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contents 90


training & behaviour 12 Six things every puppy should know From basic obedience to safe play, give your pup the tools she needs to be a good dog.

24 How to interpret dog barks Woof! Ruff! What’s the difference and how do you know what she means?

38 10 ways to build a bond with your pup Establishing a healthy connection from the start will ensure a meaningful friendship that lasts a lifetime.

30 nutrition 28 Five steps to a great diet  T  here are so many to choose from so keep these points in mind.

36 Peanut butter truffles Your pup will do backflips for these delicious, homemade goodies.

54 Top 10 stress-busting foods Is your dog too antsy? Adding this healthy fare to his diet will help him chill.

72 A walk in the park

94 It’s in the genes!

Figuring out the best foods to feed may come down to her genetic makeup.

Off-leash etiquette for you and your dog.

74 Why positive training works  Gentle reward-based methods are gaining ground as the best approach for training our canine companions.

210 How to use a crate  Your pup’s crate should be a safe haven. Here’s how to make it happen.

12 4





lifestyle 18 Winter walks

 oing for a stroll in the snow with your dog? G Remember these winter wellness tips.

22 Fashion forward From houndstooth to camouflage, find out what the furry fashionistas are wearing this year.

42 Planes, trains and automobiles  Traveling with your dog can be an adventure. Avoid the unexpected by doing your homework.


50 It’s a dog’s world!

48 Four things your groomer wished you knew

68 Dos and don’ts of choosing a collar, leash or harness

110 DIY grooming

Check out the top changes we’ve seen for canines over the last decade.

It can be a personal statement as well as a practical purchase.

80 How to plant a pet friendly herb garden Culinary herbs are as good for Rover as they are for you. So pass the parsley!

If his coat isn’t kept groomed, even the most robust pooch can develop big problems.

How to keep him looking and feeling in top form between appointments.

30 They’re our heroes!

They work hard, save lives and bring joy to thousands. Check out our salute to Canada’s working dogs.

86 What’s his star sign? Astrology is a fun way of looking at your dog’s personality. Does he match his sign?


90 Disc dog Try this catchy new canine sport everyone’s jumping into!

64 G  uess these celebrity dogs!

Test your knowledge by guessing the TV shows and movies that made these canine actors famous.

98 Red alert! Use these tips to make sure you and your dog “weather the storm” when disaster strikes.

114 Finding your forever Fido Advice on finding the breed that’s right for you – along with a reputable breeder.


health 60 Ten common first aid problems From encounters with other critters to allergic reactions, you are your dog’s first responder.

78 S  etting the stage for a stress-free veterinary visit Is taking your dog to the vet right up there with dental work? Here are a few tips to make your visit a better experience.

102 Aging gracefully

11 steps to keeping older dogs healthy and young at heart.



departments 118 Breeder Directory

The Groups, Purebreds, Rare breeds, DogSpeak

200 Trainers & Groomers 171 Breeder Spotlight 202 Marketplace





Editor-in-Chief: Dana Cox

President/CEO: Tim Hockley

Editor: Ann Brightman

Office Manager: Libby Sinden

Breed Directory Contributor: Jasmine-June Cabanaw

Accounting Manager: Sherri Soucie

Art Director & Senior Graphic Designer: Kathleen Atkinson

Webmaster: Brad Vader

Graphic Designer: Dawn Cumby-Dallin Graphic Designer: Meaghan McGowan Breed Ambassador Photography: Alice Van Kempen Illustrations: Kathryn Durst Cover Photography: Andrew Chin


ADVERTISING SALES National Sales Manager: Tim Hockley, 1.866.764.1212 ext.110 tim@redstonemediagroup.com Ann Beacom, 1.866.764.1212 ext.222 annbeacom@redstonemediagroup.com

Suzi Beber Stephanie Bossence Craig Campbell Stanley Coren Susan Dalmer W. Jean Dodds, DVM Donald Fraser Janice Huntingford, DVM, CCRT, CVA, CAVCA, CVCH, CVTP, CVFT Dawn Kadish, DVM Howard Kadish, BSC, CPDT Tessa Kimmel Theresa Laviolette Caitlin “Angel” Leandres Gina McLachlan, DVM Barbara Nefer Gillian Ridgeway, AHT Cheryl Rogers Ana Ruiz Victoria Stilwell Peggy Swager Greg Tilford

Becky Starr, 1.866.764.1212 ext.221 becky@redstonemediagroup.com

SUBMISSIONS: Please send all editorial material, advertising material,

The material in this magazine is not intended to replace the care of veterinary practitioners. The opinions expressed are not necessarily those of the editor, and different views may appear in other issues. Redstone Media Group Inc., publisher of Canadian Dogs Annual, does not promote any of the products or services advertised by a third party advertiser in this publication, nor does Redstone Media Group Inc. verify the accuracy of any claims made in connection with such advertisers.

photos and correspondence to: Canadian Dogs Annual, 160 Charlotte St., Suite 202, Peterborough, ON, Canada K9J 2T8. We welcome previously unpublished articles and color pictures either in transparency or disc form at 300dpi. We cannot guarantee that either articles or pictures will be used or that they will be returned. We reserve the right to publish all letters received. Email your articles to: info@redstonemediagroup.com. TO PURCHASE: Copies can be purchased at most major retail outlets

across Canada or online at www.cdndogs.ca/order. CDN MAIL: Canadian

Dogs Annual

160 Charlotte St., Suite 202 Peterborough, ON, Canada K9J 2T8

Lisa Wesson, 519.393.6808 lisawesson@redstonemediagroup.com Breeder Sales & Marketing Coordinator: Natasha Roulston, 1.866.764.1212 ext.315 natasha@redstonemediagroup.com

ON THE COVER Once used for cattle herding, the sturdy little Welsh Corgi is a smart and sociable dog who loves nothing more than spending time with his family. Despite his small size, he needs plenty of exercise and is happiest when he has a job to do. You can read more about the Welsh Corgi – and over 100 other breeds – in our Breeder Directory.

Canadian Dogs Annual is published once a year by Redstone Media Group Inc.. Entire contents copyright© 2013. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted by any means, without prior written permission of the publisher. Publication date: November 2013. Canadian Dogs Annual is a division of Redstone Media Group.



editorial Several years ago, my family spent a glorious winter living at the cottage. No one was happier than our Siberian husky, Sabrina. She could hardly wait for me to open the door in the morning so she could tear outside and bury her head in the snow. Afternoons would find her out on the frozen bay, keeping vigil with the ice fishermen. When I finally called her in for dinner, she would come running full tilt, kicking up puffs of snow that magically slid off her fur. The joy on her face was undeniable. Contrast that with my wonderful Bichon Frise, a true character who loved to perform tricks but who couldn’t wait for you to sit down so she could jump up beside you and rest her fluffy head on your knee. She was the epitome of the term “lap dog”. After a decade and a half of dog publishing, I still marvel at the wonderful differences between all the incredible breeds and how genetically true most dogs are to their breed. No matter what your lifestyle, there’s a unique breed out there (and probably more than one) that “ticks all your boxes”. Check out our Breeder Directory to get started. You’ll find over 125 breeds represented – the largest breeder directory in Canada! Also in this issue of Canadian Dogs Annual, we provide tips on how to find your “forever Fido” (page 114). You’ll also find a variety of articles on how to ensure she’s the healthiest, happiest, most welladjusted canine companion you could possibly hope for. One way to help her along is through gentle, positive training – world renowned Animal Planet trainer Victoria Stilwell explains why it’s the best way to go in “Why positive training works” on page 74. Of course, Canadian Dogs contains several great articles on nutrition too, including Dr. Jean Dodds’ futuristic look at nutrigenomics – feeding based on genetic makeup, on page 94. And because your dog won’t be young forever, you’ll even find tips on how to keep your older dog feeling young at heart (see “Aging Gracefully” on page 102). While Canadian Dogs Annual is highly informative, it’s also great fun. Test your TV and movie trivia IQ in “Guess these celebrity dogs” on page 64, and enjoy our tribute to Canada’s working dog heroes on page 30. It’s just amazing what these dogs do for us.

BRING CANADIAN DOGS ANNUAL TO LIFE! We’re also delighted to introduce Aurasma in this issue. By downloading the Aurasma app and holding your Smartphone or tablet over specially marked images in the magazine, you’ll watch our magazine come to life with video, special offers, and more! Get all the details on page 109. Remember, too, to enter our contests -- “Free Dog Food for a Year” and “Free Airfare for Two Plus Your Dog”. It’s as easy as visiting our contest page on CdnDogs.ca.

Yours very warmly,

DANA COX Editor-in-chief 10



things every puppy should know




basic obedience This is so you can build up the lines of communication. By teaching your pup a series of words, so he will start to understand your language, you are doing him a service and helping him become a model citizen. If he has a clear understanding of the word “stay”, he will be less apt to jump all over your guests. If he learns how to heel, he will be less likely to pull you off your feet, let alone scare other people coming towards you. You get the picture! Teaching your pup to sit when asked will help to alleviate a lot of problems. If he is sitting, he can’t run away, jump up or nip. There are many ways to teach your pup to sit, but luring is one of the best. Simply have a treat in your hand, put it towards the pup’s nose and then slowly raise it over his head towards the sky. The puppy should follow it, and in doing so, his behind should naturally go into the sit position. Add the word “sit” and give the treat. Once he is sitting consistently, you can start to phase out the lure. Using positive, force-free techniques will allow your pup to understand that learning can be fun. Getting him into a reputable puppy class will help you teach him the rest of the basics.

bathroom etiquette Taking the time to teach your pup to keep your home clean is a big lesson and well worth the effort. Many people feel this is common knowledge, but it’s not necessarily so. To ensure your puppy understands this lesson, make sure you keep him well supervised. This means a family member needs to watch him, or he should be in his crate. Take him out frequently when he is awake, especially after mealtimes, naps and playtime. Keep him on a consistent diet and exercise schedule. The goal is to avoid any accidents. If you do find an unexpected surprise, ask yourself where you were. Supervision means you can’t pop upstairs for a few minutes and leave Junior alone. However, pups tend to sleep about 18 to 20 hours per day, depending on their age. When it’s nap time, put your pup into his crate. This will work for both of you. He can nap in a quiet spot, uninterrupted, and you can go about your daily duties for a few hours without needing to supervise. It’s a win-win. CDNDOGS.CA


how to play Sound crazy? Don’t all pups play? Most dogs play with their toys, and most people think rough-housing with them on the floor is also play – but play can encompass much more. Teach your pup to play with you. A great game is tug. Long gone are the days when tug games were considered a no-no. They provide great exercise, and can be used as a great reward tool later on in his training. Teach a pup to play tug by first doing “keep away”. Play with the tug toy yourself and allow him to watch. After a few days, continue to play but let the toy drop on the floor occasionally. This should peak his interest. Before you know it, he will be begging to play. Always keep this special tug toy out of his reach unless you are both playing. This is not his toy, but a game that you share. By keeping the tug on top of your fridge, and bringing it out to start a game, you are creating your own special time together. And the bonus? Teach him how to drop the toy by trading it for a treat, and then you can use the word “drop” for other favorite puppy items such as tissues and socks. Devise games such as “find your own toys” (or better yet, your car keys!) and show him the rules. Teach him a few ageappropriate tricks and then show them off to your friends. Have fun with your pup.




good manners Dogs can be crafty and they like to have a lot of attention showered on them. This can be cute while they’re young, but it may be a problem later on. “Shake a paw” is a cute trick, but will remain so only if your dog gives you his paw when you ask for it. It can become annoying if your dog sits and paws at you for attention when you’re busy doing something else.

Teach him some manners. Spend some time teaching him to go to his own bed, lie down and stay there. First, teach him to lie down by luring him into position and adding a treat reward. Then teach him to stay there. You can give him small treats every few seconds at first, to prolong this action. The pup should stay until he is given a release word such as “okay”. Now progress to teaching lie down and stay in his own bed. Always reward him for this action. The more a behaviour is rewarded, the more likely it is to occur. Catch him doing something right. Each time he is heading towards his bed, call out “go to bed” and reward him once he goes there.

Teach your puppy not to jump up on strangers, whether in your home or at the park. And don’t let him think it is cool for him to continually bark at you in a demanding tone. Every pup should learn to settle down and treat you and your home respectfully.



how to say “hello” Most dogs love to have a romp in the park with their canine buddies. But it’s important to help them understand how to actually make friends with other dogs. In some cases, they’ll rush in too quickly, startling the other dogs; in other cases, they may jump or nip at them. It may be all in play, but this behaviour can be misunderstood by other dogs. The best strategy is to make sure you’re fully engaged with your pup during initial greetings. You may have to use a leash, even in an off-leash setting, just to help guide your pup. When dogs approach one another, they like to sniff and circle around. When doing a puppy intro, it’s best to allow this interaction and not insist on any nose-to-nose contact. The idea is to help your pup understand the rules. Make sure he is guided “down” if he jumps on the others. Keep the rule “four paws on the floor” in place. Have some treats handy and give them to your puppy to reward appropriate actions. If the initial greeting goes well, and the pups start to play, you must continue to supervise them and watch for over-the-top chasing. Play does involve chase games among pups, but make sure the game is equal – if both puppies are taking turns with the chase and be-chased positions, things should be fine. But if one is bullying the other, a timeout on the sidelines for a few minutes, with your pup on a leash, is the best course of action.

the meaning of happiness Living in harmony means ensuring that your pup knows what makes you happy. What brings a smile to your face helps him learn how to behave. Take the time to teach your puppy his training words, and when he tries his best to learn them, praise him for a job well done. Don’t tell him he is not good enough while he is learning. Don’t be in a rush; enjoy your journey together. Let him learn his lessons over time. Smile and let him see he makes you happy. Have fun together! Gillian is the Director of Who’s Walking Who Dog Training Centres in Toronto and Ajax. She has been featured on many television and radio programs, and appears regularly as the canine expert on Canoe Live. Gillian is a guest lecturer at the University of Toronto, using dogs to shed light on learning theory, and continues to be a popular speaker at Veterinary Technician and Trainer Conferences. She currently shares her life with her two canine buddies, Yardley and Noah.







There’s something exciting about the first snowfall. It refreshes the senses and beckons us outdoors. Before setting out on a winter adventure with your dog, remember his well being. You can bundle up in a cozy coat, gloves and boots, but what about him? Will he be comfortable, and safe? These winter walking tips will help you both enjoy the cold weather!



consider his coat

Your dog’s breed and coat has an influence on how long he can stay outside in cold, snowy weather. Those with thick double coats such as the Alaskan malamute, Siberian husky and great Pyrenees can withstand being outside in harsh conditions for quite some time before calling it a day. But single coated breeds such as boxers and greyhounds don’t have an insulating undercoat and can start feeling the cold much sooner. They lose body heat very quickly and are at a higher risk for hypothermia. Single coated small or toy breeds fare worse still. Their smaller body mass means they lose heat more quickly than larger dogs. On very cold days, keep walks short for a small and/or single coated dog, or buy him some protective outerwear.

body heat Young puppies and older dogs don’t retain body heat the way adults in their prime do. They should be brought indoors after about ten minutes.

health check Ailments such as hypothyroidism reduce a dog’s ability to tolerate cold. Arthritic dogs also feel more discomfort from damp or cold air, while their limited mobility increases the risk of falling on slippery ground. Dogs with heart conditions such as mitral valve disease may suffer a life-threatening event if overexerted while negotiating difficult walking conditions

snow sense






low sodium



The thermometer doesn’t need to drop below freezing for a dog to get chilled. Even cold wind and rain can cause hypothermia in some breeds. Hypothermia is the loss of core body temperature. A body temperature even a few degrees lower than 99oF can be life-threatening. Shallow breathing, shivering, weakness and lack of coordination are all signs of hypothermia -- dogs that have passed the shivering stage are in a critical state and need medical attention immediately.

cut it short

frost fears

Even the hardiest of breeds can be at risk during really extreme weather. During severe storms, and/or when the thermometer dips below -17°C and conditions are at their harshest, keep walks short or stay inside until the weather is more favourable.

As long as you understand your dog’s needs, and respect the elements, you can both enjoy everything Mother Nature throws at you during the winter! Outerwear for dogs has evolved in leaps and bounds over the last several years as manufacturers recognize that not all breeds can use the same “one size fits all” garments. A Labrador retriever may need an extra layer of warmth on a particularly cold day, but a down-filled snowsuit wouldn’t be the best choice. For a greyhound, a snowsuit is a welcome invention! Not only does it keep his legs and joints warm, but it protects his torso and internal organs as well. Tessa Kimmel has over 20 years’ experience in animal care and owns MedPet & Cozy Critters Pet Care Services, a Toronto business specializing in care for animals with medical conditions and special needs. She also works part time as a veterinary technician and shares her home with an assortment of special needs kitties. Tessa enjoys writing on pet care for a number of publications, including Animal Wellness Magazine.



Make sure the outerwear you buy is matched to your dog’s specific needs and fits properly. Choose a durable good quality product that’s wind and waterproof but also made from material that breathes. Doggie boots provide traction on slippery surfaces and are a fantastic way to protect sensitive paws. Boots prevent snow from collecting between toes and protect against sharp ice, road salt, wetness and cold. Most dogs will adjust quickly to wearing boots. After a few trial sessions, they’ll accept the boots and come to learn they make their feet feel good!






FALLWINTER Camouflage is always in style, especially for casual strolls. Try green for the boys and pink for the girls.

Keep her ears and neck warm on the coldest days with this soft and stylish pastel pink snood. Chic and elegant, this black and white houndstooth trenchcoat will ensure she’s the centre of attention.

This chocolate pom pom coat combines comfort with great looks. Love the detachable faux fur-trimmed hood!


SPRINGSUMMER Fun and vibrant, a hooded raincoat will keep him so dry you’ll be “singing in the rain”.

Doggles, a bandana and a jaunty cap complete this fellow’s cool summer look. Check out more fun and outrageous photos like this at www.dogsinduds.com

Nothing says “happy” like bright yellow. Whether it’s a light sweater or cotton t-shirt, yellow is a must-have colour for spring and summer.

Perfect for special occasions like weddings and parties, a bright oversized bowtie makes a bold fashion statement.

Fall and Winter photos courtesy of Mapleleash Canadian Canine Couture. www.mapleleash.com.






t was the mid-1950s, and I was watching an episode of Lassie. It included a typical scene in which Lassie, the steadfast companion of a boy named Jeff, runs into the farmhouse kitchen and begins barking at Mrs. Miller, Jeff’s mother. The woman turns to the dog and anxiously asks, “What’s that, Lassie? Jeff was playing on the tractor and now he’s hurt himself? Get Doctor Williams, and I’ll go see if I can help.” Mom runs out to the field, while Lassie races off to get the doctor, who of course understands every bark and whine from Lassie, and comes to the rescue as well. 24


I felt jealous of Lassie’s family and neighbours. They could all comprehend the language of dogs. At the time, I had a little beagle named Skippy. When he barked, I knew someone was coming, that he wanted to eat, that he wanted to play, that he was excited or.... Well, he barked a lot, and I mostly just guessed at what he meant. Barking is an important part of canine communication. Many people interpret a bark as a threatening sound, meaning something like, “Back off, I bite!” This is not the case, as science and history reveals.

A HISTORY OF BARKING The wild canines that eventually evolved into domestic dogs were initially attracted to humans because our primitive ancestors used to throw the leftover parts from their kills in dumps around the edges of settlements. Opportunistic wolves were happy to grab a free meal, so they began to hang around places where people lived. Ultimately, these wild canines began to see the village as their territory, too, so they would sound the alarm whenever a stranger or wild beast approached, by barking or yapping. This would alert the residents in time to rally some form of defence, if needed. As long as dogs were present, the human guards did not need to be as vigilant, thus allowing for more rest and a better lifestyle. Eventually, someone decided that if a dog’s barking can help protect the village, then a dog in the house can help protect the family. The dog’s bark could serve as a canine burglar alarm, or if the person approaching the house was friendly, a canine doorbell. Wild canines do not bark much, but domestic dogs do, so people began to select dogs for their barking ability, breeding only the loudest and most vigorous barkers to produce future generations of noisier pups. But it is important to remember that the bark is not meant as an aggressive signal, but rather an alarm. Barks warn people to the approach of something the dog happens to see, hear or smell.

The bark is not meant as an aggressive signal, but rather an alarm.

BREAKING DOWN SOUND Most animals appear to use a universal code based on three aspects of the sounds they make: pitch, duration and frequency (or repetition rate).



PITCH Low-pitched sounds, such as a dog’s growl, usually indicate threats, anger and the possibility of aggression. These are interpreted as meaning, “Stay away from me.” High-pitched sounds mean the opposite; the animal is asking to be allowed to come closer or is suggesting it is safe to approach.

DURATION Generally speaking, the longer the sound, the more likely the dog is making a conscious decision about what is happening and what he will do next. The threatening growl of an alpha male with every intention of holding his ground and not backing down will be low-pitched, long and sustained. A growl in shorter bursts and only briefly held indicates an element of fear. The dog is worried about whether he can successfully deal with an attack.

FREQUENCY Sounds repeated often and at a fast rate indicate a degree of excitement and urgency, whereas sounds that are spaced out – or not repeated at all – usually indicate a lower level of excitement. An occasional bark or two at the window is only an expression of mild interest. A dog barking in multiple bursts and repeating them many times a minute, on the other hand, feels the situation is important and perhaps even a potential crisis.



An occasional bark or two at the window is only an expression of mild interest.


Consider the common situation in which a dog barks in a pattern such as, “Woof-woof…woof-woofwoof …woof-woof.” This is the commonly heard “call the pack and check this out” pattern. If the noise is disturbing, the owner often tries to quiet the dog by shouting something like, “Be quiet,” “Stop that noise” or “Shut up!” This is exactly the wrong thing to do. The dog interprets the yelling as the same bark pattern he just used himself; in other words, he thinks his owner is sounding the alarm. If the owner, as leader of the pack, is joining in the warning, that owner should not be surprised when his dog begins to bark even more vigorously; the dog simply feels his owner’s reactions confirmed he was doing the right thing. The appropriate way to stop barking is to respond to it as a signal with a specific meaning. The dog wants something investigated, so the owner should look out the window or check the door, then calmly tell the dog, “Good guarding,” pat his head and call him back. The dog will interpret this sequence and conclude, “I asked the pack leader to check things out and no problem was detected. Therefore, there is no need to continue barking.” So the noise stops. Despite all this, I am still unable to figure out the specific signals Lassie used to tell her family that Jeff got hurt while on the tractor and needed to be rescued!

VARIATIONS ON A THEME Since barking is an alarm sound, there is no threat of aggression unless it is mixed with low-pitched growls. Variations include the following common barking patterns:

RAPID STRINGS of two to four barks, with pauses between, are the classic “alarm” barking pattern. They mean something like, “Call the pack! There is something going on that should be looked into!” A LONG STRING OF SOLITARY BARKS, with deliberate pauses between them, suggests a lonely dog asking for companionship. A STUTTER BARK, which sounds like “Harr-ruff!” – is usually presented with front legs flat on the ground and rear end held high. This simply means, “Let’s play!”

Stanley Coren is Professor Emeritus in the Department of Psychology at the University of British Columbia. He is also an award winning behavioural researcher, a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, and was named as one of the 2,000 outstanding scientists of the 20th century. His many books on dog behaviour and human-canine interactions have been international bestsellers. His awards include the prestigious Maxwell Medal of Excellence from The Dog Writers Association of America for his book Born to Bark. Coren has been featured on Oprah, Larry King, and can be heard broadcasting a radio column on CBC. His newest book is Do Dogs Dream?



The most important ingredient in any pet food is meat, whether chicken, turkey, lamb, salmon or rabbit. Learn to read pet food labels and only choose products that list protein as their first ingredient. Avoid foods that have grains as their first ingredient and try to choose foods without corn, soy or gluten, since these can be allergens for some dogs.



Fruit and vegetables contain important antioxidants, vitamins and other nutrients that make for a healthy, well-rounded diet. Choose a food that includes fresh vegetables and fruit on its ingredient list, or add these items yourself.

Raw fruit and veggies are best if you’re adding them to your dog’s diet, but because dogs don’t have the ability to break down the cellulose walls in the outer layers of these foods, it’s best to puree them before serving (or you can serve them steamed).

Good choices include carrots, broccoli, pumpkin, sweet potatoes, apples, blueberries, cranberries and cantaloupe – use organic produce whenever you can.

Veggies to avoid include onions, spinach and Swiss chard, as well as nightshade veggies such as eggplant, peppers and tomatoes – the latter can aggravate problems in dogs with arthritis and other inflammatory conditions.

We’ve been hearing a lot about carbohydrates these days – while they’re important to health, they also have to be the right kind.

It’s best to find a food free of artificial colors and flavors as well as preservatives such as BHA and BHT, which have been linked to allergies and liver problems. Ethoxyquin, another chemical preservative, has been associated with a variety of skin, immune and reproductive disorders and fortunately has been removed from most foods.

“BAD CARBS” are simple carbohydrates and include things like processed white bread, white rice and pasta as well as any food with high sugar content. These carbs are high glycemic, which means they rapidly raise blood sugar and insulin levels and can lead to weight gain.

Good or complex carbohydrates are low glycemic and include green vegetables, legumes, sweet potatoes and whole grains such as oatmeal and brown rice. Adding these foods to a meat diet will give your companion the carbs he needs without putting on the pounds.

Many foods are now using safer, more natural preservatives that do the job just as well. Rosemary and vitamins C and E not only extend a food’s shelf life, but they also provide health benefits with no negative side effects. Do check the food’s expiry date to make sure it’s still in code. On the treat side, avoid giving your dog grapes and raisins, which can be toxic and lead to acute renal failure. And, of course, keep chocolate away from your pooch.

Imagine eating the same meal every day, month after month. Not only would you soon get bored, but you’d probably be getting either not enough or too many of the vitamins and minerals you need to stay healthy. By eating a variety of foods can you get all the nutrients you need. Your dog is the just the same, so it’s important to feed him a diverse diet. Today’s premium foods offer a wide assortment of protein sources, so there’s plenty to choose from. If your animal has an allergy to beef or other meats, try one of the many alternative proteins now available such as bison, venison, duck, rabbit or wild salmon.




They put in long hours, sometimes in difficult or dangerous conditions, for no pay. They’re focused, hard-working and loyal. They bring joy and help to thousands of people – some even save lives. They’re Canada’s working canines, and they run the gamut from personal assistance pooches to detection, avalanche and search and rescue dogs. Let’s salute some of these heroic canines!

Photos courtesy of Brad Lorriman




AVALANCHE DOG Avalanches are terrifying and can happen without warning. Our warming climate means they’re becoming more common, but dogs like eight-year-old Wiser, along with his handler Kyle Hale of the Canadian Avalanche Rescue Dog Association in Golden, British Columbia, are ready to leap into action and save lives when they happen. “We are one of three operational avalanche rescue dog teams that work for the Mountain Safety Team at Kicking Horse Mountain Resort in Golden, and also volunteer to respond to avalanche rescue calls through Golden and District Search and Rescue,” says Kyle. “Wiser and I are trained to respond in difficult winter mountain terrain to search for and rescue people buried in avalanches. Wiser can detect buried human scent and cover large areas very quickly, locating people who are buried metres deep. We respond to dozens of operational callouts each season and Wiser has been involved in many large responses.”




AUTISM SERVICE DOG Thanks to a specially trained Labrador Retriever named Sadie, life has become a lot easier for Ellen Davidson, a nine-year-old with autism who lives with her family in Belleville, Ontario. Trained by Autism Dog Services, Sadie has become the little girl’s best friend as well as her service dog. “Ellen’s confidence and self-esteem have increased tremendously,” says her mother, Jennifer. “She can take Sadie with her wherever she goes, including school. Sadie is like a social magnet and helps bridge the social gap between Ellen and her classmates. People are always approaching Ellen to ask her about her dog. This gives her practise with conversation skills and helps improve her social abilities. And above all else, Sadie has made Ellen very happy! It’s heart-warming to see the smile on Ellen’s face when she is playing with Sadie.”

Photos courtesy of CBSA


AIRPORT DETECTOR DOG Known for their superb sense of smell, Beagles like detector dog Ashton are ideal for any kind of work that requires sniffing something out. Along with his handler, Nicole Bussanich of the Canadian Borders Services Agency, Ashton was recently responsible for “a significant seizure of three live birds that had been hidden in wooden crates in a passenger’s carry-on luggage,” says Maja Graham, media spokesperson for CBSA. Throughout the passenger’s arrival, Ashton kept drawing Nicole’s attention to the luggage. “Upon examination of the carry-on, three wooden boxes were seen moving and the birds were discovered. The traveler did not possess the required permits to transport the birds. This seizure was significant as the birds are a threat to Canadian habitat through foreign disease and pests.”

Ashton (with Nicole at left) poses with the wooden boxes containing live birds he detected during a recent seizure. CDNDOGS.CA


Photos courtesy of Jim Craigmyle Photography


LANDMINE DETECTION DOG Few jobs are more dangerous than detecting landmines, but some working dogs excel at it. One example is two-year-old black German Shepherd Shadow. His training began in Canada, and was completed in Kosovo as part of the acclimatization to his task. “Shadow was trained to detect landmines,” says his trainer, Sid Murray. “Having realized how thorough and sensitive a nose he has, the standard operating procedures I worked under stated that upon his completion of checking the landmine box, I had to walk in the box that he cleared. We worked for a Canadian company based in Ottawa, and Shadow was subsequently purchased by the Halo Trust and works for them in Angola, South Africa.” The Halo Trust is a non-profit that specializes in removing hazardous war debris, including landmines, in many countries around the world.


WHEELCHAIR ASSISTANCE DOG Life in a wheelchair can be difficult and frustrating, but for Al Nicolls of Ancaster, Ontario, assistance from his Standard Poodle Akita makes things run much more smoothly. Trained by the Lions Foundation of Canada Dog Guides, Akita is five years old, and helps Al with dozens of the daily tasks most of the rest of us take for granted. “She picks up various items from the floor, including pill bottles, remote controls, glasses and wallets,” says Al. “I once dropped my car keys on the ground and Akita saved me from getting out of the car, unloading my wheelchair and transferring into it, picking up my keys and then getting back into the car. A big help! She comes everywhere with me, including airplanes, buses and trains. Sometimes she even comes sailing with me!”





When Pisco, Peru was hit by a massive earthquake in 2007, Glen Turpin and his German Shepherd, Barak, members of the Ontario Volunteer Emergency Response Team, set out for the region from their home base in Oshawa to search for people killed in the disaster. “Barak is a cadaver dog, trained to locate human remains on land, water and in buildings as well as collapsed structures,” says Glen. “Most of the city had been affected and there was little in the way of canine response. We attended as a small specialized search team and spent ten days working in this area, with teams from Spain, Columbia, Mexico and Peru. After we cleared structures for live victims, the efforts turned to recovery. Barak was responsible for locating a family in a hotel.” CDNDOGS.CA




Horrific abuse as a child left Andrew Sprague struggling with symptoms of complex posttraumatic stress disorder that worsened in adulthood. But now he has a canine partner to give him support and help. Trained by National Service Dogs, Flicka, a Golden Retriever, is a skilled and certified companion dog. “She has been trained to assist me with a number of things, including the management of dissociative episodes, hyper-vigilance and affect regulation,” explains Andrew. “She has also actually been trained to give me hugs when I ask for them. I struggle with my emotions, so to have a safe, focused, and present companion that is always there for me is huge. From the moment I was first matched with Flicka, my quality of life has noticeably improved. She is always with me, and is a key figure in my ongoing recovery.”

KINJO SEARCH AND RESCUE DOG “She’s as high drive as they come,” says Paul Ogden of his canine partner Kinjo, a 19-month-old black Labrador Retriever. The pair lives in Medicine Hat, Alberta, and work as a search and rescue team. “She is trained on human scent,” explains Paul, adding that Kinjo’s parents are champion hunting dogs out of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. “She lives to work. The second she is out of the vehicle, her nose is to the ground and she’s waiting for the search command. Kinjo loves air scenting and ranges up to half a mile, quickly covering a lot of ground while still responding to whistle commands. She definitely lives up to her nickname ‘The Black Tornado’!”



Recipe from The Animal Wellness Natural Cookbook for Dogs

peanut butter What dog doesn’t love peanut butter?



1 cup peanut butter (with no added salt or sugar) You can also use other nut or seed butters

Line a cookie sheet with parchment paper. Combine peanut butter, oatmeal and carob powder. Form into small balls. Lightly dip in goat milk and roll in oatmeal or coconut, and place on cookie sheet.

1 cup oatmeal ½ cup carob powder ½ cup goat milk Oatmeal for rolling Unsweetened coconut for rolling

A note about peanut butter: Always choose peanut butter that contains no added salt or sugar. It contains 13% carbohydrates, 72% fats, and 15% protein. Do not use peanut butter if someone in your home has an allergy to it. Instead try almond butter, hempseed butter or tahini, a seed butter made from sesame seeds.



Place in refrigerator until serving. For extra flair, top each truffle with a sun dried cranberry. The truffles freeze beautifully in Ziploc bags.




Establishing a healthy connection from the start will ensure a meaningful friendship that lasts a lifetime.



Forging a healthy bond with a new puppy is a fun and enriching journey. Here are are some simple ways to weave strong threads of friendship with your new friend. Start by giving the puppy the opportunity to come over and investigate you. Allow her to smell you and get comfortable with your presence; this helps her understand you are not a threat and are respectful of her space. She’ll appreciate not being overwhelmed by hugs and cuddles, and having the chance to check you out before you touch her.



Once your new friend has sniffed you and exhibited signs of being relaxed around you, begin the interaction. Start by calling her to you in a calm, happy voice, and tell her what a good dog she is as soon as she shows interest in you.

Bringing your puppy home is when the fun really begins, since most of the bonding will occur once she is a member of your family.

When she comes to you, offer her a treat or pet her on the chest. Once you have met and become comfortable with each other, pull out a toy and engage her in some play. This will establish that you are a respectful friend she can trust and have fun with.

The most important steps to building a strong connection will involve the seemingly small, insignificant things you do for your pup every single day. By feeding her, walking her, taking her outside to potty, training her and playing with her, you’ll teach her that you are the source of all the good things in her life.



When it’s feeding time, engage your puppy before she gets to eat. Have her sit and wait while you prepare her meal, then ask her to lie down and wait as you set the food in front of her. Give her a release command to signify she may eat, and do not bother her until she is finished. This exercise teaches her to respect her role in the family while building trust during a structured routine. She also learns that you will not create stress or take her food once you’ve given it to her. This level of trust is important when building a bond between yourself and your pup. If she believes she has to defend her food or eat it quickly before you take it away, you connection will be negatively impacted.



Training is one of the best ways to establish a strong bond between you and your puppy – as long as it is built on a foundation of communication, trust and understanding. Working with your dog and teaching her various obedience commands helps you learn to communicate effectively with each other, and to trust one another.


Dogs want to make their owners happy, so by working together and communicating effectively, you fulfill this need-to-please desire. Always use gentle, positive, reward-based training.


8 9

Play is another major factor in bond-building. Games like fetch, tug-of-war, chase and “find it” will strengthen your connection by making you the focus of your puppy’s happiness and excitement. Don’t be afraid to goof around and laugh; she’ll appreciate the positive energy coming from you!


Touch and one-on-one quiet time are among the most powerful bonding tools we can use, especially for pups that enjoy cuddling on the couch or lying by your side while being stroked. Dogs communicate through touch just as they do with body language. Use petting, massages and ear scratches to share mutual affection with your furry friend. Watch for cues to ensure your puppy fully enjoys this sort of attention; stress can be counterproductive to bond-building.

The little things in life can strengthen the connection between you and your dog, so consider taking her with you to run errands, if weather permits. Dogs always benefit from extra time out of the house, with you. If you have some gardening or other outdoor work to do, give her something healthy to chew on so she can hang out with you while you work.

Once she reaches physical maturity at around two years of age, your puppy can make the perfect exercise partner, and doing these fun activities together will strengthen your friendship. Many dogs make excellent running or jogging partners (keep in mind that strenuous activities are not suitable for young puppies). This form of exercise is a great structured activity that relieves boredom, releases energy and gives your dog a job to do. When she’s old enough, consider a variety of activities such as hiking, cycling, walking, swimming, soccer and skijoring. Your dog will feel closer to you when she’s included in your exercise routines.


Last but not least, remember to take time every day to appreciate and love your pup for all the joy and love she adds to your life. Sharing mutual love and respect is the secret to a powerful connection that will last a lifetime!

Caitlin “Angel” Leandres is a dog nutritionist, trainer and blogger at K9 Instinct from Ontario, Canada. She spends a lot of time hiking with her German Shepherd Hunter, and also competes in various dog sports such as Schutzhund/IPO, PSA, competitive obedience and lure coursing. Angel and Hunter also volunteer their time as a Wildlife Control K9 team in Ontario!








If you’re like most Canadians, you love to travel. And it’s only natural that you want your four-legged family members tagging along when you explore new destinations or visit loved ones.


ensure that both you and your dog are prepared for the journey. Whether you are travelling by plane, train, or automobile, be proactive in seeking out rules and regulations – and be sure to have a travel plan for both you and your pup.

FORMULATING A TRAVEL PLAN During the planning stages of your vacation, it is essential that you contact any and all transportation service providers that you may use for pet transport – even if it is just the public transit of the area you will be visiting. Rules vary in different countries, provinces and cities – and they are subject to change. It is equally important to make sure both you and your pooch are well trained for your adventure. Travel can be stressful for pets – even in your own car. A bit of planning can help turn your dog into a confident voyage-mate and make your travels that much more rewarding. Ideally, the first steps to making your dog a comfortable traveller will happen when she is a still a puppy, though you can definitely teach an old dog new See “Crate Dos & travel tricks. A major part of travel training is getting your dog comfortable with Don’ts” on p 210 her kennel or crate. Chances are good that she will be in her crate for at least part of the journey – particularly if you are taking public transportation.

AUTOMOBILES Getting your dog acclimatized to automobile travel is the first step to getting her ready for more complicated types of transport. Start by having your dog get in and out of the car, and make sure she’s comfortable sitting in the driveway before you head off on any car trips. Keep initial journeys short and pleasant; an outing to the park, for instance, will be more pleasantly remembered than a CDNDOGS.CA


trip to the vet. Though it’s tempting to let your dog hang her head out the window, experts don’t recommend it.


Once you have introduced your dog to your vehicle, it is a good idea to get her used to being in it frequently and for extended periods. Bring her along when you are running errands or dropping your kids off to school. You can even go out for fun jaunts across town or into the country in order to build up familiarity. However, if it’s a hot summer day, never leave your dog shut in a parked car! During early in-car training, use favourite treats or toys to distract your dog and make the experience more comfortable. It may be beneficial to provide a comfortable view out the window (if possible) during these voyages.

“Keep windows closed sufficiently to keep dogs out of the wind, for their ears’ and eyes’ sake, and to avoid the pet jumping out, or people reaching in,” advises Dr. Troye McPherson, Nova Scotia’s representative with the Canadian Veterinary Medical Association (CVMA). Dr. Troye also warns against exposing your dog to heat or cold stress and reminds us that, as with human beings, safety precautions for dogs are a must. In fact, the CVMA recommends that all pets be protected during transport by the use of secured and sturdy enclosures or with tethering devices such as seatbelts. “Most carriers are suitable for travelling in cars,” explains Dr. McPherson. “It’s best to secure them with a seatbelt to avoid any sudden carrier movement. Dog seatbelts can be purchased for dogs of all sizes and can be attached to your own backseat seatbelt clips.” Since an unsecured dog can be a hazard to himself as well as a danger to the driver, many owners are now using these restraining devices. It pays to start training early. “We did a great job training Cedar to either sit or lie down when in the car,” says pet owner Krista Campbell. “She knew we wouldn’t go anywhere until her bum was on the seat. We’ve recently started clipping Cedar in with a seatbelt, and it’s been a whole lot easier with her already being backseat trained.” With pet seatbelt laws becoming mandatory in parts of the United States, there is a growing list of options for restraining devices. The most popular are simple harnesses or belt systems that hug your dog’s body and clip into existing seatbelt buckles. These will range in materials from reinforced nylon strapping to faux lambskin or cotton-lined vests. Other backseat options include doggie car beds. Designed to help a dog feel more comfortable, the slightly raised mattresses also allow smaller dogs to see out the window.






Finally, many travellers have invested in seat extenders. These products cover the gap between the edge of the back seat and the back of the front seat, preventing active dogs from falling between the two. “Poor Cedar took one too many tumbles for our liking,” admits Krista. “Your dog’s feet should be underneath them in the car, not facing skywards. Between her harness and seat extender, she now has plenty of room to stretch out.”

PLANES, TRAINS AND…BUSES? Once your dog is used to the car, it’s time to consider the complexities of air or train travel. Now, before you get too excited about bringing your pup on your trip, check to make sure your mode of transportation is pet-friendly. When it comes to air travel, most Canadian flights will allow only small, crated dogs in the cabin. The kennel must be able to fit beneath the seats – on WestJet, for instance, maximum kennel size is 40 cm x 44 cm x 21.5 cm. Bigger breeds fly as checked baggage, though you should check for size limitations. WestJet allows a maximum of 45kg for crate and dog combined. The crate must be smaller than 91 cm x 61 cm x 66 cm. There are specific regulations for the types of carrier accepted. It is imperative that you contact your travel service provider, or visit the airline’s website before booking. As for rail travel, Via Rail allows small dogs on passenger cars – they should be kept in rigid cages large enough for them to stand in. It is important to note that you must provide a padlock to keep your cage shut. Larger dogs will be transported in baggage cars – at least during parts of the year. From June 1 to August 31, baggage cars cannot transport animals due to lack of proper ventilation. The exception is Via’s “Ocean Line” (between Montreal and Halifax), which has air conditioned cargo areas, and allows larger dogs year round. Looking at municipal transit, things get more complicated. Regional buses (and associated subways, streetcars and light rail) all have their own rules and regulations regarding pets. The policies range from the strict (Halifax states that “pets are not allowed on Metro Transit vehicles unless properly restrained in a closed cage”) to CDNDOGS.CA


the fancy-free (Calgary welcomes any leashed dog). In Toronto, the TTC has different rules for different times of day: “Leashed pets or pets secured in an enclosed container are welcome to travel on the TTC during weekday off-peak periods -- that is, before 6:30 am; 10:00 am to 3:30 pm; after 7:00 pm. The driver can refuse to allow the pet on board if there are any concerns about the safety or comfort of the other riders.” Your best bet is to call ahead or look online. What about coach lines? With the exception of service dogs, national coach lines such as Greyhound or Coach Canada maintain a strict no-dogs policy.

ON THE ROAD AGAIN In order to make your pet’s trip a safe and enjoyable one, precautions should be taken for readying cages for transport. Dale Cannon, Ontario Sales Manager for WestJet Cargo, suggests that food, water, and toys not be put into a travelling crate. “Food and water can cause issues for dogs that experience nausea,” she advises. “And even dogs that you think are impervious to sickness can experience this. Toys can easily become choking hazards.” A familiar bed or small piece of clothing – particularly one with your scent on it – is always a good idea. A dog’s health should also be taken into consideration. “It’s a good idea to have your pet examined by your veterinarian prior to your departure to ensure she is in good health and able to endure the rigours of air or rail travel,” suggests Dr. McPherson. Puppies under the age of eight weeks are unfit for extended travel. To those who may be tempted to try and calm nauseous or stressed dogs with medication, Dr. McPherson suggests exercising caution. “Tranquillizers and sedatives are not usually recommended for pets, except on the advice of your veterinarian. This is because sedation can result in serious complications. For example, it can inhibit your pet’s ability to regulate her body temperature or cause breathing problems.” While there is much to consider when prepping animals for travel, it is important to note that the stress on animals is often short-lived. In some cases, it is not present at all. There is a world of wonders waiting for Canadian travellers. And this is equally true for the dogs that accompany them. With a bit of foresight, these adventures can be shared by all.

When he’s not traveling with his canine companion, Cedar, Donald Fraser writes for television, radio, and newsprint publications across Canada.





one two

three four

things your


wished you knew




TAKE YOUR TIME AND USE THE RIGHT SHAMPOO When a professional grooms your dog, the groomer’s hands massage the dog’s coat while shampooing, giving her an opportunity to find bumps and lumps a veterinarian may miss. She will also look over the skin and coat for problems. If you’re grooming or bathing at home, take your time. In addition, use the right shampoo or conditioner or you may cause a dull coat. Human products are not meant for dogs and cats. When selecting a shampoo and conditioner, keep in mind that different coat types often need specialized products. A dog with dry skin will often benefit from an oatmeal shampoo, for instance. Consult with a groomer for help choosing the right ones for your animal.



How often a dog needs to be groomed can vary widely. Dogs with longer coats need grooming more often because of their tendency to develop mats, which can cause a lot of issues. Here are some ways to prevent the problem: • Brush longer-haired animals between visits to the groomer. A critical time is when the animal’s coat is wet; for example, when he comes in after a walk in damp weather. Mats can form when 48


the hair is wet because it becomes pliable and stretchy; when the coat dries, it shrinks and tangles. •T  o help keep down mats, you need to do more than a light brushing. The brush or comb needs to start at the skin and be gently pulled to the ends of the hair. • Those who groom at home sometimes miss areas where mats congregate. Common problem areas include the leg pits, the animal’s belly, behind the ears, and between the back legs. • Don’t choose to ignore mats. Skin problems can occur underneath, where trapped moisture breeds bacteria and provides a perfect residence for bugs. One of the worst things you can do is just take the animal to the groomer once or twice a year rather than keep up with the mats yourself. A groomer cannot always shave a badly matted dog, and even if she can get the shaver down to the skin, the process is often painful, because unexposed skin underneath the mat is now very sensitive. Sometimes the groomer must use a surgical blade, and risks nicking the animal. When working with badly matted animals, clipper burns and irritated skin are common. Mats can also hide other materials such as burrs that the dog has collected along the way.




Simply depositing your dog on a groomer’s doorstep can traumatize him. Your dog will do better if you introduce her to the groomer gradually, even before you decide you need the groomer’s services. The best time to start the introduction is when the animal is young. Bring her in for the first time at about three months of age. Although dogs typically don’t need to be clipped or groomed this young, it’s a good time to introduce her to the noise and vibration of the clippers. And while no animal likes being left in a strange place by his guardian, by starting young you give her a chance to get used to the idea of going to the groomer and feeling comfortable with the process. Most groomers offer this service at a reduced “puppy” rate.

GET HIM USED TO HAVING HIS PAWS HANDLED Get him used to having his paws handled. Many dogs hate to have their nails clipped. Taking them to the groomer to have it done doesn’t change their dread. Dogs and cats need to be worked into the concept. Once again, the best time to begin training is when the animal is young. A good technique is to take hold of his paw and quickly offer a treat, such as a piece of hard cheese or chewy meat, while you hold onto his foot for a moment. Once he learns to accept this, start playing with his toes. Practice holding onto the paw for longer periods of time, and be sure to offer plenty of rewards. Once he fully accepts this handling, you can start snipping one or two nails at a time. By working slowly up to the task, the animal learns to accept nail trimming instead of fighting it.








Peggy Swager has a degree in biology and chemistry, and for years worked in the chemistry field before turning to the field of animal behaviour. Now an award-winning writer, she authors articles on a wide range of topics, including animal health and training. Swager is also the author of Training the Hard to Train Dog, as well as the creator of the DVD, Separation Anxiety – A Weekend Technique.



It’s a









one are the days when our canine buddies lived outside in dog houses. At night, you can find most dogs curled up at our feet or on cushy beds of their own. So what else has changed for our canine companions? Quite a lot, as it happens. Our canine companions now enjoy many of the same things that humans do. Here’s a list of the biggest changes we’ve seen in the last decade or so.

Just as we benefit from nutritional supplements, so can our dogs. Whether for general wellness or specific health conditions, supplements provide biologically active and available nutrients. When choosing a product for your dog, ask yourself the following three questions. 1. Are you getting good value? – When comparing supplements, examine the suggested serving size relative to the size of the product. A less expensive product may contain fewer servings despite being in a larger container. It may also contain less active ingredients per serving. A smaller container, on the other hand, may have a higher price tag but offer more servings and a higher quantity of active ingredients. 2. Will it be easy to use? – Generally, supplements are either in pill (tablet/ capsule), powder or liquid form. Pill administration can be daunting for both you

THE PAMPERED PALATE Dog food is no longer just dog food. Vast improvements in canine nutrition mean today’s canines have access to an ever-increasing variety of healthy, premium foods almost good enough for people to eat, and in specially-formulated lines that offer a wide range of flavours and protein sources. Some people are even choosing raw or homemade cooked diets for their dogs. And nutritional supplements aren’t just for people anymore – you can get vitamins, minerals, essential fatty acids, glucosamine, herbal formulas and many other products formulated especially for canine metabolisms and health issues.

and your dog. Powders and liquids, however, are simply mixed with food. Chances are, you’ll be more inclined to use a product if it’s easy to administer. 3.  Is it GMP licensed? – Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) is a licence issued by Health Canada to manufacturers of both human and animal health products. Besides inspections and





include testing to verify the integrity of all raw materials before use in products, regardless of their country of origin. GMP is also a means

NEW VACCINE SCHEDULE Annual boosters used to be the routine thing. No one – owners or vets – wondered if all these vaccines were necessary, or questioned what they were doing to canine well being. Thanks to new studies, we now know that vaccines have a much longer duration of immunity than first thought (sometimes for life!). And since over-vaccination can cause other health-related issues, veterinarians are wisely choosing to vaccinate far less frequently. Blood titres are also available to determine

of regulating standards for labelling and ingredient claims. These protocols guarantee safety, potency, quality and freshness. Contact the manufacturer to confirm they are GMP licensed. Third party organizations, like the NASC (National Animal Supplement Council), help regulate GMP standards through their own quality and audit processes. Look for the NASC logo on quality supplement labels.



if your dog is still protected. In Canada, the only vaccine that is government-mandated is the rabies vaccine, but even that has changed to a three-year schedule. Studies are currently being conducted that could see the three-year vaccine moved to an even longer interval.

DR. JEAN DODDS’ MINIMAL VACCINE SCHEDULE (Note: the following should not be interpreted to mean that other protocols recommended by a veterinarian would be less satisfactory. It’s a matter of professional judgment and choice.)



9 - 10 weeks

Distemper + Parvovirus, MLV (e.g. Nobivac DPV)

14 weeks

Same as above

16 -18 weeks (optional)

Same as above (optional)

20 weeks or older, if allowable by law


1 year

Distemper + Parvovirus, MLV (or a titre may be run instead)

1 year

Rabies, killed 3-year product (give 3-4 weeks apart from distemper/parvovirus booster)

NEW THERAPIES As alternative medicine for humans becomes more accepted, the same therapies are being offered for our canine companions. Acupuncture, massage and chiropractic are just a few of the treatments that are helping. Some vet clinics have rehabilitation facilities to help injured dogs recover their mobility – these include hydrotherapy pools, treadmills and other features that would have been unheard of years ago.

DISASTER PLANNING Over the last decade or so we’ve been hit with some serious disasters – from flash flooding in Calgary and wildfires in BC, to last summer’s tragic train derailment in Lac-Megantic, Quebec. These catastrophes have brought to light the need for better disaster planning and response, not just for people, but for animals as well. In 2003, the Canadian Disaster Animal Response Team was founded to help people better care for their pets in emergency situations. See their article on p. 98.




HIGH-TECH OPTIONS Many high-tech medical procedures and diagnostic tools have made their way into veterinary medicine in recent years. Once for humans only, diagnostics such as cat scans and MRIs are now also available for dogs. Laser therapy and stem cell therapy have burgeoning applications for dogs, while cataract removal and pacemaker implantation are becoming commonplace.

UNDERSTANDING, LOVE AND RESPECT IT’S THE LAW! While there’s still work to be done, anti-cruelty laws are considerably tougher now than they used to be. Formerly, the legal system virtually turned a blind eye to animal cruelty, or only offered perpetrators a slap on the wrist. Now, those charged of animal cruelty or neglect can face hefty fines and jail time. And for the first time in history, you can hire lawyers who actually specialize in animal welfare cases – some law schools now even offer courses on animal law.

LAST WILL AND TESTAMENT In our parents’ day, those who left money to their dogs in their wills were considered eccentric at best. Now, savvy animal lovers are much more likely to factor their animals into their estate planning so their beloved companions won’t suffer if left without a caregiver. There have even been several comprehensive books written on the topic of estate planning for companion animals, such as Fat Cats and Lucky Dogs by Barry Seltzer, a Toronto-based estate planner, and Professor Gerry W. Beyer.

More people today are tuned in to the fact that animals have feelings and can experience fear, love, anxiety, grief and joy just as we do. We’ve learned a lot in recent years about the connection between a dog’s emotions and his behaviour, and how “bad” habits most often arise from misunderstanding, negative training or abuse, all of which hurt a dog mentally and emotionally as well as physically. Animal behaviourists, once unheard of, now help thousands of people whose dogs exhibit problem behaviours; they not only work with the animals to solve the behaviours, but also help their owners better understand their companions. Meanwhile, a growing number of dog trainers have rejected punishmentbased training in favour of gentle, positive, rewardbased training – instead of hurting or shouting at a dog for doing something “wrong”, positive behavior is reinforced by rewarding the dog when he responds correctly. What could be better for your best friend?

IS HE INSURED? Many people today want the best care for their dogs should they become ill or injured. Trouble is, that care can be extremely expensive. Hence the rise of companies offering health insurance for animals. Just like insurance for humans, these companies offer a range of policies to suit your pocketbook as well as your dog’s needs. You pay premiums, just as you would with any other insurance policy, so that if you’re ever hit with a large veterinary bill, you’ll be covered, if not wholly than at least partially. It does away with being forced to make a heartbreaking decision if your pooch ever needs healthcare you can’t afford.

FASHION STATEMENT People once assumed that because dogs have “fur”, they can’t feel cold or heat, or care when they get rained on or have to walk on baking hot asphalt. Truth is, dogs that spend most of their time indoors are just as prone as we are to feeling uncomfortable when they go out in inclement weather. Hence the proliferation of warm and/or waterproof coats, jackets and sweaters created just for dogs, in all kinds of state-of-the-art fabrics, styles, colours and designs. Not to mention doggie boots to protect delicate pads from hot pavement, gravel, snow, ice and road salt. For the latest fashion trends, see p. 22.

Ann Brightman is Managing Editor for Animal Wellness Magazine and Integrative Veterinary Care. A lifelong animal lover, she has also been a writer and editor for nearly 25 years. Ann is a member of the Professional Writers Association of Canada, and lives in Cobourg, Ontario.





stress-busting foods BY SUZI BEBER



Is your dog too antsy? Adding this healthy fare to his diet will help him chill.



1 bunch kale 1 tablespoon extra virgin olive oil

1 Blueberries

A whole foods diet that includes fresh blueberries can be a great way to provide your dog with mini-powerhouses of vitamins, minerals and antioxidants, which help protect him from the effects of stress. Wild blueberries have even more valuable polyphenols than cultivated blueberries. Simply add a few to food before serving.

2 Kale

Leafy greens like kale are packed with nutrients, including vitamins A, B6, C and K, along with calcium, manganese, copper, potassium and iron. Kale is a great source of fibre, and is loaded with antioxidants, phytonutrients and carotenoids. The beta carotene and lutein in kale help protect against oxidative stress, chronic inflammation and even cancer.

1 teaspoon sea salt

INSTRUCTIONS Choose organic ingredients whenever possible. Preheat oven to 350°F. Line a cookie sheet with parchment paper. Remove the leaves from the thick outer stems of the kale. Cut or tear the leaves into bite-sized pieces. Wash them with filtered water, then dry them in a salad spinner or pat them dry with paper towel or a tea towel. Spread the bite-sized pieces of kale on the cookie sheet. Drizzle with olive oil and sprinkle with sea salt. Bake for 10 to 15 minutes, until the edges of the leaves are turning golden in color. Remove from the oven, cool and enjoy! Store in an open container, so the chips don’t lose their crunch (or you can always put them back in the oven to get the crunch back).



3 sweet potatoes

Sweet potatoes are packed with antioxidants and are a terrific source of vitamin E. Sweet potatoes also contain other important nutrients, including vitamins A, B6 and C, calcium, iron, folate, potassium, copper, thiamine and iron. They offer complex carbohydrates to help regulate blood sugar levels and even insulin resistance. Their potassium helps maintain fluid and electrolyte balance, which is good for maintaining healthy heart function and reducing stress.

4 beef

Did you know that beef is a natural antidepressant? The B vitamins it contains can regulate stress levels. Beef is very rich in folic acid, and also contains pantothenic acid, also known as vitamin B5, which is great for anxiety. This vitamin enables the production of anti-stress hormones in the adrenal gland that controls the release of cortisol. And increased presence of pantothenic acid reduces blood cortisol and dulls the body’s response to stress. Beef liver is a great source of pantothenic acid.

Did you know that beef is a natural antidepressant?



5 turkey

If your dog seems overly anxious in the evening hours, you may want to consider adding turkey to his diet. It’s a good source of L-tryptophan, an amino acid often associated with the regulation of sleep. Tryptophan also produces what researchers call “feel good chemicals”; it is a precursor to serotonin, a neurotransmitter that helps both humans and dogs feel cool, calm and collected.

6 oily fish

Research has demonstrated that Omega-3 fatty acids can help suppress the production of adrenaline that leads to the “fight or flight” response. Too much adrenaline can cause anxiety and even aggression. That adrenaline rush can be slowed simply by feeding whole foods rich in Omega-3 fatty acids, like those found in wild salmon, mackerel, sardines and tuna. Fatty fish also contains vitamins A and D, which help battle stress. Salmon is extra special because it contains L-tryptophan too.

7 quinoa

Quinoa is considered a pseudo-grain, because it is technically not a member of the grain family. Even so, most people consider it a true cereal grain simply because its nutritional value, preparation and use are very similar. Quinoa contains stress-reducing B vitamins, calcium, iron, fibre, potassium and zinc, and because it contains eight essential amino acids, it is considered a whole protein.

doggone good quinoa taboule INGREDIENTS

1½ cups cooked quinoa ½ cup finely chopped fresh flat parsley 1 tablespoon finely chopped fresh mint 1½ teaspoons finely chopped fresh basil 1/8 cup extra virgin olive oil or hemp seed oil

INSTRUCTIONS Simply combine all the ingredients and add a tablespoon to your dog’s regular meal for an extra nutritional and stress-free boost of flavour.

8whole whole oats/ brown rice

Fiber rich complex carbohydrates slow down the rate of digestion and enhance the absorption of tryptophan, which in turn is used to manufacture serotonin. Keeping serotonin production nice and steady helps prevent spikes in blood sugar levels. Serotonin is nature’s antidepressant. Whole oats are a great choice for dogs because they don’t overwhelm the blood with sugars, causing a surge in insulin. Whole brown rice is another great choice. CDNDOGS.CA


9 almonds

Almonds contain vitamin E, B vitamins, magnesium and zinc. Magnesium supports healthy nervous system function and the production of “happy” chemicals in the brain, helping the body become more resilient during bouts of stress because nerves and muscles are more relaxed. Instead of peanut butter, try some almond butter when stuffing a Kong toy!

Oat ’n pumpkin crunch INGREDIENTS 4 cups whole oat flour 1 tablespoon cinnamon 1 tablespoon carob powder 1 tablespoon ground pumpkin seeds 1 tablespoon ground almonds or ground Brazil nuts, or a combination 3 cups unsweetened pumpkin pureé

10 pumpkin seeds

Pumpkin seeds contain L-tryptophan as well as glutamate, which is required in the synthesis of GAGA, an anti-stress neurochemical. Pumpkin seeds are a good source of vitamin E, which protects tissue cells from free radicals, and they also contain selenium, an antioxidant that helps support the immune system. A deficiency in selenium has been linked to increased anxiety, depression and fatigue.

INSTRUCTIONS Line a large cookie sheet with parchment paper. Combine dry ingredients in a large bowl. Add the pumpkin pureé, mixing until the dough pulls away from the sides of the bowl. Knead the dough a few times, then roll out on a lightly floured surface to 1/8” thickness. Using a pizza cutter or sharp knife, score the dough to make treats any size you like; or use a cookie cutter. Place cookie sheet in the oven, and turn on to 350°F. When the oven has reached this temperature, turn it down to 175°F and leave the biscuits to slowly bake for two hours, or until they have real “crunch”. Remove from the oven and cool completely before storing in a cookie jar or Ziploc bag.



Suzi Beber has been creating special needs diets for cats and dogs for many years. Following the loss of her beloved Golden Retriever, Blues, she founded The Smiling Blue Skies Cancer Fund through the University of Guelph’s Pet Trust. She is the only two-time recipient of the Golden Retriever Club of Canada’s Silmaril Kennel Trophy for the Human/Animal Bond.





first aid

PROBLEMS Chances are, you’ll experience one or more health emergencies with your dog during his lifetime. So it’s beneficial to know some first aid procedures. The first step in any emergency, of course, is to call your veterinarian for professional help, but there are also things you can do to help your dog until you can reach the clinic. Here are some of the most common emergencies a dog owner might experience, and some useful tips on how to assess the problem, administer first care, and stabilize an injured dog. ALLERGIC reactions. Clinical signs include sudden swelling in the facial area, or hives. The dog may become restless, and experience vomiting and diarrhea. Severe anaphylactic reactions are rare. Possible culprits for a reaction are insect bites, food allergies and vaccinations, with symptoms usually occurring within 30 minutes of exposure. If clinical signs are mild, you can try orally administering benadryl (diphenhydramine) at a dose of 2 to 4 mg/kg every eight hours, and giving oral homeopathic Apis (available at your health store) every few hours. Clinical signs should resolve within 24 hours.

TOXIN ingestion. If your dog has consumed any suspicious substance, call your vet or poison control centre to determine if action is required. If it is not a corrosive substance, and was swallowed within the last hour, vomiting may be indicated. If your veterinarian agrees, try inducing vomiting by giving 3% hydrogen peroxide (0.5 to 1 ml/lb) by mouth.



WOUNDS and BURNS. Be aware that injured dogs are likely to be in a lot of pain, so it may be helpful to muzzle him with a leash, rope or long piece of gauze to prevent him from biting you. If he has suffered a bite or cut, put pressure on the wound to stop any bleeding. If the bleeding is minor, flush the wound with copious amounts of lukewarm water. For burns, do not break any blisters or apply butter-like substances. Bandage with clean gauze and keep the bandages wet. Even minor wounds should be seen by your veterinarian for assessment and treatment in case of infection. Homeopathic Arnica (available at drug and health food stores) can help with pain and bruising.

Bandages like this one from PawFlex should be soft, comfortable and breathable, as well as water-resistant and easy to put on. For more info, visit PawFlex.com or call 718-648-8685.


FOREIGN OBJECTS. If you see your dog swallow a foreign object such as a rock, piece of clothing, a ball, toy or dental floss, he may be in danger of a gastrointestinal obstruction or intestinal tear – get him to a vet ASAP. Examine the underside of the tongue for any string, or anything caught in the throat.


Hydrogen peroxide can be used to induce vomiting, if deemed safe by your veterinarian.

Blunt force

TRAUMA. If your dog has suffered serious trauma from a car accident or fall, he may

have significant internal bleeding or broken bones. Secure any possible broken bones with a wooden

splint or thick bandage. Use a blanket to gently transport your dog. If significant bleeding occurs, apply pressure and use bandages or cloth to firmly wrap the wounds. The Chinese remedy Yunnan Bai Yao can be administered orally to help stop bleeding. Keep him warm and transport him to your veterinarian as soon as possible.

FROSTBITE and HYPOTHERMIA. Hypothermia occurs if the dog’s core temperature drops below 32°C. Areas of the body most commonly affected by frostbite are the tips of the ears, tail and foot pads. Move the dog to a warm environment and wrap him in warm blankets. Apply warm water bottles to the armpits and groin areas, or place him on a heating pad (wrap bottles and pads in towels to protect the skin from thermal burns). You can also immerse your dog in a warm (not too hot) bath. Do not rub any areas of the skin you suspect are frostbitten, and be aware that amputation of frozen tissue may be necessary.

SEIZURES. These can be caused by a variety of conditions, including epilepsy, congenital defects and toxin ingestion. The dog will often collapse and experience uncontrollable shaking for no longer than three minutes. Remain calm, and make sure he is on the floor and away from sharp or hard objects. Glance at the clock to record the seizure’s duration. Firm acupressure just below the nose, and on the top of the head between the ears, may help hasten the end of the seizure.




HEATSTROKE. A dog suffering from heatstroke may display clinical signs such as rapid panting, bright red tongue, weakness, vomiting, shock and coma. Remove him from the hot area immediately. Attempt to lower his temperature by wetting him down with cool to lukewarm water (not too cold, or it will slow blood circulation), and putting him near a fan. His rectal temperature should be checked every few minutes until his body temperature reaches 39°C. Even if your dog appears to recover, take him to the veterinarian immediately as further internal complications and dehydration are concerns.

FIRST AID KIT CHECKLIST •P  HONE numbers of your veterinarian, after hours emergency clinic, and poison control • Muzzle, or roll of GAUZE for making a muzzle • Scissors, TWEEZERS, pliers, magnifying glass, wire cutters • PENLIGHT • Cotton SWABS

SKUNK SPRAY. Since most dog owners don’t have

• Clean TOWELS

a specific odour remover at hand, try this homemade

• Rectal thermometer and lubricant such as KY JELLY

recipe: 1 quart 3% hydrogen peroxide

• Disposable GLOVES

1/4 cup baking soda 1 teaspoon liquid soap Apply it to his coat, leave on for a few minutes, and repeat several times with a new solution each time. The odour of skunk on your dog is often priority number one, but don’t forget to check him over for bite wounds, and make sure his rabies status is up to date. If his eyes are irritated, he may need an eye ointment from your veterinarian, or try homeopathic Euphrasia.

• Bitter apple or other products to discourage licking • Two BLANKETS – one to use as a stretcher and another to keep dog warm • Cold packs and heat PACKS •B  ANDAGE materials - sterile gauze, nonstick pads, first aid tape, and bandage rolls • Wound disinfectant such as Betadine • Triple antibiotic OINTMENT for skin and another for eyes • Sterile SALINE • BENADRYL for allergic reactions


• 3% hydrogen peroxide to induce vomiting • High sugar source such as Karo syrup

PORCUPINE QUILLS. They have barbs on the end that make

• Bottled WATER

them difficult to remove. Stop your dog from pawing at the quills,


as they can migrate under the skin. If there are only a few, and

• Wooden paint mixing sticks for making SPLINTS

you want to attempt to remove them on your own, use a pair of pliers, grab the quill as close to the skin as possible, and pull straight out. Don’t try to cut the quills beforehand. If there are quills in the mouth, chest, or broken off under the skin, seek veterinary attention immediately, as they can be potentially life-threatening. Dr. Gina McLachlan graduated from the Western College of Veterinary Medicine in Saskatoon in 1993. She holds certifications in both veterinary acupuncture and Traditional Chinese herbal medicine. She has also trained in osteopathy and Traditional Chinese food therapy medicine. She currently works in an integrative small animal practice in Edmonton, Alberta.



• Yunnan Bai Yao, HOMEOPATHIC Apis, Euphrasia and Arnica



guess these WE’VE LAUGHED, CRIED AND WATCHED IN SUSPENSE. For decades, dogs have been entertaining us on TV and in the movies. Now, thanks to internet phenomena YouTube and Netflix, new viewers are discovering some of these canine stars for the first time.

TEST your celebrity dog knowledge by correctly guessing the shows that made these animal actors so famous. See if you can guess the breed, too! Turn to PAGE 66 for the correct answers.






Peanuts comic strip,

A Charlie Brown Christmas, Beagle

Commonly thought to be a Beagle, Snoopy was created by Charles M. Schultz for his comic strip, Peanuts, which ran from 1950 to 2000 (and thereafter in re-runs). Snoopy became a central figure and star of all the television specials that were based on the comic strip. The first, A Charlie Brown Christmas, still airs every holiday season. Originally a “normal” dog, Snoopy was eventually humanized by Schultz so that he walked on two legs and began “talking” via thought bubbles. Schultz also moved Snoopy from inside the doghouse to the roof, and it became a prop for Snoopy’s Red Baron fantasy world.


(real name Chris),

St. Bernard

The movie debuted in 1992, starred Charles Grodin and Bonnie Hunt, and went on to inspire a further six films. The lead character, played by a St. Bernard named Chris, also starred in the first sequel, Beethoven’s 2nd. Unfortunately, Chris died shortly after making the second film and replacements were used in the remaining films.

Eddie Crane

(real name Moose), Frasier,

Jack Russell Terrier

Famous for his ability to stare down Frasier (Kelsey Grammer), Eddie achieved such popularity that at one point he received more fan mail than the human actors on the show. Eddie was played to perfection by Moose, who landed the role after only six months of training. Moose’s son, Enzo, later took over for his dad as a stunt double in the more physical scenes, and replaced his dad completely when Moose retired. Moose died at home in 2006 from natural causes, at the age of 15½.

Bruiser (real name Moondoggie), Legally Blonde and Legally Blonde 2, Short-haired Chihuahua

Legally Blonde was a turning point for actor Reese Witherspoon, and her adorable co-star Bruiser helped “seal the deal”. Bruiser was played by Moondoggie (Moonie), a petite Chihuahua who owner and trainer Sue Chipperton acquired as a stand-in for her other famous Chihuahua actor, Gidget, the Taco Bell dog. But Moonie never grew big enough to impersonate Gidget, so he landed a career of his own. Unforgettable in his designer duds, the dog bonded well with Witherspoon, perhaps due to the real pieces of chicken the actor held in her hands for various scenes. Moonie reunited with Witherspoon in 2010 when she received her star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.




(real name Buddy),

Air Bud and Full House, Golden Retriever

In 1989, Kevin di Cicco found a disheveled stray Golden Retriever in the Sierra Nevada mountains. He took the dog, who he named Buddy, home to San Diego and trained him how to play basketball, baseball, football, soccer and hockey. After appearing on America’s Funniest Home Videos, Buddy performed on a segment of Stupid Pet Tricks on Late Show with David Letterman. Hollywood came calling and the dog went on to play Comet in six seasons (1989 to 1995) of the television sitcom Full House. Buddy then moved to the big screen with the release of Air Bud, a movie about an abandoned dog that moves in with a boy who has just lost his father. The movie led to a further 13 movies – four Air Buds, and seven Air Buddies. Unfortunately, none of the sequels starred Buddy, who passed away at home in 1998 after a battle with cancer


(real name Pal),

Lassie Come Home, Collie

Based on a short story by Eric Knight, who expanded it into a book called Lassie Come Home, the movie of the same name starred a Collie named Pal. The success of the 1943 film encouraged MGM to make a further six feature films about Lassie, through 1951. By this time, Pal’s owner and trainer Rudd Weatherwax had changed the dog’s stage name to Lassie. In the early ’50s, Weatherwax acquired the Lassie name and trademark from MGM and toured with Lassie at rodeos, fairs and other events. The long-running Emmy winning television series, Lassie, debuted in 1954 and ran for an incredible 19 years, with the lead role always played by one of Pal’s descendants. The current Lassie is a tenth generation direct descendant of Pal. While the fictional Lassie is female, the role has been played consistently by male dogs, because they have fuller coats.

Scooby Doo, animated TV series, Great Dane

Scoobert “Scooby” Doo, the perpetually hungry Great Dane who will do anything for a Scooby Snack, first made his appearance in 1969, and has been entertaining us ever since. Created by Hanna-Barbera, the series launched a number of spin-offs and movies. Scooby, the bosom buddy of Shaggy Rogers, was originally named “Too Much” in pilot scripts, but Fred Silverman, head of children’s programming at CBS, changed it after hearing Frank Sinatra’s famous “doo-be-doo-be-doo” riff at the end of Strangers in the Night. Scooby’s catch-phrase “Rooby-doobie-do” (Scooby has a bit of a speech impediment), like all of his broken English, was voiced by Don Messick until the actor’s death in 1997.


(real name Terry),

The Wizard of Oz, Cairn Terrier

By the time Terry, a Cairn terrier owned and trained by Carl Spitz, appeared in The Wizard of Oz, she was already a seasoned actor. Her credits included playing Rags in the Shirley Temple movie Bright Eyes. After she landed the part of Toto (a male role, by the way), Terry went to live at Judy Garland’s house for two weeks. Garland became so attached to the dog she wanted to adopt her, but Spitz refused. The little Cairn Terrier earned $125 a week for her stint as Toto (more than the actors who played the Munchkins) – great money, considering she made it into show biz by accident. Spitz, who owned the Hollywood Dog Training School, ended up adopting Terry only after the original owner never bothered to pick her up after her training session. Terry passed away in 1945, with a total of 15 movie credits to her name.



'TS Dof choosingS aAND D N collar, leash or harness BY ANN BRIGHTMAN

It isn’t just a practical purchase; it’s a personal statement. Whether you’re buying just one collar, harness or leash, or something for every occasion on Fifi’s busy social schedule, you have more choice than ever when it comes to her “jewelry” and accessories. With such a huge selection of products out there, it’s easy to get overwhelmed before you even start, but remembering these “dos and don’ts” will help ensure you get something that best meets the needs of you and your best friend.



DO CHOOSE PRACTICALITY OVER LOOKS DO CONSIDER YOUR GOALS What do you want to achieve with these products? Are you going to use them for training, or just for walking? If your dog is perfectly trained, than a traditional collar and leash is great. If he isn’t, or you’re working with a puppy that has never walked on a lead before, you may need something more specialized.

A durable nylon hands-free leash, like this one from Smoochy Poochy, couples convenience with comfort, according to whatever your lifestyle might be, and it’s available in a variety of colours. For more info, visit PetsFuture.com or call 416.407.8898.

Yes, it’s hard to resist all those bright colours and patterns, but quality, fit and comfort should come first. Happily, because more and more people want products that look stylish, many of today’s offerings combine fashion with function!

DON’T BUY CHOKE CHAINS OR PINCH COLLARS These nasty devices can injure your dog’s neck, throat or esophagus. If he pulls a lot, consider a head collar, which puts light pressure on his muzzle and at the back of his neck rather than on his throat. A harness is another alternative.

DO INVEST IN QUALITY Paying a little more up front ensures you get something durable and long lasting that’s comfortable for your dog and easy for you to use. CDNDOGS.CA


DON’T FORGET TO MEASURE UP A poorly fitting collar or harness is not only uncomfortable, but can cause undesirable behaviour. Many manufacturers offer sizing tips to help you get the best fit. As a general rule of thumb, you should be able to comfortably insert two fingers between the collar and the dog’s neck, or the harness and his body. If it’s a squeeze, the product is too tight; if there’s extra space, he might be able to wriggle his way free.

DO LOOK AT DIFFERENT MATERIALS Collars, harnesses and leashes can be made from leather, nylon, webbed cotton, canvas, poly knit mesh, hemp and other fabrics and materials. Soft, durable and washable, nylon dries easily after getting wet, so it’s good for dogs that like the water. Leather and hemp are also long lasting and become softer and more flexible with use.

DO CONSIDER HIS SIZE Save the wide, heavy leather collars and leashes for the big guys, and choose lightweight products for small dogs.

STRUTTING HIS STUFF IN STYLE This is the fun part! Once you’ve decided on a comfortable, quality product that fits your dog properly, you can turn your eye to colour and design. It doesn’t matter what your


tastes are, or what breed or size of dog you have, there

Collars should be equipped with an identification tag that includes your name, address and contact phone numbers, just in case your dog runs away or gets lost. Check the tag regularly to make sure it’s still legible and securely attached.

– whether it’s a crystal-studded collar for your Poodle or



are all kinds of ways to display your fashion preferences a tartan harness for your Scottie.

DO SHOP AROUND FOR THE RIGHT LEASH You want something that’s going to be easy on your hands as well as suitable for your dog, so check for softness, comfort and grip as well as strength and durability. Most leashes are an average of four to six feet long, and come in a variety of materials, weights and thicknesses.


Water, peace, faith, trust, wisdom


Love, passion, energy, power


Growth, environmentally friendly, fertility, healing


Energy, happiness, cheerfulness, creativity


Joy, determination, success, encouragement, energy


Royalty, power, nobility, luxury, spirituality


Conservative, stable, outdoorsy, organic


Love, tranquility, playful, charming






off-leash etiquette for you and your dog


For anyone with a small backyard, an offleash park is the perfect solution to exercising a dog who loves to run and romp. Every privilege comes with a price tag, however, and off-leash parks are no exception. In fact, park etiquette is quite an issue in the dog community. There are unwritten rules and taboos in each park, and for the sake of all users, it’s your responsibility to find out what they are and adhere to them. Here are a few tips and suggestions to keep in mind. •N  ever let your dog become a nuisance to other canines or people. At the very least, he should come when you call him. He should also be well mannered and not jump up on strangers. If he’s still at the age where jumping and running amok is what he does best, keep him leashed until he learns to mind his P’s and Q’s. •M  any people come to the park equipped with tasty treats to ensure their dog will respond. If you do the same, please remember to only reward your own dog. Other dogs may have food allergies, or be on a regulated diet, and shouldn’t be eating what you have to offer. • I f your dog enjoys chasing a ball or other toy, please be aware of others around you. Some dogs may not care to share their toys. It might be best to go to a more isolated area to throw balls or toys, or go to the park during an off time, when it’s less busy. •A  nother key item for your park excursion is a “poop” bag. Make sure you use a biodegradable bag, if possible. There are many convenient and stylish ways to carry your bags, including canisters that attach to the leash. It goes without saying that you must always pick up after your dog. It is vitally important that we keep dog areas clean, not only so the privilege will not be revoked, but also as an example to the community that dogs are not a nuisance. •R  emember, if your dog is in an area that is not strictly for his use, he may come across other park visitors who are apprehensive of dogs. If your dog approaches someone who looks anxious or backs away, call him back and leash him. It is not acceptable to call out to the person that your dog is friendly. By calling your dog, you show respect and consideration for others. •O  ne of the most important things to remember is safety. If your dog is being a bully to others, give him a time out. The parks are for all dogs to share equally.

have fun!

• Last but not least -








POSITIVEs training wo rk


What’s the best way to train a dog? Is it okay to resort to punishment, or should you use only positive, reward-based techniques? These differing opinions have caused a definite split in the training world. But as the debate between punitive training and positive methods rages on, science is revolutionizing our understanding of dog behaviour, and tipping the scales towards the more positive approach. When I began training, pack theory and compulsion training was still a widely used philosophy. Now, even these theories are being discredited by the very people who made them mainstream. Though compulsion trainers would argue that their methods yield great results, I know that if a dog was given the choice, he would choose the kinder approach.

Forget the “alpha” approach For too long, the public has been fed false information about their dogs’ perception of the world, and their intent as a domestic species. Dogs are not on a quest for world domination. They are not socialized wolves constantly striving to be “top dog” over humans, nor are they hard-wired to try and control every situation they are in. Contrary to what traditional training ideologies and much modern media would have us believe, most canine behaviour problems stem from insecurity and/or a desire to seek and maintain safety and comfort – not from a desire to establish higher rank and be the “alpha” over their owners. Therefore, teaching dogs “who’s boss” by forcing them into “calm submission” is precisely the opposite of what they really need in order to learn effectively and behave themselves. True, some dogs might be controlling, but that is because they have not been taught how to cope and live successfully in the human world. If we don’t like something a dog does, then it is up to us to teach him the right thing rather than punish him for doing something wrong. Resisting the urge to project human insecurities onto how we believe our dogs think and feel, is a prerequisite to understanding and building truly balanced and healthy relationships with them. CDNDOGS.CA


Reward good behaviour The use of positive reinforcement training methods has been universally endorsed by the behavioural scientific community as the most effective, long-lasting, humane and safest method of dog training. Basically, positive reinforcement means that if you reward a behaviour you like, there’s a better chance that behaviour will be repeated. When paired with “negative punishment” (the temporary removal or withholding of something the dog wants, like food, attention, toys or human contact) or a vocal interrupter to redirect negative behaviour to a wanted behaviour, and guide the dog to make the right choices, these methods, combined with an awareness that most dogs are not trying to be dominant, are what I call positive training. Positive training techniques are centered on working the dog’s brain; being non-confrontational; rewarding positive

WHY FORCE MAKES THINGS WORSE Behaviour is closely linked to and influenced by emotions. Punishing a dog for an unwanted behaviour or for not obeying a command – without understanding why the behaviour is happening in the first place, and the emotional effect it is having on the dog – only serves to make the behaviour worse. Punishments such as leash jerks and collar corrections, “alpha rolls” (when a dog is forcibly put on his back or side and held down until he submits), hitting, hanging by the collar, or using electric shock or spray collars might be effective in suppressing negative behaviour in the moment, but they do little to tackle the cause of the unwanted behaviour – and have the potential to make the dog act a lot worse in the future. Owners who use these techniques are at greater risk of being bitten by or having their dog bite someone else, because punishment destroys the human/animal bond and causes pain, fear, mistrust, agitation and increasing anger.

behaviour; establishing rituals; training incompatible behaviours that negate bad behaviour; and lessening a dog’s anger and frustration while enabling him to feel good inside. Behaviour is influenced without force, so that the dog’s trust in his owner will not be violated as a result of threatening treatment. The use of food as a reward in training is not bribery – food has a powerful effect on brain chemistry, which encourages dogs to learn and helps them overcome fear and anxiety (the root cause of most aggression). So ignore those who claim that using food is bad -- they simply do not understand its power. Positive training isn’t all about using treats, however. I encourage people to use whatever rewards motivate their dogs – it could be praise, play, toys or life rewards like going for a walk or getting a belly rub.

Effective for anxiety and aggression Positive training doesn’t only work on small dogs with minor obedience issues – it is also by far the most effective way to treat severe anxiety and “red zone” aggression cases. On my TV show It’s Me or the Dog as well as in private practice, I regularly work with big, powerful dogs suffering from aggression issues. But instead of fighting aggression with aggression (a game-plan that usually results in someone getting bitten), I change the way a dog feels for the rest of his life by using force-free methods. In order to effectively manage aggression and anxiety-based issues, you must first understand why the dog is doing what




Traditional (old school) trainers often argue that positive training shows weakness and a lack of leadership. The truth is, the most respected and successful leaders are able to create change without the use of force. Positive is not the same as permissive. Of course I believe in effective leadership, but dogs know we’re not dogs, so it’s silly for us to try and act like them by calling ourselves “pack leaders”. In fact, the very scientists responsible for defining so-called “pack theory” have since renounced their own findings and clarified that there is a huge difference between the behavioural tendencies of wolves and dogs. Remember, dogs and humans are very different species, and we should no more try to act like a dog than we should treat dogs like humans (a situation that happens all too frequently and leads to all kinds of problems).

Photo courtesy of Parker Smith Photograph

he is doing, then work to address the root cause of the problem, not just suppress the symptoms with punishment. Too often, dominance and punitive trainers misdiagnose the real cause for a dog’s behaviour, meaning they apply forceful treatment protocols that are ineffective at best and very dangerous at worst. These methods often appear to “work” because they do stop the dog’s behaviour at that moment…but this success is usually short-lived because his instincts and reactions are merely being temporarily suppressed, not truly changed. Like a human undergoing psychological treatment, there are no shortcuts to changing how an individual thinks and feels, and it takes time to achieve true success. That’s not to say positive training is always slow. Indeed, people are routinely amazed at how quickly positive teaching transforms canine behaviour! The world’s top scientists and behaviourists, as well as the most respected veterinary institutions, are now warning people against using compulsion training and are encouraging owners and trainers to use positive reinforcement methods instead. People often ask me if there’s more than one way to train dogs, and I always say “of course there is!” But ask yourself what kind of person you want to be, and what kind of relationship you want with your dog. Punishment does work for a while – if you poke, yank, shock, kick or hit me, I’ll probably stop what I’m doing, but I won’t like you very much, and if you do it enough, I may well fight back and bite you. I want my dogs to follow me because they want to, not because they’re scared of what will happen to them if they don’t. There’s no place in the healthy, balanced dog/human dynamic for macho, intimidating behaviour. So be sure to use positive training methods to create and foster a relationship with your dog based on mutual trust, respect and love rather than pain, fear and intimidation!

Victoria Stilwell has created a global network of worldclass positive trainers called Victoria Stilwell Positively Dog Training (VSPDT). To find a VSPDT trainer near you, or book a phone consultation visit positively.com/trainers.





VETERINARY VISIT Taking your dog to the vet can be a stressful time for both of you. Here are a few tips to help make your visit a better experience. BY JANICE HUNTINGFORD, DVM, CCRT, CVA, CAVCA, CVCH, CVTP, CVFT



When selecting a veterinarian, remember that all veterinary hospitals and veterinarians are not the same. Make it a priority to find one that matches your ideal of customer service, quality and philosophy. It might not be the closest to your home but the drive will definitely be worth it. Look for a veterinary office that is calm and inviting. The more comfortable you are, the more accepting your dog will be. When scheduling your appointment, tell the receptionist what you are coming in for and if your pet has a certain symptom. Most veterinary offices will schedule longer appointments for sick pets or attempt to get sick animals in earlier in the day to get problems dealt with as quickly as possible. Make sure you arrive on time -- your veterinarian will appreciate it and this helps to keep the schedule running smoothly. While most veterinarians will try to stay on time, keep in mind that emergencies happen, and be patient if you have to wait. Think about how you would feel if your dog needed emergency care. If your pet has never been to the vet before, try a few practice trips where all you do is meet and greet. This is a great thing to do for your puppy, and the hospital staff will most likely give her some treats to reinforce a positive experience. Before the appointment, keep a diary of your pet’s actions and behaviour, and make a list of questions. This ensures you remember everything you want to ask. Know what type of food your pet eats. Bring the bag or recipe with you in case it’s relevant. Bring a list of medications, including prescription drugs, herbals and supplements -- you may also wish to bring the bottles in case your veterinarian asks for them.

WHAT TO ASK YOUR VETERINARIAN Is my pet at the appropriate weight? Am I feeding the appropriate food? If not can you give suggestions and amounts? Which vaccines (if any) does my pet actually need? What is the best parasite preventive for my pet given his/her lifestyle? What tests/wellness procedures does my pet need given his age?

 ring a stool sample. All vets are fascinated by poop -- it tells us a lot about our patients! B You can collect a recent specimen in a clean plastic container. Don’t forget the lid.

How much exercise should my pet get?

Whenever possible, stay with your pet during the examination to help calm her. She knows you best and will feel better having you around. Stay calm and relaxed during the exam so your dog feels reassured. Breathe deeply and relax. Remember, a few moments of discomfort for your dog could prevent her from developing a preventable disease. Or it might detect a hidden illness that your veterinarian can treat early.

Can you recommend a good groomer, boarding facility, trainer?

Turn off your cell phone in the exam room. It is difficult for your veterinarian to examine an animal if you’re engaged in a phone conversation or texting, or if your phone is constantly ringing or buzzing. It can be an additional source of concern to your pet as well. I f your pet is particularly anxious, try Rescue Remedy or another flower essence or herbal calmer before your visit. Rescue remedy is given orally, wiped on your dog or diluted with water and sprayed in your car. DAP (dog appeasing pheromone) collars may also help to reduce stress. While your dog many never love going to the veterinarian’s office, with a little patience and preparation you can certainly set the stage for a stress-free experience.

Dr. Janice Huntingford is a holistic veterinarian in Essex, Ontario who practices chiropractic, acupuncture, and herbal therapy as well as general practice. She shares her life with her husband and three children as well as several cats, dogs, and horses.






erbs are amazing plants. Not only do they possess many culinary and healing properties, but they’re also wonderfully fragrant and easy to grow. And they’re not just for people. Many of the herbs that liven up our food are also powerful medicines, useful to our canine friends as well as to us. It’s as simple as pairing up culinary tastes with daily health care needs. Parlsey, for instance, is not just a delicious and nutritious addition to a green salad or a rice dish, it’s healthy for your canine companion, too. Plus the leaf juice helps freshen even the foulest doggie breath.



These herbs don’t need a lot of land – they do just as well in a tiny garden plot as in a full-sized bed or border. And if you’re an apartment or condo dweller, nothing’s more rewarding than the sight and smell of potted herbs on your deck or balcony.

a perennial garden Perennials are the lazy gardener’s choice, because once established they come back year after year with little care. Plant them where they have plenty of room to flourish. Annual herbs can fill the gaps between them, and may be rotated each year, according to your needs and tastes. The following perennials are the “must haves” of any multi-species, multipurpose herb garden.

parsley Petroselium crispum


The parsley family has numerous cultivars, with the primary differences being leaf size and shape. The most common varieties have tightly curled leaves, whereas Italian parsley has celery-like leaves. All are useful and most will grow to about three feet. Hardiness: Zone 4. Mulch plants deeply in fall where winters are severe. Growing requirements and tips: Plant seeds or transplants in spring, as soon as the ground can be worked. Parsley requires deep, well-drained soil and daily watering during hot, dry weather. If the plant is allowed to go to seed, you will soon have parsley babies everywhere! Parts used: The leaf is very nutritious and can be liberally added to your companion’s raw or canned diet. It’s also rich in antioxidant chlorophyll and useful as a breath freshener. The seeds contain trace amounts of limonene, effective for repelling fleas. Teas or other preparations made from the taproot are an effective diuretic used specifically in the holistic treatment of arthritis.



rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis


A shrub that can grow to six feet tall, rosemary is characterized by its piney fragrance, narrow leathery leaves, and woody stems. In areas where winters are mild, rosemary is planted as a long-lived landscape shrub. If only we could all be so lucky! Hardiness: In colder climates, rosemary is best grown as a houseplant, or in containers that can be brought indoors during winter. But it can overwinter in a protected space that receives a lot of sun. Growing requirements and tips: Easy to grow from transplants, rosemary is not picky about soil and is fairly drought tolerant. Because the plants can get quite large and long-lived in milder climates, their placement should be carefully selected. Needs full sun. Parts used: Leaves, stems, and flowers can be harvested any time. An excellent remedy for flatulent dyspepsia and digestive upset in dogs, especially when these problems are secondary to nervousness, excitability, or irritability. A cooled rosemary tea makes an excellent, antibacterial skin and coat rinse for dogs, cats, rabbits and other critters, bringing reliable relief from red, itching fleabites and other irritations.

catnip Nepeta cataria


The pungent tangy-mint aroma of catnip wafts to the nose with the slightest disturbance of the plant. Of course, cats love it but did you know it makes a delicious, relaxing tea for people, and is an excellent remedy for nervous stomachs in dogs? Hardiness: Zone 4 Growing requirements and tips: Requires full sun and rich, moist soil. Plant in a corner of the garden where the free-seeding plants have room to spread. May grow to five feet. Parts used: Harvest leaves, stems, and flowers any time.

marshmallow Althea officinalis


A tall plant with pretty pinkish-white flowers, Marshmallow is easy to grow and a good choice for back walls or garden corners where afternoon shade is needed by shorter herbs. Hardiness: Zone 4. Mulch plants deeply in fall where winters are severe. Growing requirements and tips: Plant seeds or transplants in spring, as soon as the ground can be worked. Requires deep, well-drained soil but only moderate watering. Parts used: Marshmallow root is among the first herbs I reach for in cases of bowel inflammation, coughing, urinary gravel (stones) or other situations where mucous membranes of the digestive, urinary or upper respiratory tracts are inflamed or irritated. Dig the root in the fall, and chop coarsely before drying on a piece of paper. The dried root will keep for up to two years. 82



Mentha piperita


Aside from making a delicious cup of tea, peppermint is an excellent remedy for dyspepsia in both humans and dogs. Peppermint tea is also useful as an antiseptic and soothing skin rinse, and is especially effective for temporarily relieving the tingly itch caused by flea allergy and generalized itching secondary to nervousness. Tea or tincture helps freshen breath. Hardiness: Zone 4. Mulch plants deeply in fall where winters are severe, and then forget about it - once established, you may have difficulty getting rid if it! Growing requirements and tips: Can be transplanted or started from stem cuttings (put stems in water until they begin to produce roots). This stuff will grow anywhere it can get enough water. Plants that get full sun tend to be stronger tasting and more medicinally active. Peppermint spreads easily -- give it its own space or plant in containers above or below ground! Parts used: Leaves and stems can be harvested any time and used fresh or dried.

thyme Thymus vulgaris


Appearance: Most thymes are ground-hugging plants with strong, sprawling stems, small leaves, and tiny cylindrical flowers that range from white to pale purple. There are countless variations of leaf color, fragrance, and flavour. Hardiness: Zone 5. Mulch deeply where winters are severe. Growing requirements and tips: Requires full sun. An excellent choice for borders and rock gardens, and serves as a good “ground filler” between other herbs. Seeds can be sown in early spring. Transplants can be put into the ground as soon as all danger of frost has passed, and are easy to care for once established. Parts used: Leaves, stems, and flowers. Thyme is a very good antiseptic for the mouth and throat, and is useful for fighting gingivitis in dogs. It also has anti-tussive and expectorant properties, and is especially useful for raspy, unproductive coughs secondary to fungal or bacterial infection.


Valeriana officinalis


No herb garden is complete without valerian! It features loosely arranged lance-shaped leaves that are usually larger at the bottom of the plant than the top. The flowers are clusters of small, white to pink blossoms, very attractive to bees and other pollinators. Roots are stringy, brown, and strongly pungent – they smell “earthy” to herbalists, somewhat like dirty gym socks to others! Plants can grow over five feet tall, serving as shade-bearing companions to shorter plants that need afternoon respite from sun. Hardiness: Zone 4. Valerian is very hardy and can survive the winters of southern Canada and northern maritime provinces. Growth requirements and tips: Because this beautiful plant grows tall and attracts an amazing variety of pollinating insects, I like to put it right in the middle of the garden, where it can stand up and demand attention! Easy to grow from transplants. Needs full sun. Parts used: Primarily the fall root. The upper parts of the plant are useful too, but make weaker medicine. Valerian is a widely recognized herbal sedative, useful for insomnia, nervous anxiety, and to help dogs and cats relax when in pain. It is very useful for calming animals during thunderstorms, trips to the vet, or to help your companion rest after surgery. CDNDOGS.CA


“must have” annuals Here are some of my easy-to-grow favourites:

chamomile German Characterized by its small, daisy-like flowers and finely-divided, feathery leaves, chamomile will often produce flowers throughout the year in areas where frost is rare. This rambunctious bloomer is always producing seeds, and will spread throughout the garden if left unattended!

General uses: Chamomile is mildly sedative, anti-spasmodic, and makes a safe, gentle and effective digestive tonic. The tea or tincture is helpful for indigestion, gas, and vomiting. For skin inflammations, including fleabites, contact allergies, and various bacterial or fungal infections, a cooled water infusion of the flowers makes a soothing, healing, anti-microbial rinse. attractive addition to any herb garden, dill’s dark green, finelydill Andivided leaves have a delicate, feathery appearance, while the yellow umbel flowers appeal to bees. The entire plant, which may reach six feet in height is distinctively aromatic and delicious – just brushing past it makes my mouth water! Easy to grow from seed or starts, and can be fall seeded for an early spring harvest in areas where winters are harsh. Dill reproduces very successfully from its copious seeds.

General uses: Foliage, flowers, and seeds can be used for nausea and flatulence, especially when such maladies are secondary to a sudden change in diet. Dill also helps inhibit bacterial reproduction in the mouth, making it useful for halitosis and the early onset of gingivitis in dogs. The seeds serve as an effective remedy for gas and upset stomach in dogs as well as people.

lemon balm Characteristically a mint, lemon balm has broad, green, textured leaves and four-sided stems. The plants are deliciously fragrant, smelling of both mint and lemons. Lemon balm is winter hardy to Zone 5 and easy to grow (it is a perennial in warmer zones). It requires full sun, rich, well-drained soil and moderate water. Leaves and flowers are best harvested in warm or hot weather, at least one day after watering, and just as flower buds are about to open -- these are the conditions in which concentrations of volatile oils in the upper leaves and stems are highest. If your lemon balm doesn’t smell strong, wait for a warmer day! For medicinal purposes, the fresh, chopped herb is far superior to dry preparations.

General uses: A delicious tea with amazing medicinal values. An excellent choice for promoting relaxation after a meal, lemon balm soothes the stomach, eases gastric cramping and reduces flatulence - add one cup of the tea to two quarts of your dog’s drinking water. Studies suggest that lemon balm tincture may be useful for hyperthyroidism in humans. It also shows promise as a treatment for various forms of dementia. It is very safe for animals, and worth a try against feline hyperthyroidism and mental debility in aging pets.

and for dog’s sake…

Think twice before pulling and wasting your dandelions! Dandelion is among the most useful herbs in the world, with impressive nutritive, liver supportive and digestive properties that virtually every animal needs for good health. We often buy them in our expensive mesclun salad mixes at the grocery store. But that’s another story… For now, start thinking about the best place to plant your herb garden. I bet your dog can’t wait to get started! Greg Tilford is co-author of All You Ever Wanted to Know About Herbs for Pets. He is an internationally renowned herbalist, co-developer of Animals’ Apawthecary, and a leading expert in the field of veterinary herbalism.





Astrology is a fun way of gaining insight into your dog’s personality. To get started, all you need is his date of birth.

What’s his



Ana Ruiz has contributed horoscope columns and astrological articles to newspapers and magazines throughout Canada and the USA. She is also the author of seven books, two of which are on the subject of technical astrology. You can visit her site at ana.astrology.angelfire.com.



Is he a Gemini or Leo, or perhaps a Capricorn? By knowing when your dog or puppy was born, you can learn more about his traits, quirks and characteristics. Check out these astrological profiles for dogs born under each of the 12 signs of the Zodiac.

March 21 - April 20: Born under the first sign, Aries April 21 - May 21: The Taurus dog appreciates luxury, dogs are always first on the scene when a new situation arises. There is nothing they love more than being out and about, exploring the world. An Aries dog is inquisitive, energetic, fond of challenges and excitement. However, he can be quick-tempered, impatient and reckless, and will not back down from a fight when provoked. Once an idea gets into his head, he will pursue it relentlessly.

comfort and security above all. These dogs can be the most loyal, obedient and affectionate. However, they can also be somewhat stubborn and possessive of their personal items. Dogs born under this sign are very fond of good food and enjoy being around soft music. They’re self-reliant, alert, obedient and patient. They adapt well to routine and are easy to train.

Aries dogs love attention, and although they are not shy, they can be easily embarrassed if scolded or reprimanded in public. They love learning new tricks and playing with children. Aries dogs are independent and enjoy a variety of activities, as they are quite playful, curious, active and adventurous.

Taurus dogs can become quite stressed by loud noises, surprises or too much excitement, and require peace and stability. Although they may not be as playful or active as others, they’re strong and protective, and their gentle nature allows them to stay safe, content and out of trouble.

May 22 - June 21: Gemini dogs are able to communicate June 22 - July 22: their feelings easier than others. You may find that talking to your dog can bring surprisingly positive results. These canines are alert, friendly and funloving, mostly functioning on nervous energy.

Restless by nature, they can also be curious and mischievous as well as intelligent and quick to learn. Dogs born under this sign truly enjoy being with people and living with large families. The Gemini dog loves to play with children, and adores games and toys, but due to a short attention span he can easily become fidgety or bored. These dogs seem to bark louder and need less sleep than others. Since Gemini is an air sign, frequent walks and time spent outdoors are important to their well being. Fresh air does the Gemini dog wonders.

The Cancer dog is affectionate, loyal and faithful. These canines have a healthy appetite and love any form or body of water. As intuitive, shy and sensitive dogs, they tend to need constant attention, affection and pampering. Cancer dogs are at their best in a safe, comfortable, secure and calm environment. They are protective, devoted and territorial as well as homeloving creatures who enjoy being around children and family and rarely stray away from home. Chances are that your Cancer dog has a good memory and loves to collect all sorts of interesting items. Ruled by the moon, his moods can be affected by the lunar phases. Don’t be surprised to see your Cancer dog howling at the full moon!



July 23 - August 22: The Leo dog is loyal, fearless August 23 - September 22: Virgo dogs are and protective. He is also affectionate, playful, loud and fun-loving, with a highly energetic and friendly disposition. Here is a dog that is outgoing and constantly loves being the center of attention. The Leo dog should never be ignored or reprimanded, since his feelings and pride can easily be hurt.

When it comes to possessions, Leo dogs can be territorial and not inclined to share. They enjoy being praised, groomed and pampered with the finest luxuries. They also make great show dogs with their regal and dignified presence. These canines are attracted to children and adventures, but are not particularly fond of cats. Ruled by the sun, Leo dogs enjoy relaxing for hours in warm sunlight.

highly intelligent and observant, and possess sharp powers of analysis and forethought. However, it is sometimes hard to tell what is going on inside their minds, as they can be shy and reserved when it comes to displaying affections. These canines are comfortable with routine and habits and are therefore easy to train. They are at their best when they feel they are being useful and productive. Virgo dogs tend to play it safe, avoiding risks and danger whenever they can. They can be fussy about food and expect meals to be served at the same times each day. Hygiene is also important to them, so your Virgo dog is happiest when clean, well-groomed, and living in a neat and tidy environment.

September 23 - October 22: The Libra dog is October 23 - November 21: The Scorpio dog is gentle, affectionate and sociable, yet can also be fussy and sometimes lazy. When it comes to making a choice, he can be indecisive as all options are carefully weighed. Libra dogs are most comfortable being around people and other dogs, and do not hesitate to share their toys and possessions. However, it is especially important for them to live in a peaceful, quiet and harmonious environment, as arguments and loud noises can be highly stressful. These canines do not like being left alone for long periods because of a strong need for attention, companionship and their desire to please. Ruled by Venus, the Libra dog enjoys being well-groomed and pampered, and appreciates luxury and the finer things in life. 88


devoted, loyal and protective. Due to his highly sensitive nature, being reprimanded or scolded can be most stressful to him. These canines possess a sharp memory and never forget a good deed or a friendly face. However, they will not back down from a confrontation or fight as they possess great strength of character, courage, will and endurance. Scorpio dogs are fond of investigating anything they find intriguing. Their curiosity and mischievousness know no limits, and their powers of observation and concentration are highly developed. Born under a water sign, the Scorpio dog can be most intuitive, seeming to read minds or easily sense approaching danger. Chances are, your Scorpio dog has many toys or possessions secretly stashed away somewhere.

November 22 -December 21: The Sagittarius December 22 - January 19: Capricorn dogs dog loves to wander and explore the outdoors, encountering one new adventure after another in wide open spaces. These canines are independent, active, brave and freedom-loving. They enjoy running and taking long walks, and can quickly become restless or bored when confined or cooped up indoors for long.

are more disciplined, persistent and patient than others. They tend to be loyal, quiet, shy and somewhat reclusive or reserved, with strong powers of endurance. Chances are, your Capricorn dog tends to require less attention than others since he has a fondness for spending time alone and staying clear of possible risks or dangers.

Sagittarius dogs are great fun to be around as they are friendly, amusing, enthusiastic and playful, enjoying games, sports and learning new tricks. Dogs born under this sign get along well with children and other pets in the household and are quite content living in large families. Sagittarius dogs seem to require less rest than others. Your Sagittarius dog may be a fast runner and tends to bark quite a bit!

Dogs born under this sign get along especially well with older people. They are fond of luxuries and what they consider to be special foods. However, they can be possessive with their personal items and may become moody if they don’t get their way. These canines are clever and possess a desire to please. Although they may not be especially active, Capricorn dogs tend to live long and full lives.

January 20 - February 19: The Aquarius dog enjoys February 20 - March 20: Born under a water freedom and the opportunity to roam and explore new and interesting places. Since Aquarius is an air sign, these dogs truly love being outdoors in the fresh open air. They are content having their own space, as they are social yet freespirited creatures. They are gentle, friendly, loyal, active and playful, but can also be temperamental and unpredictable. More often than not, Aquarius dogs have a peculiar or unusual quality or habit, or a special trick they can perform. Dogs born under this sign are intelligent, able to learn quickly, and fond of experimenting with new things. Your Aquarius dog may love surprises and get along very well with people.

sign ruled by Neptune, Pisces dogs are strongly attracted to bodies of water. They are receptive and highly intuitive, easily able to absorb or sense what others are thinking or feeling. As a result, Pisces dogs are very sensitive to the emotions and moods of others, as well as to their own environments.

They can be shy, changeable, unpredictable and eager to please, yet are also gentle, friendly, loyal and affectionate. Pisces dogs are often fond of soft music, and because they not especially active, they prefer to relax in a stressfree household. Dogs born under this sign are happiest in quiet, peaceful surroundings and are often found snuggling by people’s feet. CDNDOGS.CA


The bright red DISC whizzes across the field. In hot pursuit, the black and white border collie finally makes his move, leaping up and snatching the disc effortlessly out of the air. The crowd cheers, the judge marks the score sheet, and the dog runs back to his smiling owner for another throw. Welcome to the sport of DISC DOG!




This fun new pastime is a great way to bond with your canine partner while he enjoys a good workout and lots of fresh air. It’s easy for you and your dog to participate. Disc dog doesn’t involve a lot of specialized equipment and it’s easy to practice on your own. All you really need is a safe disc made for dog sports, and an enthusiastic canine partner.


Almost every puppy has the instinct to chase, grab and tug. If you start your dog out young, you can bring out these instincts, and get him engaged in disc dog.


To train a potential disc dog, develop interest in the disc by using it as a toy. Wiggle it and play “keep away” games until the dog really wants the disc.


 nce the dog starts chasing the disc as you move it quickly over the O ground, start to let him grab the disc and encourage him to tug hard.


 hen the dog learns to hold onto the disc really well, stop tugging and W encourage him to let go of it on command. As soon as he releases the disc, reward him with another chase and tug game.


 lowly start rolling the disc, then throwing it short distances. Each catch S is rewarded with lots of cheers and a game of tug!

Once your dog has grasped the basics of catching and retrieving the disc, you can have some fun by adding in fancier throws and tricks; this is known as freestyle disc. It’s an exciting sport that involves a musical routine of disc

Dogs sail over their owners, vault off their backs, spin, run backwards, roll, catch several discs at once, chase down long throws and just plain have a fantastic time, all to the cheers of the audience.



catches and tricks. Freestyle disc is limited only by your imagination! Dogs sail over their owners, vault off their backs, spin, run backwards, roll, catch several discs at once, chase down long throws and just plain have a fantastic time, all to the cheers of the audience.


Dogs are allowed to compete when they reach one year of age. Competition is great way to meet other disc doggers and enjoy a day of fresh air and exercise with your canine partner. The Canadian Disc Dog Association (CDDA) has sanctioned trials across Canada – you can find out more about their competitions and rules by visiting the website CanadianDiscDogs.com. Disc doggers are a very supportive group and are only too happy to help newcomers with suggestions on how to improve their throwing techniques or train their dogs to do a super cool new trick. The CDDA also offers titles that you and your dog can earn. That way, you can track your dog’s progress and success. He can earn Bronze, Silver and Gold levels by catching discs at 100, 150 and 200 feet.

WHAT BREEDS ARE BEST? Many breeds enjoy DISC DOG and all are welcome to compete. Athletic and enthusiastic breeds that like to chase and retrieve tend to do well in this sport. Herding and sporting breeds seem the most obvious choices, but Whippets, Pit Bulls and Hounds also do extremely well. Even Huskies, Newfoundlands, Boston Terriers and tiny Papillons have become successful competitors.

Your dog can also accumulate points towards becoming a Disc Dog Champion, among other titles. There are opportunities to compete in regional and national championships. And the CDDA has not forgotten our junior handlers; it’s not uncommon to see handlers as young as four competing and having a great time with their dogs. Many people think they can’t compete because they’re not great disc throwers. Not true. People of all skill levels are welcome, and your throwing techniques will get better with practice. Best of all, your dog won’t judge you on your throws – they just think it’s a lot of fun. Whether you and your dog play in your backyard, compete occasionally, or become national champions, disc dog is a healthy and fun activity that’s well worth trying out! Dawn Kadish, DVM and Howard Kadish BSc, CPDT own and operate Dog Sports Centre training and boarding (DogSportsCentre.com). Together they founded the Canadian Disc Dog Association in 2002 and have been enthusiastic promoters of this fun sport for many years. Dawn and Howard compete with their Border Collies in many dog sports, and breed Border Collies under the name HiQ Border Collies (HiQBorders.com).



All photos courtesy of ttlphoto.com

BEFORE YOU GET STARTED Disc dog is an athletic sport that involves running, leaping, catching and turning, so fitness is very important. • It is vital to assess your dog’s physical condition before starting. Even a few extra pounds means his joints, muscles, heart and lungs are working harder. • If your dog has physical or health challenges, be sure to discuss them with your veterinarian before starting disc dog. •R  egular exercise and a healthy diet are the way to build up your dog’s fitness level. • It’s also important to keep your dog’s nails and teeth properly maintained.





WHOLESOME HIGH QUALITY FOOD can help keep your dog healthy by enhancing his immune system and reducing the risk of disease. But did you know there’s also a connection between nutrition and his genes? Nutrigenomics is an emerging science that studies the molecular relationships between nutrition and the response of our genes, to determine how even subtle genetic changes can affect health. The basic concept is that chemical nutrients affect gene expressions in a specific mode by switching from health to an abnormal (pathophysiological) condition, or vice versa. Nutrigenomics designs optimal nutrition based on an individual’s unique genetic makeup (genotype). Simply stated, nutrigenomics defines functional foods based on an individual’s genes.


The role of diet and nutrition continues to be a major focus of study when addressing the increasing incidence and recognition of dietrelated diseases in humans and animals. Nutrition research is studying how dietary constituents at the molecular level can optimize and maintain cellular, tissue and organ balance to help prevent disease. 94


The development of nutrigenomics has been aided by powerful advances in genetic research. Genetic variability, the inter-individual differences in genetics, can affect metabolism as well as an individual’s phenotype. Genetic disorders of nutritional metabolism can cause abnormal physiological effects that are exhibited as polymorphisms (population diversity). Simple examples would be the genes associated with obesity or diabetes in various canine species, and vitamin B12 deficiency in giant Schnauzers.


GLOSSARY Gene the molecular unit of heredity in an individual Genome the entire hereditary (genetic) makeup of an individual

Genotype the genetic makeup of an individual Phenotype an individual’s observable physical traits or characteristics

Polymorphism when two or more clearly different phenotypes exist in the same population

Nutrients relay signals that tell a specific cell in the body about the diet. Basically, a sensory system in the cell interprets information from nutrients about the dietary environment. Once the nutrient interacts with this system, it changes gene (genomics) and protein (proteomics) expression and metabolite production (metabolomics) accordingly. So different diets elicit different patterns of gene and protein expression and metabolite production. Nutrigenomics describes the patterns of these effects, which are called molecular dietary signatures. An important aim of nutrigenomics involves identifying the markers of early phases of diet-related diseases, so that nutritional intervention can return the patient to a healthy state. Another aim is to demonstrate the effects of biologically active food components on health, leading to the design of functional foods that will keep individuals healthy according to their own specific needs.


Recently, veterinary and nutrition scientists have begun applying animal genomics to the field of nutrition. Nutritional genomics and proteomics will play a vital role in the future of pet foods. Functional genomics will emerge as important areas of study, now that the genome “maps” for the dog are available.

population, ultimately decreasing or eliminating the incidence of disease.

Studying and monitoring the health of dogs parallels that of humans. Close to 500 canine genetic diseases have been described to date. Molecular biological techniques have been used for several decades to identify the cause of single gene disorders in animals, allowing for prevention and treatment strategies. Currently, at least 30 canine disease genes have been cloned and characterized. This has led to the development of genetic mutation-based tests for diagnosis and carrier detection. These tests permit the elimination of carriers from the breeding

However, while determining the DNA sequences of single gene mutations is now feasible, identifying the genetic loci (locations on the genome) responsible for complex genetic diseases is a much more difficult task. Nevertheless, dogs serve as excellent models for the nutritional diseases in other animal species and humans. Although a genetic component exists for these conditions, nutrition plays a major role in the development and/or treatment of many. CDNDOGS.CA


Changing lifestyles in urban populations have led to a significant increase in obesity and diabetes in people and dogs. The negative health outcomes of obesity and diabetes observed in humans are also seen in canines. These are just two common examples of animal diseases having both a nutritional cause and a therapeutic component.


Certain dietary constituents such as vitamins A and D, zinc and fatty acids can directly influence gene expression, whereas others such as dietary fiber can have an indirect effect through changes in hormonal signaling, mechanical stimuli, or metabolites produced from the microbial flora in the bowel. So-called “functional” food ingredients and herbal supplements are now being incorporated into animal as well as human foods. Examples of nutrients currently added to pet foods include those intended to improve joint health such as glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate, and green lipped mussel. Others protect the body from cellular free radical damage, and include vitamin E, beta carotene and selenium. Omega-3 fatty acids improve the skin, while oligosaccharides (carbohydrates) and probiotics are good for gut health.

growing knowledge of genes and gene expression, it should be possible to formulate diets not only for preventing structural abnormalities, but also for more complex diseases such as diabetes, cancer, aging, behavioral changes and heart disease. Our advancing knowledge about human and animal genomes, along with the breadth of biotechnology, offer us the opportunity to individualize dietary intervention to help prevent, mitigate or cure chronic diseases.

Dr. Jean Dodds, DVM, received her veterinary degree in 1964 from the Ontario Veterinary College. In 1986, she moved to southern California to establish Hemopet, the first non-profit national blood bank program for animals. Dr. Dodds has been a member of many national and international committees on hematology, animal models of human disease, veterinary medicine and laboratory animal research. She received the Holistic Veterinarian of the Year Award from the AHVMA in 1984.

There are also pet foods designed for a dog’s life stages (e.g. puppy, adult and geriatric), body type (e.g. toy, large and giant breeds), and lifestyle (e.g. active, growth and performance). It’s important to keep in mind that the benefits provided by these diets may be well suited for one dog, but not another. With our

5 BASIC CONCEPTS OF NUTRIGENOMICS 1. Diet can be serious risk factor for a number of diseases. 2. Common dietary ingredients act on the animal genome (the total genetic information), both directly and indirectly, to alter gene expression and structure. 3. Certain diet-regulated genes play a role in the onset, incidence, progression, and/or severity of chronic diseases. 4. Dietary intervention based on an animal’s nutritional needs and current state, applied together with his/her genotype, can prevent, mitigate or cure chronic disease. 5. The degree of dietary influence on the balance of health and disease states in the body depends on an individual’s genetic makeup. 96






When the residents of High River, Alberta were suddenly faced with approaching floodwaters last summer, they had only moments to evacuate. If this had been you, would you and your dog have been prepared? Would you have known what to do?

they often panic. Some first responders will tell you to provide sufficient food and water for your dog and leave him behind. But remember – if it’s not safe for you, it’s not safe for your dog. Groups such as the Canadian Disaster Animal Response Team (CDART) have been founded to assist pet owners faced with large-scale emergencies, but the primary responsibility for your dog’s care always rests with you.

Many people believe they could easily manage in an emergency, but when faced with the actual event





ation √ Identific essities √ Basic nec d kit √ First ai

Disasters come in all shapes and sizes, from major events like floods and wildfires, to smaller ones such as house fires, car accidents and medical emergencies. Making a proper plan for your dog, and practising that plan, is good preparation. The first step in being prepared for your dog is being prepared for yourself and your human family (for information on personal preparedness, visit getprepared. gc.ca/index-eng.aspx). Depending on the emergency, you may be required to evacuate, or you might have to shelter in place. Different preparations and supplies are needed for each situation. Regardless of the type of emergency, be sure to have identification for your dog with an out-of-town contact name and number so he can be reunited with you if he gets lost. As soon as you become aware of a disaster in your area, make sure your dog is indoors and easily accessible, and that you have emergency supplies and “grab and go” kits at hand (see page 100). In the event of evacuation, you will only have moments to leave, so everyone, including each dog in the household, needs a grab and go kit.

EVACUATE OR STAY HOME? People who have been evacuated from their homes are sent to reception centres where they register and obtain assistance with food, lodging, clothing, etc., if needed. Normally, reception centres only allow assistance animals; however, some communities organize separate pet reception centres to provide for evacuated animals. Check with your local government to learn what their planned response is for pets. To shelter in place, you need sufficient supplies for your family and pets to last a minimum of 72 hours, but preferably for one to two weeks. Depending on the extent of the situation, you may not get assistance for days.

CDART members help out on the ground during disasters in Canada and the U.S.




Storage: A large airtight, weatherproof container(s) on wheels in which to store supplies Basic necessities: Water, food, can opener, bowls, etc.

Grab and go kit fo r you You may ne

Containment: Collars/leashes/harnesses, muzzles, crates/cages

ed to grab your kit quickly and it may be store it in a central loc dark so ation, like a hall close t. Use easy to carry packs (a suitcase wi th wheels or a backpa ck) in case you need to evacuate your ho me. BASIC EMERGENC Y KIT ITEMS

Sanitation: Poop bags, airtight containers for waste, cleaning supplies (paper towels/garbage bags/bleach)

r  Water – Two litres of water

Medical: Pet first aid kit, medications, copy of veterinary records


Comfort: Towels, bedding, grooming supplies, toys, Rescue Remedy, tarp

per person per day (In clude small easily in case of an ev acuation order)  Food – That won’t sp oil, such as canned food, energy bars and dried foods (reme mber to replace the food and water once a year) bottles that can be ca rried

r Manual can opener r Flashlight and batte ries r Battery-powered or wind-up radio r Extra batteries r First aid kit r  Special needs items – Pr

Identification: Photos of dog alone, and of you with your dog (to prove ownership should your dog become lost), list of ID numbers (e.g., licenses, rabies, microchip, tattoos)

r r r

escription medicati ons, infant formula or equipme nt for people with dis abilities Extra keys for your car and house  Cash – Include small er bills, such as $10 bills (travellers cheques are also us eful) and change fo r payphones  Emergency plan – Inc lude a copy of it an d ensure it contains in-town an d out-of-town contac t information

Grab and go kit fo r your dog r  Collar/harness

and leash, or crate/ca ge (whatever is needed to safely ev acuate the dog) r Basic necessities fo r 24 hours rMedications, a copy of veterinary records , and a bottle of Bach Rescue Remedy r  Ziploc bag with small cloths or old clothing with your scent on it

r r r



A bio of your dog wi th his name, health/ behaviour issues, likes/dislikes and pe rsonality traits in ca se he has to stay at a temporary emerg ency shelter withou t you List of ID numbers (lic enses, rabies, micro chip, tattoos) Photos of the dog alo ne, and with you



Regardless of whether you evacuate or shelter in place, you need to practice your preparedness plan. Enact a mock disaster. Pick a time and disaster type, and run through your plan first as if everyone were home, then as if some family members are away. If you have more than one dog, someone in the family must be responsible for each one. Develop a check list to ensure everyone is accounted for and all necessary steps are completed. It is a good idea to do this mock drill exercise and test your procedures at least annually.

The Canadian Disaster Animal Response Team was founded after the BC wildfires in 2003 and has since deployed to a number of disasters within the province as well as during Hurricane Katrina in 2005. Most CDART volunteers are based in BC, but our goal is to have volunteers throughout Canada. The organization provides disaster planning information, response training, evacuation of pets and livestock, emergency animal sheltering, maintenance of animals sheltering in place, and mortality teams to deal with deceased animals. CDART is 100% volunteer-run and is the animal disaster response division of Critteraid, a registered charity.

What if you’re not home when an emergency occurs? Organize a buddy system with your neighbours so they will be able to get into your residence and rescue your dog. Give them a key and ensure they know where the grab and go kits are located and where your dog is likely to hide.

Cheryl Rogers is one of the founders of CDART and is currently the National Coordinator, Mobile Support Coordinator and is one of their animal disaster response trainers. Resident in New Westminster, BC, Cheryl leads that city’s emergency pet services team and chairs the Lower Mainland Emergency Pet Services working group. She has presented at Emergency Preparedness conferences and has sat on various government consultation panels. She has responded to disasters in Canada and the United States since 1999.

This is general information only. If you want more details, have specific questions, or are interested in setting up an animal response team in your area, please contact CDART at info@cdart.org, or visit the website at cdart.org.



11 steps to keeping older dogs healthy and young at heart. BY BARBARA NEFER AND ANN BRIGHTMAN

Is Rover slowing down? Is his hearing

not as sharp as it used to be? Maybe he’s eating less, struggling with the stairs, or having a few accidents in the house. If your dog is older than seven, he may simply be showing signs of aging. The average canine lifespan is 13 years, but this varies depending on the dog’s size, with many small breeds living well into their teens. Medium to large dogs generally start showing signs of aging between the ages of seven and 11, while small dogs may not show any visible signs until they’re ten. Whatever the case, as your dog gets older, be on the alert for symptoms that could indicate a health problem (see sidebar). At the same time, look for ways to maintain his quality of life and help him adapt by keeping him as safe and comfortable as possible. 102


1 Keep him moving

True, your senior dog won’t be as active and energetic as he used to be, but he still needs regular exercise to prevent obesity and keep his joints, heart and lungs in good working order. He may not be able to go as far as he once did, but an older dog should still be walked regularly or engaged in light play. Just don’t overdo it – stop the activity when he shows signs of tiring or wants to rest. And who doesn’t love a massage? It can do older dogs a world of good by soothing stiff joints and muscles, and alleviating the discomfort associated with arthritis and hip dysplasia. Because massage also improves circulation, it enhances immune function and helps the organs and body systems function better.

2 Watch for hearing and vision loss If your dog is losing his hearing, be careful not to startle him. Warn other people, especially children, not to approach him from behind or touch him while he is sleeping. This reduces the risk of getting bitten or scratched by an inadvertently frightened pooch. As sight declines, try to avoid making any big changes in your household environment. Blind dogs can maneuver quite well as long as they remain in familiar surroundings. For dogs that can still see to some extent, bring along a flashlight when you’re out with him at night, or use a leash with a built-in light.

3 Feed a wholesome diet

While it’s best to feed your dog a healthy diet from puppyhood, it’s never too late to switch, as long as you do it gradually and under the guidance of a vet if your dog has an existing health problem. There are many high quality premium foods to choose from, made from natural, whole ingredients. It’s not usually necessary to feed a diet specially formulated for seniors, although you may need to cut quantities, fat and protein levels. Fresh, pure, filtered or spring water (not tap water) is vital, especially to older dogs that are more prone to kidney problems. Make sure the water is changed daily and is accessible 24/7. To increase hydration in dogs that may not drink enough, consider a pet fountain – running water stays cleaner longer and also encourages them to drink more.

4 Give him vitamins for vitality

Senior dogs need vitamins and other nutrients to maintain good health and deal with age-related problems. Your dog’s requirements may vary from the norm, depending on his individual condition, so consult with a vet before starting a supplement regime. In the meantime, here’s a basic guide to some supplements useful for older dogs:

Antioxidants •V  itamin C boosts the immune system and maintains bone and blood vessel health; good for dogs with degenerative joint disease. • Vitamin E helps with allergies, arthritis, heart disease, diabetes and cancer. • CoQ10 raises flagging energy levels and protects the heart from oxidation; can treat allergies, periodontal disease and cancer. • Vitamin A helps fight infection and cancer and is good for the skin and liver. Essential fatty acids – Omega-3 oils are helpful for arthritis, allergies and immune problems while Omega-6s alleviate dry, itchy skin. Cold water fish sources are recommended. Digestive enzymes – These enhance digestion and intestinal health by improving nutrient absorption. Glucosamine, chondroitin and MSM – Both are very useful for arthritis, hip dysplasia and other joint diseases. CDNDOGS.CA


5 More than skin deep

Good hygiene is as important for older dogs as it is for pups – even moreso in cases where the dog has allergies or skin problems, which can get more pronounced as he ages. Switching to a healthy diet with the correct supplements will help a lot with shedding, itching and odour, but also consider regular bathing and grooming. Use a natural shampoo and conditioner – commercial products contain harsh detergents that can dry out hair and skin. An oatmeal and aloe shampoo is ideal for an older dog with a skin problem. Daily grooming is also essential, particularly in dogs that really hate baths. Grooming not only helps keep his coat and skin in good condition, but also enhances his circulation. It’s almost like a form of massage. Many dogs will enjoy being groomed, as long as you use a good quality, properly designed comb or brush that doesn’t scratch his skin or pull his hair. Don’t apply too much pressure, especially on dogs with arthritis. Approached with an attitude of patience, love and calmness, grooming can become an enjoyable bonding activity for both of you.


AROUND THE HOUSE • Senior dogs can benefit from a little help getting to high places such as sofas or beds. Use a pet ramp or stairs to help him access his favorite spots. • A baby gate can keep older arthritic dogs from tackling the stairs. • An orthopedic bed or other padding increases comfort while your dog is resting. • Slippery floor surfaces or rugs that slide easily underfoot can cause an older dog to fall and injure himself. Rugs should have a rubber backing that prevents slippage. • Make sure your dog’s bed provides adequate protection from hard floor surfaces and is away from cold drafts.

6 Long in the tooth?

Periodontal disease affects dogs of all ages. If not dealt with early on, it worsens as the dog ages, causing pain and leading to gingivitis, tooth loss, and infections that can spread to the kidneys, heart or other organs. Use a dental spray or clean your dog’s teeth using a toothpaste and brush especially formulated for pets. Raw meaty bones can serve as a natural “toothbrush” by keeping your dog’s teeth and gums clean, strong and healthy; the natural enzymes and probiotics found in raw bones also support healthy bacterial flora. Raw vegetables such as carrots are good too. If your senior dog has existing dental problems that require professional cleaning, you might want to ask your vet about the possibility of anesthesia-free cleaning.



7 Limit vaccines

Many dog owners are now aware of the risks of over-vaccination. Even in puppies, too many vaccines can cause a wide number of side effects, ranging from fever and stiffness to injection site sarcomas, autoimmune problems, allergies, dermatitis, thyroid problems, and even kidney and liver disease. These risks increase as the dog gets older, especially if he is in any way compromised by illness. Most vaccines protect against illness for three years or even longer, which makes annual boosters completely unnecessary. Rather than scheduling a full set of vaccinations every year, ask your vet if he or she can do a titre test instead. This simple, inexpensive, blood antibody test will tell you whether or not your dog is still protected against certain infectious diseases, and if he can get by without being re-vaccinated.

SENIOR HEALTH ISSUES Kidney disease, hypothyroidism, heart disease, arthritis, cancer and painful dental infections are common medical issues found in older dogs. Many of these problems are treatable, especially if caught early. Be alert for physical and behavioral changes. For example, stiffness going up and down stairs can signal arthritis, while acting “lost” or not recognizing commands can indicate senility. Watch for these important physical signs: weight loss, changes in appetite, increased thirst or urination, breathing problems, coughing, difficulty getting up, weakness, and an unpleasant mouth odour. Also be alert for behaviorual changes like accidents in the house, changes in sleep patterns, irritability, unresponsiveness and staring off into space. If you observe any of these signs in your dog, make an appointment with your veterinarian. Even if you don’t notice any symptoms, it’s a good idea to have senior animals examined every six months! CDNDOGS.CA


8 Keep his mind sharp

We’ve all heard how important it is to keep our minds active as we grow older. The same holds true for your dog. Just like an older person, he can suffer memory loss and cognitive problems as he ages, which means you need to keep his mind busy, interested and engaged. Regular exercise and socialization are important, as are teaching him new tricks or training commands. Give him access to a wide variety of toys, including puzzle toys. Introduce new toys now and then to refresh his interest. This is especially important if he spends most of his time indoors.

9 Limit chemical pest control 

Pest control products are powerful chemicals that can have an adverse impact on many older (and younger!) dogs. They can suppress the immune system and weaken the ability of the dog’s liver, kidneys and lungs to rid the body of toxins. Try exploring the growing number of more natural products on the market – you can find everything from powders and sprays to shampoos and dips. Use prescription medications with caution. The same goes for commercial flea powders and collars, as well as heartworm medication.



10 Off to the vet

Even with the best of care, an older dog is more prone to health problems than a puppy. Many of the disorders often found in senior dogs, such as cancer, diabetes or kidney disease, may not show visible symptoms until they’ve become relatively advanced. It’s therefore important to get your elderly buddy checked over by a vet once or twice a year. A vet can catch the earliest signs of illness and start a treatment regime that will help retard the disease’s progress and lengthen your dog’s life. Because your dog can’t say when he’s feeling under the weather, learn to pay attention to any subtle changes that might signal ill health. Unusual behavior or lethargy, lumps anywhere on the body, changes in weight or appetite, increased urination and/or water consumption can all be signs of developing disease that warrant a jaunt to the vet.

11 Lavish him with love

Lots of love and pampering from your dog’s best friend (you!), are also crucial to keeping him happy and healthy. Regular interaction, whether through play, exercise or just quiet time together, is essential. It’s a proven fact that positive emotions have a beneficial effect on physical health, so just spending time each day petting, touching and stroking your dog can greatly enhance his well being. Remember to be patient – your dog will be slowing down, so you’ll need to adjust your pace to match his when exercising and playing. If his hearing and/ or eyesight begin deteriorating as well, keep in mind that he won’t be as quick to respond to your commands as when he was younger. You don’t need a miracle elixir to add years to your beloved dog’s life. All it takes is a wholesome diet, a healthy lifestyle

and lots of TLC!

Barbara Nefer is an animal lover and freelance writer who shares her life with three cats, two horses, and a Quaker parrot.






Your dog’s nutritional needs are influenced by many factors. They include genetics, age, his activity levels and living environment. That’s why certain premium food manufacturers offer several different formulas, each developed to meet the specific nutritional needs of puppies, active dogs, working dogs or canine athletes, as well as those prone to weight gain.

WHAT’S IN THE BOWL? • The pet food you choose for your dog should offer a superior level of protein. A source of high-quality protein provides amino acids essential to development and muscle growth. • Whole cereals are also an important source of nutrients for your dog, and include dietary fibre, essential for health, and starch, a major source of energy. “In order to maximize the use of starch, we developed Opti-Cook®, a cooking process unique to Loyall that makes starch easier to digest through animal enzymes,” says Jacques Tremblay, MBA, Agr., national marketing coordinator at Agribrands Purina Canada Inc. “This patented process reduces issues related to digestion and loose stools. Opti-Cook improves the appetence of ingredients, providing Loyall food with an even better taste.” • A complete food must contain naturally-sourced glucosamine and Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids, as well as organic minerals essential for a healthy coat and skin.

The makers of Loyall dog and cat foods are proud to partner with Canadian Dogs Annual. Nutrena Loyall food is made in Canada by Agribrands Purina in Strathroy, Ontario. For more information on our products, visit Loyall.ca. You will find relevant information, promotions and rebates, as well as details on each brand product. Using the locator, you can also search for the distributor nearest you.






Rover just got back from the groomer. Given that extra spring in his step, you can tell he feels great. Everyone in the household raves over his fresh, shiny, sweet-scented coat. But how can you keep him looking, feeling and smelling this good between grooming appointments?

TOOLS OF THE TRADE Grooming tools have come a long way, and some very good ones are available these days. First, you need to consider your dog’s coat type. Is it short or long, curly or wiry? Is he single coated, flat coated or double coated? If you’re not sure, ask your groomer or do some research on your dog’s breed. The next step is to invest in the appropriate grooming tools. To learn what kind of tools would best suit your dog, ask your groomer for advice or refer to the internet – it’s amazing what you can find on YouTube.



ESSENTIAL BRUSHES Sl icker brush: With its rectangular head and angled pins, the slicker brush is suitable for most breeds. I prefer one with a curved handle and soft to medium angled wire pins from a rubber base. The curved handle prevents fatigue in your wrist while the pins or bristles do a thorough job of removing loose coat while unknotting tangled fur. Brushing against the coat will reveal matted or impacted areas.

The slicker is ideal for breeds such as the Cocker Spaniel, Airedale, Schnauzer, Poodle, Shih Tzu and Labrador Retriever. For puppies, use a soft and appropriately sized slicker brush.

Undercoat rake: Used to efficiently remove the thick shedding undercoat that can become compacted and transform into mats, the undercoat rake works well for breeds with thick hair.

Great for Husky breeds, the Shetland Sheepdog, Collie, Pomeranian and Samoyed.

De-shedding tool: Made for double coated breeds, this tool does a spectacular job of pushing through the topcoat to the undercoat and removing shedding hair without damaging the coat or cutting skin. There are a variety of options available, depending on your dog’s coat length and type. (Double coated refers to dogs with a soft undercoat as well as long guard hairs.)

Ideal for the Golden Retriever, Siberian Husky, German Shepherd and Labrador Retriever.

Curry brush:

A rubber curry brush is the best tool for removing dead undercoat while bringing protective natural oils to the top coat and creating a healthy sheen.

Works well for the Boxer, Bulldog, Miniature Pinscher and Great Dane.

Brist l e brush: The natural bristle brush is soft, and perfect for bringing natural oils up into the entire coat for a gleaming appearance.

Perfect for the Doberman and Dachshund.




Fl ea comb:

This very inexpensive tool is a “must have” for any dog. Not only does it take care of pesky fleas, but it’s also handy for dislodging tiny burrs and even removing the discharge that commonly builds up in the eye corners of many breeds, including Shih Tzus, Poodles, Bichon Frises and Bouvier des Flandres. Before combing out dried eye discharge, moisten an old facecloth with warm water and soak the area. Then use the comb to gently loosen and pull out the softened eye debris. Not only will your dog look better, but you’ll find his face smells better!

Greyhound metal comb:

Made up of rounded tooth ends and a combination of medium and finely distanced teeth, this comb exposes all the tangles and mats that weren’t resolved by a thorough brush out. You should be able to comb through easily from the skin up.

Ergonomic pet comb: Don’t let its appearance fool you. While it might look a little cumbersome, this tool’s design saves your hand from fatigue and is gentle on your dog’s coat and skin. It removes mats and shedding fur, and finishes the comb out. It is a “workhorse”. This metal comb with rounded teeth is best as a medium to coarse combination.


GROOMING TIPS 1. P  lan out your grooming location and set it up. Smaller dogs can be groomed on top of a clothes dryer, for example, but make sure you put down a rubber bath mat for secure footing. Larger dogs will require open space on a hard surface floor (easier for cleanup than carpet). Again, a rubber mat will be helpful. Make sure your tools are close at hand. 2. D  ogs are usually calmer and more cooperative if they’re not worried about dinner or going out, so exercise and/or feed your dog prior to grooming. 3. S  tart off with a collar and short lead on your dog to help control him better.

Once you have your grooming equipment, you need to use it regularly to ensure you’re keeping up with your dog’s hygiene. With patience and practice, your at-home grooming sessions will prove enjoyable and become a perfect opportunity to bond with your dog.



4. W  hen shampooing, always brush or comb out a medium to long coated dog before you bathe him. 5. A  fter shampooing, always use a pet conditioner. 6. D  ry his coat thoroughly with a blow dryer. Ensure the dryer is far enough away by placing your hand on the dog’s coat to ensure it’s not too hot for his skin. 7. F  inish the job by fully brushing or combing out your dog. 8. T  here are two kinds of nail trimmers: guillotine and scissor type. Nail trimmers with plastic moulded hand grips give flex when cutting nails, which may result in a less precise trim. A toenail file or dermal is best for removing any sharp edges left from a nail trim. You should keep Styptic powder on hand if the quick is cut from a nail trim. The rule of thumb is that your dog’s nails generally need trimming approximately every four weeks. 112


Susan Dalmer has over 25 years of experience grooming, exhibiting, breeding, and training dogs. She is a member of Ontario Dog Groomers Association and the National Cat Groomers Institute of America. Most recently, Susan operated Dogz and Katz Coiffure Pet Grooming in Trenton. She has since relocated to Cornwall with her spouse and their Bengal cat, and plans to bring her grooming talent to that area in the near future. Check her website www.dogzandkatzcoffure. com for more info. In addition to writing articles, Susan enjoys painting dogs, horses and wildlife.








You’ve mulled it over and decided you’re ready – a puppy it is! So what comes next? Investing time in a little research will go a long way. After all, your puppy will eventually grow up and become part of your family for a good many years. So how do you know where to turn to find your new “best friend”?

DECIDING ON THE RIGHT BREED Looks are one thing and some people choose a dog based on appearance alone. But ask yourself: would you choose your friends that way? I suppose you might if your last name is Kardashian, but for the rest of us, making both you and your dog happiest depends on finding a breed that fits seamlessly into your lifestyle. So be honest with yourself. Are you super active or more of a casual stroller? Do you live in a condo or have a home with a big back yard? Is your house full of kids or are you an empty nester? Do you want a cuddler or a dog that’s a little more independent? Evaluating your lifestyle and doing your homework before you buy will help ensure your decision meets your expectations. The great thing about a purebred is you know what to expect. Purebred dogs are bred for consistency in size, coat, exercise requirements and temperament. There shouldn’t be any big surprises when your puppy grows into adulthood.

Once you’ve figured out what kind of lifestyle you have, you can start your breed research. Our breed directory on p. 118 is a good place to begin. In it you’ll find brief histories and personality traits for the different breeds. The directory will also give you some idea about coat maintenance and exercise requirements. Once you’ve narrowed down the breeds you’re interested in, make some calls. Talk to reputable breeders about their dogs. Most have been breeding for a number of years, and have fielded many of the questions you may be asking yourself. Visit breed association or club websites for more details and photos. Constantly cross-check against your lifestyle evaluation and eliminate the breeds that don’t fit. When you’ve finally decided on the breed that’s right for you, you can begin your search in earnest.






Reputable breeders are happy to have you tour their kennel facilities; some are even in their own homes. This not only gives you an opportunity to ask the breeder questions and look at the environment your pup has been raised in, but it also gives the breeder the chance to get to know you. Reputable breeders want to ensure they’re placing their puppies into good, forever homes. So do expect to answer some questions about your lifestyle. When you visit, make sure you see the dam (mother) and that she’s in good health and condition. Notice how the breeder interacts with the dogs; do they like him/her or do they shy away? Ask about the sire – it may be possible to see him too, but often he is used for stud services only and lives somewhere else, or the pups are the product of artificial insemination.



Reputable breeders should possess an official pedigree for their puppies. This outlines the ancestry of the puppies, and includes the names and registration numbers of the sire and dam, as well as the grandparents and great grandparents. In addition, your breeder will likely present you with health records for the puppy. Since some breeds have

a history of genetic health issues, reputable breeders carefully choose breeding dogs that will help reduce the likelihood of your puppy developing these problems. How do they do this? There are a variety of tests available now that demonstrates a dog’s genetic health (see Dog Speak on p. 170). If the dog is clear, the breeder will have a certificate that indicates this. Your puppy will likely have made at least one visit to the veterinarian, and those records should also be available.



As with any purchase, you should receive a bill of sale. Make sure it includes the breed of dog and a general description (gender, etc), your name, the breeder’s name, the total price of the dog (including registration), and confirmation that the puppy is a purebred and you will receive registration papers. (According to the Animal Pedigree Act in Canada, any breeder selling purebred dogs must legally register the dog and provide you with the registration certificate within six months of the sale.) There are several registration bodies, including the Canadian Kennel Club (CKC), the Canine Federation of Canada (CFC), the Canadian Border Collie Association (CBCA) and Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI). Your bill of sale will protect you if any legal issues come up. Many reputable breeders will also provide you with a written guarantee. Remember, while the breeder may have done everything right to ensure your puppy grows up to be as healthy as possible, there’s no crystal ball that can foretell the future. Should your dog happen to experience a genetic condition despite careful breeding, the guarantee will outline the course of action the breeder will take. This could include replacing the puppy, or financial compensation. It’s important you understand clearly what your guarantee means. There’s no question that puppies pull on our heartstrings; they’re all so darn cute! But by using your head as well as your heart when shopping for a pup, you’ll help ensure that you and your forever dog enjoy a close companionship for years to come.

Dana Cox is the co-founder and editor-in-chief of Animal Wellness Magazine and Integrative Veterinary Care Journal, the world’s leading magazines on integrative health for companion animals. She regularly attends veterinary conferences to stay apprised of leading edge and best practices therapies and modalities. Dana lives in Peterborough, Ontario with her husband, two children, two dogs and a cat.



in brief...

Here’s a list of various activities (and their “call letters”) that dogs can participate in.

AD . . . . . . . . . . Schutzhund endurance test. All breeds. BH required. ADC Agility Dog Canada. Agility. All breeds. AFTCh. . . . . . . Amateur Field Trial Champion. Retrieving. Group 1 with a novice handler. AgN . . . . . . . . . Agility Novice. All breeds. AgI . . . . . . . . . . Agility Intermediate. All breeds. AgN required. AgX . . . . . . . . . Agility Excellent. All breeds. AgI required. AgMX. . . . . . . . Agility Master Excellent. All breeds. AgX required. AgNJ . . . . . . . . Agility Novice Jumper. All breeds. AgIJ . . . . . . . . . Agility Intermediate Jumper. All breeds, AgNJ required. AgXJ . . . . . . . . Agility Excellent jumper. All breeds, AgIJ required. AgMXJ . . . . . . Agility Master Excellent Jumper. All breeds. AgXJ required. AgMCh.. . . . . . Agility Master Champion. All breeds. AgMX and AgMXJ required. AgNS . . . . . . . . Agility Novice Selected. All breeds. AgIS . . . . . . . . . Agility Intermediate Selected. All breeds. AgNS required. AgXS . . . . . . . . Agility Excellent Selected. All breeds. AgIS required. AgMXS . . . . . . Agility Master Excellent Selected. All breeds. AgXS required. AgNJS . . . . . . . Agility Novice Jumper Selected. All breeds. AgIJS . . . . . . . . Agility Intermediate Jumper Selected. All breeds. AgNJS required AgXJS . . . . . . . Agility Excellent Jumper Selected. All breeds. AgIJS required. AgMXJS . . . . . Agility Master Excellent Jumper Selected. All breeds. AgXJS required. AgMChS . . . . . Agility Master Champion Selected. All breeds. AgMXS and AgMXJS required. AgNV . . . . . . . . Agility Novice Veterans. All breeds. AgIV . . . . . . . . Agility Intermediate Veterans. All breeds. AgNV required. AgXV . . . . . . . . Agility Excellent Veterans. All breeds. AgIV required. AgMXV . . . . . . Agility Master Excellent Veterans. All breeds. AgXV required. AgNJV . . . . . . . Agility Novice Jumper Veterans. All breeds. AglJV . . . . . . . . Agility Intermediate Jumper Veterans. All breeds. AgNJV required. AgXJV . . . . . . . Agility Excellent Jumper Veterans. All breeds. AglJV required. AgMXJV . . . . . Agility Master Excellent Jumper Veterans. All breeds. AgXJV required. BDD . . . . . . . . . Brace Draft Dog. Hauling test. All breeds. BDDX . . . . . . . . Brace Draft Dog Excellent. Hauling test. All breeds. BDD required. BH. . . . . . . . . . . Schutzhund companion/temperament test. All breeds. Brevet. . . . . . . Ring Sport companion/temperament test. Select breeds only. CD . . . . . . . . . . . Companion Dog. Obedience. All breeds. CDI . . . . . . . . . . Companion Dog Intermediate. Obedience. All breeds. CD required. CDX . . . . . . . . . Companion Dog Excellent. Obedience. All breeds. CD required. CG . . . . . . . . . . . Certificate of Gameness. Den test. Terriers bred as earthdogs, and Dachshunds. CGN . . . . . . . . . Canine Good Neighbour. Basic good manners. All breeds. Ch. . . . . . . . . . . Champion. Conformation. All breeds. Ch.(Alt.) . . . . . Champion (Altered). Conformation. All breeds. DCh. . . . . . . . . Dual Champion. Herding. All Herding breeds, some Working breeds. HC and champion title in another CKC event required. DD . . . . . . . . . . Draft Dog. Hauling test. All breeds. DDX . . . . . . . . . Draft Dog Excellent. Hauling test. All breeds. DD required. EWC . . . . . . . . . Earth Working Certificate. Den test. Small terriers and Dachshunds. FbD . . . . . . . . . Flyball Dog. Flyball. All breeds. FbDCh. . . . . . . Flyball Dog Champion. Flyball. All breeds. FbD required. FCh. . . . . . . . . . Field Champion. Lure coursing. Sighthounds. FChX . . . . . . . . Field Champion Excellent. Lure coursing. Sighthounds. FCh. required. FD . . . . . . . . . . . Field Dog. Pointing test. All pointing breeds. FDJ. . . . . . . . . . Field Dog Junior. Pointing test. All pointing breeds. FDX . . . . . . . . . Field Dog Excellent. Pointing test. All pointing breeds. FD required. FH . . . . . . . . . . Schutzhund tracking test. All breeds. BH required. FTCh. . . . . . . . . Field Trial Champion. Hunting by scent. Beagles. FTCh. . . . . . . . . Field Trial Champion. Retrieving. All breeds in Group 1. FT/AFTCh. . . . Field Trial/Amateur Field Trial Champion. Retrieving. Group I. GCh. . . . . . . . . . Grand Champion. Conformation. All breeds. Championship plus a performance title or CGN and 100 points required. GMH . . . . . . . . Grand Master Hunter. Field test. Retrieving breeds, Irish Water Spaniels, Standard Poodles. MH required. GMOTCh. . . . . Grand Master Obedience Trial Champion. Obedience. All breeds. MOTCh. required. HC . . . . . . . . . . Herding Certificate. Herding. All Herding breeds, some Working breeds. HIC . . . . . . . . . . Herding Instinct Certificate. Herding. All Herding breeds, some Working breeds. HT . . . . . . . . . . Herding Tested. All breeds. HS. . . . . . . . . . . Herding Started. All breeds. HT required. HI . . . . . . . . . . . Herding Intermediate. All breeds. HS required.

HA . . . . . . . . . . Herding Advanced. All breeds. HI required. I-ITT . . . . . . . . . Herding Tending Tested. All breeds. HTS . . . . . . . . . Herding Tending Started. All breeds. HTT required. HTI . . . . . . . . . . Herding Tending Intermediate. All breeds. HTS required. HTA . . . . . . . . . Herding Tending Advanced. All breeds. HTI required. HX . . . . . . . . . . Herding Excellent.All breeds. Ten points competing in HA required. HChA . . . . . . . . Herding Champion Arena. All breeds. Fifteen points in Advanced class required. HChS . . . . . . . . Herding Champion Stock Dog. All breeds. Fifteen points in Advanced class required. HChT . . . . . . . . Herding Champion Tending. All breeds. Fifteen points in Advanced class required. 1PO . . . . . . . . . International Schutzhund (Levels I,II,III). All breeds. BH required. JE . . . . . . . . . . . Junior Earthdog. Dachshunds, and terriers bred as earthdogs. JFTR . . . . . . . . . Junior Field Trial Retriever. Retrieving. All breeds in Group 1 (Sporting Dogs). JH . . . . . . . . . . . Junior Hunter. Field test. Retrieving breeds and flushing spaniels. ME . . . . . . . . . . Master Earthdog. Dachshunds, and terriers bred as earthdogs. SE required. MH . . . . . . . . . . Master Hunter. Field test. Retrieving breeds and flushing spaniels. SH required MOTCh. . . . . . . Master Obedience Trial Champion. Obedience. All breeds. OTChX required. NAFTCh. . . . . . National Amateur Field Trial Champion. Retrieving breeds with novice handler NFTCh. . . . . . . National Field Trial Champion. All retrieving breeds. NC . . . . . . . . . . Novice Courser. Lure coursing. Sighthounds. NMH . . . . . . . . National Master Hunter. Field test. Retrieving breeds, Irish Water Spaniels, Standard Poodles. GMH required. NSC . . . . . . . . . National Spaniel Champion. Field trial. Flushing spaniels. NASC . . . . . . . . National Amateur Spaniel Champion. Field trial. Flushing spaniels with novice handler NSD . . . . . . . . . National Shooting Dog. Field trial. Pointing breeds. NASD . . . . . . . . National Amateur Shooting Dog. Field trial. Pointing breeds with novice handler OSC . . . . . . . . . Open Stockdog Certificate. Herding. All Herding breeds and some Working breeds. SSC required. OTCh. . . . . . . . Obedience Trial Champion. Obedience. All breeds. UD required. OTChX . . . . . . . Obedience Trial Champion Excellent. Obedience. All breeds. OTCh. required. PCD. . . . . . . . . . Pre-Companion Dog. Obedience. All breeds. QFTR. . . . . . . . QuaIified Field Trial Retriever. Retrieving. All breeds in Group 1 (Sporting Dogs). Ring . . . . . . . . Ring Sport (Levels I, II, III). Obedience and protection tests. Select breeds only RN . . . . . . . . . . Rally Novice. Obedience. All breeds. RA . . . . . . . . . . Rally Advanced. Obedience. All breeds. RN required. RE . . . . . . . . . . . Rally Excellent. Obedience. All breeds. RA required. RAE . . . . . . . . . Rally Advanced Excellent. Obedience. All breeds. RE required. SchH . . . . . . . . Schutzhund (Levels A, I, II, III). Obedience, tracking and protection tests. All breeds. SD . . . . . . . . . . . Sled Dog. Sledding. All breeds. SDX . . . . . . . . . Sled Dog Excellent. Sledding. All breeds. SD required. SDU. . . . . . . . . . Sled Dog Unlimited. Sledding. All breeds. SDX required. SDS . . . . . . . . . Stock Dog Started. Herding. All Herding breeds, some Working breeds. SDI . . . . . . . . . . Stock Dog Intermediate. Herding. All Herding breeds, some Working breeds. SDS required. SDA . . . . . . . . . Stock Dog Advanced. Herding. All Herding breeds, some Working breeds. SD1 required. SE . . . . . . . . . . . Senior Earthdog. Dachshunds, and terriers bred as earthdogs. SH . . . . . . . . . . Senior Hunter. Field test. Retrieving breeds and flushing spaniels. JH required SHD . . . . . . . . . Scent Hurdle Dog. Scent discrimination/hurdle race. All breeds. SHDX . . . . . . . . Scent Hurdle Dog Excellent. All breeds. SHD required. SHDCh. . . . . . . Scent Hurdle Dog Champion. All breeds. SHDX required. SHDM . . . . . . . Scent Hurdle Dog Masters. All breeds. SHDCh required. SHDMX . . . . . . Scent Hurdle Dog Masters Excellent. All breeds. SHDM required. SHDMC1 . . . . . Scent Hurdle Dog Masters Champion. All breeds. SHDMX required. SSC . . . . . . . . . . Started Stockdog Certificate. Herding. All Herding breeds, some Working breeds TCh. . . . . . . . . . Tracking Champion. All breeds. TD, TDX, UTD and UTDX required. TD . . . . . . . . . . . Tracking Dog. Tracking test. All breeds. TDX . . . . . . . . . Tracking Dog Excellent. Tracking test. All breeds. TO required. UD . . . . . . . . . . Utility Dog. Obedience. All breeds. CDX required. UTD . . . . . . . . . Urban Tracking Dog. Tracking test. All breeds. UTDX . . . . . . . . Urban Tracking Dog Excellent. Tracking test. All breeds. UTD required. WC . . . . . . . . . . Working Certificate. Retrieving test. Retrievers, Irish Water Spaniels, Poodles, Airedales. WCI . . . . . . . . . Working Certificate Intermediate. Retrieving test. Retrievers, Irish Water Spaniels Poodles, Airedales. . . . WC required. WCX . . . . . . . . . Working Certificate Excellent. Retrieving test. Retrievers, Irish Water Spaniel Poodles, Airedales. WCI required. WH . . . . . . . . . . Schutzhund watch dog test. All breeds. BH required. WRD . . . . . . . . Water Rescue Dog. Water rescue. Newfoundlands. WRDX . . . . . . . Water Rescue Dog Excellent. Water rescue. Newfoundlands W5 . . . . . . . . . . Working Spaniel. Flushing and retrieving test. Flushing spaniels.




DIRECTORY WELCOME TO OUR BREEDER DIRECTORY. This is a wonderful resource if you’re looking for a purebred dog or a rare dog. The breed summaries give you a brief but fascinating glimpse into the history, appearance and care of each breed. Please note we’ve rated exercise and grooming requirements based on the legend below.

legend Very minimal Minimal Average

BEFORE YOU START HUNTING FOR YOUR NEW BEST FRIEND, we suggest reading through our “Finding your Forever Fido” article on page 114. It may address some of your questions on how to find the puppy of your dreams.

More than average Maximum


This is a paid advertising section and we’ve made every effort to ensure the information is presented accurately. The publisher cannot be held responsible for any claims made in the advertising listings, or any issues that arise as a result of errors or omissions.


DOGS HAVE LIVED ALONGSIDE HUMANS FOR THOUSANDS OF YEARS. Over that time, they’ve been bred to serve many roles, from helping hunt game, to containing vermin, to snuggling. The Canadian Kennel Club (CKC) categorizes dogs based on seven different groups. Though the breeds in our Rare Breeds Directory are not yet recognized by the CKC, we’ve included them in their own section.





Bred to assist hunters on land or in water

Bred to guard, pull and rescue

Barbet Lagotto Romagnolo Pointer (German Short-Haired) Retriever (Chesapeake Bay) Retriever (Flat-Coated) Retriever (Golden) Retriever (Labrador) Retriever (Nova Scotia Duck Tolling) Setter (Gordon) Setter (Irish) Setter (Irish Red and White) Spaniel (American Cocker) Spaniel (Brittany) Spaniel (Clumber) Spaniel (English Cocker) Spaniel (English Springer) Spaniel (Irish Water) Spaniel (Welsh Springer) Vizsla (Smooth-Haired) Weimaraner

GROUP 2 - HOUNDS Bred to hunt by scent or sight Basset Hound Beagle Borzoi Dachshund (Miniature Long-Haired) Dachshund (Miniature SmoothHaired) Dachshund (Miniature Wire-Haired) Dachshund (Standard Smooth-Haired) Deerhound (Scottish) Greyhound Irish Wolfhound Norwegian Elkhound Petit Basset Griffon Vendeen Rhodesian Ridgeback Whippet

Akita Alaskan Malamute Bernese Mountain Dog Black Russian Terrier Boxer Bullmastiff Canaan Dog Doberman Pinscher Entlebucher Mountain Dog Eurasier Great Dane Great Pyrenees Greater Swiss Mountain Dog Komondor Kuvasz Leonberger Newfoundland Portuguese Water Dog Rottweiler Samoyed Schnauzer (Giant) Siberian Husky St. Bernard

GROUP 4 - TERRIERS Bred to hunt and kill vermin Airedale Terrier Australian Terrier Border Terrier Bull Terrier (Miniature) Cesky Terrier Cairn Terrier Fox Terrier (Wire) Kerry Blue Terrier Lakeland Terrier Norfolk Terrier Norwich Terrier Schnauzer (Miniature) Soft-Coated Wheaten Terrier Toy Fox Terrier West Highland White Terrier

GROUP 5 - TOYS Bred for companionship Cavalier King Charles Spaniel Chihuahua (Long Coat) Chihuahua (Short Coat) Chinese Crested Coton De Tulear Griffon (Brussels) Havanese Italian Greyhound

Maltese Papillon Pomeranian Poodle (Toy) Pug Yorkshire Terrier

GROUP 6 - NON-SPORTING A diverse group of dogs that don’t fit into other groups American Eskimo Dog (Standard) Bichon Frise Boston Terrier Bulldog Chinese Shar-Pei Chow Chow Dalmatian French Bulldog German Pinscher Keeshond Lhasa Apso Lowchen Poodle (Miniature) Poodle (Standard) Schipperke Shiba Inu Shih Tzu Tibetan Spaniel

GROUP 7 - HERDING Bred to manage the movements of other animals Bearded Collie Belgian Shepherd Dog Border Collie Briard Collie (Rough) Collie (Smooth) German Shepherd Dog Iceland Sheepdog Old English Sheepdog Polish Lowland Sheepdog Puli Shetland Sheepdog Welsh Corgi (Cardigan)

RARE BREEDS Bolognese Miniature Australian Shepherd Pumi Russian Tsvetnaya Bolonka Schappandoes (Dutch Sheepdog) Shiloh Shepherd CDNDOGS.CA


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Canadian Dogs Annual 2014  

Finding your Forever Fido, 6 Things Every Puppy Should Know, How to Interpret Dog Barks, How to Keep Older Dogs Young at Heart, Why Positive...

Canadian Dogs Annual 2014  

Finding your Forever Fido, 6 Things Every Puppy Should Know, How to Interpret Dog Barks, How to Keep Older Dogs Young at Heart, Why Positive...