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Fred Herzog Tomaso Baldessarini Danny Wilcox Frazier
L E I C A F O T O G R A F I E I N T E R N AT I O N A L
70 Years Magnum Photos
Winner of the TIPA Award
‘Best Photo Lab Worldwide’ Selected by the Editors of 28 International Photography Magazines
YOUR PHOTO IN A GALLERY FRAME
Stephanie Kloss, from LUMAS.CO.UK
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1 0 2 | Lf i . G a l l e r y
8 6 | c o l o u r f i lt e r s
The LFI Gallery presents over 300 000 images by more than 20 000 photographers. This time, dark silhouettes in New York and surprisingly artistic barrier tape in Sweden
What happens when the M Monochrom meets up with colour filters? How precisely does this influence brightness values? About an often welcome, but not always essential, accessory
92 | Leica M 10 A direct comparison between the M10 and its predecessor, the M240, reveals that, despite the slimmer body of the M10, it contains significantly improved electronics
1 1 2 | I n t e rv i e w
Shot from the hip: Tomaso Baldessarini’s 28 Millimetre series
Talking with Benjamin Füglister about the Contemporary African Photography Prize 116 | books
9 8 | M a c r o Ad a p t e r Infinitely close: Max Malatesta combines the Macro-Adapter-M and, at times, unusual lenses, to explore his weakness for detail – “to experience an intimate connection with the world”
Opus Magnum 6 | 70 Y e a r s M ag n u m P h oto s
If anything deserves to be called ‘legendary’, then it is the photo agency that was founded in Paris in 1947
Tomaso Baldessarini 28 | 28 Millimetre
Most of the time he photographs in the studio – but with the Leica Q Baldessarini hit the streets of Manhattan
The M10: slim on the outside, with a significant overhaul of its inner components
Danny Wilcox Frazier 4 0 | T i l l D e at h D o U s Pa r t
Nearly 60 percent of the Nebraska voters decided for Donald Trump. A photo reportage from Middle America
Fred Herzog 52 | modern color
What is the connection between a barber shop and a red stocking? Herzog’s exemplary images answer the question
Bil Brown 64 | Weimar Los Angele s
New publications by Harry Gruyaert, Richard Mosse, Erwin Polanc und Irving Penn 118 | exhibitions Eugene Richards, New York; Fred Stein, Gentilly; Araki, Tokyo; Peter Frazer, Madrid; Sebastião Salgado, Brussels 119 | Leica Galleries The programme of Leica Galleries around the world – including Simone Bramante and Alex Webb, among others 1 2 0 | F e s t i va l s Starting July, Arles once again becomes the centre-point of world photography: the Voies Off Festival runs in parallel to Rencontres 1 2 2 | my p i c t u r e Can photography stop time? To Claudine Doury it seems possible on occasion 1 2 2 | i mp r i n t
Delightfully documented or cleverly staged? Presenting a man who set forth to revolutionise fashion photography
Enrique Badulescu 76 | F e a s t o f C o l o u r s
The fashion photographer covered a body painting session organised by New York artist Vicky Steckel
Cover Photo: Sergio Larrain, Passage Bavestrello, Valparaíso 1952 © Magnum Photos/Agentur Focus
s h a p i n g t he s to ry i n st r u c to r : Da n i e l E t t e r
Daniel Etter has documented the mass migration along Europe’s borders
How do you tell a story in pictures? How do you bring out a subject’s character in a portrait? On the weekend from 29 September to 1 October 2017, Pulitzer Prize winner Daniel Etter will support photographers in developing an ongoing project, which they are asked to bring to the workshop. After an initial review, Etter will set specific tasks to make each project evolve in a focused manner. The aim is to identify the core essence of a story, preventing it from getting lost in a flood of images. Freelance photographer Daniel Etter has documented the conflicts in Syria, Iraq and Libya, and has extensively dedicated himself to covering the mass migration along Europe’s external borders. His work has been published in the New York Times, Der Spiegel, Newsweek, SZ Magazine as well as LFI. Etter has received multiple awards, including the Pulitzer Prize, as well as grants from the Alexia Foundation and the Kathryn Davis Foundation. lfi-online.de/workshops
“Photography has nothing to do with the courses you have taken, or the people you work with,” Fred Herzog said in a recent interview with HansMichael Koetzle. “Photography is how you see, and how you think, and who you are. And your ambitions. That’s the important thing.” For more than sixty years Herzog has, time and again, captured images of his adopted home-city of Vancouver, using his Leica camera and Kodachrome film: a journey of discovery in every sense of the word.” 4 |
Enrique Badulescu “We created this series in Vicky’s studio,” Badulescu says, talking about the body-painting session he photographed in New York. “In the morning when we started, both canvas and model were still completely bare.” Artist Vicky Steckel once again used up several litres of different coloured paints, which she modifies according to a secret recipe that includes fortifying the mixture with egg yolk. Not even Badulescu left the session without being covered in a few splashes of colour…
Da n n y W i lc ox F raz i e r
From the vantage point of an insider: Frazier was born and raised in Iowa, but moved away after finishing his studies of photography, with a wish to see more of the world. The birth of his children prompted him to return to his roots – since then he has dedicated himself to documenting the transformation of rural America. Iowa, the Badlands National Park in South Dakota, and Nebraska are just some of the places where he creates his empathetic records of a changing society.
Photos: © Louise Francis-Smith, © Vicky Steckel (photo and painting)
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o pu s Mag n um
L e i c A H e r i tag e
70 years of Magnum Photos: an agency which has shaped history – with a passion for photography, an inquisitive spirit and empathy for humankind. Many of its photographers explored the world with a Leica. Happy anniversary! On 22 May 1947, ‘Magnum Photos, Inc’ was officially entered into the New York County trade register. Yet, the idea for an independent co-operative dates back to the 1930s when the paths of its founding members first crossed in Paris: Polish-born David ‘Chim’ Seymour, the Hungarian André Friedman who called himself Robert Capa, and a Frenchman named Henri CartierBresson. After the Second World War, they formed the Magnum agency together with George Rodger, William and Rita Vandivert, and Maria Eisner. Their aim was to ensure the best possible conditions for photographers, and to reclaim their rights: independence, self-direction and greater control over the publication of their work. The model was successful, with the agency growing with the golden age of magazines. Magnum photographers were the leading representatives of the characteristic post-war aesthetic. Close involvement, curiosity, dedication, respect and compassion were part of their core values. In the past seventy years, 92 photographers have helped shape Magnum’s history. At this time, 49 members continue to contribute to our shared visual consciousness with their images and stories – in spite of, or perhaps even because of, the immense social upheavals and an increasingly digitised world. LFI presents selected Magnum Leica moments and asked the acting Magnum president, Martin Parr, why this agency is so special. Ulrich Rüter
Robert Capa Right up close, and closer still: Capa (1913–1954) ranks among the most legendary war reporters and has authored some of the most iconic images of the 20th century. 1945, American paratroopers landing in Germany, near Wesel, on 24 March
Trent Parke Recognising unusual moments in a split-second and shaping them into striking compositions: the Australian photographer (b. 1971) is part of Magnumâ€™s younger generation which redefines the genre of street photography. 2003, Queensland, Australia: Beauty Queen contestants present themselves at the annual harvest festival in Babinda
Elliott Erwitt The photographer’s (b. 1928) foible for dogs is legendary. Many of his images are humorous, sometimes ironic depictions of the unique relationship between man and dog – often from a canine perspective. 1946, during a visit to NYC two years before moving there to study, this fashion-conscious Chihuahua caught Erwitt’s eye
Henry CartierBresson It was only after studying painting that CartierBresson (1908–2004) discovered his passion for photography during the 1930s. Perfecting the art of the ‘decisive moment’ brought him world-wide fame, and the by-name ‘the eye of the century’. 1933, Alicante, Spain. In the 1930s, he travelled to southern Europe, Morocco and Mexico.
David Seymour The Warsaw-born photojournalist (1911â€“1956) was a founding member of Magnum Photos. Just two years after the death of Robert Capa, Seymour was shot while travelling to cover a prisoner exchange during the Suez Crisis. 1936, demonstration with portraits of artists, to commemorate the Paris Commune of 1871. At the PĂ¨re Lachaise cemetery, Paris, May 24
René Burri His photographs of revolutionary Ernesto ‘Che’ Guevara smoking a cigar achieved global fame. Humorous, quick-witted, sharp-minded and perpetually curious, the Swiss-born photographer (1933–2014) was one of the most widely-travelled members of the agency. 1963, Burri photographed Guevara, who at the time was Cuba’s Minister of Industry, during an official interview in his office in Havanna
Moises Saman On his first commission, Saman believed that the upheavals of the Arab Spring would not last long. Since then the SpanishAmerican documentary photographer (b. 1974) has continuously reported from the countries of the Arab World. 2011, supporters of Colonel Muammar al-Gaddafi stage a rally in the centre of Bani Walid in Libya, March 23
Josef Koudelka Strong poses photographed in Koudelka’s (b. 1938) homeland of Czechoslovakia. He became famous for his reportage on the Soviet invasion of Prague, which he at the time published under a pseudonym. In 1970 he was granted political asylum in England, today he lives in Paris. 1967, taken from one of Koudelka’s first projects on the Roma people, taken in Žehra, Slovakia
David Hurn The photographer as an eye-witness of the times: Hurn (b. 1934) is one of Britainâ€™s most renowned photojournalists. In the 1970s he turned away from political reportages and the travel they involved, returning to live and work in his native Wales. 1970, photographed amidst demonstrators marching to the American Embassy, London, in protest against the Vietnam war
Thomas Hoepker Maximum impact â€“ Hoepkerâ€™s legendary reportage on Muhammad Ali was shot while accompanying the American boxing star over several weeks in London, Miami and Chicago. In 1989, the renowned photojournalist (b. 1936) was the first German photographer to become a full member of the Magnum agency 1966, Muhammad Ali is pulling punches on a bridge overlooking the Chicago skyline
Bruce Davidson The melancholy of the moment: time and again, the American photographer (b. 1933) lives up to his reputation as the most compassionate docuÂmenÂ tarist of tenderness and tragedy. His sensitive observation is also evident in this image. 1959, at 25, Davidson accompanied a Brooklyn gang to capture the spirit of post-war youth culture in New York City
Guy Le Querrec An apparently absurd scene with a simple explanation: the men in the picture are watching a horse race. However, the French photographer (b. 1941) was famous especially for his remarkable images of jazz musicians. 1973, at low tide, the bay at Plouescat in Brittany, France, is used as a racecourse on August 5
Martin Parr An accurate observer of peculiar situations, even in black and white: today the British photographer (b. 1952) is especially known for his sometimes garishly colourful scenes and subtly cynical portraits. But earlier in his career he also captured lifeâ€™s humorous moments in black and white. 1980, an abandoned Morris Minor has been turned into a chicken coop in County Sligo, Ireland
In the beginning Magnum was dedicated to classic reportage photography. Over time, however, documentary photojournalism came to be complemented by independent fine-art projects. Today Magnum’s cultural division is as important as its agency work. We spoke with acting president Martin Parr about the challenges for the future.
Photos: © Magnum Photos/Agentur Focus
LFI: Mr. Parr, Magnum Photos turns 70. What is there to celebrate? Martin Parr: The fact that we are still here is, in itself, an achievement, because agencies are having a hard time, they come and they go. I mean, we also have our problems, of course; we are constantly trying to reinvent ourselves and think about the future and how we can survive, how we can do things differently from before, because the market is changing so dramatically. So I think the original concept of a cooperative founded by photographers to help protect copyrights, and to protect us and help facilitate our work, is still as vital now as it was when it was invented in 1947. You’ve been with Magnum for almost 30 years. What does 70 years of Magnum mean to you? It has been a fantastically positive experience for me. It’s no secret that there’s a lot of prejudices against me. I think in those days it was a very different agency; so, I did get enough votes for the nominee-ship. I think that also helped to open the doors for other types of photographers. Since then we’ve built on that variety of photographers. But I think we all hold one thing in common, that we want to tell stories and make observations about the crazy world we all live in. What have been the most important milestones of Magnum? Well, I think we built up an amazing archive of the world in the last seventy years; from anything like the wars, through to the famines, through to the daily life. I mean, when you look at
the strength of our archive, which is much smaller than the likes of Getty or Reuters, it has incredible photographs, and we continue to add to that. I think that’s really one of our great strengths, the variety of the work we have in the archive and the strength of it. And how is Magnum Photos preparing itself for the future? The main thing we’ve done is to establish a new web site. And we became a business to consumer business, rather than being a business to business; you know, previously we would only sell or license our pictures to magazines, books, etcetera. Now we have a direct following so that we can sell directly to people. We can offer them opportuni ties to look at new work, we can do square print sales. So this direct contact is really something in the last two years that has been hugely beneficial to us. Is it more important to open up the classic agency business? Of course! The old agency is gone, magazines and newspapers are no longer the big machines. So we’ve had to find alternative ways to survive financially. And I think because we have such a strong group of photographers we were able to do that. And how about globalising Magnum? We are very aware of our need to have more photographers from beyond America and Europe. We’re constantly looking for people, and in the last few years we’ve taken on Indian and Iranian photographers. We’re as keen as anyone; and also to take on more women. Earlier in the days of Magnum it was pretty well male dominated. We’re keen to address this imbalance. So watch this space … There is this old discussion about art vs. journalism. Is it still relevant? Absolutely. I mean it was there from the beginning: we had Capa vs. CartierBresson. I think it’s part of our ongoing tension, and this is one reason why we have such variety of work.
There is no other agency with that sort of remit of covering both ends of the spectrum. So I think this is a great strength; but there’s always going to be some tension there, but I think that tension, ultimately, serves us as well. What does a photographer need to have (or to be) in order to be a Magnum photographer? The first thing is to have a vision. We have people with such distinctive voices, distinctive folios of work, such a collaborative relation to the world we all live in; that’s our great strength. The reason why we remember the photographers’ names is because we have people there with a vision. 70 years of publishing photography – in magazines, newspapers, books and galleries. How has the market changed in this time? It’s much bigger now than it ever has been, because it’s been aided by the digital platforms that we have. We have so many more followers of photography. The desire to see serious photography – from Flickr, Instagram, on the internet – is incredible, and we’re able to supply that, which is why we attracted so many millions of followers through the internet. I think the audience of photography has changed: more people see shows now, more people buy books. Yet, all these things shouldn’t really be happening: you wouldn’t expect the photographic book to do so well in the age of the internet, but they’ve really prospered. So, yes, the market is growing. And of course people collect prints. We have people in Magnum to sell our prints, and some of us also have outside galleries. That’s also an important part of a Magnum photographer’s life, as the magazine market declines and the print market improves. It’s not all bad news, there are some things getting better. Interview: inas Fayed, ulrich Rüter
Information and Events: www.magnumphotos.com/theme/magnum-70-events
m i l l i me t r e
Street photography in Manhattan is a genre unto itself: many photographers have made their way there and taken the world’s most iconic photographs. Baldessarini was also drawn to this “place full of visual metaphors”. In an interview on his project 28MM, he explains why he left his studio with a Q, and headed out into the hustle and bustle.
“I needed a change. The Q was a revelation: one camera, one lens. A 28mm demands a lot from a person; but, once you’ve understood it, you can create very multi-layered images that have a special depth.”
To m as o Ba l de s sa r i n i
photographs most of his work in the studio with a main focus on portraits. More than perfection, he is interested in the particular features of each face. Born in Thuringia in 1984, and currently living in Berlin, he has been involved with photography since 2009, completing studies in the medium in 2012. His second greatest passion is street photography: given the opportunity he would love to wander the streets of New York with Bruce Gilden.
ba l de s sa r i ni st u d io.co m 28 M M E d i t i o n I M a n h at ta n :
352 pages, 317 colour pictures, 19 × 30 cm, German/English, self-published, limited to 1000 copies LFI -O nl i n e .D E / B log : Slideshow with more images Equipment: Leica Q, Summilux 28mm f/1.7 Asph
Mr Baldessarini, what is so attractive about street photography? Tomaso Baldessarini: Street photography is the most underestimated of all the photographic disciplines. To be really good demands a lot of the photographer. You must be able to master the camera virtually blindfolded, and almost forget that you’re actually holding it in your hand: to adopt tactics to photograph people up close and unnoticed, to understand motion sequence and to work with foresight. It’s equally important to develop a unique style. This kind of photography has a great influence on my way of thinking and I’ve begun looking at the world with different eyes. Why exactly 28 millimetre? You always need to set yourself new challenges. I wanted to break out of the limited perspective one has in the studio. Through my 28MM project, I’ve learned to bring coherent stories together into one picture using just one lens. The wide-angle gives rise to new visual approaches that allow me to immerse myself in a new world. The lens requires working close up, thinking intuitively and trusting the camera. I’ve seen that intuition sharpens my discernment. All of a sudden, pictures with many small levels emerge, with details that make the picture appear more complex. Why is there virtually no eye contact or interaction between the people? The loneliness of people in a city like New York is a big subject. They are so caught up in their lives and are ready to do anything to fulfill their dream of living there. Many have three or four jobs to ensure a decent living. You work in order to survive. This selfsacrifice in the battle for one’s own existence is reflected in people’s faces. The mimicry and gestures of New Yorkers makes it very easy to recognise them as such. It’s about interpreting the looks and noticing every detail in the picture. This then reveals the whole range of human feelings. I consider this the most pure form of portrait photography.
Harsh contrasts, deep black, targeted light – why do you isolate your figures in this way? The strong contrasts and the colours give life to the pictures. Isolation is a big subject in my book. By concentrating on the individual characters, I create a free space for stories. It’s the reduction that creates a sense of liberation, the interplay of thoughts between familiarity and distance. It’s the intoxication of the moment that is strengthened by the picture’s cinematic signature. The lack of smiles or happiness in the faces is equally noticeable. Do the pictures also reflect your own sensitivity while taking them? Photography is a form of therapy for the photographer. There is no stronger form of self-reflection than taking an intense look at one’s own artistic work. I had to overcome many fears before daring to hit the streets of Manhattan and move around amid total strangers. Every single picture in this book reflects my state. It’s my own visual diary – a reflection of myself. Many of the pictures are low-angle shots, as though shot from the hip… The pictures are so-called candid street photos. I don’t approach people and ask them if I can take a picture. It’s all about the real, unadulterated and magic moments. I’ve developed a technique for taking photographs without using the viewfinder. On the street you need to be able to simply act directly, flexibly and quickly, without first lifting the camera to your eye – otherwise you miss the best situations. Because I’m over 1.90 m tall, pictures from my perspective don’t look so dynamic. That’s why I’ve always photographed from the hip, with all settings on manual. You learn to adjust distance and frame by hand very quickly. You have to free yourself from your thoughts, and follow your eyes and your intuition. interview: inas fayed
Danny Wilcox Frazier T i l l D e at h D o u s Pa r t
In search of answers: nearly 60 percent of the electorate in Nebraska voted for Donald Trump. What do they hope to gain with their new President? And how could things reach such an extreme? An empathetic look at the state of affairs in the American heartland.
Stars and Stripes and patriotism. Since 1964 (for Lyndon B. Johnson), voters in Nebraska have never supported a Democratic President
Empty streets, empty eyes, and a flag at half-mast. Many small communities lie abandoned. Restaurants and businesses forced to close. An empty gas station by the side of the road in Franklin County â€“ a county that has lost 68 percent of its population over the last decade. Rural America is disappearing: since returning to his homeland of Iowa, Danny Wilcox Frazier has been documenting the transformation of America
Hanging out with the boys: the history of Nebraska is closely tied to agriculture
A wedding celebration in Sioux County. The dancers seem to be looking towards the future with questioning eyes
Clockwise from this page: Drinking binge under mounted deer heads in a hunting lodge in Sheridan County. Donald Trump often spoke out against stronger gun laws. Is it a subject that resonates here? Garette and Kodi during a wedding dance with cowboy hat. Family time at Nuckolls County Fair in Nelson. Increasing numbers of young families leave rural America, moving to the big city in search of better jobs and living conditions
A visit to an American diner â€“ far from gala dinners dressed up to the nines. The distance between Omaha, the capital of Nebraska, and Washington D.C. is over 1800 kilometres
Da n n y W i l c o x F r a z i e r Born in Iowa, Frazier moved far away after completing his photography studies. When his wife got pregnant, they returned. Since then he has been documenting changes in America. His book, Driftless, appeared in 2007, earning him the Center for Documentary Studies/Honickman First Book Prize the same year. Numerous other awards followed, including the Magnum Foundation Emergency Fund. Frazier is a member of the VII Photo Agency.
A slogan promoting Nebraska refers to it as the place ‘where the West begins’. Nebraska is located right in the middle of the Great Plains that stretch from Canada in the north, through central USA and south to Mexico. There is no state located further from any ocean or beaches than Nebraska: you must cross at least three state borders to reach any of them. In Nebraska the dunes are covered with grass and under the so-called Sand Hills there is a large reservoir of drinking water. 90 percent of the state’s total area is given over to agriculture, which has led to Nebraska being called the Cornhusker State. Since November 2016, another nickname for Nebraska could be Trumpland. 58.7 percent voted for the New York real-estate tycoon, Donald Trump, to be the new President. Nebraska has over 1.8 million inhabitants. Capturing faces that are often expressionless, Danny Wilcox Frazier allows us a glimpse of their lives and surroundings. Cowboy hats and boots, mounted deer heads on the wall, bottles of beer in hand: these are the kind of props found in many of Frazier’s pictures. His protagonists are farm workers who feel abandoned by the world. Frazier does not push them into a bright spotlight – he captures them in soft black and white, leaving plenty of room for different shades of grey. This is the way to look at these people’s stories – neither black nor white, but many shades of grey. In 1854, the United States Congress established Nebraska as a territory, which in 1867 was admitted into the Union as the 37th State. The territory was widely settled as a result of the 1862 Homestead Act, a law that granted any person over 21 years of age the right to occupy any piece of unsettled land measuring up to 160 acres – around 65 hectares. After five years, each settler would then become the owner of that land. At first,
a future on the banks of the Platte River looked promising: a gentle landscape of billowing cornfields and rural communities. Prairie grasses were cleared in favour of agricultural development but the land responded with droughts and dust storms. Many settlers were forced to leave their properties once their financial resources were exhausted. Those who were able to leave moved on. Some of those who remained may have found employment with one of the large, agricultural companies. The small homestead has been a thing of the past for a very long time. To remain profitable, farms were consolidated and then equipped with modern technology. The result is Nebraska’s farmers have been transformed from independent landowners to replaceable human capital: classic victims of the consequences of modernisation who felt acknowledged by the Trump campaign. When he promised to create new workplaces for Americans much was said about the forgotten, white rural population, before and after the election – and Nebraska is where they are at home, inviting you join in the food and dancing. Frazier met them, celebrated and drank with them, talked and argued with them. Born in Iowa, he began documenting the changes taking place in rural America shortly after finishing his photography studies. Small farms disappearing, young people moving to the cities in the onward march of industrialisation: this is the picture painted of many communities in the Flyover States – as Middle America is often disparagingly called. Then, along comes Trump. “Times in America are terrible and suddenly people are interested in finding out what’s happening in rural communities,” Frazier reports. “Trump has promised these people a lot. They elected him and now many Americans are suddenly looking at the people of Nebraska asking, “Why? Did you believe things would be better this way? That this represents a way out of misery and the lack of prospects?”
To understand however, it is necessary to leave the east and west coasts, the modern cities, and come right here where the West and many questions begin. Frazier sketches an empathetic portrait of the local people and their homeland. He does not approach these men and women with a patronising attitude. Frazier himself hails from rural Iowa, he is an insider who is able to deal with Nebraskans eye to eye. It is not pure melancholy that resonates during a wedding party at a dance hall: it is the desire to enjoy oneself; yet, at the same time it is the blank look, staring into nothing – a danse macabre. Nothing could be further from the glitzy world of Fifth Avenue than these American diners and dance halls; and yet it is a reality TV star from Manhattan who has given them hope for a solution. Has Trump ever worn a plaid shirt? Has he ever done any physical work? These are the questions asked by the photographs, creating timely sub-texts. In addition to the visual strength the images exude, it is the thoughtful contrast that makes them so impressive. You see more than just daily life in a rural setting, where industrialisation makes it tough to still work in agriculture. And, to quote words expressed by the German photographer Barbara Klemm: “black and white is colour enough” to document these circumstances. Yes, it’s actually the only colour that can do it. It is the colour that Frazier always uses for his work capturing the changes taking place in America. It is the consistent grey that, the longer the viewer looks at the pictures, the darker things become. katrin iwanczuk
viiphoto.com LFI-On lin e.DE /B log: Slide-show with further pictures Equipment: Leica M6 TTL with Summilux-M 35mm f/ 1.4 Asph
Fred Herzog m o de r n c o l o u r
Equipped with Kodachrome roll film and a Leica, the German-born photographer has exploÂred his adopted hometown of Vancouver since the 1950s. A new book celebrates his work with an exceptionally diverse selection of images.
A young girl’s bold choice becomes a striking point of focus: Red Stockings, 1961 (top). Empty Barber Shop, 1966 (left)
Most people would have walked past the empty barber shop without a second glance – but not Fred Herzog. The photographer’s gaze has turned the unassuming shop-front into a perfect composition. Patterns, surfaces and structural elements culminate into a concentrated visual display in which nothing seems incidental. The eye is drawn to the decorations and embellishments of the shop-windows and façade, as well as the juxtaposed geometry of the interior and exterior space created by the unusual shooting angle. Yet the most striking components of the image are its colours: in Herzog’s photographs, colour is not merely an arbitrary detail, but tends to be a defining compositional element. This is also illustrated in his latest book publication, which presents an over-
view of the photographer’s work, that is unprecedented in its diversity. The audience is primarily taken on an exploration through Herzog’s adopted hometown of Vancouver – a city he has documented time and again over the past fifty years, capturing moments he discovered on the streets with the marvelling eye of an outsider. Rather than focusing on the city’s main places of interest, his attention was drawn to less prominent themes: street life, small shops, building façades and the flickering lights of nighttime neon signs presented him with an inexhaustible array of material for his photographic excursions. From the late fifties onwards, Herzog worked almost exclusively with Kodachrome film. This decision came to play a significant part in why his work is still
being discovered today: using Kodachrome limited the presentation of his images to slide projections, while modern digital printing technology has now finally been able to bring them to a wider audience. Modern Color therefore represents a chapter of photography history that is fascinating both from a documentary and photo-technical point of view. The most recent image featured in the book was taken in 2009, while the earliest, depicting a locomotive in the rain, stems from 1952. It is one of the volume’s very few black and white photographs, and probably one of the last pictures Herzog took in Germany. Fred Herzog was born 1930 in Bad Friedrichshall, near Stuttgart. He was named Ulrich, though later changed his name when emigrating to →
Shot unobtrusively from the hip: Man with Bandage, 1968 (top). Like in this street scene, the colour red, featured in the form of a traditional letterbox, is an eye-catching element in many of Herzogâ€™s compositions. Alexander Street, 1967 (right)
Canada as the pronunciation was too difficult for his new countrymen. He still remembers that, as a schoolboy, he was fascinated by a photograph of Vancouver harbour – perhaps a premonition of his fate, which initially took some very dark turns. In 1941 Herzog lost his mother, the war devastated his hometown, and his father also passed away just a year after returning from the war. At that time
Herzog was working in his grandparent’s hardware shop, and was beginning to discover photography. In 1952 he made the decision to emigrate to Canada. He boarded a ship to Montreal, then travelled by train to Toronto where he tried his luck at a number of different jobs. All the while he immersed himself in photography journals and magazines, determined to learn about the latest technological
and aesthetic developments. It was not long before he befriended a fellow immigrant who shared his passion – a South-African named Ferro Shelley Marincowitz, with whom he shared a darkroom – and who instructed him in the finer points of medical and scientific photography. This transpired to be a great stroke of luck, as it enabled Herzog to successful apply for a position as medical photographer →
The long shadows in many of his images show that Herzog’s excursions tended to happen in the evening hours, after he had finished his daytime job. Man Pender, 1958 (top)
at Vancouver’s St. Paul’s Hospital. In 1961 he changed to the University of British Columbia, where he eventually became an Associate Director with a staff of fifty employees. However, his artistic interests went far beyond the scientific photography of his daily work. Every free minute was spent roaming his new hometown with his camera, and this is where he found his true vocation. He began to explore the city centre around Dunsmuir, Hastings, Robson and Pender Street, occasionally walking as far as Chinatown and today’s Downtown Eastside. Although Vancouver also had its genteel districts, Herzog was mostly interested in the more rugged parts of the city – maintaining that “the new, clean, safe and honest neighbourhoods do not give 56 |
rise to interesting pictures.” In his opinion, “the thing that street photographers hope to discover has to do with the disorderly vitality of the street; the street people on the corners and plazas, in billiard parlours, pubs and stores, where shoppers, voyeurs and loiterers feel at home.” And indeed these are the places that hold unlimited opportunities for photographers with an observant eye. Yet rather than searching for Henri Cartier-Bresson’s ‘decisive moment’, Herzog was as fascinated by the city’s historical evolution as he was by spontaneous situations arising on the streets. And so he built up his body of work, following only his own interests and aesthetic convictions, never having to yield to outside stipulations or the deadline pressures of a commissioned project.
It cannot always have been easy to reconcile his passion with both his day job and his new-found role as husband and father. In fact the low position of the sun, early evening light or distinctive night-time atmosphere in many of his photographs give an indication of the times of day he chose for his excursions. Herzog’s passion for photography became evident very early on. In Germany he owned an inherited Zeiss Tessco, which was later followed by a Kodak Retina 1. He bought his first Leica, an M3, in Canada in 1957. This camera incited a fundamental change in his visual style, as it enabled him to shoot unobtrusively and without constraints. But it was Herzog’s steadfast dedication to working in colour that especially distinguishes his →
With his striking compositions of colour and form, Herzog almost incidentally chronicled the transformation of a city. Elysium Cleaners, 1958 (top); Sign of Good Taste, Portland, 1959 (below left); Eisie and Dick, 1974
Bognerâ€™s Grocery, 1960. Founded in the 1860s, Vancouver is a relatively young city. Herzog was often drawn to his hometownâ€™s traditional architecture, as well as the living environments beyond the city centre
work. It was a decision he made long before colour photography was considered a serious medium for either documentary or fine-art photography. Although Kodachrome – an extremely fine-grained and colour-nuanced reversal film with high colour stability – had existed since 1935, it was predominantly made for amateur photographers. At that time, colour film sold for several times the price 60 |
of conventional black and white film. Herzog’s willingness to invest in rolls of Kodachrome shows his unwavering dedication to capturing the world around him in full colour: the colours of the streets and buildings, the façades whose vibrant, glossy paint had weathered into muted hues, the refined structures of wood and stone, and the subtle shades of skin and cloth in portrait photographs. Herzog even
managed to turn its only drawback – a need for long exposure times due to its low light sensitivity of ISO 10 – to his advantage. He developed a preference for extended, slow-paced observation, photographed sparingly and, thanks to his occupational training, was able to hold his Leica steady for exposure times of 1/2s during night-time shots. “I wanted to show the world the way it is,” he once explained. “By doing →
Time and again Herzog explored the city and surrounding areas. Whether capturing a lavish medley of ad signs or portraying his fellow citizens, he always applied his keen eye and unerring recognition of special moments. Arcade, 1968 (left); Airshow, 1968
Even an unremarkable barber shop was turned into a perfect composition, created by an interplay of light and shadow, colour and form: Main Barber, 1968; Go, 1985 (below left); Hub & Lux, 1958 (below right)
Photos: courtesy of the artist and Equinox Gallery
In Herzog’s images, even the most ordinary moments become profoundly powerful: Family, 1967
it only a few hours a day and not every day, I had the freedom to do what I wanted.” To process his films, Herzog opted for the method that would make the least demands on his time: the exposed film was sent off, and eventually the classic yellow box containing 36 framed slides was delivered back to his door. This left him free to spend more time taking pictures. He consistently averaged around two films per week – which over the decades has culminated in a collection of more than 100 000 slides. At first only family and friends were shown the fruits of the photographer’s excursions, during social slide-show evenings. It was not until the late 1960s that his work was recognised on a larger scale. From 1968 to 1974, Herzog was invited to teach at the art departments of
the Simon Fraser University and the University of British Columbia. He also began to showcase his work in exhibitions. However, transferring the luminous colours of the Kodachrome slides to paper prints continued to prove a serious problem. Not even Cibachrome prints were able to reproduce the full visual impact of the original images. At last, however, modern digital printing technology saved the day: colour casts, slight fading, and even signs of wear can be rectified. Most vitally, modern inkjet printers are able to match the intensity of the Kodachrome slides thanks to their wide colour range and high light sensitivity. With this obstacle removed, Herzog’s work has in recent years been rediscovered and celebrated in exhibitions around the world.
Modern Color recognises a dedicated pioneer of colour photography and an attentive observer who has created a lasting record of both an era and a city which have long since disappeared. Over time, parts of Vancouver have turned into a rather featureless metropolis – a transformation Herzog had anticipated: “I pictured myself having to show what the city looked like to people maybe fifty or a hundred years from now.” But his work is more than a commemoration of the past. In fact, his visual language and outstanding use of colour make his images entirely timeless. Ulrich Rüter mode rn Color
320 pages, 264 images, 27 x 27,3 cm, German, English, Hatje Cantz; texts by David Campany, Hans-Michael Koetzle and Jeff Wall
LeicA sl | M
Bil Brown Weimar Los Angeles
To Bil Brown, Los Angeles today is like Berlin was at the time of the Weimar Republic, an oasis of freedom. That is not the only similarity, however, as a new era may also be about to begin in the United States of America.
The feeling of Berlin in the 1920s and early 1930s is reborn in L.A. today: actor Paz de la Huerta (above) and Model Nikita Andrianova (right)
The protagonists keep an eye on the viewer â€“ even if their eyes are covered with sunglasses: model Ella Moss (left) and actor Natasha Blasick (right) lFI
Bil Brown sketches a picture of Los Angeles that does not conform with the clichĂŠ images we have of the South Californian city: model Stevie Finadore at the Broadway Theatre district in the centre of Los Angeles
Clockwise from the top left: Actor Paz de la Huerta; performance at a private birthday party in the Hollywood Hills; on Labour Day 2016; pool scene at Sunset Strip Pool; scene from West Hollywood
B i l B row n Before he was a photographer, Brown was a poet. He has an MFA in writing from the Jack Kerouac School of Disembodied Poetics at the Buddhist-inspired college of Naropa in Boulder, Colorado, a department co-founded by renowned Beat Generation poet Allen Ginsberg. It was Ginsberg, he recalls, “who introduced me to Leica, as he carried an M6 around his neck and shot with it constantly when I knew him.”
Bi l b row nph oto g ra p h y.co m s-m agaz i n e .ph otog ra p h y: Interview / Digital Feature about Weimar Los Angeles
Equipment: Leica SL with VarioElmarit-SL 24–90mm f/2.8–4 Asph and Vario-Elmar-R 75–200mm f/4.5; Leica M240 and M10 with Summicron-M 28 and 35mm f/2 Asph
Bil Brown has had many artistic lives. His background in poetry, zines and bookmaking has been an influence on his pictures, as well as the title he publishes, Black and Grey magazine, which is a free-spirited portfolio of fashion, art and original short stories. “The idea of publishing work in a community sense, with like-minded artists and thinkers, is one of the foremost ways that my poetry background influences my photography,” he says. “We have to publish, and we have to share with others. We have to influence others and keep going. The real decisive moment is the moment you decide to show your work to someone else.” In today’s fashion industry, with its penchant for unimaginative studio photography accompanied by disorientating levels of retouching, Brown’s oeuvre stands apart because of its convincing sexuality and the stories he is able to weave. The scenarios he dreams up are constructed but never posed. Everybody is having fun: flutes of champagne are drunk, cigarettes are smoked, camera-phones light up in the background, and Brown is capturing it all. He shoots quickly with lots of flash, and in such a way that the boundaries between documentary and fantasy are dissolved, and the images seem to slip from one realm to the other. In his stories there is always an intense interaction between the viewer and the subject; a lot of photographers try to capture this sort of erotic effect on film, but few are able to. “You can’t be too fetish-like in your imagery,” Brown explains, “but then fashion itself is a sort of fetish, isn’t it? You have to want it, and covet it and people get caught up in it. The shoes, the dresses, the cut of a blouse. Everything! You have to notice these things or you would get caught up too: this male and female gaze, as it were.” Often his models are watching us from the sides of their eyes, or their gazes are covered with sunglasses and concealed, or the crop is so tight that we cannot even see their faces. In one memorable image the protagonist is reaching out from the page and handing us a can of Coca-Cola; in another,
admiring themselves in a mirror that also reflects the photographer and the glare of his flash. He recalls the advice he was given when he was younger: “photography may be one of the easiest arts to get into, but it is the most difficult to find a voice of your own in.” Despite these difficulties, Brown has found his voice and is using it for stories that need to be told. Although his images are staged, they may also be regarded as a form of reportage, because in them is contained the mood of a creative part of American society on the brink of a new, uncertain and somewhat intimidating era. In Weimar Los Angeles, his story for the S magazine 9 (see LFI 3/2017), Brown saw echoes of that particularly vibrant and decadent moment in Berlin in present-day Southern California, telling us, “to me, Berlin in the 20s and early 30s was a center point of aesthetic culture and freedom! Those were assaulted by the realities of global politics. Economic uncertainty for some people while others became rich. The advances of liberalism happened on the one hand; on the other, the rise of a darker neo-conservatism that manipulated the masses with fear of the other. I feel like Los Angeles today is very close to that time period where it seems that there is a particular freedom, but also a sense of decadence and doom associated with what is next on the American landscape.” As for his own advice to younger photographers, Brown says that if he could start again, “I wouldn’t take as much time to consider my options, I would just do it. And I would never, ever censor myself: I’ve learned that someone, somewhere will understand and support what it is that you do. One of my old poetry teachers told me, ‘the closer you get to what you really want to say, the more universal it is.’ We will never be shallow in anything we do, if we are true to who we really are. No fear!” dean kissick
Enrique Badulescu Fe a s t o f C o l o u r s
The body paintings of New York artist Vicky Steckel are an impulsive explosion of colour. Fashion photographer Enrique Badulescu has documented this vibrant spectacle with his camera. A protocol of a creative synthesis.
“It’s all about the eyes,” explains Vicky Steckel. “They tell me so much. If someone you’re working with isn’t strong enough, it’s hard to end up with something good.” In her experience, “you just have to keep going, stay relaxed, build trust – that’s the way to be creative”
“Blue is my favourite colour,” admits Enrique Badulescu. “In our project it was the second layer that was applied after white. Then there were more and more colours, like Picasso with his ever-changing phases.” The background was also painted, turning it into a part of the image
“We did this incredible story in one day,” explains Enrique Badulescu. “The colours jump right off the page, just as I like it.” The more colour the better, is the maxim that drives the fashion photographer’s work. Badulescu previously worked with Vicky Steckel, who is also an established make-up artist, when shooting the series Color Splash! exclusively for S magazine. “I create art on a human canvas,” Steckel explains. The New York artist started doing body paintings around 25 years ago, initially strictly within her own circle of friends. Five years ago, she ventured out into the public by uploading some images onto Instagram – receiving very enthusiastic responses. She subsequently founded the Boscar Project – short for Background Objective Scope Art Revolution – a platform revolving entirely around her creative vision. Right now she is still something of a well-kept secret, but word about her work is swiftly spreading throughout the industry. As a teenager, she took up drawing before making her way in the beauty industry. And indeed, her motivation was to make people more beautiful – however, she soon found that many projects revolved around only one prerogative: selling a product. Undeterred, Steckel fostered her own creative impulses: “That’s when I discovered Basquiat, Jackson Pollock, John Mitchell and Rembrandt.” When she first turned her attention to body painting, her brother was one of her earliest models. To begin with she was simply trying to use up some paints and materials left over from finished productions. But what started out as an experiment gradually evolved into something approaching an art form in its own right. The series featured here is a continuation of this exploratory theme – only with some additional challenges: the entire creative
process plus photo shoot had to happen within a space of around six hours. The second restriction: almost every body design was only available to be photographed once, as the artist was working continuously throughout the shoot. “Vicky kept adding new layers of colour. She started with white, followed by blue, red, and finally black and yellow.” The colours were not supposed to dry, so the model had to be misted with water at frequent intervals. What gradually arose was a visual cacophony in which the painted body merges with the equally intenselycoloured background. An exhilarating experience for everyone involved. “Working with Enrique is difficult only because of the fact that you just want to keep going,” says Vicky Steckel, truly a queen of colours. Model Alejandra Guilmant also works as an actress, and is blessed with both a beautiful figure and a great sense of humour. She knows exactly how to move in front of the camera. For Badulescu, this instinct for the right movement at the right time is an essential characteristic of a good model. His aptitude, in turn, is to capture these moments in such a way that they do not turn into frozen postures, and so to assimilate the energy of human physicality into the image. Within the most minimal set-up – a studio, a model, an artist and a photographer – Badulescu and Steckel’s artistry unfolds its greatest visual force. They had all that was needed for a small group of collaborators to work themselves into a frenzy, leaving a result that can only be described as explosive – despite having “started with nothing that morning”. Badulescu is always open to creative input from team members, welcoming “anything that contributes to the quality of the image.” This is an attitude Steckel very much shares: “Everyone brings something different to the table. I didn’t plan anything, and sometimes that scares me. But I just follow my instincts. It always works out in the end.” And that is the epitome of professional improvisation, done right. Carla Susanne Erdmann
EnriquE Badulescu Born 1961 in Mexico City, he studied at the former Bavarian State School for Photography in Munich. His international career took off in the London music business. Soon he was approached to shoot various album covers as well as his first commercial campaigns. His work has been featured in Vogue, Elle and Harper’s Bazaar, among others. Badulescu currently lives in New York City.
en riqu ebadu le s c u.com vic kystec ke l.com B os c arprojec t.com
Equipment: Leica S006 with Summarit-S 70mm f/2.5 Asph
f/ s top – Le i c a M 1 0 – c o l o u r f i lt e r s – m ac r o -a da p t e r - M –
The s l i m b o dy o f t he Le i c a M 1 0 c o n c e a l s t he c a me ra’ s o p t i m i s ed processor, sensor and electronics
2 5 6 Sh a de s o f G r e y Leica m Monochrom
What is the purpose of using colour filters on the Leica M Monochrom? How accurately do they allow us to influence the conversion of colours to greyscale values? And what is the effect of each filter colour? An exploration.
The art of omission: what could possibly epitomise this better than the Leica M Monochrom? The absence of a Bayer filter mosaic for measuring red, green and blue means that there is no interpolation of colour values from neighbouring pixels. Put simply, omission can work to your advantage – in this case in the form of increased sharpness and better resolution of detail. Of course this is all within the confines of greyscale values, seeing as every single pixel of the M Monochrom’s 24-MP CMOS sensor (like the 18-MP sensor of the first M Monochrom model) is dedicated to recording luminance values, and so directly contributes to the image. On the one hand this marks the pinnacle of digital black and white photography; on the other, it eliminates one of the greatest advantages of shooting black and white pictures with a digital camera: the ability to adjust the colour channels in such a 86 |
way that the resulting greyscale values correspond with the colour perception of the human eye. Because just like (panchromatic) black and white film, the sensor of the M Monochrom is sensitive to all wavelengths of visible light, albeit to a varying degree. And perhaps more importantly, there are some wavelengths which the sensor detects with equal sensitivity. This means that the M Monochrom depicts certain colours with the same tone of grey, because its sensor only records luminance values – with no consideration for the fact that the mind perceives an orange tone, for example, as more vivid than a blue tone. For this reason, black and white photography can always be considered as a distortion of reality. And yet the striking emphasis of shadow and light, the subtle harmony of grey tones, and the very absence of a cacophony of colours are precisely what give mono-
chrome images their unique aesthetic and emotional appeal. This undoubtedly played a part in why Leica’s daring and initially muchdebated venture – to build a camera which records only in black and white – has ultimately been so successful. But there are situations when even black and white photography calls for a tonal differentiation that corresponds with the perception of the human eye. This is of course something which a monochrome recording medium is, by definition, unable to deliver. The spectral sensitivity curve of the Leica M Monochrom is best imagined as a combination of different panchromatic films with a strongly increased sensitivity in the green tone range, whereby some wavelengths – for example approx. 420 and 600 nm (indigo-violet and reddish-orange) – are rendered with almost identical greyscale values. In analogue black and white
photography, the red poppy which is indistinguishable amidst the green grass of a meadow, has become the classic example of the challenges posed by the spectral behaviour of monochrome film. For those insistent on capturing this type of scene in black and white instead of opting for a colour image, digital photography now makes it possible to adjust the settings in such a way that even the monochrome image will correspond with our cognitive expectations. As the M Monochrom does not offer this option, this simply leaves us with the same fine-tuning method traditionally employed by the great masters of analogue photography, such as Ansel Adams and Andreas Feininger: the application of a colour filter. Leica currently offer three colour filters – yellow, orange and green. The absence of a red filter in their catalogue may be due to the fact that they can
cause a focus shift in some lenses, making them potentially difficult to use. Leica’s Apo lenses are apparently not affected. But the 75mm Summarit and 35mm Summicron Asph we used in this trial are definitely at risk, in which case we would strongly recommend using Focus Peaking instead of relying on the rangefinder. But why use a red filter and thereby risk focus shift? The answer is that it delivers remarkable effects in the form of greatly darkened blues and strikingly luminous clouds – making it the perfect choice for creating dramatic visuals.
Trio of colours: Leica offer a choice of green, yellow and orange filters for the M Monochrom, which are available in sizes E39 and E46. These are the most universally applicable filter colours, although we also decided to experiment with red and blue
The way colour filters work is that they deliver a lighter rendition of their own colour, and a darker rendition of the colour that is opposite on the colour wheel. Aside from the bold effects of the red filter, what we found over days of experimenting was that the yellow, orange and green filters appeared to have a relatively subtle impact on the M Monochrom’s images. The greatest effect was noticeable when shooting a scene with very distinctlycoloured objects – in this case, a display of red and yellow peppers alongside some green chillies and a head of raddichio. The green filter especially managed to clearly render the difference in colour between the edible part of the red pepper and its stalk. While this still life is perhaps not the most obvious choice for a black and white image, it is certainly well-suited for the purpose of illustrating this point. Whether → lFI
Converting co lo u r to g r eys c a l e Strong natural colours that are familiar to the eye: though not the most obvious subject for black and white photography, this still life was excellent for determining which filter is best suited to differentiating which original colour
High drama or subtle fine-tuning Red filter: great for dramatic skies, but can potentially cause focus shift. Orange and green filters: each brings out the subtle nuances within its inherent colour, and makes the grey value of its complementary colour stand out
the application of a filter really significantly improves an image, becomes much harder to determine when shooting scenes more dominated by compositional structures – which, after all, represents the essence of black and white photography. At times the effect seemed almost imperceptible, regardless of whether the image was shot in diffused or contrast-rich light; but there were also times when we were instantly amazed at just how much the filter had contributed to the desired aesthetic results.
The orange filter generates smooth-looking skin, virtually eliminating pigmentation. To emphasise freckles, on the other hand, reach for the blue filter. The yellow filter could be permanently mounted on the M Monochrom with no drawbacks. Particularly in bright sunlight it increases overall contrast
This illustrates both the universal potential offered by the spectral properties of the M Monochrom’s sensor, and the merits of experimenting on a more dedicated methodical basis. The orange filter, for example, proved most effective in the image ‘wall with steel element’, in which it emphasises the varied hues of the building bricks, as well as conveying the separate colour of the steel, which in reality was blue. We also tried our hand at a sideby-side comparison of the orange and blue filter. While the latter actually accentuates the freckles on the subject’s face, the orange filter creates a smooth and evened-out skin tone. With the green filter, we went for a variation on the notorious ‘poppy in the meadow’ theme: the red hydrant immediately looks more distinctive, and the foliage shows far more nuances of green compared to the neutral image displayed beside it. And lastly, the yellow filter, which we used to
shoot our scene at the Elbe River beach, produced noticeably increased contrasts, along with a subtle differentiation between the hues of the water and the sand. Because it brightens up yellow tones and darkens their complementary colour – which includes shadows, due to their high proportion of blues – the yellow filter can be seen as an all-rounder which could happily stay on the M Monochrome at all times; even more so given that this filter does not require longer exposure times. That is not to say that it will have a visible effect in every situation; but more often than not, it adds a certain intensity to the image. With the orange filter, by contrast, you can sometimes end up with an overall softness, despite the fact that it generally achieves results such as a more distinctive sky. There certainly are benefits to experimenting with colour filters on the M Monochrom, though they can never offer the same liberties that are available when converting a colour image. But what is really worth bearing in mind is that, even without the addition of filters, the camera in fact already offers everything that is needed for a finely differentiated black and white photograph, complete with the aesthetic abstraction and subtle divergence from reality that makes this medium so inherently appealing. olaf stefanus
Fee l w i t h yo u r e y e s ! P ictu r e c o mp o siti o n
Ov e rt h i n k i n g w h i l e p h oto g ra p h i n g c a n a c t u a l ly d o m o r e h a r m t h a n g o o d. B u t t r u e i n t u i t i o n ta k e s p r a c t i c e .
Photo: Henri Cartier-Bresson/Magnum Photos/Agentur Focus
“I hope the Golden Rule will never be found etched on our ground glass”, Henri Cartier-Bresson wrote in his seminal book, The Decisive Moment. The ‘ground glass’ to which he refers is the camera’s viewfinder and he would certainly disapprove of today’s digital displays. You might think that all those optional guidelines and grids are helping you to compose, but they are, in fact, doing quite the opposite. You see, you can’t take photographs as beautiful and timeless as this if you’re concentrating on fitting everything neatly into a rule. If you did, you would overlook all the elements that actually elevate this picture into a masterpiece – the relaxed body language of the boys, the way the symmetry of the two girls is broken by an outstretched arm, the man’s breezy pose and the panting dogs waiting patiently in the shade. These are the subtleties that make the lazy summer heat emenate from the page. Not the fact that it fits the Golden Rule. While many of Cartier-Bresson’s photographs do adhere to familiar compositional rules, he wasn’t so much following them, as he was feeling them. His guidelines where in his eyes, not his viewfinder. Achieving this level of visual intuition takes practice, but that’s ok, because as Cartier-Bresson also said, “your first 10 000 photographs are your worst.” He n ry C a r ro l l is the author of the bestselling Read This If You Want To Take Great Photographs series of books published by Laurence King.
U n de r t he h o o d leica M240 | m10
Belying its slim looks, the M10 packs some punch. Its low-noise sensor, more powerful processor and larger buffer are all improvements on their counterparts in the M240. We demonstrate what advantages this confers in actual practice.
Leica’s first endeavours in the world of digital photography were certainly welcomed, but their strength was perceived foremost in the realms of optical and opto-mechanical technology, and not so much in electronics. This was rather seen as Leica’s weak spot, due to their belated decision to enter this market. In recent years this has changed and current models can boast state of the art electronics. In some aspects, like the electronic viewfinder of the SL with a resolution unmatched in its class, Leica is actually leading the market. Arguably the biggest step within the development of the digital M line was from the M9 – which still shared much the same hardware with the M8 – to the M240. The electronics of the M10, however, comprise components with significantly enhanced performance, from the sensor to the processor. 92 |
T he n eed for s p ee d.
For one thing, nearly all the components are faster now than their counterparts in the M240. Increasing the speed of image processing makes for an altogether snappier camera, not just in burst mode but in all modes of operation. For example, the M240 could magnify the live view image to aid in focusing, but the digital loupe was fixed on the central portion of the image. With a faster sensor and faster processor, the M10 now allows the magnified window to be positioned freely within the image. The live view is smoother, due to a higher frame-rate, and the lag is reduced to a virtually unnoticeable amount. There is still a black-out phase in liveview mode, though. p ip elin e s a n d bu ffe r s.
From the sensor to the memory card, the image data gets processed in several steps, in a pipeline that eventu-
ally forks into two streams resulting in JPEG and DNG files, respectively. For each shot, the time it takes from the shutter press to the write LED going dark depends on the processing times in each component. It would appear that the throughput of data flowing through a chain of components was limited by the weakest – i.e. slowest – link, but reality is somewhat more complex. In a tightly coupled pipeline where the output of each processing stage was directly connected to the input of the next in line, the slowest component would indeed limit the throughput. Components downstream of the slow one would have to wait until more data became available, while components upstream would need to halt processing until the next component was ready to receive new data. Such a tight coupling is thus to be avoided.
If each component of the image processing chain is to make the most of its processing power, data should not be directly handed from one stage to the other, but rather stored in a buffer from which the next stage fetches its input data. A buffer is essentially a piece of fast dynamic RAM that is shared between two processing units – one writes data to memory while the other one reads from it. Now, when one component temporarily outputs more data than the next component can handle at that speed, this data gets stored in the buffer. As long as the buffer does not fill up, the first component can keep processing data at its full speed, without regard to the component next in line that is trying to catch up. Once the buffer’s capacity is exceeded the first component would still have to stop for the buffer to clear, but, if the buffer is large enough, the
fast component runs out of data to be processed before the buffer fills up. The image processing pipeline of a digital camera comprises two main processing stages. The first one is responsible for reading the digitised data from the sensor, applying some preprocessing steps like noise reduction and hot or dead pixel elimination. The raw data created by this preprocessing stage is then written to a large buffer memory. The second processing stage then takes up from there, either storing the raw data directly as a DNG file on a memory card, or applying all the image processing steps required for creating an RGB image, that is then compressed using the JPEG algorithm and eventually also written to the memory card. and the upshot is? The
M10 sports a 2 GB buffer, doubling the capacity of the buffer in the M240. With the larger buffer, the camera stays responsive to shutter presses for a significantly longer time â€“ the M10 in burst mode is not just faster but is also able to sustain the high speed of five shots per second for a longer â†’
The slimmed-down proportions of the M10 (above) are a jump back to the analogue age when models like the M6 were just as slender. With its revamped electronics however, the M10 is way ahead of the M240 introduced in 2012 (below)
Burst m o de s peed
Imp rov ed ISO - ran g e
M10 JP G
M24 0 JP G
With its larger buffer, the M10 can shoot long sequences of JPEGs without losing speed (above)
At ISO 100 (left), the loss of highlights compared to the native sensitivity of ISO 200 (right) is minimal
M10 D N G
M24 0 D N G
In DNG mode, the M10 is not just faster than the M240, it can also maintain it highest speed for a longer time
At ISO 6400, the M10 delivers a much clearer image (right), compared to the M240 (left)
M10 D N G p lus JP G
M24 0 D N G p lus JP G
The speed of the M240 (below) drops even faster than with the M10 when DNG and JPEG files are stored
The M10 allows for pushing an underexposed image by 5 EV, with much better results (right) than can be obtained with the M240
The preprocessing and image processing stages are decoupled by a fast buffer, rendering the camera more responsive
time. To demonstrate the capabilities of the M10 and to compare them with the M240, we chose the familiar method of recording the shutter noise – each large spike in the visualisation of the audio tracks indicate the camera taking a picture. When saving just JPEGs, the M10 only starts to slow down after about 16 seconds and even then maintains a high speed, provided a fast SD card is used. The highest speed is obtained while the buffer is still filling up, but, as writing JPEGs is so fast, the image processing and saving stage clear the buffer in a relatively short time, opening up some free space so the preprocessor can write the raw data of another shot to the buffer
– which is a prerequisite for taking another picture in the first place. In the initial phase the burst mode speed is dependent on the sensor read-out speed, while once the buffer fills up for the first time, the throughput of image processing and saving determines the speed. The M240 can maintain its frequency of two shots per second for about 3 seconds only; afterwards the frequency drops to about 0.6 shots per second, even with a fast card. When saving losslessly compressed DNG files, the M10 can maintain its full speed for about 6 seconds; after that the rhythm of shots becomes less regular but the speed is still quite high – about two shots per
second can be achieved. The difference is due to the larger size of raw files – while the buffer fills at a constant rate, emptying the buffer takes longer as DNG files take longer to be saved. Lossless compression helps, though, as compression usually takes less time than is saved by writing a smaller file. The speed of the M240 drops after 4.5 seconds; after that, a mere 1 shot per second can be maintained. For a realistic comparison we chose the lossless compression option also with the M240. Saving DNGs plus JPEGs exacerbates this effect. The M10 shoots at its full speed of five pictures per second for 4.5 seconds, after which it keeps shooting at one
picture a second. By comparison, the M240 sustains its initial speed of two shots per second for just 1.5 seconds to drop to less than 0.8 seconds afterwards. One should keep in mind that these figures do not just apply in burst mode. Single shot mode is limited in exactly the same way – but also by the speed at which you can press the shutter. h i g h e r , lowe r, b e tt e r i so. The M10 is not just
faster than its predecessor. Another important advantage due to its new sensor is the improved image quality across the whole range of ISO settings. This starts at the lowest setting of ISO 100 – just a ‘Pull’ setting with the M240 but now a →
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regular option with the M10. The problem with ‘Pull’ ISO settings is the associated loss of dynamic range. When an ISO value below the sensor’s native sensitivity is selected, the camera is forced to overexpose, resulting in a corresponding loss of highlights. The special gamma curve applied restores the remaining range of tonal values to something sensible so the image won’t look overexposed, but the brightest highlights are lost for good. Choosing ISO 100 when the native sensitivity is ISO 200 implies a one f-stop loss of dynamic range. The M10 now offers ISO 100 as a non-pull ISO setting even though the native sensitivity is still ISO 200. Comparing shots at
sev e re co n strai n ts we r e plac ed o n the e le c tro n i c s w i th i n t he sli mmed-d ow n b o dy o f t he m 1 0, bu t t he c ir c u i t ry h as become even mo re powe rfu l
ISO 100 and 200 shows just a minimal loss of highlights, so ISO 100 can now be regarded as a regular setting. This of course is a boon for photographers using fast Summilux or Noctilux lenses, as many daylight shots no longer require either resorting to ND filters or stopping down. The ISO range is also extended in the other direction. ISO 6400, the highest setting supported by the M240, was just barely usable and often suffered from visible banding noise. The M10 shifts the far limit of the ISO range to 50 000 and, while the maximum value would only be selected in an emergency, 5-digit ISO settings are a realistic option for available light shots.
Of course high ISO still means increased noise, but there is not just significantly less of it – the remaining noise is also less obtrusive. With its new sensor, the M10 can now be considered state-of-the-art in its ability to gracefully deal with low lighting, but also with an abundance of light that previously necessitated stopping down. Push i t u p. Many mod-
ern CMOS sensors have become known for a behaviour called ISO invariance. ISO invariance means that rather than cranking up the ISO setting one can underexpose, brighten up the resulting image during raw conversion, and produce an image showing no more
noise than an image taken at the higher ISO setting. This exercise may appear pointless at first but it confers some advantages. Increasing the ISO value usually also increases the magnification of the sensor signals prior to their quantisation, i.e. the conversion from analogue to digital. This increased amplification was useful for reducing noise, but for the current crop of sensors with a negligible read-out noise, amplification is not really necessary anymore. When the noise created by the sensor is much reduced, the shot noise inherent in the light itself becomes the main source of noise, and no amplification could reduce that.
On the other hand, amplification is actually harmful as it is the reason the dynamic range shrinks at higher ISO settings. The sensor as such still enjoys the same dynamic range, but its amplified output can overload the analogue-todigital converter, resulting in the clipping of highlights. ISO-invariance comes to the rescue: the ISO-invariant sensor can be considered ‘ISO-less’, i.e. it can be exposed according to higher ISO values without cranking up the amplification – rather the image is brightened up based on the digitised sensor data. Whether a sensor is ISO invariant is easy to tell by comparing images taken at a higher ISO setting to
images taken with the same shutter speed and f-stop, but at a lower ISO setting, adjusting the brightness during raw development. The M10 not only delivers a much clearer image at ISO 6400, compared to the M240, it also fares much better when the image is taken at ISO 200 and boosted by 5 EV in Lightroom. While the M10 produces an image with an acceptable level of noise and natural colours, the image taken with the M240 is marred by a greenish tint in the shadows, not to speak of the increased noise. The sensor of the M10 can thus be called largely ISO-invariant, whereas that of the M240 misses the mark. With the new Leica M10 it is possible to just choose
an f-stop so you get the desired depth of field, set the shutter speed so as to prevent motion blur, and go for a low ISO setting to prevent overexposure. The adjustments to achieve the desired brightness of the image are applied in Adobe’s Lightroom – or any other raw development tool supporting a wide range of exposure adjustments. L ea n a nd mean . The design of the M10 placed severe constraints on the electronics within the new, slimmed-down body, but the circuitry has become even more powerful, delivering improved results with regard to speed as well as the quality of the images. michael j. hussmann
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I n f i n i t e ly C lo s e M a c r o - Ad a p t e r - M
Released in 2014, the Macro-Adapter-M is a universal close-up accessory for all M models with Live View function. Photographer Max Malatesta uses it to create enchanted visual worlds – even at a focal length of 21mm.
Macro-Adapter-M with Super-Elmar-M 21mm f/3.4 Asph: though this combination is not in line with Leica’s recommendations, Max Malatesa still decided to give it a try
Three years ago Leica introduced the new MacroAdaptor-M: the first optical accessory for the M system which is in fact incompatible with the rangefinder optical viewfinder, but instead works exclusively with Live View. This makes it suitable for all models of the M range released since the M240. The reason we refer to it here as ‘new’ is to create a distinction from the original Macro-Adapter-M (manufactured from 2005 to 2013) – an extension tube with ‘eyes’ and rangefinder coupling designed solely for use with the Macro-ElmarM 90mm f/4. Strictly speaking, the Macro-Adapter-M of 2014 has also been developed for the latest version of the retractable 90mm MacroElmar-M. And indeed it enables the lens to record at distances from 42 centimetres (reproduction ratio 1:2) to infinity. But this time the adaptor can be used just as easily in combination with other focal lengths – making it a universal solution for close-range photography with the M system. l i v e v i e w o nly. For around 600 euros, you are able to acquire a glassless spacer ring whose length can be extended from 18 to 30 millimetres, thanks to its integrated helical screw system. As suggested, the bayonet mount features no mechanism that could interact with the roller of the rangefinder, which is why focusing is only possible via either the Live View display or the Visoflex accessory electronic viewfinder. This makes all the more sense when considering that the
wafer-thin focal plane created in the macro range will most likely be positioned outside the centre of the composition – in which case the rangefinder camera’s viewfinder window would not be the best focusing option anyway. As for the advantages of using the adapter with the 90mm Macro-Elmar-M: because the lens is collapsible, this combination lets you have access to the entire focus range even with the adapter mounted. To be specific, the adapter extended to 30 mm together with the fully extended lens covers a range from 42 to 50 cm; the adapter extended to 18 mm plus fully extended lens, covers around 80 cm to infinity – exactly as if the lens was mounted without the adaptor. In terms of practicality this makes for a pretty impressive solution. However, the MacroAdaptor-M is also compatible with other lenses – allowing the photographer to create appealing results with striking accentuations of sharpness and blur, along with interesting perspectives not usually offered by the M, given that the shorter the focal length, the closer the camera has to be to the subject. The best way to determine how much magnification you will gain is to apply the simple rule of thumb of ‘extension distance divided by lens focal length’. In the case of a 50mm lens with an adapter setting of 18 mm, this would be 18/50=0.36, meaning a reproduction ratio of 1:2.8. The same lens with an adapter setting of 30mm would mean a ratio of around →
Macro-Adapter-M with Super-Elmar-M 21mm f/3.4 Asph: the focal plane is wafer-thin, but at aperture 8 or 11 even this combination is able to yield results. A rather extreme interpretation of Robert Capa’s incitement to ‘get closer’
1:1.6. As for a 28mm lens, this would get you a ratio of just over 1:1 – but the shooting distance would have to be so short that it becomes almost impossible to achieve a proper focal plane. Leica consequently recommend 28 mm as the absolute minimum focal length for use with the macro adaptor. At 35 mm, however, you are still comfortably able to experiment with the ultra-selective focus and the perspective effects of shooting at extremely close proximities.
Macro-Adapter-M with Apo-Summicron-M 90mm f/2 Asph (top) and Summilux-M 35mm f/1.4 Asph (below): Max Malatesta describes our fascination with detail as “our way of experiencing an intimate connection with the world”
Photos: Max Malatesta
i nt e nse fo c us. For the Italian actor, writer and photographer Max Malatesta, the topic of reproduction ratios is a less prominent concern. What fascinates him are not so much the Macro-Adapter-M’s magnification abilities, but the degree to which it channels your gaze towards the object of your desire. “I love experimenting, finding unusual angles and perspectives,” the artist explains. “Anyone who owns an M lens should absolutely go and get the Macro-Adaptor – it really does widen its scope of possibilities to such a great extent. There’s a thrill to realising what details can be concealed in a tiny area of, say, a wall, a floor, a tree, a hand. Add to that the incredible
28 mm and beyo n d.
Though Malatesta tried out several lenses, the examples shown here were created with the Summilux-M
35mm f/1.4 Asph, the ApoSummicron-M 90mm f/2 Asph and the Super ElmarM 21mm f/3.4 Asph. The last focal length on this list actually exceeds Leica’s recommendations for use with the Macro-Adaptor-M. And while Malatesta did concede that the 90mm Apo-Summicron was the lens that worked best, he also pointed out that “the other focal lengths open up more unusual perspectives – and that includes the 21mm. You’re basically alright at aperture 8 or 11. If you want to open the lens more than that, you’ll need a very steady hand because, at that point, the focal plane really does become scarce. But it’s interesting – it is possible to capture an object with a wide-angle lens at a distance of 5cm, or even less.” With all his attention focused on visual experimentation, Malatesta did not keep track of the times when the macro adaptor was set to either 18 or 30 mm. While his experience with both the display and the Visoflex was very positive, he personally preferred the latter as it allowed him to work with greater ease and precision; and, although he believes that a tripod would be beneficial, he said he was “happier with handheld shooting, because I like jumping from one place to another. After all, I’m not a pro and will gladly leave the tripod work to the real macro experts.” His experience certainly confirms that every owner of a Live View capable M could find the Macro-Adapter-M an appealing way to expand their scope of creativity.
for 1 –2 leica m and 2 – 3 lenses
out-of-focus regions of the M lenses at almost any stop from 1.4 to 16. Their colours and overall rendering are simply unparalleled. Macro photography is quite a slowpaced process. You have to take your time and explore different methods. But then you tend to end up with something pretty interesting and unusual.” In his images there are suggestions of a visual quality that veers into the ambiguous, the implied, the obscure. It is ever-present as something that enfolds and relates to the main subject, expanding it into infinity. At times his photographs are like studies of the ever-searching gaze, and what matters is not the infocus part of the image, but that which transpires in the background: a richly-layered myriad of impressions which draw us in, making us wish we could explore further and decipher the secret of their details, if only we were able. But they are kept forever out of reach – concealed in a delicious haze. There is something surreal about the intimacy that radiates from these studies, which is more than just a reflection on the photographer’s close physical proximity to his subjects; his images have an alluring, dreamlike quality that belies the considerable effort involved in combining visual experimentation with determining the aperture, frame and focus settings that will lead to a beautiful image.
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lFI meister_lfi_boerse2017 english Kopie.indd 1
22.02.2017 12:06:11 Uhr
be s t o f LFI . G a l l e r y
L at t i c e tiles â€œI wanted this picture to deal with asymmetric relationships. One single person crossing this large square in the city of Katano (Osaka Prefecture), creating a contrast to the precision of the tile patterns.â€? Yasu Nakamura Leica M240 with SummicronM 50mm f/2 Asph
l ig h t box
IN t e r v i ewS
Au t u m n Fa i r
“I came up with the title when I realised that, if the weather obliges, interviews always take place outside. I had the thought association that the shadows remain after an interview is over. The chairs belong to a museum cafeteria in Washington D.C.”
“The autumn funfair in Basel is the biggest and oldest fair in Switzerland. This specific carousel is located in the interior courtyard of the new Basel trade fair centre, developed by architects Herzog and de Meuron. The passengers on the carousel experience a free fall of 20 metres.”
Maximilian Grigore Leica X Vario, Vario-Elmar 18–46mm f/3.5–6.4 Asph
Daniele Zullino Leica D-Lux109, DC Vario-Summilux 10.9– 34mm f/1.7–2.8 Asph
Le g s o n t he wa l l â€œLegs on the Wall is is the name of a trampoline show in Sydney. Once the show is over, the artist allows children to give the trampoline a go. This picture was taken on the last day the show performed in Sydney.â€? Haoming Wang Leica M240 with Summilux-M 28mm f/1.4 Asph
Tw i n s W i t H L i g h t s a be r s “Every year I document how the twin sons of a friend are growing up, by taking a portrait. These pictures have special meaning for me as I am also the child of a twin. At the same time, the photo was one of the first pictures I took with my X2.” Kata Sedlak Leica X2, Elmarit 24mm f/2.8 Asph
Triangular /\/\/\ “This picture belongs to my Lifelines series, which deals with living beings in architectonic structures. The photo was taken in Tallinn/ Estonia, and I had to wait six hours for this moment. I knew at once that I had managed to capture something very special.“ Martin Fagerås Leica Q, Summilux 28mm f/1.7 Asph
Silhouettes “The Revson Fountain at Robertson Plaza in New York is a popular meeting point for people going to the opera: in summer it’s easy to wait there for the decisive moment. I liked this picture in particular, because it illustrates our approach to new technologies. For the third woman, her dog is enough.” Vadim Krisyan Leica SL with Vario-Elmarit 24–90mm f/2.8–4 Asph
Stripes, N o S ta r s “I was out with a friend in Värmdö to photograph the filming of a show about antiques on Swedish television. I captured this picture right at the parking lot. I appreciate its simplicity and feeling of calm.” Håkan Wramner Leica M240 with ElmaritM 28mm f/2.8 Asph
– bOO K S – E X H I B ITONS – f e s t i va l s – Awa r d s –
Photos: © Laila Hida, © Mattilde Gattoni, © Emmanuelle Adrianjafy
p h o to
“ I t i s n o t a q Ue s t i o n o f b l ac k o r wh i t e .” i n t e rv i e w
For more than six years, Benjamin Füglister has been actively involved in the yearly CAP Prize promoting African photography and Africa as a theme. We spoke with him about the particularities of this subject.
Known as the piclet.org Prize Africa (Popcap) between 2012 and 2016, the award was last year renamed the CAP Prize: The Contemporary African Photography Prize. The aim is to promote African photography in the art world, and to achieve more exposure for artists involved with the African continent.
expertise in this field is a question of origin. Many works are long-term projects. They serve to convey a nuanced image of Africa and to understand the complexity of the continent. The jury is always made up of experts from all five continents, so as to avoid a judgment of the submissions that is in any way culturally biased.
LFI: In what ways does the CAP Prize promote photographers? Benjamin Füglister: We recognise projects that deal in depth with the African continent or its diaspora, independent of the origin of the participants. It’s not a question of black or white, but rather the visual representation of Africa. I don’t believe being able to photograph and to develop
LFI: From the perspective of the photographers, what are the selection criteria to be considered for the CAP Prize? Füglister: The CAP Prize is open to projects that have been completed no more than three years ago: 10 to 25 pictures can be submitted, a series of connected photographs. The pictures must have been taken on the African continent, or deal with the African diaspora. The Prize is open to all photographers, regardless of age or origin. Participation is free of charge.
Does a specific African imagery exist? Füglister: No, in the same way that no European imagery exists. Just like in Europe, there are schools, or professors, that mould photographers. This, however, has nothing to do with origin. In addition, thanks to the internet and the internationalisation → LFI:
Above: In Nothing’s in Vain (2014-2016), Emanuelle Adrianjafy (Madagascar) makes a poetic commentary on her life. Far left: In Looking for You (2014), Laila Hida’s (Morocco) metaphorical portraits question the matter of identity. Left: In Ocean Rage (2016), Mattilde Gattoni (Italy) shows the effects of climate change on the coast of West Africa
of the photo scene, young photographers are all oriented toward similar idols or imagery. In recent decades, how has the perception of African photography changed in the established scenes and festivals? For a long time, Malick Sidibé was the only African photographer known in wider circles abroad and is pretty much considered the most important today. Füglister: Right now we are experiencing a boom in African photography, but also in other forms of visual arts from Africa. Fairs such as 1:54 – Contemporary African Art Fair in London and New York, Also Known As Africa (AKAA) in Paris, or festivals such as the Lagos Photo Festival in Nigeria, or the Addis Foto Fest (AFF) in Ethiopia, contribute towards Africa-inspired artists receiving more exposure. From the perspective of the art market, Africa is something like the final frontier. The continent always had a comprehensive photography culture that was in no way inferior to European. Unfortunately, the digital turnabout didn’t happen quite so fast there. This is why artists such as Seydou Keïta (1921– 2001) and Malick Sidibé (1936–2016) are still the most recognised. LFI:
“ T H E CAP PRIZ E IS ALL A B OUT T H E VISUAL R E PR E S E NTATION OF AFRICA . ”
What does the promotion of African photography specifically look like? Füglister: Since 2012, the CAP Prize has been honouring five photographers every year. Their work is then exhibited worldwide. Through this interaction, the photographers come into contact with the international photography scene. We also invite the winners to take part in the Edition Popcap. This limited edition with currently 13 projects, offers collectors a high-quality selection and makes it possible for the artists to earn revenue. Seventy percent of the proceeds go to the authors and the other thirty go to the CAP Association, the association behind the CAP Prize, to be used to promote African photography. LFI:
Above: In her Homemade (2016) series, Heba Khalifa’s (Egypt) explores self-awareness among women. Below: With her Moving Shadows series (2015-2016), Girma Berta (Ethiopia) realises her imagined colourful interpretation of daily life
Above: In his The African Portraits series (2016), Mahesh Shantaram (India) explores racism in India. Very top: In his Digging the Future series (2014-2016), Matjaž Krivic (Slovenia) follows workers at a goldmine in Burkina Faso
What is the participation from Africa and other countries like?
Füglister: We receive around 1000 submissions each year. Since 2015 more than half of those submitting come from African countries. In 2016, there were 27 from 58 countries around the world. To date, about one third of our winners are women. This year, 56 percent of submissions come from Africa; every year the participation from there grows by about six percent. We are particularly happy with this development, because people who portray their own homeland tell intimate stories with a differentiated view of the themes.
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What feedback do you get from Africa with regard to the Prize? Füglister: Half of the approximately eight yearly exhibitions are held in Africa. Visitors are often very delighted, and exciting discussions take place about photography, Africa and self-image. With our open-air exhibitions, made up of large prints on cloth, we’ve found an uncomplicated format for presenting an exhibition in any kind of setting, reaching a broad public because entry is free. LFI:
How will the CAP Prize go on developing? Füglister: We want to further build up this initiative. For example, in the future we would like to be able to offer artist residences to all five winners as part of the prize. On November 7, the open call for CAP Prize 2018 will be launched.
Photos: © Matjaž Krivic, © Mahesh Shantaram, © Heba Khalifa, © Girma Berta
Many thanks for your time, Mr Füglister.
Interview: Carla Susanne Erdmann
B e nja m i n F ü g list e r Born 1978 in Zurich, he studied at the Art Schools of Basel and Utrecht. In 2009, he founded piclet.org, an “online platform for hand-picked portfolios and directory for photography festivals, magazines and institutions”. In 2012, he brought the Popcap Prize to life, which is called CAP Prize since 2016. Next C a p P r i z e Ex h ib it io n : Photofestival Kerkennah01, Tunesia, 23 until 28 August, 2017; more future events at www.capprize.org
o rd e r n ow:
Richard Mosse incoming
it’s not about Cars
The cover of this small-format volume immediately delights us with a contradiction: right below the title announcing that this is not a book about cars, we see an American limousine – halfhidden behind a flowering shrubbery, whose glowing colours serve as striking focus points within a scene composed of countless hues of green. And indeed, when leafing through the book it becomes clear that the theme of cars was simply a pretext for compiling a special selection of works from the Belgian Magnum photographer’s extensive archive. Gruyaert (born 1941) became famous particularly for his projects shot in India, Morocco and Egypt. He is also known as one of the first European photographers to make the aesthetics of the American New Color movement an inherent part of his work, long before this approach was considered an acceptable style for serious photography. Gruyaert does not tell specific stories, but instead condenses form, colour and light into small, masterful still lifes. The photographs span more than four decades, though the majority were taken in the 1980s, predominantly in the U.S. and Belgium. However, as gallery owner Roger Szmulewicz points out in the book’s introduction, these details are of little significance: “In Harry’s work, it’s never about cars, as it’s never about a specific place, as it’s never about a sadness or an oddness, but for sure it’s about a truly sensitive and intelligent look at the world. A world of things, people, and yes, places, cars, atmospheres… life.” 88 pages, 80 colour images, 14.8 × 21 cm, English, Gallery Fifty One
576 pages, 280 tritone images, 17.5 cm × 19.7 cm, Mack Books
E rwin Pol anc 8630 Mariazell
The Austrian pilgrimage town of Mariazell seems defined by its famous Marian basilica. Yet any depiction of the Holy Virgin is notably absent from the Graz-based photographer’s book. Instead Polanc (born 1982) presents a captivating, alternative view of the city, with images that are both peculiar and mysterious. 120 pages, 72 colour images, 29.5 × 22.5 cm, Fotohof edition
Lo n g i n g Key Works from t h e M i c h a e l H o r bac h Collection
With this book the German collector offers insight into his remarkable acquisitions for the first time. Horbach (born 1950) has long been dedicating grants and exhibitions to young artists, particularly from Africa and Latin America, whose work addresses critical contemporary issues. In the face of today’s global crises and conflicts, his paradigm that “a just world is possible” seems rather bold. Yet, with his collection he aims to counteract the constant visual noise of our digitised lives with a focused and empathetic view of the world. The 23 featured artists include great names such as Sebastião Salgado, Alberto Korda and Jan Grarup as well as several new discoveries, with a main focus on documentary images in classic black and white. The collector, who accumulated his wealth in business consultancy, considers himself an ambassador for a better world. He sees visual documents of humanity as a vital step towards helping us understand – and subsequently put an end to – the injustices of our times. 180 p., 115 images, 21 × 24 cm, German/ English/Spanish, Kehrer Publishing
Photos: © Harry Gruyaert/Gallery Fifty One; © Richard Mosse, Incoming, 2017, courtesy of the artist and Mack; © Erwin Polanc; The Jump, Indian Ocean, Zanzibar 2009 © Beat Presser/VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2017
H a r ry G r u ya e r t
In this extraordinary volume, the Irish photographer (born 1980) addresses the major humanitarian and political crises of our time: war, persecution, migration, climate change. The images are in fact movie stills taken from Mosse’s film which he shot on a 23kg infrared camera – giving every image an intensely haunting quality.
Photo: Irving Penn, Truman Capote, New York 1965 © Condé Nast Publications, Inc./courtesy Schirmer/Mosel
A meticulously composed study with incredible impact: the portrait of Truman Capote, 1965, perfectly illustrates Irving Penn’s (1917–2009) spectacular ability to compose suspenseful, timeless images using only the simplest means. The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York now celebrates the centenary year of the artist’s birth, honouring one of the most influential photographers of the 20th century with a landmark retrospective. The exhibition will subsequently move to several European cities. It is accom-
I rv i n g Pe n n Centennial
panied by an opulent volume, which represents the most comprehensive and multi-faceted publication of the photographer’s work to date. Though well-versed in the visual requirements of leading society magazines such as Harper’s Bazaar and Vogue, Penn soon developed his own, radically reduced and technically brilliant style,
which finally made him one of the most legendary celebrity, fashion and advertising photographers in America. In his over six decade career, he reinvented studio photography – not only with regards to high-end fashion and advertisement, but also for minimalist still lifes. He also developed his own artistic vision in his celebrity portraits. Classic, ingenious, pioneering: a perfect birthday celebration. 372 pages, 365 colour, tritone and quadtone images, 25.9 × 31.2 cm, Yale University Press
Seb as t i ão S a lg a d o L a P h o t o g r Ap h i e Galerie, Brussels
Eastman Museum, Rochester
The isolated, the sick, the drug addicts: for over forty years, Eugen Richards has been photographing the kind of people whose lives are not a stage for selfprofiling, but rather a hazard that they have to endure in despair and full of fear. Whether poverty, cancer, depopulation, racism, war or terrorism – the American photographer deals with the big, complicated themes and their effects. The first museum retrospective of Richards’ work is now on display at the George Eastman Museum New York. In collaboration with the Nelson Atkins Museum of Art, the exhibition, The RunOn of Time, presents 146 photographs, 15 books and a selection of moving image works by the artist, including the series, Below the Line: Living Poor in America (1987), Cocaine True, Cocaine Blue (1994) and Stepping through the Ashes (2002), which shows pictures from New York City after the 9/11 attacks. “Richards’ great talent lies in his ability to create photographs with emotional immediacy that ground the overwhelming complexity of social issues in the lived, personal experiences of his subjects’ lives,” says April M. Watson, Curator of Photography at the NelsonAtkins. “He cares for his subjects, and brings to our attention deeply human stories which might otherwise go unnoticed.” Therein lies Richards’ great achievement: to give visibility to those who would otherwise remain invisible. Or, as Bertolt Brecht expressed it in the Threepenny Opera, “There are some who are in darkness, And the others are in light, And you see the ones in brightness, Those in darkness drop from sight.” 10 June — 22 October 2017, Photo: Eugene Richards, PTSD, McHenry, Illinois 2014
19 May — 16 September 2017, Photo: Sebastião Salgado, Kuwait 1991
F r ed S t e i n M a i s o n D o i s n e a u, pa r i s
Living in a foreign place, between different worlds, homelessness: Paris-New York describes such a life, as Stein, after escaping from Germany, looks for a new home and becomes, as a result, a sensitive and precise observer of his new surroundings. 10 June — 24 September 2017 Photo: Fred Stein, Little Italy, New York, 1943
N o b uyo s h i a ra k i p h oto m a da , To kyo
Speaking about his photography, Araki – now in his seventies – once said that it is a “record of his life”. The same could be understood of the Photo-Crazy A exhibition: it is an examination of life and death as an approach to his opulent and multi-faceted body of work. 8 July — 3 September 2017 Photo: Nobuyoshi Araki, Yuen no Onna, 2017
Pe t e r F ras e r REAL J AR D Í N BOTÁ NICO, P H o t o E s pa ñ a , M a d r i d
Mathematics talks about the idea that mathematics can explain the world – or at least attempt to describe it. “I invite the viewer to do likewise and imagine how complex mathematics might give form to everything we see in these new photographs,” Fraser explains his latest photo project. 31 May — 7 August 2017 Photo: Peter Fraser, from the series Mathematics
Photos: Collection of Eugene Richards © Eugene Richards; © Sebastião Salgado/Amazonas Images; © Fred Stein Archive; © Peter Fraser
“It felt as if the end were nigh,” Salgado says about Kuweit: A Desert on Fire. His photographs of burning oil fields were taken during the 1991 Gulf War. A nightmarish reportage about an environmental catastrophe and economic humiliation that were both triggered by a political conflict.
S MAGAZINE ISSUE 9 20
Le i c a G a l l e r i e s germany
wa r s aw
Jesse Diamond: White Noise
Alex Webb: Selections
Am Leitz-Park 5, 35578 Wetzlar 13 June — 31 August 2017
Mysia 3, 00-496 Warsaw 26 June — 20 August 2017
Jürgen Schadeberg Großer Hirschgraben 15, 60311 Frankfurt am Main 28 April — 15 July 2017 N u r embe r g
Chinaflug – Photographs by Wulf-Diether Graf zu Castell-Rüdenhausen Obere Wörthstr. 8, 90403 Nuremberg 8 July — 23 September 2017 Zingst
York Hovest: 100 Days in the Amazon Am Bahnhof 1, 18374 Zingst 21 May — 31 August 2017 Austria
Ellen von Unwerth: Wild, Wild, West Gaisbergstr. 12, 5020 Salzburg 10 June — 5 August 2017 S c h l o s s A r e n be r g
Peter Hellekalek: Zwei Orte, benachbart Arenbergstr. 10, 5020 Salzburg 7 May — 28 July 2017
Pedro Matos: Heirs of Slavery Rua de Sá da Bandeira, 48/52, 4000-427 Porto 1 July — 13 September 2017
i s ta n b u l
Arslan Sukan: Prelude Bomontiada – Merkez, A, Birahane Sk. No:1, 34381 Şişli/İstanbul 8 June — 5 August 2017
Jim Marshall: Jazz Festival 8783 Beverly Boulevard, West Hollywood, CA 90048, 15 June — 31 July 2017 Boston
Rolling Through the Shadows. Featuring the work of iconic skateboarders 74 Arlington Street, Boston, MA 02116, 29 June — 27 August 2017
O O K
S ão Pau l o
I ta lY
Rua Maranhão, 600 Higienópolis, 01240–000 São Paulo Ja pa n
Julian Lennon: Cycle – Life Cycle
6-4-1 Ginza, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 16 June — 17 September 2017
Školská 28, 110 00 Prague 1
Via Mengoni, 4, 20121 Milan 13 June — end of July 2017
Due to reconstruction the gallery is closed until September
CUTTING-EDGE PHOTOGRAPHY BY
Current exhibition unknown at time of publication
Simone Bramante: Arctic Sea Level
Walfischgasse 1, 1010 Wien 17 May — 12 July 2017
PAGES · 9,90
Animalia – Tiere im Bild
Julian Lennon: Cycle – River Life 570–120 Gionmachi Minamigawa, Higashiyama-ku, Kyoto 11 March — 8 June 2017
Enrique Badulescu Joachim Baldauf Brix & Maas Bil Brown Arved Colvin-Smith Anna Daki Rui Faria Christian Geisselmann Esther Haase Marie Hochhaus Benjamin Kaufmann James Meakin Monica Menez Hector Perez Elizaveta Porodina René & Radka Christian Rinke Tristan Rösler Takahito Sasaki SPECIAL
Ellen von Unwerth
vo i e s o f f 2 0 1 7 LOBA f i n a l i s t s at a public screening
The Voies Off Festival complements the traditional Rencontres d’Arles Photo Festival. From the raven-black, fantasy worlds photographed by Roger Ballen, to the pastel, dream landscapes of Sophie le Roux, around 100 exhibitions promise visitors plenty of new images to discover. All this
Re n c o n t r e s d ’A r l e s S o u t h Am e r i c a a g u e s t i n s o u t h e r n F r a n c e
civil war. There are also other countries strongly represented: Iran, for example, has 46 photographers, many of whom are young women showing their work in the exhibition, Iran: Year 38. The photographs were taken between 1979 and 2017, and include Shadi Ghadirian’s pictures of the Qajars. A large exhibition at the Salle Henri Comte is dedicated to the work of Joel Meyerowitz, who was inducted into the Leica Hall of Fame in 2017. In addition to the exhibitions, the opening week from 3 to 8 July 2017 will be packed with screenings, portfolio reviews, discussions and workshops. “This year we are opening up new spaces – both literally and figuratively,” says Festival Director Sam Stourdzé, summarising the event. www.rencontres-arles.com
From the top: Karlheinz Weinberger, Lucy at a fair in Zurich, 1962; Joel Meyerowitz, Camel Coats, New York 1975; Hans Bellmer, La Poupée, 1935–36 (left); Shadi Ghadirian, Qajars, 1998; Niels Ackermann: Chernobyl, Ukraine, 6 October 2016
Aleksey Kondratyev, 2017 Leica Oskar Barnack Award finalist: Enveloped ice fisherman in Kazakhstan
free of charge and at the same time as its sister festival. One of the highlights is the Voies Off Awards ceremony on 8 July. Sixty works will be presented to the general public at evening screenings at the Cour de l’Archevêché during the opening week – as well as the 2017 Leica Oskar Barnack Award finalist series. Works by Terje Abusdal, Clara Chichin, Yoann Cimier, Aleksey Kondratyev, Gideon Mendel, Sergey Melnitchenko, Dominic Nahr, Emilien Urbano, Ekaterina Sevrouk, Viktoria Sorochinski, Vera Torok and Patrick Willocq were selected from 2700 submissions. Leica, a festival partner, will also take part in the Portfolio Review – the best work will be exhibited at the Leica Store Paris in 2018. www.voies-off.com
Photos: Karlheinz Weinberger/Esther Woerdehoff; Joel Meyerowitz/Howard Greenberg Gallery; Hans Bellmer/Jean-Claude Planchet; Shadi Ghadirian/Silk Road Gallery; Niels Ackermann/Lundi13; Aleksey Kondratyev
The 2017 Rencontres d’Arles Festival offers a very diverse programme: a rendezvous with Latin America, namely Colombia; classic photographers like Karlheinz Weinberger and the surrealist Hans Bellmer; subjects such as the fate of Lenin or the death of Grace Kelly. From July 3 to September 24, 2017, the French city is once again a centre for photography – and this year sees many additional locations being used for exhibitions. In the La Vuelta exhibition, 28 artists will exhibit Colombia-inspired images, a country that is gradually returning to a peace after decades of
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Leica Fotografie I n t e r n at i o n a l
C l au d i n e D o u ry my P i c t u r e
Outgrowing childhood – a rite of passage that the photographer has been exploring for years. In this picture, taken during a chance moment, time seems to have stood still.
69th year | Issue 5. 2017
LFI PHOTOGR A PHIE GMBH Springeltwiete 4, 20095 Hamburg, Germany Phone: +49 / 40 / 2 26 21 12 80 Fax: +49 / 40 / 2 26 21 12 70 ISSN: 0937-3977 www.lfi-online.com, firstname.lastname@example.org Editor-in-Chief Inas Fayed, Frank P. Lohstöter (V.i.S.d.P.) A rt Direction Brigitte Schaller EDITORIA L OFFICE Carla S. Erdmann, Michael J. Hußmann, Katrin Iwanczuk, Bernd Luxa, Edyta Pokrywka, David Rojkowski, Holger Sparr, Olaf Staaben, Olaf Stefanus, Katrin Ullmann Photo Editor Reportage Carol Körting layout Thorsten Kirchhoff Translation, Sub-Editing Robin Appleton, Hope Caton, Anna Sauper, Osanna Vaughn CONTRIBUTORS to this issue Henry Carroll, Katja Hübner, Dean Kissick, Ulrich Rüter M anagement Board Frank P. Lohstöter, Anja Ulm
Sasha, La cloche de verre (the glass bell), 2009
Media SA LES A nd M arketing Kirstin Ahrndt-Buchholz, Samira Holtorf Phone: +49 / 40 / 2 26 21 12 72 Fax: +49 / 40 / 2 26 21 12 70 E-Mail: email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org REPRODUcTION: Alphabeta, Hamburg Printer: Optimal Media GmbH, Röbel/Müritz PA PER: Igepa Profimatt
All of a sudden, time stood still. After having been working for several years on rites of passage around the world, focussing on the adolescent time period, I decided to quit photographing the ‘queens for a day’ in favour of capturing the long silent period that came at the end of my daughter’s childhood. Sasha and her best friend, Sarah, were enjoying a holiday at a friend’s house, when they found a glass bell sitting on a shelf. The whole episode was over in a matter of five minutes: Sasha’s head was covered with the glass bell. Closing her eyes and halting her breathing, she seemed to withdraw from the present. By offering me this special moment, she allowed me to freeze time – at least for a while. It almost felt as if I might be able to prevent things from changing
Born in Blois, France in 1959, Claudine Doury, has received a number of awards, including the World Press Photo Award. Her photographs are found in exhibitions and important collections around the world. Doury primarily dedicates her time to long-term projects.
L F I 6 / 2 0 1 7 w i l l a pp e a r o n 1 1 A u g u s t 2 0 1 7
Distribution LFI (USPS no 0017912) is published 8 times per annum. Subscription price per annum (including shipping) worldwide: 69 € LFI is also available as an app at the Apple iTunes store and at Google Play LFI Subscription Service P. O. Box 13 31, D-53335 Meckenheim Phone: +49 / 22 25 / 70 85-3 70 Fax: +49 / 22 25 / 70 85-3 99 E-Mail: email@example.com All articles and illustrations contained in the magazine are subject to the laws of copyright. Any form of utilization beyond the narrow limits imposed by the laws of copyright and without the expressed permission of the publisher is forbidden and will be prosecuted. This applies particularly to reproduction, translation, microfilming or the storage and processing in electronic systems. Enquiries or material for publication are welcome. We accept no responsibility for unsolicited material. Printed in Germany
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The term ‘legendary’ has never been more fitting than when describing the famous photography agency Magnum Photos founded in Paris in 1947....
Published on Jun 23, 2017
The term ‘legendary’ has never been more fitting than when describing the famous photography agency Magnum Photos founded in Paris in 1947....