve Boyer, the expedition physician, described the trip in an Annual article. The accident was one of many deadly incidents on K2 in 1986—nine other groups attempted to summit from the south side, and while 27 climbers succeeded, 13 died. In July, while on a private Ptarmigan Traverse trip with fellow Mazamas, Terry Jones was killed in yet another tragic accident. As the party traversed the open slopes between Cascade Pass and Cache Col, a single large boulder fell and struck Terry in the back of the head, killing him instantly. He had been a member for more than 10 years, and also a climb leader. Despite the year’s grim backdrop, the Mazamas grew and continued to offer a robust slate of activities. The Trail Trips Committee scheduled a total of 166 events which were attended by 2,031 hikers. After being dormant for many years, Trail Trips reinvigorated the Used Equipment Sale, which netted $926.82. The Climbing Committee reported 216 scheduled climbs. The Outing Committee ran 14 outings, including a cross-country ski trip to Yellowstone, hiking trips to the Trinity Alps, the Sawtooth Range, and Glacier National Park, and a rafting trip down the John Day River. International outing groups traveled to Taiwan and Innsbruck. The year also saw significant organizational growth. The House and Finance Committees were created, and the First Aid Committee began to operate independently from the Climbing Committee. Looking outward, the organization fostered relationships with other outdoor and conservation groups. The Executive Council


initiated a study on improving relationships and communication with the rest of the climbing community. Finally, for the second time in 55 years, the Mazamas hosted the annual convention for the Federation of Western Outdoor Clubs at the Mazama Lodge.

1987

By Eric Hall and Jeff Thomas In the wake of the previous year’s climbing tragedies, the Mazamas spent 1987 focusing on risk management. Amidst growing concern over potential liability issues arising from Mazama activities, the leadership took steps to protect the organization, its members, and its assets. The Executive Council tasked an ad hoc committee with developing a risk management plan. The committee proposed bylaws changes to address indemnification for officers, directors, and leaders to protect them from lawsuits. It also recommended that committees develop liability release forms with language specific to the inherent risks of each activity. Recognizing that quality leaders are a key component of risk management, the Mazamas continued their commitment to high-quality instruction in the principles and techniques of mountaineering. Combined, the Basic, Intermediate, and Advanced Climbing Schools educated over 300 students. All programs maintained excellent student-to-instructor ratios. The Expedition Committee held its first camp on Mt. Rainier, where six members climbed Liberty Ridge and practiced expeditionary techniques. The First Aid Committee was established as a standing committee, and oversaw CPR training for 100 students. The Mazamas pursued a full calendar of activities, and, as President Don Burnet noted in his annual report, there were no serious injuries. The Climbing Committee scheduled 203 climbs, with 1,099 climbers safely completing their trips. The Expedition Committee funded expeditions to Denali and the Bolivian Andes. It also endorsed and sponsored four expeditions to the Karakoram and Mt. Everest. Trail Trips scheduled 174 events, including the first of what would become many rambles. Bob Miller organized that first ramble in Forest Park in May. In the years to come, rambles would grow in popularity, and become a point of entry for many people into the Mazamas. The Outing Committee organized 11 events, including two whitewater rafting trips, climbing outings to the Goat Rocks and the North Cascades, and hiking outings to Canyonlands, Havasu Canyon, the

Ray Atkeson on top of a serac, Mt. Hood, June 26, 1932. Photo by Al Monner. Chilkoot Trail in Alaska, the Dolomites, and the Inca Trail in Peru. Mazama Lodge received much-needed attention this year. The Executive Council approved a project to remodel and enlarge the manager’s quarters. The addition of 280 square feet doubled the size of the existing space. This project was made possible largely because of extensive use of the Lodge by summer ski schools, and the subsequent increase in usage transformed the Lodge into a significant source of income. The council deemed the improvements necessary to attract and maintain qualified management staff. At the end of May, John Salisbury, long-serving Executive Secretary and the organization’s first full-time office employee, retired. He was replaced by newcomer Marcia Siblerud. The Executive Council approved funding for an appraisal of the Mazama Library collection. The work was performed by John Pollack, former executive director of Mountaineers Books, and an expert in mountaineering publications. In his report, Pollack offered recommendations on shelf organization, database upgrades, and security. In an open letter to the community, he stated how impressed he was with both the quality and quantity of the collection. He ranked the Mazama collection among the top ten worldwide. He also suggested that members seeking to help the library could start by returning overdue books. We Climb High Vol 2 • 39


Library volunteers tackled a number of projects that had been on hold. Bob Lockerby created a computerized list of library holdings. Jeff Thomas supervised an outside contract to duplicate the invaluable Steel scrapbooks and Mazama summit registers on microfiche. Terry Toedtemeier, curator of photography for the Portland Art Museum at the time, was contracted to survey the photography collection, recommend future conservation, and write an appraisal. Terry completed the project with help from Lynn Roy and Jeff Thomas, and wrote an evaluation that assigned a possible market value of $25,000. In December, photographs from the Mazama collection were displayed at the Portland Art Museum. The show featured the work of Fred Kiser, as well as early prints by Edward Curtis and Bertram C. Towne. On Sunday, November 29, a short segment titled The Collectors appeared on KOAP channel 10 about items in the Mazama Museum. Vera Dafoe and Jack Grauer were filmed “in the field” describing the items with the south side of Mt. Hood near Timberline Lodge as the backdrop. The highlight was Jack demonstrating the tricky technique of self-arrest with an alpenstock. Several members received special recognition this year. The Leuthold Award, the Climbing Committee’s highest honor, was presented to Ray Sheldon and Jack Grauer. The award, presented in recognition of outstanding mountaineering performance and overall contribution to the organization, had been given out only eight times in Mazama history. In the annual election, Ray Atkeson was included on the ballot to be recognized as an Honorary Member. Atkeson spent nearly 60 years documenting the natural beauty of the Pacific Northwest through his magnificent photographic images. Membership overwhelmingly voted to bestow this honor.9 After the eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1980, the mountain was closed to climbing for seven years. In 1986 and the start of 1987, the U.S. Forest Service and the State of Washington, in response to increased pressure from outdoor groups, had agreed in principle to allow climbing. That said, progress had come to a standstill. Local TV station KGW broadcast a story on the continued closure on January 21, 1987. Reporter Waldon Kirsch and Mazama Vera Dafoe, along with a camera operator, were lifted above timberline on the south side of the Mount St. Helens by helicopter. Vera was filmed climbing on a perfect bluebird day and talked about why the mountain should be opened. The subsequent two episodes on Channel 8 covering the closure contributed to opening the mountain for climbing in late spring. 9 This was the last year members voted for Honorary Member. After the 1987 bylaws revisions passed, Honorary Membership approval passed to the Executive Council pending a 6-vote majority for the nominee.

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Amazingly, the 1987 Annual was completely silent about Mount St. Helens re-opening to climbing. The only hint that the mountain was to open again came in the climb schedule published in the April Bulletin, which featured 12 Mount St. Helens climbs starting May 8.10 Meanwhile, Vera Dafoe (representing the Mazamas and the American Alpine Club) had noticed a serious problem in 1986 while on a trip to Mount St. Helens with the U.S. Forest Service. The USFS was introducing members of climbing organizations to their proposed new route on the south side of the mountain. On the descent, the proposed route—now called Monitor Ridge—suddenly dropped off the ridge and branched south-southeast to the parking area. The sudden change in the direction was an obvious danger point—especially in bad weather—and Vera warned against the change in letters and private communications a number of times before Mount St. Helens opened. The Forest Service chose not to listen. Like the infamous Mt. Hood Triangle on the south side of Mt. Hood, to this day many climbers find themselves lost on the descent when the trail moves off Monitor Ridge. Later in 1987, Vera privately asked a Mazama friend in the U.S. Forest Service why the warnings about the change went unheeded. He told her that the USFS had continued with the plan because the trail had been budgeted and partially built, and there were no additional funds to start over and plan a trail in a different location.

1988

By Eric Jacobson The high point of the year was the contributions of Portland’s women to mountaineering. The low point of the year was a debate over a dues increase to address a financial shortfall caused by the October 1987 Black Monday stock market crash. Portland climber Stacy Allison, 30, became the first American woman to reach the top of Mt. Everest, the world’s highest peak at 29,029 feet, in September as part of the Northwest American Everest Expedition. The Expedition Committee sponsored the climb and provided a $500 grant. Allison, who spent much of her childhood in Woodburn and had been turned back on a Mt. Everest attempt in 1987, subsequently chronicled her efforts in the book Beyond the Limits: A Woman’s Triumph on Everest. Just three days after Allison’s ascent, Peggy Luce of Seattle became the second American woman to successfully 10 A tiny, one-paragraph article was buried on the last page of the February Bulletin, but the final decision to open the mountain apparently had not yet been made.


summit Mt. Everest. Luce, a relative climbing novice at the time, had originally joined the same expedition anticipating a support role Martha Ann Platt, the first woman president of the Mazamas in 1954, and the 1958 Parker Cup recipient, died at the age of 84. Platt joined the Mazamas in 1926 and became prominent through her tireless conservation work which saw the Conservation Committee established as a permanent committee during her tenure. Platt was named to the first national advisory committee to study forest use for the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Basil Clark also passed away. He was well known in the Mazamas as a veteran trail worker, especially in the Columbia River Gorge, and less well known for the third ascent of Three Fingered Jack on July 2, 1926. The Expedition Committee sponsored five climbs on three continents. For the first time, each expedition had one or more women on its climbing team. In addition to Allison’s ascent of Mt. Everest, the other sponsored climb in Asia was a second Mazama attempt of the 8,000-meter Gasherbrum I, also known as Hidden Peak. The team was turned around at 23,000 feet due to poor weather and a decision to assist members of another party who had become ill on nearby Gasherbrum II. Another climbing team, the Oregon Cordillera Blanca Expedition in Peru, succeeded on 20,841-foot Chopicalqui but was turned around on the attempt of Huascaran at 21,000 feet due to high winds. Finally, the Mazama 1988 African Expedition reached Point Lenana, at 16,056 feet, one of the three highest peaks of Mt. Kenya, and also successfully summited Mt. Kilimanjaro at 19,340 feet. Black Monday’s stock market crash hit close to home and led the council to examine the organization’s finances. The Trust Committee, led by Roy Webster, announced the total annual return of the invested funds decreased 2.8 percent over the past year, comparing favorably to the broader market’s 18.6 percent decrease over the same period. Nevertheless, stagnant membership revenues combined with increased costs of club activities meant there were insufficient funds for increased program costs. By March, the Financial Affairs Committee and council proposed to increase membership dues by 50 percent, from $20 to $30 per year, noting this would be the first dues increase in six years. This early announcement allowed discussion and debate through most of the year, with the council providing regular Bulletin updates. Many members questioned the wisdom of such a large increase, asking why the trust fund couldn’t pay expenses. The answer, complex and lengthly, lay in the management of the trust fund and restrictions within the bylaws. Members approved the proposal 621 to 217 in October, evidencing widespread support for the organization’s direction and leadership.

The Climbing Committee, led by Sam Nebel, posted a summer climbing schedule that included 231 climbs, of which 190 were successful. Greater emphasis was placed on climbs suitable for less experienced climbers, including a new category of climb—Basic Climbing School Only—to provide greater opportunities for recent Basic Climbing School graduates to participate in climbs. Increased interest in winter climbing resulted in twenty-five climbs posted, although most didn’t go due to weather. The quality of leaders and training programs continued to be emphasized, especially in light of a recent evaluation of the legal implications of club-sponsored activities. Two hundred and forty students participated in Basic Climbing School, 41 students in Intermediate Climbing School, and 20 students in the Advanced Program. New leadership training and development criteria were established, with all current leaders asked to submit information showing they met the updated requirements. Some veteran leaders viewed this as unnecessary and burdensome, so to make this as easy as possible a Leadership Update weekend was held at Mazama Lodge to enable leaders to verify and update their qualifications. Scott Fisher, who led the 1987 American Everest North Face Expedition, conducted a workshop and helped with field exercises. Two years after Greg Lemond became the first American to win the Tour de France, a group of eighteen embarked on the first Mazama cycling outing, a six-night tour of the San Juan Islands. Traveling light and accompanied by a sag wagon, the team explored four islands and covered about 30 miles per day and stayed at bed and breakfast inns. Like all true Mazamas, the cyclists were drawn to the nearest high point, the 2,398-foot Mt. Constitution on Orcas Island, and recorded the first successful Mazama summit by bicycle! Other major outings described in the Annual included trekking in Nepal and Kenya, hikes in western Tyrol, Yugoslavia, Eagle Cap Wilderness, Three Sisters Wilderness, the High Sierra, including reaching the top of Mt. Whitney, a 40-mile lodge-to-lodge trip along the Rogue River, and ski trips to Chamonix-Davos and Yellowstone. At every turn, Mazamas gained insight into different cultures by visiting monasteries in Nepal, a Masai village in Kenya, Stonehenge in England, tracking down distant

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Women in the Mazamas By Claire Tenscher Women’s climbing literature contains more than a few stories of clothing malfunction. From women in the early 20th century ditching their overskirts behind bushes at the base of a climb—the overskirts of course being necessary for the climber to board the streetcar on either end—to women using elaborate loop systems to lift fabric out of their way when range of motion was needed. A publication in the late 1800s describes a woman’s torn skirt catching on a rock mid-leap, leaving her hanging off a 25-foot precipice. For any worried readers: she was hauled back up by her ‘tattered garments’ and after some delay, continued descending Tuckerman’s Ravine on Mt. Washington. A fellow Mazama, Vera Dafoe, discusses the issue of women’s cold weather clothing with her classic frustration-tinged wit in 1973 for a piece she wrote for Off-Belay: Distracting as the arrangements [for opening and closing bottom layers] were, they were nothing compared to the problems endured once by a girl whose father had outfitted her for the climb, using so too-large men’s pants. In order to hold them up, he had attached suspenders to the waist, feeding the suspenders over her shirt, then under her sweater and jacket. All during the climb whenever it became necessary for her to lower the pants, the number of manipulations required was astronomical. She needed a minimum of 15 minutes each time we stopped for her and it became progressively depressing to the entire climbing party. A long evening’s study of the wonderful colorful catalogues on mountaineering and skiing equipment reveals that there is a magnificent assortment of outdoor clothing available for men. There is also a display of selected garments designated for women. […] The L.L. Bean catalogue appears to assume that the ladies do not need outdoor lower garments in winter, although it exhibits several upper pieces. […] Highland Outfitters stocks only men’s long pants, although a woman shopping there could go forth 42 • We Climb High Vol 2

partially clad in their ladies’ light blue or light lemon Ski Skins. A nostalgic feature of the Sears catalogue is a page which shows five different styles of men’s union suits, each with a one-button flap seat, and another page which offers two styles of women’s union suits, one with open seat and one with closed seat. While the men’s one-button flap must surely leave one corner hanging down, both women’s models seem to be rather extreme concepts, and it is hard to imagine which peculiarity of the three would be the most practical choice. Like the parable of the blind men, each of these anecdotes taken on their own is levity, but when examined together we see an elephant. Women’s technology and research lags far behind men’s, in clothing, nutrition, and even health. Lack of femalespecific clothing alone was a barrier to female climbing progress though most of the 20th century. In the course of writing this, I was lucky enough to speak with the first woman to lead the Mazama Climbing Committee, Allison Belcher. She has a stellar record of leadership, including pioneering ascents throughout the northwest and being the creator of a mountaineering safety program for Reed College. After her climbing life ended she spent decades giving voice to people who could not speak for themselves including foster children and Oregonians with disabilities, through social work and political action. With all of this accomplishment and demonstrated physical and leadership strength she still repeated to me that she knew she wasn’t as strong as the strongest men but that she made up for it with other strengths and was plenty capable. Another common feature of female authored climbing literature is justification of our right to lead and participate in the harder levels of sport. Allison tells of a particularly heartbreaking climbing trip where she was turned back at the trailhead after a multihour drive, purely for being a woman. Her frustration was palpable five decades later. Climbing is not


fundamentally about the physically strongest candidate reaching the top of a peak. Endurance, teamwork, and grit are likely better measures of success at altitude than strength alone. In another piece by Vera, a speculative acceptance speech to the American Alpine Club, she suggests that women don’t volunteer to lead partially because they lack self-confidence and also because they wish to ‘avoid being in a position for criticism.’ One current female leader in the Mazamas suspects that even today, “This is a reason why a lot of my female colleagues in the Mazamas don’t lead, but none that I know have come right out and said it. I know some women in the organization who would be amazing leaders, but they just don’t want the responsibility.” As Vera says, “It seems to me that we who are leaders, when we see a male climber who has good coordination, good judgment, enjoys climbing, is reliable, and so on, we tend to suggest to him that perhaps he’d like to get into climb leading. He is encouraged, groomed, and if all goes well, eventually launched into leadership. Many of us, however, when we see a good female climber think of her as pretty good for a girl, or almost as good as a male climber… We see women as being less able than men in almost all endeavors.” When women bring up their own weaknesses, perhaps we’re protecting ourselves by trying to get ahead of potential critics. In this vein, women’s stories of first ascents are often littered with their refusal to accept help, be it from man or mule, because of concern that their achievement will be lessened if it becomes known. Furthering this fear we have real examples where women’s achievements have been questioned. Women who have made first female ascents in the Himalayas have been told those trips don’t count because they worked with male Sherpas. Amy Brose, Mazama member and climb leader, notes, “My female climber friends and I have always said that women have to be so much stronger than their male counterparts to climb the same stuff … [early in my career] I was on an Olympus climb with a 60-pound pack going in … I absolutely refused to not carry group gear, because there was no way I wanted someone to say a woman had to compromise and ask men to carry

extra gear. Nevermind that pack to body weight ratio of a 125-pound woman … is a hell of a lot different than [the same] pack on 180-pound dude.” Even our female leaders have felt like they can’t complain about discomfort or feeling weak because they don’t want to be seen as a ‘weak woman.’ This is a societal, personal, and organizational challenge to be faced.” Fay Fuller, the first white woman to climb Mt. Rainer and a founding member of the Mazamas, is not mentioned once in the text of the first volume of We Climb High. In external accounts of that summit, Fay is described refusing help from the four men with whom she climbed and in her account she proclaims, if she couldn’t reach the goal without their Vera Dafoe, 1973. help she didn’t deserve it. A few years later in 1897 Fay again made the summit, this time with the Mazamas, but no mention of women being present is noted in We Climb High Volume 1. Amy Brose, “Women were part of the Mazamas from day 1. It blows people’s minds that women at that point in history were climbing at all, but that they might have been part of a climbing organization from the start ... It must have been revolutionary at the time to be a single woman involved in outdoor pursuits. We definitely need more information out there about Fay Fuller.” Allison did not become the first female leader of the Climbing Committee easily. She fought for the position against tremendous opposition with no attempt made to hide that she was considered unsuitable because she was a woman. This overt sexism is largely gone in the Mazamas today. Thanks to pioneers like Allison it is not something I recall encountering in my lifetime. But hidden and unconscious bias is still alive. Being ignored, told that our fears are unjustified, or simply getting talked-over seems to be a universal female experience. Women told me of situations where We Climb High Vol 2 • 43


they questioned the decision of a male leader and were overridden, for example not roping up for glacier travel, or choosing an unknown route over crevassed terrain. I’ve had a leader tell me that sweating during backcountry skiing is a sign that the skier isn’t pacing themselves appropriately or is dressed wrong. Since that experience I’ve mulled over a million rebuttals, but what I want to say loudest is, “Have you ever tried wearing a bra?” It is a thoroughly unpleasant occurrence to climb or hike with people you feel unsafe around or feel diminished by; this drives people out of groups. My hiking buddies are always people who make the same safety choices that I do, it’s a priority over pace or background. It was strange to hear my words echoed in Amy Brose’s, “I climb with people who have the same risk tolerance as me. That’s my first rule.” As noted by Vera in another essay, there’s another subtle bias often at play: trip attendees may seek out junior male authority over the female leader or will question a female leader’s decisions. “I’ll never forget a climb when I was leading us off Silver Star during a light snowstorm where we were socked in … I knew exactly where we were, I had my compass bearings, and we were moving along well. One climber … kept hovering at my elbow, worrying, asking was I sure this was the right direction … and fuss, fuss, fuss. He kept this up, even after we were down into the timber, nearing the road. He simply couldn’t believe I could do it. I have wondered whether he would have had more faith in a man.” There’s no data set on this. This is happening today. I can’t point to a situation and say, ‘there is sexism,’ but we can keep feeling the elephant. No, it’s not so simple as reporting that behavior. When the experience is described it can even sound like the offender was expressing appropriate concern. In fighting against those who would tell us they know our limits and abilities better than we do, we can’t look inside their mind to examine if they are treating us this way because of our gender or because they see a risk we do not. The type of bias that is buried in the mind, hidden especially from the speaker, is insidious. Even allies make choices for us, in both enthusiasm and self-confidence, that erase our voices. Vera’s AAC piece speculates on the causes that lead to fewer women climbing mountains. She addresses the way we’re socialized, and the way women won’t act pushy when they perceive themselves to travel outside the normal realm. “Watch the couples when you set up 44 • We Climb High Vol 2

your base camp. The woman is invariably doing the cooking and washing the dirty pots.” I have watched, I do see this, yes today. Vera wondered that she knew only two women whose husbands did not climb, while she knew many men whose wives did not climb. Rarely would a man be left behind to care for the children, but the same could not be said for his wife. We don’t see the majority of women climbers introduced to the sport by their spouses today, and the women I spoke to describe having supportive families. In fact perhaps we have swung the opposite way—with fervent female climbers seeking out the Mazamas to find people to recreate with. When asked why women take on fewer extreme climbs, Amy Graham, another current climb leader, noted, “I don’t have any kids but even I think my risk tolerance is lower than a lot of people because I have seen accidents in the mountains on rescues and really want to try and prevent them.” An article on Risk Taking in Avalanche Terrain published by the Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine shows that men take fewer risks in groups with women. Do women place greater importance on the impact of their climbs than do men? Do levels of confidence vary? Are these more conservative safety decisions beneficial?

Allison Logan Belcher practicing double rope tension aid climbing on the River Face of Rooster Rock, circa 1957. Photo by Wesley Fague.

Allison Belcher made the choice to quit climbing after she had her first child—the risk should she be injured was too great for her peace of mind. In championing women’s right to climb mountains, we must also allow


women to choose motherhood over the mountains, as Allison did. The time apart is a relationship stressor even without the concerns about a partner’s risk. Women may well choose not to climb to reduce the pressure on their intimate partners. We pulled data from the Mazama archive to see what trends the numbers exposed: • The Local Walks Committee was often chaired by women from the beginning, and many of the walks and climbs were led by women, however in 1934 when the Climbing Committee was split off from Local Walks the new committee was entirely male. The Climbing Committee was not led by a woman until Allison in 1962. • The first female president of the Mazamas, Martha Ann Platt, held the position 1953–1954, seven years after her husband and 50 years after the organization’s founding. There were no women after her until Lois Gibbons in 1980. Since Lois there have been more frequent female presidents, including Christine Mackert, one of only two people to serve five terms. • There is consistent growth in the total number of women climb leaders each year but until the 2010s the percentage of climbs led by women largely shrunk. • Distressingly the percentage of female local walks, now called hikes, leaders has decreased since 1990, and has largely trended downward since the middle of the 20th century. As Amy Brose astutely notes, “This is odd to me, if women with kids were worried about risk but still wanted to be actively leading, being a hike leader would be a great way to participate.” • One out of the total of five Executive Directors of the Mazamas has been a woman. Early in writing this piece I had assumed that the clothing imbalance issue was a thing of the past, surely the market had corrected to match the increasing numbers of women recreating outdoors. From my experience there are usually women’s options to match any men’s gear I envy. I did my own evening’s study of wonderful colorful catalogues (online), and while not exhaustive I did find equivalent options on expedition gear from most major retailers. I wrote a nice paragraph celebrating that win; which I have since deleted. While reading contemporary women’s climbing accounts I stumbled on an author who had to wear climbing boots

two sizes too big because no one makes boots small enough. There are forum posts where women look for leads on a brand that actually produces a small boot. The only actionable suggestion received was: wear extra socks and add an additional sockliner. I have a relatively average sized foot so I have never experienced this; and maybe there are several lessons packed into all of this. Not the least of which is; one person’s experience doesn’t capture the whole of the female experience. Vera’s clothing article was published in Off Belay in1973 with a companion piece reprinted from the first mountain journal ever published in the United States, Appalachia 1876–1878. This piece was called A Mountain Suit for Women and described the perils of climbing in a dress, including the earlier referenced Tuckerman’s Ravine accident, and proposed a modified flannel bathing suit as an alternative. The author, Mrs. W. G. Nowell, ends with “Our dress has done all the mischief. For years it has kept us away from the glory of the woods and the grandeur of the mountain heights. It is time we should reform.” Let me repeat this with emphasis: the first female-centric article ever published in an American climbing journal was about the limiting nature women’s clothing. When published with Vera’s piece it was accompanied with an editor’s note, “After reading [A Mountain Suit for Women] our sympathy is somewhat tempered, and we can only say, ‘You’ve come a long way baby!’” Yes, we have come a long way; but don’t mistake this for the end of the journey. Boots that don’t fit, tongue in cheek responses to complaints, apologies for behavior that does not change, and erased voices keep women out of leadership in sport and in the Mazamas. I came up with more question than answers in my research for this piece. Ultimately it is up to every one of us to keep traveling the roads that women before us built. We must think critically about our own actions, stand up for women, and be aware when we are turning the conversation to ourselves instead of the speaker. These accounts must challenge us to listen and make space for women to speak and lead and climb. We must be able to experience the “grandeur of the highest mountain peaks” on equal footing. A note from the author: there are other approaches that could have been taken in writing this article; this is mine. Any errors or omissions are mine as well. There are different, complex, stories to tell as we look into a world where gender definitions are fluid and what it means to be male or female morphs. Those are not my stories to tell, but if someone is interested in writing them I will gladly support in whatever capacity I am able.

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Continued from page 41

more than double skier capacity and provide for a yearround community.

cousins in Yugoslavia, and trying to comprehend the speed of yak travel as well as the mystery of currency exchanges.

Oregon Public Broadcasting’s Front Street Weekly television program included a fifteen-minute segment on the proposed Master Plan which sparked widespread debate and was opposed by the Conservation Committee. On April 16, Mazama President Don Jeffery, Vice President Jack Grauer, and Conservation Committee member Janet Johnson participated in a KATU Town Hall expressing concern that the expansion of private uses on public lands would conflict with Mt. Hood’s natural setting and Oregon’s land use laws. The Mazamas submitted a letter to the U.S. Forest Service opposing the expansion and contributed $200 to Friends of Mt. Hood, the environmental advocacy organization leading opposition efforts in favor of locating development in Government Camp and Hood River. Although a final decision had not been made by year’s end, of the 2,695 responses submitted on the Mt. Hood Meadows Draft Environmental Impact Statement, 59 percent opposed the expanded resort.

Conflicts associated with overuse and climbing ethics at Smith Rock State Park led the Oregon State Parks Department to seek comments on a master plan. The Climbing Committee submitted a letter expressing concerns with poor sanitation, destruction of vegetation, and unenforced rules, and recommended raising the bivouac fee. Following a meeting with the Parks Department and American Alpine Club, the Executive Council expressed opposition to governmental regulation of climbing equipment or techniques except in cases of justifiable environmental or archaeological concern, and support for establishing a climbing committee to address disputes over climbing ethics and style. Ray Sheldon, a Mazama since 1960 and a climb leader since 1963, was awarded the Parker Cup for his calm, dependable leadership in the field and service on the Executive Council and numerous committees. A new trophy was presented by Mary Parker Lawrence, daughter of Alfred Parker, Mazama President in 1925 and the donor of the original Parker Cup. The original trophy had to be retired as it lacked space for additional names. Looking to the future, the Executive Council approved a plan to replace the lodge deck, the preparation of a 10-year lodge maintenance plan, a motion for the Publications Committee to develop a policy for commercial advertising in the Bulletin, and initiated efforts to celebrate the 100year anniversary by forming the Centennial Committee. Don Jeffery was elected president, and the membership over the year increased by seventy-seven ending with 2,883 members.

1989

By Eric Jacobson Controversy erupted on Mt. Hood concerning a proposed expansion of the Mt. Hood Meadows resort. Established in 1966 when the U.S. Forest Service awarded a 30-year permit to operate a day-use ski resort to a Portland-based group, Mt. Hood Meadows had grown by the late 1980s from its initial two chairlifts to nine, two lodges, and a highly successful ski school. The increasing popularity of winter sports led Mt. Hood Meadows and the U.S. Forest Service to propose a major expansion, including four new chairlifts, three hotels, a total of 1,500 condominium and hotel units, a mid-mountain restaurant, tennis courts, swimming pool, parking, and sewage system that would 46 • We Climb High Vol 2

When not advocating for protecting wilderness areas, the Mazamas were exploring them. Notable was the 1989 Mazama Andean Expedition, sponsored by the Expedition Committee, which set its sights on Peru’s highest peak, the 22,205-foot Nevado Huascaran Sur. Eight members made the trip, with four successfully topping out on July 2. Additionally, two members successfully summited the secondary peak, 18,100-foot Mt. Uros. Reminiscent of Mazama outings dating from the early 1900s, a total of forty-seven Mazamas swarmed to the lower flanks of Mt. Rainier over a two-week period. With the summit not featured as the exclusive goal, the group participated in twenty-four scheduled hikes, backpack trips, and climbs to explore the area’s slopes and lakes. The participants also mounted successful climbs of Plummer Peak, Pinnacle Peak, Eagle Peak, and Mt. Rainier. Experienced and renowned mountaineers shared their stories and experiences at Mazama functions. Portland’s Stacy Allison, the first American woman to summit Mt. Everest, made appearances as the guest speaker at the Leadership Update Weekend and also the Annual Banquet. Allison discussed the logistics of undertaking such a major expedition and noted Nepal and the Mt. Everest area are beginning to suffer from heavy use as up to 200 climbers are allowed in base camp. The winter fundraiser sponsored by the Expedition Committee featured Dick Bass, the first person to climb to the summit of each of the seven continents and, in 1985 at the age of 55, the oldest person at the time to have summited Mt. Everest. Bass signed copies of his book, Seven Summits.

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Arlene Blum Edited by Mathew Brock In 1988 the Mazamas made Arlene Blum, PhD, the organization’s twenty-eighth Honorary Member. The recognition honored her achievement in climbing, exploration, research, and advancing mountaineering opportunities for women. A Mazama from 1965 to 1972, Blum’s climbing career began on Mt. Hood analyzing volcanic gases for her senior thesis in chemistry at Reed College. Over her career Blum climbed twenty of the world’s tallest mountains. In 1970, she co-led the first all-woman ascent of Denali; in 1976 she was the first woman to attempt Mt. Everest; in 1980 she led the first ascent of India’s Bhrigupanth (22,218 feet). She is most well-known for leading, in 1978, the first American and all-women party to the summit of Annapurna I (26,504 feet). In the laboratory and halls of government, Blum’s biophysical chemistry research and policy work contributed to preventing the use of flame retardants and harmful chemicals in furniture, electronics, children’s sleepwear, and other products worldwide. Blum went on to write Annapurna: A Woman’s Arlene Blum at the 1979 Mazama Banquet. Photo Place and to chronicle her life story in the awardby Ken Hollingsworth. winning memoir Breaking Trail: A Climbing Life. Her photographs and writings have appeared in National Geographic Magazine and at the Smithsonian. Over the years Blum has given her time to the Mazamas. She spoke at the 1979 Mazama Annual Banquet about her Annapurna climb, and returned in 1999, at the invitation of Explorer Post 936, to commemorate the 20th anniversary of the expedition. Arlene returned to headline the Annual Banquet in 2003. Her talk, titled Endless Winter: High Places Around the World, featured stories from a 15-month expedition across Ethiopia, Uganda, Iran, Afghanistan, and the Kashmir Himalayas. In 2005, she held a book signing event for her memoir to help raise money for the Mazama Mountaineering Center. In March of 2007, Arlene returned and spoke on her scientific research and shared her experience leading the successful ascents of Denali and Annapurna. Given all these achievements it seems both odd and yet fitting that perhaps what Arlene will be most remembered for is a short but pithy statement printed on a T-shirt sold to partially fund the Annapurna climb. To wit: A Woman’s Place is on Top

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Continued from page 46 Increased awareness of the importance of old growth forests and spotted owl habitat led the Conservation Committee to support Oregon Senate Bill 500 to create the 31,000-acre Opal Creek Ancient Forest. The bill, introduced by State Senator John Kitzhaber, required the state to apply for a permit from the U.S. Forest Service to protect the cathedral-like groves featuring trees more than 250 feet tall and 1,000 years old from logging and mining. The proposal generated protests from the timber industry and was not passed by the Oregon Legislature. Conservation groups vowed to continue efforts to protect the area. The Research and Conservation Committees joined forces to examine management and public access opportunities for the Table Mountain, Red Bluffs, and Greenleaf Peak vicinity in the Columbia Gorge. Two field trips were made to survey opportunities for creating a public access road and trailhead on private lands. The Conservation Committee wrote to Columbia River Gorge Commission Chair Stafford Hansell urging better access to Table Mountain. The Climbing Committee, led by Bruce Coorpender, scheduled a total of 234 climbs and reported that Basic Climbing School had an enrollment of eighteen groups of fifteen students each. In order to encourage students to join and continue as members, the bylaws were changed to grant graduates membership through rest of the fiscal year with the completion of a qualifying climb. Previously it was estimated that only 10 percent of graduates became members. Additionally, 40 students participated in Intermediate School, there were 34 applicants for 22 slots in the Advanced Rock Program, and 15 students were accepted to the Advanced Ice Climbing Program, a new program approved the prior year and patterned after the Advanced Rock Climbing Program with a focus on highangle snow and ice leads.

William “Bill” Hackett, 1990. by Bradford Washburn. and continued to make the first and second ascents of the West Buttress (1951) route and the first ascent of the Northwest Buttress (1953) route. He became the first person to successfully summit the highest peaks of North and South America after climbing Aconcagua in 1949. After the successful climb, Hackett was greeted in Buenos Aires by Argentina President Juan Peron, who presented Hackett with his personal ice axe. With subsequent ascents, Hackett claimed the distinction of the only person to attain the highest summits in Europe, Africa, Australia, and both Americas, and his other explorations included crossing Siberia, visiting both the North and South Poles, and traveling to more than 100 countries.

The Trail Trips Committee, led by Phyllis Towne, expanded opportunities for hikers by extending the Tuesday Night Rambles to a year-round activity, and offering Thursday evening hikes on sections of Portland’s 40-mile Loop. By year’s end, a total of 325 scheduled hikes by 100 different leaders resulted in a total of 3,760 hiker trips, an increase of 25 percent over the previous year.

Self-described “constructive troublemaker” Vera Dafoe was awarded the Montague Conservation Award for her many efforts which, among others, included contributing to the establishment of the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area, blocking a proposed tramway from Cascade Locks to the Benson Plateau, preventing expansion of the chairlift on the south side of Mt. Hood, and opposition to a destination resort at Mt. Hood Meadows.

Longtime member Bill Hackett was chosen to be the 29th Honorary Mazama for his worldwide achievements in climbing and exploration on all seven continents. Having joined the Mazamas in 1933 after he first climbed Mt. Hood in high school, Hackett expanded his mountaineering and backcountry skills while serving with the 10th Mountain Division during World War II. In 1947, he participated in the fourth ascent of Denali, led

Past President Don Jeffery was awarded the Parker Cup for his many contributions to the organization. Having joined the Mazamas in 1972, Jeffery became a climb leader in 1975, served on the Bylaws Committee for five years, and was elected to Executive Council in 1986. Jeffery also spearheaded work on indemnification and liability insurance which led to an increased focus on the quality of the organization’s leaders and training programs. Jeffery

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was further rewarded with another tour of duty on the Executive Council courtesy of a bylaw change increasing the council from nine to ten members, including the immediate past president. Classified and display advertising in the monthly Bulletin, once prominent but discontinued in the mid-1940s, reappeared after the prior year policy change approved by the Executive Council. Council members elected Christine Mackert president for the second time. The Parker Cup winner had previously served as president in the fiscal year 1980–81. Membership peaked in January with 2,899 members, but by the end of the year had fallen to 2,541. The loss of about 350 members was attributed by some to the dues increase passed the prior year.

1990

By Nathan Herzog The Mazamas introduced ski mountaineering as a distinct discipline amidst strong anticipation and pentup demand. The desire for this curriculum was evident based on the enthusiastic attendance to the first set of clinics. These sessions kicked off with a multi-media lecture covering the history of the sport, video instruction, and an extensive equipment show-and-tell. The first eighteen participants enjoyed glorious, sunny weather during field sessions at Timberline Lodge. The students reported improved telemark and parallel skills as well as increased ability to handle a range of snow conditions. Students also reported reduced fear of falling, perfected butt-plant techniques, and for some, a mastery of telemark jump-turns. At the conclusion of the clinic, the Mazamas scheduled six outings, including tours of Mount St. Helens and South Sister. By all accounts, the clinics were a huge success and planning commenced for a more comprehensive program the following year. One of the hottest topics in wildlife management in the Pacific Northwest would not reach a resolution for nearly 30 years; namely the overabundance of nonnative mountain goats in the Olympic National Park. The offending creatures were gobbling up rare native plants and becoming overly aggressive towards human visitors to the park. Prior to 1990, the National Park Service had captured these “excess” critters and transported them to new homes. But this proved too costly, and at times the goats didn’t survive in their new locale. So a new plan started to take shape to reduce their numbers by shooting them instead.

Behind the scenes, the council urged the Centennial Committee to start planning for the centennial celebration, still several years off. A change in the State of Oregon’s nonprofit corporation statutes necessitated a much-needed review of Mazama Bylaws. The Bylaws Committee began the arduous task of reviewing the bylaws in their entirety for the first time since the start of the organization (up to this point the bylaws had undergone minor revisions to address specific problems as they arose). It soon became clear to the committee that the bylaws contained an array of content deemed “policies and procedures.” One of their first recommendations was to extract that material out into a separate manual. Following a lot of work, and a review by an attorney, the two documents (the bylaws and a policies and procedure manual) were ready for the membership to review. The committee held several meetings to allow members to ask questions and give input, but they were sparsely attended. Besides separating the bylaws and policies and procedures into separate documents, the committee made several recommendations. First, remove the provision whereby the past president remains as a non-voting member of council. Second, provide to council the authority to create and end committees. Three, provide a specific process for the membership to rescind council actions. And four, provide to council authority to establish dues and fees. Other minor proposals clarified and simplified language. In the summer of 1991, a membership vote on the proposed changes failed. The Mazamas endorsed an expedition to the Himalayas, funded in part by an Expedition Committee grant. The team was attempting to climb Manaslu, the world’s eighth highest peak. As they were descending from Camp I to Base Camp, at approximately 15,500 foot, a slab avalanche killed three members of the group. On March 27, rescuers recovered the bodies of American climbers Nancy Jackson and Charles Schertz, and Sherpa Nima Wangchuck. Several notable members passed away this year. The Mazamas held a memorial service for Homer Blackburn on January 8. Blackburn led many climbs in the 1970s and early 1980s, at times leading a climb seemingly every weekend. He was one of the few who climbed the Sixteen Major Northwest Peaks in a single season, and besides leading climbs in the Pacific Northwest, he led climbs in the Alps (including the Matterhorn and the Eiger). He was president of Portland Mountain Rescue in 1980 and 1981, and pioneered many of the policies that the search and rescue organization still follow today.

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Up We Go? By Jeff Thomas The Mazama motto, Nesika Klatawa Sahale, appropriated from the Chinook people, first appeared in print on the front cover of the 1896 Annual. It appeared as part of the seal (now called a logo) featuring the head of a mountain goat and a USGS topographical map symbol. Oddly, Louis B. Akin, creator of the logo, did not include the motto in his original drawing of the seal as shown with his article inside that same 1896 Annual. It is thus a mystery who added the motto as pictured on the cover, although the Mazamas offered a partial explanation the following year. According to Note and Comment in the 1897 Annual (page 284), “The words… have been informally considered the motto of the society, though never regularly adopted by it.” Perhaps because the motto was considered informal, there was no sign in the early records who suggested the motto. The 1897 Annual was, however, clear what the slogan meant. The words, “are from the Chinook Jargon, the intertribal language of all the Indians of the North Pacific Coast, and mean, literally, “We Go Up.” Since the Chinook word Sahale can also mean “high” and sometimes even “sky,” the motto can also be translated as, “We Go High,” “We Go to the Sky,” or more freely as “We Went Longway Off.1” From 1897 to 1925 the logo, as printed on both the front cover and cover page of the Annual, only showed Nesika Klatawa Sahale with no translation. When the 1926 Annual was published the phrase “Chinook Jargon for We Climb High” was added under the logo and motto, and printed on both the front cover and the inside cover page. As far as is known 1 May 1926 Mazama Bulletin

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this is the first time an English translation had accompanied the logo. It is important to note that John Scott was elected chief editor of Mazama publications for the first time in November 1925 and although it cannot be proven, he may well have been responsible for the Mazamas switching from the literal translation “We Go Up” to the more freely interpreted and euphonious “We Climb High.” Whether he was responsible for the switch, it is almost a certainty that he was the one who had the logo printed with the translation in the 1926 Annual. From 1926 on the figurative translation appeared under the logo on the cover page inside the Annual. (The practice of including the translation on the front cover stopped after 1927.) In 1969, John Scott chose the motto as the title of his thumbnail history. It is simply a shame that he did not give more background on who may have first suggested the Chinook Jargon in 1894 and who first suggested the figurative meaning. To the current (2019) reader, the free translation “We Climb High” could hint at a meaning never intended by the founders. Indeed some younger members who joined the Mazamas in the 1960s would deliberately mistranslate the jargon to “We Get High.” However, to most, the activity of mountaineering had nothing to do with imagined or real intoxication or drug use, although many could identify with the natural high often associated with a successful ascent or just travelling in the mountains. In summary translations are open to interpertation, as demonstrated by long-term member Dick Miller. Dick’s father, while still a boy, learned Chinook Jargon in towns and


villages up and down the Columbia River Gorge where his father—Dick’s grandfather—was a teacher in public schools. Dick’s father, looking at the motto one day in the 1970s, and with little knowledge about the Mazamas and what they did, spontaneously exclaimed “Oh that means, ‘Up We Go!’”

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Continued from page 49 Colin Chisholm, a past president of the Mazamas, died in January, a few days shy of his 83rd birthday. Chisholm made the second ascent of the Northeast rib of Mt. Hood’s Eliot Headwall. At the time he believed it was probably a first ascent. He also witnessed the first known ascent of any formation at Smith Rock in 1935 when he watched Johnny Bissell climb Squaw Rock. He remained an active downhill skier through the end of the last season before his passing. He last summited Mt. Hood at the age of 81 with his son, Craig. Ray Atkeson, an Honorary Member of the Mazamas, passed away in May at the age of 83. Ray was a nationally celebrated landscape photographer whose work appeared in popular magazines such as Holiday, National Geographic, and the Saturday Evening Post. He started his career as a freelance photographer shooting climbing and skiing photos around Mt. Hood. Later, his talents led to the publication of many photographic coffee table books for which he became famous. He received prestigious honors, including Distinguished Citizen of Oregon, Governor’s Award for the Arts, and Doctor of Fine Arts from Linfield College. He joined the Mazamas in 1933 and belonged to many outdoor and environmental groups such as the Wy’east Climbers, the Audubon Society, Oregon Natural Resources Council (later to become Oregon Wild), Friends of the Columbia Gorge, and the Nature Conservancy.

1991

By Nathan Herzog The Mazamas ushered in the New Year with a memorial service at the Mazama Lodge for manager Bill Head. Bill managed the lodge since 1986 with his wife Judy until the time of his passing on December 17, when he died from a massive heart attack. Bill’s dedication to the lodge was well-known, so his family asked that instead of flowers or gifts, contributions go towards a lodge memorial fund. The money from the fund went toward new tables and chairs for the lodge dining room, one of Bill’s pet projects before his death. The Annual provided many detailed looks at climbingrelated history in Oregon. The first was the long-in-coming and soon-to-be-completed renovations to Silcox Hut on Mt. Hood. Built in 1939, Silcox Hut sprung forth from humble beginnings as the upper terminus and motor house for the original single-chair Magic Mile ski lift. With the impending boom in popularity of skiing, a doublechair lift soon replaced the obsolete single-chair. With 52 • We Climb High Vol 2

completion of the new lift, the abandoned Silcox Hut began to deteriorate. Snow filled the interior during winter months, and climbers used the structure for shelter on their way up or down the mountain. In 1983, a group of climbers stopped by the hut and speculated about how fabulous it would be to restore and use the hut again. The following year, one of the climbers, Nancy Randall, started the nonprofit group Friends of Silcox Hut. The group began the slow, plodding task of bringing the structure back to life. In 1984, the hut was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. In the years that followed, the hut was rebuilt, which included removing a truckload of refuse, and improvements including closing the south wing of the structure, reintroducing water and power, and building new bathrooms. When finished, restoration cost $800,000 and was all privately funded, except the U.S. Forest Service covered repairs to the roof. Also appearing in the Annual this year was a detailed history of climbing at Smith Rock State Park written by Alan Watts, one of the pioneers of sport climbing in the U.S. and author of a popular climbing guide detailing more than 1,800 routes at the park. Watts left no stone unturned (pun intended) in his account, starting with the presence of indigenous Americans in the vicinity of the park, and the movement of settlers through the region during the western expansion in the 1800s. The history noted the first recorded ascent in 1935, detailed the period when aid and big wall climbing at Smith were the primary focus, and chronicled the explosion of free climbing in the 1970s and sport climbing in the 1980s. In April, a pair of Mazama members survived five days in freezing overnight temperatures after becoming disoriented and lost when a blizzard suddenly blew in and interrupted their hike. Their intended route was a day hike to the Rock of Ages in the Gorge, but as the weather deteriorated, they quickly lost their way. They found themselves on a Forest Service road, which they followed for a time, but soon had to hunker down as night began to fall and temperatures continued to drop. In the morning, over a foot of fresh snow had fallen and they were no better off than the previous day in figuring out where they were. They retraced their steps on the Forest Service road and happened to stumble upon a metal shed. This humble abode served as their shelter for the next four days. The weather didn’t get much better, alternating between rain,


sleet, hail, and just plain cold. This hampered search efforts until the weather finally broke on the fifth day and a helicopter spotted them waving a space blanket. The two attributed their survival to lucking their way into the shelter, along with having the space blanket on-hand, some extra food, and the ability to remain calm and stay put. The Annual detailed an Ecuadoran expedition. The idea formed in the summer of 1990 when some Mazama members became interested in the Ecuadorian Andes’ Avenue of Volcanoes. Tom West was a member of a Mazama expedition to the Peruvian Andes the previous year, and was keen to once again pursue South American summits. Mike McGarr had climbed in Mexico in 1989, and was in talks with his fellow ice-climbing pal Matt O’Neil about a possible trip to Ecuador. The group grew from there, and focused on utilizing their combined skills to seek summits of some of the high-altitude peaks in Ecuador, while also immersing themselves in the culture of the country. The group set their sights on the four highest peaks of the region: Cayambe (18,997-foot)—the only spot in the world where latitude and temperature reach zero degrees; Cotopaxi (19,348-foot)—the highest active volcano in the world; Chimborazo (20,703-foot)—the spot furthest from the center of Earth; and Antisana (18,710foot). The expedition would split into two teams, and attempt to tackle two peaks per group. Once in Ecuador, team members struggled with solving a variety of issues including navigating with suspect maps and overcoming not-as-yet-built bridges on their way to basecamp. In the end, the group reached the summit of all four peaks, with a bonus summit of Rhuminahui (15,500-foot) thrown in for good measure.

1992

By Laurence Spiegel and Rick Craycraft The Mazamas sponsored three trips to Europe. Skiers were offered a trip to Switzerland with one week each in Villars and Davos. Davos featured the incredible thrill of a 9-mile ski run with a 7,000 foot vertical drop. Mazamas hiked hut-to-hut in the High Tatras on the Polish/Slovak border. Another hut-to-hut hike exposed members to the beauty of the Austrian Alps. Further afield, a Mazama group traveled to Java and Bali in Indonesia. Made Surya, founder of Indonesia’s only climbing club, showed members the natural beauty and native culture of the islands, a truly marvelous experience. Closer to home, Mazama members spent five days on the beach at Manzanita. Another Mazama group spent a week sailing the San Juan Islands. In a throwback to the

early outings, a group of Mazamas spent a week in the Eagle Cap Lakes Basin of the Wallowas where they used llamas to carry in gear and supplies. Horses were used to carry the supplies for hiking and climbing in the Marble Mountains west of Yreka, California. Another outing traveled to the Wind River Mountains of Wyoming— spectacular but with only a fraction of the visitors of the nearby Tetons. Another group of Mazamas cross-country skied in Yellowstone. Finally, a group of Mazamas traveled by boat up Lake Chelan to Stehekin, staying in cabins in the Stehekin Valley Ranch and arranging transportation to nearby trailheads. Most articles in the Annual only rate a couple of pages; however, an accident on Mt. Shuksan earned twentyfive pages by authors Sylvia Cate and Katie Foehl. Sylvia, accelerating out of control toward an open crevasse on Mt. Shuksan’s Hells Highway, recalled that she still had time to remember a passage from a mountaineering book that she’d read, “A fall into a crevasse is usually a mountaineer’s last.” For her and her climbing companion Katie Foehl the book lesson almost became a fatal life lesson as both ended firmly wedged in the crevasse fifty feet down, with Sylvia upside down and Katie right side up, and soaking wet from snow slides and waterfalls from above. That they were spared certain death was only due to the timely arrival of three strangers who thoroughly knew crevasse rescue technique as opposed to their Mazama companions who did not know enough. Experiencing this accident had long-term impacts on Sylvia and Kate and led to significant changes at the Mazamas. First, the limits of the skills required of Mazama leaders were called into question. Second, this near miss led directly to the establishment of an Incident Response Committee to provide a forum for those involved to process the impact of accidents in the future. Today (2019) this committee, renamed the Critical Incident Stress Management Committee, is still relevant and active in the organization. Third, Sylvia and Katie’s initial accounts of the accident were censored and spurred debate within Publications about graphic descriptions and appropriate language in such articles. In the introduction, Katie and Sylvia stated, “What is most important is the hope that these accounts will challenge the paradigm in our club’s culture; that accidents very rarely happen, and if they do, we should never discuss them publicly.” In the end, a complete version appeared in the Annual. Mazamas continued to be active in protecting the places we enjoy. Clear cutting and its effect on the endangered spotted owl was a major concern. Mazamas were active in advocating the addition of more old growth acres to Forest

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Margaret Griffin Redman By Mathew Brock & Jeff Thomas On July 28, 1991 Margaret Redman passed away at the age of 105. For over 75 of those years, Margaret was a Mazama. Margaret was born in the Dakota Territory in 1885 and came west in 1905 to visit the Lewis and Clark Exposition. She quickly fell in love with the “blue hills” of Oregon and a friend introduced her to the Mazamas. She made her qualifying climb of Mt. Hood in 1915, and went on to climb Hood three times that year. In 1916, on her first Mazama outing, the attendees were thrilled when a camera crew accompanied them into base camp on the west side of the Three Sisters. The resulting movie—still extant—shows snowball fights, bathing in the newly melted lakes, and spectacular glissading crashes. The film also featured Margaret waking up in her sleeping bag under a foot of freshly fallen snow that turned the Sisters into a winter wonderland. Margaret washing her face with the newly fallen snow made the audiences laugh. The Mazamas soon became her community. She served on many committees over the years, including the Executive Council, wrote numerous articles for the Bulletin and Annual, and took part in more Annual outings than any other member. In 1929, she returned to the Three Sisters area, this time with her new husband, Frank Redman, where they enjoyed their honeymoon during the Mazama Annual Outing. In 1980, Margaret was interviewed by Jeff Thomas. When asked when she bought her first crampons her answer—“I never owned or used crampons”—captures a time when people relied more on themselves than their equipment. When asked about her first ice axe her answer was equally spellbinding: “I never used an ice axe. I used an alpenstock because it offered more support and was better for vaulting over crevasses and streams.” Even her answer to a very contemporary question— What is your favorite book?—blew the interviewer away, “I am working on my third or fourth reading of the complete works of Rudyard Kipling.” Seventy years after joining the Mazamas, Margaret celebrated her 100th birthday. Fifty members braved the ice and snow to gather for her birthday party and of course Margaret—still a climber in heart and deed—made it up the 30 or so stairs under her own power and without a belay to where the party was staged. Margaret passed at age 105 still living in her own home, still going up the stairs to her own bed, having never visited the hospital her entire life, and making a completely new generation her friends. We all should be so lucky. Her legacy lives on in the Redman Cup, sponsored by her and named for her, which honors the artistic or literary excellence of Mazama members.

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Continued from page 53 Park and the development of a Greenway to the Pacific, a trail from the park to Astoria. They also protested a development that would mar the beauty of Smith Rock State Park. A Mazama research project noted that the level of glaciation on Mt. Baker had gone down significantly in recent years, and that this was due to climate change. Mt. Baker, with its heavy precipitation is particularly prone to changes in its glaciers as the climate gets warmer. While on a work trip to clean up forest fire debris on the Angels Rest Trail, Phyllis Davis lost her eyeglasses. A month later, Harold Black was hiking the trail and by chance spotted the glasses and reported his find to the Mazama business office. The find was reported to the hike leader, who notified Phyllis, who got her glasses back. Although the club centennial was still two years away, plans for its observance were already starting. The Executive Council approved the concept of a 30-minute film We Climb High, and approved initial funding on its projected $70,000 cost. Filming began, showing a Basic Climbing School class and its successful climb of Mt. Hood and an August outing to the Wallowa Mountains during which it snowed. The Americans With Disabilities Act was enacted two years earlier. In keeping with the spirit of the Act, sponsors of Mazama Honorary Member Ray Atkeson’s Memorial Trail at Sparks Lake stated in the September Mazama Bulletin that “ … portions of his trail would be barrierfree to ensure access to disabled individuals, elderly, and youth.” The site, chosen by Atkeson before his death in 1990, took four years to complete, and was paved and barrier-free. Mazamas were requested to volunteer but there was no indication in future Bulletins or Annuals whether they did.

1993

By Laurence Spiegel and Jeff Thomas The Mazamas issued its One Hundredth Anniversary Issue Annual in anticipation of the organization’s centennial in 1994. The new cover duplicated an old format that first appeared on the front of the 1900 Annual and featured drawings by charter member Fred Routledge. Fred was a member of the Publications Committee in 1900 and was a well-known artist for The Oregonian. For those who specialize in Mazama History, Fred produced the drawings in the Mazamas first publication, a rare brochure called

The Cliff Climbers, which was published before July 19, 1894 to advertise the upcoming Mazama climb and the soonto-be-formed organization. Fred also drew what had to be one of the earliest climbing topos, a wonderfully accurate rendition of the features and the route in 1901 on the upper south side of Mt. Hood. The line drawings on the cover depicted a generic Mazama man and woman decked out for mountaineering at the turn of the twentieth century. The woman’s outfit might have been a dress or bloomers or knickers but reflected the gradual shift from restrictive full length skirt to pants. The Mazama logo just below her left shoulder anticipated today’s felt patch, which from the evidence we have today did not exist in 1900. Both climbers held ice axes, uncommon if not rare in 1900, but again anticipating the future to come in the 1930s when ice axes would replace alpenstocks by the end of the decade. Inside the first half of the Annual the editor, John Salisbury, reprinted 20 articles from the first 50 years of the Annual chosen, “ … to give the reader an awareness and understanding of the early and significant history of the club.” Perhaps the most intriguing of these articles was the shortest, an unusual perspective on a neophyte’s first climb in 1946. That neophyte, Gary Snyder, would later become one of the most recognized beat poets of his generation. His essay—his first ever published work—is perhaps one of the best written accounts ever of a Mt. Hood climb. Members actively planned events for next year’s centennial, including work on the centennial film We Climb High. The 30-minute film premiered at the November Annual Banquet. The film was well received, provided a good introduction to the Mazamas, and VHS copies were available for sale. A digitized version of the film is available in the Mazama Library. Another centennial project involved rehabilitating the Cathedral Ridge Trail on Mt. Hood, and renaming it the Mazama Trail. Prior to 1993, it had been one of the most spectacular trails on the mountain, but extensive blowdown from a windstorm had closed it several years prior. Lacking the resources to repair or maintain it, the U.S. Forest Service turned the project over to the Mazamas and the leadership of longtime climb leader Ray Sheldon. A new idea of a “Computer Bulletin Board” came via the Bulletin. Members with a computer with a modem would be able to access and input information with a computer located in the clubrooms. The Bulletin asked members interested in such a program to write or call (e-mail was still new and not yet in widespread use) to express their opinion.

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The Mazamas offered a ham radio class and some members formed a user group. Both proved useful in the following two rescues that year. Two skiers approached a Mazama party descending from Mt. Adams. A non-Mazama climber in a third party with a broken ankle needed help. Luckily the Mazama climb leader, John Hawthorne, carried a ham radio. He contacted Marlee Egbert, who acted as a relay and was able to contact the county sheriff to coordinate a rescue. On August 14, another Mazama party, led by George Stonecliffe, set out to climb North and Middle Sister from the Pole Creek Trailhead. About one mile from the trailhead they met an injured hiker who asked for help and reported that his companion was seriously injured and still up on the mountain. Using two ham radios, the group coordinated a rescue of the hiker. After a storm prevented a helicopter from approaching the mountain some of the group climbed through heavy rain and wind only to find that the injured woman on the mountain had died. This was another year of climbing and hiking in the Pacific Northwest and around the globe. Cross-country skiing outings took members to Glacier National Park, via Amtrak, for a week of cross-country skiing while another group headed to Crater Lake. A Mazama trip hiked from hut-to-hut in the Austrian Alps and the Italian Dolomites. Although the Alps lack the wilderness of our local mountains, the natural beauty and cultural experience made those mountains appealing. Another outing headed east where participants explored China and Thailand. Mazamas spent two weeks climbing and hiking in the Tetons. Members seeking an escape from our cold and rainy weather traveled to and hiked around Maui. A hiking outing on the Rogue River Trail proved so popular that a second outing was organized to accommodate all interested participants. Other outings headed south to Lassen Volcanic National Park, north to the Tatoosh Range, and east to the Wallowa Mountains. Members had an opportunity to backpack around Mt. Hood and around Mount St. Helens. The Upper Deschutes, Lower Deschutes, and Rogue Rivers played host to whitewater rafting trips. The Mazamas organized a biathlon to raise funds for expeditions. Held at Vancouver Lake, participants ran 5 km, bicycled 30 km, and then ran another 5 km. There was plenty of work for volunteers in organizing the event. The Mazamas reactivated their Explorer Post under the leadership of Peter Green to offer climbing and hiking opportunities for teenagers. In the next ten years, the Post grew to involve and inspire hundreds of teens and lead them to first and unusual ascents as far away as New Zealand.

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The U.S. Forest Service explored the possibility of limiting the numbers of people in popular wilderness areas, and requiring advance reservations for entry. While Mazamas supported wilderness preservation, they opposed limiting access, and encouraged members to express their opinions to their senators and congressmen. After more than thirty years of rough weather and member use, the lodge again needed repairs. A poll of the membership showed that over six hundred thought the lodge should continue to run as is. Over four hundred favored altering how it was used. And another one hundred and fourteen members favored selling the lodge outright. The Mazamas opted to keep the lodge and encouraged members to make more use of it. Executive Assistant Marcia Siblerud left the Mazamas after working for six years and Keith Mischke was hired with an expanded range of duties as Executive Director in June.

1994

By Kate Evans and Jeff Thomas This year marked the Mazamas 100th anniversary. The Centennial Committee, headed by Paula Beers, put together a year-long series of events to mark the occasion. The first event, the premiere of the film We Climb High, occurred at the 1993 Annual Banquet. The film showcased a range of Mazama activities and interviews with Allison Logan Belcher, Vera Dafoe, Jack Grauer, Ray Sheldon, and others. Both Oregon Public Broadcasting and Northwest Reports later broadcast the film. Timberline Lodge was host to the main celebration over the weekend of July 16–17. Besides many hikes around Mt. Hood, eight parties started for the summit during the commemoration, and seven parties succeeded on four routes, including Cooper Spur, the south side, Sunshine, and West Crater Rim. The Cooper Spur party dressed up in 1890s period clothing and used several historic alpenstocks, including one Frank Branch Riley carried to the summit on July 19, 1894. Later at the banquet, mountaineer and astronomer William Putnam spoke about early climbing history in North America and expressed his thoughts about climbing in the future. The following day, Lewis A. McArthur gave a fascinating talk about Mt. Hood place names. He paid particular attention to locations with interesting pedigrees. For example, he noted that Ladd Glacier honors William Mead Ladd, one of the original builders of Cloud Cap Inn. He explained that William’s father, William Sergeant Ladd, had three sons and three daughters. When W.S. Ladd


Members of the Cooper Spur climbing party, summit of Mt. Hood, July 19, 1994. Photo by Dennis Olmstead. died, he was worth a considerable sum of money. His six children shared his inheritance. All his daughters retained theirs, while all his sons frittered the money away on poor investments like Cloud Cap Inn. In 1992, Vera Dafoe found a box of surplus fabric awards, sleeve patches, and embroidered stars. Vera gave them to Christine Mackert and suggested making them into a quilt. Chris contacted Ruth Curwick, who created a quilt with Mt. Hood, surrounded by a border of patches, stars, and a centennial banner. Chris presented the quilt to the Mazamas at the Centennial Celebration. Erica Goodwin of the Mazama Library contributed to the Centennial Celebration by providing historical black and white photos for a centennial calendar, loaning other images for use in the centennial film, and also making available historical artifacts and photos to exhibit at the Oregon Historical Society. While all this was happening, Librarian Bob Lockerby was compiling an index of the Annuals from 1896 to 1994. The index was printed in a limited run in 1996. The March and April Bulletins featured transcripts of the eight 1894 pre-outing planning meetings that solidified the details of the outing and the name of the new organization. Wrapping up the centennial events, Ray Sheldon, Stan Egbert, and 145 volunteers devoted 3,400 hours to rebuild the abandoned Cathedral Ridge Trail. Over two years, volunteers reconstructed and rerouted significant portions of the trail. In September, the U.S. Forest Service reopened the trail and renamed it the Mazama Trail. At the time, it was the largest volunteer project undertaken on U.S. Forest Service land in the nation. The Mazamas faced challenges involving the U.S. Forest Service policy. In 1995 the U.S. Forest Service planned to impose permits for Mt. Jefferson, Mt. Washington, and the Three Sisters Wilderness areas, significantly limiting activities in those areas. In 1993, the agency

raised concerns about Mazama activities on public lands and changed the organization’s status to that of an outfitter guide. The following year, the U.S. Forest Service extended that status to all Mazama training and climbs, a move requiring a commercial permit for any activity on forest land. After meetings, the two organizations were able to agree on the outfitter/guide status for Mazama educational activities, but not climbs or other activities. Finally, the U.S. Forest Service gave the Mazamas a one-year contract extension to allow commercial use at Mazama Lodge but declared that after that, no commercial use would be permitted unless the organization applied for a new permit. The ruling limited the lodge to nonprofit use only. The Climbing Committee ended the year with an 85 percent climb success rate. The committee implemented a Leader Development Program and revised leader requirements. Three committee members, Doug Wilson, Scott Fitzwater, and Larry Stadler, wrote a position paper on Federal land access issues. The main areas of concern were regulating access use permits in wilderness (the Mazamas did not think they were necessary for most areas), charging only climbers for National Park rescues (the Mazamas felt it unfair to single out climbers, who as a whole were only seven percent of all National Park users), and restricting or banning fixed anchors in wilderness areas (the Mazamas felt that, in most cases, placing and maintaining fixed anchors was necessary for safe climbing). Educational programs ran with 200 students in the Basic Climbing School, 44 in Intermediate Climbing School, 18 in Advanced Rock, and 12 in Advanced Snow and Ice. The Nordic, Ski Mountaineering, Whitewater, and First Aid Committees also offered classes. The three Mazamas granting committees had an active year. The Conservation Committee awarded grants to a range of organizations, including the Oregon Natural Desert Association. The committee also contributed $4,000 towards the expansion of Portland’s Forest Park. The Research Committee gave grants to local high schools for biological and environmental studies. The Expedition Committee sponsored a sea kayak circumnavigation of Greenland’s Clavering Island and an effort to remove trash from Mt. Everest. Explorer Post 936 had a busy year of hiking, climbing, rafting, and backpacking around the region. They also helped out with trail tending on the Mazama Trail and at Tryon Creek State Park. The Financial Affairs Committee completed a detailed review of our tax status. Trail Trips put 5,723 hikers on trails. The Programs Committee offered 30 popular programs highlighting international and regional locales. The Outing Committee scheduled 30 outings to foreign We Climb High Vol 2 • 57


Mazama climbing party reaching the top of Cooper Spur, July 19, 1994 to mark the Mazamas 100th Anniversary. Photo by Dennis Olmstead. locals such as Guatemala and Bolivia and closer to home in Yellowstone and Crater Lake, among others. Author and climber Alan Kearney headlined the Annual Banquet. He shared his experiences in Patagonia and growing up as the son of Mazamas Ty and Marianne Kearney. This year’s Parker Cup went to Dennis Olmstead, while Kermit Williams went home with the Hardesty Cup. Don Pickens earned the Redmond Cup and Jean Siddall the Montague Conservation award. Terry Becker and Ed Holt were both honored with the Leuthold Award. Finally, there was one notable death; Kathi Beck, a Mazama member and firefighter, died in a Colorado forest fire.

1995 By Kate Evans

Sylvia Cate, in her President’s Report, welcomed the Mazamas second century. She addressed the Executive Council’s four areas of focus for the year: the need for a balanced budget, lodge operations review, bylaws revisions, and the special use permit renewal with the U.S. Forest Service. 58 • We Climb High Vol 2

In May, an attempt to balance the budget with a dues increase failed by six votes, leaving the council with either higher fees or fewer activities as its only options. Under the conditions of the special use permit for the lodge, the Mazamas had to cancel a commercial ski camp and reexamine lodge services. Two ad-hoc committees worked on the issue: one drawing up a business plan and a manager’s contract; the other hiring a new manager. The Mazamas contended that it did not meet the definition of a commercial outfitter guide and continued to contest the issue. Sylvia also praised Ray Sheldon and Stan Egbert’s work on the Mazama Trail and Doug Wilson for hosting the Toyoma Mountain Climbers Association of Japan. Climbing Committee’s Basic Climbing School had 240 students, Intermediate Climb School 54, Advanced Rock 19, and Advanced Snow and Ice 14. There were 14 winter climbs, 265 summer climbs, and 13 rock program climbs. The Nordic Ski School had 230 students and five levels of instruction. The Whitewater Committee floated the Sandy River in March and held a rafting class with 45 students. The Conservation Committee gave grants to the Friends of Forest Park and Oregon Natural Desert Association. The Trail Trips Committee offered 534 hikes to 5,588 hikers and continued writing the popular Hiker from Hell feature in the Bulletin.


to the City of Rocks in Idaho and the Purcell Range in British Columbia. Jim Whittaker, the first American to summit Mt. Everest, headlined the Annual Banquet. Jim spoke about his 1990 Everest Peace Climb, in which Russians, Chinese, and Americans stood on the summit on the 20th anniversary of Earth Day. They also removed two tons of trash from previous expeditions. The U.S. Forest Service recognized Ray Sheldon and Stan Egbert for their Mazama Trail labors. The Mazamas presented Martin Hanson with the Hardesty Cup, Janet Johnson with the Montague Cup, Candy Morgan with the Parker Cup, and Jolene Unsoeld with Honorary Membership.

Ray Sheldon and Stan Egbert, ca. 1995. The Library Committee received two gifts: an electronic typewriter and an IBM compatible computer system with a laser printer, making Bob Lockerby’s book cataloguing much easier. The Outing Committee ran 22 trips, including trips to Guatemala, New Zealand, Peru, Iceland, and the Canadian Rockies. Climbing outings visited the Canadian Rockies, Three Sisters, and the North Cascades, while hikers went to the Rogue River, Olympic Peninsula, and Chilkoot Trail, among others. By far, the most unusual activity was Jean Fitzgerald’s dog sledding outing in Minnesota. The Publications Committee’s major accomplishment for 1995 was the publication of the 128-page 1994 Annual celebrating the Mazamas first 100 years. Terry Becker authored the most intriguing article, Are Mazama Leaders Really Outfitters and Guides? a direct pushback against the U.S. Forest Service. The March Bulletin ran a blurb inviting Mazamas to take part in a Portland Community College class on Sasquatch. Urged to attend were those with personal encounters. The Research Committee granted five awards totaling $8,032, to students at Pacific Northwest universities. It awarded $600 to the Centennial School District Learning Center for a summer field program in wildlife habitat and restoration aimed at 14- to 18-year-olds. This donation was part of the Mazamas new Flagship Program11, initiated in the centennial year, to expose primary and secondary school students to outdoor activities and mountain environments. The Mazama Explorer Post 936, now with 92 members, reached 16 summits. The highlights were a week-long trip 11 This program, begun in 1994, continued on and off under different names (Flagship Program, Centennial Grants, Youth Award, & Youth Grants) until roughly 2013.

1996

By Shannon Wages The 102nd year of the Mazamas began on a down note. Rockfalls, mudslides, and flooding from warm heavy rains and snowmelt in February wreaked havoc on roads, bridges, and trails in low-lying areas west of the Cascade Mountains. One of the hardest-hit areas was the Columbia River Gorge. Trail Trips leader Bus Gibson mobilized the Mazama community to help rebuild these trails. He won the prestigious Parker Cup award for his service at the Annual Banquet in November. Homes and farms near streams and rivers incurred millions of dollars in damages. Volunteers stepped up to donate money, food, shelter, and supplies, including roughly 2,040 hours of Mazama Trail Tender’s time. The Mazamas gave the U.S. Forest Service, Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area a $5,000 grant to help repair trails. By mid-June, nearly all the Oregon trails in the Gorge were open. This year the Mazamas also focused on two other areas of concern: its threatened nonprofit status and free access to the mountains. The U.S. Forest Service designation of the Mazamas as an outfitter/guide organization threatened the organization’s nonprofit status. The classification limited access to the wilderness for Mazama activites. The Forest Service interpreted the organization’s low fees, along with mileage reimbursements, as income. In February, the Mazamas hosted the Federation of Western Outdoor Clubs. The Federation considered a draft Statement of Principles about access and commercial guide/outfitter regulations. The Access Subcommittee met with many groups, including the U.S. Forest Service and Washington State Parks and Recreation. Discussions with Washington State Parks focused on access to Horsethief Butte State Park and regulations preventing climbing on We Climb High Vol 2 • 59


Native American rock art. At Beacon Rock, the goal was to develop a management plan centered on closures for nesting Peregrine Falcons. The falcons had reappeared at a nesting site on the river face in the mid-1990s. Other discussions focused on ice climbing in the vicinity of Multnomah Falls and anchor bolts in wilderness areas. In committee news, there was much to report for the year. Across the organization, committees made changes to the bylaws, raised fees, and revised policies. Along the way, they launched new projects, outings, and subcommittees. To the relief of many, the year ended with a healthy budget surplus. The Bylaws Committee proposed, and the membership approved, changes to the governance and the composition of the Membership Committee. The bylaws now clarified council members serve without compensation. In a change to the Membership Committee, new members were no longer required to make up half the committee. The Climbing Committee had an active year. The Advanced Rock course raised fees to reduce the budget deficit. The committee distributed an updated and revised Climb Leaders Manual to leaders. It started a climber’s hotline to speed up communications, and adopted a policy requiring Mountain Locator Units on Mazama activities above tree line on Mt, Hood. And this year the Basic Climbing School was renamed the Basic Climbing Education Program (BCEP). Lloyd Athearn wrote an important and detailed essay on the Oregon Legislature’s attempt to mandate fees on rescued climbers. The bill would have required mountaineers carry a mountain locator unit, cell phone, or a two-way radio or face up to $5,000 in fines. The proposal included no other recreational user groups. Through Lloyd’s and others’ efforts, the final bill that passed the legislature was substantially toned down. The Conservation Committee started a project to help restore salmon runs in a tributary of the Salmon River; the project included planting 500 trees on the stream bank in the spring. The committee worked on a variety of issues in the Gorge, Mt. Hood, and Soda Mountain Wilderness, and it continued restoration projects at Hart Mountain Antelope Refuge and the Klamath Marsh. The Expedition Committee relocated its annual biathlon fundraiser due to flooding on the course. But the race went ahead during a wet, windy, and cold Sunday in April and was successful. The committee also awarded grants for an expedition to Bolivia, which placed climbers on the summit of three peaks over 17,000 feet. The Cerro Aconcagua 1996 Northwest Expedition also attempted the False Polish variation of the Polish Glacier route on Aconcagua. Expedition members reached 21,400 feet 60 • We Climb High Vol 2

after 20 days before turning back due to altitude sickness, high winds, and cold temperatures. The committee also completely rewrote the grant applications this year. As a result, there are now two applications, one for group support and one for individual grants. During the year, the Financial Affairs Committee monitored the business and financial operations of the Mazamas and each committee and activity. By September 30, 1996, the Mazamas reported approximately $17,000 operating surplus caused by lower than expected activity expenses and an improvement in the Mazama Lodge operations. The lodge broke even for the first time in recent memory, thanks to the creative energy and enthusiasm of new lodge Manager Jean Korte. Fees for CPR and Standard First Aid went up $2 each in 1996 to correspond with an increase in charges by the Red Cross. The First Aid Committee’s major project this year was to revise the climbing disaster simulation for the weekend practical session, including purchasing new moulage for mock injured patients. The Incident Response Committee reorganized into two subcommittees. One for risk management and another for critical incident stress debriefing. The Risk Management subcommittee focused on reshaping its organizational makeup to recruit participation from all activity-based committees. The committee redesigned its reporting process to quickly and accurately gather information from those involved in an incident. Their goal was to ensure the health of members and assets through proactive risk management policies. This year was another banner year for the Outings Committee, with more foreign trips than domestic outings. The local excursions included a cross-country ski trip to Yellowstone, a Hart Mountain conservation outing, a Wallowa Mountains backpack, a trip to Utah’s Grand Gulch, a Mazama Trail outing, and the Monte Cristo climbing outing. The foreign outings included the Inca Trail to Machu Picchu, hiking trails in England, a Guatemala research outing, and a Japanese Alps outing. The committee revised the trip budget forms to make them easier to use for both the new and experienced outing leaders. The Public Relations Committee donated 100 hours and traveled almost 600 miles while putting on presentations on behalf of the Mazamas. The Research Committee funded a range of exciting and relevant projects. Several included the glacial chronology of Mt. Rainier, Holocene treeline dynamics in the vicinity of Mt. Rainier, and brain mechanisms involved in acute mountain sickness, to name a few.


In spite of the destructive winter storms, the Mazamas still had a successful hiking year. The Trail Trips Committee reported 436 hikes with 4,801 participants. Under the direction of Monty Smith, the committee developed a hike leader training program, a new hike leader orientation, and a map and compass classroom session.

1997

By Shannon Wages Like the year before, this was a year of both success and tragedy. One success was the Mazamas were able to transition to a new dues structure with minimal membership loss. As a result, dues covered overhead, programs, and activities, thus ensuring outstanding training in almost every aspect of mountaineering. The organization also completed a significant reorganization. After twenty years of meetings and discussions, the club’s endowment was now held and managed by the Mazamas Foundation. The new separate 509(a)(3) entity has its own board of directors. The arrangement meant that all the endowment income went to or for the benefit of the Mazamas. The Mazamas expanded trail building and maintenance this year. For the past two years, hundreds of Mazama trail tenders put in thousands of hours repairing and rebuilding flood-damaged trails in the Columbia Gorge. The reconstruction of the Mazama Trail on Mt. Hood was completed in 1997, a remarkable feat accomplished by 240 individuals who contributed 6,888 hours of volunteer labor. Stan Egbert and Ray Sheldon shared the 1997 Hardesty Cup award for their five years of coordinating this effort. As Ray Sheldon related, “One of the phenomena of trail building that has always been baffling is how painstakingly slow the movement is as you hack away at your individual job; but, at day’s end, how unbelievably far you had come as a group.”For more on the Mazama Trail see Ray's article, "Mazama Trail" on page 99. The Mazamas partnered with the U.S. Forest Service and the Urban League of Portland to provide a $20,100 grant to fund two trail crews recruited from Portland inner-city youth. The outcome was the Catherine Creek trail for the mobility impaired. The Mazamas contributed another $13,385 towards successful road improvements and engineering consultation. Thanks to dozens of Mazamas who invested time and muscle removing barbed wire fencing, the pronghorn fawns at Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge could move more freely. As a result, they could avoid predation more easily and correspondingly showed a marked recovery from the low numbers of

the recent past. For this effort and his leadership and commitment to many other conservation issues, the Montague Conservation Award went to Neal Keefer. In February, the Mazamas sponsored the Denali Conference, which brought together most of the climbers who pioneered the exploration of the highest point in North America. As one participant observed, this conference “ … put the Mazamas on the map.” In July, the organization hosted representatives from our sister climbing club, the Toyoma Mountain Climbers Association of Japan. In August, the organization underwrote a foster family weekend at the lodge. The Lodge Committee planned and organized the event. On Sunday, August 24, 1997, the Mazamas rededicated two bronze plaques on Monument Rock above Mt. Hood’s Paradise Park. The memorials to prominent Mazamas Charles Sholes and William Hardesty disappeared sometime around 1995. Likely someone who believed they were violating the Forest Service’s wilderness policy removed them. Hike leader Roy Stout, who discovered the plaques were missing, spearheaded their replacement. Roy, working with Vera Dafoe, Bob Hyslop, and the Forest Service, facilitated their rededication on the fiftieth anniversary of their original placement. During the restoration process, they discovered a niche behind one of the missing plaques. John Lee’s 1947 Annual article about the plaques made clear that at the time, it held the remains of both men. The current location of their ashes remains unknown. The Nordic Committee organized and implemented the 1997 Nordic Ski School and the new Nordic Family Weekend. Both were successful. Outings this year included hiking trips to the Rogue River, Norway, Yorkshire/Scottish Highlands, Indonesia, Tuscany, Peru, Maui, Ireland, and Guatemala’s Western Highlands. Groups also went sea kayaking in Baja, climbing in Ecuador, exploring Russia’s Lake Baikal, skiing in Banff, rafting in Colorado, hiking/ climbing in the Tetons, and snorkeling in Belize. And the Publications Committee laid the groundwork for a new website. The Mazamas earned the Boy Scouts Charter Partner of the Year award for sponsoring Explorer Post 936. These programs give youth a safe and responsible introduction to mountaineering. This year they were particularly ambitious, opting out of well-trod classic routes for the thrill of exploring new territory in such distant areas as New Zealand and the Coast Range of British Columbia. In British Columbia, Post climbers achieved the first ascents of four unclimbed peaks. The Post climbers named the second highest mountain in the area (8,820-foot) in honor

Continued on page 64 We Climb High Vol 2 • 61


The Sholes’ Ice Axe By Jeff Thomas

Did He or Didn’t He? And Why Do They Do It Now? The Sholes’ ice axe was given to the Mazamas by charter member Charles Henry Sholes. In a private letter written on April 14, 1945, Don Onthank described what he knew about the details of the gift. "Sholes was one of the few in the early days who had a Swiss Ice Axe. He was a large, tall man, and his axe was large and tall too. Sometime in the Mazamas official year of 1938–1939, he gave his axe to the club president to be kept and used by him during his term of office. As I was president at the time, I remember the incident. I passed it on to my successor in office, and that has been done each year since then. So Sholes’ ice axe is a sort of scepter of office of the Mazama president though not used as a gavel!" Since Sholes gave the Mazamas the ice axe, it has become a commonly accepted Mazama “truth” that he must have used the axe on his climbs. The problem with this assumption is there were several photos of Sholes when he was actively climbing. None show Sholes with an ice axe; he is always holding an alpenstock. The inevitable question is, did Charles Sholes use the Sholes’ ice axe to climb? From the evidence we have today (2019), the answer is no. If Sholes did not climb with the ice axe, then, where did it come from? The question would remain unanswered except for one obscure clue given in the 1969 edition of We Climb High on page 6, in which Scott is discussing early climbing gear, "Ice axes were a curiosity. The Mazamas had exactly four Swiss Ice Axes securely locked up and it took an Act of Congress to borrow one. Only seasoned leaders could." Could the Sholes’ Ice Axe originally have been one of the four Swiss axes referred to by John Scott? The Sholes’ axe is clearly an older design and clearly “…large and tall…” and the maker’s mark stamped on the pick—part of which reads “Zweilutschinen Berner Oberlano”—indicates it was Swiss made. (Zweilutschinen is a train station near Interlaken in the Berner Oberland.) Other than that we simply do not know. One other tradition connected to the Sholes’ Ice Axe bedevils the curious researcher as well as scares the boots, harness, and helmet off any climber concerned with safety or who might not have grown up playing baseball. When exactly did the risky ritual of the departing president actually tossing the axe through the air to the incoming president at the Annual Banquet in November begin? Was it Don Onthank who first underhanded the axe to Warren Wilson in 1939? Or did the custom develop later? The earliest documented case of one president passing the Sholes axe to another occurs in a Ken Hollingsworth photo from 1976. In 2019, Bob Hyslop wrote, “The Sholes’ ice axe toss had been

62 • We Climb High Vol 2


Robert Hyslop tossing the Sholes Ice Axe to Martin Icenogle. Ken Hollingswoth photograph, VM1994.009.

around for a while when I was installed in 1976, but for how long I have no idea. Although it didn’t make much sense to me at the time, I did toss it to my successor in 1977. I probably wouldn’t have done so if it hadn’t been a long standing tradition.” Bob later changed his statement, saying that the photo shows him handing—not throwing— the axe to incoming president Martin Icenogle. Later in his Mazama career, Bob recalled that he served as president two terms in a row in 1997–98 and 1998–99. During the 1998 banquet, Bob paid homage to the tradition with a simple, short, safe, six-inch toss in the air to himself. To date, many an incoming president has found it best to practice the toss with the outgoing president before actually performing in public. So far, none of the participants in this yearly practice have appeared in Accidents in North American Mountaineering.

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Continued from page 61 of Terry Becker, former climb leader and president who passed away in 1997. Terry became a member of the Mazamas in 1967 and a leader five years later. He was an experienced, qualified climber who was fun to be around. Terry was especially fond of Mt. Hood, which he climbed at least fifty times by thirteen different routes and in every month of the year. He led ninety-two successful Mazama climbs on eightyone distinct summits. Terry’s passing is a tragic story. On Sunday, August 3, 1997, six Mazamas left Grindelwald, Switzerland, to climb the

Terry Becker, undated

12,143-foot Wetterhorn by the Wills Gratli route. Terry led the group, and after a bus ride to the trailhead and a threehour hike, the group arrived at the Gleckstein Hut in time to relax before dinner and turning in. On August 4 at 3:15 a.m., the group started climbing. Except for one member who had to turn back due to the effects of a prior climbing injury, the rest of the group continued up steep snow and rock to the summit ridge at noon. After 15 minutes on the summit, the group started its slow descent. On the second rappel, during a light rain, the ropes got caught, and Terry told the group to keep moving while he freed them. After almost two hours of work, he was able to retrieve one of the ropes by moving off the rocks and onto the snow for a straighter pull. Terry then stowed the rope in his pack and began backing down the steep slope to a rock island. Gary Beck wrote: “It was getting late and the rock was wet. About 8 p.m. he [Terry] shouted something to us that we couldn’t hear. A few minutes later I saw him falling down the slope.” With deteriorating conditions and darkness coming on, the group bivouacked in place, signaling the 64 • We Climb High Vol 2

hut all through the night and the following morning. On August 5, a rescue helicopter lifted the group two at a time down to the glacier, where they descended to the hut and soon hiked out. Terry’s body was later recovered several thousand feet down the couloir. Posthumously, Terry Becker was the recipient of the Mazamas prestigious Parker Cup.

1998 By Jeff Litwak

Tragedy struck the Mazamas in early 1998. An avalanche during a Basic Climbing Education Program (BCEP) graduation climb of Mt. Hood’s West Crater Rim route killed one student, Thomas McGlinn, and injured two others. Following the accident, the Mazamas commissioned a full accident report from Ian Wade, director of Adventure Safety International.12 The Wade Report, as it became known, led to many immediate and long-term changes in practices and organizational structure. Changes included higher standards for climb leader training and expanded avalanche education for all climbers. The report recommended that climbers carry transceivers, probes, and shovels on all climbs. Additionally, the Mazamas revised its requirements for roped travel and established a new committee to focus on safety and risk management. The 1998 Annual contains an abbreviated version of the full accident report. In another accident scare, a Mazama climbing party on Mt. Jefferson was two days overdue but returned safely. The council discussed moving the clubrooms to a new location that could provide more meeting space and an auditorium. Rather than move, the organization signed a lease for extra meeting rooms and expanded library space. The ad hoc Web Committee developed the Mazamas first website, and the Mazamas created their first email address. The Mazamas offered 309 climbs and 511 trail trips and street rambles. Trail Trips leader Richard Getgen was awarded the first-ever 5,000-mile plaque for his extraordinary participation and leadership. Outings continued to be popular activities, and this year Mazamas went around the world to the Baja Mountains, City of Rocks, Ptarmigan Traverse, Crater Lake, Belize, Peru, Tuscany, Siberia, Italian Dolomites, and Iceland’s 12 Ian was a founder and President of the American Mountain Guides Association, which had established a national accreditation and certification standard for American guides. Ian has also worked many years for Outward Bound Schools.


Kerry Gems. One significant change in 1998 required leaders to have trip insurance. The Mazamas continued trail building and tending work. The organization announced it would build a trail between the Elk Mountain campground and the Kings Mountain trailhead in the Tillamook Forest. The newly created loop trail is now a classic hike and longtime favorite of BCEP classes and Trail Trips. The Mazamas sponsored a Mountaineering Issues of Tibet Conference on April 25–26 in Portland. The conference focused on Tibetan culture, history, environment, geography, religions, trekking, and mountaineering. The Explorer Post, under the direction of Peter Green, hosted the 20-year reunion of the 1978 American K2 Expedition. The event brought together nine of the thirteen members of the expedition. Members of the 1938, 1953, and 1960 teams also attended. Summing up the gathering, K2 veteran and Mazama Honorary Member Dee Molenaar stated, “It was the greatest gathering of mountaineers, friendliest and most purposeful gathering I’ve seen in many years.” Longtime Mazamas continued to share their knowledge through print and other media. Sonia Buist, published Around Mt. Hood in Easy Stages, a hiker’s guide that divides the Timberline Trail into eight stages. Ray Sheldon was interviewed for a video documentary about the recently reestablished and renamed Mazama Trail. Both Sonia’s book and Ray’s interview are available in the Mazama Library. In 1998, the Library also acquired one of the rarest titles in mountaineering literature, Kulu and Lahoul by Colonel C.G. Bruce. The book, published in 1914, chronicles Colonel Bruce’s seven-month exploration of the Himalayan range. In addition to prominent publications, the organization acquired notable artwork. The Mazama Lodge obtained the iconic Galen Rowell print of a mountain goat climbing what appears to be a 5.8 crack. The Mazama received the oil painting entitled High Alpine Field of Wildflowers by N.S. Sisson. The art was a gift from the grandson of Richard Ward Montague, Mazama president from 1922 to 1924. In November, the Mazamas advertised for a professional librarian to manage the Mazama Library’s significant collection of books, periodicals, archival materials, and photographs. A month later, the Mazama Bulletin announced that Sharon Howe, an employee of the Oregon Historical Society, was hired as a contract archivist to process and catalog the extensive collection of historical images held by the Mazamas. Also, Sandy Suttie volunteered to create an archive system and policies for Mazama generated records, archival materials, and memorabilia deemed to have probable future value or use.

Recognizing that Mazamas of different ages have different interests, the Bulletin ran several notices alerting 25-year and longer members of the formation of a new Old Timers Committee. The article noted that the committee would be open to “junior” and “senior” old-timers and that it hoped to offer an in-club consulting service from members who have “been there and done it.” Similarly, the December 1998 Bulletin included a call for “Young Mazamas” for an under-35 hike followed by a meeting to discuss forming a group catering to activities for younger members. As these new committees formed, other committees ended their work. Bylaw changes eliminated the Endowment and Whitewater Committees. The Endowment Committee became unnecessary after transferring endowment funds to the Mazamas Foundation. The Whitewater Committee was no longer necessary because its program would be subject to the new State of Oregon Outfitter-Guide regulations. U.S. Forest Service regulations also affected Mazama climbing activities. After receiving notification from the U.S. Forest Service that the annual BCEP graduation climb was not covered under its special use permit, the Climbing Committee removed it from the program. Offering such a climb would make the Mazamas fall under the Forest Service’s outfitter/guide regulations. Complicating things further, the rules prohibited weekend climbing on Mount St. Helens and in the Three Sisters Wilderness. The Annual demonstrated the organization’s commitment to youth and training the next generation of climbers. The lead article, written by Mazama Explorer Post 936 member Tyler Schlicting, recounted a rescue in the Sierra Nevada Mountains during a twenty-two day climbing trip. The second article was a five-year retrospective of the Explorer Post, recounting its origins and noting that 250 students have been members of the Post. Their accomplishments in the first half-decade included first ascents, international climbing trips, advocacy, community service, and continued climbing outside of Post activities. One of the most skilled Mazama climbers in the 1930s—Ida Darr nee Zacher—passed away in 1998. Three first ascents stand out in her climbing career: a solo first ascent of Martins Peak in the North Cascades in 1936, the first ascent of the South Face of Mt. Washington in June 1940, and the first ascent of St. Peters Dome, also in June 1940. The last two climbs required the use of pitons and were the first two climbs in Oregon where pitons were essential to complete the first ascent. Ida was also a founder and part-owner—along with her husband Everett and climbing friend and Mazama Glen Asher—of The Mountain Shop. The shop was started in the late 1930s and is still in operation to this day (2019). During WWII, Glen kept the business afloat by directing orders from the We Climb High Vol 2 • 65


military’s famous 10th Mountain Division to the shop. Ida was also a skilled skier, winning many competitions in the 1930s on Mt. Hood.

1999 By Jeff Litwak

The Mazamas maintained its focus on safety and risk management in 1999, continuing to work with Ian Wade. After completing his report on the 1998 West Crater Rim accident, Ian undertook a risk management assessment. The audit covered all Mazama activities and made recommendations for specific situations and training. The 1999 Bulletins contain letters and accounts of four instances where Mazamas assisted with rescues and lifesaving interventions. One note to the Mazamas expressed gratitude to a Mazama climbing party that helped rescue a fallen climber on Mt. Hood’s south side. Another letter expressed appreciation to a Mazama who helped a hiker with chest pains. The latter wrote, “If you are ever in the outdoors and have a problem, your best hope is to be found by a Mazama.” The July Bulletin reported on Mazamas helping with a medical emergency at the Arlene Blum Leadership Seminar and a rescue at Smith Rock. The Mazamas offered rescue and evacuation insurance for Mazama climbs, personal climbs, ski trips, and hiking trips at no cost to members, similar to the protection provided to members of the American Alpine Club. The Mazamas offered 266 climbs and 506 trail trips and street rambles. In addition, the Mazamas had 16 outings including a village-to-village backpack in Guatemala; nordic skiing in Montana; hiking and backpacking in Peru, one peak bagging trip to the Eagle-Cap Wilderness, and two separate backpacking trips to the Wallowa Mountains, Steens Mountains, Grand Tetons, the Dolomites and Maui; and a tour of the Greek Islands. The Explorer Post continued its custom of climbing outside Oregon and Washington. This year featured, organizing a peak-bagging trip in Canada’s Purcell Range with several epic days of rain and returns in the dark. The Mazamas continued to make its library a more prominent part of the organization. In 1999, a new contract archivist reported that prior archival work was well done, but she still faced an inaccessible archive room full of boxes and stacks of unprocessed materials. She focused her work on sorting the records by type and donor. From there, she created computer catalog records and modernized the check-out system. The Mazamas hired Bob Lockerby as its first paid librarian and hosted 66 • We Climb High Vol 2

a celebration of the new positions and the work they had accomplished that year. At the party, the sale of surplus books raised more than $5,000 towards the purchase of rare books. Also, Vera Dafoe curated her fiftieth exhibit since 1980, featuring a collection of rocks from high mountains and rock climbing hardware from the past 50 years. Mazama Explorer Post 936 continued to bring prominent climbers to Portland to speak. The Explorer Post hosted Arlene Blum, who presented a slideshow commemorating the first American expedition to climb Annapurna. Arlene led that expedition, was a member of the first all-women expedition to climb Denali (Mt. McKinley), and was the first woman to attempt Mt. Everest. Arlene learned to climb on Mt. Hood and is an honorary member of the Mazamas. The Explorer Post also hosted Sir Chris Bonnington. He presented a lecture and slideshow on his accomplishments and first ascents of the Eiger, and Antarctica’s Mt. Vinson. The Portland community continued to recognize the many activities of the Mazamas. In 1999, Oregon Public Broadcasting’s Oregon Field Guide television show featured Mazama Street Rambles. In 1999 the Mazamas shared the results of the 1998 membership survey. Ninety percent of respondents agreed that the Mazamas fulfilled their expectations. The survey noted two areas of concern—the increasing average age of membership and a perceived lack of access to climbs. Access was a significant issue for the Mazamas when the U.S. Forest Service produced a Wilderness Protection Environmental Assessment for the Mt. Hood area that proposed limiting climbers on the South Side climbing route of Mt. Hood to twenty-five people per day—a 90 percent reduction from the seasonal average— and limiting hikers on popular trails. The Mazama Conservation Committee and Access Subcommittee briefed the council and members on their position. They were concerned that the restrictions proposed on the south side would deprive many people the opportunity to enjoy these areas, cause climbers to attempt more challenging routes, and increase the risk of injury and search and rescue activities. The Mazamas commented on the proposals, and the Forest Service withdrew the Environmental Assessment, taking no action on the recommendations. Committee changes included raising the Access Committee to a standing committee and replacing the ad hoc Incident Response Committee with a new standing Risk Management Committee. The new committee started its work using the guidance from a report of the prior Incident Response Committee and Ian Wade’s risk management review. The Young Mazamas group formed


in 1998 and reported its new name as, Adventurous Young Mazamas. Another significant bylaw change removed the term “club” and replaced it with “organization” or just “Mazamas,” reflecting a shift to a more formally organized and managed Mazamas. Bill Hackett, member for more than 60 years, life member, and Honorary Member, passed away. The Annual devoted three full pages to Bill’s adventures, which included climbing with some of Mt. Hood’s more prominent climbers—Joe Leuthold, Russ McJury, and Everett Darr —as well as instructing for the 10th Mountain Division, climbing Denali in 1947 on an expedition organized by Bradford Washburn, and standing at the North and South Poles.

2000 By Tom Bard

Christine Mackert titled her President’s Report Ongoing Challenges. In it, she highlighted projects started and finished. The Mazamas hired an office secretary, John Godino, to assist Executive Director Keith Mischke and all the committees. Among many of John’s accomplishments during the year was the initiation of a computer database to track leadership qualifications, education, grants, and other committee projects. The Mazamas partnered with the Forest Service to fund a ranger to climb the south side of Mt. Hood each weekend and report on the weather, snow, and route conditions. The council formed an adhoc Leadership Development Committee to evaluate activity leadership. Mazama Lodge had a good year and recognized managers Jasmine and Jason Starr for their four years of loyal service. The lodge welcomed Wendy and Todd Koebke as the new managers. The Executive Council worked to develop a vision for the next five to ten years. One aspect of the plan called for a membership survey to determine what members want to see for the organization. The council reactivated the Long Range Planning Committee to determine whether a new facility would be necessary. The Mazamas formed a partnership with the Friends of Crater Lake to take part in the 2002 Crater Lake National Park Centennial Celebration. During the summer, the Explorer Post spent its annual week-long summer climbing trip in the British Columbia Coast Range. The group of eight students and four adults climbed an 8,700-foot mountain. The climbers found no evidence of a previous ascent upon reaching the summit. After discussion during the days following the climb, the group decided to name the peak Mt. Dafoe in honor of

Mazama Explorer Posts by Mathew Brock Between 1975 and 2005, the Mazamas hosted four different Explorer Posts for students ages 14–18 to learn mountaineering and rock climbing skills. The first, established in 1975, was originally known as the Milwaukie Explorer Post No. 901. Three years later, in 1978, the Mazamas started Explorer Post No. 859 to draw in members from Washington County and northern Portland. In 1981, the organization established Explorer Post No. 975 to help meet demand from prospective students. Three years later, in 1984, Posts 975 and 901 joined together to pool resources and advisor talent while meeting Explorers’ needs. Around 1992 the Mazama Explorer Post program faltered until Peter Green, John Youngman, and Mary Green reinvigorated it in 1993. For the next thirteen years, the Explorer Post 936 taught hundreds of young men and women alpine climbing skills, including trips to Canada and New Zealand.

Vera Dafoe, who had made longtime contributions to the success of the Explorer Post. On November 24, 2000, climb leaders Mike Holman, Dave Wedge, and David Zeps reached the summit of Island Peak (20,300-foot), in Nepal’s Mt. Everest region. Sherpa guide Nanda Raj Rai and photographer Neil McKay accompanied the party to the peak. Besides the usual trekking and climbing associated with that remote and rugged part of the world, the trip offered an in-depth look into the life of the Rai people. In March of 2001, Neil gave a presentation that showcased highlights from the expedition. The Annual featured a range of topics. Feature articles covered the 1960 American-German Karakoram Expedition to K2, an essay about Conflict and Cooperation We Climb High Vol 2 • 67


in Winter Recreation, and an account on five-year-old Quentin Carter’s ascent of Old Snowy. At the 107th Annual Banquet, 290 Mazamas and friends enjoyed an evening at the Oregon Zoo’s Cascade Crest Banquet Center. Peter Greene was master of ceremonies. Peter presented honorary memberships to Bradford Washburn for 2000 and to Barbara Washburn for 2001 in recognition of their extraordinary climbing, photography, and exploration of Denali. Howard Hansen presented Peter with the Parker Cup for his service to the organization in many capacities over the years. Peter joined the Mazamas in 1984 and served on both the Conservation and Library Committees. As a climb leader since 1994, Peter shared his climbing skills with countless Mazamas, especially those in the Explorer Post. Diana Forester presented Gerry Van Deene the Hardesty Cup in recognition of Gerry’s leading 124 hikes over 20 years.

2001 By Tom Bard

Christine Mackert, in the Annual President’s Report, wrote that this year, “ …marked the beginnings of several exciting projects for the Mazamas.” First, the Long Range Planning Committee, with the aid of the recent membership survey, helped develop a revised vision for the year 2010. Second, the council appointed an ad-hoc Fundraising Committee to foster a philosophy of giving among members. Third, the ad hoc Leadership Development Committee actively worked with activity committees to develop leadership standards and skills. With the council’s blessing, the committee developed a computerized system for tracking leadership activities, training, and committee requirements.

Conservation Committee chair Mary Bushman received the Montague Cup. Mary’s many contributions included her founding of a new organization, The Friends of Tillamook Forest. Also, Mary wrote the speech that President Mackert gave at the press conference on June 20, 2000, preceding the final public hearing on the Forest Service’s roadless area policy. The Conservation Committee granted a total of $25,000 to a variety of conservation organizations, including Friends of the Columbia Gorge, Oregon League of Conservation Voters, Oregon Natural Desert Association, BARK, and the Sierra Club-Columbia Group.

In August, the Executive Council adopted Our Vision for the Year 2010. In summary, the goals included: 1. Attract participation by upgrading our clubroom facilities; 2. Engage our members’ volunteerism, conservation, and research; 3. Build resources in our people and support.

The Expedition Committee supported two trips: an outing to New Zealand’s Mt. Cook Range by two Explorer Post members and an attempt on K2’s North Ridge by another team. Members of both expeditions shared their experience and knowledge with a slideshow, clinics, and by leading Mazama activities.

The Web Committee unveiled the updated website in April. New features include redesigned navigation, consistent graphics, and new route descriptions.

Scheduled outings this year included trips to the Swiss Alps; Mt. Assiniboine, Canada; Glacier National Park; Kilimanjaro; Guatemala; Australia, Idaho; and Hawaii, to mention a few. The Research Committee awarded fifteen research grants totaling $26,750. Research topics covered Understanding Interactions Among Winter Recreationists, Alpine Glacial Chronology, and Avalanche Prediction. Also, small grants went to support secondary schools and graduate student research stipends.

As a result of an appeal, the Forest Service withdrew its decision of 2000, allowing unrestricted access to the Mt. Hood, Hatfield, and Salmon-Huckleberry wilderness areas. The decision focused the need for more vigilance on the part of all outdoor enthusiasts to ensure access to these areas.

Due to unusual weather in the winter and spring, many Mazamas found September climbing conditions in July. Leaders encouraged members to keep their eyes open, helmets on, and consider backing off routes where rockfall hazards existed. On October 4, Ed Webster presented My Storm Years on Everest. Ed is a well-known American climber, lecturer, and author. A veteran of seven Himalayan expeditions to Nepal, Tibet, Bhutan, and Pakistan, Ed was also the first American mountaineer to climb in Mongolia. The Annual included articles on 4 expeditions, 16 outings, and a review of 7 research reports. Also detailed were the award winners at the 2001 Annual Banquet, standing and ad hoc committee reports, and the Treasurer’s report. Climbing Committee reported 227 official Mazama climbs. Trail Trips reported 555 official hikes along with 25 official Mazama outing trail trips. The feature articles in the Annual included rock climbing adventures in Yosemite National Park by Lloyd

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Rounding out the expedition coverage, in Sentinel of Stone, Monty Smith recounted his summiting Aconcagua twice, once each with Jerry Eline and Mike Farris. The 22,854-foot peak is the highest in the western hemisphere and the highest mountain outside the Himalayas. The Outing Committee organized fifteen outings across the United States and around the world for 213 participants. Locales visited included Oregon, Washington, Hawaii, Panama, Bolivia, Peru, and Italy. Ray Sheldon had a busy year leading outings to Maui, maintenance on the Mazama Trail, a trip around Mt. Hood, and assisting the Grand Canyon outing. Gloria Fisher was equally busy leading excursions to Peru in June, Bolivia/Peru in July, and the Italian Dolomites in September. It was a prolific year for Research Reports; the Annual published seven in all. Topics ranged from changes to the glaciers of Glacier Peak to the creation of new national parks in both Norway and New Zealand.

Brad French and Mary Galloway on the summit of Mt. Hood, 2001. Athearn, and on Three Fingered Jack by Ron Gayer. Recent BCEP graduate Lessie Cronk wrote about a rescue of a hypothermic climber on Mt. Adams. Jack Grauer penned Close Calls that Spared Lives, a look at fifty years of near misses. Eric Einspruch recounted his dream of climbing Denali. And last, but not least, Brad French related proposing marriage to Mary Galloway in An Absolutely Spectacular Climb. Expedition articles in the Annual led with K2000: Mazamas on the North Ridge by Ric Conrad. In it, he recounted the prior season’s attempt on the North Ridge of K2 by a party of eighteen led by Mazama Jeff Alzner. The party included Mazamas Wayne Wallace, Drew Hansen, and Terry Richard. Having started in May, by August 15, Alzner knew time was running out. Despite the team’s tremendous efforts, avalanches repeatedly buried tents, and chestdeep snowdrifts barred the way ahead. The pending end of the expedition’s 100-day Chinese visa finally forced the team to abort their attempt. The expedition reached a high point near 25,500 feet, just above Camp III. In Traversing the Juneau Icefield, Keith Daellenbach detailed fulfilling his dream of traversing the ice field’s 120-mile length. He crossed thirteen glaciers from the Boundary Range to the ice field’s southern terminus near Juneau, Alaska. In Exploring the Cordillera Blanca of Peru, Eric Hoem shared his expedition with Bob Wilson to explore a part of Peru’s Andean Mountain range north of Lima, in which many of the dramatic ice-covered peaks rise over 20,000 feet.

The Mazamas hosted their Annual Banquet at the Jantzen Beach Doubletree Hotel in November. More than 320 Mazamas and friends attended. Master of Ceremonies Peter Green began the evening by recognizing longtime members Dee Molenaar, Pete Schoening, and Jim Wickwire. Christine Mackert, having completed her fifth term as president, passed the Sholes Ice axe to incoming president Doug Wilson. Chris was the second president to serve five times, following Charles Sholes. Charles Houston, MD, entertained and charmed the attendees with his exciting travels and video footage of climbs on Nanda Devi and K2. The recipients of the recognition awards included Al Cooke, Parker Cup; Bus Gibson, Hardesty Cup; John Hawthorne, Montague Cup; Vera Dafoe, Redman Cup; and Bob Breivogel, Terry Becker Award.

2002

By Andrew Bodien With the Mazama lease of the clubrooms in northwest Portland due to expire in May 2005, the Executive Council continued to grapple with the question of where the organization should base its operations. The central issue was whether the organization should buy or lease its new home. The Mazamas hired a consulting group to answer that question. Also, members of the Facility Task Force worked to define other ambitions and goals for the Mazamas. These goals included finding a new home/ continued on page 72 We Climb High Vol 2 • 69


Christine Mackert by Dick Pugh and Joyce Follingstad Who summited the Matterhorn in 1977, chased off a bear with her ice axe, collected nearly all of the Mazama awards, relocated a student’s dislocated shoulder during a Basic School training on Mt. Hood, and who lead the Mazamas as president through five terms? Meet Christine Mackert, MD! Chris Mackert was born in Rexberg, Idaho, and was raised on a ranch in nearby St. Anthony, Idaho along with an older brother and sister. If asked, Chris would claim she was from Squirrel, Idaho—a long-disappeared ghost town in the area. After high school, she attended the University of Idaho, then went to Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri for her pre-med education. Finally, Chris arrived in Portland and attended The University of Oregon Medical School (now OHSU) for her internship and residency to become an anesthesiologist. Having grown up in the shadow of the Tetons, Chris was inspired to climb the Grand Teton. Now in Portland, she added Mt. Hood to that wish list. To prepare for these challenges Chris enrolled in The Mazamas Basic Climbing School in 1970. Her instructor was Jack Grauer, with whom she became lifelong friends. Intermediate Climbing School followed, and as she grew in proficiency she was selected to become a Mazama climb leader in 1974. With her medical and mountaineering skills, Chris was an asset on every climb, frequently helping injured climbers. Over the years, Chris summited mountains 112 times with the Mazamas—leading 15 of the climbs and assisting with 42 others. Chris has climbed in the United Sates, Mexico, Africa, and Europe! In 1974, she received the Guardian Peaks Award; in 1975 the Seven Oregon Peaks Award; and in 1976 the Sixteen Major Northwest Peaks and the 5-Point Leadership awards. In 1977 she was given the 10-Point Leadership Award; and in 1979 the 15-Point Leadership Award. Then, in 1982 Chris was

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bestowed the Parker Cup Award for her outstanding service to the Mazamas. See a progression here? Charles H. Sholes, Mazamas’ second president, served the Mazamas for five terms. Over the years, several people served for three terms, and a few more served for two. Only Charles Sholes had been president for five terms until Chris served her fifth term as president. In 2008, Chris became an Honorary Member of the Mazamas for her remarkable service to mountaineering, joining such luminaries as John Muir and Fred Beckey. 1980 was the first year Chris served as Mazama president. Her goal was to attain financial stability for the Mazamas because during the previous five years it had run a deficit. Her second goal was to complete capital improvements at the Mazama Lodge in Government Camp. The third was to increase volunteerism by Mazama members. Chris worked tirelessly to achieve these goals. Her second term as president began in 1989. She worked with the Executive Council to streamline administration of the club while making operations more professional. A review of the bylaws was initiated, office equipment updated, and a job description written for the office manager position. By her third term in 1998, the Mazamas had outgrown its clubroom space on NW 19th Avenue. A needs assessment determined that a larger office, library, auditorium, and additional parking were needed. Options included renewing the lease for the NW 19th Avenue space through 2005 and investing a substantial amount of money for remodeling, or to purchase a more suitable building. The Mazamas Foundation was created in 1999. A new foundation board was organized, investments managed, and a search for a new building began. That year also brought a quagmire of new government regulations and risk management issues. Chris led the Mazamas in reviewing and revising


policies and procedures, and created an incident management program.

because she was a doctor, the boy’s hands quickly warmed up!

Highlights from Chris’s leadership in 2000 included the Mazamas partnering with the United States Forest Service. Members were encouraged to act as voluntary wilderness stewards in the Mt. Hood, Salmon-Huckleberry, and Hatfield Wilderness areas. In the face of an aging membership, the Mazamas initiated five- and ten-year longrange plans that sought to attract younger members. The Mazamas also joined the electronic age and developed a website.

Chris hasn't only served the Mazamas as president or in the mountains. Because of her easy manner, knowledge of the Mazamas, excellent presentation skills, and inability to say no, Chris served as the emcee of the Annual Banquet at least five times! The year 1994 marked the 100th 100th anniversary of the Mazamas. Historian Vera Dafoe informed Chris that there had been many variations of the Mazama insignia patch, and that there were hundreds of old emblems abandoned in a box. Chris took it upon herself to create a quilt using the patches in order to celebrate the anniversary. The quilt now hangs in the Mazama Mountaineering Center.

Chris has a great sense of humor. When women began getting more than just ear piercings, Chris showed up with a nose stud or a nose ring, and watched the shocked or amazed looks from the others. Later she revealed that the stud was really held on by a magnet and the ring by a small clip! Once on an early climb of preeruption Mount St. Helens, in camp Chris asked climb leader Jack Grauer if there were bears in the area. He answered, “No bears.” So Chris left her cooler on the picnic table that night. When a bear tore the cooler apart during the night, Chris chased it off with her ice axe. She complained to Jack that a bear had destroyed her styrofoam chest, to which Jack replied that he didn’t know she had a styrofoam chest! This incident brought laughter to all. On the 1972 Teton Outing, Chris realized that certain members were coming down with a sickness that she diagnosed as Marmot Fever. The remedy she prescribed was to gather the ailing climbers at Teton Village each afternoon to have cold beers! While leading a climb of Mt. Hood, Chris ran into Keith Mischke, who was leading a team of young climbers. One of the young boys complained that his hands were cold. When Chris said that she could amputate the fingers, his eyes grew huge. When Keith told the boy it would be okay

Mountaineering is a beautiful, delightful, and satisfying sport. But it is also risky. Chris has faced the difficulty of the losing friends to climbing accidents. Ray Sheldon and others recall how Chris was a strong and caring helper when dealing with the loss of Terry Becker during a Swiss Outing. Another dark hour came when Dick Sawyer fell to his death on Mt. Shuksan. Chris rappelled down to him, jumared back up to the group, and took over the climb as leader. When five Mazamas lost their lives on the Cooper Spur route on Mt. Hood, Chris handled the debriefing, public relations, and incident management of this devastating event. Regardless of these misfortunes, Chris continues to remain a strong advocate for the sport. Her kindness, humor, and friendship make her a pleasure to be around. The Mazamas owe Dr. Christine L. Mackert a huge debt for her leadership and dedication to the Mazamas.

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continued from page 69

headquarters, an appropriate location for this new home, evaluating whether membership fees could provide funding, and beginning the capital campaign to raise the necessary money to achieve these goals. The Annual featured several riveting accounts and accomplishments from the year. Included was an account of the Explorer Post’s climb up Snowpatch Spire in the Bugaboos, a harrowing attempt to climb Aconcagua, and climbing on the Washburn Route of Denali. Other notable articles took a nostalgic look at Mazama history, namely Mazama involvement in past attempts to climb K2, and Marianna and Ty Kearney’s 1947 Mt. Hood climb that culminated in riding a bicycle on the summit. Finally, Tom McCormack wrote an essay on how a long apprenticeship of climbing with experienced climbers builds the foundation for a safe climbing career. As in years past, the Mazamas led an exciting array of domestic and international outings. International outings included hiking in Turkey and Scotland. Domestically, the Mazamas led outings to Death Valley, Aspen Ridge Resort in southeast Oregon, the North Cascades, Hells Canyon, the Diamond Lake area, the east side of Mt. Rainier, sea kayaking in the San Juan Islands, and removing barbed wire fences at Hart Mountain. Jim Wickwire was the special speaker for the Annual Banquet. He started by thanking the Mazamas for organizing the successful K2 reunion for the 1953 and 1978 climb teams. Jim also reflected on three of his most memorable climbs, one of which was Yocum Ridge on Mt. Hood, arguably the most challenging route on the mountain. The Parker Cup was awarded to Barbara Marquam for her successful efforts as the Library Committee chair in preserving the library and, thus, the organization’s long history. Kate McCarthy was named an Honorary Member for her efforts to protect Mt. Hood. Continuing that theme, the Mazamas recognized Heather Weinstein with the Montague Cup. Under her leadership, the Conservation Committee was very active, especially in protecting the northeast side of Mt. Hood from development. Other honorees included Hike Leader Rich Conser, recipient of the Hardesty Cup, and Dean Lee, recipient of the Terry Becker Award. Three notable members passed away in 2002. Clair Siddall, a member since 1968, a recipient of the 16 Northwest Major Peaks award, Executive Council member, and the first president of the recently formed Mazamas Foundation. Roy Sires, a member since 1983, was a former chair of the Trail Trips Committee and Hardesty Cup honoree in 1992, and longtime member Harold Bangs, 72 • We Climb High Vol 2

Keith Mischke, ca. 2003. Mazamas Collection. who joined the Mazamas in 1931 and served on the Lodge, Climbing, and the Old Timers Committees.

2003

By Andrew Bodien Keith Mischke, who was the Mazama Executive Director for ten years, retired in May. Before Keith was on the Mazama payroll, he was a climb leader, volunteer, and president. Starting in 1993, he spearheaded a variety of initiatives for the Mazamas. He did outreach on behalf of the organization, managed the business office, and supported volunteers to ensure that the business of the Mazamas was completed. Rick Stoller replaced Keith. The Mazamas had resided at 909 NW 19th Avenue since 1957, but with the lease due to expire in 2005, the organization decided to find a new home. Mazama leadership decided they would either find land and build a facility or buy an existing property and remodel it for the organization. The Facilities Task Force worked with an architect, realtor, and fundraiser to find and finance our next headquarters. The Mazamas balanced its budget but still struggled financially with Mazama Lodge and the Annual. The April Bulletin featured a front-page article documenting that the lodge had averaged annual losses of about $15,000 over the last three years. Executive Council decided to increase all exclusive use fees, lodging, and meal rates, and to aggressively promote the lodge to encourage more use. Also, the Table of Contents of the Annual included a note that “Due to the club’s current financial situation, some


articles that were submitted for publication in the 2003 Annual could not be featured.” Perhaps the most noteworthy article in the Annual was Monty Smith’s recounting of a rescue in the Swiss Alps. Monty was a member of a Mazama climb team that participated in the rescue of another party that came less than a foot from a 1,000-foot fall off a glacier. There were two key lessons learned from this experience. The first was the value of learning and teaching mountaineering skills that could be recalled at unexpected moments of stress. The second was the usefulness of critical incident stress management to mitigate the immediate and lingering personal effects of such an encounter. Other Annual articles followed the Explorer Post climbing in the Selkirk Mountains and a traverse of the Ellesmere Island Glacier in the Canadian Arctic. John Youngman shared his experiences of dealing with lightning on various climbs and a winter storm on Mt. Hood. Finally, Eric Hoem wrote about his expedition to the Cordillera Blanca range of the Peruvian Mountains as a primer on how to organize and lead a successful team. The organization continued to offer outings taking place near and far. International trips included hiking and climbing in the Swiss Alps, outback camping in Australia, and trekking in Peru. Domestic outings were offered in Alaska, Maui, the Upper Missouri River, rafting the Grand Canyon, hiking in the North Santiam area, Crater Lake hiking, hiking on the north side of the Olympic Mountains, and kayaking in the San Juan Islands. Most importantly, after eight years of effort, Mazamas completed removing all the fences in the Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge. Arlene Blum was the speaker at the Annual Banquet. Her talk, titled Endless Winter: High Places Around the World, featured stories from a fifteen-month expedition in Ethiopia, Uganda, Iran, Afghanistan, and the Kashmir Himalayas. She also discussed her leadership of the first American ascent and all-women climb of Annapurna I. Sam Nebel was awarded the Parker Cup for 25 years of volunteer service to the Mazamas. Kate McCarthy was recognized for her dedication to protecting Mt. Hood from development with the Montague Conservation Award. Carolyn Jenkins received the Hardesty Cup. John Salisbury was awarded the Redman Cup for the two periods that he edited the Bulletin. Finally, the Mazamas honored Sir Edmund Hillary, in absentia, as an Honorary Member.

2004 By Ali Gray

Budget shortfalls and the search for a permanent Mazama home were the main topics of interest this year. The combination of a skyrocketing increase in liability insurance premiums and poor lodge revenues left the organization in a tight financial position. Suspending the librarian position, cutting back committee spending, increasing the cost of climbs, and hiring new lodge managers helped to cut costs. Cutting publication costs through stringent editing and selling ads in the Bulletin also helped, as did signing a new Bulletin printing agreement—legend has it that our previous printers were giving us a good deal because back in the 1940s the owner was impressed how he and his new bride were treated on a Mazama outing! In addition to balancing the budget, the organization needed every spare dollar for the new Mazama Mountaineering Center (MMC). A plea for member donations appeared in most communications throughout the year, alongside requests to assist in the search for a suitable property. The Capital Campaign Committee and the Facilities Task Force spearheaded these efforts. Apart from financing, newly hired Executive Director Peggie Schwarz and newly elected President Wendy Carlton focused on increasing public awareness of the Mazamas. Their goals were expanding outreach, increasing membership, and spreading a positive perception into the community, alongside dispelling the myth that it’s difficult to get accepted on Mazama climbs. Our courses and activities were a great success. A revamped Mountaineering First Aid curriculum increased the structure of the evenings to include approximately fifty percent hands-on skills practice and introduced a new recertification course. Midway through August, Trail Trips set an all-time annual record for attendance and revenues. BCEP enjoyed a fifteen percent increase in enrollment from the previous year. Members traveled across the Pacific Northwest, Canada, Southern California, and Southeast Asia on various outings, enjoying activities ranging from hiking to sea kayaking. True to form, the Conservation Committee helped lead Mazama participation in important regional environmental pursuits. Notable work included supporting Senator Ron Wyden’s proposal to add 160,000 acres to the Mt. Hood Wilderness, as well as assisting in ongoing opposition to the Mt. Hood Meadows resort expansion on the north side of Mt. Hood. We Climb High Vol 2 • 73


The Annual Banquet featured several noteworthy events. Renowned mountaineer Adrian Burgess gave his presentation In Search of Everest and the Climb Committee presented the new Vera and Carmie Dafoe Award to Bill Oberteuffer. Named in honor of Vera Dafoe, our beloved member since 1957, the award requires 15 years of continuous service as a climb leader, characterized by outstanding leadership and significant service to the organization. The new Peak of the Month features were a highlight in the Bulletin. Several entries worth reading were a lyrical overview of climbing Sahale and Boston peaks, an account of a (repeated) summit attempt on Bonanza Peak, and a harrowing tale of weather, flooding, and “more of an evacuation than a departure” at Mt. Constance. A humorous tale of a “life-long battle against gravity” up Tower Mountain and Golden Horn was entertaining as well. Francis Alice Beckham, a lifetime Mazama member who made her membership climb up Mt. Hood at age eight, and Dorothy Rich, who joined the Mazamas in 1958 and was the only Mazama to have earned all possible awards for both climbs and trail trips by 1968, both passed away this year. The 80-page Annual highlighted assorted accounts of high adventure around the country and abroad. The most notable of these (and one of the largest Mazama accomplishments of the year) was the first Mazama expedition to the Himalayas in many years. The team of ten attempted 22,500-foot Ama Dablam, one of the most beautiful mountains in the world and just nine miles south of Mt. Everest in the Khumbu region of Nepal. The “easy route” is 4,000 feet of near-vertical rock, ice, and snow requiring a mile of fixed lines and constant exposure. Author Monty Smith provided head-spinning descriptions of locations such as Camp 2, just big enough for four or five tents with multi-thousand foot drops on either side, and Mushroom Ridge, a snowy knife-edge overhung on both sides. Monty and Chris Cosgriff made the summit, followed by David Byrne and Nancy Miller two days later. Monty stated, “Similar to the other times I’ve been above 20,000 feet, there was no feeling of elation or accomplishment upon reaching the summit—just exhausted panting and a need for rest.” Two days into the descent, Monty’s rope gave way and he free-fell down massive granite slabs, but managed to skid to a stop with only bruises! The team returned home to fanfare from their fellow Mazamas and climbers. Another memorable article, The Simple Joy of Being Able, talks of climbing Three Fingered Jack in July 1966. The article is part history, part homage to longtime climb leader Erwin Rieger, who according to author Tom 74 • We Climb High Vol 2

McCormack, emitted an enduring optimism and quiet self-confidence that was inspiring for his students. Tom describes Basic Climbing School13 lectures choked with pipe smoke, and climbing with Goldline rope, a few carabiners, a possible piton or two, tennis shoes, and the occasional hardhat. Other accounts included two Alaska expeditions, one to Mt. Russell and the other to Mt. Blachnitzky, and a description of the Explorer Post trip to the Purcell Mountains in Canada. The remaining articles turned to Yosemite and rock—a climb of the out-of-fashion Lunch Ledge in 2003 is the focus of one, and a climb up the northwest face of Half Dome the other. On Half Dome, John “JP” Parsons fell and blew two placements, breaking a rib along the way. He kept going, only later to have rockfall hit his helmet—he kept going after that, too! The Annual closed by profiling our youngest Mazama. Heather Chambers summited qualifying peak Old Snowy unassisted when she was only three years old. Calvin Beardsley and Quentin Carter started with Old Snowy at four-and-a-half. McKinley and Sedona Young topped out on Broken Top at age 5, and Lauren and Steven Chambers enjoyed the views from Old Snowy at ages 7 and 11, respectively. Helmets off to these amazing kids.

2005

By Ali Gray & Jeff Thomas For the first time in 110 years, we owned our own home! The building—built in 1927 as a church and used as a Masonic Lodge for the past 22 years—was officially turned over to the Mazamas in November. The Mazama Mountaineering Center has remained our home base since. The three-year property search involved dedicated work across the organization. The Capital Campaign Committee, Facilities Task Force, Executive Council, Foundation, and many volunteers donated their time and money to make the vision a reality. With the help of Smith & Company, Inc. (climbers themselves) to help manage the campaign, the Mazamas raised $275,000 of the $1,750,000 goal as of the Annual’s publication, well on the way to having the funds needed for the new property. Apart from purchasing the new MMC, tracking, supporting, and recruiting new volunteers was the main focus for Executive Director Peggie Schwarz. Packed speaker events, full classes, successful climbs, exciting outings, and the second most successful Used Equipment 13 The Basic Climbing School was renamed the Basic Climbing Education Prgram in 1996. See "1996" on page 59


Sale in Mazama history were testament to how committed Mazama volunteers really are. Insurance rates were down, but it was still difficult to stay on track financially to purchase the new MMC. To help raise additional revenue, a new Mazama Mercantile opened with clothing, first aid kits, books, decals, and knives for sale. A book signing event for longtime Mazama Arlene Blum’s new memoir Breaking Trail: A Climbing Life brought in more money, as did an Expedition Committee benefit featuring Conrad Anker’s presentation about the Khumbu Climbing School. Yet again winter snow failed to materialize at Mazama Lodge but needed landscaping improvements and lodgewide wi-fi helped bring people out to Government Camp. Another dent in Mazama programming was due to recent volcanic activity at Mount St. Helens, which for a second time since 1980 closed climbing there indefinitely. With Mount St. Helens closed, the Guardian Peaks Award was once again unavailable, and it was replaced by the Warrior Peaks award. True to form, our members made notable achievements this year. Kellie Rice received The Access Fund’s Regional Coordinator of the Year award for her activism around Rocky Butte and Broughton’s Bluff Adopt-A-Crags. As part of the National Children’s Mental Health Summit Day, Monty Smith, Ed Bacon, Frank Kelley, and John Kelley climbed Mt. Hood to promote children’s mental health awareness. Their summit photo was publicized around the region. Kent Meyer penned a new guidebook, Hiking Trails of the Gifford Pinchot National Forest. And up in the Canadian Purcell Range, Explorer Post climbers summited the group’s 200th peak since its inception in 1994. Where there are highs, there are lows. We lost twelve extraordinary Mazamas this year, their obituaries peppering various Bulletins and the Annual. Laurita Leuthold had her first mountaineering experience on Eliot Glacier in 1938, and volunteered in three fire lookouts in the Mt. Adams region during WWII. She met and married Mazama and Oregon climbing legend Joe Leuthold at the Mountain Shop (where she worked) when he returned from WWII, and together with Joe moved to Government Camp and helped manage Summit Ski area. Charles Applegate rowed on the team that won the Olympic gold medal at the 1936 Games in Germany. Betty Nelson Schuld was the first woman member of the Mt. Hood Ski Patrol. Helen Virginia Wirtanen was the first certified professional secretary in Oregon and devoted her first paid vacation to spending all her money on a Greyhound Bus ticket after asking “how far will this take me?” Richard Laird was a past Mazama president, climb leader, and award-winner. Esther Raz Tolls is thought to have been the last surviving member of the 1927 Mazama

Ann Angell and James (Jim) Knickerbocker Angell Jr., at the 1965 Mazama Banquet. Jim had just won the Parker Cup. climbing party who completed the Mt. Hood Sunshine Route after climb party member Dr. Stryker was killed when the party slid into a crevasse. Randall Brown married fellow member Helene Kerr after meeting her while teaching folk dancing at the Mazama Clubrooms. Gordon Clark and Victor Egert were wonderful photographers, and Ray Davis was a strong conservation advocate. Tragically, a promising young climber and photographer, Patrick Wang, died in April while descending after a successful summit of Mt. Whitney. James K. Angell Jr. was a larger than life personality who made a difference no matter what he was involved in. Bob Pierce put it this way, “Whatever he did, he did with energy and enthusiasm.” A perfect example was the four years he served as Banquet Committee chair. According to a friend, three of those years were the “…largest and most outstanding banquets ever held by this club.” When he was a climb leader Jim sought out rare out-of-the-way climbs such as the full North Ridge of Three Fingered Jack, which of course led to an overnight bivouac. When he was on the Library Committee he—along with Don Onthank— compiled a nearly complete list of all Mazama climbs from 1894 up to the mid-1960s and listed every successful climber on each climb. He won the Parker Cup in 1965 and probably should have won it again. To round out his service Jim served as president in 1968. Jim had influence outside of the Mazamas. He was active in Oregon Mountain Rescue, Mt. Hood Ski Patrol, and especially the Oregon Section of the American Alpine Club. Along with a core group of concerned activists— most of them also Mazamas—and with permission from Oregon State Parks, he designed and started building and repairing trails at Smith Rock State Park in the late 1970s to combat climber caused erosion. This same core group of volunteers eventually convinced State Parks and the

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Cooper Spur 1894: The Photo & People By Jeff Thomas

During the Mazama organizational climb of Mt. Hood, at 2:30 p.m. on July 19, 1894, Charles Caleb Lewis, a photographer from Monmouth, Oregon, took what is perhaps the most arresting climbing image ever taken on Mt. Hood. Why arresting? One, if it does not make you want to immediately walk out the door and go climb, you are not responding to stimuli like a normal climber would. Two, without written explanation it captures the excitement and the spirit of the birth of the 76 • We Climb High Vol 2

Mazamas. Three, it shows people in a surreal alpine environment where common sense says they really should not be, especially given the clothes they are wearing and the equipment they are missing. Speaking of missing, have you ever wondered who these people were and what the climb was like? Since 1999, one revelation and two surprise donations, along with existing resources in Mazama Library and Historical Collections,


have led to partial answers to these questions. Today we know more about 15 of the 19 climbers shown in this incredible image than we have since Lewis immortalized the moment. CLIMBERS TOP TO BOTTOM IN THE JULY 19, 1894 COOPER SPUR PARTY PHOTO 1. W.W. Nason (possibly Mason). He is the awkward figure negotiating the cornice at the top. In the George Edward Williams version of the Charles C. Lewis photograph, he was painted out, (imagine that, Photoshop in the 1890s!) presumably because his awkward pose and another visual irregularity was just too embarrassing. 2. Harold Douglas Langille. He is facing the camera and is wearing a white top. Normally Doug would have guided with his brother Will, but Will was sick and could not climb; instead Doug chose James Dimmick as his assistant. One week before July 19 Doug and James carried a length of 5/8 inch rope to just below the summit and anchored it to a large boulder. They called it a life line and it was the first recorded instance of a fixed rope on Mt. Hood. 3. Andrew J. Johnson. One source states that he descended from the summit to Cloud Cap Inn in 1 hour 15 minutes 4. Miss Della Watson. She was perhaps the shortest adult on the July 19 climb as she apparently measured about five feet. In the photo she is facing uphill and wearing a full length dress. Fortunately no one wore crampons in 1894—in fact they did not even exist in Europe at this time—so Della Watson did not have to worry about sharp points catching on clothing. 5. Miss Olive Hartley, M.D. 6. George Edward Williams. Lore has it that the print was originally made for Mr. Williams given his triumphant pose, for it is he holding his alpenstock on high, way on high, and it is just that little detail which sends it over the top as perhaps one of the most memorable photos ever taken on Mt. Hood. 7–10. The names Samuel E. Bartmess, H.J. Mann, Ezra T. Simmons, and Edwin C. Stuarthave not yet been matched to these four figures.

11. Miss Alice M. Cleaver 11. William Mercer 13. Griffith (Gryff) Perrott. Notice the object around Griffith’s midsection. The Oregonian called it a fishing basket. He left Cloud Cap Inn with four carrier pigeons inside including Frances, Grover, Jane, and Pickwick. After all four were released on the summit, only Pickwick returned to Portland. 14. James E. Hannah 15. Miss Ida Foss 16. P.C. McGuire 17. Frank E. McClure. The Oregonian of July 21, 1894 stated that, “Mr. Frank E. McClure” was employed by “the Laue-Davis drug company.” Both Frank and Griffith Perrott made the trip from Portland to the summit and back to Portland in 48 hours. This was Frank’s second ascent. He had climbed the South Side in August 1892 with what was then the largest party to make the summit. Many of the people he had climbed with then were also along for their second try, but Frank was the only one to try something new, Cooper Spur. The rest went up the South Side, the route they had climbed in 1892. 18. Colin H. McIsaac. One source states “weight 215 lbs.” The second figure from the bottom does appear to look the part as he is definitely bulkier than the rest of his fellow climbers. Nowadays that might not be considered interesting; however, then it was unusual enough to rate comment and it helps establish—perhaps without question—that C.H. McIsaac is in fact the second figure from the bottom 19. James Henry Dimmick. Two sources agree and it seems certain that Dimmick is the figure at the bottom of the line. Further proof can be gained from the fact that he is known to have been the assistant and standard practice then as well as now was to have one leader at the rear. For a deep dive into how longtime Mazama archivist and historian Jeff Thomas worked out who is who in the image, see "Appendices" on page 107.

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Continued from page 75 very reluctant local private landholders next to the park to build what is now the walk-in bivouac area. Jim was part of a group that convinced Senator Mark Hatfield to include the Menagerie in the 1984 wilderness bill and he was part of the lobby that convinced the State of Washington and the U.S. Forest Service to re-open Mount St. Helens to climbers in 1987. Unfortunately, he was not able to convince the U.S. Forest Service to increase the number of climbers allowed to climb Mount St. Helens each day, but it was not for lack of effort—i.e., he sued them but lost. Finally, when Ray Sheldon needed engineering help with the Mazama Trail on Mt. Hood in the early 1990s he turned to Jim Angell. So the next time you find yourself toiling up Misery Ridge at Smith Rock do not fail to praise James K. Angell Jr.; without him the hike would be a lot worse. The 52-page Annual was bursting with tales of jawdropping and tear-jerking adventures around the world. The first account detailed a terrible accident on Baffin Island, in which climber Drew Wilson lost his life after rappelling off the rope during the descent, and falling 700 feet to his death. Since it was a first ascent, Wilson’s fellow climbers decided to name the peak the Will of Wilson Wall in honor of Drew. Another expedition that could have ended in tragedy was a climb of Shishapangma in Tibet. At 26,328 feet, the peak is straightforward by Himalayan standards, but the climb still entails gaping crevasses, vertical rock and ice, fixed lines, and razor-sharp ridges. The team of four Mazamas, led by Monty Smith, had to navigate a foreign bureaucracy, survive cerebral edema and bronchitis, and endure nasty weather that trapped them in a tent for days. During their second summit attempt, Monty and fellow climber Valerie Hovland had to dig a snow cave to escape extreme high winds that had blown away all their gear save a single sleeping bag. During their harrowing descent, Valerie’s contact lenses fogged up so she couldn’t see farther than a few feet, and Monty’s hands were badly frostbitten (he ended up losing two fingers to the first knuckle). The duo eventually found help and made a safe descent with assistance from their porter and cook, a Marmot team, and a long-abandoned tent. Five Explorer Post students and their trip leaders also encountered hardship in New Zealand. They had grand ideas of climbing and exploring glaciers on the South Island, but were thwarted by the theft of over $15,000 worth of gear, supplies, travelers’ checks, and passports from their van while they were out on a hike. Although the airlines and credit card companies were less than helpful, 78 • We Climb High Vol 2

a New Zealand cookie company owner decided to use his money and influence to help them. They spent the rest of their time hiking on the North Island, learning to deal with the unexpected, to be self-sufficient, and to stay positive. One of the worthiest reads of the year was an account by Tom McCormack of climbing the Poplar route at Smith Rock with his friend Dave Elliott in 1971. The climb was only possible because of a three-foot section of iron pipe wedged by Jim and Jerry Ramsey during the 1950s into an overhanging crack near the start of the route. The friends topped out, a grand achievement for the time. Tom didn’t climb for many years due to family and career commitments, so when he returned to Smith Rock in the 1990s, the unfamiliar crowds and chalk-marked walls disenchanted him. He returned to the Poplar—the iron pipe had disappeared—but his new sticky climbing shoes made it easy. Arriving on the summit brought back memories of standing there years ago with Dave, and he realized that the “ …mystical spirit of adventure that used to be the very essence of Smith Rock” could still be found. Other Annual accounts included a 1966 climb of Mt. Thielsen, which led to the discovery of Oregon’s southernmost glacier by the late Dr. Ted Lathrop. Ted’s nephew Ralph now works to lead educational tours up the glacier, and studies its retreat up the mountain. Another Ted, Ted Kruse, wrote about his four attempts on routes on the west side of Mt. Jefferson. He was finally successful on the fourth try after a relatively uneventful climb, very different from his previous attempts full of bad weather and a fall near the summit. Five Mazamas traveled to the Cordillera Blanca in Peru for a climbing expedition, only to discover that many of the recorded routes in the area were now impossible without intermediate camps and more technical climbing. The increased difficulties were due to climate change and the resulting glacier recession, and thin snow packs. Preston Corless and three teammates had more success on their Denali climb, despite being weather bound to their tents for eight days before finally making the summit via the West Buttress. Upon their return, a newscaster asked Preston why he climbed. His answer, “You have to experience it; it’s like nothing else in the world.”


2006

By Sara Gille and Jeff Thomas A primary focus of this year was preparing for a planned January 2007 opening at our new home, the Mazama Mountaineering Center (MMC). Volunteers handled the bulk of the demolition, donating a total of 38,338 hours. The Mazamas hired locally owned Brewer Brothers Construction for the remodel. Tom Dinsmore and Robert Lockerby, two retirees, fondly referred to as Old Goats Construction, were perfect examples of how dedicated volunteers were to upgrading the MMC. Their list of projects included the library workroom and storage for both the museum and archives. They also moved the giant Crater Lake Painting out of harm’s way (way too many times) and painted the rope room. Along the way, they found time to strip the insulation from the lobby’s barrel ceiling. Perhaps the ultimate volunteer was coordinator Jay Leavens. His efforts to coordinate the general contractors and the variety of volunteers earned him the Parker Cup. One of the examples of the Mazamas efforts to minimize disturbances in the neighborhood during construction was an agreement with the Multnomah Friends Meeting (Quakers) in the building just across Southeast 43rd Avenue that let the organization use its parking lot. Since that time, the Mazamas have provided the Quakers’ exclusive use of the Mazama parking lot on Sundays. Of course, the new building did not come free. The structure was purchased for $1.1 million in 2005 by the Mazamas Foundation, a decision made after rent at the northwest clubrooms was set to triple. The capital campaign continued in earnest this year, intending to raise $1.75 million. By October, $470,370 was raised in cash, in-kind gifts, and pledges. The Mazamas sought to raise funds through naming opportunities. The descendants of Ben Holman, an 1894 charter member, gave a $225,000 estate gift to name the Benjamin F. Holman Auditorium. Bill Oberteuffer, a member for 60 years, donated $50,000 in his last month of life to name The Margaret and Bill Oberteuffer Museum Collection. The Mazamas were honored by these gifts and looked forward to seeing the names of these great Mazamas for generations to come. The new year saw the completion of an energy study and recommendations for renewable building materials. This fit with the Mazamas focus on environmental consciousness this year. The Conservation Committee and the Northwest Earth Institute led an eight-week discussion group, with outcomes that included a series of steps towards lifestyles and Mazama committee sustainability.

The Annual Banquet continued the environmental consciousness trend by successfully transitioning from a large formal sit-down meal to simple hors d’oeuvres. Climber and environmentalist, Royal Robbins, was the guest speaker. Robbins, who was named an Honorary Member, was probably the most recognized and influential rock climber in the United States in the 1960s and early 1970s. In addition to his physical prowess on the rock, Robbins was also a vital writer producing two influential how-to books on rock climbing, and a 1967 article Nuts to You in the May issue of Summit magazine. His essay was the first to promote the use of nuts as both a better way to preserve rock climbs and as a better way to protect climbers. One of our environmental advocates, Keith Daellenbach, was awarded the Access Fund Award this year, in addition to the Mazama Montague Cup Award for his efforts in preserving the Madrone Wall since its closure in 1997. In 1999 Keith became one of the founders of the Madrone Wall Preservation nonprofit. In large part due to Keith’s efforts, in 1999 the Clackamas County Board of Commissioners added the Madrone Wall property to the Clackamas River Watershed Protection area. The move protected the area from sale to private interests and the threat of gravel mining. The site will become part of the future Clackamas County Parks Department master plan. The Madrone Wall Preservation continues to work with the County Parks Advisory Board to move the wall to park status. As expected, the bylaws were changed to replace all mention of “club room” with the new “Mazama Mountaineering Center.” A proposal to increase dues by $10, from $50 to $60 a year, passed with a large majority and went into effect in September of 2007. Keith Dubanevich took over as president at the end of the year when Gary Beck's term expired. In addition to the acquisition of the new building, Gary was able to leave his post having seen a completed redesign of the website, built with member input on content and ease of navigation, and launched in October to great reception. The Mazama Lodge hosted its first Hawaiian night and implemented a new age policy whereby anyone under 18 had to be accompanied by a guardian over 21. Anyone making a reservation must be over 21. A few other firsts this year included the annual Round the Mountain hike, which was a sold-out success. Participants hiked a section of the Timberline trail for three days, returning to Mazama Lodge each night for hot showers and warm beds. Starting in August, REI downtown was designated the new meeting location for the Street

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The Founding Documents By Jeff Thomas

In 1984, as my first Mazama Library project, I inventoried the Mazama summit registers. To my dismay I discovered that the register that was on the summit of Mt. Hood when the Mazamas were formed on July 19, 1894 was missing. This is the story of its return in 2006. I’d like to start by telling you exactly what it is that we have recovered because David Sweet, who so ably wrote the front page article in the May Bulletin, and the Oregonian were only able to mention the highlights. Some of the other major items were four photograph albums from the 1910s and 1920s, an original account by Frank Branch Riley of his experiences during the Mazamas first outing in 1894, and a revised Mazama Charter from 1916. But the records which have generated all the excitement are:

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1.

A summit register that was on top of Mt. Hood from 1891 to 1895

2.

A book of Executive Council minutes that document Mazama business from 1894 to 1898

3.

A summit register that was on top of Mount St. Helens from 1898 to 1908

4.

A battered envelope containing letters to the Club Secretary during the year 1897 including observations from J.W. Hillman and Chauncey Nye, members of the first two European parties to see Crater Lake in the 1850s. Native Americans had, of course, known about the phenomenon for millennia.

We knew that some of these manuscripts had once existed because we have library records that list them. For example, we knew about the book of council minutes because it was assigned a Dewey Decimal number. Helen Gerding, who had been a member for 80 years, remembers sitting down and reading the book of records in the 1940s. However, we had no idea about these other records, so when they were found languishing in the laundry room of a well-regarded Mazama, for me, it was like discovering a new peak in the Cascades that all the explorers and map makers had somehow missed. But why all the fuss; why all the excitement? It is simple really. All the men and women who founded our organization are long gone. The only way to know what they knew, to understand the legacy they wished to pass on to us, is to read what they wrote. Winston Churchill once wrote, “History with its flickering lamp stumbles along the trail of the past, trying to reconstruct its scenes, to revive its echoes, and kindle with pale gleams the passion of former days.” These documents are a shining beacon, casting a spotlight on the beginning of the Mazamas and fully illuminating our past. Now just as a finishing treat, I’d like to quote one entry from the Mt. Hood Summit Register. You might think it was written by some hippie from Haight Ashbury in the 1960s, but I assure you it was composed in 1892. The poetry is doggerel, but I think the enthusiasm of the author and his love of the mountains shines through. Or had Noah landed here In the middle of the night, He undoubtedly would have said Mt. Hood is out-of-sight. The author was no less than Mazama founder William Gladstone Steel.

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Continued from page 79 Rambles. This year also saw the revival of the Hike-To-TheSummit (HTTS) climb program, for those who want to climb but don’t know where to get started. Leaders took new climbers (and many future new members) up South Sister, Old Snowy, and Mount St. Helens. In the January Bulletin, Brett Lloyd wrote the first of his Gear Head Bone Head monthly articles, where he lamented the clammy feel of a sweaty Gor-tex coat. Eight Mazamas reached the summit of Mt. Elbrus in the southern Caucasus region of Russia, the highest point in Europe. This was the first official Mazama climb of that peak. Pemba Doma Sherpa, first woman Nepalese climber to summit Everest from the north and south sides, came to talk. The Climbing Committee adopted a family climb policy and established a new category of climbs entitled Family Climbs with an “F” designation. And the Nordic Committee started an Applied Backcountry Program, a series of lectures, clinics, and tours designed to take existing skills and apply them to the backcountry, despite the difficulty in finding Nordic ski instructors this year. We were sad to lose a few Mazamas this year: Robert J. Boden—past president; Corinne C. Thrush, a member since the 1970s, who reached the summit of over 35 peaks, most of them while she was in her 40s and 50s; and Roy Stout, dedicated volunteer of the Friends of the Columbia Gorge, who helped to pull out poison oak and clear debris from the trails we call home. The Mazamas also celebrated the birthday of Helen Gerding, who turned 100, and has been a Mazama for 80 years, after first climbing Mt. Hood in 1926. She met her husband Al, who would later go on to serve as the organization president, at an annual Mazama Spring Dance. As a young woman, she would tie fir boughs to her skis to get traction to climb up the mountain from Government Camp to ski. Helen also designed and built her rucksack, which included a stabilizing waist belt. When her Mazama friends Everett Darr and Glen Asher established the Mountain Shop in the late 1930s, they took Helen’s pack apart, made a modified pattern, and built their own commercial bag. The design that was made from Helen’s original pack and several of the late 1930s Mountain Shop packs, marketed as the Wy’east brand, are now preserved in the Mazama Museum. Finally, the Mazamas celebrated a couple of Mazama heroes, climb leader Jay Chambers and his assistant Dean Neumann, who led a crevasse rescue on Mt. Rainier. David Briggs, one of the members of their climb, saw a lead climber on a two-person team take a fall. Quick thinking 82 • We Climb High Vol 2

by Jay and Dean, and the aid of a group of Canadian climbers, led to a safe rescue.

2007 By Sara Gille

This year was our first in the Mazama Mountaineering Center. Staff and over 200 volunteers gave thousands of hours of their time to plan, renovate, landscape, move, and fundraise for the building, which was completed on time and under budget. On January 6, over 70 Mazamas started moving every box, every piece of furniture, and all the office equipment from the former Mazama building at NW 19th and Kearney to the new building, and in about two hours the job was finished. The task of moving the Mazama Library, archives, and the museum had previously taken 40 volunteers about two weeks, making the big move much easier. A month later, in early February, 220 new and old members took a symbolic hike in vintage hiking and mountaineering attire from the old building for a celebration at the MMC. Over 500 Mazama members and neighborhood residents attended the open house. The MMC would not have been possible without the work of Ed Holt, who passed away in January 2007 while leading a backcountry ski class on Mt. Hood. As chair of the Facilities Task Force, Ed looked at over one hundred properties over two years before the new home was found. Ed reached the summit of all major peaks in the Pacific Northwest, was compassionate, warm, and adventurous, and is deeply missed. The $1.75 million Capital Campaign that began in 2006 continued in earnest. Member Tom Dinsmore donated $25,000 to name the Tom Dinsmore and Barbara Marquam Copy Room, and Ray Snyder donated $50,000 to name the Raymond Snyder Membership Services Office. Ninety-oneyear-old Ray first summited Mt. Hood at age 15, went on to serve as president in 1975–76, and was famous for firing the entire Climbing Committee for being too loose with safety. The Benjamin F. Holman Auditorium welcomed its first speakers this year. In March, Arlene Blum spoke on her scientific research that led to the ban of two toxic flame retardants previously used to treat children’s sleepwear and shared her experience leading the first all-female teams on successful ascents of Denali and Annapurna. Arlene first started climbing with the Mazamas in the 1960s and went on to have her photographs and articles published in National Geographic and presented at the Smithsonian.


Members on the front step of the Mazama Mountaineering Center celebrating the grand opening, February 2, 2007.

In April, the Conservation Committee held the Melting Mountains Conference. About 150 climate experts, politicians, and climbers gathered to learn how climate change is affecting the mountains, what policymakers are doing to solve it, and what we as individuals can do to help. Steve Couche of the Conservation Committee, penned a monthly article in the Bulletin throughout the year on how Mazamas can make a difference in global warming. Research grants awarded this year included a $3,200 grant to Andrew Fountain, professor of Geology and Geography at Portland State University. The grant funded new aerial photographs of the Oregon Cascades similar to those taken in the 1930s and 1940s by the Mazamas. Fountain’s research project compared the images to quantify changes in the glaciers and the effect of global warming. A few changes and updates were made to policies and procedures this year. The position of Recording Secretary and Membership Secretary was eliminated to create the more generic position of Secretary. The Risk Management Committee adopted a policy that leaders of hikes, trail trips, Nordic outings, and Adventurous Young Mazamas

have standard first aid training. An Education Task Force comprised of representatives from committees involved in educational activities formed in July. The mission of the task force was to increase the instructional effectiveness of Mazama educational activities. The Intermediate Climbing School made some changes to its application process, so the skills test takes two hours, and all field sessions are conducted as full weekends. New President, Gerald Itkin, took over for Keith Dubanevich in November. The Climbing Committee had a column in the Bulletin this year. The March article clarified that there is no “Climber Blacklist.” There is a Climber Comment list that annually compiles all the comments from climb leaders on individual climbers pulled from the Trip Reports. Seventyone percent of the comments recommended climbers for the Leader Development program while the remainder had to do with no shows, late cancellations, or slow or out of shape individuals. This was an excellent year for successful hikes and climbs. The recently revived Hike to the Summit program had 100 participants over twelve climbs and successfully brought new members to the Mazamas. The Mount St. Helens We Climb High Vol 2 • 83


Mothers’ Day climb was back after a two-year hiatus due to volcanic activity. In related news this year, the Mazamas signed on to a document from the Gifford Pinchot Task Force opposing a renewable hard rock mineral lease in the Green River Valley north of Mt. St. Helens. In June, Richard Getgen led Tom Dick and Harry Mountain. It was his 900th hike, the most number of Mazama hikes led to date in the history of the organization. Also, Richard had gone 15 years without missing a monthly hike or lead, since his first in 1992, which was also up Tom Dick and Harry Mountain. Mt. Deception, the second-highest mountain in the Olympics, had not been successfully summited on an official Mazama climb since July 5, 1981. That changed this year when Bob Breivogel led a party of six, consisting entirely of Mazama Sixteen Major Northwest Peaks award winners, to the summit in June this year.

The lead article in the Annual by Don Baars and Jeff Thomas was a historical overview of all the successful ascents of St. Peters Dome, in the Columbia River Gorge, since the first ascent in 1940. This task was not as difficult as it may have seemed at first since the difficulty, danger, and rotten nature of the rock had limited the number of successful climbs between 1940 and 2008 to twenty-one. At the time of the first ascent by Mazamas Everett Darr, Ida Darr, Joe Leuthold, Eldon Metzger, and others, the Dome was one of the hardest—if not the hardest—aid climb in North America, a distinguished record for Oregon, which lacked the near-perfect rock of other states. The article also discussed perhaps the weirdest piton ever conceived by climbers. Don Baars manufactured these pitons from Model A Ford brake rods for his second ascent of the rock. Team Ten Fingers Ten Toes, which included Chuck Aude, Shawn Doyle, Keith Dubanevich, Kari Friedewald, and Jim Hashimoto, successfully reached the summit of Denali in Alaska. Chuck Aude set up a weblog to post about the

Another Mt. Hood Summit Register Returned By Jeff Thomas In September 1915, after several months spent on the summit of Mt. Hood as a seasonal fire lookout for the United States Forest Service—the last month of which he also spent building and nearly completing a permanent fire lookout building—Lige Coalman locked the door, covered the windows to protect them from severe storms, and returned to sea level in Portland for the winter. He took with him a summit register that had been placed by the Mazamas on July 10, 1912, which was inscribed on the inside cover, “Property of the Mazamas.” Some years after Lige died his family donated the book to the Oregon Historical Society (OHS) in the early 2000s. One day circa 2005 I stumbled across this register while researching at OHS. I was immediately struck by the statement on the inside front cover. After Library Chair Tom Dinsmore notified Executive Council of the existence of this priceless document, Mazama President and attorney Gerry Itkin started negotiations with OHS that brought the register back to the Mazamas in 2007, ninety-five years after it had been placed on the summit. This was the third time in four years that an invaluable Mt. Hood register was recovered long after it was considered hopelessly lost.

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team’s progress and also wrote a detailed article on the trip for the Annual. Pam Otley and Jay Avery succeeded in their quest to climb the 100 highest mountains in Oregon. In August they summited Twin Peaks in the Eagle Cap Wilderness to become the first to complete the list, according to the list’s author, Jeff Howbert. There was a spotlight on the importance and contributions of our many volunteers this year. In July, the First Annual Volunteer Picnic was held at the new MMC, where the first Goat Award was given to Vera Dafoe, for the best story of a hiking or climbing blunder. We can’t print the details here; you had to be there to hear it. We also said goodbye to a few members, notably Clint Harrington and John Salisbury. Clint Harrington joined the Mazamas in 1957 and became an active climber. Clint led many climbs and headed the Basic Climbing School in 1961–62. The Mazamas awarded Clint the Parker Cup in 1962 for his work running Basic Climbing School. He also served on the Bylaws Committee. Elected to the Executive Council in 1964, Clint served two terms as president in 1965–1967. John Salisbury joined the Mazamas in 1962 and served on many committees including climbing, outing, publications, bylaws, budget, membership, and centennial, often as chair. In 1973 John was hired as the secretary, a position he held for 14 years. He was awarded the Margaret Redman Cup for his literary contributions and the Alfred Parker Cup for his outstanding service to the Mazamas. The Mazamas also lost Harold Hanson, who joined in 1967, was a WWII vet, and assistant leader on over fifteen overseas and domestic outings; and Richard Jason Kinney, Climb Leader and Mazama since 1987.

2008 By Kim Taylor

The Mazamas packed in a multitude of outings this year. Ellen Gradison led a group trek in Peru’s Vilcabamba region. During the trip, the group delivered supplies to remote elementary schools. While hiking in Montana’s Glacier National Park, members of Richard Getgen’s outing observed a grizzly bear in “an awkward standing glissade to the base of the snowfield” using its claws. Benjamin Vincent led a trekking and climbing outing to Bolivia, including a climb to the summit of 19,974-foot Huayna Potosi. The Mazamas returned to the Swiss Alps after a five-year hiatus. While there leader Gary Beck conducted the wedding ceremony of his former BCEP students Ryan Christie and Erika Markel. Helen Hanson led a group in hiking Spain’s El Camino de Santiago pilgrimage trail. Along the way, members absorbed the “soulful earthiness”

of the area. Other outings visited the Canadian Rockies, the Olympics, California’s Trinity Alps, and Nepal. Closer to home, member Keith Daellenbach set a goal of climbing Mt. Hood every month of his 40th year. A few highlights include the Sunshine route in June, picking his way up the Old Chute in September, and an ascent via Cooper Spur and descent via the South Side in November. Whiteout conditions and extreme avalanche danger thwarted two December attempts. A brief break in January allowed a successful climb via the Direttissima Sud route. In his President’s Report, Gerald Itkin highlighted the new permanent home of the Mazamas, a more extensive financial base, proactive risk management, and membership growth of greater than 40 percent. New bylaws allowed the Nominating Committee to put forward fewer than six candidates and initiated email voting by the membership for council members. The council established an Education Committee and charged it with bringing consistency to all educational programs. And the Mazamas partnered with Portland Impact’s SUN program to teach seventh graders outdoor safety and wilderness appreciation. The Mazamas continued to build out the Mazama Mountaineering Center. New additions included cabinets for the kitchen, adjustments to the acoustics in the auditorium, and fixing water leaks. For the lodge, the council approved the purchase of a track-propelled device to deliver supplies up the hill in winter. Trail Trips volunteer John Davis developed a new online leader sign-up program. The new system used a dropdown menu to sort hikes by difficulty, list meeting places, and auto-filled mileage, elevation, and other essential information. The Conservation Committee supported and worked with researcher Andrew Fountain to document changes in Northwest glaciers. They compared photographs taken in 2007 with photos from Mazama archive images from the 1930s to assess glacial recession. In another effort, the committee supported a study to look at using carbon sequestration to offset Mazama activities. Once again, the Oregon Zoo’s Cascade Crest Banquet Center played host to this year’s Annual Banquet. The speaker was mountaineer and first REI employee, Jim Whittaker. He regaled the audience with humorous and inspiring stories from his life in the outdoors. The night’s silent auction raised almost $6,000. Trail Trips honored Sean Smith with the Hardesty Cup for his years of consistent leadership. Sean led hikes, tended trails, and acted as an assistant instructor for BCEP, ICS, and ASI. Ray Sheldon received the 100 Trail Tending Leads award. Climbing Committee honored Josh Lockerby with the We Climb High Vol 2 • 85


Leuthold Award for leading all Sixteen Major Northwest Peaks and outstanding leadership since 1991. Keith Dubanevich and Eugene Lewins shared the Parker Cup for their work co-chairing the Capital Campaign. And the Mazamas honored Carl Neuburger with the Redman Cup for his 1958 A Climber’s Guide to the Columbia Gorge.

2009 By Kim Taylor

Mazama outings continued to impress members this year. Ellen Gradison led another group to Peru. The group covered 93 miles over two weeks and packed in a three-day festival held above 15,000 feet. The celebration, attended by 45,000 people, combined Andean beliefs with Christian themes. Janet Johnson led a Mazama group on an outing to pull barbed wire fences near the John Day Fossil Beds. The project, a joint effort with the Oregon Natural Desert Association, helped remove over twelve miles of wire and 1,500 fence posts. Jennifer Snarski led a Rogue River trip, Richard Getgen led day hikes around Crater Lake, Ray Sheldon led a group on the Oregon Coast Trail, and Larry and Mary Stadler led scrambles up several third-class peaks around Diamond Lake. President Shirley Welch reviewed the council’s four focus areas for the year. The primary goal was to enhance information technology capacity. To that end, upgrades included new office hardware and software. A new IT Committee formed to guide future technology strategy. Improved communication between the council and the members was another focus. Additions to the website gave access to more information, including financial documents. The Education Committee completed its first year, and the Capital Campaign held a few activity-based fundraisers. The Climbing Committee focused on improved rope management, including a new database to track usage. The committee made the rope room available around the clock to leaders, easing access issues. Meanwhile, the new Education Committee worked with all related schools and subcommittees, built a single educational budget, and coordinated efforts for online registration and yearly scheduling solutions. Lodge Committee members hosted a work party in November and held the first annual axe throwing contest. Cushions and webbing on lodge furniture were replaced. The Doubletree Hotel hosted the newly renamed Mazama Annual Celebration. Two hundred and seventy-nine members viewed displays of historical climbing gear put on by the Library and Archives Committee. Climbing and 86 • We Climb High Vol 2

Helen Dimick Gerding, ca. 1950 Trail Trips Committees gave presentations in conjunction with handing out awards. The Mazamas made Ray Sheldon an Honorary Member for his more than five decades of leadership across the organization. Climbing Committee bestowed the Vera and Carmie Dafoe Award to Jim Craig for outstanding climb leadership. Cathy Brandt Oswald and Tom Davidson shared the Hardesty Cup. Conservation Committee awarded Susan Saul the Montague Award for leading wildlands protection efforts in southwest Washington since the 1970s. The Mazamas awarded Sarah Bradham and Adam Nawrot the Parker Cup for their three years of work planning and coordinating the BCEP program. Notable climber and The North Face athlete Pete Athans was on hand to talk about his expeditions in the Himalayas. He discussed the Himalayan Cataract Project and visits to Buddhist caves in the Mustang Province. Finally, the Mazamas lost longtime member Helen Dimick Gerding. Helen joined the organization in 1926 and passed away at age 102 in December 2008, making her the current record holder for the longest Mazama membership at 82 consecutive years. She qualified for membership after climbing Mt. Hood with the Trails Club. Helen was an avid


Toyama Mountaineering Association By Mathew Brock In October 1991, the State of Oregon established a sister state relationship with Toyama Prefecture, in Japan. Toyama, located in the heart of Japan, is the gateway to the Japan Sea region. The landscape of Toyama is very like that of Oregon, with mountain peaks, lush fertile valleys, and beautiful coastlines. In 1993, members of the Toyama Mountaineering Association visited Oregon and connected with the Mazamas. Several Mazama members, including climb leader Doug Wilson, took them hiking in the Columbia Gorge, out to the coast, and climbing to the summit of Mount St. Helens. The following year, 1994, several Toyama mountaineers returned to help the Mazamas celebrate their 100th anniversary and took part in the centennial climb of Mt. Hood. A friendship soon formed between Doug and several of the Toyama climbers. In 1996, Doug led a group of Mazamas to Japan to climb a few of the mountains in Toyama. Over the next dozen or so years, they returned to Oregon to take part in Mazama climbs with an eye towards our Sixteen Major Northwest Peaks Award. At the same time, Doug traveled to Japan and began working his way through the 100 Famous Mountains of Japan. In 2009, Yasuharu Kawamura and Kiichi Nagasaki earned their Sixteen Major Peaks Awards. Three years later, in 2012, Doug completed his ascents of all 100 of Japan’s famous mountains. That same year marked the last visit by members of the Toyama Mountaineering Association, when they came for a week of hiking and visiting with their Mazama friends.

climber, skier, and hiker. She served on and participated with both the Trail Trips and Conservation Committees.

2010

By Hana Binder The year started with a surprise visit in January from Malli Mastan Babu, the first Indian to climb the Seven Summits. In 2007, Babu held the record for being the fastest to summit the Seven Summits. Having heard about the Mazamas during his expeditions, he reached out to attend an evening travel talk and meet other mountaineers. He was in Portland during a mountaineering trip to the West Coast. Even with only a day’s notice, Malli spoke to a packed house about his experiences as a mountaineer since he started with an Everest Base Camp trip in 2004. There was a diverse array of outings in 2010. Somewhat close to home were trips to raft the Owyhee and hike the central section of the Oregon Coast Trail. Mazamas went to neighboring California to fastpack the John Muir Trail, walk among the redwoods, and explore the famed Yosemite National Park. Other members climbed several

routes in the Grand Tetons and hiked around the beautiful Wyoming landscape, while yet another party explored snowfields and summits in Washington’s Glacier Basin. Some brave members went abroad for their Mazama explorations, including the Canadian Rockies, Peru, and Bulgaria. In the Annual, Preston Corless recounted a trip from Lima to the Cordillera Blanca in the Peruvian Andes. There the Mazama team navigated altitude and weather challenges while climbing Ishinca and Tocllaraju peaks and attempting Shaqsha. Longtime climber and Mazama member extraordinaire George Cummings went to Smith Rock with several other members and climbed Sky Ridge. This climb celebrated the forty-first anniversary of his 1969 first ascent. Four months later, Sarah Mathews and Mike Raff, two Advanced Rock graduates who led the climb, got engaged while climbing First Kiss!, a Smith Rock classic. Blake Herrington and Nathan Farr completed two first ascents on Mt. Endeavour and Peak 8,692, in the British Columbia Coast Range courtesy of Mazama grant funding. In 2010, the Mazamas set a new record of 3,128 members. It was a year of structural milestones as well. In June, We Climb High Vol 2 • 87


the Mazama Lodge celebrated its fiftieth anniversary. Members old and new enjoyed the picturesque setting and shared stories about the effort to build a new lodge after a fire destroyed the original lodge on December 4, 1958. The Basic Climbing Education Program couldn’t accept everyone who applied at the annual BCEP Info Night. The huge turnout was a clear sign of both the growing popularity of mountaineering and the well-established reputation of Mazama educational programs. Alongside the new growth, several Mazamas passed away in 2010. In March, Klindt Vielbig passed away after a life of pioneering Nordic skiing in Oregon, a long history as a Mazama committee member, and years as Evening Program Coordinator. In June, Mazama Monty Smith passed away and was recognized for his contributions as a climb leader, program volunteer, and committee member. As Jerry Eline wrote in the monthly Bulletin, Monty “… always had a kind and encouraging word for the tired or scared climber.” Also, Paula Craig was remembered after her passing in late December of 2009 and will continue to be recognized thanks to her generous gift to the Mazamas. At the Annual Celebration in November, the Mazamas made Alan Watts an Honorary Member. According to George Cummings, “Alan changed the way we think about rock climbing and how we do it.” In the process of implementing this change, Alan put little known backwater climbing area Smith Rock on the world stage, and for a time, routes that he pioneered were the hardest climbs in North America. Bob Lockerby was given the Vera and Carmie Dafoe Award, Dean Lee received the Hardesty Cup, Bill and Margaret Oberteuffer were posthumously recognized with the Montague Conservation Award, and Al Papesh earned the Parker Cup. Among the climbing awards, two individuals received the Sixteen Major Northwest Peaks Award, one the 10-Point Leadership Award, and one the Oregon Cascades Award. The Mazamas also recognized a plethora of members for their climbing, hiking, service, and leadership accomplishments. The guest speaker for the event was John Harlin III, author of The Eiger Obsession: Facing the Mountain That Killed My Father. On the business side, the Budget Report showed that Fiscal Year 2010 was a year of recovery for the Mazamas after previous tight budget years. Thanks to the thorough work of the staff and committees, the year ended with a surplus after a deficit was initially forecasted. Just a couple of years after the economic recession, the Mazamas were continuing to improve and update the organization and its resources, including rebuilding the website to offer more services online, such as membership renewal and voting.

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2011

By Hana Binder In 2011 George Cummings took over as president from Pam Gilmer. Meanwhile, in July, the Mazamas said goodbye to Executive Director Peggie Schwarz after seven years of excellent stewardship. The search committee identified a strong candidate and encouraged him to apply. In September, Membership Services Manager Lee Davis became the Mazamas new Executive Director. The council cited Lee’s professional oversight of the MMC’s climbing walls as one key factor in hiring him. Eric Mayhew succeeded him as Membership Services Manager. Membership broke another record with a total of 3,143 active Mazamas. Also, the council voted to finalize and put in place the strategic plan that began in 2009, ensuring that the organization’s vision and direction kept pace with external changes. The outings in 2011, as always, allowed members to have adventures both close to home and across the globe. The Mazamas again trekked along the Oregon Coast Trail, this time covering the southern section. Mt. Rainier National Park saw a multiple-hike excursion and a trip to complete the Wonderland Trail. Before the start of the Pacific Northwest climbing season, a group of hardy Mazama members traveled to Thailand in February, the first official trip to the country in Mazama history. In the spring, there were trips to Death Valley and the Tuscany region of Italy, as well as a trip to climb Mt. Kilimanjaro with a successful side trip to climb a new route on Lava Tower, a volcanic protrusion jutting out of the side of Africa’s tallest peak. In August, several Mazamas traveled to Colorado to climb multiple 14,000-foot mountains (including Mt. Elbert, the second tallest peak in the contiguous United States), and the autumn saw trips to North Wales and a trip to Nepal to climb to Everest Base Camp and neighboring Island Peak. At the Annual Celebration in November, Shirley Welch received the Vera and Carmie Dafoe Award and Kate Evans received the Hardesty Cup. Russ Jolley received the Montague Award and Sojo Hendrix the Parker Cup. The Mazamas acknowledged Vera Dafoe with Honorary Membership. Among the trail awards, Rex Breunsbach received the 1,000 Miles Award, and Richard Getgen received the 1,000 Leads Award, a first for the organization. The Sixteen Major Northwest Peaks award went to three recipients. The Oregon Cascades Award went to three members, including 14-year-old Quentin Carter, and the Guardian Peaks Award went to two members. Several well-known names were among the Mazamas who passed away this year, including Russ Jolley,


Mazama Instructional Climbing Walls By Mathew Brock In 2005, as the discussions about a new facility for the Mazamas began to gather steam, members began throwing around the idea of instructional climbing walls as a need for the new building. Executive Director Peggie Schwarz formed a working group to explore the options. Five-time Mazama President Christine Mackert helped move the project along when she offered to fund one of the walls outright in honor of her longtime climbing partners, Terry Becker and Larry Young. With funding for one wall secured, Peggie assembled a Design Task Force. The council quickly approved their design and Peggie began negotiating with Entre-Prises of Bend, Oregon to build the wall. At around the same time, the Mazamas received a gift from the estate of Paula Craig. With funding for both walls secured, Peggie asked Lee Davis to be the project manager. In September of 2010, after $63,000, 48 volunteers, and 800 volunteer hours the Mazamas unveiled two spectacular climbing walls at the MMC. Thanks to donated time, materials, and equipment the Mazamas were able to design, build, and install the walls for roughly half the cost if Entre-Prises had done it all. More than eighty Mazamas attended the September 1 unveiling.

winner of this year’s Montague Award. Cathy Oswald, a previous Hardesty Cup winner, died in late 2010 and was remembered by fellow Mazama Megan Johnson and others for her kindness and her many contributions as a Trail Trips leader. Charles Jensen, who earned all the Mazama climbing awards and for whom Charlie’s Chimney at Smith Rock is named, passed away in March, and longtime Trail Trip leader James Wallace in February. The namesake for Buckskin Mary Falls on the Deschutes River, Mary Potter died, eight years after her husband, longtime Mazama member, and whitewater guide author, Bob Potter. In September, the “Father” of Street Rambles and founder of the Hike-to-the-Summit program, Robert Miller, passed away, as did longtime Mazama John Helmer II, who had served on the Executive Council and earned the 50-Peaks Award, among other accomplishments. Thanks in part to funding by the Mazama Research Committee, an article was published in the journal Ecosphere examining the influences on forest to meadow transition zones. Written by Ryan Haugo, Charles Halpern, and Jonathon Bakker, the article is titled, Landscape Context and Long-term Tree Influences Shape the Dynamics of Forest-to-Meadow Transition Zones in Mountain Ecosystems. A summary can be found in the 2011 Annual.

Schmidt joined their families for a successful trip to the summit of Old Snowy in the Goat Rocks Wilderness. With some support and tasty treats, both mountaineers summited their first glaciated peak and enjoyed the accomplishment with their party and another party of Mazamas. On March 30, 2011, Oregon Field Guide broadcast a segment about the Mazama Library and Archives featuring Jeff Thomas discussing some of the more captivating books, papers, and artifacts in the collections. Renowned climber Alan Watts delivered a talk in November at the Annual Celebration about his role in shaping American sport climbing with the development of Smith Rock. At the very end of the year, Fred Beckey visited the Mazamas for the holidays. He delivered a presentation on his Alaskan and Cascades climbs, leaving Mazamas with beautiful visions of peaks to climb in the mountaineering season to come.

In September, two new Mazamas joined the organization. Three-year-old Stefan Dokic and 12-year-old Kayla We Climb High Vol 2 • 89


2012 By Eric Hall

This was a year of significant organizational achievement for the Mazamas. Leadership worked toward our strategic goals of increasing and diversifying membership, building more connections to our local climbing and non-climbing communities, and improving our capacity to deliver classes and activities to members. And membership voted to approve bylaw amendments designed to protect our organization’s heritage and to chart our future course. In his annual President’s Report, Doug Couch noted a troubling membership pattern. While many new members join each year, nearly as many leave. Recent survey results and conversations with members suggested a persistent problem: “People join the Mazamas after completing the Basic Climbing Education Program or after some other introduction to the sport, and then can’t get on climbs, or they find the hikes too crowded, or they are turned away because our schools fill up as soon as registration opens. After a couple of seasons filled with frustration, they drift away from us.” In response to this problem, Mazama leadership focused on enhancing the choice of activities available to members—more climbs, hikes, outings, and classes. Executive Council recognized that additional activities would require extra volunteer efforts, and in support of this demand, created a new professional volunteer manager position. The Volunteer Manager was tasked with creating a formal plan for volunteer management, cataloging the volunteer needs of our programs, developing volunteer job descriptions, helping to establish a database for tracking member volunteer interests, and designing evaluation tools to help understand what motivates volunteers. The mission was to increase the capacity of our programs by more effectively using volunteer time. The Mazamas hired Kati Mayfield for the position. The newly created position was paid for by the expansion of educational programs, including a new summer BCEP program, named e-BCEP. Organized by Darrell Weston, Bob Murphy, and April Wolstencroft, the new program offered a consolidated format. Students spent a full day on the MMC rock walls, two days rock climbing in the field, and two days learning snow skills on Mt. Rainier. Six students successfully graduated. The other significant organizational change occurring this year was a revision to the bylaws. Mazama leadership identified a need to overhaul the existing system, which had again become a patchwork of antiquated and often 90 • We Climb High Vol 2

poorly written bylaws. Executive Council engaged the services of a registered professional parliamentarian to make recommendations and guide the changes. Among the recommended changes were the inclusion of an official corporate declaration and an update of our parliamentary authority to a current edition of Robert’s Rules of Order. The old version of Robert’s Rules listed in the existing bylaws went into effect in 1915 and had been replaced in 1970. The Governing Documents Committee offered more substantive recommendations designed to place more emphasis on member control of the organization. Standing committees, whose function is necessary to keep the Mazamas on mission and in accordance with our articles of incorporation and nonprofit status, were to be added back to the bylaws. The Nominating Committee was to be directly elected by members. The committee recommended the inclusion of a current non-discrimination policy. And the committee approved authorizing policies and procedures to address matters not needing to be covered in the bylaws—reserving bylaws for only the most essential issues. A statement of support for the revisions described the bylaws as “…more than a technical document. They support our nonprofit structure. They connect us with our rich history and guide our ongoing journey.” Membership voted overwhelmingly to adopt the changes. While organizational changes took place at the MMC, Mazamas in the field continued to do what Mazamas do. BCEP saw a record demand, with more than 330 applicants for 220 openings. Outings traveled to Great Smoky Mountains, North Cascades, the Olympic Coast, Peru, Patagonia, and Singapore. Over 8,100 participants took part in 850 Trail Trips organized events. Climbing Committee maintained a robust climb schedule. And Ray Sheldon continued to lead climbs, receiving a special award celebrating his 50 years as an active Mazama climb leader. In June, Mazama Lodge hosted the annual Highpointers convention. Based in Golden, Colorado, the Highpointers is an organization whose members endeavor to reach the highest point in each of the 50 states. The annual convention rotates from region to region and is always held near the host state’s highest point. The event drew 276 guests representing all 50 states. A banquet was held at Timberline Lodge, where the Highpointers presented Mazama President, Doug Couch, with the journals of


highpointing legend Arthur Harmon Marshall. Marshall, who was a Mazama member from 1920 until his death in 1951, climbed a total of 622 mountains and was the first to reach the high points in all the 48 states. The four bound journals, which detail Marshall’s adventures, now live in the Mazama archives. It is almost unbelievable to note that Marshall did all of his 622 mountains without ever owning a car. On March 12, 2012, Oregon Field Guide broadcast an unusually long 30-minute segment about climbing history and the modern experience of climbing Mt. Hood. Producer Jule Gilfillan drew heavily on the resources of the Mazama Library and various Mazama experts, including Steve Boyer, Vera Dafoe, Jack Grauer, Marianna Kearney, and Jeff Thomas. Also, a Mazama climbing team featuring Keith Dubanevich, and Jennifer Van Houten helped guide the Oregon Field Guide producer and camera crew into the crater. Footage by Mazama member Andrew Holman—taken of a separate Mazama party reaching the top—was used since the Field Guide crew was unable to gain the summit.

2013

By Mathew Brock The success and growth of the previous year continued into 2013. Doug Couch completed his second year as Mazama president. In his annual report, he noted that the council focused on three main areas: the Timberline Mountain Bike Park, the parking lot at the Mazama Lodge, and the Smith Rock property. After lengthy deliberations, the Executive Council decided not to join a legal challenge against the Timberline bike park project, opting to work toward a solution rather than fighting it. The Lodge Committee, citing increased use of the lodge and the Sno-Park parking lot, urged the council to consider approaching the U.S. Forest Service with a request to expand the existing lodge parking lot to forty spaces. And finally, the council began considering acquiring private property across from the main Smith Rock State Park parking lot for overnight use. Dubbed the Smith Rock Climbers’ Ranch, the property presented an opportunity to develop an overnight lodging facility for members and educational classes. Completing his third year as Executive Director, Lee Davis noted in his annual report that the Mazamas had made good progress on the three areas of the strategic plan: capacity, community, and membership value. On capacity, the Mazamas wholly restructured and expanded its administrative staff. Adam Baylor replaced Eric Mayhew

and assumed the title of Stewardship and Advocacy Manager. Sarah Bradham transitioned from a contractor into the role of Marketing and Publications Manager. And Jamie Anderson rounded out the staff as a part-time Membership Secretary. On the community engagement front, the Mazamas launched the Portland Alpine Festival a week-long event that drew over 1,200 attendees. A re-designed Annual Celebration closed out the week. Looking to add value to Mazama membership, Sarah Bradham and the Publications Committee worked to transition the Bulletin from a newsletter into a general interest magazine. Along the way, they improved the publication quality and increased advertising revenue by fifty percent. The Mazamas Foundation secured a five-year buy option for the Smith Rock property. And after two years of effort, the Mazamas partnered with the American Alpine Club to offer joint membership, a first among mountaineering organizations. The Annual contained eighty-pages of feature articles, committee reports, and beautiful color photographs. Katie Mills led off the featured articles with a recounting of her party’s climb of Alaska’s Devil’s Thumb. Staying in Alaska, John Frieh wrote about his continuing attempts to summit Middle Peak in the Wrangell-St. Elias Range. Ric Conrad looked back on one hundred years of Mazama and private climbers’ exploration of Illumination Rock. Lisa Brady detailed that summer’s outing to Mt. Blanc in Switzerland. Glenn Widener highlighted a little known and rarely climbed route of Mt. Hood’s wild side. Keith Daellenbach wrote about skiing and climbing in Norway with his 72-year-old father. Suresh Singh took a tongue in cheek approach to telling the story of a week spent in the North Cascades. Sonia Buist offered an inside take on her trials and tribulations as the author of several guidebooks, including Hikes & Walks on Mt. Hood. Hassan Basagic rounded out the feature articles with the Annual's only report of scientific nature. In Rephotographing Glaciers in the America West, Basagic recounts his work reproducing years of glacier photography to document climate change. A plethora of outings were also covered, including longer articles by Matt Carter (Aconcagua) and Kate Evans (Laos and Vietnam). The Bulletin’s evolution from newsletter to a full-fledged magazine is evident early in the year. The front cover of the January issue continued a long-held trend of mostly text with a few small photos along the bottom and vertical masthead. By February, a full-color photo took prominence. By April, the masthead migrated to the top, and the majority of the text was gone. The Bulletin also showcased feature articles on climbing, hiking, fitness, nutrition, and other general interest topics. The February We Climb High Vol 2 • 91


issue featured a piece on a race around Mt. Blanc by Amy Sproston, while Tim Scott recounted a Mazama Advanced Snow and Ice (ASI) trip to Ouray, Colorado, in the March issue. Barry Maletzky penned several book reviews, including Savage Summit by Jennifer Jordan, The Storms of Denali ( fiction) by Nicholas O’Connell, Northwest Oregon Rock by Tim Olson, and Backcountry Skiing by Martin Volken et al. Climbing Committee planned and ran 340 climbs led by 72 leaders. The committee offered four climbing outings to the Wallowa Mountains, Chamonix, Idaho, and the Trinity Alps. The Climb Leader Development program promoted seven provisional leaders to climb leader status. The Conservation Committee had a busy year advocating for the protection of natural areas, educating Mazamas on conservation issues, and working towards a carbon-neutral organization. It awarded $22,000 in grants to a variety of local and regional organizations. The Basic Climbing Education Program Subcommittee transitioned to operating year-round and worked towards diversifying its educational tools. The BCEP program took in 210 students and 16 students for the e-BCEP course. The Intermediate Climbing School graduated 32 students, while Advanced Rock graduated 23 students from their program. The Library and Historical Collections took in a rare and unusual piece of history from the William Hackett estate, an ice axe once owned by Argentinean dictator Juan Peron. The axe was given to Hackett by Peron after Hackett completed the first successful American climb of Aconcagua in 1949. The Portland Alpine Festival (PAF) provided the Mazamas and the general public six days of celebrating the mountains and mountain culture. Events included a screening of the film Higher Ground about military veterans climbing in the Himalayas, a talk by John Frieh and Daniel Harro recounting their Alaska climbing expedition, along with clinics and workshops on ice climbing, wilderness permitting, and the Portland Ice Comp. The event ended with an evening spent at the Left Bank Annex featuring talks by Margo Talbot and Conrad Anker. The Mazamas presented its service awards at the close of PAF, as well. The Parker Cup went to Darrell Weston for service to the Mazamas. Bob Lothian got the Montague Cup while Rex Breunsbach earned the Hardesty Cup. Jack Grauer received Honorary Membership for sixtyfive years of involvement with the Mazamas. In climbing

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awards, Steve Warner won the Leuthold award and Tim Scott the Terry Becker award. Four individuals earned the Sixteen Northwest Peaks, three the Oregon Cascades, and ten, the Guardian Peaks awards. Trail Trips gave out hike leadership awards, with the 700 Leads going to Marty Hanson. Rex Breunsbach and Marilyn Ziegler both earned the 2,000 miles award. Finally, this year saw the solidification of two Mazama committees. First, the Mazama Families Committee was organized; it was the precursor to Families Mountaineering 101. The idea stemmed from a growing desire for more family-focused Mazama activities. The pilot program focused on a two-week evening class on basic technique followed by field sessions at local climbing gyms or outdoor climbing areas. The Families Committee held a brainstorming evening event that drew more than fifty kids and parents. And second, the Nominating Committee gained permanent standing thanks to the new bylaws approved by members in October of 2012.

2014

By Kati Mayfield In our 120th year, the Mazamas saw membership pass 3,500 members. The moderate but steady growth in membership came as more and more people flocked to the Pacific Northwest with a mind to get into the great outdoors and as the Mazamas put more effort into outward-facing activities. Indeed, along with increasing public interest in mountaineering activities came more and more outfitters, gyms, clubs, and informal meetups to meet those needs—so the Mazamas had taken strategic interest in enhancing its public-facing image. This was clearly demonstrated in the form of a revamped organizational strategic plan—aimed at expanding core programming, enhancing operations, and exploring new opportunities. Areas of focus were to be on leadership development, facilities, community engagement, youth outreach, and internal information systems. For the community-facing goals, the Mazamas pledged to fundraise through membership and, to put the organization’s 501(c)(3) status to good use to solicit grants and other funding from external foundations and entities. But the Mazamas also took a large, multi-year grant from the Mazamas Foundation, an unprecedented move (as previously the Foundation’s support came on a year-by-year basis) which was not looked favorably on by all members of the organization. This word, too, held some controversy as the Mazamas continued—due to a bylaws change—to refer to the Mazamas as an “organization” (instead of as a “club”) to the chagrin of some members.


Name changing was a popular thing to do this year, with both the Old-Timers and the Adventurous Young Mazamas (AYM) choosing to restyle themselves. Old-Timers decided to call themselves Classics. And AYM—believing the “young” to be confusing as the Mazamas developed more and more activities for youth—chose “20s and 30s Mazamas” as a new name; however this change would last only one year. Between FM101, Mazama Families hikes, and the youth outreach pilot programs in 2014, the Mazamas served over 100 young people; a number not seen since the early days of Explorer Post 901 in the late 1970s. For his efforts to build the Families programs, Bob Murphy was awarded the Parker Cup for this year. The expansion of the Portland Alpine Festival (PAF), which rose the previous year from the ashes of the Annual Celebration, represented another dramatic change. Despite the drama which plagued the organizing committee early in the year, the event quickly became a new favorite for members and other mountaineers. This year’s PAF included twenty-one events over a six-day period, including a veteran’s film festival, a slack lining clinic, and seminars on nutrition and first ascents. Speakers included Libby Sauter (holder of the women’s speed record climbing The Nose on El Capitan), Graham Zimmerman, Aaron Mulkey, John Frieh and John Roskelley (also named Honorary Member for the year), who spoke at the festival’s culminating event, The Summit, at the Oregon Convention Center. Also recognized at The Summit were Doug Couch, recipient of the Vera and Carme Dafoe Award; John Rettig, who won the Montague Cup; and Jim Selby who received the Hardesty Cup. One constant this year was membership’s voracious hunger for mountain adventures, including ten organized Mazama outings which took members to three continents. This was also an exciting year for the Expedition Committee, which received a large ongoing annual gift from member Bob Wilson to fund Mazama member expeditions. The first two recipient expeditions were explorations and first ascents in northern Greenland, and Mt. Fitzroy and Cerro Torre in Patagonia. A split of Mazama opinion—like the 1891 battle for the soul and purpose of the Oregon Alpine Club and 1920s internecine conflict over the proposed Mt. Hood tramway— came to a head this year over whether or not to join Outdoor Alliance, and therefore align the Mazamas with the interests of mountain bikers and other non-climber mountain recreationalists. A concurrent theme, running through the Mazama narrative for the past decade or so, was growing concern over global climate change and its impact on glaciation, alpine environments, flora and fauna, and climbing conditions. The depth of this concern can be felt in Annual articles from these years, with mention of the issue

appearing in research articles and conservation reports; and in climbing, outing, and expedition articles. One member even wrote about quitting his job in order to take action on climate issues, putting his climbing skills to use as part of the American Climber Science Program. Interestingly, both camps in the access-conservation debate believed that their position would protect the Mazamas in the long run. The access contingent maintained that the only way to ensure the long-term interest in and support of public lands was to get more of the public engaged in the mountains (in whatever way); the conservationists defended the position that our mountains would be destroyed if too many interests overwhelmed their fragile beauty. Ultimately, Executive Council, with much encouragement from Mazama staff, favored the access route with a (narrow) approval of the proposal to join Outdoor Alliance, and the further argument that the long-term survival of the Mazamas depended upon opening our doors to any and all mountain lovers.

2015

By Kati Mayfield With the entire international mountaineering community, the Mazamas watched in disbelief as a major earthquake struck Nepal in April of 2015. The earthquake caused untold damage across the country. The year prior, in April of 2014, an avalanche on Mt. Everest claimed the lives of 16 climbers. These events felt close to home for members of the Mazama Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) Committee that provied support to Sherpa families after the avalanche. CISM volunteers prepared to return to the Khumbu region in fall of 2015, but bureaucratic issues between Nepal and India made the trip impossible. The Annual of this year also told tales of two near misses and rescue in the Columbia Gorge. Pam Monheimer owned up to the fact that she was “… the woman lost in the Gorge.” She spent a harrowing January night outdoors and underprepared after diverting off-trail and losing her way. Sarah Bradham wrote a gripping story about her and four other Mazamas walking into the scene of an accident near Triple Falls where a teenager had slipped off trail. She had managed to stop herself by grabbing a tree root but her strength and confidence were fading as she faced a 100-foot fall if she let go. Thinking quickly the five Mazamas assembled a makeshift rope from their and bystander’s clothing and as safely as possible saved the girl’s life. In both these accounts, the storytellers called We Climb High Vol 2 • 93


Compass training, Mazama Mountain Science School, 2015. Photo by Zak Tollefson. on their Mazama training to keep the bad situations from getting worse and, ultimately, to get everybody out alive. Shocking as they could be, the physical dangers of climbing are of course familiar territory for the Mazamas; while more symbolic, less familiar risks began to call our attention in 2015. In our evolution from an exclusive club to an inclusive organization we were challenged to examine our culture and to determine which Mazama traditions and habits kept our community strong, and which traditions no longer served us in the 21st century. Mazamas talked about doing away with the “good ol’ boys” mentality; and emphasized the camaraderie which unites us. The core values of the organization were much discussed, and a new value, Respect, was added. In this vein, and as a good faith effort for an institution working with youth and children, the Mazamas added a sexual harassment clause to our policies and procedures manual. With this bureaucratic matter out of way, we continued to expand our programming for young people, with the Families Mountaineering Committee running 94 • We Climb High Vol 2

another successful Families Mountaineering 101 course for 27 youth and their parents; and 50 fifth-graders attending the inaugural Mazama Mountain Science School (in cooperation with Oregon Outdoor School) at the Mazama Lodge. Conservation Committee also organized youth outreach activities. We invested heavily in leader development, with an eye to streamline the leadership recruitment, training, and retention processes across all Mazama activities. Alex Kosseff from the Outdoor Safety Institute—and later the executive director of the American Mountain Guides Association—was brought in to conduct an evaluation of our leadership development programs. The evaluation started with climb leader training and climbing schools, and eventually encompassed the trails, Nordic, ski mountaineering and other activities as well. The Mazamas also invested in more staff to help run operations. In February, Lee Davis hired Mathew Brock as the new Mazama Library and Historical Collections


Manager. In April, Lee hired Laura Burger as the new Membership and Development Assistant. The climbing schools and activity committees collaborated, with the support of staff, to launch a new leadership cohort program which aimed to introduce promising members to fundamental leadership skills and the array of leadership possibilities at the Mazamas. An annual mountain running camp also gained traction in this, its second year; and old favorites such as the Mazama Lodge Chuckwagon and Round the Mountain trips drew great crowds. Stewardship activities had ramped up over the previous few years, with both Conservation and Trail Trips (via its Trail Tending branch) Committees leading stewardship work, and with significant investment of Mazama staff time to coordinate the climb steward programs. Over the year, Mazamas led numerous tree planting, trail tending, and climbing trail restoration projects. An organized climbing and trail tending trip to Yosemite was quickly becoming a favorite annual excursion. Rock climbing and sport climbing had grown to such popularity among Mazama members and the public that we considered how to adjust our course curricula accordingly—the BCEP Committee report from this year observes that many students now entered the program with sport climbing experience—and we began organizing rock-only trips, without an alpine element. We also sought to formally establish a presence in Oregon’s cragging playground, Smith Rock, by arranging an exclusive purchase agreement for a piece of property next to the park. The year rounded out with another Portland Alpine Festival, welcoming both alpine legend Jim Whittaker and free solo rock pioneer Alex Honnold to the stage. John Godino won the Parker Cup for his many years of service and innovation to the Mazamas, and mountain Renaissance man Doug Wilson was named Honorary Member. Tom Guyot received the Hardesty Cup for his dedication to hike leadership.

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Mazama Lodge By Charles Barker

Mazama Lodge, January 26, 2019. Photo by Ralph Daub Photography, LLC. Over the past 50 years, Mazama Lodge has hosted nearly 800,000 visitors, offering a beautiful spot for Mazama members and others to connect with people and nature. Longtime member Joan Schultz, who was on the Lodge Committee from the mid-1970s through the mid-1980s, described Mazama Lodge as a “magical place where you could join a group of like-minded people for a social weekend. It was an amazing place for families to come and have your kids learn to ski using the rope tow on Mazama Hill.” Joan went on to host epic New Year’s Eve parties at the lodge for 40 years. While she finally stepped down in 2014, other volunteers maintained her tradition, and families pack the lodge every New Year’s for sledding, games, stories, music, and a big communal meal. The enthusiasm and love Mazamas have for their lodge is best described by an 8-year-old guest who had just

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celebrated New Year’s at the lodge: “Mom, this is more fun than Disneyland!” Members have fond memories as well of the many managers who have overseen the lodge.

MAZAMA LODGE HISTORY 1965–1969 The Mazamas made many upgrades to the lodge during these five years. A new rope tow was installed, replacing the 1947 Chevy truck engine with a new electric motor. In 1965, 90 families signed up to help run the hill tow— this was a true community lodge. The Lodge Committee meetings were frequently attended by nearly 35 members. In 1968, the Lodge Committee determined at one meeting that the lodge was only used at capacity a few weeks each year, and they wanted to take action to increase usage. As busy as the lodge was on winter Saturdays, many families did not enjoy sleeping in World War II Army surplus beds,


LODGE MANAGERS 1965 John & Marina O’Donnell 1968 Winnie & Ray Mohler 1969 C.E. & Lilian Day 1970 Jack O’Donnell 1971 Jerry Alexander 1971 Leland Tull 1972 Betty Bradlyn 1973 Volunteer lodge host 1974 Sara Cole & Andy Beers 1975 Mary, Nate & Reggie Wicks 1977 Larry, Susan & Eric Boetcher 1978 Various caretakers 1982 June & Dale Helbig 1986 Bill & Judy Head 1992 Jan & Steve Schweitzer 1996 Jean Korte 1996 Neil Barker 1997 Jason & Jasmine Starr 2001 Todd & Wendy Koebke 2002 Lisa Davis 2004 Christine McAleer & Doug Ellenberg 2004 Clif Todd & Dae Unick-Todd 2008 Mike & Diane Terry 2009 Charles Barker* *Under Charles Barker’s concession arrangement, in 2009 the lodge instituted seasonal caretakers who enjoyed the flexibility of working the summer or winter and coming back multiple seasons.

LODGE CARETAKERS 2009–2013 Max Rupert 2014 Joe Fox 2015 Brett Mathewson & Aaron Krogh 2014 Sandi & Dwayne Rupert 2015 Adam Jchoff & April Bolstridge 2015 Renee Moore

and only came up for the day. The committee researched the possibility of opening a second lodge or cabin in the “Bachelor Butte” area, later referred to as Black Butte. At the 1969 meeting, the council increased the maintenance budget for the lodge from $1,600 per year to $3,000, and the name was changed to the Capital Expenditure Fund.

1970–1979 In the early 1970s, Mazama Lodge enjoyed a surge in popularity both with Nordic skiing and the growth in alpine skiing. The rope tow ran every Friday, Saturday, and Sunday. A family could enjoy unlimited skiing on the Mazama Hill with the rope tow for just $25 a season. On a

typical weekend, you would see nearly 100 skiers going up West Leg Road to the base of the Pucci chairlifts, and some of them went all the way up to Timberline Lodge. As time went on, however, Government Camp began to lose some of its popularity. John Storrs, who had designed Mazama Lodge, went on to design Black Butte and Sunriver in the Bend area in the early 1970s, siphoning skiers farther east. Mazama Lodge struggled to keep current. Families were not always satisfied with staying in large dorms. The Lodge Committee recognized these challenges and laid the groundwork for a renovation that would improve the sleeping accommodations with smaller rooms and co-ed options.

1980–1989 Several projects in the 1980s added up to the largest renovation in the history of the Mazama Lodge. In 1980 and 1981, the lodge remodeled the upstairs dorms and bathroom. The original roof was replaced in 1983 to allow the snow to slide off the roof. The project was completed just in time: in 1984, a large avalanche took down the chimney at the roofline! A cricket (special flashing) was installed to divert future roof avalanches above the chimney. The kitchen was remodeled for nearly $40,000 in 1987, and this was on the heels of expanding the footprint of the building to including a larger apartment for the caretakers and additional storage in the basement. The county also required the Mazamas to build a second exit in the basement. The lodge also installed a fire suppression system and moved off the septic system, joining the Government Camp Sanitary District.

1990–1999 The lodge underwent another transformation in the 1990s, fueled by the final removal of the rope tow. Families stopped coming up to the lodge like they once had. Instead of families coming for the weekend, the lodge saw an increase in Mazama classes. Mazamas also started expecting more in terms of food, including an increasing demand for vegetarian meals. The lodge updated its 35-year-old furniture, installed new rails on the exterior, and laid new carpeting in 1997. The general upgrade in the lodge was well received by members.

2000–2009 Government Camp was no longer a sleepy town you drove through on your way to Bend, but started becoming We Climb High Vol 2 • 97


a destination in itself. Collins Lake Resort started developing condos in 2004. The Burton Blog called Government Camp “the busiest ghost town ever.” Even though all of this development meant more traffic than ever coming up to the mountain, Mazama Lodge maintained the feeling of isolation it had enjoyed since being built on this location in 1931. One longtime Mazama member and computer engineer joked that the retro lodge—still without computers in 2000—would be one of the safest places to stay during Y2K. No major renovation projects took place during this decade, but one part of the 20th century was lost when AT&T removed the pay phone, declaring it no longer economically viable to send someone to the lodge every year to collect less than $2 in coins.

2010–2019 In 2010 the new lodge marked its fiftieth anniversary, an age older than the previous two lodges combined. Twin Bridges Lodge lasted only from 1923 to 1931 and the Old Mazama Lodge from 1931 to 1958. The term “New Lodge” was spoken less frequently, as most Mazamas no longer have firsthand memories of the old lodge, let alone the Twin Bridges Lodge. Two longtime Mazama members chaired the Lodge Committee during this decade. Rick Amodeo and Robert Stayton oversaw the challenges of maintaining a building that is closing in on 60 years of heavy use in an increasingly busy region, through often-severe weather conditions. A major renovation of the upstairs bathrooms and ADA accessibility on the main level was completed in 2018 thanks in part to the Gray Family Foundation.

Mazamas celebrating the 50th Anniversary of the lodge in 2010. Photo by Al Papesh.

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Mazama Trail By Ray Sheldon & Kathy Sasso

Bronze plaque at Mazama trailhead. Photo courtesy of Ray Sheldon. Ever since the organizational climb on July 19, 1894, the Mazamas have carried on a love affair with Mt. Hood. To reaffirm our devotion, it seemed only fitting that some feature of Mt. Hood should carry the name Mazama to further recognize our care and commitment to the peak. The original namesake, Mazama Rock, an outcropping on the summit, had long since disappeared down the north side. This rock was where the 1894 picture of climbers reaching the summit from the Cooper Spur route was taken. In 1992 the Mazamas started planning to celebrate the Mazama Centennial by asking the membership for ideas on how and what could be done to make 1994 a special year for the organization. At the November 1992 meeting, the Executive Council gave Ray Sheldon verbal approval to pursue the possibilities. His initial thought was to request a change of the name of the Timberline Trail (#600) to Mazama Trail. The council’s response was “Great idea Ray, come back when you have something definite.” Letters of request were mailed to the United States Forest Service (USFS), first to the Mt. Hood and Zigzag Ranger Districts, then to the Mt. Hood National Forest, and finally to the Pacific Northwest Region. The request was denied at each level, based on several criteria, but their principal point was that the name Timberline Trail had widespread use over a long period of time. A contact was made with

Lewis L. McArthur, keeper, caretaker, and undisputed authority on name calling in Oregon. He felt that there would be an insurmountable battle to get the trail name changed, and, if it should come to pass, there would be some very irate wilderness travelers cursing the Mazamas for their arrogance. Public acceptance was an important concept, and the Mazamas realized that a centennial project must not be divisive in nature. But the U.S. Forest Service did open the door to a possible project on Mt. Hood’s northwest flank. A major blowdown of timber in the winter of 1985–86 had closed the trail on Cathedral Ridge. Due to budget constraints, repair was not possible, and the trail was abandoned. During the seven following years, more blowdowns, accompanied by overgrowth by rhododendron, huckleberry, and other brush had almost obliterated the trail. There were other problems too: an ugly approach through a clear cut, a steep series of switchbacks, and the need to realign the upper portions of the trail to a more enjoyable pitch. Thus, the reestablishment of a trail on the ridge would be a huge endeavor. As a volunteer project, it was bigger that any undertaken by any U.S. Forest Service District or Pacific Northwest Region. In fact, we were told it might well be the largest volunteer project undertaken on any U.S. Forest Service land in the entire nation. The successful completion of this project would not only We Climb High Vol 2 • 99


Executive Council and the Conservation Committee had made available, this concern was overcome by contracting for supervision with James K. Angell, Jr. He was a past president of the Mazamas and the president of Corplan, a company that supervised volunteers in the design, building, and maintenance of recreational trails. Jim furnished on-site problem solving to minimize timewasting mistakes and maximize work effort. Furthermore, his hands-on education would provide the Mazamas with a cadre of knowledgeable trail builders for the future. As a part of the Mazama Trail Project, three five-day trail building seminars were offered to interested parties. Utilizing Angell’s expertise in this area, groups could learn to care for and appreciate our trail system. The first week, June 15–19, the Mazama Trail Tenders took over the work load. The second seminar ran from June 22–26 and was taken up by the Pacific Crest Trail Association. The last seminar was held July 1–4 and was offered to Explorer Posts in the Cascade Pacific Council.

Front and back of the Mazama Trail brochure, undated. Ray Sheldon Collection. require an army of volunteers, it would also demand a major commitment of money. A number of decisions were made during the winter. Having noted the great commitments made by the Mazamas during 1993, the U.S. Forest Service removed the three-stage system and permitted work to be done on any portion of the trail which best suited the weather and the availability of volunteer help. With a 1994 work schedule aimed at finishing the project during the year and acceptable to all U.S. Forest Service participants, Sheldon’s trail committee set a dedication date, September 10–11. This gave the challenge an extra meaning. One major concern, realized in 1993, was the complexity of new trail construction. With the funding that the

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Plans for the September 10–11 dedication were going on along with the trail work. Sheldon and Egbert took a measuring wheel the entire length of the trail and created a guide with mileages, elevations, and features. A picture of Mt. Hood from the trailhead was scanned into Jack Grauer’s computer for titling of major features. A trail map and cover page completed the dedication brochure. Two hundred copies were made for the dedication. Betty Sheldon and Marlee Egbert baked 250 “benchmark cookies” to be served with the coffee and punch that Lila Pindell would pick up and deliver both days. Joe Pindell had been commissioned to cast the commemorative plaque, but due to fire danger at his Rhododendron studio, he could not fire up his oven. Joe hand-carved a wax model for the event. It wasn’t completely finished, but was in such worthy condition that it deserved to be dedicated in honor of the Mazama centennial. The U.S. Forest Service realized that the commitment of the Mazamas to this project would not end with the dedication, and they agreed that, although the entire 3.75 miles needed additional construction and improvement, now was the time to officially rename the trail. And so, the big day arrived. The rain that had fallen on and off all week stayed away. The clouds that hid the mountain would occasionally part to show Mt. Hood with a new coat of snow. A few words were spoken by Charlie Parker, Hood River District Ranger; Kevin Slagle; Terry Becker, Mazama president; and Ray Sheldon. These four, along with Stan


Volunteers at work along the Mazama Trail, undated. Photo by Ray Sheldon. Egbert, Roger Bell, and Omar Sankar, held the pink ribbon while it was cut with a pulaski. That sent Rich Conser and Winnifred Becker on their way, leading two groups of hikers—the first official Trail Trips on the Mazama Trail. Sunday’s celebration, although not as formal, included a hike led by Nance King. Joe Pindell would finish the bronze plaque, funded by the Trail Trips Committee, and mount it at the upper talus slopes. Sheldon would meet with Slagle and Bell to formulate plans for 1995. Tools would be sharpened and oiled. Remaining funds in the trail budget would be rolled over into the next year. The major work areas would likely include the three reroutes needed to eliminate steep portions of the trail, grading of a sloughed-out area, and rebuilding a rutted section. There were 145 volunteers who put in 3,400 hours during 1993–94 to build the Mazama Trail. Seventyseven of those worked at least eight hours to earn a Mazama Trail patch. Twenty-four volunteers put in 24 hours or more and received a benchmark emblem. Two gave more than 50 hours and earned two emblems. Three gave more than 75 hours for three emblems. Five volunteers contributed 100 hours or more to the project.

Volunteers at work along the Mazama Trail, undated. Photo by Ray Sheldon Winnie’s Slide, Buss’s Bypass, Ray’s Rock, Paul’s Platform, Ed’s Emergency, Scout’s Seep, The Wedge Wench, and Chris Rules to name a few. May future generations enjoy the labor of love that created the Mazama Trail.

Those who spent time on trail building will remember “their” spot, as they hike the Mazama Trail. The more notable areas took on nicknames in honor of the volunteers and their contributions. Can we ever forget those special places? Joe’s Corner, Warren’s Waterdip, Jim’s Corner, Bill’s Corner, Stan’s Stump, Lizzie Borden, We Climb High Vol 2 • 101


Ryan Abbott

Andrew Bodien

Tom Bard

Sarah Bradham

Johnathan Barret

Charles Barker

Hana Binder

Peter Boag

Mathew Brock

Rick Craycraft

Ken DuBois

Kate Dunne

Kate Evans

Diana Forester

Sara Gill

Ali Gray

Dan Hafley

Eric Hall

Nathan Herzog

Eric Jacobson

Jeff Litwak

Kati Mayfield

Chelsea Rohweder

Ray Sheldon

Laurence Spiegel

Claire Tenscher

Jeff Thomas

Shannon Wages

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Contributors & Editors Ryan Abbott joined the Mazamas in 2017 to find other people who also couldn't sit still. He enjoys assisting BCEP and helping new climbers learn to safely find their adventure. Tom Bard—no bio submitted. Charles Barker joined the Mazamas in 1980 and quickly became active in the Mazama Explorer Post Program through the mid-80s. During his early years as a Mazama member, he would volunteer at Mazama Lodge—from helping out in the kitchen to running the rope tow. Charles is a fifth-generation family member to climb Mt. Hood and fourth-generation to be a member of Mazamas. His two kids, Oscar and Chloe, are now fifth-generation Mazama members. Charles has volunteered as a hike leader, Lodge Committee member, and currently serves as the Lodge Manager. Hana Binder has been a lifelong backpacker and joined the Mazamas in 2018 after completing BCEP. She loves the welcoming and respectful community created by the Mazamas and the opportunity to explore the backcountry and high mountains with wonderful people. Peter Boag joined the Mazamas in 2018, but long ago, as a child, fell in love with the Cascade Mountains. He is professor of history at Washington State University-Vancouver. Andrew Bodien has been a member of the Mazamas since 2001. He is a political scientist by education, international trade consultant by profession, and constantly searching for the perfect pun. Sarah Bradham moved to Oregon in 1998 and immediately fell in love with the mountains. In 2000 I moved to Portland and spent every weekend hiking in the Columbia River Gorge and other remote locations by myself. I hadn't been able to find people who shared my interests in the outdoors. In late 2001 a co-worker put an application for the Basic Climbing Education Program (BCEP) on my desk and told me to sign up. I did and, as many others have, had an experience that changed my life. I met wonderful people, learned a lot of great skills, and did a LOT of climbing and hiking over the next 8 years. In addition I signed up as a Mazama volunteer and took on roles on the First Aid Committee, Climbing Committee, Education Committee, and Publications Committee. Mathew Brock joined the staff of the Mazamas as the Library and Historical Collections Manager in February of 2015 and has been a Mazama since 2016. He enjoys

hiking, backpacking, cooking meals for friends, and making and building things by hand. Rick Craycraft has been a Mazama member for 33 years. His second favorite thing to do after climbing is writing articles for the Bulletin and Annual. He has over 400 lifetime summits ... and counting. Ken DuBois has been active in the Mazamas since 2012, volunteering for the Publications Committee and the Lodge, and enjoying many multi-day hikes, rambles, and snowshoe adventures. He currently works in communications for Catlin Gabel School. Kate Dunne, originally from Chicago proper, has been living her best life on the west coast since retiring from roller derby in 2015. After three beautiful years in Oregon, she moved to Juneau, Alaska in early 2019, where she is a librarian for both the Alaska State Library and the University of Alaska Southeast. She’s climbed many of the mountains in Oregon and southern Washington, and is slowly making her way up the peaks of Alaska’s capital city. Her favorite mountain in Oregon is Three Fingered Jack. She sincerely hopes she might be able to mountaineer with the Mazamas someday. Kate Evans, a longtime Mazama climber, hike leader, and Conservation Committee member chose to summarize the year 1994 in this publication since she joined the Mazamas during our centennial year. She started climbing with the Tacoma Mountaineers while in high school and is a retired Portland Community College English instructor. Diana Forester has been a Mazama since 1990. She climbed a bit in the 90s but mostly loved backpacking, hiking, and outings. She has served on the Trail Trips and Outing Committees. Sara Gille joined the Mazamas in 2017 after her first summit of Mount St. Helens. She manages health research studies and likes to combine her love of travel and hiking. Ali Gray, a Mazama since 2015, is a skier at heart who loves anything to do with snow and mountains. She volunteers on the Mazama Backcountry Ski Touring Committee and as a tour leader, as well as on the Mazama Publications Committee as a copyeditor and contributor. She’s currently working on improving her climbing skills, and often second-guesses her life choice to be a web designer stuck at a computer all day. Dan Hafley started climbing with the Mazamas in 1995 after participating in the Basic and Intermediate We Climb High Vol 2 • 103


Contributors, continued from previous page school programs. He has worked as a geologist and environmental scientist throughout the western US. Eric Hall was born and raised in the Midwest. Attracted by the natural beauty of the Pacific Northwest, he arrived in Oregon in 1976. He earned degrees from Reed College and the University of Oregon School of Law and embarked on a 25-year career of public service with the Oregon Judicial Department. An avid hiker and climber from his early teens, he first climbed with the Mazamas in 1986. He joined the Mazamas in 2006 and has been leading hikes and volunteering in the MMC office and the library since 2016. Nathan Herzog was born and raised in the flatlands of Florida, growing up in Tallahassee and spending some years in Orlando then Tampa. He moved to Portland in December 2012 to go back to school for a career change, studying in the fields of Environmental Studies and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). He is now a contractor for the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, using GIS to delineate all of the stream networks in western Oregon to make this data available to the general public via the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD). He completed the Basic Climbing Education Program with the Mazamas in 2015 and continues to climb and adventure with the friends he met in the program. Eric Jacobson is a city planner, avid cyclist, and bocce enthusiast who began climbing in 2013 and joined the Mazamas in 2014. Jeff Litwak joined the Mazamas in 1998 under friendly pressure from his work supervisor and climb leader Gerald Itkin. After finishing Basic School with Gerry, they cleared their Friday calendars and spent many pleasant days talking shop while climbing Mt. Hood. Jeff became a climb leader in 2007, but scaled back in 2012 to be a responsible new dad. He is looking forward to his kids dragging him up mountains. Kati Mayfield joined the Mazama staff in 2012 and proudly became a member after taking BCEP in 2013. She currently lives in Finland where she enjoys wandering through peaceful boreal forests but sorely misses the magnificence (and elevation!) of the Pacific Northwest. Chelsea Rohweder is an academic advisor and ESL instructor at Mt. Hood Community College. She enjoys making music, gardening, and hiking and camping with her family in the beautiful Pacific Northwest. Ray Sheldon first climbed Mt. Jefferson in 1954 with a coworker. Before joining the Mazamas in 1959, Ray climbed with both the Chemekatans and Obsidians. Ray 104 • We Climb High Vol 2

became a climb leader in 1964 and has taken Mazama to the summits of the Cascades, Tetons, and Swiss Alps. Ray and Betty, married for over 68 years, have three children, seven grandkids, and eight great-grandkids. Larry Spiegel is a fifth generation native Oregonian who has always enjoyed the outdoors. His favorite hiking place is a remote lodge in the Canadian Rockies. A Mazama since 1991, he has assisted in the library. Kim Taylor—no bio submitted. Claire Tenscher is a member of the Mazama Publication and Nominating Committees. She's an avid hiker, cyclist, and backcountry skier; and is incredibly glad that women can wear pants in public. She can be found swimming in any significantly large body of water, arriving to camp after dusk, and eating cold pizza. Jeff Thomas started rock climbing in 1969 in the Shawangunks in New York. When he moved to Oregon in 1970 for college he discovered Smith Rock, Beacon Rock, and Yosemite National Park. He has written two climbing guides, contributed to a biography, and co-produced a film on Beacon Rock. He joined the Mazamas in 1984, not because of the climbing, but for the resources in the Mazama Library. One of his favorite climbs is High Exposure, one of his favorite books is Oregon High, and one of his favorite expressions is We Climb High. None of these items can be found in the drug sections of book stores. His favorite mountain in the world is Mt. Huntington although, like Sherpa Tenzing, he believes all mountains are good. Shannon Wages is a wife, mom, city planner, and outdoor enthusiast. She grew up on the coast of Southern California but fell in love with the mountains while guiding rivers in Colorado one summer during college. She is always up for any adventure and rarely turns down an invitation to do something a little crazy. Whether it’s kayaking to distant islands, rafting new rivers, bike packing and touring off the beaten path, surfing remote breaks, or climbing new peaks, she loves exploring and taking on new challenges. She joined the Mazamas in 2019 and found an amazing community through BCEP. With a 3-year-old in tow and a new one on the way, she’s now focused on planning adventures the whole family can enjoy together, but she always enjoys breaking out on occasion for a solo weekend with the Mazamas.


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Appendices

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HONORARY MEMBERS The provision for honorary membership was included in the Constitution of the Mazamas written in 1894. The honorary membership may be bestowed upon “persons who have rendered distinguished service to the club, or who are eminent for achievement over a period of not less than 10 years in climbing, conservation, exploration, scientific research, or outdoor activities.” *denotes deceased 1894 John Muir* author, naturalist, conservationist, first president of the Sierra Club 1894 Professor Thomas Condon* geologist and paleontologist at University of Oregon 1894 Professor Joseph LeConte* geologist at the University of California 1895 Professor George W. Davidson* author, astronomer, U.S. Coast Survey 1895 General Adolphus W. Greely* Civil War veteran, Arctic explorer 1896 Professor Fred V. Coville* chief botanist, U.S. Department of Agriculture 1896 Professor Joseph Silas Diller* author, geologist, U.S. Geological Survey 1896 Dr. C. Hart Merriam* naturalist, author, chief of U.S. Biological Survey 1897 Edward S. Curtis* photographer of Native Americans and northwest mountain scenery 1899 Edward Henry Harriman* president of Union Pacific Railroad 1900 Henry Villard* industrialist—brought the Northern Pacific Railroad to OR 1901 Henry Gannett* chief geographer, U.S. Geological Survey 1902 Dr. Harry Fielding Reid* physicist, glaciologist, author at Johns Hopkins 1904 Gifford Pinchot* first Chief of the U.S. Forest Service 1913 Theodore Roosevelt* ex-president of the United States 1921 William Gladstone Steel* first president of the Mazamas 1929 Dr. Edwin T. Hodge* head of the Department of Geology, University of Oregon 1930 Lewis A. McArthur* author of Oregon Geographic Names 1939 Dr. Francois E. Matthes* glaciologist, U. S. Geological Survey 1945 William Lovell Finley* naturalist, ornithologist 1954 Robert W. Sawyer* civic leader, editor of Bend Bulletin 1955 Dr. Donald B. Lawrence* botanist, Department of Botany, University of Minn. 1956 John D. Scott* father of the Mazama Climbing Committee 1957 Lorenz A. Nelson* founder of the Federation of Western Outdoor Clubs 1958 Donald G. Onthank* “Mr. Mazama,” mountaineering historian and bibliophile 1963 Martha K. Darcy* librarian, builder of the Mazama library 1970 Charles P. Keyser* superintendent of Portland City Parks 1976 Edward A. Johann* Mazama, mountaineer 1987 Ray Atkeson* Oregon’s photographer laureate 1988 Arlene Blum international mountaineer 1989 Major William D. Hackett* U.S. Army (retired), Mazama, mountaineer 1990 Dr. Cameron Bangs* expert in the field of hypothermia and treating frostbite 1991 Jim Whittaker first American to climb Mt. Everest 1992 Lou Whittaker international mountaineer 1993 Yvon Chouinard world-class climber, inventor, author 1995 Jolene Unsoeld conservationist, state and federal legislator 1996 William H. Oberteuffer* Mazama, educator and conservationist 1997 Margaret Oberteuffer* Mazama, educator and conservationist 1999 Fred Beckey* Pacific Northwest mountaineer and author 2000 Bradford Washburn* Mountaineer, explorer and cartographer 2001 Barbara Washburn* Mountaineer, explorer and cartographer 2002 Kate McCarthy* conservationist 2003 Sir Edmund Hillary* first successful ascent of Mt. Everest 2004 Dr. Stephen Boyer holder of many climbing records 2005 Ed Viesturs international mountaineer 2006 Royal Robbins* one of America’s most influential rock climbers 2007 Christine Mackert longtime Mazama member, five-time president 108 • We Climb High Vol 2


2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

Ray Sheldon longtime Mazama member Alan Watts changed the way we think about rock climbing and how we do it Vera Dafoe longtime Mazama member Dee Molenaar* artist, author, cartographer; geologist, mountaineer, rescuer Jack Grauer longtime Mazama member John Roskelley mountaineer; author Doug Wilson climb leader, president, host to Toyama Mountaineering Association

PRESIDENTS OF THE MAZAMAS 1964–65 1965–66 1966–67 1967–68 1968–69 1969–70 1970–71 1971–72 1972–73 1973–74 1974–75 1975–76 1976–77 1977–78 1978–79 1979–80 1980–81 1981–82

Donald C. Eastman Clint Harrington Clint Harrington James K. Angell Chad Karr Carmie R. Dafoe Carmie R. Dafoe Kenneth M. Winters Richard W. Laird Ken Hague Kenneth Winters Ray Snyder Robert Hyslop Martin Icenogle Paul Herner Lois Gibbons Christine L. Mackert Keith Mischke

1982–83 1983–84 1984–85 1985–86 1986–87 1987–88 1988–89 1989–90 1990–91 1991–92 1992–93 1993–94 1994–95 1995–96 1996–97 1997–98 1998–99 1999–00

Keith Mischke Don Kemper Larry Stadler Homer Brock Don Burnet Paula Beers–Klee Don Jeffrey Christine L. Mackert Lis Cooper Ray Sheldon Dennis Olmstead Terry Becker Sylvia Cate George Stonecliffe Bob Hyslop Bob Hyslop Christine L. Mackert Christine L. Mackert

2000–01 2001–02 2002–03 2003–04 2004–05 2005–06 2006–07 2007–08 2008–09 2009–10 2010–11 2011–12 2012–13 2013–14 2014–15 2015–16

Christine L. Mackert Doug Wilson Dave Sauerbrey John Youngman Wendy Carlton Gary Beck Keith Dubanevich Gerald H. Itkin Shirley Welch Pam Gilmer George Cummings Doug Couch Doug Couch Bronson Potter Sojo Hendrix Steve Hooker

MAZAMA EXECUTIVE DIRECTORS 1964–19??1 1979–1987 1987–1993 1993–2003

Administrative Secretary Helen Diehl Administrative Secretary John Salisbury Executive Assistant Marcia Siblerud Executive Director Keith Mischke

2003–2004 2004–2011 2011–2018

Executive Director Executive Director Executive Director

Rick Stoller Peggie Schwarz William "Lee" Davis

1 All Secretaries before 1964 were apparently volunteers except for Helen Gerding in 1952

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SERVICE AWARDEES Montague Conservation Award The Montague Conservation Award is named after Richard Ward Montague, an ardent conservationist, who served three terms as president of the Mazamas from 1922–24. The award, first presented in 1977, is to “recognize and honor individuals who have had a significant and lasting impact upon the community through their efforts in conservation” and in protecting the environment. 1977 Bob and Martha Platt 1978 Eleanor Thurston Heller 1979 Ron Burnett 1980 Ray Davis 1981 Rosella Danzer 1982 Basil Clark 1983 Robert Powne 1984 Pat Oberlander 1985 Elizabeth Handler 1986 W.R. Bus Gibson 1987 Greg Parsons 1989 Vera Dafoe

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001

Clarence E. Mershon Elinor Levin Jim Hurst Barbara Becker Jean Siddall Janet Johnson John Sherman Neil Keefer Winchell Hayward Jason and Jasmine Starr Mary Bushman John Hawthorne

2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2009 2010 2011 2013 2014

Heather Weinstein (Campbell) Kate McCarthy Barbara Wilson Joan Zuber Keith Daellenbach Monty Smith Susan Saul Margaret & William Oberteuffer (posthumous) Russ Jolley Bob Lothian John Rettig

William P. Hardesty Leadership Cup The William P. Hardesty Leadership Cup replaced the Hughes Cup in 1979 as the annual award presented by the Trail Trips Committee to the Mazama who best exemplifies the spirit of volunteerism and service to the hiking community. It was named after William P. Hardesty, who started the hiking program in 1912, and was president in 1917. Hardesty left his estate to the Mazamas, which is the basis for the Mazamas Foundation. Nominees are chosen through an initial review of the historical record of Trail Trips activities, the basis of which is a point system.

1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991

Ed Schultz Budd Dawell & Orrie Morrison Julia Ferreira Virgil Velene Tom Saward Kathleen Abbott & Elizabeth Handler Virginia Scott Tom Stanwood & Phyllis Towne Bob Miller Betty Jorgenson Billie Goodwin Don Fournier

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1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003

Roy Sires Richard Getgen Kermit Williams Marty Hanson Elinor Levin & Heather Rosenwinkel Stan Egbert & Ray Sheldon Jim Wallace Winnifred Becker Gerry Van Deene Bus Gibson Richard Conser Carolyn Jenkins

2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

Diana Forester Dean Kokko Kent Meyer Mary Stadler Sean Smith Tom Davidson Cathy Oswald Dean Lee Kate Evans Terry Cone Rex Breunsbach James Selby Tom Guyot


Parker Cup The Parker Cup was established in October 1925 at the Annual Meeting by the outgoing Mazama president, Alfred Parker. This award, viewed by many as the organization’s most prestigious award, was established to recognize those members who have distinguished themselves by hard work, ability, and self-sacrifice for the benefit of the Mazamas. 1966 Donald C. Eastman 1967 Elizabeth Ann Wendlandt 1968 Dorothy C. Rich 1969 James W. Goodsell 1970 Maxey and Louise Gatewood 1971 Kenneth A. Hague 1972 Dr. Ted Lathrop 1973 Eleanor T. Heller 1974 Ed Johann 1975 Carmie R. Dafoe, Jr. 1976 Ken Winters 1977 Dick Laird 1978 Ray Davis 1979 Keith Mischke 1980 Linda Wagner 1981 Ray Snyder 1982 Christine L. Mackert 1983 Dick Pugh

1984 Vera Dafoe 1985 Helen F. Gross 1986 Harper W. Keller 1987 Larry Stadler 1988 Ray Sheldon 1989 Donald C. Jeffrey 1990 John N. Salisbury 1991 Margaret A. Redman 1992 Ed Holt 1993 Paula Beers 1994 Dennis Olmstead 1995 Candy Morgan 1996 W.R. Bus Gibson 1997 Terry Becker 1998 Bob Hyslop 1999 Howard Hanson 2000 Peter Green 2001 Al Cooke

2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

Barbara Marquam Sam Nebel Gary Beck John Youngman Jay Leavens Robert Lockerby Keith Dubanevich & Eugene Lewins & Sarah Bradham & Adam Nawrot Alan Papesh Sojo Hendrix John Rettig Darrell Weston Bob Murphy John Godino

Margaret Redman Cup The Redman Cup was established by Margaret Griffin Redman, a Mazama member for 77 years, on her 105th birthday when she presented a silver cup that was “to be awarded to the member who has created a notable work of literature, art, music or photography devoted to the purposes of the Mazamas.”

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994

Richard Ward Montague Jeff Thomas Jack Grauer Donald C. Eastman Don Pickens

1996 1998 1999 2001 2003

William L. Sullivan Klindt Vielbig Terry Richard Vera Dafoe John Salisbury

2004 2005 2008 2012

Marianna Kearney Barbara L. Bond Carl Neuberger Andrew Holman

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CLIMBING AWARDEES 15-Point Leadership The 15-Point Leadership Award requires 15 points, including nine successful leads, four of which have been on the Guardian Peaks. YEAR #

NAME

YEAR #

NAME

YEAR #

NAME

1969 43 1969 44 1969 45 1969 46 1969 47 1969 48 1970 49 1970 50 1971 51 1971 52 1971 53 1971 54 1972 55 1972 56 1972 57 1973 58 1974 59 1974 60 1974 61 1975 62 1975 63 1975 64 1976 65

John V.A.F. Neal R. Richard Eaton Robert C. Millus Verner Pete Setala William E. Concannon Harold Deery Verle Duckering Roy Kinzie James C. Johnson Allen K. Clapp Richard R. Pooley Brad Bradley Ray Snyder Tom Crowder Phillip N. Bradford William J. Firstenburg Homer Blackburn Jack Kroder Ben Bader Terry P. Becker Russell M. Maynard Peg Oslund Dale R. Christiansen

1976 66 1977 67 1977 68 1977 69 1977 70 1979 71 1979 72 1981 73 1982 74 1982 75 1985 76 1987 77 1987 78 1987 79 1988 80 1989 81 1989 82 1990 83 1990 84 1991 85 1994 86 1995 87 1995 88

Edward I. Engel John W. Russell Chuck Edgar Latham Flanagan, Jr. Don Haller, Jr. Jerry Tanquist Christine Mackert Roger W. Sackett Maria Faber J. Job Faber Paul Herner Thomas L. Nelson Jim Lathrop Dick Weisbaum Bo Nonn Lon Nelson Larry Stadler Rich Bayless J. Keith Mischke George Stonecliffe Tom McCormack Sue Stonecliffe Bob Breivogel

1996 89 1996 90 1996 91 1996 92 1997 93 1997 94 1997 95 1998 96 2000 97 2001 98 2002 99 2003 100 2003 101 2004 102 2004 103 2004 104 2006 105 2006 106 2007 107 2009 108 2011 109 2015 110

Doug Wilson Scott Brabham Joe Whittington Barbara Becker Dean Lee Bob Breivogel Dick Miller Mary L. Stadler Terry Cone Brad French Dave Sauerbrey Bruce Hope Peter Green John Blanck Steve Levine Mike Holman Ken Searl Dan Schuster Eric Hoem George Cummings Bruce Yatvin George Shay

Leuthold Award The Leuthold Award was established in 1964 in honor of its first recipient, Joe Leuthold. This award was originally called the Sixteen Major Northwest Peaks Leadership Award but was renamed in 1972. This is the highest honor to be bestowed upon a climb leader by the Climbing Committee. The award is for a high standard of leadership, devotion to climbing, and service to the Mazamas. The recipient must have successfully led official Mazama climbs of all Sixteen Major Northwest Peaks and contributed many hours of leadership to other Mazama activities. It is seldom awarded and cannot be applied for 1964 1969 1969 1970 1971 1981 1987

Joe Leuthold Donald A. Eastman Carmie R. Dafoe, Jr. Edward Johann Clint Harrington Ray Snyder Ray Sheldon

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1987 1991 1994 1994 1995 1996 1997

Jack Grauer Keith Mischke Terry Becker Ed Holt Rich Bayless Larry Stadler Dick Miller

2000 2004 2007 2008 2013

Doug Wilson Joe Whittington Dave Sauerbrey Josh Lockerby Steve Warner


Vera and Carmie Dafoe Award The Vera and Carmie Dafoe Award was established in 2004 and is presented by the Climbing Committee to an outstanding climb leader with fifteen or more years of continuous active participation, demonstrated outstanding leadership, and substantial service to the Mazamas. This award is comparable to the Leuthold Award—it cannot be applied for and is awarded at the discretion of the Climbing Committee. It differs from the Leuthold Award in that it does not require the recipient to have led the Sixteen Major Northwest Peaks. 2004 Bill Oberteuffer 2005 Robert Hyslop 2007 Gary Beck

2009 James Craig 2010 Robert Lockerby 2011 Shirley Welch

2012 Dennis Olmstead 2014 Doug Couch

Terry Becker Award This is given to climb leaders who have successfully led climbs of the Sixteen Major Northwest Peaks. 2000 2001 2002 2004

Bo Nonn Bob Breivogel Dean Lee Terry Cone

2004 2006 2006 2008

Joe Whittington Bruce Hope Dave Sauerbrey Ken Searl

2008 2008 2012 2013

Josh Lockerby Bill Firstenburg Steve Warner Tim Scott

Sixteen Major Northwest Peaks This award is given to individuals who have successfully summited Mt. Baker, Mt. Shuksan, Glacier Peak, Mt. Stuart, Mt. Olympus, Mt. Rainier, Mt. Adams, Mount St. Helens, Mt. Hood, Mt. Jefferson, Three Fingered Jack, Mt. Washington, North Sister, Middle Sister, South Sister, and Mt. Shasta on official Mazama climbs. YEAR #

NAME

YEAR #

NAME

YEAR #

NAME

1968 1968 1968 1968 1968 1969 1969 1969 1969 1969 1969 1969 1969 1969 1969 1969 1969

Harriet C. Osborne William E. Concannon Hattie H. Yamada Marilyn Burge Gerald A. Grosz Russell D. Lamb Jacob L. Egger Gary A. Negelspach R. Richard Eaton William J. Firstenberg Betty Davenport Ray Mosser Ray J. Polani Robert H. Imhoff Allen K. Clapp Elmer A. Willmore Oliver C. Fursman

1969 158 1970 159 1970 160 1970 161 1970 162 1970 163 1970 164 1970 165 1970 166 1970 167 1970 168 1970 169 1970 170 1971 171 1971 172 1971 173 1971 174

Charlotte Head Verle E. Duckering Malcolm Montague Richard D. Johnson Sally A. Thomas Terry P. Becker Alice Davis Dean M. Rouse Meg Bradley George L. Fleshman Howard I. Hansen Kenneth A Hague Philip Neel Bradford Charles H. Phoenix Gregg A. Hoffman Rollin C. Goodale Arnold Stenersen

1971 1971 1971 1971 1971 1971 1971 1971 1971 1971 1972 1972 1972 1972 1972 1972 1972

William A. Swift George Lench M. William Becker Jean Kirk Parker Verne W. Latimer James A. Miller Peter J. Unger Thomas F. Crowder Dave Delong Robert R Stites Don M. Storslee Larry Smith Herman Grimmer James F. Torrence Frank Menard Terry A. Cone Donald G. Steiner

140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156

175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191

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YEAR #

NAME

1972 192 Ray Snyder 1972 193 John L. Kroder 1972 194 Albert F. Insel 1972 195 Jon B. Rogers 1972 196 John Helmer Jr. 1972 197 John V. Neal 1973 198 Elizabeth Insel 1973 199 Joan Z. Mosser 1974 200 Bill Parker 1974 201 Nancy Icenogle 1974 202 C. Martin Icenogle 1974 203 Charles P. Griswold 1974 204 Richard Hall 1974 205 Larry Stadler 1974 206 Carol Krippaehne 1974 207 Gary L. Beck 1974 208 Owen W. Bentley, Jr. 1974 209 Harold J. Hanson 1974 210 J. Keith Mischke 1974 211 Homer Gene Blackburn 1974 212 David Brandon 1974 213 Benjamin R. Bader 1974 214 James Scott Cole 1974 215 A. Clair Siddall 1974 216 Jean L. Siddall 1974 217 Ivan Altman 1974 218 Thomas J. Dinsmore 1974 219 Jim Miltimore 1975 220 John Wright Russell 1975 221 Cara Lee Crowder 1975 222 C. H. Jack McGirr 1975 223 Guenter L. Kay 1975 224 Mervin S. McCartney 1975 225 Judy (June Hauger) Compton 1975 226 Richard Romaine 1975 227 Toni Leuthold 1975 228 Roger W. Sackett 1975 229 Charles C. Edgar 1975 230 Robert L. Lathrop 1975 231 Gerald R. Tanquist 1975 232 Don H. Haller, Jr. 1975 233 Jeannine Imhoff 1975 234 Russell M. Maynard 1976 235 Antone E. Grosso 1976 236 Christine L. Mackert 1976 237 Orrie S. Morrison 1976 238 Robert C. Smith 1977 239 John Springer 114 • We Climb High Vol 2

YEAR #

NAME

YEAR #

NAME

1977 240 1977 241 1977 242 1977 243 1977 244 1977 245 1977 246 1977 247 1977 248 1977 249 1977 250 1978 251 1978 252 1978 253 1978 254 1978 255 1978 256 1978 257 1978 258 1978 259 1978 260 1979 261 1979 262 1979 263 1979 264 1979 265 1979 266 1979 267 1979 268 1980 269 1980 270 1980 271 1980 272 1980 273 1980 274 1981 275 1981 276 1981 277 1981 278 1981 279 1981 280 1981 281 1981 282 1982 283 1982 284 1982 285 1982 286 1982 287 1982 288 1983 289

Robert Couch William J. Burke Homer M. Brock Paul Herner Randy Sackett Larry Hubbard Barbara Ann Winters Barry M. Maletzky Richard G. Sawyer Ralph F. Newton Jeffrey W. Chale Lonay M. Nelson Donald Frey Edward M. McAninch Nathanael Rathbone Mike Skreiner George F. Baitinger, III Jack Samper Jerry Shields F. Earl Hackett Helen F. Gross Gordon Pierce Don Burnet Linda Wagner Ronald W. Oliver Thomas L. Nelson Valdemar Nikmanis Suzanne Goodman Franklin B. French J. Keith West Cosmo Palomba Herbert D. Weisser Thomas E. Siniscal Richard L. Stride Aaron L. May O. Jerry Andersen Coy R. Delozier Tim Hein Janet Kreft Phillipp A. Pyshny Richard C. Speer Dennis Wetter B. Gene Paul Raymond Crerand Bob Sherman Tom Chiles Richard R. Pooley Jim Sobieski Betsy E. Wilson Doris Ashby

1983 290 1983 291 1983 292 1983 293 1984 294 1985 295 1985 296 1985 297 1986 298 1986 299 1987 300 1987 301 1987 302 1987 303 1987 304 1987 305 1987 306 1988 307 1988 308 1988 309 1988 310 1988 311 1988 312 1988 313 1988 314 1988 315 1989 316 1989 317 1989 318 1989 319 1989 320 1990 321 1990 322 1990 323 1990 324 1990 325 1990 326 1990 327 1991 328 1990 329 1991 330 1991 331 1991 332 1991 333 1991 334 1991 335 1992 336 1992 337 1992 338 1992 339

Lathan Flanagan, Jr. Rebecca Garrett Leslie H. Livengood Mark Samper Roger Leikas Richard Weisbaum Dale Russell Ted Eugene Turner Randy Nolan Gary B. Tucker Dick Rasmussen Mary Jane Flanagan Varis Ratnieks Harvey H. Frisco George Brown Jim Lathrop Virginia Seiser Dave Brown Charles R. Hahn Kenneth Jones Timothy Leupp Terry L. Lowells Peter C. McCord David L. Mischke Susan D. Stonecliffe George A. Stonecliffe Steven Glenn Bo Nonn Ellen Nonn Harold M. Black, Jr. Denes Eszenyi, Jr. Richard S. Bayless Sandy Bayless Richard J. Kinney Katy Kunst Thomas Saward John S. Scott Tom R. Stanwood Doug Wilson Bob Zimmerman Richard J. Denker Katie Foehl Donald F. Adamski Edward Davis June Wyman Helbig Judy A. Chatelain Claudia K. Scoles Leo G. Sattler Larry Purchase Michael W. Berg


YEAR #

NAME

YEAR #

NAME

YEAR #

NAME

1992 340 1992 341 1992 342 1992 343 1992 344 1993 345 1993 346 1993 347 1993 348 1993 349 1993 350 1993 351 1993 352 1993 353 1994 354 1994 355 1994 356 1994 357 1994 358 1994 359 1994 360 1994 361 1995 362 1995 363 1995 364 1995 365 1995 366 1995 367 1995 368 1996 369 1996 370 1996 371 1996 372 1996 373 1996 374 1996 375 1996 376 1996 377 1996 378 1996 379 1996 380 1997 381 1997 382 1997 383 1997 384 1997 385 1997 386 1997 387 1997 388 1997 389

Joe Whittington Kathy R. Ulrich Lloyd W. Weisensee Margaret DiUlio Paul D. Scoles Gerry Van Deene Jan Schmidt Ron Schmidt Harold Nichols Linda Ferreria Tate Mark R. Hanschka Barbara A. Becker Howard O. Wilson Dyanne Foster Michael Alvarado John A. Polos Karl Meeuws Thom Lovell Dennis Sword Scott Brabham Gerri Sue Lent Rick Craycraft Diane Penttila Frank Gabor Craig T. Smith Frits van Gent Janet McCall Bud Young Candace Morgan David L. Ulrich Mary L. Stadler Dean D. Lee Terri M. Cummings Steven A. Warner Carol R. Sturdivant Tanya Sherwood Michele Budd Doug Couch Don Vandendriesche Janice M. Newton Paul Steger Charles Rosenthal Greg Jones Roger Baxter Robert W. Gibson Jack Keltz Jane Miller Dick Miller Jay Avery Rodney E. Keyser

1997 390 1997 391 1998 392 1998 394 1999 394 1998 395 1998 396 1999 397 1999 398 2000 399 2000 400 2001 401 2001 402 2001 403 2001 404 2001 405 2002 406 2002 407 2002 408 2002 409 2002 410 2002 411 2002 412 2003 413 2003 414 2003 415 2003 416 2003 417 2003 418 2004 419 2004 420 2004 421 2004 422 2004 423 2004 424 2004 425 2004 426 2004 427 2004 428 2005 429 2005 430 2005 431 2005 432 2005 433 2006 434 2006 435 2006 436 2006 437 2006 438 2006 439

Bob Breivogel Lori Brabham Colleen Wright Larry Wiley David Zeps Michael DeLaune Sahale Anne Flanagan Eric E. Hoem Dean Odenthal Bruce Hope Mark Salter Keith Westrum Henryk F. Urbanski John Waring Malcolm Pompe Kathy Ragain Joan Zuber David Boone Steve Hallock Michael L. Tourijigian Kate Evans Rhonda Ramirez Cecille Beyl Ellen Gradison John Henning Jim Hashimoto Bill Menze Dan Clark Ray Shirley Marty Scott Jon Major Martin Hanson Greg Graham Tony Murczek-Lajole Mary Beth Kahn Jonathan Putnam Dave Sauerbrey Jan Buschman Ed Rea Sue Dimin Jeff Litwak Donna Vandall Lori Freeman Pam Rigor Tim Scott Ken Searl Tom Davidson Dan Schuster Tom R. Strodbeck David Newman

2006 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2008 2008 2008 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2010 2010 2011 2011 2011 2012 2012 2012 2012 2012 2013 2013 2013 2013 2014 2014 2014 2015 2015 2015

Brad Chaddick Sandee Myers Jonathan Myers Anda Cornea Keith Dubanevich Carolyn Leech Bill Firstenberg Lawrence Jordan Tamara Scott Josh Lockerby Jay Chambers John Egan Jim Dockweiler Roger Hill John Vissell Anita Bieker Yasuharu Kawamura Kiichi Nagasaki Terry Donahe Richard Waugh Bill McLoughlin Matthew Carter Robert Henry John Meckel Randy Osborne John Peters Dick Bronder Tom Elmer Adam Jenson John Rettig Bruce Yatvin Marty Guenther Pamela Gilmer Kevin Clark Linda Mark Karl Helser Amy Brose Quentin Carter Patrice Cook Rick Busing Chris Rears

440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 460 461 462 463 465 465 466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480

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Della Watson's painting of the founding climb of the Mazamas, July 19, 1894.

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COOPER SPUR PHOTOGRAPH by Jeff Thomas The characters in the Charles Lewis photograph cannot be fully understood without some familiarity with the following seven sources, all of which are interesting on their own because of their age, the information they contain, and the sometimes amazing circumstances of their survival. The sources are the Mazama Summit Register, George Williams’ photograph, Francis Drakes’ photograph, Della Watson’s painting, Hood River Glacier List, Pickwick’s List, and Harry L. Wells' List. Mt. Hood Summit Register: The register was on top of Mt. Hood in a metal box from 1891 to 1895. If someone from the July 19, 1894 Cooper Spur party signed their name in this register it is positive proof they were on the summit, and therefore were probably in the Charles C. Lewis Photograph. George Edward Williams’ Photograph (Mazama collection #VM1993.011): This is a 20 by 24 inch print of the classic Charles C. Lewis photograph of the Cloud Cap Inn party sky lined at the top of Cooper Spur. The photo was donated to the Mazamas in 1940 by the sister of one of the Cooper Spur climbers and a charter member, George Edward Williams. For nearly sixty years this magnificent photo was displayed in a secure frame that protected the print, but also locked up the back of the photograph. When the photograph was removed from its original frame in the late 1990s a list of names was discovered on the back. James Francis Drake’s Photo and partial list (Mazama collection number VM1993.006): James Francis Drake was a charter member of the Mazamas. In the 1930s he donated a smaller copy of the Charles C. Lewis photograph mounted on a board. The upper right-hand corner of the back of the mounting board contained a list of 19 individuals that identified the 19 climbers on the steep slope in the photo on the front. Unfortunately the corner was ripped off at some point taking most of the information with it. However enough information remains on the last five climbers that a comparison can be made to the list of climbers on the back of the Williams’ photo. This comparison shows the same five names in the same order. Della Watson’s painting and partial list (Mazama collection number VM2008.015): Della Watson climbed Cooper Spur with the Mazamas on July 19, 1894. Sometime after the climb she had a painting done by an unknown artist—his signature appears in the lower right front corner but defies any attempt to decipher it—that was an artistic and colorful rendition of the classic Charles

C. Lewis photograph of the Cooper Spur party. On the cardboard matting behind the painting is a list of four names that gives the exact locations of four people–Doug Langille, Della Watson, Olive Hartley, and Ed Williams. Hood River Glacier List: An article on the Cooper Spur climb appeared on page one in column three of the July 21, 1894 issue of the Hood River Glacier. Within the article is a list of 19 climbers. Pickwick’s List: Pickwick was a young carrier pigeon born in 1893. He was carried up Cooper Spur to the summit by Gryff Perrott and released at 3:30 p.m. with a short message, written by Perrott, attached under his tail feathers. The text of the message he carried was published in the July 21, 1894 Oregonian. Despite the fact that the message stated that 21 people made the summit via Cooper Spur, only 18 names appear on Pickwick’s List. Wells' List: Harry L. Wells wrote an extensive summary (title: The Invasion of Mt. Hood) of the 1894 Mazama outing that appeared in the July 29, 1894 Oregonian. At the end of the article he included a master list of everyone who climbed Mt. Hood on July 19. The names were sorted by an individual’s home town and were based primarily on the names found in the summit register. Despite that, there are a number of errors in spelling—probably because of the poor penmanship of the frozen climbers—and surprisingly in the attributions of an individual’s home town.

WHO’S WHO 1. W.W. Nason (possibly Mason), Mt. Hood: He is the awkward figure negotiating the cornice at the top. In the George Edward Williams' version of the Charles C. Lewis photograph, he was painted out, (imagine that, Photoshop in the 1890s!) presumably because his awkward pose and another visual irregularity were just too embarrassing. 2. Harold Douglas Langille: He is facing the camera and is wearing a white top. Normally Doug would have guided with his brother Will, but Will was sick and could not climb; instead Doug chose James Dimmick as his assistant. One week before July 19 Doug and James carried a length of 5/8 inch rope to just below the summit and anchored it to a large boulder. They called it a lifeline and it was the first recorded instance of a fixed rope on Mt. Hood. Langille may be holding an ice axe in his right hand. What he is holding in his left hand is a mystery. It could be an alpenstock borrowed from Andrew J. Johnson just below We Climb High Vol 2 • 117


who appears not to have a tool, or Doug could have been using a second tool for added security—many early guides used two tools. The thought is that in this case Langille was using the alpenstock to assist Nason over the cornice. If that is what occurred, the position of the alpenstock is embarrassing. An alternative thought is that it was not an alpenstock but a section of the fixed rope, although the thickness shown is greater than the rope shown below Langille and seemingly stretching down below to each climber. At any rate because the Langille Brothers had avoided Cooper Spur as a guided climb, the Mazama climb was just the fifth ascent of the route. The July 22, 1894 Oregonian called the route the Northeast Passage and noted it was a new approach up the mountain. But, the newspaper was unaware of the history of the northeast side of the mountain and incorrectly identified it as a new route. Although it is difficult to imagine now, in 1894 Cooper Spur was one of the most challenging climbs in North America with 2,000 feet of snow—sometimes ice—at over 40 degrees. Even now this is not the type of terrain a guide would normally wish to conduct a large group of climbers. As mentioned in the newspaper coverage and indicated by three climbers in the photo on hands and knees, many of the climbers were unnerved by the steepness and exposure; without the fixed rope they probably would have turned around. The fact that the Oregonian stated that Cooper Spur was a new route inspired some to call it the “Mazama Trail.” Fortunately for Ray Sheldon, Cooper Spur became the accepted name, otherwise one hundred years later Ray would have had to come up with another label for his 1994 Centennial trail on the west side of Mt. Hood. 3. Andrew J. Johnson: His first name appears in the membership list in the 1896 Mazama Annual. One source states that he descended from the summit to Cloud Cap Inn in 1 hour 15 minutes. Nothing more is known about this man. 4. Miss Della Watson: Della Watson signed her name in the summit register index under W on page 48 but not on page 123 where the rest of the Cooper Spur party registered. She was perhaps the shortest adult on the July 19 climb as she apparently measured about five feet. In the photo she is facing uphill and wearing a full length dress. Fortunately no one wore crampons in 1894—in fact they did not even exist in Europe at this time—so Della Watson did not have to worry about sharp points catching on her clothing. She had reached the summit of Mt. Hood with Will and Doug Langille via the Wy’east route on August 10, 1893, becoming the second woman to climb that route.

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Sometime after the climb she had a painting done by an unknown artist that was a creative and colorful rendition of the classic Charles C. Lewis photograph of the Cooper Spur party. Unlike most people, Della was careful enough to label the back of her painting with her and three of her friend’s exact locations. When she started the Cooper Spur climb she wore extra clothing because of the cold in the early morning. She soon overheated and had to stop to remove some of that clothing. According to Bill Minshall, a descendant, the way she explained the situation years later was, “I had to lose my dignity and drop my petticoat.” Bill did not recall what happened to the petticoat. 5. Miss Olive Hartley M.D.: Olive Hartley signed her name in the Mazama summit register index under H on page 19 but not on page 123 where the rest of the Cooper Spur party registered. She is also listed on the back of Della Watson’s painting, right behind Della. 6. George Edward Williams: George Edward Williams signed his name in the Mazama summit register index under W on page 48 but not on page 123 where the rest of the Cooper Spur party registered. He also climbed Mt. Hood via the Wy’east route on July 29, 1896. Della Watson wrote “Ed Williams” when she labeled the back of her painting and the July 21, 1894 Hood River Glacier article also called him “Ed Williams.” In 1940 his sister, Emma Brosius, gave the Mazamas a 20 by 24 inch version of the classic Charles C. Lewis photograph. Don Onthank wrote to Emma thanking her for the photo and stated, “George E. Williams is listed as a charter member. I remember a Mr. Williams who I think everybody called Ed Williams and who was a druggist in Hood River when I was a boy.” Because of these three sources William’s middle initial probably stood for Edward. It is also assumed that the print was originally made for Mr. Williams given his triumphant pose, for it is he holding his alpenstock on high, way on high, and it is just that little detail that sends it over the top as perhaps one of the most memorable photos ever taken on Mt. Hood. 7–10. Figures 7–10 in the image have not yet been matched to the remaining four names, i.e. Samuel E. Bartmess, Hood River; H.J. Mann, Hood River; Ezra T. Simmons, Portland; and Edwin C. Stuart, Portland. 11. Miss Alice M. Cleaver: Alice appears to have signed her last name in the Mazama summit register as Chaver. Pickwick’s list also has Chaver, the William’s photo has Mercer, but the Hood River Glacier and Wells' list has her as Cleaver. A closer examination of the signature in the register could yield Cleaver so that is the name given here. Nothing more is known about this woman.


11. William Mercer: Nothing more is known about this man. 13. Gryffith (Gryff) Perrott: The Oregonian of July 21, 1894 stated that, “Mr. Griff H. Perrott” was “employed in the tax and claim department of the Southern Pacific Company.” Both Gryff and Frank McClure made the trip from Portland to the summit and back to Portland in 48 hours. Notice the object around Gryffith’s midsection. The Oregonian called it a fishing basket. He left Cloud Cap Inn with four carrier pigeons inside including Frances, Grover, Jane, and Pickwick. 14. James E. Hannah: His first name appears as James in the “List of Persons who have climbed Mt. Hood” in the 1896 Mazama Annual. Nothing more is known about this man.

is known to have been the assistant guide to head guide Doug Langille and standard practice then as well as now was to have one guide at the rear. The Other Climbers: Unfortunately there is no information about the five individuals shown on the summit. Since there is a consistent observation in several of the newspapers and Pickwick’s note that 21 individuals climbed Cooper Spur it is possible that two of the five on top were members of the Cloud Cap Inn party. The guess is that they are offering gentlemanly assistance to Nason in the form of an 1894 verion of belaying, with four guys holding each other's belts or an article of clothing, as well as the belt of pants of the fifth guy. Hopefully this was the first and last time such a method of securing a climber was ever used by the Mazamas on Mt. Hood.

15. Miss Ida Foss: Wells renders the spelling “J.A. Faust” because at a quick glance that is what Ida’s signature appears to be in the Mazama summit register. However three other sources identify her as Miss Ida Foss. After carefully reexamining the signature, I believe the other sources have the correct interpretation. Nothing more is known about this woman. 16. P.C. McGuire: Nothing more is known about this man. 17. Frank E. McClure: The Oregonian of July 21, 1894 stated that, “Mr. Frank E. McClure” was employed by “the Laue-Davis drug company.” Both Frank and Griffith Perrott made the trip from Portland to the summit and back to Portland in 48 hours. This was Frank’s second ascent. He had climbed the South Side in August 1892 with what was then the largest party to make the summit. Many of the people he had climbed with then were also along for their second try, but Frank was the only one to try something new, Cooper Spur. The rest went up the South Side, the route they had climbed in 1892. 18. Colin H. McIsaac: The Drake photo states “weight 215 lbs.” The second figure from the bottom does appear to look the part as he is definitely bulkier than the rest of his fellow climbers. Nowadays that might not be considered interesting; however, at the time it was unusual enough to rate comment and it helps establish—perhaps without question—that C.H. McIsaac is in fact the second figure from the bottom. 19. James Henry Dimmick: In the alphabetical section of the summit register he signed his name James Henry Dimmick. His name appears last on the back of the Williams’ photo and a portion of his name also appears last on the back of the Drake photo with the annotation “2nd Guide.” Because the two sources agree it seems certain that Dimmick is the figure at the bottom of the line. Further proof can be gained from the fact that he We Climb High Vol 2 • 119


BY THE NUMBERS Below is a listing of the total membership, assets, dues, and hikes and climbs scheduled between 1965–2015. Compiled by one of our contributors this data comes from the Mazama Annual publication. Disclaimer: Gaps in the data stem from a lack of reporting or missing information in those publications. Additionaly, hike and climb numbers may in some cases be slightly different that actuals due to inconsistences in the reporting.

YEAR

TOTAL MEMBERSHIP

TOTAL ASSETS

ANNUAL DUES

TRAIL TRIPS SCHEDULED

CLIMBS SCHEDULED

1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996

1,517 1,677 1,876 1,996 2,195 1,970 2,473 2,562 2,619 2,673 2,682 2,746 2,801 2,813 2,756 2,759 2,786 2,825 2,770 2,761 2,727 2,677 2,718 2,560 2,486 2,719 2,551 2,614 2,772 2,863 2,943 2,947

$258,057.30 $268,358.65 $273,672.63 $281,503.46 $281,014.90 $284,546.94 $290,244.43 $296,176.40 $329,372.89 $330,904.72 $355,640.02 $364,234.59 $359,315.05 $373,804.36 $449,582.70 $483,015.80 $562,798.12 $596,675.25 $724,943.69 $841,505.67

$8 $8 $8 $8 $8 $8 $8 $8 $8 $8 $10 $10 $10 $10 $10 $15 $15 $15 $15 $20 $40 $40 $40 $40 $30 $30 $30 $30 $30 $30 $40 $40

76 74 75 82 100 83 102 129 126 142 143 212 139 126 94 115 138 153 157 164 142 166 174 267 325 352 306 326 328 435 534 436

172 174 212 184 208 191 228 246 201 223 240 240 245 255 259 200 265 269

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$453,308.00 $534,082.00 $519,906.00 $583,345.00

200 198 216 203 231 234 184 230 212 310 276 292 239


YEAR

TOTAL MEMBERSHIP

1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

2,859 3,071 3,019 3,072 3,079 3,067 2,960 2,951 2,941 2,977 2,965 3,070 3,050 3,128 3,143 3,251 3,393 3,432 3,524

TOTAL ASSETS

$808,295.79 $774,770.07 $816,809.03 $1,013,915.07

$1,215,376 $1,235,520 $1,481,993 $2,139,855 $1,508,522

ANNUAL DUES

TRAIL TRIPS SCHEDULED

CLIMBS SCHEDULED

$40 $40 $40 $50 $50 $50 $50 $50 $50 $50 $50 $60 $60 $60 $60 $60 $60 $60 $60

490 555 506 578 521 502 598 719 712 775 813 983 1000 916 900 850 800 900 1018

288 336 234 265 292 334 331 334 312 330 221 374 218 180 184 200 360 190 187

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MAZAMA COMMITTEE TIMELINE

Publishing

Monthly Publication Local Walks Outing House Entertainment Library Auditing Membership Promotion Membership Education Lodge

Trail Programs

Research Photographic

1900

1905

1910

1915

1920

1925

1930

Mazama Committees 1900–2015 This chart tracks the creation, evolution, and, in some cases, disolution of Mazama committees between 1900 and 2015. Where appropate, the merging and renaming of committees is noted. For example the House and Entertainment committees merged in 1946 to form the Programs Committee. A note on dates and ranges. The data shown here is compiled from the Mazama Bylaws and note the official recognization of committee creation and disolution dates. In reality, some committees may have existed prior to and after the dates noted here.

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Lo Climbing

1935

Conserva Y

1940

1945

1950

195


Today

Publications Trips

Education

odge

ation Youth

55

Trust By-Laws Banquet 1960

1965

1970

Long Range Planning Ski Budget Expedition Nordic Ski Whitewater

Endownment

1975

1980

1985

Old Timers First Aid Financial Affairs Public Relations

1990

1995

2000

Access Community Relations Risk Management Website

2005

2010

2015

Governing Documents

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ODDS & ENDS HEADQUARTERS The Mazamas have had several homes over the years, including a location in Portland, and near Government Camp at our lodge close to Mt. Hood. • CLUBROOMS: 919 NW 19th Avenue, Portland, Ore.; This was the home of the Mazamas for 50 years. • MAZAMA BUSINESS OFFICE: 919 NW 19th Avenue, Portland, Ore.; used interchangeably with clubrooms until the late 1990s when the Mazamas adopted the usage of “organization” instead of “club.” • MAZAMA MOUNTAINEERING CENTER, or more commonly, the MMC: 527 SE 43rd Avenue, Portland, Ore.; the Mazama headquarters starting in 2007. • MAZAMA LODGE: 30500 E West Leg Road, Government Camp, Ore.; built in 1960.

PROGRAMS & EVENTS Only nineteen years into Mazama history, the membership created an annual gathering to bring together members, to honor the accomplishments of the past year, and to have social time together. • ANNUAL BANQUET, established in 1913. • Renamed ANNUAL CELEBRATION in 2009. • Rebranded as the PORTLAND ALPINE FESTIVAL in 2014.

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MAZAMA EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS When they were created, and the shift in their names from 1965–2015. • ADVANCED CLIMBING SCHOOL, established March 1966. • ADVANCED ROCK, established in 1990. • ADVANCED ICE CLIMBING (1989, listed as a new program), later became • ADVANCED SNOW & ICE, established in 1980. Organized to give climbers an opportunity to practice glacier travel, ascending and descending technique, crevasse rescue, and ice climbing. • BASIC CLIMBING SCHOOL, also now as Basic School and Basic, established in 1950. Became the Basic Climbing Education Program in 1996 and by the mid-2000s was best known as BCEP (pronounced B-sep). • INTERMEDIATE CLIMBING SCHOOL, established in 1956. • SKI MOUNTAINEERING, established in March of 1983. • NORDIC SKI SCHOOL, also known as the Alpine Ski or simply the Ski Committee, established in 1975. • FIRST AID was originally a subcommittee of Climbing Committee and became its own committee in 1987.


MAZAMA ABBREVIATIONS The Mazamas is rife with abbreviations, to the point that it can be rather daunting for someone knew to enter our organization and know what someone is talking about. This handy guide should help to alleviate some of the confusion. However, it is important to know that Mazama abbreviations are broken out into initialisms and acronyms, and it’s important to know the difference between the two. Initialism: When you abbreviate a phrase to its initials, and those initials are pronounced as individual letters. Example: United States becomes U–S. Acronyms: Are abbreviations that use initials, but the initials are pronounced as a word rather than saying the individual initials. Example: National Aeronautic and Space Administration becomes NASA and is pronounces “nah-sah” Acronym BCEP ICS AR ASI CISM AYM ED EdCom EC LD MFA SB MRC URC PAF RTM UES PLB FM101 TT TTC MMC Disco Night PubCom SkiMo ATC AMGA IFMGA SPI OSI MMSS FWOC

Initialism or Acronym Acronym, “bee-sep” Initialism Initialism Initialism Initialism Initialism Initialism Acronym Initialism Initialism Initialism Initialism Initialism Initialism Acronym, “paf” Initialism Initialism Initialism Initialism Initialism Initialism Initialism Initialism Acronym, “pub-com” Acronym, “ski-mo” Initialism Initialism Initialism Initialism Initialism Initialism Initialism

Stands For Basic Climbing Education Program Intermediate Climbing School Advanced Rock Advanced Snow & Ice Critical Incident Stress Management Adventurous Young Mazamas Executive Director Education Committee Executive Council Leadership Development Mountaineering First Aid Skill Builders Mountain Running Camp Ultra Running Camp Portland Alpine Fest Round the Mountain Used Equipment Sale Personal Locator Beacon Families Mountaineering 101 Trail Tending Trail Trips Committee Mazama Mountaineering Center Discovery Night (big annual event) Publications Committee Ski Mountaineering Most standard belay device American Mountain Guides Association International Federation of Mountain Guides Association Single Pitch Instructor Outdoor Safety Institute Mazama Mountain Science School Federation of Western Outdoor Clubs

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126 • We Climb High Vol 2


Index Alfred F. Parker Cup 4, 5, 7, 9, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 23, 25, 27, 29, 37, 40, 46, 48, 49, 58, 59, 64, 68, 69, 72, 73, 75, 79, 85, 86, 88, 92, 94, 111 Guardian Peaks 18, 26, 27, 75, 88, 92, 112 Hughes Cup 3, 9, 13, 19, 26, 110 Leuthold 2, 19, 40, 58, 85, 112, 113 Redman Cup 37, 54, 69, 73, 85, 111 Richard Ward Montague Conservation Award 22, 48, 61, 73, 88, 110 Sixteen Major Northwest Peaks 11, 19, 27, 87 Terry Becker Award 69, 72, 113 Vera and Carmie Dafoe Award 73, 86, 88, 113 Warrior Peaks 27, 75 William Hardesty Cup 26, 58, 59, 61, 68, 69, 72, 73, 85, 86, 88, 92, 93, 94

A

Accident 4, 13, 14, 15, 20, 23, 28, 38, 53, 64, 78, 93 Aconcagua 15, 16, 48, 60, 69, 91, 92 Adams, Mt. 4, 7, 16, 19, 26, 27, 35, 36, 56, 68, 75, 113 Alaska 12, 14, 19, 21, 22, 23, 33, 37, 39, 69, 73, 74, 84, 91, 92, 103 Allison, Stacy 27, 40, 46 Anderson, George 28 Angell, Jim 6, 75 Anker, Conrad 74, 92 Annapurna 18, 23, 24, 26, 47, 66, 73, 82 Annual Meeting 4, 12, 27, 111 Atkeson, Ray 39, 40, 52, 55, 108 Authors Abbott, Ryan iii, 23, 24, 25, 102, 103 Bard, Tom iii, 67, 68, 102, 103 Barker, Charles iii, 96, 97, 102, 103 Binder, Hana iii, 86, 88, 102, 103 Boag, Peter iii, 2, 4, 9, 12, 102, 103 Bodien, Andrew iii, 69, 72, 102, 103 Brock, Mathew iii, 1, 13, 15, 47, 54, 87, 89, 91, 94, 102, 103 Craycraft, Rick iii, 26, 28, 53, 102, 103, 115 DuBois, Ken iii, 6, 7, 102, 103 Dunn, Kate iii, 29, 32, 102 Evans, Kate iii, 56, 58, 88, 91, 102, 103, 110, 115 Forester, Diana iii, 18, 20, 68, 103, 110 Gille, Sara iii, 78, 82, 103 Gray, Ali iii, 73, 74, 102, 103 Hafley, Daniel iii, 22, 23, 25 Hall, Eric iii, 37, 39, 89, 102, 104 Herzog, Nathan iii, 49, 52, 102, 104 Jacobson, Eric iii, 40, 46, 102, 104 Litwak, Jeff iii, 64, 66, 104, 115 Mayfield, Kati iii, 90, 92, 93, 104 Sasso, Katy 99 Sheldon, Ray 40, 46, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 61, 65, 69, 75, 85, 86, 90, 99, 100, 109, 110, 111, 112, 118 Spiegel, Laurence iii, 33, 36, 53, 55, 102 Taylor, Kim iii, 85, 104 Tenscher, Claire 42 Thomas, Jeff iii, 6, 7, 9, 17, 30, 33, 34, 39, 40, 50, 54, 55, 56, 62, 74, 76, 77, 78, 80, 84, 89, 90, 102, 104, 111 Wages, Shannon iii, 59, 61, 102, 104 Award 10-Point Leadership 70, 88 15-Point Leadership 4, 15 100-Peak 11

B

Babu, Malli Mastan 86 Baker, Mt. 55, 113 Baldwin, Neil 23 Bangs, Cameron, Dr. 27, 38, 108 Banquet, Annual 3, 4, 5, 7, 18, 19, 20, 22, 23, 26, 32, 46, 47, 55, 59, 67, 73, 88, 89, 92 Bass, Dick 46 Beacon Rock 6, 7, 59, 104 Becker, Terry 22, 58, 59, 61, 64, 69, 72, 92, 100, 109, 111, 112, 113 Beckey, Fred 22, 89, 108 Beers, Paula 56, 109, 111 Belcher, Allison Logan 56 Bhutan 68 Blackburn, Homer G. 49 Blum, Arlene 26, 47, 66, 73, 74, 82, 108 Bonanza Peak 26, 73 Bonnington, Sir Chris 66 Bradham, Sarah iii, 86, 91, 93 Broken Top 12, 74 Bulletin, Mazama 19, 24, 26, 28, 34, 55 Burnet, Don 39, 109, 114

C

Caldwell, Dean 2, 13 California 4, 6, 22, 53, 73, 85, 87, 104, 108 Canadian Rockies 13, 22, 33, 59, 85, 87, 104 Cascades North 1, 2, 5, 10, 14, 19, 22, 26, 33, 39, 59, 65, 72, 90, 91 Cate, Sylvia 53, 58, 109 Celebration, Annual 86, 88, 89, 91 Chamonix 41, 91

Chisholm, Colin G. 49 Chouinard, Yvon 10, 18, 108 Clapp, Al 20 Cloud Cap Inn 8, 56, 77, 117, 118, 119 Club American Alpine 5, 27, 40, 46, 66, 75, 91 Mazamas Alpine 23 Oregon Alpine 93 Sierra Club 3, 10, 68, 108 Toyoma Mountain Climbers Association 58, 61 Wy’east Climbers 52 Coalman, Elijah “Lige” 11 Colorado 3, 58, 61, 88, 90, 91, 104 Columbia River Gorge 8, 10, 16, 32, 35, 41, 48, 59, 84 Committee Adventurous Young Mazamas 66, 83, 92 Banquet 3, 4, 5, 7, 18, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 26, 27, 29, 32, 34, 46, 47, 55, 56, 59, 67, 68, 72, 73, 75, 79, 85, 88 Budget 28, 29 Bylaws 1, 48, 49, 85 Capital Campaign 73, 74 Centennial 46, 49, 56 Climbing 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 11, 18, 19, 20, 21, 25, 29, 38, 39, 40, 41, 48, 57, 58, 60, 65, 68, 79, 82, 83, 85, 86, 90, 91, 108 Leader Development Program 57 Conservation 2, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 25, 28, 40, 46, 48, 57, 58, 60, 66, 68, 72, 73, 79, 82, 85, 86, 91, 103 Critical Incident Stress Management 53, 93, 125 Education 85, 86 Endowment 65 Expedition 19, 21, 22, 28, 29, 38, 39, 40, 41, 46, 49, 57, 60, 68, 74, 93 Families 92 Financial Affairs 41, 57, 60 Governing Documents 90 House and Entertainment 9 Incident Response 53, 60, 66 Leadership Development 67, 68 Library 7 Local Walks 4, 25 Lodge 5, 12, 27, 61, 86, 91, 96, 97, 98 Long Range Planning 1, 27, 67, 68 Nominating 85, 90, 92 Nordic 14, 19, 21, 32, 57, 58, 61, 82, 83, 87, 94, 97, 124, 127, 128 Outings 4, 7, 28, 60, 61, 64, 90 Photographic 33

We Climb High Vol 2 • 127


Publications 9, 12, 14, 25, 46, 55, 59, 61, 91 Public Relations 60 Research 2, 14, 22, 57, 59, 60, 68, 89 Ski 1, 3, 19 Tax 14 Trail Trips 3, 6, 7, 13, 15, 18, 19, 20, 21, 28, 29, 32, 37, 38, 39, 48, 57, 58, 59, 60, 64, 68, 72, 73, 85, 86, 88, 90, 92, 94, 101, 110, 120 Trust 20, 27, 28, 41 Vigorous Young Mazamas 12 Whitewater 19, 32, 58, 65 Conference 1978 American K2 Expedition 65 Denali 61 Melting Mountains 82 Mountaineering Issues of Tibet 65 Conkling, Leonard 8 Conrad, Ric 68, 91 Conservation 1, 2, 5, 8, 9, 10, 12, 18, 38, 39, 40, 60, 61, 68, 75, 92, 93, 100, 108, 110 Conway, Thomas Raymond 15 Couch, Doug 89, 90, 91, 93, 109, 113, 115 Craig, Jim 2, 86 Cummings, George 87, 88, 109, 112 Curtis, Edward 40

D

Daellenbach, Keith 69, 79, 85, 91, 110 Dafoe, Carmie 1, 5, 9, 10, 12, 14, 15, 20, 35, 73, 86, 88, 109, 111, 112, 113 Dafoe, Vera 11, 22, 26, 36, 37, 40, 48, 56, 57, 61, 66, 67, 69, 73, 84, 88, 90, 109, 110, 111 Darcy, Martha 29 Darr, Everett 29, 67, 82, 84 Darr, Ida 65, 84 Davis, Ray 27, 75, 110, 111 Davis, William "Lee" 88, 91 Dinsmore, Tom 22, 78, 82, 84 Dod, Eugene 3 Dodge, Nick 2, 14, 36 Dues 10, 15, 24, 27, 32, 40, 41, 49, 58, 61, 79

E

Eastman, Don 2, 4, 9 Ecuador 53, 61 Education School Advanced Rock 2, 48, 57, 58, 60, 87, 92 Advanced Snow and Ice 2, 57, 58, 91 Basic Climbing Education Program 60, 64, 87, 90, 92, 103, 104, 124, 125

128 • We Climb High Vol 2

Basic Climbing School 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 9, 18, 19, 20, 22, 26, 28, 41, 48, 55, 57, 58, 60, 70, 74, 85, 124 Intermediate Climbing School 9, 19, 21, 29, 41, 57, 70, 83, 92, 124, 125 Mountaineering First Aid 73, 125 Mountaineering Ski School 3 Nordic Ski 58, 61, 124 Whitewater School 19, 33 Evans, Kate iii, 56, 58, 88, 91, 102, 103, 110, 115 Everest, Mt. 7, 8, 27, 32, 39, 40, 41, 46, 47, 57, 59, 66, 74, 108 Executive Council 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 12, 14, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27, 28, 32, 38, 39, 46, 48, 49, 54, 55, 58, 67, 68, 69, 72, 74, 84, 85, 88, 90, 91, 93, 99 Explorer Post 20, 27, 28, 36, 47, 56, 57, 59, 61, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 73, 74, 75, 78, 92, 103

F

Federation of Western Outdoor Clubs 5, 10, 38, 59, 108 Fisher, Scott 41 Flanagan, Latham Jr. 11, 112 Foehl, Katie 53, 114 Forest Park. See Park, City Fountain, Andrew 82, 85 Frost, Tom 18

G

Gasherbrum I 37, 41 Gerding, Helen 81, 82, 86, 109 Gibbons, Lois 23, 24, 26, 27, 109 Gibson, Bus 23, 59, 69, 110, 111 Glacier Coalman 31 Collier 2, 29, 36 Dryer 5 Eliot 2, 13, 18, 28, 38, 75 Forsyth 23 Ladd 56 Lathrop 13, 29 Leschi 5 Mazama 4 Nelson 5 White River 38 Goat Rocks 14, 33, 35, 36, 39, 89 Godino, John 67, 94, 111 Goodsell, Jim 1, 6, 9, 11 Grauer, Jack 4, 18, 40, 46, 56, 68, 90, 92, 100, 109, 111, 112 Greene, Peter 67 Greenwood, Dorothy 1, 2 Guide A Climber’s Guide to Oregon 2, 14 A Climber’s Guide to the Sawtooth Range 1

H

Hackett, William "Bill" 48, 67 Hague, Ken 12, 18, 20, 109 Hardesty, William P. 26, 61 Harrington, Clint 2, 4, 5, 84, 109 Haythorne, Pat 28, 38 Henderson, Dwight J. 4 Henthorne, Mary C. 11 Hillary, Sir Edmund 73, 108 Hiunchuli 28 Holt, Ed 38, 58, 82, 111, 112 Honorary Member 11, 23, 34, 40, 47, 52, 55, 65, 67, 72, 73, 79, 86, 88, 93, 94 Hood, Mt. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 27, 28, 30, 32, 35, 37, 38, 40, 46, 47, 48, 49, 52, 55, 56, 57, 60, 61, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 80, 81, 82, 84, 85, 86, 90, 91, 93, 103, 104, 113, 117, 118, 119 Cooper Spur 56, 117 Illumination Rock 15, 91 Silcox Hut 52 South Side 8, 30, 55, 56, 66, 77, 85, 119 Sunshine 56, 75, 85 West Crater Rim 56, 64, 66 Yocum Ridge 21, 72 Houston, Charles S., MD 69 Hyslop, Robert "Bob" 22, 23, 61, 62, 109, 111

I

Icenogle, Marlin 23 Idaho 1, 2, 13, 14, 27, 33, 59, 68, 91

J

Jefferson, Mt. 1, 2, 3, 9, 16, 64, 78, 113 Jeffery, Donald 22, 46, 48 Jensen, Dave 7, 14 Jerstad, Luther 8 Johann, Edward 1, 16, 19, 111

K

K2 19, 21, 22, 23, 38, 65, 67, 68, 69, 72 Karr, Chad 9, 109 Kearney, Alan 28, 57 Kearney, Marianna 26, 90, 111 Kearney, Ty 26, 72 Ketchum, Verne 16 Keyser, Charles Paul 11

L

Laird, Richard 15, 75 Lathrop, Theodore 4 Leach, John Roy 15 Leuthold, Joe 2, 15, 19, 29, 67, 75, 84, 112 Leuthold, Laurita 75 Lien, Ole 16, 18 Lincoln, Irving 27 Lockerby, Bob 29, 33, 39, 57, 58, 88


Lodge, Mazama 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 19, 21, 23, 24, 27, 28, 32, 38, 39, 41, 52, 57, 60, 65, 67, 72, 74, 79, 87, 90, 91, 94, 96, 97, 98 Lodge, Timberline 2, 16, 37, 38, 49, 56, 90, 97 Luce, Peggy 40 Lynch, Bill 1, 5, 9

M

Mackert, Christine 22, 27, 29, 49, 57, 67, 68, 69, 108, 112 Marquam, Barbara 72, 82, 111 Marshall, Arthur Harmon 90 Mayfield, Kati iii, 90, 92, 93, 104 Mazama Library and Historical Collections 1, 76, 94 Mazama Library 1, 29, 33, 35, 39, 55, 57, 65, 76, 80, 82, 89, 90, 94 Mazama Museum 37, 40, 82 Mazamas Foundation 61, 65, 72, 79, 91, 92, 110 Mazama Trail 55, 57, 65, 99, 101, 118 McAninch, Edward, MD 14 McArthur, Lewis A. 56, 108 McArthur, Lewis L. 11, 99 McCarthy, Kate 72, 73, 108, 110 McKinley, Donald 1, 2 Membership 4, 5, 6, 9, 11, 12, 14, 15, 19, 20, 23, 24, 25, 27, 29, 34, 41, 46, 48, 49, 56, 59, 61, 66, 67, 68, 69, 73, 74, 85, 86, 88, 89, 91, 92, 93, 99, 108, 118 Honorary 11, 23, 34, 72, 73, 93, 94 Life 27 Survey 66, 67, 68 Mexico 1, 17, 53 Miller, Bob 39, 110 Miller, Dick 33, 112, 115 Millus, Robert 8, 9, 20 Mischke, Keith 29, 33, 56, 67, 72, 109, 111, 112, 114 Molenaar, Dee 23, 65, 69, 109 Mongolia 68 Montague, Malcolm 7, 16, 113 Montana 20, 66, 85 Mountaineering, Ski 6, 49, 94 Mount, James (Jim) 16

N

Nelson, Lorenz 5 Nepal 24, 28, 41, 46, 68, 74, 85, 88

O

Oberteuffer, Bill and Margaret 1, 88 Onthank, Donald "Don" 18, 27, 29, 62, 75, 118 Oregon Episcopal School 38 Outing 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 13, 14, 19, 20, 21, 29, 38, 39, 54, 57, 59, 69, 103

P

Pacific Crest Trail 19, 28, 37, 100 Pakistan 21, 32, 36, 38, 68 Park City Forest Park 28, 39, 53, 57, 58 Leach Botanical Gardens 15 National Crater Lake National Park 29, 56, 57, 64, 67, 73, 79, 81, 86 Glacier National Park 38, 56, 68, 85 Lassen Volcanic National Park 56 Mt. Rainier National Park 33, 88 Olympic National Park 33, 49 Yellowstone National Park 6, 38, 41, 53, 57, 60 Yosemite National Park 4, 68, 87 State Horsethief Butte State Park 59 Smith Rock State Park 41, 53, 91 Parker, Jean 26, 27 Patagonia 10, 28, 57, 90, 93 Peirce, Robert H. (Bob) 10 Peru 2, 33, 39, 41, 46, 59, 61, 64, 66, 69, 73, 78, 85, 87, 90 Cordillera Blanca 41, 69, 73, 78, 87 Vilcabamba 85 Petroske, Jim 15, 16 Platt, Martha 24, 26, 110 Portland Alpine Festival 91, 92, 94 Powder Puffs 3, 5 Programs, Evening 14

R

Rainier, Mt. 2, 3, 5, 13, 14, 16, 33, 35, 39, 46, 60, 72, 82, 88, 90, 113 Ramble 39 Rébuffat, Gaston 4 Redman, Margaret 37, 54, 85, 111 Rich, Dorothy 5, 74 Rieger, Erwin 2, 14, 74 Riley, Frank Branch 5, 7, 20, 21, 56, 80 Robbins, Royal 79, 108 Rooster Rock 15 Roskelley, John 29, 93, 109 Routledge, Fred 31, 55 Rowell, Galen 27

S

Salisbury, John N. 9, 111 Sauter, Libby 93 Sawtooth Mountains 1, 2, 13, 27, 28 Schoening, Peter 19 Schultz, Ed 27, 110 Schwarz, Peggie 73, 74, 88, 109 Scott, John D. 8, 9, 25, 108 Service Internal Revenue 10

U.S. Forest 5, 10, 11, 16, 19, 32, 35, 37, 40, 46, 52, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 61, 65, 66, 75, 91, 99, 100, 108 Sheldon, Ray 40, 46, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 61, 65, 69, 75, 85, 86, 90, 99, 100, 109, 110, 111, 112, 118 Sholes, Charles 26, 61, 62, 69 Siblerud, Marcia 39, 56, 109 Sister(s), Mts. Middle 19, 56, 113 North 2, 19, 29, 113 South 10, 12, 13, 49, 79, 113 Three 2, 12, 19, 27, 33, 37, 41, 54, 57, 59, 65 Skiing 1, 3, 91 Smith, Monty 60, 69, 72, 74, 75, 78, 87, 110 Smith Rock 3, 41, 49, 52, 53, 66, 75, 78, 87, 88, 89, 91, 94, 104 Monkey Face 9, 20, 35 Poplar 78 Smith Rock Climbers’ Ranch 91 Snyder, Ray 22, 29, 82, 109, 111, 112, 114 Stadler, Larry 26, 57, 109, 111, 112, 114 Steel, William Gladstone 17, 81, 108 Steins Pillar 3, 18 St. Helens, Mount 5, 16, 17, 19, 20, 22, 23, 26, 27, 28, 40, 49, 56, 79, 87, 103 Eruption 26 Stoller, Rick 72, 109 St. Peters Dome 65, 84 Survey 6, 24, 27, 39, 48, 66, 67, 68, 89 Switzerland 22, 53, 64, 91

T

Thielsen, Mt. 27, 29, 78 Thomas, Jeff iii, 6, 7, 9, 17, 30, 33, 34, 39, 40, 50, 54, 55, 56, 62, 74, 76, 77, 78, 80, 84, 89, 90, 102, 104, 111 Tibet 65, 68, 78 Timberline Trail 28, 65, 99 Trusky, Dick 8 Trusky, Jim 8

U

Unsoeld, Jolene 59, 108 Used Equipment Sale 19

V

Vielbig, Klindt 87, 111

W

Wade, Ian 29, 64, 66 Wade Report, The 64 Wagner, Linda 16, 27, 111, 114 Wallowas 55, 56, 60, 66, 91 Washburn, Barbara 68, 108 Washburn, Bradford 48, 67, 68, 108

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Washington 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 20, 22, 36, 40, 57, 59, 65, 66, 69, 75, 86, 87, 103, 113 We Climb High 8, 9, 25, 50, 55, 56, 62, 104 Weiss, Toby 27, 28 Wendlandt, Ann 5, 111 Whittaker, Jim 7, 22, 59, 85, 94, 108 Whittaker, Lou 32, 108 Wickwire, James 21 Wilson, Bob 14, 24, 28, 29, 37, 69, 93 Wilson, Doug 57, 58, 69, 87, 94, 109, 112, 114 Winters, Kenneth 21, 109 Wyoming 21, 53, 87

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Acknowledgments This volume would not have been possible without the hard work of our twenty-five contributing authors. A huge thank you to Ryan Abbott, Tom Bard, Charles Barker, Hana Binder, Peter Boag, Andrew Bodien, Rick Craycraft, Ken DuBois, Kate Dunn, Kate Evans, Diana Forester, Sara Gille, Ali Gray, Daniel Hafley, Eric Hall, Nathan Herzog, Eric Jacobson, Jeff Litwak, Kati Mayfield, Laurence Spiegel, Claire Tenscher, Kim Taylor, Jeff Thomas, and Shannon Wages. A sincere thank you to Peter Boag, Ken DuBois, Eric Hall, and Laurence Spiegel for stepping up and taking on more than the initial two year commitment. Special thanks go to Rick Craycraft, Jeff Litwak, and Jeff Thomas for their many hours of fact-checking and insistence that we get the story right and true; to Johnathan Barrett, Ali Gray, Brian Goldman, and Chelsea Rohweder for their grammar and copy editing; and especially to Sarah Bradham for her assistance with layout, editing, and unwavering support of the project.

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