SELENIUM: facts & myths
Can your horse’s feet tell you about his past?
PILATES FOR RIDERS
Does your horse need to
A DISPLAY UNTIL JANUARY 19, 2016 VOLUME 10 ISSUE 6
Dec 2015/Jan 2016
Kids horses – a natural
Healthy HOLIDAY TREATS
Twenty years and 1,000 horses later, Safe Haven Horse Rescue is still hard at work. EquineWellnessMagazine.com Equine Wellness 1
Volume 10 Issue 6 EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT EDITOR-IN-CHIEF: Dana Cox EDITOR: Kelly Howling EDITOR: Ann Brightman SENIOR GRAPHIC DESIGNER: Kathleen Atkinson SENIOR GRAPHIC DESIGNER: Dawn Cumby-Dallin WEB DESIGN & DEVELOPMENT: Brad Vader SOCIAL MEDIA MANAGER: Kyle Dupont COVER PHOTOGRAPHY: L esley Deutsch (Blue Fountain Photography) COLUMNISTS & CONTRIBUTING WRITERS Matt Dickson Audi Donamor Juliet M. Getty, PhD Theresa Gilligan Beth Glosten, MD Gabi Gross, PhD Susan L. Guran Jessica Lynn Cori Madrigal Hannah Mueller, DVM Clay Nelson Pat Parelli Deborah Powell April Reeves Chris Richardson Anne Riddell Samantha Thorning Madalyn Ward, DVM Erin Zamzow, DVM ADMINISTRATION PUBLISHER: Redstone Media Group Inc. PRESIDENT/C.E.O.: Tim Hockley CIRCULATION & OFFICE MANAGER: Libby Sinden ACCOUNTING: Karen Tice SUBMISSIONS Please send all editorial material, advertising material, photos and correspondence to Equine Wellness Magazine, 202-160 Charlotte Street, Peterborough, ON, Canada K9J 2T8. We welcome previously unpublished articles and color pictures either in transparency or disc form at 300 dpi. We cannot guarantee that either articles or pictures will be used or that they will be returned. We reserve the right to publish all letters received. Email your articles to: Submissions@EquineWellnessMagazine.com. DEALER OR GROUP INQUIRIES WELCOME Equine Wellness Magazine is available at a discount for resale in retail shops and through various organizations. Call Libby at 1-866-764-1212 ext 100 or fax us at 705-742-4596 or e-mail Libby@RedstoneMediaGroup.com.
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Improving the lives of animals... one reader at a time.
ON THE COVER Photograph By: Lesley Deutsch/Blue Fountain Photography River is a five-yearold 15hh Quarter Horse mare that was rescued and sent to Safe Haven Horse Rescue from the kill pen in Fallon, Nevada. After a period of rehab, she was adopted by Lesley Deutsch of Blue Fountain Farm who started her under saddle. River is now looking for her forever home! Check out River’s blog (riversjourneybff.blogspot.ca) and the article on Safe Haven Horse Rescue (page 32) for more!
44 FEATURES 10 TISSUE MINERAL
ANALYSIS - A hairy tool for preventive health.
16 SELENIUM: FACTS AND
MYTHS - We are often cautioned about
feeding our horses too much selenium, but we rarely hear about the benefits of this essential trace mineral. Here’s why your horse needs adequate selenium in his diet!
19 THE DIRT ON
BENTONITE CLAY - Bentonite clay is an all-natural product with amazing healing properties!
Photo courtesy of Blue Fountain Photography
27 PILATES FOR RIDERS
- Feeling stiff, weak or limited in your riding? Your fitness is just as important as your horse’s! This total body approach to movement can be helpful for equestrians of all disciplines.
32 COVER STORY:
- You can learn a lot about his background just by looking at his feet.
56 JUMPING FENCES
NEED TO DETOX? - Detox
42 KIDS AND HORSES –
53 HOOF HISTORY
36 DOES YOUR HORSE
Haven Horse Rescue is celebrating 20 years of helping horses in need – to date, their work has benefitted over 1,000 grateful equines!
24 AYURVEDA FOR YOUR on each equine as an individual.
- Using horse manure for renewable energy.
TREATS - The festive season doesn’t have to be about overindulgence – here is a recipe your horses will love, and it’s good for them, too! HORSE - This age-old therapy focuses
48 NATURE’S FURNACE
A HAVEN FOR HOPE - Safe
diets are all the rage for people, so it’s no surprise we’re considering them for horses too. Let’s look at when your horse might benefit from toxin elimination, and how it can be done.
2O HEALTHY HOLIDAY
NATURALLY - Have you ever noticed how horses tend to adore children, and seem to get along with them so well? Here’s why, along with some fun exercises to enhance your own kids’ relationship with equines.
THERAPY - This low-level electrical stimulation therapy is easy to add to your horse’s routine.
- Learn how to develop an eye for distance when approaching a fence.
8 Neighborhood news 15 Green acres
23 Holiday gift guide
26 It’s elemental!
31 Heads up
39 Herb blurb
35 Product picks
40 To the rescue
45 Equine Wellness resource guide
44 Homeopathic column
47 Social media corner
50 Holistic veterinary Q&A
60 Marketplace 61 Classiﬁeds 62 Events
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EDITORIAL A LITTLE GOES
a long way As we head into the holiday season and chillier weather, I find that people tend to be more philanthropic than usual. We are hit with more campaigns to help various causes, and many of us are reminded how lucky we are, resulting in a drive to lend a hand to our less-fortunate fellows, whether they be two-legged or four. Yet it’s very easy to feel like you are never doing enough. If you look at the broad picture, it can be a bit staggering to see all the need for assistance. For us horse folks, for example, it especially pulls at our heartstrings to see equines in need. But where do you start? Rescue, fostering, volunteering, the slaughter debate, retired racehorses, working equines abroad, wild horses, breeds at risk? What about helping with therapeutic programs for youth or veterans? The important thing to remember is that every little bit counts. You can always do something, whether it’s donating funds, supplies, or your time and skills. Find a particular cause that speaks to you, and whatever you are able to do, there is no doubt it will be helpful. You don’t have to save the whole world to make a difference. One organization that relies totally on the efforts of volunteers to make their work possible is Safe Haven Horse Rescue, our featured cover story for this issue (page 32). Celebrating 20 years of horse rescue, Safe Haven has to date assisted over 1,000 equines in need (like River, our cover horse!), and hopes to continue their valuable work for many more years to come. In addition to our tasty treat recipe (page 20), this Holiday issue includes some neat articles that will hopefully give you some new ideas to try for yourself and your horses this winter. Pilates for equestrians is becoming increasingly popular, and Beth Glosten, MD, joins us on page 27 to give us a crash course. Discover what your horse’s body is trying to tell you with articles on how to read his hoof history (page 53) and hair mineral analysis (page 10). Help improve his health by discovering equine Ayurveda (page 24), and detoxing (page 36). And finally, have some fun this winter with a few jumping exercises (page 56) and some great games to get the kids at the barn interacting with their horses more naturally (page 42).
NEIGHBORHOOD NEWS EMERGENCY WILD
IMPORTANCE OF SPORT
“It is vital for the integrity of all sport that it is clean and fair, but it is even more important when there is an animal involved because of the welfare implications,” says FEI President Ingmar De Vos. He recently sent a strong message to the equestrian world as part of the FEI Clean Sport campaign, in the organization’s countdown to the rollout of their global Equine Anti-Doping and Controlled Medication Programme (EADCMP) on January 1, 2016. FEI Headquarters currently coordinates administration of the EADCMP in FEI Regional Groups I and II (Europe), while administration of the program in the rest of the world has been undertaken through national anti-doping initiatives or National Federations (NFs). That will change at the beginning of the year, when FEI HQ takes over administration of the worldwide program.
Due to extreme drought conditions and lack of forage, the Bureau of Land Management has begun gathering and providing emergency care for up to 200 wild horses in the Cold Creek area of southern Nevada, about 30 miles west of Las Vegas. Hay and water will be used to gather the horses. “Our goal is to help as many horses as we can,” says BLM Acting State Director, John Ruhs. “Many of the animals are in very poor condition, and we do not expect the situation to improve any time soon.” The BLM has observed wild horses in the area browsing on the bark of Joshua trees and other desert shrub forage that lack sufficient nutritional value. In addition, the herd is traveling ten miles or more between available water sources and the location of limited forage is compounding stress for the animals. All gathered wild horses will be taken a short distance to a temporary holding facility at the BLM’s Oliver Ranch, where they will receive a veterinary assessment and have free access to water and hay. Once the horses are strong enough to travel, they will be transported to the BLM’s off-range corrals and be made available for adoption, sale, or moved to off-range holding pastures.
ALFALFA HAY CONTAMINATED WITH BLISTER A single load of alfalfa hay, originating in Kansas and delivered to Murphy Farm Hay and Feed in Louisburg on August 1, was contaminated with blister beetles, say North Carolina state officials. Murphy Farm sold much of the hay at retail, and also distributed some to Jones Farm Hay and Feed in Middlesex. Toxicology testing confirmed the presence of cantharidin in the hay; cantharidin is a poisonous substance found in blister beetles, and has been linked to the deaths of six horses. Cattle, goats, sheep and horses may be affected by cantharidin, but horses are more severely affected by the toxin than ruminants. 8
Feed affected by the toxin may or may not have visible beetles in it. Horse owners should monitor their animals and contact their veterinarians if any of the following signs are observed: inflammation, colic, straining, elevated temperature, depression, blood in the urine, increased heart rate and respiration, dehydration, sweating, diarrhea and death.
The City of Saratoga Springs in New York state is becoming the first city to address responsible racehorse stewardship, in an official city pledge under the leadership of Mayor Joanne Yepsen. In recognition of the impact horse racing has on the economic vitality and quality of life in the area, the city will join Racehorse Aftercare Charities of Saratoga, an alliance of local charities involved in racehorse aftercare and retirement. The City of Saratoga pledges to increase awareness of racehorse aftercare among its residents, businesses and tourists, and foster ways that these groups can engage with and support the local retired racehorse organizations. Some of these initiatives include racehorse aftercare as part of the city’s tourism draw, encouraging local events to promote racehorse aftercare, and inspiring beneficiaries of racing in Saratoga to develop sustainable plans for assisting local charities with aftercare. The city will also encourage the Saratoga Springs public school system to include racehorse aftercare as part of a humane education curriculum.
FEI SET TO REVIEW DRESSAGE TRAINING
The FEI is forming a working group to thoroughly review Annex XIII of the Dressage Stewards Manual, which deals with training methods. The decision was made at an all-day meeting of the Dressage Committee and stakeholders, held in FEI Headquarters in Lausanne (SUI). It was agreed that the group would finalize its conclusions in the coming months, for presentation to the FEI Bureau for approval. Stewarding, including the monitoring of precompetition training techniques, education, support and respect for officials, competition formats, and judging were all debated at length. “This was a very constructive meeting,” says Frank Kemperman. “There was a lot of solid debate and interesting proposals about stewarding and judging. It was very good to reach agreement on the formation of a working group to review and, if necessary, revise Annex XIII.”
MORE ORGANIZATIONS SUPPORT
Ten more organizations, including the U.S. Polo Association and American Warmblood Registry, have endorsed the American Horse Council’s (AHC) Welfare Code of Practice. The code is a broad set of principles designed to establish good welfare procedures for organizations to follow as they “Put the Horse First.” It outlines in broad strokes what principles organizations are committed to in terms of breeding, training, competing, transporting, enjoying and caring for their horses. The code encourages everyone to consider the health, safety and welfare of their horses in all their activities, including social and ethical issues. The AHC’s code is not intended to supersede an organization’s rules or regulations. Any organization’s specific rules still govern activities sanctioned and regulated by that organization. Rather, the code complements any such rules and restates the principles to be followed by breed registries, trade associations, various disciplines and the horse community as a whole.
By Gabi Gross, PhD
A hairy tool for preventive health.
hen Gold Medalist and three-time National Dressage Competitor Shannon Peters showed her nine-year-old Grand Prix horse Flor De Selva in 2009, she had no idea that Lyme disease and chronic weakening would soon force her to retire the Westphalian gelding. The fat deposits on Flor De Selvaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s body, along with a cresty neck, hinted at metabolic issues. When we started 10
his recovery program in the fall of 2014, after five years of stall rest(!), he also showed a bleached coat and Cushingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;slike symptoms. He was so weak that walking out of his stall produced labored breathing.
SEARCHING FOR ANSWERS In an admirable leap of faith, and against all odds, Shannon agreed to a recovery attempt based on the findings of hair mineral analysis. Repeated serum analyses had not shown
any significant indications of metabolic syndrome or other endocrine disease. However, the hair analysis pointed to a weakened endocrine system, lack of gastrointestinal absorption, and deficiencies in essential minerals. I felt that the possibility of recovery for Flor De Selva was far-fetched, but the slightest spark of hope created incredible determination in Shannon. For the next six months, supported by a team of nutritionists, veterinarians, farriers and body workers, Shannon dedicated herself to successfully bringing Flor De Selva back to health and performance. His amazing comeback Grand Prix performance in April of 2015 at the Del Mar Nationals is a stunning tribute to one horse owner’s faith, the body’s incredible capacity for recovery, and the power of team work among people on the same mission. It also shows the potential of hair mineral analysis, though at the same time we do need to keep this tool’s limits in mind. We do come across quite a few cases like Flor De Selva, but hair analysis is not a cure-all. It does well as a complementary tool along with a good clinical exam, nutritional evaluation, blood work and critical study of the horse’s history. In this context, hair mineral analysis can be very powerful for balancing underlying factors for health, optimum wellness and performance.
HAIR ANALYSIS – LOOKING UNDER THE SURFACE OF HEALTH AND PERFORMANCE Being a responsible equestrian implies an internal worry-andalert attitude when it comes to the well-being of our horses. The absence of disease does not mean optimum wellness. Sometimes we know that something is going “off” with our horses, even though conventional diagnostics cannot find anything yet. Over the decades, my veterinary career has shifted from “treating dis-ease” to developing a proactive
WHY ISN’T BLOOD TESTING ENOUGH?
Blood is a transport medium. While it has immense value in the detection of many underlying factors for disease, especially in acute situations, it is only a momentary snapshot of what is being transported through the body at that moment. It cannot show what is going on within the cells. The body will store minerals within the cells where life takes place. The reason we can test cells via hair is because the body is non-selective in its distribution of minerals into soft tissue. Hair is considered soft tissue. Taking hair samples is simple, non-painful, non-invasive and hair can be easily sent in the mail. Equine Wellness
HAIR ANALYSIS IS NOT A CURE-ALL. IT DOES WELL AS A COMPLEMENTARY TOOL ALONG WITH A GOOD CLINICAL EXAM, NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION, BLOOD WORK AND CRITICAL STUDY OF THE HORSE’S HISTORY. approach for preventive care and early detection. On this quest, I came upon hair mineral analysis, also called “tissue mineral analysis” (TMA). For many years, hair analysis has proven valuable in prevention, and as demonstrated with Flor De Selva, in the detection of underlying chronic issues.
For example, we often see a phenomenon I call “import shock” in imported horses. This typical pattern of problems starts anywhere between six to 18 months after import, and results from drastic changes in the minerals found in soils and feeds. Once “import shock” has manifested, it can take months to years to rebalance the minerals. If a horse shows mineral imbalances related to imbalanced organ function, it will most likely take the body several months to self-heal, provided that the program is followed diligently and the right things are done.
MINERALS AS MARKERS
To understand hair mineral analysis, we have to know more about minerals, their power, function and behavior. Minerals are needed for life and health. A few common minerals include potassium, selenium and sulfur. In total, the body needs about 60 minerals. Double Nobel Laureate Linus Pauling stated: “One could trace every disease and every ailment to a mineral deficiency.”
Minerals are needed for all organ functions; at the same time, their levels also reflect how those organs are functioning. This two-way street turns tissue mineral analysis into a complex process demanding the correct interpretation for cause and effect. Every organ has a mineral profile or “thumb-print” from which we can draw conclusions on its function by analyzing how the organ treats certain minerals. That means there can be different reasons for improper levels of a mineral in the body’s cells. These reasons can include dietary imbalances, problems in gastrointestinal absorption, or improper function of the organs primarily handling the mineral.
Soul energy can leave a body in an instant, resulting in immediate death. Deprivation of air gives us a few minutes to live. We can compensate for a lack of water for a few days. The rest of the body is made of protein and minerals. If the body is deprived of proteins, it might take a few weeks for the body to expire. Minerals represent the deepest layer of physical existence and the body reacts the slowest to their deprivation. Depending on the mineral, it can take months to years to manifest a clinical problem from an imbalance.
If an organ is not working properly and this results in a mineral deficiency, we cannot just add the deficient mineral to make the organ work. If the required amount and ratio of these minerals is contained in a horse’s feed, yet show deficient in his cells via hair analysis, other reasons for the deficit are likely and need to be addressed. We have to first restore the function of the organ. The minerals sodium and potassium are good examples. In acute stress, the body responds by increasing adrenal function. The adrenals are the “chemical brains” of the body and are tiny glands sitting right next to the kidneys. One of the results of
WHY ARE MINERALS SO IMPORTANT?
Hair Analysis graphs courtesy of Dr. Watts, Trace Elements
Continued on page 14.
Cellular (hair) analysis graph showing levels of nutritional and toxic elements. Examples: Iron (Fe) overload which has been related to triggering equine insulin resistance. Low electrolytes (sodium and potassium, Na and K) as a reflection of chronic stress. Selenium (Se) deficiency as possible reason for a weak immune system. Environmental contamination with Aluminum (Al).
Continued from page 12. acute stress is the retention of sodium and potassium in the body’s cells. If the stress becomes chronic, intracellular sodium and also potassium levels will drop. To restore the proper levels, we have to reduce stress and recover the whole body.
Image shows a Friesian with mineral deficiency, which can be seen in his “bleached coat”.
WHAT CAN HAIR ANALYSIS SHOW US?
Hair analysis can detect underlying reasons for allergies and lack of immunity.
Six weeks after hair mineral analysis and adding deficient minerals, the Friesian is looking much improved!
WHAT CAN’T WE SEE IN A HAIR ANALYSIS?
Hair analysis will not show what is going on in the body at a speciﬁc moment, and is not the tool of choice in acute situations. Like any other lab method, it should not stand alone in the assessment of a horse’s health. Nothing replaces a thorough clinical examination along with the study of a horse’s health history. The horse’s clinical appearance combined with observations from his owners/handlers should be given preference when estimating progress. Because imbalanced minerals can be either the cause or effect of other problems, it takes a valid skillset to read and interpret the results and develop a good recovery program. Some feed companies use hair analysis as a tool to recommend feed and supplements for balanced nutrition. The report provided to the horse owner shows only the nutritional graphs and suggests what to add to the feed, while other essential information is dismissed. This does not do the technique justice, and success is questionable. Nutritional suggestions are ﬁne as long as the cause for the deﬁciency is addressed at the same time. Furthermore, using hair analysis for handling cases of acute disease or injury is contraindicated. As always, consult your veterinarian for the best approach.
A hair analysis reflects the average metabolism in the body cells over the period it took to grow the length of hair tested, usually about two to three months. We can see nutritional deficits, levels of essential minerals, heavy metal toxicity and important mineral ratios. Comparing the feed intake with the cellular content will shed light on the absorption rate of nutrients. In a nutshell, hair analysis will give you a good impression of your horse’s overall condition even before symptoms show up. Ongoing problems like lack of muscle or energy, lethargy, missing topline, disturbances in the gastrointestinal tract, allergies, coughs, endocrine tendencies, chronic body soreness, tying-up, skin irritations, unusual licking habits, irregular cycles or even frequent ulcers may all have their root in a nutritional and/or mineral imbalance.
HOW IT WORKS About a teaspoon of mane hair is required, approximately ½” long, taken with stainless steel scissors from different parts along the crest, as close to the body as possible. The recent outgrown hair is kept for the sample and the older tips are cut off and discarded. Ideally, the hair should not be shampooed, conditioned or fly-sprayed within the last three days. The sample is sent to the lab where it will be ground up and processed via induction-coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectroscopy. Depending on the provider, it can take a few weeks to get the report back. Quite a few online sources offer hair analysis for a seemingly reasonable amount of money. But the real price factor is that you will either be left on your own with the results, or the advice provided will be drawn from the hair report only. Therefore, it is recommended to choose practitioners who offer hair analysis in conjunction with other methods of evaluation. Two equine-specific practitioners are Equolution (equolution.com), and De Paolo Equine Concepts (depaoloequineconcepts.com). In closing, while hair analysis is not a cure-all or an appropriate diagnostic for acute cases, it can be a good marker for your horse’s current health, and helpful in determining the cause of chronic mystery health challenges. Acknowledgments: My thanks go to Shannon Peters (San Diego, CA), Mark Silverman, DVM (San Diego, CA), Sossiti Gargiulo (Ventura, CA), Trace Elements (Addison Texas), and Jil Beltran (Fallbrook, CA). Dr. Gabi Gross obtained her Equine Veterinary degree in Germany in 1987, and her PhD in Pharmacology and Neuroscience in 1989. She has worked internationally in various equine clinics. Now retired from veterinary practice, Dr. Gross dedicates her time consulting for horse owners on the topics of nutrition, performance and optimum wellness. She is the founder of Equolution®, an educational empowerment concept for equestrians regarding equine health. Dr. Gross can be contacted at firstname.lastname@example.org or 855-409-8500.
4 1 2 3
TOP 4 design tips for your By Clay Nelson
In previous articles, I have mentioned the many benefits of incorporating a dry lot into your environmentally-friendly equine facility. A properly-designed dry lot provides an attractive alternative to stalls. It’s an area where horses can be turned out as a herd to help manage and protect pastures.
SIZE – A general rule of thumb is 400 to 500 square feet per horse. GRADING – Similar to an arena, a dry lot should be graded with a 1% to 4% slope. A completely flat area will not drain water, whereas a slope greater than 4% will make it difficult to maintain footing and won’t provide a flat enough surface for horses to stand for long periods.
STORM WATER RUNOFF MANAGEMENT – Diverting storm water away from the dry lot is critical. The best strategy is to locate the dry lot on high, dry ground; however, this is not always feasible. When grading the dry lot, it is strongly recommended that you also grade a grassed swale or install a French drain system along any areas uphill of the lot to capture and redirect surface water runoff. You will be glad you invested in this feature the first time you get a heavy rain.
FOOTING – Proper footing is another critical factor. Good footing design starts with a properly graded and compacted subbase. A 3” to 6” base layer of crushed rock – either screenings or 1.25” minus crushed rock – works well. The
base should also be compacted, either by machine or by allowing the material to settle for several months. When budgeting for a dry lot with improved footing, it is strongly recommended that you not cut corners on the subbase and base work, since they are critical to long term performance and costly to repair in the future.
The top footing, on the other hand, can be started economically – 1.5” to 2” of sand or screenings is a good place to begin. After a short while, you will get real-world feedback on the performance of your footing to guide you in amending it for any improvements. Is the footing too hard, too dusty, or too slippery? With top footing, it’s much easier to add to than remove and replace. Finally, when selecting footing, ask the quarry for a gradation report, which is a summary of the particle size distribution of the sand or crushed rock footing. This will provide you with important information about the likely performance of the footing. Gradation reports can be difficult to interpret, so you may want to reach out to your local Ag Extension agent or equine facility design expert for assistance.
Clay Nelson is an expert on the planning, design and management of sustainable, eco-friendly equestrian facilities through his organization Sustainable Stables, LLC (SustainableStables.com).
Selenium: By Juliet M. Getty, PhD
facts & myths
WE ARE OFTEN CAUTIONED
ABOUT FEEDING OUR HORSES TOO MUCH SELENIUM, BUT WE RARELY HEAR ABOUT THE BENEFITS OF THIS ESSENTIAL TRACE MINERAL. HERE’S WHY YOUR HORSE NEEDS ADEQUATE SELENIUM IN HIS DIET! Selenium is an essential trace mineral. Essential, meaning it must be in the horse’s diet since his body is not capable of producing it. Trace, because it is required in very small amounts. But don’t let that fool you into thinking selenium has a small role. It’s a major player in many areas of the body, preventing cell damage, protecting the thyroid, and stabilizing immune function.
WHAT ARE YOUR HORSE’S REQUIREMENTS?
NATURAL, WHOLE FOODS LIKE CHIA SEEDS CAN BE A GREAT WAY TO ADD SELENIUM TO YOUR HORSE’S DIET, IF NECESSARY.
According to the National Research Council,1 horses require a minimum of 0.1 mg selenium per 1 kg of dry matter intake (0.1 ppm). This translates into 1 mg of selenium from 10 kg (22 lbs) of total feed intake per day. However, evidence suggests this level is not high enough to protect against oxidative stress,2 and the requirement may be closer to 0.3 ppm per day. Consequently, a safe range for selenium is between 1 and 3 mg per day for a full-sized horse at maintenance. Larger breeds require more, as do working or performing horses – generally up to 5 mg per day. The total amount of selenium in the daily diet should not exceed 0.6 mg/kg of feed. Because of its importance in the diet, selenium is generally added to commercial feeds and supplements. This can be a double-edged sword, benefitting the horse by meeting physiological
needs, while endangering him if dietary levels get too high. To help clarify this dichotomy, let’s take a closer look at what we know about this important nutrient, and what myths have surfaced over the years.
OXIDATIVE STRESS PROTECTION The enzyme family called glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) contains a molecule of selenium as part of its structure. GSHPx scavenges damaging free radicals produced during times of stress. Endurance horses, for example, are subjected to prolonged periods of aerobic activity, making them especially prone to freeradical formation.3 But any form of stress, whether from travel, unfamiliar environments, loss of a buddy, stall confinement, or not being allowed to graze naturally, can induce an oxidative rampage on the body’s tissues, potentially leading to arthritis, allergies, or digestive disturbances. Stress can even damage the brain’s hypothalamus, potentiating the development of equine Cushing’s disease and leptin resistance.
VITAMIN E TEAMWORK Selenium doesn’t protect against oxidative stress alone; instead it teams up with vitamin E. Selenium protects the inside of the cell, while vitamin E guards the polyunsaturated fatty acid component of the exterior cell membrane. Together, they boost overall immune function by neutralizing highly volatile free radicals. Since many vitamin E supplements contain selenium, evaluate the selenium content before adding more.
PROPER THYROID FUNCTION Selenium and iodine work together to promote a healthy thyroid gland. Selenium is a component of iodothyronine
deiodinase enzymes, which are involved in the production of thyroid hormones, specifically the conversion of T4 to T3, of which iodine is a key component. If iodine intake is high while selenium is deficient, thyroid damage can result. Therefore, it is best to maintain iodine and selenium at similar levels. A safe iodine range is between 1 and 5 mg per day. Choose a salt with a guaranteed analysis. Iodized table salt, for example, contains 45 ppm iodine; one ounce (two tablespoons or 28.375 grams) provides 1.28 mg of iodine. Make sure the amount of iodine added to commercially fortified feeds is not excessive and that it is balanced with selenium.
MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT SELENIUM • “If some is good, more is better.” More than 0.6 ppm per day can be detrimental over time. Let’s suppose your horse consumes 30 lbs of feed each day (forage and concentrates combined). At 0.6 mg per kg of feed, that computes to a whopping 8.2 mg of selenium. Look for hair loss along the mane and tail and hoof cracks around the coronary band that can indicate selenium toxicity, because excess selenium replaces the naturally existing sulfur found in hoof and hair protein (keratin). • “All horses require selenium supplementation.” Your decision to add selenium to your horse’s diet should be based on facts. Selenium intake should be calculated from all sources. The only true way to know how much selenium is in your horse’s hay or pasture is to have it tested. Feed companies typically add between 0.5 to 0.6 ppm of selenium. Five pounds of your chosen commercial feed, for example, might provide between 1.14 and 1.36 mg of selenium, which is well within the safe range. But if your
Selenium benefits BETTER VACCINATION RESPONSE Vaccinations challenge the immune system in order to protect against a vast variety of pathogens. Horses receiving adequate selenium have been shown to have higher serum immunoglobulin levels and antibody titers than those fed low selenium diets. If deﬁcient in selenium, the vaccination response will be reduced or delayed.8 BREEDING Selenium helps protect the pregnant mare and her newborn foal in several ways. Pregnant mares receiving adequate selenium have a reduced incidence of abortion and placental retention, and good quality colostrum to protect the newborn foal’s immune response.9 But too much added selenium can lead to orthopedic disease in foals, so it is vital to monitor the mare’s total selenium intake.10 MUSCLE PROTECTION Horses who consume only low selenium hay and/ or pasture can develop white muscle disease. Symptoms include muscle weakness, difﬁculty moving, and respiratory distress. Muscle enzymes creatine kinase (CK) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), as well as serum potassium, can become elevated, potentially leading to tying up episodes.
horse is already consuming plenty of selenium from his hay, this additional amount may be dangerous. • “Insulin resistant horses may have too much selenium in their bodies.” This has been well documented in human nutrition4 and we may find it to be true in horses as research progresses. Selenium tends to be elevated in patients with type II diabetes. The reasons for this are complex. If you have an insulin resistant horse, consider having his selenium level tested and adjust his diet accordingly. • “All selenium supplements are alike.” Read ingredient labels carefully. Selenium is often supplemented either as organic selenium yeast or inorganic sodium selenite. Selenium yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is grown in the presence of selenium, biochemically creating selenoamino acids. Plants naturally contain selenium in this form. Selenium yeast is highly bioavailable and is better retained by the horse’s body than the inorganic form.5 Furthermore, the potential for toxicity is reduced with selenium yeast supplementation because it is bound to amino acids, thereby controlling excessive absorption from the small intestine into the bloodstream. In contrast, sodium selenite is passively absorbed, potentially leading to unregulated uptake of toxic amounts of selenium.6 Natural, whole foods are great ways to add selenium to your horse’s diet. Two foods in particular are high in selenium: Brazil nuts – five nuts contain approximately 0.5 mg selenium. Chia seeds – two ounces contain 0.3 mg selenium.
• “Selenium concentration in plants is consistent within a speciﬁc geographical region.” Within the US, low selenium levels tend to exist in the northeast, the Ohio valley, Florida, and the northwest. Western and eastern provinces of Canada are likely to also be low in selenium. But pockets of high-selenium soils can exist anywhere. Washington State, for example, typically low in selenium, has pockets along the coastline that are high in selenium.7 Mining and industrial waste can contaminate soils and water supplies. When in doubt, test. If you can’t test your hay or pasture, have your horse’s blood tested. It is also risky to assume that hay grown from the same field will always be similar in selenium content. Soil alkalinity and dry conditions can increase the plant’s uptake of selenium. In areas of drought, when the roots search deeper into the soil for water, they encounter more selenium.
BOTTOM LINE Selenium needs vary according to your horse’s health status and activity level. Supplementation is often necessary, keeping in mind that it has a narrow range of safety. Testing your horse’s forage as well as knowing his selenium status will remove the guesswork from planning his diet.
Nutrient Requirements of Horses, Sixth Revised Edition. 2007. National Research Council of National Academies. Washington, D.C.
Brummer, M., Hayes, S., Dawson, K.A., and Lawrence, L.M. 2013. Measures of antioxidant status of the horse in response to selenium depletion and repletion. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 91(5), 2158-2168.
Haggett, E., Magdesian, K.G., Maas, J., Puschner, B., et. al., 2009. Whole blood selenium concentrations in endurance horses. The Veterinary Journal, 186, 192-196.
Steinbrenner, H., Speckmann, B., Pinto, A., & Sies, H. 2011. High selenium intake and increased diabetes risk: experimental evidence for interplay between selenium and carbohydrate metabolism. Journal of Clinical Biochemical Nutrition, 48(1), 40-45.
Kienzle, E., & Zorn, N. 2006. Bioavailability of minerals in the horse. Proceedings of the 3rd European Equine Nutrition & Health Congress, March 17-18, Ghent University, Merelbeke, Belgium.
Reilly, C. 2006. Selenium in Food and Health, Springer Science + Business Media LLC. p. 34. Also, Alltech. 2005. Selenium sources. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 25(1), 35-36.
Brummer, M., Hayes, S., McCown, S.M., Adams.A.A., and Horohove. D.W. 2011. Selenium depletion reduces vaccination response in horses. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 31(5), 230-356.
Lovoie, J.P. 2000. Selenium deficiency abortion. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 20(5). 322.
Breuer, L.H., & Langer, D., 2015. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 35, 400-417.
Juliet M. Getty, Ph.D. is an independent equine nutritionist with a wide U.S. and international following. Her research-based approach optimizes equine health by aligning physiology and instincts with correct feeding and nutrition practices. Author of the comprehensive resource book, Feed Your Horse Like a Horse and the topic-centered Spotlight on Equine Nutrition series, available through her website GettyEquineNutrition.com.
The dirt on bentonite clay By Chris Richardson Bentonite clay is an all natural product with amazing healing properties! It can be used both internally and externally to draw toxins from the body. Its highly absorptive qualities are derived from its negative ionic charge, which attract positively charged particles (such as bacteria and toxins) and eliminate them from the body. It is one of the most effective natural intestinal detoxifying agents available and has been recognized as such for centuries. BENTONITE BENEFITS In recent times bentonite clay has been gaining popularity for internal and external detoxification for good reason. It contains minerals that once inside the gastrointestinal tract, are able to absorb toxins and deliver mineral nutrients to an impressive degree. Once hydrated, bentonite clay has an enormous surface area. It acts similar to a highly porous sponge. The toxins are drawn into the spaces by electrical attraction and are bound together. Bentonite clay can be used externally as a poultice for wound care and skin irritations such as insect bites, cuts or burns. Many animals will turn to eating dirt and clay to help remove poisons from their system or during times of illness or distress. There have been many cases where bentonite clay has helped horses with stomach ulcers, digestive upset (diarrhea) and hoof abscesses. Bentonite clay also provides many health benefits for people!
Chris and Roger Richardson are the owners of The Holistic Horse and have been providing all-natural and holistic animal healthcare products since 1998. They are passionate and committed to providing the best products and helping all types of animals achieve optimal health. theholistichorse.com
Healthy holiday treats By Audi Donamor
The festive season doesn’t have to be about overindulgence – here is a recipe your horses will love, and it’s good for them, too!
The seasons are changing. Thoughts are turning to holiday fun with family and friends, and that includes preparing something extra special for your horse. Take a look at the ingredient list for this holiday treat recipe. Not only are these goodies tasty, but the ingredients were chosen for their “wellness” profile. This recipe mixes up in a flash, and can be prepared as a biscuit or truffle, but beware – everyone is going to be dipping into the cookie jar!
Ingredients 1 cup raw almond ﬂour
stal 1 teaspoon Himalayan cry ice salt or a sea salt of your cho on 2 teaspoons Saigon cinnam ar or 1 tablespoon coconut sug other sweetener (optional) 1 cup apples, grated
1 cup apple butter or app sauce 1 cup carrots, grated
1 teaspoon vanilla bean extract, in glycerin
ts whenever possible.
Choose organic ingredien
4 cups rolled oats
1 tablespoon camelina oil
edges with parchment Cover a cookie sheet to the paper. 6°C) on the convection Preheat oven to 350°F (17 setting. a large mixing bowl. Combine all ingredients in t to the edges, and pat Press into cookie sheet, righ ing spoon or fork. down with the back of a mix
. Lightly score before baking time remains the same if the Bake for 30 minutes. (The ilable.) convection setting is not ava (135°C) on the convection Turn down oven to 275°F re minutes. If the setting, and bake for 30 mo ilable, bake for 45 convection setting is not ava minutes. w the biscuits to cool Turn the oven off and allo ng from the oven. ovi rem ore bef completely open container, or Biscuits can be stored in an packaged for gift giving.
If you would like a biscuit with extra crunch, turn down oven to 200°F (93°C) following the second baking, bake biscuits for another hour, and allow to completely cool in the oven, even overnight, before storing. This recipe can also be prepared as trufﬂes. Simply take small pieces of mix, roll into small balls, and place on the parchment-covered cookie sheet. Bake for 15 minutes in preheated 350°F (176°C) oven. Allow to cool completely before storing. The human members of your family may also want to eat these nutrient power-packed treats!
See ingredient info on page 22. Equine Wellness
Info on ingredients
Fairly new to the scene is Camelina sativa, whose seeds are similar to flax in appearance and properties. Camelina is often referred to as “Gold of Pleasure”. It’s an ancient oilseed crop, a member of the Brassicaceae family that’s native to Northern Europe and Central Asia. Its oil has a very long shelf life and is not prone to rancidity thanks to its naturally high levels of vitamin E. It is a rich source of Omega 3 and 6 essential fatty acids. Camelina seeds are high in phytosterols, including campesterol, which helps prevent inflammation to cartilage, and stigmasterol, a potent antioxidant that helps reduce cholesterol and blood glucose levels. It is interesting to note that camelina oil has a high smoke point of 475°F (246°C) degrees, which makes it great for baking.
Oats are a strength-giving cereal. They support the digestive tract, including the cleansing of impurities from the intestines, and are also good for the nervous system. Oats are low in starch and high in minerals, especially potassium and phosphorus. They contain calcium, magnesium, are rich in B vitamins, and are a very good source of iron.
HIMALAYAN CRYSTAL SALT
Himalayan crystal salt has been called the purest salt on earth. It is sundried, with no heat processing. The salt itself is 250 million years old, and is completely uncontaminated by toxins and pollutants. It contains 84 naturally-occurring trace minerals and elements.
Almonds contain the entire vitamin E family, the B vitamins, copper, manganese, magnesium and zinc, and are a rich source of bioflavonoids. The magnesium found in almonds helps support our horses’ immune systems by producing “happy” chemicals in the brain. As a result, horses become more resilient during stressful times, because their nerves and muscles are more relaxed. Almonds are a great choice for metabolic horses, because they are low on the glycemic index.
Audi Donamor spent her childhood and early teenage years riding horses right beside her dad. She is the founder of The Smiling Blue Skies Cancer Fund, part of the University of Guelph’s Pet Trust, and has been working voluntarily with special needs companion animals for nearly 20 years. She is the proud recipient of a Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee medal, and the only two-time recipient of the Silmaril Kennel Trophy for the human/animal bond. While Audi can no longer ride horses, she still “treats” them well and often! smilingblueskies.com 22
Cinnamon is one of the world’s most important spices. Its history can be traced back to ancient Egypt. Ancient Chinese herbal references cite cinnamon’s use as early as 2700 BC, when it was recommended for the treatment of nausea, fever and diarrhea. Native Americans used cinnamon for a variety of ailments, and to freshen breath. Cinnamon is recognized as an energizing herb, and is good for kidney problems and even lung conditions. It is also a carminative and used as a digestive tonic.
Carrots are one of the kingpins of the vegetable patch. They are powerhouses of nutrition, and contain pro-vitamin A, beta carotene, vitamins B, C, D, E and K, riboflavin, niacin, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, sodium, iron, magnesium, manganese, sulfur, copper and iodine. The old axiom that carrots are good for the eyes is not a myth. They contain lycopene and lutein, protective phytonutrients that protect the eye from UVB radiation and damage from free radicals. Carrots also support the immune system and aid digestion, and are recognized as a glandular tonic.
Red apples are a rich source of antioxidants. They are heart smart, and a diet rich in red apples may help in our battle against cancer by inhibiting the growth of cancer cells. Red apples are a rich source of vitamin C, calcium, chlorine, fluorine, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, silicon, sodium and sulfur. They also contain trace minerals and are a valuable source of phytochemicals, lycopene and anthocyanins.
Holiday GIFT GUIDE
Speciiasilng advertture fea
GIVE THE GIFT OF HEALING TO YOUR FAVORITE HORSE LOVER!
Reduce inﬂammation, treat sore muscles, heal soft tissue injuries, reduce healing time, increase circulation and relieve pain with the power of light. Available in three sizes, add a rechargeable battery pack and use it anywhere!
EXCEPTIONAL SLOW FEED HAY BAGS Hay Pillow® Inc. offers bags for use on the ground, hanging and horse trailer mangers including a bag designed speciﬁcally for miniature horses! Available in 5 mesh sizes. Give your beloved equine the Xmas gift that keeps on giving…….hay!
GIFT YOUR ANIMAL’S SUPERIOR HEALTH!
NAG Bags, the Original Slow Hay Feeder, wants to help you with your winter chores. Using a NAG Bag will eliminate hay wastage, reduce time taken to feed, and provide a healthier & more natural atmosphere for your animals; all while combating limited feeding health issues. Variety of bags available in 1, 1.5 and 2 inch netting.
VITAL TREATS FOR DOGS
SUPPORT FOR YOUR HORSE’S NEEDS & LIFESTYLE
Over 90% of horse owners have dogs, and many consider them family. Give the gift of health, with VE Freeze-Dried Vital Treats. Made with fresh, whole, single-sourced USDA meats, they provide delicious, essential nutrition that dogs instinctively crave. Grain Free, Gluten Free, Guilt Free! Go to VitalEssentialsRaw.com/wellness to receive a FREE sample.
Horses graze on shrubs, grasses & weeds. Digestive enzymes help with breaking down food into micro particles so nutrients can be better absorbed. When your horse assimilates what he eats, bioavailable nutrients produce a stronger body. RITEZYME™ Equine regular or Active Formula supports your horse’s needs & lifestyle.
Ritezyme.com 877-751-8322 Equine Wellness
Ayurveda By Theresa Gilligan
for your horse
This ages-old therapy focuses on each equine as an individual.
“What is Ayurveda?” This is the number one question I get asked, and answering it is particularly special to me. Treating horses “naturally” (the essence of Ayurveda) is a practice that’s gradually resurfacing as horse-loving men and women embrace the fundamental values of alternative medicine, treatments and training.
The fundamental goal of Ayurveda is to help each person discover a personal knowledge of wellness and longevity through physical, emotional and spiritual balance. The term Ayurveda was derived from Sanskrit – Ayur means life or longevity and veda means knowledge or wisdom.
A NEW AGE FOR EQUINE THERAPY
According to Ayurveda teaching, there are three primary forces or biological humors in the body called “doshas”. The doshas bind together the five elements: space, air, fire, water and earth. The tri-doshas are Vata, Pitta and Kapha.
With these values, we head out of the Piscean Age, which ruled for more than 2,200 years, and into the Age of Aquarius, marked by the Mayan calendar. Yes, folks! The much-touted “end of the world” was not some great apocalyptic event, but merely the transition from one astrological house to another. The Piscean Age represented money, power and control, while the transition into Aquarius highlights the values of love, unity, integrity, and a “back to roots” approach to nature. Thus, our progress is marked not just by improvements in science and technology, but by a use of alternative approaches as well. This new age is a rather exciting journey for those of us who are horse enthusiasts. It’s like shopping in a new catalogue of goods. This “catalogue”, if you will, led me to the path of Ayurveda, a complete ages-old medicinal system established in India more than 5,000 years ago.
AYURVEDIC MEDICINE Ayurveda can actually get quite complicated, so let me condense it slightly. Simply put, Ayurveda supports the balance of mind, body and soul via plant-based medicine; a touch component such as massage, acupuncture or Reiki; and nutrition. In Ayurvedic medicine, the key word is balance – between body, mind and spirit. Health, therefore, is defined as soundness of body (sharira), mind (manas), and self or soul (atman). Each of these must be nurtured if the individual, human or animal, is to enjoy health. 24
THE THREE DOSHAS
Many people understand the concept of following a nutritional system and lifestyle based on their body type, personality or even blood type. Animals are no different, and according to Ayurvedic principles, these “types” are separated into three (or a variation of the three). There are substantial differences between Vata, Pitta and Kapha doshas, from physical characteristics to their accompanying personalities. Each dosha represents specific areas of the body and is governed by its own functional, structural and mental energy.
HOW IT WORKS If you decide to pursue Ayurveda for your horse, an initial assessment is done – a practitioner would evaluate a few factors, such as heart rate and tongue characteristics. Upon identifying the horse’s dosha, a wellness plan would be implemented to maintain balance; or, if there is an existing issue, the source of the ailment would be identified and a course of treatment undertaken. Treatment addresses nutrition specific to the horse’s dosha, as well as herbal medicine and a form of physical therapy (i.e. massage, Bowen). The benefits of Ayurveda over other therapies is the realization that we are individuals. For example, Pittas are very hot by
BODY – Lean and refined, small frames, ﬂat chests, visible muscles, veins and tendons, rough, dry cracked skin, active eyes. PERSONALITY – Lack of determination, tendency to mental instability and sensitivity to tolerance, confidence or boldness. Vata horses are nervous, fearful at times, and afﬂicted by anxiety. Quick mental understanding, but just as quick to forget. WELLNESS – Displays hypertension, earaches, anxiety, irregular heart rhythms, muscle spasms, lower back pain, constipation, abdominal gas, diarrhea, nervous stomach and arthritis.
BODY – Medium physique, strong, well-built. Coat is soft and warm, shows a medium prominence of veins and muscle tendons, strong metabolism, good digestion resulting in a strong appetite. PERSONALITY – Shows good comprehension; intelligence and sharpness. Also displays emotional tendencies toward hate, anger and jealousy. Is competitive, enjoys a challenge, is easily irritated if made to miss or wait for a meal. Is also assertive, self-confident, aggressive, demanding, and pushy when out of balance. WELLNESS – Displays rashes or inﬂammations of the skin, acne, boils, skin cancer, ulcers, heartburn, acid stomach, hot sensations in the stomach or intestines, insomnia, bloodshot or burning eyes and other vision problems, anemia and jaundice.
BODY – Physique is strong with a heavy build, and a tendency to carry extra weight. Chests are expanded and broad. Movement is slow and graceful. Features include large soft eyes, and a coat that is thick, dark and soft. Enjoys a good appetite. PERSONALITY – Affectionate and loving, forgiving, compassionate, non-judgmental. Stable and reliable, faithful, calm, strives to maintain peace, possessive. WELLNESS – Suffers from colds and congestion, respiratory problems including asthma and wheezing, hay fever, allergies, and atherosclerosis. Has issues concerning chest, throat, head, sinuses, nose, mouth, stomach, joints, cytoplasm, plasma, and in the liquid secretions of the body, such as mucus.
nature – internal temperatures rise, and they can get fierytempered as a result. Cold foods and herbs like peppermint and chicory are great to extinguish the “heat”. Vatas and Kaphas are cold by nature, prone to circulation issues, and warming herbs and hot mashes are welcomed and of huge benefit. This is a very simple description of the Ayurvedic medical system. However, this introduction will hopefully open your
heart and mind to what is renowned as a scientific, clinically proven, natural health system.
Theresa Gilligan has been involved in riding and training horses for over 25 years, including racing and breeding Thoroughbreds. She also has over 14 years in the financial industry and degrees in International Business. She has dedicated the last five years to researching alternative medicinal practices, with a specific focus on Ayurveda. Neachai (Neachai.ca) is the first Equine Ayurvedic-specific alternative practice in North America.
IT’S ELEMENTAL NUTRITION and your horse’s temperament type Throughout the year, we have covered each of the five equine temperament types (Fire, Earth, Metal, Water and Wood). Hopefully, you were able to find one that resonated with your particular horse. You may be asking, however, why I should go to all the trouble of temperament typing. The number one reason is to develop a feeding program for your horse that will allow him to be as healthy as possible and reach his full potential. When looking at a group of horses who are all fed the same, have you ever wondered why some are fat and healthy while others are struggling with dull coats, poor hooves, frequent infections or any number of other ailments? There’s a reason why not all horses thrive on the same feeding program. You see, each temperament type has unique nutritional needs. This individual nutritional need goes way past whether a horse is an easy keeper or not. Different temperament types have different needs for protein, fat, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and even pre- or probiotics. Let me give you a few examples of how you can use nutrition to support the organs associated with each of the five elements:
FIRE – The
organs are the heart and small intestine. The heart benefits from the bitter flavors found in blue-green algae and alfalfa hay. The small intestine needs prebiotics to create the proper environment to digest protein and absorb minerals.
EARTH – The
organs are the spleen and stomach. The spleen benefits from foods with sweet flavor, such as beet pulp or a small quantity of oats. The stomach enjoys the help of digestive enzymes.
METAL – The
organs are the lung and large intestine. The lung benefits from the pungent
flavors found in garlic or ginger. The large intestine needs quality fat, such as chia seeds, to support its population of bifidus-type fiberdigesting bacteria.
WATER – The
organs are the kidney and bladder. These are not digestive organs but they contribute to the body’s ability to remove leftover waste from the digestive process. The kidney benefits from the salty flavor found in kelp, and the extra minerals in blue-green algae or alfalfa hay. The bladder will function best when probiotics, including acidophilus, are fed regularly.
WOOD – The
organs are the liver and gallbladder (while horses do not have an actual gallbladder that stores bile, in TCM when we refer to a gallbladder we are relating to the portion of the liver that produces bile). Both these organs contribute greatly to digestion. The liver is critical for proper carbohydrate metabolism and the gallbladder secretes the bile needed for fat digestion. The liver benefits from the sour flavor found in apple cider vinegar, and the gallbladder responds well to dandelion root. Hopefully, you can see how typing your horse can give you the opportunity to support his health in a very meaningful way. These few examples are for maintaining health, but when you know your horse’s temperament type you can also use nutrition to treat ailments.
Dr. Madalyn Ward is trained in Veterinary Homeopathy, Acupuncture, Bowen Therapy, Network Chiropractic and Equine Osteopathy. Memberships include the American Veterinary Medical Association, American Association of Equine Practitioners and American Holistic Veterinary Medical Association. She has authored three books – Holistic Horsekeeping, Horse Harmony, Understanding Horse Types & Temperaments and Horse Harmony Five Element Feeding Guide. Her website, horsetemperament.com, offers balancing formulas for the different personality types. 26
P ilates for RIDERS
Feeling stiff, weak or limited in your riding? Your fitness is just as important as your horse’s! This total body approach to movement can be helpful for equestrians of all disciplines. By Beth Glosten, MD
ore than ever, the equestrian community recognizes that horseback riding involves two athletes – the horse and the rider. Books, articles and advice on rider fitness are commonplace. It’s understood that a fit rider experiences less fatigue, is less likely to be injured, and can enhance the horse’s performance. The Pilates system of exercise is well suited to develop and improve riding skills.
A BIT OF HISTORY Joseph Pilates developed the Pilates exercise system in the 1910s during World War I. A German national, Mr. Pilates created his exercise program to support the health of fellow World War I internees in England. Later, as a hospital orderly, he incorporated the variable resistance of springs into rehabilitation programs for patients. He translated the use of springs into machines and created the unique equipment now seen in today’s Pilates studios. Mr. Pilates immigrated to the United States in the late 1920s and established a studio in New York City. Initially, the dance community was its primary clientele. But the popularity of Pilates grew and
studios started popping up all over. Today there are over 30,000 studios nationwide.
WHAT IS PILATES? What makes Pilates unique is its total body approach to movement. It gives you balance, strength and flexibility. Breathing is emphasized, and the deep postural muscles of the abdomen and back are called upon in all the exercises to stabilize the body and create fluid, graceful movement. Body awareness is important – it’s not just about doing the exercise, but about how you do it. The movements require deep focus and concentration for coordinating the entire body. All these skills and principles lay a foundation for good riding. Posture, postural support, and body awareness and control are practiced in the relatively quiet environment of the studio (as compared to on horseback!). As a result, the rider can solidly develop these tools so they are available in the saddle.
BENEFITS FOR EQUESTRIANS To ride well, a rider must stay balanced on a (sometimes unpredictably!) moving horse. Balance is most efficiently accomplished when the rider is in good posture, with the bones of the spine in their correct (or neutral spine) alignment (Figure 1). If the spine is not in good alignment, other muscles must compensate, resulting in unnecessary tension (usually in either the muscles of the shoulder girdle, Equine Wellness
Pelvic Rocking Front-to-Back Learn to control the position of your pelvis with your abdominal and back muscles. 1. Sit upright, in neutral spine alignment, on an exercise ball with your feet flat on the floor, hip joint width apart (Photo 1). Your shoulders should be aligned over your pelvis and your seat bones pointing
downward. 2. Take an easy inhale breath, and as you exhale, scoop in your abdominal muscles to rock your pelvis into a tuck, pointing your seat bones toward your heels and rounding your lower back (Photo 2). Allow your shoulders to follow the movement; do not lean back. 3. Inhale and use your deep back muscles to rock your pelvis back so there is a slight arch in your spine and your seat bones point toward the back of the ball (Photo 3).
4. Exhale and tuck your pelvis under again, and inhale to point your seat bones behind you. 5. Rock back and forth between these positions six to eight times, gradually settling to the middle of the movement, in neutral spine alignment.
Concentrate on using your torso muscles to move your pelvis front and back. Try not to use your leg muscles to move your pelvis. This exercise should help you feel grounded with your weight centered over your pelvis, efficiently balanced on the exercise ball.
and/or the hip joint). Maintaining good posture while the horse is moving requires activity in the deep muscles of the abdomen (transversus abdominus and the internal and external obliques) and the back (multifidi) to preserve correct alignment of the spine. This allows the rider to stay in self-carriage, balanced over the middle of the horse, and moving with the horse. Suppleness of the shoulder, and minimal gripping with the legs, is then possible. Essentially all the Pilates exercises teach access to and function of the deep muscles of the abdomen and back to support posture and efficient balance. Some directly strengthen the muscles of the â&#x20AC;&#x153;coreâ&#x20AC;?, while others challenge the ability of these muscles to maintain alignment during movement of the legs or arms. These approaches are both valuable to riding. The rider develops sufficient muscle connection and strength to stay in good posture and balance on the moving horse, and the use of an arm or leg aid does not disrupt this balance. Many Pilates exercises also work on developing balance in the muscles of the shoulder and hip joints to promote maximal range of motion. For example, many of us are tight in the muscles that pull the shoulder forward. This can lead to a rounded upper back and poor posture. Pilates exercises for the shoulder help strengthen the muscles that pull the shoulder back, and stretch the tight muscles in front of the shoulder. Similarly, some riders struggle with tension in the hip flexor muscles (muscles that pull Continued on page 30.
Pelvic Rocking Side-to-Side
The purpose of the pelvic rocking exercise is to learn what the different positions of the pelvis feel like, and to learn to use the torso muscles (back and abdominal muscles) to adjust the lateral position of the pelvis.
1. Sit on an exercise ball in neutral alignment, feet in front of you, flat on the floor. 2. Place your hands on your waist: this helps you feel the trunk muscles engage during the exercise (Photo 1). 3. L ift up the right side of your pelvis, engaging the trunk muscles on the right side, while allowing your weight to sink onto your left seat bone (Photo 2). Imagine that you are shortening the distance between your armpit and pelvis on your right side. 4. Come back to start position, and repeat on your left side (Photo 3). Do eight to ten swings side to side.
Most have one side for which this exercise is straightforward (the strong side), and one side for which it is not (the weaker side). Feel what happens on the easy side. Try to duplicate this on the other side. Be careful not to shift your shoulders to the side or twist your body. The motion is a small side-to-side movement of your pelvis by the trunk muscles, like a swinging pendulum. Try not to use your gluteal muscles or other leg muscles to move your pelvis. Keep your feet flat on the floor.
Leg (or Knee) Circles 1
Leg circles challenge you to differentiate movement at the hip joint from movement at the spine. Leg circles also improve spine stability and suppleness in the hip joint muscles. If you are unable to keep spine stability doing the leg circles, bend your leg and make the circles with your knee. 1. Lie on the floor, knees bent, feet flat on the floor hip joint width apart. 2. On an exhale breath, and while keeping a neutral spine, lift your right knee toward your chest. Straighten your right leg as much as possible while keeping neutral
spine alignment. Straighten your left leg flat on the mat (Photo 1). 3. On the next exhale breath, move the right leg in a circle left, going across the left thigh (Photo 2), down toward the floor, and slightly out to the right side (Photo 3). Inhale as you return your leg to the start position. 4. Do six circles in each direction. 5. Repeat with your left leg (or knee).
Use your trunk muscles to keep your pelvis and rib cage stable, unaffected by your leg movement. Do not allow your pelvis or torso to rock side to side as your leg moves; do not allow your rib cage to lift off the floor. Place your hands on the sides of your pelvis to feel if your pelvis is rocking during the circles. You’ll find it particularly challenging to maintain pelvic stability as your leg circles out to the side. The leg (or knee) circle exercises allow you to feel what it is like to have a stable torso and a mobile hip joint with suppleness in these strong leg muscles. Adjust your circle size to keep your pelvis stable while you move your leg (smaller circles are easier). Focus on feeling the stability of your pelvis with coordinated movement of your leg, as you should when riding.
Continued from page 28.
the knee up in the saddle). This contributes to an arched posture. Pilates exercises can help strengthen the core to support correct posture, and balance the muscles of the hip joint so the hip flexor muscles do not dominate. Sound principles of movement and balance important for riding are taught in some of the simplest exercises of the Pilates system. Don’t underestimate the benefits of simple (but not easy!) exercises that support the deep postural muscles of the trunk, awareness of neutral alignment, and suppleness at the shoulder and hip joints. Enjoy this total body program that enhances body awareness, organization, balance, posture and body control.
Beth Glosten, MD is a certified Pilates instructor through the Pilates Method Alliance. She is also a “certified” dressage geek: she is a graduate of the USDF “L” judge training program, and has earned her USDF Bronze, Silver and Gold medals. Beth owns and operates RiderPilates, LLC in Redmond, WA where she provides mindful Pilates-based exercise group classes and private Pilates sessions. She also 30
teaches rider position-focused riding lessons and clinics. Beth’s book The Riding Doctor – A Prescription for Healthy, Balanced, Beautiful Riding, Now and for Years to Come is available through Horse and Rider books (horseandriderbooks.com). Her exercise DVD, Ride in Balance with RiderPilates, is available through her website at riderpilates.com.
HEADS UP! FORMULA FOR SKIN IRRITATIONS
Sturtevant’s Veterinary Remedies Large Animal Formulation is used to treat many skin irritations affecting horses. This multipurpose antiseptic powder is specially formulated to destroy harmful bacterial and fungicidal infection. The non-irritating product is safe to use and highly effective in creating a dry, clean surface that promotes the healing process. It is ideal for treating rain rot, thrush, galls, minor cuts and abrasions, burns, cracked heels, and inflammation.
Search for the best equine insurance protection possible to restore you in the event of a loss. When you have mortality insurance on the life of your horse, consider adding major medical, surgical and/or colic endorsements to the policy. With ever-changing eligibility requirements, you need to know what your options are. Seek the guidance of an equine insurance specialist when applying for coverage best suited to your needs.
Slow feeding is quickly being accepted as a commonsense way to feed horses, as it comes closer to how nature intended. This healthier system regulates feed consumption while making sure feed is continually available. It reduces waste, herd issues, and health problems. We use commercial grade black impregnated knotless nylon webbing on all our products. We now use 3/8” braided nylon rope on all our bags. Custom sizes are available.
A horse’s performance is defined by the health and power of each cell in his body. Veterinarians and nutritionists on Equolution’s research team found that stabled horses lack essential enzymes for absorption. Enzymes are naturally found in fresh green grass. Cell analysis has shown that feed and supplements do not fully reach the cells unless enzymes are added to each meal. The consequences of missing enzymes are digestive problems or lack of top line or performance. Equolution’s powerful answer for your horse is this 4-in-1 full spectrum Vitamin-Enzyme Formula at only $1.10/day.
SlowFeedNetting.com Equine Wellness
Photo courtesy of Lesley Deutsch/Blue Fountain Photography
haven for hope
This organization is celebrating 20 YEARS of helping horses in need – to date, their work has benefitted over 1,000 GRATEFUL EQUINES! 32
By Cori Madrigal
His eyes told the story as he stood, nearly 500 pounds underweight, in an empty field. Safe Haven Horse Rescue had been called about the skeletal horse, situated in a town just south of their sanctuary in Cottonwood, California. Many passersby had called Animal Control about him, but the local agencies’ hands were tied since he did have hay and water. But it was obvious his owners wouldn’t or couldn’t take proper care of him, so Safe Haven agreed, not for the first time, to take on the job of caring for and loving an extremely emaciated horse who would become known as Buddy.
20 YEARS OF RESCUE Linda Richards is the founder of Safe Haven. She launched the rescue in 1995 after attending a horse auction. She saw a huge need for helping horses find homes, and pledged her life to doing just that. Safe Haven Horse Rescue is a 501(c)(3) non-profit that gives immediate shelter to horses in need. Each animalâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s condition is assessed on arrival, and their medical, farrier, dental and nutritional needs addressed, along with their need for shelter, security and love. Volunteers rehabilitate the horses and try to find them lifelong, loving homes. The rescue is also a sanctuary where many of the horses live out their lives.
SUBSCRIB MAGAZIN E TO EQUINE WELL NE E 25% OF E AND WE WILL DO SS NATE VERY SUB SC THE SAFE HAVEN H RIPTION TO ORSE RES CUE. USE CO
Some of the rescued horses come from situations of abuse, starvation or abandonment. Many are from Animal Control agencies up and down the west coast, while others arrive healthy and beautiful, ending up at the rescue only because their owners are struggling with health or financial problems. Safe Haven has also taken in and rehomed many horses rescued from kill pens. All have different backgrounds, breeds and ages, and each has his or her own story.
Safe Haven Horse Rescue in Northern California is dedicated to changing the lives of neglected and abused horses, or those needing a soft place to land. Our cover horse, River (above right), was rescued from a kill pen in Nevada.
Photo courtesy of Michael Killingbeck / Full Gallop Photography
Continued on page 34.
Buddy, an older Arabian gelding, was hundreds of pounds underweight when he arrived at Safe Haven. With the proper care he has regained his zest for life!
Continued from page 33.
HOW YOU CAN HELP Safe Haven is run entirely by volunteers and supported by donations and fundraisers. The costs involved in running such a large facility for rescued horses are astronomical, and cannot be done without the financial support of caring people and businesses. The chores are endless, but at the end of the day, when the volunteers say goodnight, what they see in the horses’ eyes makes the long hours worth it. There is always a need for all types of volunteers at a rescue ranch like this – the work includes assessments, medical care, training, cleaning stalls, ranch and tractor work, grooming, fundraising, marketing, grant writing and more! And there are many future projects in the works, such as building barns and pastures, which require strong, capable volunteers!
Safe Haven offers adoption, foster and sponsorship programs. Horses available for foster are older, have special needs or some minimal soundness issues. They are looking to live out their lives at home where they are loved and cared for. They make great pasture buddies or light riding horses.
Adults and children alike can discover the wonders of horsemanship through Safe Haven’s sponsorship program. Sponsorship is wonderful because it gives people who might not otherwise have access to horses the ability to learn to care for a horse and his environment, and to groom, ride, and love him all they want. The horse stays at the ranch and is fed and cared for by volunteers.
Even if you can’t volunteer, you can help the horses at Safe Haven Horse Rescue in many other ways. The organization is always looking for good foster homes for one or more horses. They also rely greatly on donations (whether in the form of funds, supplies, or items they can auction off) in order to continue to do the work they are so passionate about.
Safe Haven is also working on starting several programs with local veterans groups, including the Wounded Warrior Project. We feel that horses are very healing and people of all backgrounds benefit greatly by working with them.
And what happened to Buddy? Under the watchful eye of volunteers and local veterinarians, he blossomed after arriving at Safe Haven, gaining over 400 pounds during his full recovery! You can see in the photos with this article how being loved and cared for has breathed life back into those eyes. Buddy now runs and rolls in the arena, and enjoys all the attention he gets from the volunteers! He will live out his life in sanctuary at Safe Haven and will never face those frightening days again. People from all over the world have visited with Buddy to see with their own eyes the life and love he now has in his. SafeHavenHorseRescue.org Safe Haven Horse Rescue and Sanctuary
Photo courtesy of Safe Haven Volunteer
Photo courtesy of Lesley Deutsch/Blue Fountain Photography
Buddy will live out his life at Safe Haven but is available for sponsoring, which includes the opportunity to visit with Buddy and help groom and care for him.
River is available for adoption through Lesley Deutsch and Safe Haven Horse Rescue. Check out River’s blog (riversjourneybff. blogspot.ca) for details.
Cori Madrigal became a volunteer at Safe Haven Horse Rescue after moving into the Cottonwood area in 2007. She had grown up with horses in Portola Valley, CA and always wanted to give her children the same wonderful memories that she had as a child. Cori became very passionate about the work that Safe Haven does and dug deeper into the organization, becoming a board member and fundraiser coordinator, writing newsletters, doing the marketing, oﬃce management and ultimately becoming the owner of three of Safe Haven’s rescued horses!
PRODUCT PICKS COLD WEATHER SUPPORT
Winter Stable Blend is a low-NSC blend of warming herbs including ginger, cinnamon and licorice. The blend contains added Echinacea and ginger for immune support, chamomile for calming, yarrow and meadowsweet to help reduce inflammation and body aches, parsley to support the kidneys, dandelion and hawthorn for hoof health, and peppermint and spearmint to help prevent some gas colics. Available in 8oz and 1lb sizes – a great Christmas gift! Special orders of larger sizes available upon request.
A premium, power-packed blend of antioxidant-protected essential fats that provide highly sought-after EPA and DHA to support brain and nervous system function. This concentrated ratio of four-parts Omega-3 fats to one-part Omega-6 fats also provides unsurpassed support for a shiny healthy coat, strong solid hooves, and top performance. Excellent, highly palatable support for joint and muscle discomfort, maintains healthy skin and eyes, and helps immune and endocrine systems. Powerful support for mares and foals in gestation, lactation and growth. Available in oil and powder.
IMPROVE RECOVERY TIME
PUREFORM AirFLOW (Equine Cough and Breathing Aid) is designed to help open the upper respiratory and nasal passages for better air flow and wind capability. Recent testing on racehorses, barrel racers and chronic coughers has shown positive responses in the relief of minor bronchial congestions, throat irritations and coughs associated with minor upper respiratory tract issues or mild bronchial irritations. AirFLOW contains menthol, eucalyptus, potassium iodide, herbal extracts and glycerin for a smooth tasty liquid with no sugar.
By supplementing with Recovery®EQ, veterinarians and horsepeople alike safely and effectively prevent and reverse many lameness-related conditions while improving the quality and rate of recovery after trauma. It contains Nutricol®, a proprietary mix of proven ingredients purified from grapes, and green tea (decaffeinated). Nutricol® decreases trauma – from chronic lameness, surgery, injury and over-training – by both increasing cellular resistance to damage and improving the cells’ ability to repair damage. Recovery®EQ will not test and so is safe to use with any performance horse.
Does your horse need to
DETOX? Detox diets are all the rage for people, so it’s no surprise we’re considering them for horses too. Let’s look at when your horse might beneﬁt from toxin elimination, and how it can be done. By Erin Zamzow, DVM
You’ve probably heard of all the different detoxing regimes people use in their mission for better health – juice cleanses, colon cleanses, the Master Cleanse. But how often do we think about addressing toxic buildup in our horses?
TOXIC BEFORE BIRTH In the past, our concerns regarding toxin exposure were limited primarily to acute poisoning. Not anymore. Chemicals have been released into the environment at an alarming rate since the beginning of the post-WWII technology boom, with no burden on industry to prove such substances are safe. Exposure to many of these substances is unavoidable – air, water and food all contain levels of toxins, and there are also the chemicals we inject, apply or orally dose our horses with. These chemicals begin accumulating before a horse is born; they cross the placental barrier and affect developing fetuses. Mammalian milk continues to channel these toxins into young growing foals, until eventually a “body burden” is created that is impossible for the body to overcome with the usual detoxification pathways.
COMMON SOURCES OF TOXIN EXPOSURE Our animals are exposed to many of the same chemicals we are, and their ability to manage this toxic load easily becomes overwhelmed. Let’s look at common sources of exposure for our animals and ourselves: 36
AIR Billions of tons of chemicals are put into the air every year, including mercury, sulfates and nitrates from coal-fired power plants in the US. Airborne toxins from Asia and other countries travel the jet stream, eventually settling onto virtually every continent and ending up in food crops, groundwater and soil. Health effects from toxins in the air can include damage to the immune and neurological systems. There is also evidence that airborne toxics such as DDT, mercury and dioxins may affect hormonal (endocrine) systems by mimicking or blocking the action of natural hormones.
FEED Heavy metals can reduce the body’s ability to absorb essential nutrients such as calcium, magnesium and zinc, eventually leading to problems with immune function, muscle contraction, energy production, and bone repair. Horses are exposed to heavy metals in fertilizers (recycled sewage sludge) that end up in feed products, fungicides and pesticides used on hay and grain crops.
WATER Studies done by the Environmental Working Group on contaminants in tap water showed that in 42 states, some 260 contaminants were detected in public water supplies, 140 of which were unregulated chemicals. Arsenic is a common groundwater contaminant, especially in the Western United States, and is commonly used in pressure-treated lumber. It is linked to cancer and neurological disorders.
PLASTICS Some plastics can leach out endocrine disruptors such as bisphenol A. Phthalate, another endocrine disruptor, is used to soften plastic. Horses can be exposed to plastics in feed and water containers, stall toys, tack, and products you may apply to your horseâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s body.
Our animals are exposed to many of the same chemicals we are, and their ability to manage this toxic load easily becomes overwhelmed.
GROOMING PRODUCTS & SPRAYS The products we put on our horses often contain sodium lauryl sulfate, phthalates, parabens, triclosan (often used in antibacterial products) or preservatives. These go directly on the animalâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s skin and penetrate into his system, contributing to toxic overload. Fly sprays or topically applied insect repellents expose our horses to more chemicals that add to the toxic soup in their bodies.
DEWORMERS & FLY CONTROL
These may pose a hazard if the body is unable to handle the chemicals due to an already overloaded system. Continued on page 38.
Continued from page 37.
They often contain the neurotoxin thimerosal (mercury), aluminum and formaldehyde. Aluminum is not well absorbed orally, but when injected, it’s driven right into the blood stream and tissues. Formaldehyde may damage tissues and is a known carcinogen.
Bute, banamine, antibiotics and other drugs almost always have toxic side effects and can create an increased load on the liver and kidneys. NSAIDs are very hard on the gastrointestinal tract lining and can allow for the seepage of substances from the intestinal lumen into the bloodstream.
EFFECTS OF OXIDATIVE STRESS We don’t know all the actions or interactions that low levels of multiple toxins can have in the body. One thing we do know is that these toxins cause damage to cells by a process known as oxidative stress, a result of free radical buildup in the tissues. Premature aging, genetic damage, impaired healing ability and poor immune function are all linked to oxidative stress. Chronic inflammation can both cause and result in oxidative stress to tissues; when you consider conditions such as arthritis, laminitis and navicular disease, know that this oxidative stress process is happening faster than the body can control it. The point here is not to create a feeling of hopelessness or paranoia, but to get the message across that our horses’ bodies are quickly and easily overwhelmed by the burden of toxins they carry around – and that they need serious help getting rid of these toxins and replacing the elements that allow their bodies to function optimally. One way to combat toxins and the damage they generate in the body involves: a) Removing the toxins and b) Replacing and boosting network antioxidants, nutrients that mediate oxidative stress and work together to enhance their production and function in the body.
GETTING THE TOXINS OUT
Exposure to many of these substances is unavoidable – air, water and food all contain levels of toxins, and there are also the chemicals we inject, apply or orally dose our horses with.
One very safe and effective modality for removing heavy metals and other toxins from the body is through the ingestion of zeolites. Zeolites are created when volcanic ash hits seawater. Tiny honeycomb-shaped cages are formed in a mineral matrix with a very strong negative charge. Since heavy metals and many other toxins have a positive charge, they are attracted to the little cages, trapped there, and passively removed so as not to create a greater burden on the kidneys and other organs of elimination. By eliminating heavy metals and other toxins such as some pesticides and benzenes, free radical damage and thus inflammation can be reduced.
THE ANTIOXIDANT CONNECTION Network antioxidants are effective at scavenging free radical molecules created by toxic overload, stopping the oxidative stress cascade and repairing tissues. Network antioxidants work in different ways, each playing an important role in cellular function. The term “networking” refers to the mutually supportive action of antioxidants in the body. Lester Packer showed several years ago that vitamin E “recycles” vitamin C. He showed in turn that vitamin C can be recycled by glutathione, an antioxidant that must be produced by the body. Thus, antioxidants working together may be much more beneficial than single nutrients. The body is designed to heal and the mechanisms are already in place. The most basic foundation you can put in place for a long and happy life for your horse involves removing the roadblocks to health and encouraging natural healing mechanisms. Dr. Zamzow is a consultant for Vivo Animals, which provides cutting edge natural health solutions for the animal companions in our lives. equinedetox.com, 1-877-848-6628
HERB BLURB By Jessica Lynn
MEADOWSWEET Meadowsweet is a mild yet effective anti-inflammatory herb. It has been used for several centuries to treat body aches and pains, including arthritis and joint pains. In horses, it helps relieve the pains that come with age, especially during the cold winter months. The leaves and flowers are known to contain salicylates, natural compounds that are converted by the body to “aspirin” without the side effects of gastric upset that regular aspirin use can cause. Meadowsweet can be especially helpful for the older horse who suffers from arthritis and may also have gastritis (inflammation of the stomach lining) from years of being given Bute or NSAIDs. While it may at first seem contradictory to give a horse an herb with aspirin-like effects or qualities (aspirin and its salicylates have been well-documented as a cause of stomach upset), the historic use of meadowsweet confirms that it is an effective antiinflammatory and pain reliever without causing the wide range of digestive problems associated with aspirin. Meadowsweet is a whole herb, not just salicylates, and the sum of its “active” ingredients work in concert and do not cause the side effects.
DOSAGE AND FEEDING METHODS Meadowsweet can be given to horses in several forms – as the cut and sifted herb, a powder, or made into a tea and added to bucket feed (one of my favorite ways to use it). It can also be given as an extract, which can be purchased at most health food stores. In its powdered form (added to bucket feed) 1 to 2 tbsps would be the recommended dose to start; it can be adjusted up or down from there. For a tea, place ¼ cup of the cut and sifted herb in a mason jar, steep until it is just warm, then pour over and mix into the horse’s regular bucket feed morning and night.
GROW YOUR OWN I have grown this herb in my garden in Southern California, but it needs plenty of water or it withers quickly. It can be a beautiful addition to any flower or vegetable/herb garden as it has soft yellow-white flowers, thin reddish stalks, and bright green leaves, similar to mint leaves. When mature, it can be dried to make into tea. It thrives in organic, wellcomposted and irrigated soil.
Jessica Lynn writes articles for various national and international horse publications. She is the owner of Earth Song Ranch, founded in 1998, whose mission is to improve and restore health naturally for horses, dogs and cats and their humans. Jessica is an equine nutritionist specializing in herbal blends for various equine ailments, along with pre/ probiotics and digestive enzyme blends for digestive health, and has been involved in alternative health, herbs, homeopathy, and nutrition for almost 40 years. earthsongranch.com, earthsongranch.youngevity.com, 951-514-9700
TO THE RESCUE Frenchie and Oro, both Thoroughbreds retired to GEVA.
Poseidon’s Son (aka Posey) was retired to GEVA as a three-year-old after a bowed tendon.
GEVA INC., EQUINE RETIREMENT FOUNDATION Equine Wellness will donate 25% of each subscription purchased using promo code EWA197 to Geva Inc., Equine Retirement Foundation.
YEAR ESTABLISHED: 1995 LOCATION: Glen Ellen, CA TYPES OF ANIMALS THEY WORK WITH: Primarily offtrack thoroughbreds, of any age.
HOMES: One staff
member (unpaid) and five volunteers.
FUNDRAISING PROJECTS: “We have many,” says Maureen Kelleher. “We have a ‘Hay Fund’ that is often promoted on Facebook and Twitter. Luckily, we have a large area for hay storage, and we buy in large bulk, but it is a costly expense each year for our 30 to 35 farm residents. “We are also raising funds to purchase a used horse trailer and four-wheel drive truck, in order to have a safe rig to take horses to the hospital in cases of emergency. Finally, we use many of the grant funds we receive (and we could use more!) for drainage improvements in the pastures.” GEVA also offers equine vacations through Glen Ellen Farms, with the proceeds going to support horses at the rescue.
FAVORITE RESCUE STORY: “A good example of a horse
The Barking Shark. ‘Shark’ is currently 22 years old and came to GEVA at age ten, straight from his racing career! Unlike many racehorses, Shark survived to race until he was ten – but not without injuries, including life-threatening pneumonia and a broken cannon bone, which was repaired with plates and eight screws. During his career, Shark ran 56 races, including 27 stakes races, and won over a half million dollars. “In the later years of his career, though trying his hardest, Shark continued to fall in the class of races he was competing in. He was claimed several times over several months in the $5,000 range. In his last race, a claiming race, he had eight claims in for him! A group of people, concerned about Shark and wanting to offer him retirement, offered to buy him so he would not be claimed and continued as a racehorse. They offered the claiming price plus the win purse just before the race, and were accepted! “This group gave Shark the sendoff he deserved – retirement from racing and a wonderful relaxing life at GEVA. In the 12 years Shark has resided at GEVA, he has made many friends – equine and human alike – but he is especially known for protecting and hanging out with his favorite ‘ladies’, Foggy and Luvy, both retired racehorses themselves.”
that managed to earn a second (retirement) career at GEVA is
BEAR VALLEY RESCUE Sundre, AB Rescue Code: EWA038 www.bearvalleyab.org
JOURNEY’S END RANCH ANIMAL RESCUE Kingman, AZ Rescue Code: EWA021 www.jersanctuary.org
BC INTERIOR HORSE RESCUE SOCIETY Kelowna, BC Rescue Code: EWA086 www.bcihrs.ca OLD FRIENDS CANADA SOCIETY Lake Country, BC Rescue Code: EWA087 www.oldfriendscanada.org GO AND PLAY STABLES Douro, ON Rescue Code: EWA101 www.goandplaystables.org PRIDE THERAPEUTIC RIDING STABLES Kitchener, ON Rescue Code: EWA026 www.pridestables.com SUNRISE THERAPEUTIC & LEARNING CENTRE Puslinch, ON Rescue Code: EWA011 www.sunrise-therapeutic.ca THE DONKEY SANCTUARY Guelph, ON Rescue Code: EWA012 www.thedonkeysanctuary.ca WHISPERING HEARTS HORSE RESCUE Hagersville, ON Rescue Code: EWA050 www.whhrescue.com WIND DANCER PONY RESCUE FOUNDATION Sheffield, ON Rescue Code: EWA070 www.winddancerponies.org SADIE’S PLACE HORSE RESCUE Brookfield, PEI Rescue Code: EWA057 www.sadiesplace.ca
FORGOTTEN HORSES RESCUE INC Homeland, CA Rescue Code: EWA056 www.forgottenhorsesrescue.org NATIONAL EQUINE RESOURCE NETWORK Encinitas, CA Rescue Code: EWA030 www.nationalequine.org THE GENTLE BARN Santa Clarita, CA Rescue Code: EWA180 www.gentlebarn.org DREAMCATCHERS EQUINE RESCUE Fountain, CO Rescue Code: EWA059 www.dcerinc.org SUSAN G. KOMEN FOR THE CURE Farmington, CT Rescue Code: EWA067 www.KomenCT.org HORSE RESCUE RELIEF & RETIREMENT FUND INC. Cumming, GA Rescue Code: EWA060 www.SaveTheHorses.org STAMP OUT STARVATION OF HORSES INC. Clarksville, GA Rescue Code: EWA033 www.sosofhorses.com BLACK HILLS WILD HORSE SANCTUARY Hot Springs, ID Rescue Code: EWA085 www.wildmustangs.com SOCIETY FOR HOOVED ANIMAL’S RESCUE & EMERGENCY Champaign, IL Rescue Code: EWA018 www.s-h-a-r-e.net/ SOUTHERN WINDS EQUINE RESCUE & RECOVERY CENTER Udall, KS Rescue Code: EWA010 www.southernwindsequinerescue.org/
OUR MIMS RETIREMENT HAVEN Paris, KY Rescue Code: EWA184 www.OurMims.org RAINHILL EQUINE FACILITY INC Bowling Green, KY Rescue Code: EWA095 www.rainhillequinefacili.wix.com BLUE STAR EQUICULTURE St. Palmer, MA Rescue Code: EWA027 www.equiculture.org EQUINE RESCUE NETWORK Boxford, MA Rescue Code: EWA093 www.equinerescuenetwork.com GENTLE GIANTS DRAFT HORSE RESCUE Mount Alry, MD Rescue Code: EWA094 www.gentlegiantsdrafthorserescue.com SAND STONE FARMS RESCUE EFFORT Ortonville, MI Rescue Code: EWA062 www.sandstonefarm.info SAVING GRACE MINIATURE HORSE RESCUE Emmett, MI Rescue Code: EWA196 www.sgminihorserescue.com BIT O’ LUCK HORSE RESCUE Huntersville, NC Rescue Code: EWA053 www.bitoluck.org LIVE AND LET LIVE FARM RESCUE Chichester, NH Rescue Code: EWA187 www.liveandletlivefarm.org HORSE RESCUE UNITED Howell, NJ Rescue Code: EWA049 www.horserescueunited.org/ AMARYLLIS FARM EQUINE RESCUE Bridgehampton, NY Rescue Code: EWA005 www.amaryllisfarm.com ANOTHER CHANCE EQUINE RESCUE Columbia Station, OH Rescue Code: EWA022 www.acerescue.org
PASO BY PASO EQUINE REHABILITATION Bend, OR Rescue Code: EWA055 www.pasobypaso.org L.E.A.R.N. HORSE RESCUE Ravenel, SC Rescue Code: EWA190 www.learnhorserescue.org FERRELL HOLLOW FARM Readyville, TN Rescue Code: EWA054 www.ferrellhollowfarm.org CROSSFIRE RESCUE Bacliffe, TX Rescue Code: EWA052 www.crossfirerescue.org EQUINE CANCER SOCIETY Mansfield, TX Rescue Code: EWA182 www.equinecancersociety.com THE PEGASUS PROJECT Ben Wheeler, TX Rescue Code: EWA002 www.mypegasusproject.org CENTRAL VIRGINIA HORSE RESCUE Brodnax, VA Rescue Code: EWA058 www.centralvahorserescue.com PAINTED ACRES RESCUE & SANCTUARY, INC Winchester, VA Rescue Code: EWA075 www.paintedacresrescue.web.net SERENITY EQUINE RESCUE & REHABILITATION Maple Valley, WA Rescue Code: EWA028 www.serenityequinerescue.com THE DAVEY JONES EQUINE MEMORIAL FOUNDATION Seattle, WA Rescue Code: EWA064 www.djemf.com SPIRIT HORSE EQUINE RESCUE Janesville, WI Rescue Code: EWA083 www.spirithorseequinerescue.org HEART OF PHOENIX Shoals, WV Rescue Code: EWA096 www.wvhorserescue.org
Kids and horses-nat urall y By Pat Parelli
It’s natural for kids to be natural with horses. Humans are natural until
Have you ever noticed how horses tend to adore children, and seem to get along with them so well? Here’s why, along with some fun exercises to enhance your own kids’ relationship with equines.
they are 12, but then they turn into adults. My definition of an adult is a human being who practices making simple things difficult. My definition of horsemanship is the perpetual and progressive series of habits and skills both horses and humans need to become partners. Now, at Parelli we have a program that helps people learn those habits and skills, but a program is all it is. The application of habits and skills to anything we want to do with our horses – whether it be a trail ride, having fun at home, or going to a competition, either English or western – is up to us. And while we adults may not like to admit it, the fact that kids have an easier time learning how to be natural with horses than we do is a very real one. When it comes to working with horses, all we ever have to remember is that humans are predators and horses are prey animals, and they are motivated by opposite things. We want their recognition of material things, and they want safety, comfort and play. The other thing to remember is that horses are very perceptive to danger, people, places and changes, and that’s why a child can usually catch the horse dad can’t. The horse perceives dad as the predator. Kids usually help horses feel safe and comfortable – they are smaller, more non-threatening, and typically act more naturally. Now, the big secret I like to get people to understand is that horses love to have fun and play – so if we can get kids to learn how to play little games with their horses, the magic starts!
TWO FUN EXERCISES Here are a couple of really good exercises you can encourage your child to try:
Learn how to back your horse into the stall. Then play the YoYo Game (see sidebar) in and out of the stall. Do this every day for a week until can get your horse to back into the stall from 20 feet away. You’ll see the horse start to get it – turn, face away from the stall, back in, halter comes off – kids and horses love this game.
Another great game is to teach the horse how to sidepass up to the fence – this is handy for mounting, as the horse will learn to “pick you up” off an obstacle (see sidebar for the Sideways Game). An easy way to start the game is to get up on the back of a pickup (with the tailgate down) or flatbed truck. Put a carrot stick over his back and ask him to take a step or two towards you. Then rub him with the carrot stick. Pretty soon you can use a mounting block, fence or rock, but when you start with the stability of a tailgate it makes it really easy and fun for the kids. 42
Excerpted from Early Horsemanship Education with Mini Magic by Samantha Thorning
The Yo-Yo Game
Photo courtesy of Coco
The Yo-Yo Game helps teach horses to make “whoa”and “go” equal. It’s usually seen as backing away down the length of a rope, and then coming forward again. Your child should start softly with the lead rope, gently wiggling it then getting ﬁ rmer as she moves through the phases until the horse responds. The Yo-Yo Game is great to teach children because it gets the horse out of their space, and therefore helps keep them safe!
The Sideways Game
Photo courtesy of Sharon Carr
The Sideways Game helps teach horses to become both more athletic and more conﬁ dent and calm. When a prey animal has to cross his legs, he is giving up his chance to run away from predators. It’s a big deal for a prey animal to give over the control of his feet to a predator! Can your child teach her horse to go sideways to a fence? To a mounting block? Over a log or barrel?
Encourage your child to play good horsemanship games with her horse or pony, and they will develop a fun-filled lifelong partnership! Pat Parelli was born in California’s Bay Area and was obsessed with horses from an early age. When he was just 13, a horseman and trapper named Freddie Ferrera recognized Pat’s talents with horses and took him under his wing. During the summers he would teach Pat valuable lessons about how to be more natural with horses, dogs, cattle, and nature itself. A career in training horses seemed logical and he started a business that concentrated on starting colts. Being an intense student of horses and horsemanship, Pat had begun to develop his own style of teaching and expanding these principles. He discovered he had a natural talent in finding the right words to explain what he understood about horses. So he turned his attention to helping people instead of horse training. He began to give “lessons” but had no idea that one day he would be able to help people on a much larger scale. parelli.com
Remedies of the times
By Susan L. Guran
There are times when remedies present themselves over and over again, and you begin to wonder what’s going on. Why this remedy, why now, and why so often? I have seen this with Thuja, which over time has become increasingly common.
THE CALL FOR THUJA I refer to Thuja as a “clearing” remedy. That’s because it’s often necessary to begin with Thuja (given a certain presentation) before you can treat at a constitutional level. However, it seems there is more and more to “clear” these days, and that the constitutional treatment is fading away as the primary effective protocol. Often, it isn’t the constitutional remedy that leads to a balanced state, but a remedy considered to have a smaller, more unique sphere of influence; and after treatment, the need for constitutional treatment may not even emerge. As noted in a previous article, Thuja often shows up as a certain vacancy, an absence of spirit arising from the formation of an unresolved state of duality. We claim to use it as a correction for “vaccinosis”, to counteract the undesirable effects of vaccines. In addition to vacancy, there are often failing bladder or kidney functions or some kind of urinary excess or pain.
PSORINUM In recent weeks and months, Psorinum is presenting itself again and again. Why so many cases all at once? I begin to wonder if it’s the “remedy of our times”. As esoteric as this sounds, it seems as if homeopathy is like a reflection – a comment on the state of the individual in his greater relationship to his time and/or place. Perhaps there are environmental pressures existing now that are unique to these times. They may affect animals directly or through the people they
spend time with. It is also a possibility that as we (people and animals) and the planet evolve through time, needs change in accordance with this evolution. And so, whole groups of individuals are in need of the same or similar remedies to move through the times. In my work, Psorinum is not presenting just for the horse, or just for the cat, or just for the human, but for all three at once. In a person, Psorinum is associated with a feeling of emptiness and a state of anxiety that leads one to hold on to too much for too long, leading to an eruption – on either the mental or physical level – caused by an effort to rid oneself of a buildup. For the animal, the most obvious symptom is a heightened sense of fear that seems to come and go indiscriminately, with a filling and overfilling relating to appetite, thirst and/or elimination (voracious appetite and thirst, then excessive/frequent elimination). What is interesting is that needing Psorinum also needs, or will need, Thuja. Psorinum before or after Thuja, or is between Thuja treatments.
the animal has needed, often comes sandwiched
There are other transitional remedies that show an evolution or even present differently from continent to continent, even though they are for the same identified disease state, one example being Lyme disease. One period or location calls for a specific remedy, but as time goes on, the presentation changes and the remedy required for many individuals at once also changes.
Susan Guran is a Homeopathic Practitioner and Therapeutic Riding Instructor living and working in Vermont. HomeopathyHorse.com 44
RESOURCE GUIDE • Associations • Barefoot Hoof Trimming
• Chiropractors • Communicators
• Integrative Therapies • Saddle Fitters
• Schools and Training • Thermography • Yoga
AS SO C I AT I O N S Equinextion - EQ Redcliff, AB Canada Phone: (403) 527-9511 Email: email@example.com Website: www.equinextion.com
Anne Riddell - AHA Barrie, ON Canada Phone: (705) 427-1682 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.barefoothorsecanada.com
Margo Scofield Tully, NY USA Phone: (315) 383-6429 Email: email@example.com Website: www.hoofkeeping.com
Canadian Barefoot Hoof Association - CBHA Renfrew, ON Canada Phone: (613) 432-3620 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.cdnbha.ca
Barefoot Hoofcare Specialist Kate Romanenko Woodville ON Canada Phone: (705) 374-5456
Natural Concepts Joseph Skipp Wynantskill, NY USA Phone: (518) 371-0494 Email: email@example.com Website: www.naturalhoofconcepts.com
American Hoof Association - AHA Ventura, CA USA Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.americanhoofassociation.org Association for the Advancement of Natural Hoof Care Practices - AANHCP Lompoc, CA USA Phone: (805) 735-8480 Email: email@example.com Website: www.aanhcp.net Pacific Hoof Care Practioners - PHCP Ventura, CA USA Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.pacifichoofcare.org Equine Science Academy - ESA Catawissa, MO USA Phone: (636) 274-3401 Email: email@example.com Website: www.equinesciencesacademy.com Liberated Horsemanship - CHCP Warrenton, MO USA Phone: (314) 740-5847 Email: BruceNock@mac.com Website: www.liberatedhorsemanship.com
BAREFOOT HOOF TRIMMING Gudrun Buchhofer Judique, NS Canada Phone: (902) 787-2292 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.go-natural.ca Lost July Natural Hoof Care Nina Hassinger Bridgetown, NS Canada Phone: (902) 665-2151 Email: email@example.com
Barefoot with BarnBoots Johanna Neuteboom Port Sydney, ON Canada Phone: (705) 385-9086 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.barnboots.ca Natural horse care services, education and resources Cottonwood Stables Chantelle Barrett - Natural Farrier Elora, ON Canada Phone: (519) 803-8434 Email: email@example.com Certified Hoof Care Professional Miriam Braun, CHCP Stoke, QC Canada Phone: (819) 543-0508 Email: Hoofhealth13@yahoo.com Website: www.chevalbarefoot.com Natural Horse, Natural Hoof Sarah Graves Boone, CO USA Phone: (719) 557-0052 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Cynthia Niemela - Barefoot Hoof Trimming Minneapolis, MN USA Phone: (612) 481-3036 Website: www.liberatedhorsemanship.com Better Be Barefoot Lockport, NY USA Phone: (716) 432-2218 Email: email@example.com Website: www.betterbebarefoot.com Jeannean Mercuri - The Hoof Fairy, LLC Long Island, NY USA Phone: (631) 434-5032 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.neanpiggy.com, PHCP Mentor & Clinician, AHA Certified Member, Area Served.
Bruce Smith Raleigh, NC USA Phone: (919) 624-2585 Email: email@example.com Website: www.father-and-son.net G & G Farrier Service Gill Goodin Moravian, NC Phone: (325) 265-4250 HossHoofHo Sandra Judy, Hoof Care Professional Gibsonville, NC Phone: (336) 380-5543 Website: www.hosshoofho.com Natural Barefoot Trimming Emma Everly, AANHCP CP Columbiana, OH USA Phone: (330) 482-6027 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.barefoottrimming.com ABC Hoof Care Cheryl Henderson Jacksonville, OR USA Phone: (541) 899-1535 Email: email@example.com Website: www.abchoofcare.com The Veterinary Hospital Nancy Johnson Eugene, OR USA Phone: (541) 688-1835 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Horsense Natural Hoof Care Cori Brennan Sharon, SC USA Phone: (803) 927-0018 Email: email@example.com
Charles Hall Elora, TN USA Phone: (931) 937-0033 Hoofmaiden Performance Barefoot Hoof Care Elizabeth TeSelle, EQ Leipers Fork, TN USA Phone: (615) 300-6917 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.blue-heron-farm.com/hoofmaiden Kel Manning, CP, Field Instructor, NTW Clinician Knoxville, TN USA Phone: (865) 765-9632 Email: email@example.com Marie Jackson Jonesborough, TN USA Phone: (423) 753-9349 Mary Ann Kennedy Fairview, TN USA Phone: (615) 412-4222 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.maryannkennedy.com Natural Hooves Ben Fortkamp Shelbyville, TN USA Phone: (931) 703-8149 Email: email@example.com Website: www.naturalhooves.com
C H I RO P R AC TO R S Dr. Bonnie Harder, D.C. Ogle, IL USA Phone: (815) 757-0425 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.holisticbalanceanimalchiro.com
Kathleen Berard San Antonio, TX USA Phone: (210) 402-1220 Email: email@example.com Website: www.katberard.com
Virginia Natural Horsemanship Training Center Blacksburg, VA USA Phone: (540) 953-3360 Email: sylvia@NaturalHorseTraining.com Website: www.NaturalHorseTraining.com
Animal Paradise Communication & Healing, LLC Janet Dobbs Oak Hill, VA USA Phone: (703) 648-1866 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.animalparadisecommunication.com
Healing Touch for Animals Drea Robertson Highlands Ranch, CO USA Phone: (303) 470-6572 Email: email@example.com Website: www.healingtouchforanimals.com
INTEGRATIVE THERAPIES The Happy Natural Horse Lorrie Bracaloni Boonsboro, MD USA Phone: (301) 432-6216 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.happynaturalhorse.com Healfast Therapy Mary Whelan North Caldwell, NJ USA Phone: (551) 200-5586 Email: email@example.com Website: www.healfasttherapy.com
SADDLE FITTERS Happy Horseback Saddles Vernon, BC Canada Phone: (250) 542-5091 Website: www.happyhorsebacksaddles.ca
T HE RMOGRA P HY Equine IR Bonsall, CA USA (888) 762-2547 Phone: info@equineIR.com Website: www.equineIR.com Thermal Equine Eric Flavin New Paltz, NY USA Phone: (845) 222-4286 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.thermalequine.com
YO G A Yoga with Horses Pemberton, BC USA Phone: (604) 902-4556 Email: email@example.com Website: www.yogawithhorses.com
CO M M U N I C ATO R S Claudia Hehr Animal Communicator To truly know and understand animals. Georgetown, ON Canada Phone: (519) 833-2382 Website: www.claudiahehr.com The Oasis Farm Cavan, ON Canada Phone: (705) 742-3297 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.animalillumination.com Animal Energy Lynn McKenzie Sedona, AZ USA Phone: (928) 282-9800 Email: email@example.com Website: www.animalenergy.com Communicate With Animals Kristin Thompson Newfane, NY USA Phone: (716) 778-6233 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.communicatewithanimals.com
Action Rider Tack Medford, OR USA Phone: (877) 865-2467 Website: www.actionridertack.com
SCHOOLS AND TRAINING Equinology, Inc. & Caninology Gualala, CA USA Phone: (707) 884-9963 Email: email@example.com Website: www.equinology.com Tallgrass Animal Acupressure Institute Amy Snow & Nancy Zidonis Larkspur, CO USA Phone: (303) 681-3033 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.animalacupressure.com
your business in the
WELLNESS RESOURCE GUIDE Call TODAY!
View the Wellness Resource Guide online at: EquineWellnessMagazine.com
new We’re snapping away at live events, celebrating the holidays, and sharing helpful tips with all our Equine Wellness friends. Tag us in your horse’s wintertime photos to be featured!
Benson and Skogen are Norwegian Fjords. Skogen is currently the USDF Adequan National Champion Norwegian Fjord in Dressage in 1st and 2nd levels. Micah is a Haflinger. He works as a therapy horse for Bridges at Worthmore Equestrian Center.
Honor Role is a German Oldenburg Gelding, born in 2011. – Jenna Lewis
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Horses are great for therapy and stress reduction, especially in trauma situations. ow.ly/Tymoa
Wild Heart Rescue
@EquineWellness great article explaining WLD. It can be nasty stuff and it’s very important to determine the cause. bit.ly/WhiteLineDisease
Nature’s furnace By Matt Dickson
USING HORSE MANURE FOR
RENEWABLE ENERGY. Many people compost their horse’s manure, or apply it to their land. However one alternative being increasingly implemented around the world is using manure to make renewable energy. While the idea of using manure for energy isn’t exactly new (sundried manure has been used for heat since the days of ancient Persia and Egypt), the technologies needed to turn horse manure into renewable energy, in an efficient, economical, and environmentally-friendly manner, are a lot more recent.
BIOMASS BOILERS AND GASIFIERS There are two main types of technology to choose from: biomass boilers and gasifiers. Biomass boilers are similar to the conventional gas boilers most readers will be familiar with; the key difference is that instead of burning natural gas or oil, biomass boilers burn biomass, such as wood chips, to produce heat. Biomass boilers are also much larger than their conventional counterparts, and require a mechanism to feed the biomass into the boiler. Gasification involves the partial combustion of biomass in small amounts of oxygen at high temperatures of 900°C to 1400°C. Instead of burning biomass, gasifiers convert the chemical energy in biomass into a fuel gas known as “syngas”. Syngas is commonly made up of a mixture of hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, and can be utilised in a range of applications to produce renewable heat, electricity or liquid fuels. While biomass boilers and gasifiers are fundamentally the same (the conversion of biomass to renewable energy), the cost, flexibility and energy output of each are very different. In general, biomass boilers are cheaper, smaller and better known than gasifiers, making the technology a more economical and less risky option. Gasifiers, on the other hand, are cleaner (requiring much less emission control), and have greater biomass and energy flexibility, 48
enabling the use of more “undesirable” biomass and the ability to make heat, electricity or liquid fuels. Deciding if these technologies are right for you will depend on a number of variables, including the type and volume of horse manure you have, your onsite energy needs, and local regulatory requirements.
MANURE TYPE AND VOLUME The cornerstone of any successful biomass renewable energy project is feedstock – in this case, horse manure. Understanding the characteristics and volume of horse manure is essential to determining the economic feasibility of using it to produce renewable energy. Stall bedding material, housing climate and management practices can vary between equine facilities. Understanding how these can impact the composition, moisture content and volume of horse manure is essential. Horse manure that consists primarily of wheat, oat, rye, straw, hay or dried pasture clippings can be difficult to use for renewable energy production due to its high ash content and low ashmelting temperature (the temperature at which ash becomes sticky, adheres to surfaces and causes corrosion). Horse manure that consists primarily of shavings, pellets, sawdust, other woody materials, or peat moss, is much more conducive for renewable energy production. This type of manure has a lower ash content, a higher ash-melting temperature and higher energy content. The moisture content of the manure is important, as wet manure will likely require some form of drying before it can be used in a biomass boiler or gasifier. Manure volume is also key. Generally speaking, biomass boilers and gasifiers that are twice the size of regular ones, and produce twice the amount of renewable energy, are less than twice the cost. Therefore, larger volumes of horse manure generally lead to improved economic feasibility thanks to economies of scale. Bigger is almost always better.
ONSITE ENERGY NEEDS If feedstock is the cornerstone of a successful biomass renewable energy project, an equally essential criteria for economic feasibility is onsite energy needs. As mentioned previously, biomass boilers produce heat. If there is no demand for heat onsite or within the vicinity of a biomass boiler, there is little value to be gained from producing it. Furthermore, if the cost of heat is low, even if demand exists, the economics will likely not add up. Unlike biomass boilers, gasifiers produce syngas that can be utilised in a range of applications to produce renewable heat, electricity or liquid fuels. Electricity can be injected into the local grid for sale to a utility, while liquid fuels can be transported for offsite use. However, while gasification might overcome limited onsite energy needs, conversion of syngas into electricity or liquid fuels requires additional, sometimes expensive, technology.
ONE SIZE DOESNâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;T FIT ALL Using horse manure for renewable energy production offers a number of advantages to equine facilities. Renewable energy can be cheaper than propane, electricity or natural gas, while using the manure this way can minimize disposal costs. It can also have a number of environmental and social benefits. While horse manure for renewable energy production can be a good idea, it should be noted that one size doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t fit all. What might work/make sense for one equine facility might not work for another seemingly similar facility. What type and volume of manure do you have? What are your onsite energy needs? What are the local regulatory requirements? All these factors must be carefully considered before deciding if this project is right for you.
regulations Using horse manure to produce
renewable energy can help solve the environmental and social nuisances often associated with the land application or composting of large volumes of manure. It can also enable equine facilities to meet increasingly strict regulations, while helping to improve neighborly relations. Despite these benefits, local and regional government approval is still required before a biomass boiler or gasifier can be installed. Determining what these approvals are, who to contact about them, and how to acquire them can be very challenging, especially in areas where biomass boilers and gasifiers are not commonly used. Allowing adequate time and resources to get
With over ten years of experience, Matt Dicksonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s education and experience in agricultural biomass technology research, assessment and analysis, coupled with his connections to biomass waste management and renewable energy research organizations in Europe, enable him to provide clients with the highest-quality consultant services based on their specific biomass needs and priorities. hallbarconsulting.com
the necessary permitting is vital.
HOLISTIC VETERINARY ADVICE TALKING WITH
DR. HANNAH MUELLER Dr. Hannah Mueller is a 2004 graduate of Oregon State University, College of Veterinary Medicine. She strives to provide the best care possible for her patients and believes her unique holistic approach allows her to do so. Dr. Hannah has a solid foundation in sports medicine and lameness. This, along with her training in acupuncture, chiropractic, stretch exercises, massage techniques and other hands on healing modalities, allows her to rehabilitate horses to their fullest potential. CedarbrookVet.com
Send your questions to: Holistic veterinary advice, email: email@example.com. Our veterinary columnists respond to questions in this column only. We regret we cannot respond to every question. This column is for information purposes only. It is not meant to replace veterinary care. Please consult your veterinarian before giving your horse any remedies.
My mare keeps getting blisters and sores on her nose, presumably from a plant in her pasture (she’s not prone to sunburn). We’ve walked the pasture and mowed it to try to eliminate any serious plant issues, but it keeps happening – her pasture-mates don’t seem to have a problem (or they are staying away from the plant). How would you treat the sores? Before a treatment plan can be made, it’s important to find the underlying cause. Start with a veterinary exam. If the blisters are found on white (pink skin) areas, it could be sunburn even if she is not usually prone to it. Horses can suddenly develop photosensitization (increased risk of sunburn) from certain plants (St. John’s wort, Alsike clover, etc.), or from liver 50
disease. Bloodwork may be needed to get a diagnosis. Make sure there are no chemicals being sprayed on the pasture that could cause a skin reaction. The cause will determine the treatment, aside from treating the likely secondary infection. To treat the latter, use a topical product that has antibacterial and antifungal properties. Vetericyn is a good option, but you can also try a natural product such as Schreiner’s Herbal Solution or Zephyr’s Garden Anti-Fungal Salve. If the sores are crusted over, then the salve is a better choice as it will help soften the crusts so they can be gently removed. If the treatments do not touch the underlying skin, they will not be effective.
I am having a hard time keeping weight on my Cushing’s horse. He is on Pergolide, and on pasture all day with a grazing muzzle. He also gets free choice grass hay, and a few cups of oats twice a day. I’m afraid to change his feed too much – I’ve been warned I’ll cause him to founder. Is there anything else I could safely be feeding him? The warnings you have received are likely because horses with Cushing’s disease often become insulin resistant and are sensitive to non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs). The overall NSC level of the feed for these horses should be less than 10%, which is why we first maximize the fiber and fat in the diet, then add carbs/grains only if absolutely needed. It sounds like your horse’s hay is free-choice at night, but limited during the day, if he is out to pasture with a grazing muzzle on. Grazing muzzles are great for overweight horses as they keep the animals from consuming too much while still allowing them to continually eat small amounts. With a NSCsensitive horse, grazing muzzles are helpful only if he is at a good weight and can tolerate a little bit of pasture. Some of these horses have to have the hole plugged in their muzzles so they can have turnout but not eat any green grass at all. If the horse is thin, the grazing muzzle is limiting overall feed intake by too much, causing problems gaining weight. he trick is to increase the overall feed intake, but not increase T NSCs – so don’t turn your horse out without a grazing muzzle. Unfortunately, you’ll have to minimize or eliminate pasture turnout so you can maximize the time he spends eating low-NSC feeds (hopefully you have a large paddock, dry lot, or arena for alternate turnout). Make sure your hay has been tested and is low carb (if you are unsure, soak it for 30 minutes and rinse/strain it to lower the carb level) and feed it truly free choice so it is always available. Make sure another horse isn’t out-competing him for the food – if he is with a buddy, the feed will have to be free choice for both of them or the buddy will need to wear the grazing muzzle. liminate the oats and instead add in a low-NSC feed such as E LMF Low Carb Stage 1, or Haystack Special Blend Pellets. You can also feed beet pulp and grass hay pellets free choice; just make sure all pelleted feeds are soaked into a mash so they are completely soft before feeding, or there is risk of choke. An additional fat source such as one cup of veggie oil twice a day can help. Make all food changes slowly over one to two weeks to help avoid colic. Probiotics can be fed to help with a food change and to assist GI tract function in general. Be sure your horse is current on dental care and routine blood work from your veterinarian so that any underlying problem has been ruled out. Continued on page 52.
Continued from page 51. When are nosebleeds in horses a cause for concern? Most nosebleeds in horses are not problematic and resolve on their own after 20 to 30 minutes. They are usually due to minor wounds/trauma in the nasal passage, or can arise from irritation caused by dry conditions, dust or allergens. If the nosebleed is in one nostril, and is a slow trickle that resolves quickly and doesn’t recur, it is probably from one of these causes and not a cause for concern, but look for signs of head trauma in case there is more than just a nosebleed going on. Bleeding from both nostrils after exercise may be EIPH (exercise induced pulmonary hemorrhage), a condition caused by overexertion that’s often seen in racehorses. This condition has treatment options but can be serious. Ethmoid hematomas
and guttural pouch mycosis (a fungal infection) cause steady nosebleeds that recur or do not resolve quickly, and are cause for concern. When in doubt, an endoscopic examination should be done during a bleed to follow the blood to the source and make a diagnosis. Surgical intervention may be necessary to prevent a fatal bleed in these rare cases.
In horses with advanced ringbone, can some of the lameness result simply from reduced joint movement, rather than a pain response? I have an older mare whose quality of life we are trying to assess going into winter. She is on Previcox or Bute for pain management, depending on her symptoms. However, even on anti-inﬂammatories she is still quite lame. Otherwise she seems healthy – good weight, good appetite, wanders with her friends outside. We are struggling to determine how much pain/inﬂammation is causing the lameness versus reduced mobility of the joint. A horse with his pastern surgically fused because of high ringbone does not show lameness, so the reduced joint movement is not significant enough to notably change the gait. Low ringbone, on the other hand, is in the coffin joint, which is difficult to get to for fusion; and being a higher motion joint than the pastern, it’s not commonly fused. With low ringbone, I think there could be some minor gait abnormality due to the decreased range of motion. To answer your question, the bulk of your horse’s lameness arises from pain, not restricted range of motion in the pastern or coffin joint. If you are questioning her quality of life, it sounds like it is time to try other treatment options in addition to the oral NSAIDs. Talk with your veterinarian about options such as fusing the joint (high ringbone), joint
injections (unless the arthritis is so advanced a needle can’t fit into the joint space), shockwave therapy, Adequan and Cosequin ASU (joint supplements), acupuncture, Back on Track wraps, Theraplate, and x-ray guided corrective trimming/shoeing. Have your veterinarian give you a lameness grade (1 to 5 scale) and use that along with her attitude as your guide. If she is depressed, losing weight, or lying down excessively, it may be time to let her go. If her lameness grade is 1 to 2 out of 5, she should be doing okay overall. If she is at a 3, then she’s probably doing all right if she’s healthy and happy overall. If she is at a 4 or 5, then things are serious and her quality of life may be significantly compromised. Things can change day to day and can be weather-dependent, so keeping a daily pain score chart may be helpful in developing an overall picture to discuss with your veterinarian. Good luck with your decision and I hope for the best!
Hoof history By Anne Riddell
YOU CAN LEARN A LOT ABOUT HIS BACKGROUND JUST BY LOOKING AT HIS FEET.
Photo courtesy of Cowboy Magic
Can you really learn about your horse’s health history by looking at his feet? To find out, let’s go back to the beginning. Most hoof care professionals agree that the physiology of the hoof has not changed for thousands of years. When a foal is born, the hoof soles are made up of fleshy tentacles called perionychium. The purpose of the perionychium is to protect the mare while the foal is in the womb, and allow smooth entry into the birth canal and out of the mare. Within hours, the perionychium dry up and the hoof becomes harder and ready to negotiate the tough terrain ahead.
FROM THE BEGINNING Photo courtesy of Davi Barrett UK
When we look closely at the foal hoof, we see it has the same shape and design as a grown horse. It’s just smaller. There are some subtle differences, however. The laminae connection is tighter, is the same around the entire hoof, and grows at a much faster rate. Until adulthood, the laminae grow down from the coronet band as well as in circumference, and looks similar to wild horses’ hooves. It’s because of this tightly connected laminae that the internal structures, coffin
bone and navicular bone are well up inside the hoof capsule with the extensor process of the coffin bone in line with the coronet band (hairline). The outer hoof capsule is smooth and grows straight from the coronet band. The sole is naturally concaved since the coffin bone is sitting high in the hoof capsule where it belongs. If the foal was to be raised in his natural wild environment, this tight connection with natural concavity would remain. In addition, when the foal is born, the digital cushion in the back of the hoof is a fatty tissue. If he is allowed to move the way nature intended, this fatty tissue turns to a dense and well developed fibrocartilage. The influences of domestication are what most often negatively alter the perfect hoof that nature gives the newborn foal.
THE ENVIRONMENTAL FACTOR Environment plays a huge role in the physiology of the hoof, and the changes that may occur to it. Diet, nutrition, lifestyle, toxic insults like grains, chemical wormers and vaccines, trimming styles, changes in temperature and lack of movement all impact the integrity between the connection of the laminae. Over time, the constant bombardment of toxic influences take their toll on the hoof, altering it from its originally health state. The hoof in the image above has quite the history. It belongs to a jumper, aged nine, who competed in shoes Equine Wellness
all her life and was fed large amounts of grain. After she came up lame, she was placed in a stall for a year with corrective shoes, but the lameness did not resolve. The hoof is tattered, flat and contracted, with underrun heels and chronic white line disease. This horse was what we call a “high/low” – one front hoof had a much higher angle and the other was flat. Placed in a natural hoof care program and trimmed to the wild horse model, she achieved soundness in three weeks.
The influences of domestication are what most often NEGATIVELY alter the perfect hoof that nature gives the newborn foal. THE EFFECTS OF INFECTION Natural hoof care practitioners will often be called in on a chronically lame horse, only to find that the central sulcus in the back of the frog is deep and full of infection. Upon making some changes to the horse’s diet, lifestyle and trim style, the infection will clear up, allowing the horse to begin using the back of the hoof and return readily to soundness. Thanks to years of not engaging the back of the foot, these poor horses have been landing toe first, forcing their heels to contract from lack of use and trapping bacteria in the central sulcus. Over time, this improper locomotion may lead to changes in the navicular region and bone. These images show the effects of landing toe first. Contracted heels and an atrophied frog are a result of not using the caudal hoof. The correct way for the horse to land is heel first. That way, the hoof spreads open, filling with blood and nourishing the microscopic blood vessels. When locomotion is correct, the impact caused from landing is diffused through blood flow into the hoof. The use of boots with pads, along with diet changes, can be hugely beneficial in getting the horse to begin using the back of 54
the foot, thereby bringing the necessary healing blood flow back into the foot and restoring soundness. If we look closely, the horse’s hoof will give us a clear picture, from several angles, as to what has been happening in his life.
THE HEALTHY HOOF
In this photo of a healthy hoof, notice how the extensor process lines up with the hairline at the coronet band. This is how all foal feet should start out.
THE UNSOUND HOOF
In this unsound hoof, the coffin bone has dropped in the hoof capsule. The top red line is the hairline at the coronet band. The bottom line shows how the coffin bone has not only rotated, but also dropped in the hoof capsule. The picture at left is of the same hoof, showing the bulging sole.
Too often in today’s horses we see a ﬂat or bulging sole, rings on the hoof wall, stretched white line or thrush with a deep central sulcus in the back of the foot, and a shelly disconnected hoof.
By Deborah Powell
MICROCURRENT THERAPY We’ve all experienced those “aha!” moments when discovering something special. Discovering microcurrent can be one of those moments. This therapy can change the quality of your life, and the lives of your loved ones and cherished animals.
HOW IT WORKS Microcurrent therapy is low-level electrical stimulation therapy. It is similar to other topically applied stimulation devices, with one huge exception. While they are all similar in their methods of application, microcurrent’s output is 1,000 times lower than the majority of transcutaneous electrical neurostimulation (TENS) devices sold for pain. Every cell in our bodies is a little battery. The fascia is a network of electrically charged cells that covers every component in the body. Microcurrent has the unique ability to enter the fascia and improve its health and integrity.
USES AND APPLICATIONS Microcurrent seems to trump other therapies for muscle, tendon, ligament and nerve damage when it comes to costs and outcomes. Microcurrent’s subtle level of stimulation gives it a wide range of usages. Even EIPH (bleeders) and bowel impaction colic are often alleviated by microcurrent.
See my article “Early Warning Signs” in Equine Wellness Vol. 8, Issue 1 for more on signs of subclinical laminitis.
Massage therapists can combine massage with microcurrent. For the horse owner, microcurrent back and leg wraps aid a horse’s recovery from soreness or injury. For an acupuncturist, microcurrent can be used topically with a pen or clips connected to needles. For specific treatments, there are microcurrent rollers to tighten legs and soothe tight muscles, or combs for after a bath. It’s easy to make microcurrent therapy work for you and your horses!
Anne Riddell is an American Hoof Association board certified Natural Hoof Care Practitioner. barefoothorsecanada.com
Deborah Powell is the founder of Matrix Therapy Products, author of MicroCurrent for Horses (2008) and MicroCurrent for Dogs (2014). therapyproducts.net.
LEARN HOW TO DEVELOP AN EYE FOR DISTANCE WHEN APPROACHING A FENCE. By April Reeves
Being able to judge a horse’s stride coming into a fence is one of the fi rst things you need to learn when jumping. Developing an eye for distance is easier for some, but it’s a skill everyone needs to learn through the correct exercises.
A GOOD FOUNDATION
• Speed (varies with horse and jump course; the horse needs the ability to adjust speed on soft contact)
their rhythm, but this only comes with consistent and quiet training. For example, as you move into a trot, it is not your responsibility to manage every stride. Too many riders nag their horses with their heels, claiming it’s the only way they will keep going. Aids should be applied, and the horse must be obedient to them and stay in the rhythm and speed you ask until you decide to change.
• Impulsion (energy from the hind legs recycles to gaits, keeps horse in front of your leg)
EXERCISES FOR TRAINING YOUR EYE
• Rhythm (absolutely necessary for proper striding)
There are many exercises for distance, but the following work well with new jumping students who are learning to train their eye.
Before you start your jumping career, your horse needs a certain level of training. All jumpers must have: • Balance (simply put, the horse’s body and movements appear effortless)
• Obedience to aids (especially outside aids) There are several schools of thought when it comes to how much a horse should be “managed”. I am not one for micromanaging any horse, especially in jumping. Horses need to take responsibility for 56
1 Counting strides: This exercise helps you understand how important it is to feel the horse underneath you (and get to know him better). It also gets you into the habit of paying attention to his strides. Count no fewer than three strides, and up to six,
before the fence. Call them out loud as you go – one, two, three, four. Becoming aware of your approach helps you see and feel distance. As the horse approaches the fence, pay close attention to the last stride before he gets there. Does he come in short most of the time (chipping), does he take off too early, or is he reasonably consistent? Horses need to take responsibility for their rhythm and speed, and the same applies to strides before a fence. You want to set the horse up to learn how to adjust strides on his own. If you don’t, neither you nor your horse will appreciate the stress as jumps get higher, and he will rely on you for his decision-making. If you fail, you both fail. Once you are good at counting strides and have a good understanding of how your horse jumps, you can move on to teaching responsibility. If your horse chips, you need to come in at a better pace. Chipping is usually a sign of backed-up energy; move it forward or he will bury himself. Allow the horse to make mistakes but be aware of the mistakes that come up frequently. Here’s a rule I follow: if a dozen rides to a jump result in the same distance, change your pace and rhythm. Go back to foundation basics, get those down, and go back to fence work. Know when to stop and revisit foundation work.
2 Grid work: This is one of the key elements to training a jumper. Use grids in every lesson. Each grid has a different function in training. Learn those functions and change your grids as your horse develops. To start, a simple set of ground poles in a trot line gives the horse something to think about and develops his eye for where his feet go (use square poles or Cavaletti, something that won’t roll if he lands on them). Average grid poles are four feet apart. As he builds confidence, turn straight lines of poles into arcs (a fan shape) and learn how to ride through them on a curve in both trot and canter. Arc lines teach you to stay in the center, and help with bending and softness. Outside aids and use of the rider’s core are key in this exercise. As you advance (and your horse is calm and relaxed), add several more grids and place small jumps around the arena. Use a pole as a guide for takeoff six feet in front of the jump (closer for ponies, i.e. half their full stride).
3 The circle: Set up one jump on a circle at 12 o’clock and practice it intermittently over a few days until the horse is relaxed and going well. Add another jump at three o’clock and work them
TIPS FOR SUCCESS
1. Vary your work. Jumping requires eagerness and a willing attitude from horse and rider. These attributes come from variety, not from repeating the same exercise every day. Jump for 15 to 20 minutes max, no more than twice a week. You can do grid work daily. 2. The stride of a normal horse (1,000+ lbs, 15.3HH and up) is around 12 feet (the standard in all jumping competitions). If your horse has short strides, or you have a pony, you may want to shorten the striding distance to nine or ten feet. 3. Never walk a horse over a short fence setup; you will teach him to knock rails over, and once you establish this, it is next to impossible to change. I won’t even walk over ground poles unless they are Cavaletti. 4. Work up slowly – don’t rush jump training. Slow is actually faster, because it builds confidence, muscle and timing.
both, paying attention to the number of strides. Add another at six o’clock and continue. Do not overwhelm the horse with this exercise. You do not need to jump height to get height: it comes from perfect practice.
DO’S AND DON’TS
• Don’t start introductory training by riding flatwork for a few minutes then beginning to jump individual fences. Jumping has far more to offer than this. Add grids, stop riding the rail and make every stride count as you train. • Do avoid using force when teaching your horse to jump. Keep your contact soft and your aids light. Strong aids are like yelling – eventually, the horse will tune you out. Also, force is abuse, and horses will equate jumping with pain and avoid it. • Do exercise the brains of intelligent, energetic horses – they need their minds exercised as much as, or more than, their bodies. Quiet, slow horses need revisits to foundation work to stay hot on the leg and forward. Confident horses need riders with the skills to maintain it, as confidence is rare in a horse and you need to preserve it. •D o revisit foundation work throughout the lifetime of the horse and your riding career. Every horse needs to go back to basics now and then, since riders don’t always stay consistent. Remember, everything is training. Everything. • Don’t forget that jumping is dressage with obstacles, and a jump is just an elevated canter stride. Simple as that sounds, training a jumper takes time, dedication and the desire to do it well. Learn flatwork well enough to start a horse over fences, and study dressage to ensure you and your horse have a future over larger fences. •D o know when to stop. The lesson you leave with is the lesson you get the next day. All training is about patience and feel. Solve problems through quiet training. Remember, it is always about the horse. April Reeves is a CHA Level 3 English Flat - Jumping and Western Instructor. She lives in Central Alberta, Canada, at Horseman’s Park Alberta. She focuses on the addition of softer, natural practices as opposed to just training for the single discipline, to round out a horse’s education and create a more balanced, intelligent ride. horsemansparkalberta.wordpress.com/ , aprilreeveshorsetraining.wordpress.com 58
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EVENTS 60th Annual AAEP Annual Veterinary Conference December 6-10, 2015 – Las Vegas, NV Visit the AAEP’s 61st Annual Convention and learn valuable knowledge from this educational program that will give you the opportunity to: • Learn imaging techniques to get a fast, clear picture of the problem. • Get the facts behind medications and your legal limitations. • Learn resourceful skills to perform joint treatments in the field. • Develop your understanding of areas of equine health that are inevitably addressed in practice, including dermatology, ophthalmology and dentistry. • And much more! For more information: (800) 443-0177 firstname.lastname@example.org www.aaep.org/info/student-program
Massage for the Equine Athlete - Free Webinar Series January 6, 2016 – Online How do we define an equine athlete? What is the best sports massage protocol for the equine athlete or competitor? We’ll discuss designing an individualized massage protocol for these horses helping to determine when to massage (pre or post competition/event), where (at the show? at home?), and how often to work on equine athletes. For more information: http://anymeeting.com/rmsaam
North American Vet Conference January 16-20, 2016 – Orlando, FL The North American Veterinary Conference (NAVC) is a non-profit organization that provides world-class continuing education to all members of the veterinary healthcare team. Held each January in Orlando, Florida, the NAVC Conference welcomes over 15,000 attendees from over 70 countries. We offer 50 intensive Hands-on Laboratories, over 350 speakers, dozens of different daily
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lecture tracks, the largest meeting of exotics practitioners in the world and the largest exhibit halls in the industry. An excellent opportunity to socialize and network with other industry professionals at our evening entertainment programs. For more information: (800) 756-3446 firstname.lastname@example.org www.navc.com
January Thaw Expo January 17, 2016 – Fredericton, NB All are welcome to this public event at the Fredericton Exhibition Center! Featuring over 50 exhibits to view and explore as well many presentations. For more information: www.januarythaw.com
Mustang Magic January 21-23, 2016 – Fort Worth, TX Mustang Magic will be returning to the Southwestern Exposition and Livestock Show! This invitation-only event features competition between past top-placing Extreme Mustang Makeover trainers. For more information: (512) 869-3225 www.extrememustangmakeover.com
20th Annual Horse World Expo January 22-24, 2016 - Timonium, MD You will find top quality seminars and clinics. Different mounted demonstrations. You can take a stroll down Stallion Avenue and of course there is plenty of shopping!
the latest in equestrian products and services at this year’s AETA International Trade Show. This equestrian event is specifically for equestrian trade exhibitors and buyers and is not open to the general public. For more information: (717) 724-0204 www.aeta.us
Western States Horse Expo - Pomona February 5-7,2015 - Pomona, CA This event features demonstrations, shopping, lectures, competitions and breeds as well as saddles, horses, trailers and trucks for sale. Come on out and enjoy the fun! For more information: email@example.com www.horseexpoevents.com
Scottsdale Annual Arabian Horse Show February 11-21, 2016 – Scottsdale, AZ In its 61st year, this Arabian show has set the pace in the Arabian horse world. This show has grown from 50 horses to nearly 2400 horses over the years and brings top owners, trainers and breeders from all over the world to compete for a chance to win. For more information: (480) 515-1500 firstname.lastname@example.org www.scottsdaleshow.com
Great family fun and entertainment! For more information: (301) 916-0852 email@example.com www.horseworldexpo.com
AETA International Trade Show January 30-February 1, 2016 – Philadelphia, PA Spend 3 days viewing English and Western merchandise, networking with each other, exchanging ideas on marketing and learning
WANTED Rescues & Shelters. We want to give away $100,000
through our Ambassador program. REGISTER NOW! Natasha@EquineWellnessMagazine.com 62