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collACTION

Collective Actions Una raccolta di pratiche partecipate.

http://collaction.polimi-cooperation.org/

Politecnico di Milano Facoltà di Architettura e Società Tesi di Laurea Triennale in Scienze dell’Architettura A.A 2012/2013 Sofia Coutsoucos 748191 Stefania Monici 748556 Relatore: Prof. Gennaro Postiglione Milano, 26 Febbraio 2013


collACTION

Collective Actions Una raccolta di pratiche partecipate.

http://collaction.polimi-cooperation.org/ Sofia Coutsoucos Stefania Monici


INDICE

INTRODUZIONE

Il tema

2

Finalità

3

Tipologia di progetti raccolti

4

PARTECIPAZIONE E BOTTOM-UP

Pratiche bottom-up e spontanee

6

Partecipazione e ruolo dell’architetto

7

IL BLOG Struttura

12

Categorie

14

Indicatori

20

Strumenti

33

Mappa

35

I 100 PROGETTI

39

ANALISI Frequenze

13

Categorie

147

Strumenti

153

Indicatori

157

Relazioni

Presenza del professionista

164

Impatto sulla comunità

176

Felicità

184

Bibliografia

190


INTRODUZIONE

1


IL TEMA

CollAction: collective Action è un progetto di ricerca che raccoglie e analizza pratiche partecipate in cui il coinvolgimento collettivo e la creatività spontanea dimostrano come i processi orizzontali di scambio e comunicazione possono avere il potenziale di modificare l’ambiente urbano e le dinamiche sociali. CollAction è sviluppato su blog, una scelta coerente con il concetto di partecipazione, dal momento che tutti possono commentare, condividere e inviare la descrizione della propria iniziativa affinchè venga pubblicata. Gli interventi raccolti e analizzati sono stati selezionati principalmente da tre esibizioni internazionali che si sono tenute tra il 2008 e il 2012: Eme3, Spontaneus Interventions e CCA-Action. Eme3 è un festival internazionale di architettura che si tiene ogni anno a Barcellona. La settima edizione, nel 2012, ha affrontato il tema del “bottom-up”, la creatività che nasce dal basso in maniera spontanea. Durante i quattro giorni di festival il programma comprendeva mostre, esibizioni, installazioni, workshops di autocostruzione, dibattiti, proiezioni e momenti di condivisione. Spontaneus Interventions: Design Actions for the Common Good è l’esposizione allestita dal Padiglione degli Stati Uniti alla 13a Biennale di Architettura di Venezia del 2012, organizzata dall’Institute for Urban Design. L’esibizione comprendeva 124 interventi urbani, selezionati da oltre 450 proposte grazie ad una open call istituita negli USA. CCA - Actions: What You Can Do With the City è un’esibizione presentata da The Canadian Centre for Architecture, prima a Montréal e poi a Chicago, fra il 2008 e il 2010. Comprendeva 99 azioni che avevano l’obiettivo di stimolare cambiamenti positivi nelle città contemporanee, ed è stata accompagnata dalla pubblicazione di un libro omonimo.

2


FINALITA’

CollAction vuole essere una piattaforma aperta che raccoglie azioni partecipate, che sia utile e di ispirazione per nuove esperienze collettive, un terreno comune di pratiche condivise. Questo blog è uno strumento non tradizionale di archiviazione che permette a chiunque di individuare facilmente i progetti in base a caratteristiche di proprio interesse. Per ottenere questo obiettivo, tutti i progetti sono stati catalogati per categorie e per caratteristiche (tag). In più, a ogni progetto sono stati assegnati attributi sia qualitativi (ad esempio la sostenibilità), sia quantitativi (come la durata), che permettono di dettagliare ulteriormente le informazioni relative alle iniziative. Grazie a questo strumento versatile, il lavoro di catalogazione e analisi ha consentito di delineare un quadro generale sul tema delle pratiche spontanee e partecipate. E’ stato così possibile individuare le tematiche più ricorrenti, i fattori in gioco più frequenti, le influenze e i rapporti che si creano tra i singoli attributi.

3


TIPOLOGIA DI PROGETTI RACCOLTI

Le iniziative raccolte sono azioni che si manifestano fisicamente nello spazio urbano oppure si sviluppano sotto forma di informazioni, comunicazioni o piattaforme digitali volte a rendere la città più comprensibile, permeabile e a dimensione umana. Gli interventi sono quindi spesso localizzati in un contesto urbano, accessibili pubblicamente e al servizio del bene comune. Le diverse pratiche sono condotte da artisti, attivisti, lavoratori, software designers, architetti, studenti, ricercatori, associazioni di quartiere, cittadini. I gruppi, spesso locali, grazie a conoscenze professionali, artistiche e informali, reinventano usi e pratiche attraverso modalità non tradizionali, agendo in maniera tattica, situazionista e attiva, creando strutture non istituzionali in grado di portare un vero cambiamento all’ambiente urbano. Un approccio che i professionisti tradizionali spesso non riescono a mettere in pratica. Sono interventi provvisori, informali, di guerrilla, sovversivi, faida-te, insoliti, non pianificati, partecipati, tattici e open-source. Sono azioni di risposta individuale ai problemi, che siano di scala microscopica (una barriera architettonica, ad esempio) o più evidenti (come un vuoto urbano inutilizzato). I progetti sono stati selezionati per restituire la diversità delle pratiche in grado di trasformare lo spazio pubblico al servizio del bene comune, e per creare un utile archivio di strategie che possono essere replicate in altre città e in altri luoghi, presentandosi come possibile soluzione a problematiche simili. Le iniziative propongono un insieme di attività come camminare, giocare, riciclare, fare giardinaggio e costruire: l’interazione sperimentale con l’ambiente urbano mostra la potenziale influenza che il coinvolgimento personale può avere nel modellare la città e nel chiamare i residenti a partecipare. Alcuni progetti riguardano l’agricoltura urbana e la produzione di cibo, altri si occupano della pianificazione e della creazione di spazi pubblici per rafforzare i legami nella comunità e promuovere il riuso di edifici abbandonati e l’appropriazione di spazi urbani. Gli interventi cercano di dare una risposta al crescente disinvestimento negli spazi pubblici delle città, alla sempre maggiore presenza di luoghi abbandonati e in disuso, al senso di alienazione sociale, oltre che alla mancanza d’informazione sulle modalità di partecipazione alle questioni di interesse pubblico. Di frequente le persone compiono queste azioni spontaneamente, informalmente e auto-organizzandosi perchè si manifesta una necessità o semplicemente perché sono ispirate ad agire. Disponendo installazioni fantasiose e funzionali per migliorare la vita di tutti i giorni e sviluppando progetti in spazi sottoutilizzati, danno un contributo concreto al miglioramento della percezione dello spazio urbano: sempre più le comunità prendono nelle proprie mani la pianificazione del proprio quartiere.

4


PARTECIPAZIONE E BOTTOM-UP

5


BOTTOM-UP

L’approccio tradizionale top-down impone normalmente le indicazioni direttive dall’alto, stabilendo obiettivi e linee guida e sviluppando piani e procedure. Si tratta di un processo estremamente formale, in cui le decisioni sono influenzate dall’opinione di una sola persona o di un gruppo ristretto, spesso non direttamente in contatto con la realtà che si ha intenzione di modificare, con il risultato che le persone avvertono di non essere ascoltate, di non avere voce in capitolo. Questo processo genera di frequente mancanza di collaborazione e di conseguenza insoddisfazioni nei confronti del risultato finale. Al contrario, l’approccio bottomup tende ad includere il gruppo nel processo progettuale ed esecutivo, rendendo il progetto partecipato in ogni sua fase. Gli approcci bottom-up, contrapposti a quelli top-down, iniziano appunto con il contributo delle singole parti, con la creatività che nasce dalla base e con l’esigenza di una maggiore partecipazione orizzontale nei confronti dell’architettura e delle pratiche culturali. Nella fase di cambiamento sociale, economico e culturale odierno, una serie di azioni emerge fortemente anche come risposta a questo momento di crisi e incertezze. La presenza della crisi finanziaria e la mancanza di fondi pubblici hanno intensificato la nascita di iniziative da parte dei cittadini che cercano di migliorare il loro ambiente senza il bisogno dell’intervento delle amministrazioni. Sta nascendo la coscienza condivisa del fatto che i processi tradizionali di progettazione top-down risultino spesso insufficienti in alcuni ambiti, e che i nuovi approcci e strumenti debbano essere sviluppati e usati dal basso verso l’alto. Inoltre la svalutazione delle risorse per il settore pubblico e l’urgenza di mantenere l’identità e la coesione di quartiere spinge le associazioni locali, i designer e i residenti a subentrare come nuovi agenti di cambiamento, introducendo pratiche innovative che richiedono poche risorse e permessi dalle autorità. Tuttavia, l’approccio bottom-up alla progettazione come promotore di cambiamento non è ancora consolidato; i micro movimenti urbani talvolta non possono sostituire l’efficacia e la complessità della pianificazione top-down. Tra i due tipi di progettazione si può e si deve trovare un terreno comune, unendo le caratteristiche più efficaci dei due approcci e ottenendo un metodo ibrido, incrociando strade istituzionali, presenza di professionisti e contributo dell’utente finale.

6


LA PARTECIPAZIONE

Il concetto di partecipazione implica l’inclusione di soggetti o gruppi sociali in un processo progettuale che spesso è risultato di una consultazione tra vari attori (utenti, autorità pubbliche e attori privati). E’ una pratica in grado di costruire condivisione di senso e di aggiungere valore relazionale in una società spesso frammentata e vulnerabile. Il massimo grado di partecipazione si ha quando tutti intervengono in egual misura nella gestione e sono direttamente ed egualmente coinvolti nel processo decisionale. I processi partecipati sono avventure ad elevato grado di incertezza e imprevedibilità. Tuttavia in un rapporto complesso, i cui esiti finali sono determinati anche da numerose variabili di contesto, può essere utile tenere presente alcuni fattori in gioco come l’ascolto, il coinvolgimento e una sorta di educazione dei cittadini; si pongono le condizioni affinchè essi possano essere soggetti attivi di cittadinanza e interpreti di un nuovo modello di società. Nelle pratiche progettuali di questo tipo la partecipazione svolge un ruolo fondamentale. Infatti, l’uso finale sarà più efficiente quando la prospettiva dell’utente verrà considerata come parte del progetto. La fase inaugurale dei processi di partecipazione avviene tra la fine degli anni sessanta e la fine degli anni settanta, rendendo evidente il conflitto esistente tra parte della società e le istituzioni, considerate incapaci di governare tenendo conto di bisogni e desideri comuni. In Italia, ad esempio, vedono la luce le prime esperienze dei consigli di quartiere. Gli anni ottanta vedono la mobilitazione di movimenti urbani in opposizione ai progetti di trasformazione territoriale. Nei casi di sindrome Nimby (acronimo inglese per Not In My Back Yard, letteralmente “Non nel mio cortile”) si riscontra un atteggiamento che si attua nelle proteste nei confronti di opere di interesse pubblico, temendo che si possano avere effetti negativi sui territori in cui verranno costruite; vengono riconosciute come necessarie ma, contemporaneamente, nessuno le vuole nel proprio territorio a causa delle eventuali controindicazioni sull’ambiente locale. La spinta ideologica della contestazione si manifesta debole e l’impegno progettuale è limitato; al contrario, ciò che rende forti queste proteste è la capacità di autorganizzazione e l’efficacia delle azioni. Durante gli anni novanta le istituzioni sono più predisposte verso strategie di costruzione del consenso, investendo anche in operazioni di sensibilizzazione e coinvolgimento nelle decisioni di interesse collettivo. Il passaggio tra gli anni ottanta e novanta rappresenta quindi un momento di discontinuità e di affermazione dell’importanza dei processi partecipati; le amministrazioni iniziano a prendere in conto la partecipazione come strumento utile per perseguire un bene comune, sebbene continuino a emergere iniziative locali (e globali) di contestazione e mobilitazione collettiva autonoma. Il principio fondamentale della partecipazione, su cui si basano anche le proposte di Yona Friedman, architetto e urbanista ungherese, è la centralità degli abitanti: non devono essere considerati solo come consumatori, ma come dei professionisti ed esperti in materia di habitat, e di conseguenza devono essere coinvolti nella determinazione di ogni progetto. Uno tra gli obiettivi della ricerca di Friedman è quello di alleggerire l’architettura dal peso della tecnicità e della specialisticità. Infatti egli vuole ricondurre la produzione artistica al di fuori del campo specialistico nel quale si trova, per metterla in contatto con la vita di ogni giorno e con i bisogni di tutti. 7


Le strutture irregolari non sono interessanti solo per la ricchezza formale che creano: la vera risorsa sta nel modo di costruirle, tollerando quell’imprecisione che le rende accessibili a tutti i non professionisti, dotati di competenza media e privi di utensili raffinati. Rendere facili e accessibili le tecniche costruttive può avere importanti conseguenze sociali, in quanto anche in assenza del professionista chiunque può materialmente dare forma alle proprie idee. L’architettura diventa così sempre meno la rappresentazione di chi la progetta e sempre piu la rappresentazione di chi la usa: libera, alla portata di tutti e legittimamente restituita all’utente. Il tema della partecipazione viene affrontato anche da Giancarlo de Carlo, architetto italiano. Il suo pensiero si colloca all’interno di una riflessione che riguarda il progetto di architettura e il senso che questo può assumere per coloro che ne fanno uso ed esperienza. Il progettista è un esperto capace di portare a sintesi le dimensioni tecnica, politica, sociale e interattiva del progetto di architettura. De Carlo, allargando il proprio punto di vista da architetto verso orizzonti sociali, tiene conto del fatto che esiste la propensione verso un’organizzazione dello spazio fisico determinata dalla volontà delle istituzioni e della politica, mentre la volontà delle classi sociali non viene per nulla presa in considerazione. Il controllo da parte dell’amministrazione e dei mercati speculativi è sentito dalla gente come un freno, un attrito che talvolta porta a proteste e rivolte. Secondo De Carlo occorre revisionare il modo di fare architettura, passando dalla tradizionale pratica autoritaria ad una nuova pratica fondata sulla partecipazione. Il primo tema da esaminare è colmare il divario tra ciò che è costruito e ciò che è desiderato e necessario. La partecipazione effettivamente va a guardare a questo divario coinvolgendo l’utente nelle fasi di progettazione, per arrivare ad un sensibile e predisposto ai cambiamenti. Un’operazione tradizionale di architettura vede tre momenti principali: la definizione del problema, l’elaborazione della soluzione, la valutazione dei risultati. La sequenza dei tre momenti è sequenziale ed irreversibile e l’operazione è considerata conclusa una volta finito il percorso. Solo la progettazione e l’esecuzione dell’opera vengono considerate rilevanti, mentre nel primo momento si ricorre spesso all’intuizione e non alla volontà dei destinatari e il momento della valutazione dei risultati viene poco affrontato. Al contrario, la partecipazione coinvolge gli utenti lungo tutto il corso dell’operazione, in ogni fase del progetto; i diversi momenti sfumano uno nell’altro, si intrecciano, l’operazione cessa di essere lineare e consequenziali. Il momento della definizione del problema è parte integrante del progetto: gli obiettivi dell’operazione diventano argomento di discussione con i futuri utenti. Il momento della progettazione non tende più ad un prodotto unico e finito, ma prende forma da una serie di ipotesi che continuano ad migliorarsi passando attraverso le opinioni e i contributi creativi degli utenti. Il compito del progettista è di estrarre le soluzioni da un confronto continuo con i destinatari dell’opera. La pratica della partecipazione varia dunque in ogni momento del progetto: obiettivi, soluzioni, modi d’uso e criteri di giudizio, aggiustandosi reciprocamente, generano un’esperienza che continua a accrescersi.

8


IL NUOVO RUOLO DELL’ARCHITETTO

I professionisti che vengono dal campo dell’architettura e dell’urbanistica stanno ripensando il loro ruolo all’interno dello sviluppo di questo tipo di pratiche. Il progettista non si afferma più come unico attore creativo, ma riveste il ruolo di mediatore tra contributi portati dagli utenti finali e conoscenze tecniche e formali caratteristiche della propria professionalità; architetti e designers hanno sensibilità nel cogliere e risolvere con soluzioni ipotetiche problemi reali, locali, sociali ed urbani, portando concretamente l’idea dal foglio disegnato al mondo reale. All’interno del processo partecipativo l’architetto quindi apporta proposte personali, coglie segnali e contraddizioni locali e le ricompone in un progetto possibile; tuttavia la qualità del risultato si verifica davvero solo quando i partecipanti si riconoscono in ciò che l’architetto propone. Il ruolo dell’architetto è di essere mediatore e coordinatore, bilanciando quindi bisogni e richieste provenienti da parti diverse, esplorando e valorizzando sia risorse individuali che collettive al fine di risvegliare un nuovo spirito di comunità e facilitare il cambio di attitudini. Le proprie conoscenze e competenze di ordine tecnico ed artistico contribuiscono ad interpretare le indicazioni dei partecipanti secondo un linguaggio ed una forma originali, riconoscendo il valore dell’estetica, dei materiali e della progettazione. “L’architetto porta coerenza e stile all’intero processo: un’esperto è capace di portare a sintesi le dimensioni tecnica, politica, sociale e interattiva del progetto di architettura.” (Giancarlo De Carlo). In alcuni casi l’architetto sceglie di rimanere quasi invisibile, nonostante apporti competenze decisive all’intervento; in questo modo i cittadini si assumono insieme al progettista la responsabilità diretta del luogo in cui vivono. Yona Friedman afferma che l’architettura debba essere concepita con le persone e materializzata il più possibile con le persone. Ciò non significa che l’architetto non abbia ruolo nel processo: egli fornisce appunto idee, tecniche, nuove estetiche, che verranno validate però solo con le persone, per le persone, dalle persone. Anche gli architetti sono persone, appartengono alla categoria gente. De Carlo suggerisce che infine l’architetto debba revisionare il modo di fare architettura per restituire legittimità all’architettura stessa;

9


10


IL BLOG

11


LA STRUTTURA

Le pratiche sono state divise per due tipi di categorie: quelle che indicano l’ambito in cui si svolge l’azione, e quelle che individuano la modalità di intervento. Ad ogni progetto sono state attribuite una o due del primo tipo (ambito) e una sola del secondo tipo (modalità). Ogni azione è descritta tramite una ID (carta d’identità), una descrizione d’insieme del processo e attraverso gli strumenti e materiali utilizzati. Inoltre è esaminata da dodici indicatori, sia di tipo quantitativo (come per esempio la durata del progetto) che di tipo qualitativo (come il livello di sostenibilità). Ogni indicatore ha quattro gradi di valutazione: “spento”, basso, medio, alto. Ogni progetto è contestualizzato in una mappa, è provvisto di galleria fotografica e dei link di riferimento della ricerca. Questo database permette all’utente di sfogliare ogni azione in vari modi: categorie, tag, indicatori, luogo. E’ possibile commentare e condividere su social network ciascun progetto. Inoltre è presente un’area che permette ai visitatori del blog di caricare i progetti per continuare a creare un utile archivio di strategie attuabili che possono essere replicate in altre città.

http://collaction.polimi-cooperation.org/

12


collACTION Collective Actions – a Collection of participated practices

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COSA

URBAN AGRICULTURE Agricoltura Urbana

Per agricoltura urbana si intende l’insieme di pratiche di coltivazione, lavorazione e distribuzione di cibo in contesto urbano. E’ compreso in queste pratiche anche l’allevamento di animali, l’acquacoltura, l’agroforestazione e l’orticoltura, che possono essere svolte anche in aree peri-urbane. L’agricoltura urbana aumenta la quantità di risorse delle persone che vivono in città, permettendo loro la disponibilità di verdure, frutta e carne sempre freschi.

LEISURE

Tempo Libero Locali, attrezzature sportive, parchi, centri per il benessere, negozi, spazi pubblici, tutto può essere pensato e progettato per rendere il tempo che le persone trascorrono al di fuori del lavoro una parte importante della giornata. I progetti per il tempo libero si focalizzano sulla comunicazione sociale, l’accrescimento di capacità personali e il divertimento. L’impegno collettivo nasce anche dall’interesse individuale, che col crescere delle idee e dell’entusiasmo necessita anche dello spazio e delle infrastrutture per manifestarsi e concretizzarsi.

NEED

Necessità A livello di quartiere possono nascere dei bisogni e delle necessità tra la gente, dovuti prevalentemente alla mancanza di spazi per la socialità, alla presenza di vuoti urbani che potrebbero essere riempiti con attività, alla carenza di assistenza da parte della municipalità, spesso troppo lenta nel riconoscere i problemi dei cittadini e trovare loro una soluzione. A volte quest’ultima è data in parte da progetti ed azioni volti a concretizzare i bisogni del vicinato.

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HIGHLIGHT Evidenziare

Per richiamare l’attenzione delle persone verso un determinato tema o verso un problema, alcune azioni sono volte far risaltare e notare oggetti urbani, edifici abbandonati, situazioni di degrado e spazi di risulta. Cambiare il colore di un oggetto aumenta molto la sua visibilità, come anche illuminare gli spazi verso cui si vuole richiamare l’attenzione oppure cambiare la loro ordinaria destinazione d’uso.

MAPPING Mappare

Mappare luoghi e cose significa uno sforzo collaborativo tra persone che hanno interessi comuni verso un particolare territorio o argomento. La mappa può essere lo strumento e il mezzo ma anche il risultato finalizzato alla creazione di reti riguardanti attività simili e alla raccolta di informazioni da condividere che legano situazioni a luoghi.

EDUCATION Educazione

Alcune azioni e progetti sono finalizzati sia all’apprendimento di tecniche, procedimenti e conoscenze, sia alla sensibilizzazione verso diversi stili di vita e tematiche legate all’urbano. La formula del workshop, (insegnare e imparare sul campo), permette al professionista di entrare in contatto diretto con le persone e comprende spesso l’uso pratico di strumenti, il coinvolgimento attivo e lo svolgimento istantaneo delle pratiche che si vogliono comunicare.

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COME

GUERRILLA Guerrilla

La guerrilla urbana è una strategia in cui vengono usati mezzi non convenzionali e a basso costo (graffiti, stickers, flash mobs) per trasmettere e promuovere idee. Questi interventi, spesso illegali, sono su piccola scala, localmente motivati e nascono dal bisogno di autorisolversi problematiche attraverso azioni dirette. Gli ingredienti sono opposti a quelli per una progettazione tradizionale: lavorare velocemente, sovversivamente, in modo economico e con soluzioni temporanee.

PARASITE Parassita

L’architettura parassita può essere definita come una forma adattabile e passeggera che sfrutta la relazione con l’edificio ospite per i proprio funzionamento, immettendosi come copro nuovo in un edificio o in una struttura urbana preesistente. Alcune architetture parassite non possono sostenere la propria esistenza senza sottrarre energia dal surplus fornito dagli scarti dell’edificio ospite, mentre si legano ad esso spazialmente e strutturalmente per necessità.

RE-USE Riuso

Gli edifici e gli spazi urbani possono presentare nei propri cicli di utilizzo dei momenti di transizione e abbandono, durante i quali le destinazioni d’uso iniziali vengono a mancare a causa di deindustrializzazione o crisi economiche. Questi tempi di incertezza possono essere colmati da fenomeni di riuso, con nuove destinazioni d’uso che spesso riescono ad innescare dei processi di rigenerazione urbana attorno all’edificio soggetto di queste sperimentazioni.

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FILL-A-VOID

Colmare il vuoto Molti terreni pubblici e privati in contesto urbano sono vuoti, sfitti o non trovano utilizzo; grazie ad azioni di rigenerazione urbana molte di queste aree sono diventate terreno di sperimentazione legata al sociale a livello di quartiere o ad attività legate al tempo libero. I vuoti urbani devono essere considerati “riserve” in grado di accogliere attività temporanee di riattivazione urbana, in attesa di nuova destinazione d’uso.

URBAN ACTION Azione Urbana

Le azioni urbane sono manifestazione di necessità di appropriazione personale per portare carattere a spazi anonimi e di passaggio come ad esempio la strada, principale palcoscenico per questo genere di fenomeni: gli spazi chiusi solitamente non favoriscono la stessa varietà che invece le pratiche orizzontali incoraggiano. Le azioni urbane sono esperimenti che mostrano come il coinvolgimento personale nel Fare possa avere un ruolo attivo nel dare una forma alla città.

NEW CONSTRUCTION Nuova Costruzione

I progetti che non interagiscono con tipi particolari di spazi come vuoti urbani, edifici abbandonati o lo spazio pubblico, sono quelli di nuova costruzione. Vengono prevalentemente pensati per essere permanenti, ma non per questo escludono l’uso di materiali di riuso o temporanei.

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RESEARCH Ricerca

Per ricerca si intende la tipologia di progetti e azioni che non sono attuati nel concreto e materialmente, ma rimangono teorici o virtuali. La loro visibilità per questo è quasi esclusivamente legata all’utilizzo del web, che se da un lato ne limita accessibilità diretta a livello locale (ad esempio a differenza di un’azione urbana, visibile e percepibile dai passanti), dall’altro ne aumenta il potenziale di condivisione ad ampia scala. Si mettono a disposizione conoscenze che sta all’utente reperire.

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Indicatori

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TIME LIFE Durata

Permanent: I progetti permanenti sono stati pensati con l’intenzione di perdurare nel tempo, e hanno una durata complessiva di anni.

Medium time life: Un progetto che esiste per un tempo variabile, che va dai tre mesi a pochi anni, pensato con una finalità non permanente.

Temporary: I progetti temporanei, che sono spesso azioni, possono variare la loro durata da qualche ora fino ad un massimo di tre mesi. Questi sono spesso relazionati a un tempo tra un vecchio e nuovo uso dello spazio

Ø time life: Questi sono progetti “senza durata”, a-temporali. Infatti si tratta di progetti sospesi, oppure spesso di ricerche che non prevedono risvolti pratici o azioni urbane partecipate.

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SUSTAINABILITY Sostenibilità

L’intento di un’azione sostenibile è quello di minimizzare l’impatto ambientale, in modo da non compromettere le opportunità di sviluppo per le generazioni future. Questo approccio cosciente prende in considerazione ogni fase del progetto: dalla selezione dei materiali alla costruzione, dal mantenimento alla dismissione. Nell’ambito delle pratiche partecipate può rappresentare una sfida etica nel ritardare la caducità di determinati materiali e nel sfruttare le risorse a noi disponibili, ma anche una sfida estetica nel trasformare qualcosa considerato in disuso in un’opera di immaginazione.

High sustainability: E’ molto sostenibile ogni progetto che ha avuto l’intenzione di un approccio consapevole, grazie all’utilizzo di materiali di riciclo o di riuso, o al ciclo di vita pensato in ogni sua fase, all’intenzione di riqualificare un luogo dismesso, e all’ alterazione non permanente del sito in cui è inserito.

Medium sustainability: L’indicatore “media sostenibilità” è stato dato nei casi in cui manca qualcuno dei precedenti fattori.

Low sustainability: Un’azione che include solo un alcuni degli aggettivi precedenti è stata definita “bassa sostenibilità���.

Ø sustainability: I casi in cui non è stato possibile valutare l’aspetto della sostenibilità (come per esempio progetti di ricerca senza obiettivi sostenibili).

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COMMUNITY IMPACT Impatto sulla comunità

L’impatto che può avere un’azione sulla comunità è considerato in termini di benefici e vantaggi per le persone. Alcuni problemi sociali (come la presenza di vuoti urbani e il conseguente svilupparsi di relazioni ambigue, il senso di alienazione tipico delle grandi città a causa della mancanza di memorie comuni o per l’assenza di esperienze condivise) possono trovare una soluzione, o per lo meno migliorare, grazie ad azioni partecipate nella loro creazione e utilizzo.

High community impact: Alto impatto sulla comunità è presente quando in un intervento è coinvolto un considerevole numero di persone, e la partecipazione avviene da parte di diversi gruppi sociali. La comunità trae benefici dalla soluzione di problemi comuni.

Medium community impact: Se manca qualcuna delle caratteristiche sopra descritte, il progetto si definisce con “medio impatto sulla comunità”.

Low community impact: I progetti a “basso impatto sulla comunità” possiedono solo alcuni dei fattori precedenti.

Ø community impact: “no impatto sulla comunità” include gli interventi che non hanno avuto risvolti positivi sulla comunità, e comprende spesso le ricerche che non sono direttamente esposte o accessibili alle persone.

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FRICTION Tensione

Le pratiche partecipate possono creare tensioni sociali, politiche e mediatiche, a causa di contoversie sulle modalità di azione, l’appropriazione illegale di spazi e la mancanza di comunicazione tra gli attori. Passare il limite tra legalità e illegalità, innesca dinamiche di conflitto che speso portano a tensioni, espresse dai cittadini e dagli organizzatori, oppure tramite interventi da parte delle autorità.

!!! High friction: Dove è presente molta tensione, che si è trasformata in azioni violente da parte delle autorità o degli utenti.

!!! Medium friction: Lo svolgersi di un azione illegale, come l’appropriazione indebita di spazi, provoca qualche tensione, che non vede però interventi da parte delle amministrazioni.

!!! Low friction: Alcuni progetti vedono espresso un disaccordo tra i singoli autori dei progetti e le autorità.

!!! Ø friction: I progetti che non incontrano alcun tipo di tensione e disaccordo durante il loro percorso.

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HAPPINESS Felicità

Indurre felicità è per lo più dovuto alla capacità di rispondere a desideri individuali e di influenzare gli stati d’animo delle persone. Nel caso di azioni partecipate è possibile grazie al senso di utilità sociale, al lavoro collettivo e all’aiuto reciproco. Anche il risultato è importante: la qualità estetica e il successo di un progetto creato dai cittadini aumenta il sentimento di felicità. La verifica dei risultati, riferita al modo in cui il prodotto è utilizzato, e il giudizio sono più o meno positivi a seconda che le esigenze degli utenti siano più o meno soddisfatte.

High happiness: Si tratta di progetti condivisi, accessibili, in cui il coinvolgimento delle persone è alto, e si crea un alto livello di soddisfazione. Riguardano interventi che rispondono a desideri non effimeri, duraturi. Sono compresi progetti che riguardano il tempo libero e il divertimento, e con ampia risposta da parte dell’utente. Sono totalmente assenti eventuali tensioni.

Medium sustainability: Progetti accessibili e interattivi. Può trattarsi di un’iniziativa di un gruppo all’interno della comunità, ma che non ha risvolti concreti positivi, o di un intervento di sensibilizzazione interattiva che non crea coinvolgimento attivo. Può crearsi felicità grazie alla soluzione a desideri effimeri o meno profondi, oppure in maniera solo temporanea (per esempio nei casi di azioni urbane). L’utenza è attiva ma poco coinvolta, oppure il progetto è poco condiviso. E’ possibile che siano presenti tensioni.

Low happiness: I progetti poco accessibili o poco utili. Non sono condivisi nè nell’ideazione nè nell’utilizzo. Talvolta si tratta di sensibilizzazione, senza coinvolgimento diretto delle persone. Non sono progetti condivisi.

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COST EFFECTIVE Produttivo

La capacità di un progetto di generare beni, che siano economici o di consumo, può giovare ad una comunità sia per la loro vendita che per il loro consumo. Infatti, può svilupparsi un modo di vivere nuovo e alternativo, che produce e consuma beni, cultura e servizi nello stesso luogo, rafforzando la capacità di recupero di una comunità. Anche la terra e la natura sono il complesso delle risorse naturali (terra, materie prime, energie naturali) che contribuiscono al processo produttivo, mentre il capitale è il complesso delle risorse materiali prodotte dal lavoro.

$ High cost effective: Interventi in cui si crea un circolo di denaro grazie a funzioni come bar o ad attività culturali come corsi e workshop.

$ Medium cost effective: Progetti in cui avviene un processo produttivo grazie a risorse naturali, come la creazione di orti urbani o simili. Si tratta di progetti che producono beni, anche grazie ad eventi culturali o musicali.

$ Low cost effective: Progetti che generano economia solo occasionalmente.

$ Ø cost effective: Non produttivo.

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DO IT YOURSELF Autocostruzione

E’ un’attività manuale che consiste in lavori di auto-costruzione che una persona, generalmente non professionista, esegue per proprio conto e propria soddisfazione, nel tempo libero. Il valore di questa pratica è il potere dell’individuo e delle comunità, che sono incoraggiati, attraverso l’uso di approcci alternativi, a raggiungere i propri obiettivi. Ciò che conta è la creatività e l’immaginazione che ogni singolo abitante può mettere a disposizione per appropriarsi di un dato contesto fisico; infatti questa pratica soffisfa non solo esigenze pratiche, ma anche creative: oltre a migliorare le condizioni materiali, è un supporto al bisogno di comunicare rappresentando se stessi. Il fatto di coinvolgere direttamente le mani rappresenta il modo di dedicarsi fisicamente alla costruzione e non solo alla progettazione. Una volta date le istruzioni, trovati i materiali e procurati gli strumenti, l’auto costruzione può avere inizio: la forma si definirà mano a mano che si procede nella realizzazione della struttura.

High DIY: Progetti di autocostruzione da parte di persone non professioniste, talvolta accompagnate dalle indicazioni di un architetto o di collettivo di architetti

Medium DIY: Professionisti che auto-costrusicono dei progetti in cui l’autocostruzione è vista come un valore aggiunto del lavoro.

Low DIY: Si tratta delle installazioni di artisti, che per definizione sono autori delle proprie opere, oppure di progetti che sensibilizzano/ educano all’autocostruzione.

Ø DIY: Se non è prodotto nulla di materiale, o il progetto è stato interamente costruito da un impresa incaricata o da professionisti del mestiere.

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PROFESSIONIST PRESENCE Presenza del professionista

Il ruolo dell’architetto nelle pratiche partecipate è di mediare tra gli attori, di portare le sue competenze e nel portare idee, tecniche, coerenza, stile ed estetica all’intero processo progettuale. Come dice Yona Friedman, questi esperti verranno poi validati con le persone e dalle persone. Il dibattito sulla trasformazione del ruolo dell’architetto è frequente oggi: il nuovo ruolo sembra essere quello di intermediario tra gli attori, tra i disaccordi, tra i conflitti d’interesse e la qualità, facendo del risultato finale una risposta a diverse individualità. L’architetto partecipa a una pratica bottom-up dando potenziale e forma alle esperienze condivise.

High professionist presence: Se il professionista è presente in tutte le seguenti fasi: ideativa, progettuale e costruttiva.

Medium professionist presence: Il professionista è presente in due delle tre fasi precedenti

Low professionist presence: Il professionista è presente solo in una delle fasi precedenti.

Ø professionist presence: Il professionista è totalmente assente, c’è totale autonomia da parte della comunità

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POLITICS Politica

L’amministrazione è uno dei vari attori che possono contribuire alla realizzazione di una pratica partecipata. Infatti da legittimità alle procedure e alle politiche di pianificazione urbana. Nelle dinamiche dei progetti bottom-up, la pianificazione e la costruzione non possono essere più unilaterali; diventano un ibrido tra auto-gestione e controllo dell’amministrazione. Il soggetto di molte controversie è la questione della politica che a volte diventa un ostacolo alla libera concezione e allo sviluppo dei progetti partecipati, riguardo a problemi che nascono da conflitti di interessi economici e pollitici.

High politcs: I casi in cui il progetto è stato promosso da un ente pubblico o dall’amministrazione; professionisti sono stati chiamati dalle autorità per intervenire su un’area. Possibile anche la presenza delle autorità come ostacolo forte alla realizzazione di un progetto.

Medium politics: L’amministrazione è presente come supporto ad un progetto.

Low politics: E’ presente approvazione da parte delle autorità, tramite controlli e permessi.

Ø politics: E’ assente l’amministrazione nei processi del progetto.

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AESTHETIC Estetica

Ci sono molti valori che contribuiscono a dare al progetto qualità estetica. Questa è strettamente legata alla forma: elementi che definiscono l’estetica possono essere infatti la chiarezza della forma in relazione ai suoi principi generatori, l’espressione congruente dei principi interni al progetto. Elementi tecnologici come i materiali, sono selezionati sulla base delle loro proprietà visuali e performative, le soluzioni strutturali sono applicate al lavoro efficientemente e per dare un caratere estetico al progetto. Una buona relazione con il contesto aiuta a creare un integrazione armoniosa del nuovo lavoro.

High aesthetic: I casi in cui la chiarezza della forma è in relazione ai suoi principi generatori, in cui i materiali sono utilizzati in maniera coerente e compositivamente efficaci.

Medium aesthetic: Non sono presenti tutti i fattori sopra descritti.

Low aesthetic: Progetti in cui l’estetica è lasciata al secondo posto, per soddisfare criteri di funzionalità e utilizzo.

Ø aesthetic: Progetti non valutabili sotto l’aspetto dell’estetica, come ricerche, o azioni urbane che non includono un aspetto visivo.

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SITE SPECIFIC Durata

Un intervento si definisce site specific quando è pensato e si inserisce in un preciso luogo, e la sua interazione con l’ambiente circostante è stretta e fa riferimento a tutti gli aspetti della sua identità.

High site specific: Il progetto non può essere replicato in nessun’altro posto a causa delle sue caratteristiche peculiari che lo collegano strettamente al sito per cui è stato pensato. Spesso questi sono progetti permanenti, come restauri di edifici, con una stretta relazione con il contesto, in cui si utilizzano materiali locali o soluzioni su misura.

Medium site specific: Alcuni progetti sono strettamente legati al tipo di spazio per cui sono stati pensati e progettati, ma non al luogo specifico in cui si trovano. Per esempio un generico vuoto urbano o edificio abbandonato, che si trovi in italia o negli stati uniti.

Low site specific: Al contrario, ci sono progetti che possono essere ripetuti ovunque, grazie alle loro caratteristiche adattabili all’uso comune e ai materiali reperibili, che possono essere disegnati a moduli prefabbricati.

Ø site specific: Alcuni progetti sono addirittura mobili, il che significa che sono totalmente distaccati dal tipo di spazio e dal luogo in cui vanno ad inserirsi, e che si materializzano solo dove e quando ne è richiesto il bisogno.

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SOCIAL NETWORK L’uso di social network come Facebook, i blog o di canali video come Youtube o Vimeo, è molto aumentato negli ultimi anni. Sono piattaforme di scambio e connessione tra una moltitudine di utenti, uno strumento utile a raccogliere un gran numero di opinioni e commenti. I social network promuovono la creazione di una comunità attiva, sono i motori che aiutano i progetti a guadagnare visibilità e partecipazione senza restrizioni.

High social network: I casi in cui il web è lo strumento necessario perchè il progetto possa esistere.

Medium social network: Se i blog, i siti web e cosi via sono utilizzati come strumenti per comunicare l’evoluzione di un progetto o di un azione, per invitare a prendere parte ad eventi che hanno luogo nello spazio del progetto.

Low social network: Se i progetti e/o i progettisti possiedono un sito web aggiornato, e interagiscono con le persone tramite social network come Facebook o Flickr, ma non c’è necessità per il fine del progetto di avere interazione basata sul web.

Ø social network: Quando non è presente alcun tipo di informazione online sul progetto

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MAPPING

NEW CONSTRUCTION

Home / 596 Acres

596 ACRES RESEARCH

January 26, 2013 · by stefania · in MAPPING, RESEARCH

Place Place: New York (USA). Date Date: 2011. Time Time: Ongoing. Space Space: Vacant lots.

HIGHLIGHT

Cost Cost: 2,230$.

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Private actors actors: 596 Acres team, citizens.

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Vacant urban land abounds, often locked behind chainlink fences in neighborhoods

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sorely in need of green space and other amenities such as fresh produce. A

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multidisciplinary group (including a programmer, designer, and artists) formed 596

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Acres to encourage communities to re-envision the possibilities for the vacant lots in

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their own backyards. The name refers to the quantity of vacant city-owned land in

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Brooklyn, which the group catalogued, mapped, and printed on a poster that reads “Find

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the lot in your life. Contact the owner. Work out a deal. Grow something. We can help.”

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They hung the posters on hundreds of lots, prompting locals to action. Their interactive online map, combined with educational workshops, “labeling walks,” and more, have

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made 596 a valuable community resource. [from SpontaneousInterventions]

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effective, low diy, low happiness, map, medium community impact, medium site specific, no

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← Hypothèses d’amarrages

TreeKIT →

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AESTHETIC


Home / 1415 Mallinckrodt

NEW CONSTRUCTION MAPPING

1415 MALLINCKRODT January 20, 2013 · by sofia · in LEISURE, RE-USE

RESEARCH

Place Place: St. Louis (USA). Date Date: 2012. Time Time: Ongoing. Space Space: Abandoned building. Cost Cost: 100,000$. Public actors: -.

HIGHLIGHT

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Private actors actors: Rebuild Foundation, Most

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Holy Trinity Catholic School, volunteer, students.

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When Theaster Gates – artist and founder of the Rebuild Foundation – led a series of

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classes asking students from Most Holy Trinity Catholic School and Academy to describe a healthy community, it could have ended there. Instead, an inspired parishioner

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donated a dilapidated multi-family building that Gates, and an army of volunteers

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(including students from Washington University’s CityStudioSTL), transformed into an

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arts center providing the cultural programming lacking in the neighborhood. Volunteers re-clad one wall of the house, known as 1415, in reclaimed hardie board, made a community theater/performance space by replacing a wall with a garage door, and

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established a community advisory committee to help with programming. The

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transformed structure now houses arts classes, workshops, and artist residencies.

[From SpontaneousInterventions]

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Tags: high community impact, high happiness, low42 politics, low site specific, low social network, medium aesthetic, medium cost effective, medium diy, medium professionist presence, medium sustainability, no friction, paint, permanent, wood panel


MAPPING

NEW CONSTRUCTION

Home / A di città

A DI CITTÀ

Place Place: Rosarno (Italy). Date Date: 2012. Time Time: One week.

RESEARCH

January 21, 2013 · by stefania · in FILL-A-VOID, LEISURE, NEED

Space Space: Vacant lot, public space. Cost Cost: Unknown.

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HIGHLIGHT

Public actors: Municipality of Rosarno.

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Private actors actors: Collectif ETC, students, citizens.

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The project is about urban regeneration of public vacant spaces with an interdisciplinary

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approach (from art to architecture). During the one week workshop have taken part

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architecture students, city residents, various artist (Ivan, Spy…) and Collectif ETC. Three

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empty spaces have been chosen as locations of daily cultural events and participation in

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designing and auto-constructing. The main site used to be a storage for waste materials

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by the Municipality: during the workshop they have been used by the group of

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architecture students, who divided the space into five parts with different uses (the

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results of collecting desires and ideas from the residents): a garden, an outdoor lounge, a gazebo, a football pitch, a playground. But when the workshop ended, the Municipality

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closed the area probably due to safety problems, and the residents of Rosarno can not access to the renewed public space.

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Videos: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FYaScZNGHCk&feature=player_embedded References: http://www.collectifetc.com http://adicitta.wordpress.com

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Home / AFTER [Andes-DoñaBitalia]

NEW CONSTRUCTION MAPPING

AFTER [ANDES-DOÑABITALIA] January 10, 2013 · by sofia · in NEED, PARASITE

RESEARCH

Place Place: Bogotà (Colombia). Date Date: 2011. Time Time: Undetermined. Space Space: Rooftop. Cost Cost: Unknown Public actors: -

HIGHLIGHT

Private actors actors: University of Los Andes, ©2013 Google Imagery ©2013 TerraMetrics,

Familia Quemba, Habitat Din Fronteras, Red Unidos-Accion Social, Arquitectura Expandida.

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After Project allowed different collectives linked to architecture and design to give a

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second life to artifacts with a short term of life (ephemeral) in different social and urban contexts, thanks to a wide network of collectives and social movements in Bogota D.C. The After [Andes-Dona Bitalia] habilitated an extension for a low income family house,

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with products coming from an experimental dwelling workshop for the Andes University in Bogota. Students, teacher and arquitectura expandida together designed a structural

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element, a versatile space through a simply structure made of Osb panels and

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polycarbonate cover, that stores heat from solar radiation. This structure became

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parasitic and symbiotic with the house through its use. These “After” research and

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action lines merged and contaminated each other continuously, creating links among projects, individuals, collectives and teams.

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Home / AFTER [La Otra-Sentires]

AFTER [LA OTRA-SENTIRES] -Place -Place: Bogotà (Colombia) -Date -Date: 2011 -Time -Time: Ongoing

RESEARCH

January 9, 2013 · by sofia · in FILL-A-VOID, LEISURE

-Space -Space: Urban void -Cost -Cost: Unknown

HIGHLIGHT

-Public actors: -Private actors actors: Arquitectura Expandida, Todo por la praxis, ©2013 Google Imagery ©2013 TerraMetrics,

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Zuloark, Triptópolis, Territorios Luchas, Pandemia Audiovisual, Laredada, MedioLibre, Fundación Sentires, children

After Project allowed different collectives linked to architecture and design to give a second life to artifacts with a short term of life (ephemeral) in different social and urban

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contexts, thanks to a wide network of collectives and social movements in Bogota. The

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After [La Otra-Sentires] implemented a children’s playground in a vacant lot, in

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partnership with the children of Sentires Foundation, using products of an ephemeral

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installation in “La Otra”, Contemporary Art Fair in Bogota. These “After” research and

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action lines merged and contaminated each other continuously, creating links among

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Home / Al di qua del giorno

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AL DI QUA DEL GIORNO January 27, 2013 · by stefania · in LEISURE, URBAN ACTION

RESEARCH

Place Place: Prato (Italy). Date Date: 2005. Time Time: 16 hours. Space Space: Public space. Cost Cost: Unknown.

dida

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Public actors: City of Prato.

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Al di qua del giorno is a public action 16 hours long by Italian artist Vittorio Corsini. An

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apartment perimeter and its rooms (a kitchen, a livingroom, two bedrooms and a bathroom) were drawn on the Cathedral Square in Prato. The objects of each room were

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installed in the perimeter, so that once entered the rooms, visitors could experience

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exactly a flat atmosphere. The apartment was open to public from 7 pm to midnight and

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everyone could use and live the spaces as being at home. A real dinner was prepared in the kitchen and offered to everyone. Also the surrounding buildings were part of the work: their façades were used as screens for projecting the images of their inner flats.

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event. [from CCA-actions]

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Home / All Aboard

ALL ABOARD

Place Place: London (UK). Date Date: December 2007. Time Time: 5 months.

RESEARCH

January 27, 2013 · by stefania · in GUERRILLA, HIGHLIGHT

Space Space: Urban voids. Cost Cost: Unknown.

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Private actors actors: Jean-François Prost (Adaptive actions).

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In September 2007 a 11 mile blue wall was erected in London to fence in the Olympic

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building site, creating new boundaries and blocking the existing roads and paths. Graffiti

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and stickers appeared immediately as sign of protest, and the neighbourhoods shew a

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lot of discontent too. One day Jean-François Prost took up painting with the same blue

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of the wall every object in the nearby and rubbish thrown away by passers-by. This

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action is about possible permeability and accessibility of neglected areas, urban voids

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appropriation and giving a meaning to transition periods of spatial changes. Little

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attention has been given to the construction period of the Olympic structures, and Londoners have lived many inconveniences in the every day life. This action did not solve

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the problems, but highlighted signs of life in the surroundings, reusing and relocated abandoned objects in the public space.

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Home / Appropriate, Subverte, Activate!

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APPROPRIATE, SUBVERTE, ACTIVATE! January 8, 2013 · by stefania · in HIGHLIGHT, URBAN ACTION

RESEARCH

Place Place: New York (USA), Reykjavik (IS). Date Date: 2011 – 2012. Time Time: Few hours. Space Space: Public space. Cost Cost: Unknown. Public actors: -

HIGHLIGHT

Private actors actors: Marcos Zotes, Columbia ©2013 Google Imagery ©2013 TerraMetrics,

University, Reykjavik Winter Lights Festival 2012.

Appropriate, Subverte, Activate! Projection as Urban Activator” is a research about

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temporary appropriation of public spaces through light projections on them. The project

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carries out a series of interventions that change the perception of a space during

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everyday order of urban life, criticizing the way politics manages urban spaces through

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the highlighting of the physical or conceptual conflicts in each place. “Appropriate, Subverte, Activate!” is a projection on the Columbia University Library, a call for action

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seeking to create moments of reflection on the use of public space; the illicit action was

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made even if the Columbia offered a censured version. “CCTV/Creative Control” is a

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projection of an enormous big eye onto the lower surface of a water tower in Brooklin,

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NY, “Rafmögnuð Náttúra” transforms the static facade of a church in Iceland into a vibrant public space.

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Home / Astoria Scum River Bridge

ASTORIA SCUM RIVER BRIDGE

Place Place: New York (USA). Date Date: 30th December 2009.

RESEARCH

January 14, 2013 · by stefania · in NEED, URBAN ACTION

Time Time: 3 months. Space Space: Public space.

HIGHLIGHT

Cost Cost: 0 $. Public actors: NYC Council. ©2013 Google -

Private actors actors: J. Eppink, Posterchild.

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For more than twenty years, pedestrians in Astoria, Queens were faced with trudging

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through a cesspool of standing water on a heavily trafficked stretch of 33rd Street.

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Caused by leakage from a pipe on the Amtrak bridge overhead, the Astoria Scum River,

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as it became known, presented a situation that was unpleasant at best, and hazardous

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at worst. Urban interventionist Jason Eppink and street artist Posterchild responded by

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constructing a bridge from materials found on the street, including a work bench and

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screws from a trashed desk. This unauthorized but long-overdue pedestrian bridge was a tactical urbanist triumph: It got the attention of a local councilmember and spurred Amtrak to fix the problem. Within weeks, the bridge was no longer needed. [From

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Imagery ©2013 TerraMetrics,

SpontaneousInterventions]

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Home / Ball

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BALL January 28, 2013 · by stefania · in HIGHLIGHT, URBAN ACTION

RESEARCH

Place Place: Brussels (Belgium). Date Date: 2000. Time Time: Years. Space Space: Public space. Cost Cost: Unknown.

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Private actors actors: Citymine(d), citizens.

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Since 2000 in Brussel three-meter diameter red and green balls are placed in the city to

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highlight the role of public space. The presence of these huge mobile objects raise the attention to the place and to the people around such as children and youngs who use the

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urban space. The balls are made by red plastic, inflated by a vacuum cleaner, and in

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case of holes easy to be repaired with glue. The balls are used as tools to higlight the

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lack of place where it is possible to play and share experiences, to raise political awareness about the need for space for young people. They infact can interact with this tool, write on it and move it to other places that also need media and public attention.

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References: http://www.citymined.org

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Home / Better Block

BETTER BLOCK

Place Place: Dallas and USA. Date Date: 2010 – to present.

RESEARCH

January 18, 2013 · by stefania · in EDUCATION, LEISURE, URBAN ACTION

Time Time: Few days.

EDUCATION HIGHLIGHT

Space Space: Public space. Cost Cost: 2,500$.

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Public actors: City officials.

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Private actors actors: Team Better Block, people

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What makes some city streets thrive, while mere blocks away, others flounder? Activists

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Jason Roberts and Andrew Howard in Dallas wanted to propose some answers, so in

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2010, they transformed a blighted street into a “better block” for 24 hours – with bike

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lanes, sidewalk cafes, food stalls, and other amenities. A Better Block was born. These

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“living charrettes” demonstrate that obsolete zoning or commerce restrictions often

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pose obstacles to such things as outdoor seating or music, and encourage communities

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to actively participate in the shaping of their own neighborhoods. City officials are now

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recognizing Better Block as a useful economic development tool. In the past two years, 32 Better Blocks have been realized across the U.S. by the original team and by

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independent community groups [From SpontaneousInterventions]

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Home / Caban Unnos: It’s Now-or-Never

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CABAN UNNOS: IT’S NOW-OR-NEVER January 21, 2013 · by stefania · in LEISURE, URBAN ACTION

RESEARCH

Place Place: Berlin (Germany). Date Date: 7th June 2008. Time Time: One night. Space Space: Public space. Cost Cost: Unknown. Public actors: -.

HIGHLIGHT

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Private actors actors: No Fixed Abode (Eastwood,

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Imagery ©2013 Cnes/Spot

Slater), T. Broomhead, D. McTiernan, 50 participants

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Caban Unnos: It’s Now-or-Never, demonstrates the outcome of a relationship between

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an architect, an environmental project manager and No Fixed Abode, which saw the realisation of a contemporary one-night house. Taking as their point of departure a

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globally standing legislative loophole which offers that if a house can be built between

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sunset and sunrise on common land, then the erectors hold the right to maintain a

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residence on that land. Around 50 participants contributed to its construction. The team selected appropriate materials that would be freely available in the city. Palettes and plastic cooler bottles were chosen as they would provide a standardised, abundant and

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re-usable building material. Alongside this there were various other scavenged and

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recycled materials from the various wastelands and empty plots of Berlin. The house only stood for two hours. At Sunday morning, Polizei arrived and demanded its instant removal. [from CCA-actions]

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Home / Can Batllò

CAN BATLLÒ

Place Place: Barcelona (ES) Date Date: 2011 Time Time: Ongoing

RESEARCH

January 8, 2013 · by stefania · in LEISURE, RE-USE

Space Space: Abandoned building Cost Cost: Unknown

Private actors actors: Recuperem Can Batllò, La Col Arquitectura, citizens

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In 1976 the General Metropolitan Plan of Barcelona defined that Can Batllò, an old

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industrial complex, would become a green areas with facilities for public use. In June

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2011 the group “Can Batllò es pel barrì” occupied one of the building of the complex,

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Bloc 11, obtaining the authorisation from the City Hall to use it as public space.

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Everyone can contribute to this participatory process contacting the neighbourhoods or

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the group Recuperem Can Batllò; the project guide lines are the restoration of the blocs,

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the use of urban agricolture, the creation of a public park, and first of all the maintenance of the public layout for all the complex. LaCol Arquitectura got involved in 2009 giving a technical and professional contribute to the restoration of Bloc 11; they

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©2013 Google Imagery ©2013 TerraMetrics,

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Public actors: City of Barcelona

design a library, an auditorium, a coffeebar and the vertical connection.

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Home / Canillejas imagina un parque

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CANILLEJAS IMAGINA UN PARQUE December 21, 2012 · by stefania · in EDUCATION, FILL-A-VOID, LEISURE

RESEARCH

Place Place: Madrid (Spain) Date Date: 2012 Time Time: 1,5 months Space Space: Urban void Cost Cost: around 1200€ Public actors: Madrid Municipality, La

HIGHLIGHT

Alameda school ©2013 Google Imagery ©2013 TerraMetrics,

Private actors actors: Asociaciòn Otro Habitat, Urbanacciòn, students, neighborhood

“Canillejas imagine a Park” is a project proposed for the competition Urbanacciòn in 2009 about the use of vacant lots in Madrid. Asociaciòn Otro Habitat submitted a

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proposal in which urban voids next to schools could be recovered and filled with

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activities concerning education and play. The project is the result of a creative workshop

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making the children ones of the main actors; it started in February 2010 with La Alameda school, taking information about the site, collecting ideas and needs of the

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community, and designing a collective proposal. Attending the contract of the temporary

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use of the site (a months and an half), more ideas were collected, and in March 2012 the

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collective action took place with an on-site workshop of auto-construction with recycled

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materials and other tools brought by the neighborhood. The space is divided into 5 different playground areas.

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Home / Casa Insecto

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January 17, 2013 · by sofia · in GUERRILLA, HIGHLIGHT, NEED

Place Place: Seville (Spain). Date Date: 2001.

RESEARCH

CASA INSECTO

Time Time: Ongoing. Space Space: on a tree.

HIGHLIGHT

Cost Cost: unknown.

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Private actors actors: Recetas urbanas, people.

Imagery ©2013 TerraMetrics,

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protection, and summer ventilation, the Insect House was built in one night at the invitation of a group protesting the planned removal of trees along Alameda Avenue in Seville. Temporary and reversible guerrilla construction projects offer a way for citizens to quickly and significantly participate in urban planning. Santiago Cirugeda is an architect based in Seville who has proposed semi-legal strategies for housing and urban renovation under the name Recetas Urbanas, or “urban prescriptions,” since 1996. He inhabits gaps between laws, exploiting overlap and oversight to practice autonomous architecture. [from CCA-actions]

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A single-person tree-inhabitation structure designed for rapid installation, anti-police

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References: http://www.recetasurbanas.net/

Tags: high sustainability, low friction, low site specific, medium aesthetic, medium community impact, medium diy, medium politics, medium professionist presence, metal sheet, no cost effective, no social network, recetas urbanas, scaffolding tubes, temporary, trees

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Home / Casa Rompecabeza

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CASA ROMPECABEZA January 13, 2013 · by sofia · in FILL-A-VOID, LEISURE, NEED

RESEARCH

Place Place: Seville (Spain). Date Date: 2002-2003. Time Time: few moths-two years. Space Space: Urban void.

HIGHLIGHT

Cost Cost: Unknown. Public actors: ©2013 Google -

Private actors actors: Recetas urbanas, landlords.

Imagery ©2013 TerraMetrics,

dida Casa Rompecabeza is a mobile studio-house: it can be desassembled and easily

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transported and installed in different places. The project is based on a strategy for

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autonomous construction, based on the idea to temporary occupy vacant lots in the city, with an agreement with the landlord, that permits the use of his property from a few months to max two years. This succeeded in interpret the law and go around it, skirting city building rules and avoiding legal restrictions. The house can be installed in different locations, so it’s designed that their parts could be arranged in various ways, to better fit

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the dimensions of the lots and the needs of its inhabitants. The owner of “Boat No. 9″ lot gave the permit in exchange of € 150 rent per month, and signed a contract for a minimum one year.

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Home / Chair Bombing

CHAIR BOMBING

Place Place: New York (USA). Date Date: 2011.

RESEARCH

January 26, 2013 · by stefania · in GUERRILLA, LEISURE

Time Time: Ongoing. Space Space: Public space.

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Cost Cost: 0$.

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Private actors actors: DoTank

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When San Francisco passed the Sit-Lie Ordinance in 2011 banning sitting or lying on

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sidewalks, it crystallized a stance that many cities worldwide seem to have adopted over

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the years, to dissuade public sitting by removing benches or implementing other subtle

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anti-loitering urban design measures. Enter chair-bombing. This tactic involves placing

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homemade seating in public spaces “to improve comfort, social activity, and [their]

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sense of place,” in Aurash Khawarzad’s words. Khawarzad is an urban planner and

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leader of DoTank, a Brooklyn-based activist design collective that fashions Adirondack

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chairs from discarded shipping pallets. “These benches are more than places to sit,” reads a note pasted to a San Francisco bench-bomb in protest of Sit-Lie. “They are a

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visual resistance to the privatization of public space.” [from SpontaneousInterventions]

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Home / City Farm

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CITY FARM January 18, 2013 · by stefania · in FILL-A-VOID, URBAN AGRICULTURE

RESEARCH

Place Place: Chicago (USA). Date Date: 1999. Time Time: Ongoing. Space Space: Urban void. Cost Cost: 60,000$.

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Private actors actors: Resource Center, citizens

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It makes sense that the Resource Center, the venerable Chicago nonprofit that has led

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the way in innovative recycling, upcycling, and farming techniques for 35 years, would also be a pioneer in urban farming. Their mission to deflect the abundant waste in cities

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while improving the quality of life of urban dwellers extended naturally to agriculture.

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Turning neglected fallow land into sustainable farms, the center operates more than 20

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productive plots that are financially self-sufficient, employs neighborhood residents, and sells vegetables on site and to local restaurants. The center’s flagship City Farm sits in the middle of a downtown housing project and has played a key role in

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strengthening its community. City Farm is a proven model that supports the local

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economy by growing food, jobs, beauty, and change. [From SpontaneousInterventions]

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Home / City Island

CITY ISLAND

Place Place: Madrid (Spain). Date Date: 2010. Time Time: One month.

RESEARCH

January 20, 2013 · by stefania · in FILL-A-VOID, LEISURE

Space Space: Urban void. Cost Cost: -

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Public actors: Ayuntamiento de Madrid.

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Private actors actors: Exyzt Collectif, citizens, volunteers, Basurama.

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The French collective Exyzt set up a temporary public space reusing the site of a

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dismissed swimmin pool, 500m away from Plaza Mayor in Madrid. City Island was built

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in two weeks with the aid of volunteers who lived in the camping site placed for that

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period and worked together with the community colleting common desires and needs.

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All the materials were recycled stuff then reused by other collectives or associacion (in

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collaboration with Basurama). The installation was opened during the Madrid White

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Night 2010. City Island was created like a rain forest made of planks and raw wood,

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providing shaded areas, some spaces hosting sunbathing zones, a bar and a 2 foot high swimming pool, a symbolic quotation from the previous use of that space. The result

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was the recreation of certain social relationships and a fertile ground for a month.

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Home / CoCook

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COCOOK January 18, 2013 · by sofia · in LEISURE, URBAN ACTION

RESEARCH

Place Place: Stockholm (Sweden) Date Date: 2011-ongoing. Time Time: few hours. Space Space: Public space. Cost Cost: -

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Private actors actors: CoCook, people.

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CoCook is a collaborative global movement that involves cooking and eating in urban

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public spaces. In this project, the event is considered on the same level as the space, performing direct interventions in rarely used public spaces. CoCook team has

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constructed the mobile kitchen unit from reclaimed and repurposed materials. The

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event consist in a meal in which participants cook and eat together. Everybody can join

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just by bringing ingredients that will be added to an open recipe. A spot in the city is used as the support of the temporary public space created by the event. There is also a ‘Cocook première brochure’, cointainig a DIY kit with the list of items needed, tips on

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getting them and the assembly process description, but also the event picture album

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and a collection of paper dolls in order to re-experience the event in a performative way.

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Home / Concurso de las rutas inciertas

CONCURSO DE LAS RUTAS INCIERTAS

Place Place: Everywhere Date Date: 2012

RESEARCH

January 11, 2013 · by stefania · in MAPPING, URBAN ACTION

Time Time: 3 months Space Space: Public space

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Cost Cost: Unknown Public actors: Private actors actors: Clara Nubiola, participants

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On March 2012 the blog “Los vacios quotidianos” posted a Call for Participation of a

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virtual and urban experiment about derive, “Las rutas inciertas”. Everyone can

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participate sending by email the name of the city where he lives, and soon will receive

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the coordinates of a random place where to begin the trip, documenting it with in a free-

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style way such as pictures, videos, sketches, collages, texts… In this way walking

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becomes a tool of creativity, communication and discovery; cities are described in the

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most personal way even though people do not know not only the exact route of their walking and the context of the start. The initiative is created by Clara Nubiola, writer of “La guia de las rutas inciertas” that with her blog tries to make people think about the

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territory they live.

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Home / Cow the Udder Way

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COW THE UDDER WAY January 23, 2013 · by sofia · in EDUCATION, FILL-A-VOID

RESEARCH

Place Place: Liverpool (UK). Date Date: 2005. Time Time: 9 days. Space Space: Vacant lots. Cost Cost: Unknown.

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Public actors: Shrinking Cities exhibition. ©2013 Google Imagery ©2013 TerraMetrics,

Private actors actors: Cow The Udder Way, residents.

Cow The Udder Way was a planning provocation that emerged out of an entry to the

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Shrinking Cities exhibition. The project proposed an alternative use for a vacant lot in

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Toxteth, an inner-city area of Liverpool, by bringing ten dairy cows to the site for nine

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days. Locals could learn to care for the herd, whose milk and manure were available for

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the community. The project provoked residents to propose future uses of the site by demonstrating its appropriation. A number of products from toothpaste to shoe polish were produced and made available for barter. In addition to instructions for use, the cow

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products come with instructions for production. Cows produce twice as much manure as milk, yet this resource is considered a waste regardless of its history of useful

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application. [from CCA-actions]

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← Subjective map of Valadares

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Dispositivo de la Cebada →


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Home / Demolition. Detroit. Disneyland.

DEMOLITION. DETROIT. DISNEYLAND.

Place Place: Detroit (USA) Date Date: 2006

RESEARCH

January 8, 2013 · by sofia · in GUERRILLA, HIGHLIGHT

Time Time: 4 Hours Space Space: Abandoned buildings

HIGHLIGHT

Cost Cost: 500-1000 $ Public actors: ©2013 Google -

Private actors actors: Object Orange

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Detroit. Demolition. Disneyland. is an artistic project that wants to bring attenction on

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abandoned buildings in Detroit, by painting them with “Tiggerrific Orange”, from the

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Disney paint catalogue. The local artists group Object Orange choose neighborhoods

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with a high visibility from the highway, and the bright orange colour because it’s often

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used as a warning colour, to better highlight the problem of decay in the city. They have

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sometime chosen buildings that were already decided to be demolished, sometimes the

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building are demolished after they paint them orange. The Mayor’s office views the artists action as vandalism. With this action they want to declare “this building aren’t scenery” and they try to bring awareness into the people, to invite everyone to take

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Imagery ©2013 TerraMetrics,

action, making everyone looking not only at these houses, but also ar every abandoned building in their city.

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Home / Depave

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DEPAVE January 23, 2013 · by stefania · in NEED, RE-USE, URBAN AGRICULTURE

RESEARCH

Place Place: Portland, Oregon (USA). Date Date: 2007. Time Time: Ongoing. Space Space: Asphalt lot. Cost Cost: 70,000$ per year. Public actors: EMSWCD, WMSWCD, City of

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Portland.

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Private actors actors: Depave team, Friends of Portland Community Garden.

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When Depave founder Arif Khan tore down his garage in 2005 and replaced it with a

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grove of fruit trees, he realized the same action could be applied on a much larger scale. Three years later, Depave’s first parking lot transformation was complete: Khan and 147

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volunteers transformed an under-utilized asphalt lot into the Fargo Forest Gardens, a

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community garden. The nonprofit will mobilize workers to remove impervious paving for

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anyone who asks; past depavings have included school playgrounds, businesses’ parking lots, and residents’ driveways, amounting to 100,000 square feet of asphalt that is no longer contributing to the negative effects of polluted stormwater runoff. Depave

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also helps in the process of replacing these spaces with native-plant gardens. [from

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SpontaneousInterventions] A guide to depaving is available online, and it is possible to join the group becoming a volunteer.

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Home / DUB 002

DUB 002

Place Place: New York (USA) Date Date: 2010 Time Time: One week

RESEARCH

January 17, 2013 · by stefania · in LEISURE, PARASITE

Space Space: Public space Cost Cost: 250$

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Private actors actors: Department of Urban Betterment, John Locke

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With smart phones near universal, one might wonder why public payphones still occupy

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so much sidewalk space. The Department of Urban Betterment’s (DUB) Phone Booth

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Book Share is part of a series of urban interventions that explore obsolete street

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technology. It might look like a simple repurposing of phone booths into community

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book shares, but DUB’s motto – nascetur ridiculus mus, “and a ridiculous mouse will be

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brought forth” – hints at a grander objective. Architect John Locke invokes Homer to

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argue, “The central office has no brain. The paternalistic top- down strategy of

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traditional urban planning has been a waste of heroic labors. We can match modest labors with exceptional gains by turning even a few of our neighbors into consciously

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critical observers.” [From SpontaneousInterventions]

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http://gracefulspoon.com

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Home / (Dis)assembled

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(DIS)ASSEMBLED January 12, 2013 · by stefania · in LEISURE, URBAN ACTION

RESEARCH

Place Place: Gothenburg (Sweden). Date Date: 2011. Time Time: 3 months. Space Space: Public space. Cost Cost: Unknown.

HIGHLIGHT

Public actors: ©2013 Google Imagery ©2013 TerraMetrics,

Private actors actors: Röda Sten Konsthalle, Stealth.unlimited, citizens.

From June to August 2011 the desolate space in front of Röda Sten Konsthall became a

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testing ground for physical and DIY interventions. Röda Sten and STEALTH collected

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materials and tools to be used by the people during an auto-construction performance,

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giving the possibility to make the city by their own hands. Through an open call many

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proposals and desires for the site have been collected; then the first action was to pull out all the materials and start to built. The interdisciplinary group was formed by architects, artists, skaters, kids, carpenters and teachers; in a weekend they tourned

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out to make a skate ramp, seats, a graffiti wall, an aqueduct, a tree hut, but they continued for over two months. If the materials were not enough, then people started to

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bring them by their own; 8000 people gathered to participate.

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Home / Dispositivo de la Cebada

DISPOSITIVO DE LA CEBADA

Place Place: Madrid (Spain). Date Date: June 2011. Time Time: Ongoing.

RESEARCH

January 23, 2013 · by stefania · in FILL-A-VOID, LEISURE

Space Space: Urban void. Cost Cost: 8000€.

Private actors actors: Todo por la praxis, FRAVM, Asociacion de vecinos.

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The project has been carried out in Campo de la Cebada, in the central district of

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Madrid, on a 5000 square meter vacant site which some local collectives can use for

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temporary activity with a cession time of one year. Todo por la Praxis has been involved

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in this process, and they started rehabilitate the place from June 2011 with the creation

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of a self-managed sport center; some of the previous projects by TXP were about the

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temporary activation of vacant lots with sport facilities. The sport center is composed

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mainly by a scaffolding structures and a container, all working as office, storage room, a basketball court and a summer cinema. All these functions create a meeting point, increasing the possibility to create other activities, like the autoconstruction workshop

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©2013 Google Imagery ©2013 DigitalGlobe,

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Public actors: Sport Council of Madrid.

set up in 2012 with Basurama and Paisaje Transversal.

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Home / Ecobox

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ECOBOX January 17, 2013 · by stefania · in FILL-A-VOID, URBAN AGRICULTURE

RESEARCH

Place Place: Paris (France). Date Date: 2001-2006. Time Time: 5 years. Space Space: Urban void. Cost Cost: 65,000€. Public actors: Municipality of Paris.

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Private actors actors: Atelier d’Architecture Autogérée, APIJ-bat, citizens

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vacant lot belonging to the French railway company in Paris. It evolved in an urban

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platform hosting discussions, lectures and creative activities managed mainly by AAA

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and city residents, with the aim of creating a flexible space in which the presence of

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diffent cultures works together to preserve biodiversity. All the devices like kitchens,

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libraries and the gardens themselves are mobile through different spaces; the pathways and the garden floor are made of modular pallets creating holes adoptable by the community to be cultivated. After 4 years the city authorities threatened the community

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with eviction, but the users negotiated for a new location, since the mobile devices

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allowed the quick transport of the project. Recently they have moved for the third time.

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Home / Edible Schoolyard

EDIBLE SCHOOLYARD Place Place: New York (USA). Date Date: 2010. Time Time: Ongoing.

RESEARCH

January 15, 2013 · by stefania · in EDUCATION, NEW BUILT, URBAN AGRICULTURE

Space Space: Urban void, rooftop, schoolyard. Cost Cost: 2,500,000$.

HIGHLIGHT

Public actors: NY Department of Education, P.S. 216 School, P.S. 7 School. Imagery ©2013 TerraMetrics,

Private actors actors: Edible Schoolyard NYC, WorkAC

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For WORKac’s Amale Andraos and Dan Wood, “Urban farming became a way of talking

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about the sustainable city.” This long-time interest led them to chef Alice Waters and

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her Chez Panisse Foundation, and in 2011, the two teamed up with P.S. 216 in Brooklyn

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to design the first of Waters’ Edible Schoolyards on the East Coast, an organic garden that is wholly integrated into the school’s curriculum and food program. The design includes a Kitchen Classroom where students can prepare and eat meals together, a

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greenhouse roof that creates growing space in the winter and retracts in the summer,

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water reclamation, and composting. For the project’s design coup de grâce, all of the

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components are interlinked to form an off-grid, self-sustaining system. [From

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Home / El Tanque

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EL TANQUE January 28, 2013 · by sofia · in LEISURE, URBAN ACTION

RESEARCH

Place Place: Quito (Ecuador). Date Date: 2012. Time Time: -. Space Space: Public Space. Cost Cost: Unknown.

HIGHLIGHT

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Private actors actors: Todo por la praxis, people.

mera El tanque is a mobile prototype, a nomadic module to be inserted in different areas of the city. The project wants to build different spaces, to adopt different combinations

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depending on the needs of the moment. It’s easily deployable and transportable, and

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supports multiple funcions, such as mobile bar, a dwelling or transportable office. Todo

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por la Praxis wants to create a platform or device that moves trough different

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neighborhoods of the city, to generate sustained processes with the actors of the space in which the tank is inserted, an appropriation of urban public space. This artifact will host artistic, cultural, social and productive activities. El tanque is designed with the

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intenction to be replicated by other groups, inviting to appropriate, implement and

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improve the project. In fact will be public an assembly manual, accessible by those who wants to build a similar one.

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MAPPING

NEW CONSTRUCTION

Home / Espais Comuns

ESPAIS COMUNS

Place Place: Barcelona (Spain). Date Date: 2011. Time Time: -.

RESEARCH

January 21, 2013 · by sofia · in EDUCATION, FILL-A-VOID, LEISURE

Space Space: Common places, terraces. Cost Cost: Unknown.

Private actors actors: ReCooperar, LaCol, Ramon LLull La Salle, students, neighbour.

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R-Lab strives to add another point of view within the educational model of the architect

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schools, motivating students to get involved with projects in the society around them.

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The purpose was showing the role that architects should have in society. The students

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will gain knowledge through practical exercises, instead of traditional architecture

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classes. “ESPAIS COMUNS” shows the current way of living and housing, understanding

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that the community we live in has a direct influence on the space we live in. Concepts

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like “privacy”, “domestic”, are the main focus because they are directly related to shared spaces in multi family living complex. The project phases were: investigating the need of the neighbor’s community, develop the project collaborating between the

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teacher, the students and the end-user and finnaly build it.

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Home / Esto No Es Un Solar

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ESTO NO ES UN SOLAR November 26, 2012 · by sofia · in FILL-A-VOID, LEISURE, URBAN AGRICULTURE

RESEARCH

Place Place: Zaragoza (ES) Date Date: June 2009 Time Time: min 12 months Space Space: Urban void Cost Cost: 1 million € Public actors: Sociedad Municipal Zaragoza

HIGHLIGHT

Vivienda ©2013 Google Map data ©2013 Google, basado

Private actors actors: Gravalosdimonte Arq., Neighbourhood associacions, citizens,

After “Los vacios cotidianos”, an art festival in urban voids held in Saragossa in 2006,

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the citizens signed a petition for the possibility to continue the use of voids in their city.

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Patrizia di Monte proposed “Esto no es un solar” as an initiative that carries on the idea

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of the festival. The initiative was held on by a process of participation: a dialogue

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between citizens, neighborhood associations and the administrations brought to define the main uses. In the historical center, five lots were redesigned as playgrounds, public

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squares, spaces for urban agriculture and sport. An agreement with the lot’s owner

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decides the public, reversible and temporary (not less than 12 months) use of the space.

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To realize the project 40 unemployed where hired.

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The positive results permitted to repeat the initiative in 2010, expanding the project outside the historical center.

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MAPPING

NEW CONSTRUCTION

Home / Favela Painting

FAVELA PAINTING

Place Place: Rio de Janeiro (Brasil). Date Date: 2009.

RESEARCH

January 19, 2013 · by stefania · in HIGHLIGHT, LEISURE, URBAN ACTION

Time Time: 3 months. Space Space: Facades.

HIGHLIGHT

Cost Cost: Unknown.

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Public actors: -.

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Private actors actors: Haas&Hahn, favela residents.

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In 2006 the Dutch collective Haas&Hahn started developing the “Favela Painting”

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project, which consists of covering with enormous paintings entires zones of favelas.

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The square of Santa Marta, a community in Rio de Janeiro situated on a hillside, was

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chosen in 2009 as part of the initiative; 34 buildings facing the public space were painted

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with expandible coloful rays with the aid of some youth people from the favela. They

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were instructed about many painting techniques and various security measures as the

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building, built in an informal way, were all different from each others. 7000

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squaremeters were covered with this monument for the community, strongly changing the perception of the deprived area. The future goal is to paint an entire hillside, to make

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visible the whole favela: O-Morro is the name of the project which could attract attention to the favela’s situation.

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References: http://www.favelapainting.com

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Home / Field Guide to Phytoremediation

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FIELD GUIDE TO PHYTOREMEDIATION January 17, 2013 · by stefania · in EDUCATION, RESEARCH, URBAN AGRICULTURE

RESEARCH

Still loading... Slow? Use the troubleshooting guide or

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Earth Place Place: New York (USA). Date Date: 2010. Time Time: Ongoing. Space Space: Urban void. Cost Cost: 4,500$

HIGHLIGHT

Public actors: Private actors actors: youarethecity, Kaja Kühl

According to the New York Department of City Planning, more than 6% of the city’s land

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is vacant, adding up to approximately 11,700 acres of underutilized land. Many of these

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lots are plagued with contaminated soil as a result of previous constructions and

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industrial uses. To educate property owners about how they can initiate cost-effective

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toxic clean up, architect and planner Kaja Kühl created the Field Guide to Phytoremediation, a do- you-it-yourself (DIY) handbook that is available online and as a downloadable pamphlet. She also launched the Field Lab, an experimental garden in the

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South Bronx where she tests and demonstrates DIY brownfield remediation techniques to citizens. [from SpontaneousInterventions]

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The guide is updated with the latest phytoremediation researches by soil scientists; this handbook provides a useful step by step description of a land clean up process.

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MAPPING

NEW CONSTRUCTION

Home / Food for Free

FOOD FOR FREE

Place Place: Bristol (UK). Date Date: 2004. Time Time: Ongoing.

RESEARCH

January 15, 2013 · by sofia · in MAPPING, RESEARCH, URBAN AGRICULTURE

Space Space: City. Cost Cost:-

Imagery ©2013 TerraMetrics,

Private actors actors: Artists Kayle Brandon and Heath Bunting.

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Bristol Food for Free is an online database of edible plants in Bristol. The website

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generates a map of any of the 113 species identified by its authors. Plants rooted in

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private lots are included if they branch into public space. The website also contains

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photo-documentation of potential planting sites selected for suitability. Bristol Food for

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Free allows inexperienced foragers to find fresh fruits and vegetables quickly and

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safely. Kayle Brandon and Heath Bunting are part of Irational.org, an international

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network for information and materials for the displaced and roaming. Irational.org supports non-corporate art and engineering work. [from CCA-actions] The places are fed into a map that is a cartographic hybrid of routeguide, recipe-book,

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Public actors: -

botanical encyclopaedia. In the map there are no street names: the user must follow the form of the roads and use the land marks to navigate.

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Home / Footbal Field

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FOOTBAL FIELD January 17, 2013 · by stefania · in LEISURE, URBAN ACTION

RESEARCH

Place Place: Sharjah (United Arab Emirates) Date Date: 2007, 2009. Time Time: Two months Space Space: Public space. Cost Cost: Unknown. Public actors: Department of Culture and

HIGHLIGHT

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Information, Government of Sharjah

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Private actors: Maider Lopez, Sharjah Art Foundation, footbal fans

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As part of the Sharjah Biennial, artist Maider López painted the lines of a soccer field

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red in a public square of Sharjah, adding goals on either end. Because pre-existing features such as benches and streetlamps were not altered, the square became a

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strange new site for football matches where spectators relaxed on benches inside the

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pitch at all hours. The project suggests a model for easy and relaxed integration of

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different activities. Maider López works on interrupting conventional space and architecture. [from CCA-actions] This action highlight the possibility to have two simoultaneous use of an everyday space,

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transforming the meaning of the original one. López was invited again in 2009 during the

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9th Biennale, recreating the Football Field with the addiction of Fountain, a public temporary drinking fountain.

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MAPPING

NEW CONSTRUCTION

Home / For Squat

FOR SQUAT

Place Place: Chicago (USA), & everywhere. Date Date: 2010. Time Time: Ongoing.

RESEARCH

January 14, 2013 · by sofia · in GUERRILLA, HIGHLIGHT, NEED

Space Space: Abandoned buildings. Cost Cost: 500 $ sign production.

Private actors actors: Reuben Kincaid Realty, citizens.

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Reuben Kincaid Realty invites people to “Be Your Own Agent!” Describing itself as a

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“certified Rehousing Consultancy,” the faux real estate website features listings of

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abandoned or recently foreclosed-upon properties available for squat. A project of the

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nonprofit Public Media Institute (PMI), the listings are often crowdsourced, with entries

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mimicking brokers’ enthusiasm (“stunning two-bedroom townhouse, skyline views;

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owner recently evicted,” or “Perfect location! Abandoned church ready for occupation or

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weekend parties!”). PMI installs “For Squat” signs on available properties, and encourages people to download the sign and join their campaign to fight for the basic human right to shelter. A foil to the satire is the website’s links to articles and

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organizations that address the homeless crisis. [from SpontaneusInterventions]

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Home / Forat de la Vergonya

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FORAT DE LA VERGONYA January 17, 2013 · by sofia · in FILL-A-VOID, NEED, URBAN AGRICULTURE

RESEARCH

Place Place: Barcelona (Spain). Date Date: 2004. Time Time: Ongoing. Space Space: Urban void. Cost Cost: -.

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HIGHLIGHT

Public actors: Barcelona City Council.

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Private actors actors: citizens.

mera Due to an urban renewal, various blocks in Ribera neighbourhood were demolished,

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leaving a big hole. In 2004, after years of decay, City Council decided to build a parking

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lot. The people living in the neighbourhood, who had not been consulted, did not agree

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with this project, and mobilitate to express their opinion about it, also with violent

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demonstrations, calling the place “el Forat de la Vergonya” – the Hole of Shame. The

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inhabitants claimed their right to the city, creating a self-managed urban park with community gardens, benches, playgrounds, sports facilities. All elements were designed, built and managed collectively, and it is the only green space in the

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neighbourhood . The site has persisted despite the attempts of take over by the city

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through a citizen participation plan in 2005, criticised by many residents as an action driven by electoral rhythms.

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MAPPING

NEW CONSTRUCTION

Home / Garden Registry

GARDEN REGISTRY RESEARCH

January 23, 2013 · by sofia · in MAPPING, RESEARCH, URBAN AGRICULTURE

Place Place: San Francisco (USA). Date Date: 2008. Time Time: ongoing. Space Space: City.

HIGHLIGHT

Cost Cost: 10,000$.

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Public actors: -.

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Private actors actors: Futurefarmers, citizens.

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The San Francisco Garden Registry is an online map and social networking tool created

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to connect urban gardeners and to locate current or potential open spaces in the city

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that are suitable for growing food. By registering these “food production zones” online, a

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comprehensive land use portrait begins to emerge. Set up by San Francisco art and

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design collective Futurefarmers, the Garden Registry seeks to quantify the total

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farmable acreage within the city in order to better support, connect, and cultivate these

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spaces. To date, some 1,500 acres have been identified. [from SpontaneusInterventions]

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Home / Getxoberpiztu!

NEW CONSTRUCTION MAPPING

GETXOBERPIZTU! January 10, 2013 · by stefania · in FILL-A-VOID, NEED, URBAN AGRICULTURE

RESEARCH

Place Place: Getxo (ES) Date Date: October 2011 Time Time: Suspended Space Space: Urban void Cost Cost: Unknown Public actors: City of Gexto, Basque Youth

HIGHLIGHT

Council ©2013 Google Imagery ©2013 TerraMetrics,

Private actors actors: Getxoberpiztu team, citizens, Pez Estudio

Getxoberpiztu! is a project of requalification of an abandoned lot in Getxo through a

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participatory process of proposals and construction. The sense of lack of public spaces

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is strongly felt by the youngers and the community, so the experiment seeks to create in

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the citizenship the consciousness of the potential of empty spaces through an active use

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of them. On October 2011 the project starts, with a team of 150 people suggesting various proposals to built a final one. On March 2012 there is a call for ideas among

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schools, neighbourhoods and people from different social groups and ages discussing

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together for the final output. This is the transformation of the empty lot in a pedagogical

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urban garden, increasing the accessibility of the site. From July 2012 the project is

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suspended due to practical problems with the Administration in the accessibility works of the lot.

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MAPPING

NEW CONSTRUCTION

Home / Guerrilla Bike Lanes

GUERRILLA BIKE LANES

Place Place: Everywhere. Date Date: 2005-ongoing.

RESEARCH

January 18, 2013 · by sofia · in GUERRILLA, NEED

Time Time: few hours. Space Space: Streets.

HIGHLIGHT

Cost Cost: 200$ in tools

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Public actors: -

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Private actors actors: Cyclists.

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Bicycling has only recently become a serious planning consideration, and the vast

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majority of American city streets remain intimidating places for cyclists, despite their

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growing numbers. With city planners moving slowly to adapt, cycling advocates are

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taking matters into their own hands, painting bike lanes, share-the-lane “sharrows,”

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and other signage, often under cover of night. Many guerrilla bike lane painters point to

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Toronto’s Urban Repair Squad as the pioneers of the practice, but some of the most

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voracious adherents can be found in Los Angeles, including an anonymous group of

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activists working under the aegis of the Department of D.I.Y. Do-it-yourselfers have also installed bike route signs, “pass with care” posters, and even “softened” unfriendly

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square curbs with blobs of concrete. [From SpontaneousInterventions]

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Home / Guerrilla Drive-In

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NEW CONSTRUCTION MAPPING

GUERRILLA DRIVE-IN January 28, 2013 · by sofia · in GUERRILLA, LEISURE

RESEARCH

Place Place: Santa Cruz, West Chester (USA). Date Date: 2005-ongoing. Time Time: One night. Space Space: Public Space. Cost Cost: 1,500$.

HIGHLIGHT

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Public actors: -.

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Private actors actors: people.

mera The drive-in theater has largely faded from our cultural landscape, with only hundreds remaining in the U.S., after a peak of 4,000 during the late 1950s and early ‘60s. Today

efarmers

independent groups across the country, such as Santa Cruz Guerrilla Drive-in in

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California and West Chester Guerrilla Drive-in in Pennsylvania, are reviving this classic

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pastime, motivated not only by nostalgia but by the urge to bring some life to dull

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outdoor spaces, such as deserted parking lots and non-descript warehouse districts. (New York’s Rooftop Film Festival similarly originated from a spontaneous act of neighbors craving outdoor entertainment.) The films are almost always free, with

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schedules and locations posted on websites, bringing neighbors together in a way that Netflix and iTunes cannot. [From SpontaneusInterventions]

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Home / Hortolab

HORTOLAB

Place Place: Cáceres (Spain). Date Date: 2011. Time Time: Ongoing.

RESEARCH

January 12, 2013 · by stefania · in EDUCATION, NEW BUILT, URBAN AGRICULTURE

Space Space: Public space. Cost Cost: Unknown.

Imagery ©2013 TerraMetrics,

Private actors actors: Straddle3, CTRL+Z, Todo por la Praxis, Ribera del Marco, citizens

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Chacharro2.0 was a “Mobile architecture prototype for collective activities” designed

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and built by Straddle3 in 2009. After 2 years they decided to reuse it as Hortolab, a new

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infrastructure which supports environment and makes aware of alternative consume

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habits. The facility (a reused container) consists of a seedbed, a kitchen to handle

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products from the kitchengarden, and an office; the central space can be extended by

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opening out into the garden, and can hosts activities that need the presence of both open

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and closed space. The exterior walls are made of recycled pallets used as ventilated facade that together with a system of insulation provides protection to the vegetables growth. Hortolab seeks to have an educational function making the children experience

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Public actors: Ayuntamento de Cáceres.

the growth cycle and build mobile gardens, and furtermore it gives opportunity to the citizens to self-manage this social space.

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References: http://hortolab.wordpress.com http://www.todoporlapraxis.es

http://straddle3.net

http://control-zeta.org

https://picasaweb.google.com/105368649492191363646/Cacharro21HortoLab

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Home / Hypothèses d’amarrages

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HYPOTHÈSES D’AMARRAGES January 25, 2013 · by sofia · in LEISURE, URBAN ACTION

RESEARCH

Place Place: Montreàl (Canada), Paris (France). Date Date: 2001 to present. Time Time: Ongoing. Space Space: Public space. Cost Cost: -.

HIGHLIGHT

Public actors: -. ©2013 Google Imagery ©2013 TerraMetrics,

Private actors actors: SYN-atelier d’exploration urbaine, residents.

A series of related spatial “moorings” and “insertions” composed of mobile pool,

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foosball, and picnic tables designed to offer residents opportunities for easy interaction

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with trivialized urban spaces. Simple interventions, like placing a picnic table between

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two highway columns, function as invitations to engage with the site. Another project

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attached wheels to pool and foosball tables, which were rolled around Montréal and Paris, inviting neighbours to interact with each other and cross barriers of class and wealth. SYN- atelier d’exploration urbaine, or “urban exploration workshop,” engages in

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urban exploration from the perspective of intervention and research. [From CCA-

actions]

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84wheel effective, no friction, no politics, no site specific,


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Home / IOT

IOT

Place Place: Bogotà (Colombia) Date Date: 2010 Time Time: Ongoing

RESEARCH

December 28, 2012 · by stefania · in NEED, URBAN ACTION

Space Space: Public space Cost Cost: Unknown

Imagery ©2013 TerraMetrics,

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IOT (Iniciativa de Ordenamento Territorial – Territorial Shaping Initiatives) is a research about building citizenship through small urban infrastructures in order to solve common everyday problems at the small scale, which often are impossible to be recognized by the municipality. IOT creates a platform where it is possible to report something that can be improved in the public space and to share strategies to find concrete solutions. Since this platform is opened to everyone, each initiative comes from the citizens organizing themselves around the neighborhood and working together; an active sense

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of community generates a good IOT improving the physical space without waiting for the

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government to solve small infrastructural problems. On the website everyone can watch

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examples by other people or can be guided with toolkits of tips and information about

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Private actors actors: IOT, citizens

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public regulation to take on a IOT.

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http://vimeo.com/44838629 References: http://iot.com.co

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Home / Illuminaccion

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ILLUMINACCION January 16, 2013 · by stefania · in HIGHLIGHT, LEISURE, URBAN ACTION

RESEARCH

Place Place: San Juan (Puerto Rico). Date Date: 17th November 2011. Time Time: Few hours. Space Space: Public space. Cost Cost: 250$.

HIGHLIGHT

Public actors: -. ©2013 Google Imagery ©2013 TerraMetrics,

Private actors actors: UrbanoActivo, LEP (Laboratorio de Espacio Publico), citizens

A once bustling street in the center of San Juan, Puerto Rico, fell into disuse when the

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city failed to repair broken streetlamps. The dark street was perceived as unsafe by

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many, and became devoid of pedestrians, garbage-strewn, and generally avoided.

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Urbano Activo, a research and design collective that promotes the creative use of public

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space, conducted a multidisciplinary workshop that included local residents, and devised Iluminacción, a one-night event that called on neighbors to converge on the street with handcrafted lanterns and whatever other means of illumination they could

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find. With music and a festive atmosphere, the street shone bright once again. A petition was circulated at the event, leading the city to repair the broken streetlamps. [From

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SpontaneousInterventions] Illuminaccion comes after many workshops led by LEP (Laboratorio de Espacio Publico).

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References: http://www.urbanoactivo.com http://labespaciopublico.tumblr.com

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Home / Islands of LA

ISLANDS OF LA RESEARCH

January 14, 2013 · by sofia · in FILL-A-VOID, HIGHLIGHT, LEISURE, URBAN ACTION

Place Place: Los Angeles (USA). Date Date: 2007. Time Time: few hours. Space Space: Public space.

HIGHLIGHT

Cost Cost:Public actors: ©2013 Google -

Private actors actors: Ari Kletzky, citizens

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Although you may not notice them, artist Ari Kletzky sees traffic islands everywhere in

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his city. Surmising that these miscellaneous bits of public land add up to a sizable

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territory, he started an art project in which he installs official-looking signs declaring

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these undistinguished plots a part of the Islands of LA National Park. An ongoing project

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to activate underutilized public space, Islands of LA includes an online map of traffic

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islands that Kletzky considers suitable for public gatherings. He describes them as

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“highly visible places of public intimacy,” and possible places for “unrestricted peaceable

gatherings,”

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exhibits.

[from

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Home / Kingshighway Skatepark

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KINGSHIGHWAY SKATEPARK January 14, 2013 · by stefania · in FILL-A-VOID, LEISURE

RESEARCH

Place Place: St. Louis (USA). Date Date: 2009. Time Time: Ongoing. Space Space: Public space. Cost Cost: -.

HIGHLIGHT

Public actors: -. ©2013 Google Imagery ©2013 TerraMetrics,

Private actors actors: Kingshighway Vigilante Transitions

Jonathan Ware wasn’t sure whether to bring a bag of concrete along with a skateboard

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and pads on his first visit to Kingshighway Skatepark. “Word on the street was if you

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showed up and you did not contribute in some way, you would not be permitted to skate

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there,” says Ware, a local architect and skater. Situated below an overpass in south St.

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Louis, the highly popular skate park was built by an all-volunteer network of skaters in an urban dead zone. Plans to overhaul the road above now jeopardize the park’s future, but its success has galvanized larger efforts between the volunteer group now known as

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Kingshighway Vigilante Transitions, city officials, and the community to build sanctioned skate parks in other locations throughout the city. [from SpontaneousInterventions]

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Home / La Casa del Viento

LA CASA DEL VIENTO Place Place: Bogotà (Colombia) Date Date: December 2011 Time Time: undetermined

RESEARCH

December 17, 2012 · by sofia · in EDUCATION, LEISURE, PARASITE

Space Space: Rooftop Cost Cost: -

HIGHLIGHT

Public actors: Consejería Cultural de la Embajada de España en Colombia-AECID ©2013 Google Imagery ©2013 TerraMetrics,

Private actors actors: Arquitectura Expandida, Zuroriente Cultural Assosiation, local associations, citizens

The intervention is a self-construction process for the expansion of the Community

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Library Simon el Bolivar in Bogotà. This small structure was built 16 years ago by

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Zuroriente Cultural Assosiation, joined by several

other collectives and local

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movements, because of the lack of social equipment in such a conflictive context. Casa

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del Viento is a parasitic architecture, that lies above the existing structure. It’s made

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mostly of Colombian Bamboo, covered with alveolar polycarbonate, and the floor is

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assembled with wood boards, suitable for activities like dance and theatre. The policy

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during the process was participatory: debates and cultural activities were organised,

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suitable for a wide range of public, to include the community into the project decisions. These strategies are relevant in urban settings like Bogotá: with a strong network of associations, and a lot of self-builded realities, they creates an urban environment qualitatively different.

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LAZY STOP January 15, 2013 · by sofia · in NEED, RE-USE

RESEARCH

Place Place: Durban (South Africa). Date Date: Februar 2008. Time Time: Ongoing. Space Space: Public space. Cost Cost: -.

HIGHLIGHT

Public actors: ©2013 Google -

Private actors actors: Millegomme

Imagery ©2013 NASA,

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Thirty “Lazy” chairs and fifteen “Four-Meal Drive” picnic tables made out of tires were put in a public park, allowing people to rest. A public market grew up around the site in

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Durban. Twelve more “Lazy” chairs were placed in bus shelters where the city of

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Durban had supplied only metal railings to lean on. The chairs and the picnic tables

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were made of defective tires diverted from the landfill and simply joined with screws.

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Assembly was rapid, and the furniture was installed in one afternoon. Millegomme is an

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international collective who work with tires. [from CCA-actions]

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Home / Le 56

LE 56

Place Place: Paris (France). Date Date: 2005. Time Time: Ongoing.

RESEARCH

January 17, 2013 · by stefania · in FILL-A-VOID, URBAN AGRICULTURE

Space Space: Urban void. Cost Cost: Unknown.

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©2013 Google -

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Imagery ©2013 TerraMetrics,

HIGHLIGHT

Public actors: Municipality of Paris.

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Private actors actors: Atelier d’Architecture Autogérée, APIJ-bat, citizens

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An energy-independent recycled construction garden and building inserted in a paved

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alley between two buildings in the Sainte-Blaise neighbourhood of Paris 20e, this “participatory garden” includes mini-plots for local residents and is designed as a

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continuous construction site programmed by the community. [from CCA-actions]

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In 2005 the City of Paris invite Atelier d’Architecture Autogérée to explore the

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possibilities of a 200 square meters tight vacant lot. After collecting desires, ideas and

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suggestions from the neighbourhood, AAA presents a project strategy based on

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spontaneous activities with an ecological approach: wood structures (built in partnership with specialists in eco-contructions), use of recycled materials, a compost

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laboratory, vegetable gardens. The place is now self-managed by around 40 people taking care of the gardens, setting up events and debates, and carring out the laboratories.

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Home / Le grand detournement

NEW CONSTRUCTION MAPPING

LE GRAND DETOURNEMENT January 11, 2013 · by stefania · in EDUCATION, LEISURE, URBAN ACTION

RESEARCH

Place Place: l’Île-Saint-Denis (France) Date Date: May 2012 Time Time: 5 days Space Space: Abandoned place Cost Cost: Unknown Public actors: Plaine Commune, l’Île-Saint-

HIGHLIGHT

Denis city ©2013 Google Imagery ©2013 TerraMetrics,

Private actors actors: Bellastock, architecture students

Founded in 2006, Bellastock is an interdisciplinary association of young architects about

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sustainable development in relationship with cultures, arts and territories. The 7th

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edition of the Bellastock Festival takes place in l’Île-Saint-Denis, in the northern

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suburbs of Paris. “Le grand détournement” hosted 1000 architecture students in a 5 day

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event, in which they had to design, auto-construct and inhabit an eco-ephemeral city made of recycled waste materials. About 10 groups of 10 people built their own shelters

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and shared places from different material founded in the area, the dismissed

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warehouse of Lafayette. A different approach to architecture is proposed, thinking to the

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act of built in a new way and giving the waste the opportunity of a second life. The cycle

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of the reused materials finishes where it has taken place: they have been dismantled and sorted.

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Home / Local Previews

LOCAL PREVIEWS RESEARCH

January 27, 2013 · by sofia · in HIGHLIGHT, URBAN ACTION

Place Place: New York (USA). Date Date: 2000. Time Time: Ongoing. Space Space: Streets.

HIGHLIGHT

Cost Cost: -.

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Public actors: -.

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Imagery ©2013 TerraMetrics,

Private actors actors: citizens.

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New York neighborhoods rarely stand still. This flux contributes to the city’s vitality but

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is largely driven by developers with little consideration for the overall vigor of public

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space. We can change this dynamic by generating programs responding to social and

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physical neighborhood character. Local Previews, a form of architectural graffiti,

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captures the imagination of residents and passersby. It challenge everyone to question

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the impending changes. An empty construction site begs us to imagine the potential of

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what could be. Through posters adhered to these construction fences, Local Previews, a

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form of architectural graffiti, suggests big buildings in small shells, with unlikely pairings that take advantage of limited spaces and serve particular needs.

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References: http://localpreviews.tumblr.com/ http://www.localpreviews.org/

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← Zebra Crossing

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Home / Luz na Viela

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LUZ NA VIELA January 24, 2013 · by stefania · in HIGHLIGHT, URBAN ACTION

RESEARCH

Place Place: Sao Paulo (Brazil). Date Date: January 2012. Time Time: Few weeks. Space Space: Public space. Cost Cost: Unknown.

HIGHLIGHT

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Public actors: Spanish Embassy in Brazil.

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Imagery ©2013 TerraMetrics,

Private actors actors: Boa Mistura, residents.

mera The intervention is located in Vila Brasilandia, one of the favelas in Sao Paulo; the participated art process has been settled in the second order of roads, the favela

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transversal infrastructure made of stair and and paths. The perception of this system is

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a chaotical net of textures, materials, stairs and multiple perspectives; the project,

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closely linked to this spatial complexity, consists of covering with brilliant coloured paint

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some parts of the pathways, smoothing the perspective with inspiring words that float thanks to a visual 3D trick. Favela residents have been involved in the making of the five works, directly contributing to the transformation of their everyday places like walls,

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eletric poles and drainpipes. The words chosen express themes of hope: Beleza (beauty), Firmeza (tenacity), Doçura (sweetness), Amor (love) and Orgulho (pride).

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Home / Making the Edible Landscape

MAKING THE EDIBLE LANDSCAPE Place Place: Colombo (Sri Lanka). Date Date: 2004. Time Time: Ongoing.

RESEARCH

January 20, 2013 · by sofia · in EDUCATION, RESEARCH, URBAN AGRICULTURE

Space Space: City. Cost Cost: -

HIGHLIGHT

Public actors: Colombo Municipal

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Council, Minimum Cost Housing Group of

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McGill University, Sevanatha-Urban Resource Centre. Private actors actors: citizens.

oth A participatory project to preserve and upgrade a five-hundred-family shantytown on the

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edge of Columbo while improving residents’ access to water and integrating agricultural

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spaces for the production of food and medicinal plants. Making the Edible Landscape

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sought to support the food security of the neighbourhood and integrate an organic

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waste-recycling system. The pilot project was a DIY garden made of recycled materials

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and constructed with residents; the program was expanded to include three hundred

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families. The Local Project Working Group for Making the Edible Landscape was formed in 2004.

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UN-SCAP and the Dutch government are funding a Sevanatha-led upgrading of Halgaha Kumbura. [From CCA-actions]

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Home / Molo Torre

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MOLO TORRE December 26, 2012 · by stefania · in LEISURE, RE-USE

RESEARCH

Place Place: Genoa (Italy) Date Date: 2011 Time Time: Ongoing Space Space: Public space Cost Cost: 260 € Public actors: City of Genoa, University of

HIGHLIGHT

©2013 Google Imagery ©2013 TerraMetrics,

furniture, a shelter and new paving to a small square on the sea. The place is a meeting

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point for Pegli’s old people who care about it and its maintenance. Gruppo Informale

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works with these people from the beginning, talking with them, collecting their needs

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Private actors actors: Gruppo Informale, citizens

Molo Torre is a project of requalification in Pegli, Genoa, Italy, that gives new urban

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Genoa

and desires and designing together. A shelter has been built in order to give comfort to the seats providing shadow during the summer and repair in the winter; a sea bank made of stones has been risen to protect the square from sea storm; a more regular paving replaced the old concrete

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one. All the materials are reused or founded nearby; the construction has taken 4 weeks

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to be built by a team of 20 volunteers from all ages.

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References: http://www.archilovers.com/p45869/molo-torre

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MAPPING

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Home / New Public Sites

NEW PUBLIC SITES

Place Place: Baltimora (& elsewhere) (USA) Date Date: -

RESEARCH

December 27, 2012 · by sofia · in HIGHLIGHT, MAPPING, URBAN ACTION

Time Time: Ongoing Space Space: Public space

HIGHLIGHT

Cost Cost: 100-1200 $ per event Public actors: ©2013 Google -

Private actors actors:Graham Coreil-Allen, citizens

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“Reclaiming Public Space through Radical Pedestrianism and Creative Cartography”.

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This is how the artist Graham Coreil-Allen explain his work: he applies psychogeography

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and Situationist principles to walking tours, through zones of contradiction, ambiguity,

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emptyness whitin city’s public spaces. Its aim is to investigate the way invisible sites

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exist within our everyday enviroment. By this participated processes, the citizens are

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activated and informed about the possibilities of underutilized spaces. This is done

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Imagery ©2013 TerraMetrics,

travelling by foot, and doing urban analysis through mapping, videos, photos…

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http://newpublicsites.org/ http://newpublicsites.tumblr.com/

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Home / No Longer Empty

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NO LONGER EMPTY January 19, 2013 · by stefania · in FILL-A-VOID, HIGHLIGHT, LEISURE

RESEARCH

Place Place: New York (USA). Date Date: 2009 to present Time Time: 1 – 6 months. Space Space: Vacant storefronts. Cost Cost: 15,000$ – 120,000$. Public actors: New York Council for the

HIGHLIGHT

Humanities, NY Culture, Lower Manhattan ©2013 Google Imagery ©2013 TerraMetrics,

Cultural Council. Private actors actors: No Longer Empty, landlords, artists.

dida Founded in the dark months following the 2008 financial bust, No Longer Empty brings

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temporary art exhibitions and programming to vacant storefronts. Seeking partnerships

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with landlords (who recognize that bringing traffic into their spaces might help them

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find tenants), No Longer Empty creates temporary cultural and educational hubs. Artists, community members, educators, curators, and academics all come together at

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No Longer Empty events. The diversity of participants drives the program’s vibrancy.

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Each exhibition draws curatorial inspiration from active site research and response.

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Executive director Naomi Hersson-Ringskog has a background in urban planning and

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real estate, and hopes to use nomadic occupation to foster longer-term change by highlighting the potential for businesses in an area and supporting community development. [from SpontaneousInterventions]

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Video: http://vimeo.com/46375366 References: http://www.nolongerempty.org

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Home / Noorderparkbar

NOORDERPARKBAR

Place Place: Amsterdam (NL) Date Date: 2011 Time Time: Ongoing

RESEARCH

January 10, 2013 · by stefania · in LEISURE, NEW BUILT

Space Space: Public space Cost Cost: 30,000€

Private actors actors: Bureau SLA, Overtreders W, marktplaats.nl

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Noorderparkbar is the first market place 100% made of reused materials in the

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Netherlands. All the materials have been bought second hand on marktplaats.nl.

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Bureau SLA and Overtreders W are the initiators, fund-raisers, designers and builders

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of the project; since they found materials on the web, the processes of designing and

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building took place at the same time. The construction is made by three units once

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intended for hospital use; a new facade made by reused windows have been placed on

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one of these units (the one that hosts the coffeebar and two toilets), and a new rooftop has been built from skylights. The whole building is covered by wooden shutters that can be closed at night. 42 windows were used for the facades, 55 liters of paint and more

EDUCATION

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©2013 Google Imagery ©2013 TerraMetrics,

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Public actors: -

than a thousand meters of wood.

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Home / Noupaticastellum

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NOUPATICASTELLUM January 11, 2013 · by stefania · in EDUCATION, FILL-A-VOID, LEISURE

RESEARCH

Place Place: Sant Julia de Ramis (ES) Date Date: 2011 Time Time: One year Space Space: Public space Cost Cost: Unknown Public actors: Generalitat de Catalunya,

HIGHLIGHT

CoNCA ©2013 Google Imagery ©2013 TerraMetrics,

Private actors actors: Lluis Sabadell Artiga, teachers, students

Noupaticastellum is a project of the Castellum school playground in Sant Julia de Ramis, Girona. Students, teachers and parents are involved in the participated process

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making the school an active place taken care by its community. Once collected from kids

mera

and adults the guide lines for an ideal playground, the main issues to work with such as

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shadow, vegetation, hiding etc have been identified. Working together many proposals have been designed and built in a 1:1 scale prototypes during a two days workshop with

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students and parents, so that children can try them physically. The main structures

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were two vegetation igloos where to hide, a concrete wall transformed into a living wall,

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a wooden house and a small urban garden in boxes. As a result of this experience, a

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school co-creation guide has been created to give an example of cohesion of people, kids, insitutions.

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Video: http://vimeo.com/44297438

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OPERATION: IVY LEAGUE

Place Place: London (UK). Date Date: 2007. Time Time: -.

RESEARCH

January 16, 2013 · by sofia · in GUERRILLA, URBAN AGRICULTURE

Space Space: City. Cost Cost: -

©2013 Google -

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Public actors: Private actors actors: Helen Nodding, Space Hijackers.

Operation: Ivy League is a project to plant ivy on corporate London architecture. It is a

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natural appropriation organized by residents and commuters as an attack on dull and

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homogeneous buildings. Thirty-five ivy plants were installed in the city centre on

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structures identified as boring and targeted for cover-up. Helen Nodding is inspired by

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the hardiness of urban plants to draw attention to their activities in the city. She is based

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in London. The Space Hijackers are a group of “anarchitects” formed in 1999 to combat

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the erosion of public space by corporations and the imposition of top-down planning.

[from CCA-actions]

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Leave a Reply 101 You must be logged in to post a comment.

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References:


Home / Ordenacion y ocupacion temporal de solares

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ORDENACION Y OCUPACION TEMPORAL DE SOLARES RESEARCH

January 20, 2013 · by stefania · in FILL-A-VOID, HIGHLIGHT, LEISURE

Place Place: Seville (Spain). Date Date: 2004. Time Time: Minimum 6 months. Space Space: Urban void.

HIGHLIGHT

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Cost Cost: Unknown.

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Public actors: City of Seville.

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Private actors actors: City residents, Recetas Urbanas.

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transformation of public and private solares – vacant lots walled off for security – into public spaces for at least six months. Wall rubble is incorporated into the design, and elements of car and pedestrian barriers are used to construct benches, see-saws, swings, and bike racks with readily available plastic materials like concrete. Instruction sheets were produced to allow residents to construct their own furniture. The project is

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designed to minimize material movement, cost, and other barriers to change. [from

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CCA-actions] The proposal about the temporary occupation of vacant lots was advanced by a citizen, suggesting ten possible spaces about a hundred in the city. The city of Seville started recognizing two lots as pilot projects; from 2006 the City Urban Plan allows the temporary use of vacant spaces.

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http://cca-actions.org/actions/reclaim-vacant-lot-what-city’s-got http://www.recetasurbanas.net

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MAPPING

NEW CONSTRUCTION

Home / Pagina Bianca

PAGINA BIANCA

Place Place: Italy. Date Date: April 2009 – to present.

RESEARCH

January 24, 2013 · by stefania · in LEISURE, URBAN ACTION

Time Time: One day. Space Space: Public space.

HIGHLIGHT

Cost Cost: Unknown.

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Public actors: City Municipalities.

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Private actors actors: Ivan, Art Kitchen, people.

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“A blank page is an hidden poetry” says Ivan, the italian street-artist and poet; the idea

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of giving a city a free urban space in which citizens can express themselves in

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participated actions of self poetry, has been realized for the first time in April 2009 in

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Florence. Many city have been visited by Ivan and his team Art Kitchen after this first

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experience, such as Milan, Naples and Verona: the tour is still ongoing. The

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performance consists of placing a big sheet on a square, and let the people write on it

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during a whole day. The concept is the one day appropriation of public squares with a

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self-managed space without owners and rules, and the artist is one with the participants. In this performance, spectators are not standing in front of the art work,

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but the active actors of it.

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Videos: http://vimeo.com/36069901 References: http://paginabianca.artkitchen.org/

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Hypothèses d’amarrages →

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Home / ParaSITE

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NEW CONSTRUCTION MAPPING

PARASITE January 17, 2013 · by stefania · in HIGHLIGHT, NEED, PARASITE

RESEARCH

Place Place: Cambridge (UK), New York (USA). Date Date: 1999. Time Time: Ongoing. Space Space: Public space. Cost Cost: Around 5$. Public actors: -.

HIGHLIGHT

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Private actors actors: Michael Rakowitz, homelesse people.

mera ParaSITE is a construction system for DIY urban shelters heated and inflated by exhaust from building ventilation and heating systems. Warm air from buildings is vented into

efarmers

the atmosphere year round; this resource is abundant only in the city. The temperature

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inside a ParaSITE is always the same as the environment in the building it is attached to,

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providing comfortable shelter even in winter. The shelters are designed to be

RE-USE

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constructed as needed from plastic and tape, readily available materials in the city. Michael Rakowitz frequently works with concepts of nomadism and urban appropriation. He teaches at Northwestern University in Chicago. [CCA-actions]

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The shelters are different for each homeless man, based on their personal requests: different windows, pockets, dimensions, “rooms”.

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References: http://michaelrakowitz.com

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Leave a Reply

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MAPPING

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Home / PARK(ing)

PARK(ING)

Place Place: Everywhere. Date Date: 2005

RESEARCH

January 17, 2013 · by stefania · in HIGHLIGHT, LEISURE, URBAN ACTION

Time Time: Ongoing. Space Space: Public space.

HIGHLIGHT

Cost Cost: Around 5$.

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Private actors actors: Rebar, people

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A very short-term lease of a downtown parking space allows the autonomous creation of

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public space. PARK(ing) involved feeding a meter on San Francisco’s Mission Street to

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rent precious urban real estate for installation of an aquarium, a public bed, a brothel,

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or nothing at all, to increase available space on a car-dominated street. An Astroturf

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park was chosen and installed for two hours, providing an additional 2,230 square-

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metre-minutes of recreation space-time on a Wednesday afternoon. is a collective

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based in San Francisco who works within the domains of environmental installation,

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urbanism, and absurdity. PARK(ing) Day now occurs once a year around the world, usually on 19 September. [from CCA-actions]

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Now PARK(ing) spreads all over the world with different features like temporary urban farms, free health clinics, art installations, free bike-repair stations.

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References: http://parkingday.org http://rebargroup.org http://www.flickr.com/groups/worldparkingday/pool/

105 Tags: chair, high aesthetic, high diy, high happiness, high social network, high sustainability,


Home / ParcCentralPark

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PARCCENTRALPARK January 28, 2013 · by stefania · in FILL-A-VOID, LEISURE, NEED

RESEARCH

Place Place: Barcelona (Spain). Date Date: 2004-2005. Time Time: One year. Space Space: Urban Void. Cost Cost: 0€. Public actors: -.

HIGHLIGHT

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Private actors actors: Citymine(d), Rotorr, Straddle3, citizens

mera Parc Central Park is the appropriation of a urban void in Poblenou, Barcelona, by the neighbourhood, artists and other people to highlight the need of public spaces. The

efarmers

action had place in 2004, cleaning and starting to build some facilities for the public park

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since the government lacked in making the space accessible. The concept of PCP is the

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self-construction of a park for the neighbourhoods; so they started setting up meeting

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and debates, expositions about local cultural heritage, an open air cinema, a garden. A commission made by artists, neighbours, planners and designers was created seeking to make alternative proposals for the future of the park against the speculation plans in

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those years. The Poblenou Central Park has been finally designed by French architect Jean Nouvel, and its building started in 2005.

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References: http://www.rotorrr.org/parcentralpark/ http://www.citymined.org/projects/parccentralpark.php http://nualart.cat/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/2004-ParcCentralPark.pdf

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← All Aboard

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El Tanque →


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NEW CONSTRUCTION

Home / Park Fiction

PARK FICTION

Place Place: Hamburg (Germany). Date Date: 1995. Time Time: Ongoing.

RESEARCH

January 19, 2013 · by sofia · in LEISURE, NEED, RE-USE

Space Space: Urban void. Cost Cost: -

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Public actors: -.

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Private actors actors: Christoph Schäfer, Margit Czenki, citizens.

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Residents in the Hafenrandverein (Harbour Edge Association) organised the Park Fiction

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initiative to prevent the development of the slope along the Elbe River in St. Pauli though a campaign that brought together art and music subcultures with community residents.

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Park Fiction hosted events and invented tools to design an alternative project.

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Artists Christoph Schäfer and Cathy Skene developed a wish archive, a portable library,

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a clay-modeling office, a wish hotline, a planning container, and an action kit (mobile

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planning briefcase). The artists also distributed questionnaires for the public to fill out.

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This open planning process allowed participants to articulate the diverse possibilities of the park in an informal social environment. After eight years of radical democratic

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urban planning and negotiations, Park Fiction is now being realized. Park Fiction is a citizen driven planning initiative involving artists and musicians, founded 1994 in Hamburg, Germany. [From CCA-actions]

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References: http://www.parkfiction.org/ http://cca-actions.org/actions/strawberry-treehouse-replaces-city-construction-plans http://www.facebook.com/parkfiction/ http://www.ipernity.com/home/203506

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Home / Park-urka

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PARK-URKA January 24, 2013 · by sofia · in FILL-A-VOID, LEISURE

RESEARCH

Place Place: Taranto (Italy). Date Date: September 2009. Time Time: Ten days. Space Space: Public space. Cost Cost: 6,700 €. Public actors: Municipality of Taranto.

HIGHLIGHT

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Private actors actors: Controprogetto, LABuat, residents, childern.

mera Park-urka is a project born from the collaboration between controprogetto and LABuat, supported by the Municipality of Taranto. It was a moment of transformation in the city,

efarmers

with a regional program promoting creativity. Through a workshop of participated

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planning and construction with inhabitants of the quarter, children, volunteers and

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artists that want to re-invent the public space, making a playground. This project has

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been realized in four days, made up of a main structure that looks like a octopus with slide and scrambled up, swinging chairs, a small theatre box. The realization of Parkurka has been possible thanks to the collaboration with the inhabitants of Isola Borgo

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Antico, through the realization of the paving, the logistic organization, the organization of suppers en plein air and above all great dialogue.

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Home / Place au changement!

PLACE AU CHANGEMENT!

Place Place: Saint Etienne (France). Date Date: 2011. Time Time: 2 Years.

RESEARCH

January 28, 2013 · by sofia · in FILL-A-VOID, LEISURE, NEED

Space Space: Vacant lot. Cost Cost: Unknown.

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Public actors: Public Urban Planning

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Collectif ETC won a competition commissioned by the Public Urban Planning Agency of

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Saint-Etienne, and set up a participative process with the residents designing a public

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temporary square on a 670 square meter wasteland. The neighbourhood was living a

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period of dynamic spatial changes, so the French collective decided to simulating a

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living construction site in prevision of what would be built in a couple of year; building

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plans and sections were painted on the boundary walls. In a months three workshops

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have been set up, opened to everyone: carpentry, graphic design and garden design.

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Tools and advices have been provided by Collectif ETC, various activities like live painting, concerts and meals have been organized by local groups. A residential building

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would be built in two years: this action let think about using urban voids to fulfill temporary needs.

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Home / Place it!

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PLACE IT! January 23, 2013 · by stefania · in EDUCATION, LEISURE, RESEARCH

RESEARCH

Place Place: USA. Date Date: 2009. Time Time: Ongoing. Space Space: City. Cost Cost: 2,000$ per workshop.

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Private actors actors: James Rojas, citizens.

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Place It! is a series of community workshops that invites the public to reflect upon,

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explore, participate in, and better comprehend the look and feel of the city through interactive models. Over the past three years, Los Angeles architect and planner James

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Rojas has led over 200 workshops in diverse communities across the country, involving

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schools, museums, community groups, city agencies, and more. He starts the

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workshops with a basic model of the local city, crafted from Legos, buttons, other toys and raw materials, and then invites workshop participants to add, subtract, and rearrange elements to envision their ideal city. Participants in a recent workshop in

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Raleigh, North Carolina, came up with proposed improvements including new grocery

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stores and farmers markets, outdoor movies, and improved biking conditions. [from

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Garden Registry →


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Home / Play the city

PLAY THE CITY

Place Place: Amsterdam, Almere, the Hague (Netherlands), Istanbul (Turkey). Date Date: 2009-ongoing.

RESEARCH

January 12, 2013 · by sofia · in EDUCATION, LEISURE, RESEARCH

Time Time: few days. Space Space: City.

Imagery ©2013 NASA -

Public actors actors:politicians. Private actors actors: The responsive city, citizens

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Play the City, a foundation created by “The responsive city”, introduces few-days games

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into city-making processes, to simulate into players complex questions about planning.

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Today planning rules and conditions should be designed to let the people design and

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produce their environments. Play the City started a research to evaluate digital tools

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and social media to introduce new forms of society making and democracy. Play the city

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games acts like a vehicle for communication between the different actors: complex

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urban and regional questions are stimulated by the interaction of real and active influent actors. Play the City has been designing city games internationally: a failed urban masterplan in Binckhorst (the Hague), transformation of self-made residential

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neighborhoods in Istanbul, the former Shell campus with an unclear future in the center of Amsterdam and the experimental new town expansion in Almere Oosterwold, and Tirana.

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Home / Playgrounds

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PLAYGROUNDS January 20, 2013 · by sofia · in FILL-A-VOID, LEISURE, NEED

RESEARCH

Place Place: Amsterdam (Netherlands). Date Date: 1947-1978. Time Time: -. Space Space: Urban voids. Cost Cost: Unknown.

HIGHLIGHT

Public actors: Department of Urban Design, ©2013 Google Imagery ©2013 TerraMetrics,

Amsterdam Municipality. Private actors actors: Van Eyck, citizens.

Between 1947 and 1978 Van Eyck designed hundreds of playgrounds, first as part of the Department of Urban Design and later for the municipality and from his own office. In

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collaboration with the neighbourhoods he drew up the programme and decided where

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they would be built. Were often used war voids, vacant lots in the city centre turned into

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temporary play areas. In fact, after the war, Dutch cities were in a state of dereliction, and no space for children was available: just few playgrounds existed in the city, but they were of private nature. Van Eyck’s playgrounds can be seen as an emergency measure,

efarmers

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with a spatial experiment that has marked the childhood of an entire generation in Amsterdam. Van Eyck also designed the playground equipment himself- sandpits,

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tumbling bars, stepping stones-: its purpose was to stimulate the minds of children.

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Home / Precare

PRECARE

Place Place: Brussels (Belgium). Date Date: 1999-2010. Time Time: from 5 months up to 5 years.

RESEARCH

January 12, 2013 · by sofia · in LEISURE, RE-USE

Space Space: Abandoned Building. Cost Cost: -

Private actors actors: Citymine(d), artists, associations, landlords.

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Precare is a project that supports emerging networks of urban projects in negotiation

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with temporary use of buildings. It’s a mediation project between landlords who cannot

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begin construction work on their properties, and artists or sociali initiatives looking for a

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place to work. They looks for abandoned buildings in the cities, then contacts the

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landlord asking for free use of the spaces, in return for paying utilitiey costs, but not

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rent. They agree for the occupation for a fixed period of time, between a few months to a

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few years, and convert it into temporary offices, donated to local non-profit organizations. The aim of Precare is to push public or private’s buildings’ landlords to allow the temporary use of their unused buildings, to increase creativity into the city by

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creating temporary workspaces, and to fight against urban decay and abandoned buildings.

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Home / Prinzessinnengärten

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PRINZESSINNENGÄRTEN January 26, 2013 · by sofia · in FILL-A-VOID, LEISURE, URBAN AGRICULTURE

RESEARCH

Place Place:Berlin (Germany). Date Date: 2009. Time Time: Ongoing. Space Space: Vacant lot. Cost Cost: Unknown. Public actors: -.

HIGHLIGHT

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Private actors actors: Marco Clausen, Robert Shaw, residents, volunteers.

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Prinzessinnengärten was created in 2009 by Marco Clausen and Robert Shaw, wanted to

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share the experience of urban agriculture as a sort of social ritual of creation of urban spaces in which to work and meet. It’s set up in an area of the district of Kreuzberg that

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had been abandoned for 65 years. Destroyed by bombs in the war, it’s a vast open space that was covered with brushwood for decades. The site has been put up for sale by the municipality but the garden currently holds around 400 plants and a mobile restaurant and cafeteria. About twenty fixed collaborators are involved in the project along with a large group of volunteers, many of them immigrants from rural areas who play an active

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part, sharing their skills in a variety of fields, from organic farming to the preservation

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of food and biodiversity.

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Home / R-Urban

R-URBAN Place Place: Colombes, Paris (France) Date Date: 2011 Time Time: Work in progress

RESEARCH

December 20, 2012 · by stefania · in EDUCATION, FILL-A-VOID, URBAN AGRICULTURE

Space Space: Urban void Cost Cost: Unknown

HIGHLIGHT

Public actors: City of Colombes, Ile de France Region ©2013 Google Imagery ©2013 TerraMetrics,

Private actors actors: Atelier d’Architecture

R-Urban is a locally ecological closed cycle strategy of production-consumption,

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involving the neighborhood in a network of alternative ways of living in a logic of urban

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resilience between the city and the rural. The project starts with three Pilot Units:

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Agrocitè, Recyclab and Ecohab. Their architecture denote the issue they are concerning:

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recycled materials, auto-construction’s techniques, processes of local food production,

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low impact living.

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Agrocitè consists of areas for different activities: community and educational garden, an

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experiments’ lab, a seed library, a vegetable market and other green facilities. Recyclab

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is a recycling and eco-construction platform of waste and objects reuse that hosts

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wokshops about DIY, construction and educational practices. Ecohab is a complex of seven houses mixing social housing and students’, artists’ and researchers’ residences built in self-sufficiency managing ecological know-how to reduce home-consumptions. The project is currently work in progress.

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References: http://r-urban.net http://www.urbantactics.org

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Home / Raval generator

NEW CONSTRUCTION MAPPING

RAVAL GENERATOR January 13, 2013 · by stefania · in FILL-A-VOID, LEISURE

RESEARCH

Place Place: Barcelona (Spain). Date Date: 2012. Time Time: Two weeks. Space Space: Public space Cost Cost: Unknown Public actors: Ajuntament de Barcelona,

HIGHLIGHT

Departement de Cultura Catalunya ©2013 Google Imagery ©2013 TerraMetrics,

Private actors actors: Raumlabor, Eme3 Festival, architecture students, citizens

Raval is a neighbourhood of Barcelona next to the old city center, having the highest

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percentage of immigrant (45%) in the city. The site (Jardìn de Torres i Clavè) has been

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recently transformed into an asphalt platform splitted two level, and height among them

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is given by a four meter concrete wall. The place is highly frequented as playground by

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kids and youngs. Raumlabor Berlin set up a 10 day workshop as a start of a long term development of the area using the strategy of participation with the neighbourhood.

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They organized a mobile device hosting tools and materials (the hardware) and a

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collection (software) of manuals, instructions and plans (all developed on this specific

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site) so that non-professionists can understand take the initiative. The experiment

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became in instant laboratory of participation and construction practice with the residents.

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Home / Recycling Tokyo

RECYCLING TOKYO

Place Place: Tokyo (Japan). Date Date: 2002. Time Time: -

RESEARCH

January 14, 2013 · by sofia · in EDUCATION, MAPPING, RESEARCH

Space Space: City. Cost Cost:-

Imagery ©2013 TerraMetrics,

Private actors actors: Atelier BowWow, Architecture Institute of Japan students.

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Forty-three proposals for the recycling of an entire city critical of helplessness in the

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face of a environment exhausted of possibility. Atelier Bow-Wow show how Tokyo can be

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disassembled into pieces of various sizes, from parking spaces to alleyways and whole

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buildings; the proposed re-uses range from turning buildings into sundials, to planting

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tomatoes on fences, and cutting footbridges in half to make observation points. Critically

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fanciful, Recycling Tokyo reveals possibilities inherent to the city that would be

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otherwise obscured by habit and convention. Atelier Bow-Wow, founded in Tokyo in 1992, is known for innovative urban research on multi-purpose, hybrid architecture, as well as very small-scale projects they call “Pet

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Architecture.” [from CCA-actions]

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Home / Roaming Forest

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ROAMING FOREST December 21, 2012 · by stefania · in LEISURE, URBAN ACTION

RESEARCH

Place Place: Bat-Yam (Isreael) Date Date: 2010 Time Time: 0-5 years Space Space: Public Space Cost Cost: 11.000 $ Public actors: Landscape Urbanism

HIGHLIGHT

Biennale, Bat-Yam municipality ©2013 Google Imagery ©2013 TerraMetrics,

Private actors actors: Ed Wall (Project Studio), Yael Bar Maor, Mike Dring, citizens

The Roaming Forest was developed by Ed Wall (Project Studio) during “Timing2010: The Biennale of Landscape Urbanism”, initially placed as a visitors resting area then

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randomly moved to different sites around the city of Bat-Yam.

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The Roaming Forest is an itinerant landscape controlled by people’s desires and suited

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for the municipal needs creating changeable urban scapes. Infact the concept of the project is a mediation between the planned structures given by the municipality and the

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unplanned action of the self-organization played by the citizens. Trees are transplanted

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into wooden containers with wheels, moved in the public space, and when they outgrow

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the box, the trees will be planted in their lastest position. Each tree is provided by local

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authorities in a spefic site in roder to create public space; it is a movable device that creates dynamic landmarks or seats depending on people’s needs.

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Home / Safari Basura

SAFARI BASURA

Place Place: Madrid (Spain). Date Date: 2002. Time Time: Night-time.

RESEARCH

January 13, 2013 · by sofia · in NEED, RE-USE, URBAN ACTION

Space Space: Public space. Cost Cost: -.

Imagery ©2013 TerraMetrics,

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Most cities have scheduled days each month when oversized garbage, like furniture, is picked up in each neighbourhood. Basurama, a collective interested in urban waste, helps residents looking for furniture or appliances to travel to a particular neighbourhood on the correct date and at the right time. Basurama relays the scheduling information and organizes transportation for street shoppers interested in saving money and avoiding waste. Basurama was formed in 2002 at the Madrid School of Architecture. The collective works in Europe, the United States, and South America.

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Now in Madrid garbage is not anymore taken by neighbourhood, so the search is now

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again dislocated.

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Public actors: City of Madrid ©2013 Google -

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Home / re-Morion

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RE-MORION January 20, 2013 · by stefania · in NEED, RE-USE

RESEARCH

Place Place: Venice (Italy). Date Date: 2009. Time Time: 5 days. Space Space: Squat. Cost Cost: Unknown. Public actors: --.

HIGHLIGHT

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Private actors actors: ReBiennale, Exyzt Collectif, Commons Beyond Buildings

mera Venice Biennale is one of the most important cultural event in Italy; at the end of the exhibition, the quantity of materials ready to be thrown away is huge. Commons Beyond

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Buildings (a collaborative platform among associations) started ReBiennale, a project

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about reuse; they dismantled and collected materials from different installations of the

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Biennale Architettura 2008, making a catalogue of what is possible to reuse and what is

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not enough sustainable even to be disposed of. Big part of the materials were left in stock at Morion squat which had to be recovered. One of the projects in which that materials were used was “re-Morion” by Asc Venice and Collectif Exyzt, who took part to

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this process during a five day workshop. The creative reuse set up the urban regeneration of the Morion center and its interior spaces.

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Home / Seedbomb Vending Machine

SEEDBOMB VENDING MACHINE

Place Place: Los Angeles (USA) &everywhere. Date Date: 2010.

RESEARCH

January 17, 2013 · by sofia · in GUERRILLA, LEISURE, URBAN AGRICULTURE

Time Time: Ongoing. Space Space: Urban void.

HIGHLIGHT

Cost Cost: seedbomb 25¢ each

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Public actors: -

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Private actors actors: COMMONstudio, people.

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Made from a mixture of clay, compost, and seeds, seed bombs can be tossed

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anonymously into derelict urban sites to green the city. Los Angeles design firm

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COMMONstudio created the coin- operated Greenaid dispensary to make guerrilla

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gardening more accessible. Marketing the machines to businesses to rent or to own, the

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designers have installed more than 150 since 2010, each equipped with a mix of native

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seeds. The seed bombs are hand-rolled by workers contracted through Chrysalis, an LA

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nonprofit that helps homeless and low-income residents earn a living wage and work

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towards self-sufficiency. The vending machines invite people to become casual activists, taking part in the incremental beautification of their environments – using only the loose

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coins in their pocket. [from SpontaneousInterventions]

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Home / Serendipitor

NEW CONSTRUCTION MAPPING

SERENDIPITOR January 26, 2013 · by sofia · in LEISURE, MAPPING, URBAN ACTION

RESEARCH

Place Place:Online. Date Date: 2010. Time Time: Ongoing. Space Space: City. Cost Cost: 10,000$.

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HIGHLIGHT

Public actors: -.

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©2013 Google -

Private actors actors: Mark Shepard, people.

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With smart phones, smart cities, and endless tools to maximize efficiency and minimize

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travel time, the possibility for serendipitous encounters or discoveries is diminishing. Artist and architect Mark Shepard created Serendipitor, an iPhone app that brings out

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the playful explorer in all of us. Users input their selected destination, and Serendipitor

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provides inventive directional routes and suggested actions inspired by Fluxus, Vito

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Acconci, Yoko Ono, among others, helping users find something surprising and new along their way. Users can increase or decrease the complexity of the route, depending on how much time they have. Serendipitor is part of Shepard’s larger project, the

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Sentient City Survival Kit (supported by Creative Capital), which “probes the social,

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cultural

and

political

implications

of

ubiquitous

computing

for

urban

environments. [From SpontaneusInterventions]

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MAPPING

NEW CONSTRUCTION

Home / Sharing Networks

SHARING NETWORKS RESEARCH

January 20, 2013 · by sofia · in NEED, RESEARCH

Place Place: Everywhere. Date Date: 2010. Time Time: Ongoing. Space Space: Online. Cost Cost: -.

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©2013 Google -

HIGHLIGHT

Public actors: -.

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Private actors actors: OhSoWe, OurGoods, Trade School etc.. people.

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Sharing cars and bikes has become commonplace, but what about sharing tools, skills,

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and just about everything else? In recent years there has been an explosion of sharing

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and bartering networks, allowing people to swap, for example, their power tools for

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knitting classes or surplus garden vegetables. While primitive economies have

male

historically depended on the smallness and familiarity of one’s village or tribe, the

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resurgence of interest in capital-free exchange is fueled by websites that help people

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take advantage of urban density by facilitating their trade with others who might live on

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the same block (or same building!). OhSoWe, OurGoods, Trade School, and e-flux’s Time/Bank are just a few recent endeavors that help expand people’s access to

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resources while avoiding more consumption. [From SpontaneousInterventions]

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References: https://ourgoods.org/

http://www.flickr.com/photos/ourgoods/

http://tradeschool.coop/

http://milano.tradeschool.it/

http://www.spontaneousinterventions.org/project/bartering-and-sharing-networks

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123 ← 1415 Mallinckrodt

re-Morion →

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Home / Soil Kitchen

NEW CONSTRUCTION MAPPING

SOIL KITCHEN January 23, 2013 · by sofia · in EDUCATION, RE-USE, URBAN AGRICULTURE

RESEARCH

Place Place: Philadelphia (USA). Date Date: 2011. Time Time: 4 months. Space Space: Abandoned building. Cost Cost: 40,000$. Public actors: Office of Arts, Culture and the

HIGHLIGHT

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Imagery ©2013 DigitalGlobe,

Creative Economy. Private actors actors: Futurefarmers, citizens.

mera Soil Kitchen was a temporary windmill-powered architectural intervention that breathed new life into a formerly abandoned building within the postindustrial landscape of

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Philadelphia. For one week, the multi-use space offered visitors free soup while they

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waited for soil samples from their yards to be tested for contaminants. Located across

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the street from the Don Quixote monument in Philadelphia, the project paid homage to

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Cervantes with its rooftop windmill, but rather than an “adversarial giant” as in the novel, the windmill was a symbol of self-reliance. Soil Kitchen tested over 350 soil samples, gave out 300 bowls of soup daily, distributed a Philadelphia Brownfields Map,

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and conducted workshops on soil remediation, urban agriculture, composting, wind

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turbine construction, and offered cooking lessons. [from SpontaneusInterventions]

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MAPPING

NEW CONSTRUCTION

Home / Something is going on in Matsaria

SOMETHING IS GOING ON IN MATSARIA Place Place: Eibar (Spain). Date Date: 2012. Time Time: Two weeks. Space Space: Abandoned building.

RESEARCH

January 13, 2013 · by stefania · in HIGHLIGHT, MAPPING, RESEARCH

Cost Cost: Unknown. Public actors: University of Basque Country,

Private actors actors: Reakt Kolektiboa, students, citizens

Matsaria is one of the neighbourhoods of Eibar; it is an ex industrial area with

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abandoned buildings, lack of public spaces and many parking lots. The zone was the

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study object of the Master degree course of Sustainable Construction and Energy

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Efficiency at the Basque Country University. Reakt collective took the initiative of making

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an exhibition of the proposals in Matsaria, an interactive event designed like a pathway

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through past, present and future of the neighbourhood with sensorial activities that let

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people live a captivating experience of their history. The virtual promenade through the

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neighbourhood is fitted out with possibility of change, shows desires and ideas for

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improving the area, and everyone can express his own opinion. The main proposals

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Ayuntamento de Eibar. ©2013 Google -

collected from the people were about preserve, restore and recuperate the existing. An open workshop had been programmed, but actually it have not been carried out yet.

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Home / Soundmap

NEW CONSTRUCTION MAPPING

SOUNDMAP January 21, 2013 · by sofia · in MAPPING, URBAN ACTION

RESEARCH

Place Place: Montrèal (Canada). Date Date: 2008. Time Time: -. Space Space: City. Cost Cost: -.

HIGHLIGHT

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Public actors: --.

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©2013 Google -

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Imagery ©2013 TerraMetrics,

Private actors actors: people.

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Sound maps are in many ways the most effective auditory archive of an environment,

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touching on aspects political, artistic, cultural, historical, and technological. We are aiming to create an archival database of sound recordings from all over

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Montréal. The Montréal Sound Map is an ongoing and continually evolving project with

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the goal of a constant addition of new recordings being placed onto a Google Map and

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categorized into a browsable tagging system. Anyone can upload recordings onto the map straight through the website.

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http://www.montrealsoundmap.com/ http://cca-actions.org/actions/montreal-sound-map

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A di città →

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MAPPING

NEW CONSTRUCTION

Home / Subjective map of Valadares

SUBJECTIVE MAP OF VALADARES RESEARCH

January 21, 2013 · by stefania · in MAPPING, RESEARCH

Place Place: Valadares (Spain). Date Date: 2011. Time Time: Few days. Space Space: City. Cost Cost: Unknown.

Private actors actors: Agata Ruchlewicz Dzianach, citizens.

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The artist was invited by alg-a lab (indipendent cultural place) in Valadares, Galicia, to

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set up a participated project about collecting and sharing memories in order to better

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undestand this place. Creating multiple subjective layers on the city and reconstructing

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the collective memory of the residents, it is possible to rethink the future and fill the

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fragments of the city. People were asked impressions and ways of perception of their

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surrounding. After days of conversations and collective walks, some thematic groups of

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memories were suggested by the citizens and were collected in an interactive map with 78 cards displaying photos, videos and sounds recorded during the tours. It serves as an online living archives of memories.

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©2013 Google Imagery ©2013 TerraMetrics,

HIGHLIGHT

Public actors: City of Valadares.

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← A di città

Cow the Udder Way →

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Home / Temazcal

NEW CONSTRUCTION MAPPING

TEMAZCAL January 13, 2013 · by stefania · in LEISURE, NEW BUILT

RESEARCH

Place Place: San Miguel de Bustamante (Mexico). Date Date: 2011. Time Time: Ongoing. Space Space: Public space. Cost Cost: Unknown.

HIGHLIGHT

Public actors: Mayor of Bustamante ©2013 Google Imagery ©2013 TerraMetrics,

Private actors actors: Fundación Mundo Sustentable, CTRL+Z, No solo paja

Mundo Sustentable Foundation (promoter of culture and education for sustainability and

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green economy, developing native populations) invited CTRL+Z in San Miguel de

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Bustamante to built a lunar Temazcal (an indigenous herbal sauna of steam) for the

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holistic center with the support of the village Mayor. A two week workshop have been

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organized with the residents, who was familiar with the local tecnhiques of mud and adobe wall. The foundations are made of filled tires protected with plastic cloths, on which a geodesic structure is erected and covered by straw and clay. The “coyote

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window” is obtained by a tire, letting the light enter in the building. Kids from local schools were involved in the decoration of the Temazcal with traditional ornaments.

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References: http://control-zeta.org http://nosolopaja.wordpress.com/sauna-temezcal/

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MAPPING

NEW CONSTRUCTION

Home / Tempelhofer Freihet

TEMPELHOFER FREIHET

Place Place: Berlin (Germany). Date Date: 2009.

RESEARCH

January 20, 2013 · by stefania · in LEISURE, NEED, RE-USE

Time Time: Ongoing. Space Space: Urban void.

HIGHLIGHT

Cost Cost: Unknown. Public actors: Grün Berlin GmbH. ©2013 Google -

Private actors actors: Citizens.

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The Tempelhof Airport was officially closed on October 2008. 400 hectars in the middle

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of the city were left vacant, and Berliners laid claim to this unique huge space until the

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squat on 30th June 2009. From that day the Tempelhof Airport is an open public park, an

mera

uncommon empty space ready to be filled with whatever kind of activity usually people

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can not carry out in the urban context. From 2010 Grün Berlin GmbH grants the

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temporary use of three pioneer fields, 78,700 square meters in which it is possible to

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create attactive opportunities fitting with the guiding themes of each field. Columbiadamm field combines sport and cultural uses, Oderstraße area focuses on Neukölln Neighbourhood and Tempelhofer Damm space is available for cultural and

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Imagery ©2013 TerraMetrics,

knowledge activities. Temporary gardens, art installations, neighbourhood services and equipped meeting places are the main projects.

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Home / The Continuous Picnic

NEW CONSTRUCTION MAPPING

THE CONTINUOUS PICNIC January 16, 2013 · by sofia · in EDUCATION, URBAN ACTION, URBAN AGRICULTURE

RESEARCH

Place Place: London (UK). Date Date: July 2008. Time Time: one day. Space Space: Public space. Cost Cost:-

HIGHLIGHT

Public actors: ©2013 Google Imagery ©2013 TerraMetrics,

Private actors actors: Bohn & Viljoen Architects, Studio Columba, citizens.

A market and massive “continuous” picnic held to show how urban food production and public space can be combined advantageously in central London. Produce grown inside

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the metropolitan London limits was judged and displayed, followed by a picnic that

mera

occupied two large parks and a connecting corridor. The Continuous Picnic project was

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a demonstration of a planning strategy called “Continuous Productive Urban Landscapes,” or CPULs, developed by the architects Katherine Bohn and Andre Viljoen. The proposal is for low-intensity urban farming integrated with the city to create

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continuous green channels that serve as productive gardens. Packs of native seeds were distributed at the Continuous Picnic along with recycled blankets that doubled as

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posters for the event. [from CCA-actions] The event had taken place during the London Festival of Architecture.

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MAPPING

NEW CONSTRUCTION

Home / The Greening of Detroit

THE GREENING OF DETROIT

Place Place: Detroit (USA). Date Date: 1989. Time Time: Ongoing.

RESEARCH

January 19, 2013 · by sofia · in EDUCATION, URBAN AGRICULTURE

Space Space: City and urban voids. Cost Cost: -

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Imagery ©2013 TerraMetrics,

HIGHLIGHT

Public actors: -.

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Private actors actors: The Greening of Detroit noprofit organization, citizens.

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The Greening of Detroit offers educational programs connecting residents with planting

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organizations, and runs tree and productive planting sessions along streets and in

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parks. Group plantings build community and allow residents to immediately affect the

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form and feeling of their neighbourhoods. The Greening of Detroit is a training and

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advocacy organization founded in 1989 during a period of financial hardship for the city

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of Detroit, which has since lost about a further 13 percent of its population. Thousands

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of vacant and abandoned lots dot the city surface as a result, offering potential sites for

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urban agriculture and forestry, along with problems of low-density crime and neighbourhood disconnection. [From CCA-actions]

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Videos: http://www.youtube.com/user/greeningofdetroit References: http://greeningofdetroit.com/ http://cca-actions.org/actions/prairie-reconnects-neighbourhood http://www.facebook.com/TheGreeningofDetroit

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Home / The Institute of Placemaking

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NEW CONSTRUCTION MAPPING

THE INSTITUTE OF PLACEMAKING January 13, 2013 · by stefania · in EDUCATION, LEISURE, URBAN ACTION

RESEARCH

Place Place: Barcelona (Spain). Date Date: 2012. Time Time: One week. Space Space: Public space. Cost Cost: Unknown.

HIGHLIGHT

Public actors: Ajuntament de Barcelona. ©2013 Google Imagery ©2013 Cnes/Spot

Private actors actors: Berlin FarmLab, P. Grandry, J. Gu, V. Karga, citizens

The Institute of Placemaking is a nomadic space that gives people the possibility to think and change the public space, experimenting actions and do-it-yourself techniques in the

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optic of goods recycle. The structure of the Institute is obtained from recovered

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materials, and it is studied to be flexible and transformable, in order to adapt to

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different workshops (Build your own solar cooker, Remade furniture workshop…).The Institute is about creating new spaces from vacant lots, social life where there is lack of community sense. Re-use is operated both on the side of the leftover materials (such as

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groceries) used during the workshops and on the other it is possible to talk about re-use of the structure itself, a space that can be shared and left to te citizens.

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MAPPING

NEW CONSTRUCTION

Home / The Periscope Project

THE PERISCOPE PROJECT

Place Place: San Diego (USA) Date Date: 2007 Time Time: Ongoing

RESEARCH

January 14, 2013 · by stefania · in EDUCATION, FILL-A-VOID, NEED

Space Space: Urban void Cost Cost: 25000$

Private actors actors: ENS_projects, G. Miller, P. Perisic

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The Periscope Project is a cooperative of artists, designers, scholars, and community

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advocates headquartered in four shipping containers on the small San Diego lot of

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founder Petar Perisic. The space functions as a public amenity and a living visualization

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of alternative urban land use, exploiting temporary-use zoning loopholes as an

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opportunity to realize a new paradigm of urban citizenry – one engaged at the level of

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the built environment. The cooperative curates, organizes, and hosts events, exhibitions,

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panel discussions, and lectures in the flexible spaces, and also emphasizes educational programming to engage local youth. The Periscope Project has become a central force in rallying community activism and has evolved into a loose practice that develops public

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Home / The Uni

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THE UNI January 20, 2013 · by stefania · in EDUCATION, LEISURE, URBAN ACTION

RESEARCH

Place Place: New York (USA), everywhere. Date Date: 2011. Time Time: Ongoing. Space Space: Public space. Cost Cost: max 20,000$.

HIGHLIGHT

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Public actors: Brooklin Public Library, .

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©2013 Google -

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Private actors actors: the Uni team.

mera The Uni is a mobile, modular outdoor library designed to reinforce the potential for learning in the public sphere. Developed in Boston by Street Lab (now The Uni Project)

efarmers

in collaboration with Höweler + Yoon Architecture, the Uni introduces an unfamiliar use

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of the public realm, converting any square or sidewalk into a plein-air learning lounge.

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Uni’s lightweight modular structures are composed of open-faced stacking cubes, which

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can each hold 10 to 15 books, and can be adapted to almost any public space. The first was assembled in a street market in Lower Manhattan, and Unis have since been installed all over New York City, Boston, and recently, in Almaty, Kazakhstan, with book

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selections varying according to location and time. [from SpontaneousInterventions] The library is made from 144 white cubes that can be assembled in different configurations; books are donations to the Uni.

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Home / TreeKIT

TREEKIT

Place Place: New York (USA). Date Date: 2011. Time Time: Ongoing.

RESEARCH

January 26, 2013 · by sofia · in MAPPING, URBAN AGRICULTURE

Space Space: Streets. Cost Cost: 75,000$ annual budget.

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In some cities, dead trees are as numerous as potholes, but get a lot less attention. For

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this reason, landscape architect Liz Barry and urban forester Philip Silva developed

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TreeKIT, a system to measure, map, and manage urban forests. Volunteers use simple

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site-survey- ing skills to map trees in urban areas. TreeKIT’s website features a map

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showing tree density block by block, and users can zoom in on trees to click for

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information about trunk dimension, genus, or species. The map also color-codes empty

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treebeds, stumps, and dead trees. This data is shared with city agencies and local tree

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steward organizations. Studies indicate healthy trees in urban areas can filter pollutants, reduce heat island effect, reduce CO2, and prevent runoff as well as create

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safe inviting public spaces. [From CCA-actions]

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Home / UN:UN salle

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NEW CONSTRUCTION MAPPING

UN:UN SALLE December 22, 2012 · by stefania · in FILL-A-VOID, LEISURE

RESEARCH

Place Place: Brest (France) Date Date: May 2012 Time Time: One week Space Space: Urban void Cost Cost: Unknown

HIGHLIGHT

Public actors: City of Brest ©2013 Google Imagery ©2013 TerraMetrics,

In May 2012 the association “Vivre la Rue” invited Collectif ETC to rehabilitate the ruins

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of a house in Saint Malo street, the oldest street in Brest which survived the bombs of

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World War II. The association organizes every year initiative giving life to Saint Malo with

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cultural workshops and temporary gardens.

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Private actors actors: Vivre la Rue, Collectif ETC

The empty space number 11 was converted into a theatre by Collectif ETC. A wooden footbridge is used as a balcony, placed between two windows and overlooking the stage and the street (in speech occasions); pallets are the foundation for the wooden deck stage; a projection screen has been taken from an old cinema; behind the house a small

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room has been converted into a cloakroom and all the old chairs used as theatre seats

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have been red-painted. The balcony out of the windows highligths the presence of the

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theatre from the street.

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Home / Viv[id]ero

VIV[ID]ERO Place Place: Bogotà (Colombia) Date Date: April 2011 Time Time: undetermined

RESEARCH

December 18, 2012 · by sofia · in LEISURE, URBAN ACTION

Space Space: Public space Cost Cost: -

HIGHLIGHT

Public actors: Consejería Cultural de la Embajada de España en Colombia-AECID Private actors actors: : Arquitectura expandida, Habitat Sin Fronteras, citizens

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Is a nomadic infrastructure, a facilitator and amplifier of social and communitarian

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processes and interventions for the public space. It’s made out from a trailer, renovated

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and transformed into a mobile architecture: is a tool for proposing strategies and

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actions to adapt the architectural creation to user needs in terms of social and physical

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mobility. The main explanation for this construction is the need. The need to transport

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and store materials in processes of self-construction, to protect from the unpredictable

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rain in Bogota, to have a space with his own identity. This artifact, this nursery of ideas

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and projects can be expanded architecture in the most literal sense: a real amplifier of

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actions, of public space, of networks and of exhibition, participatory and educational

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possibilities. It took an important role during the cultural activities in “La Casa del Viento”.

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Home / Walk Raleigh

NEW CONSTRUCTION MAPPING

WALK RALEIGH January 20, 2013 · by sofia · in EDUCATION, GUERRILLA, HIGHLIGHT

RESEARCH

Place Place: Raleigh (USA). Date Date: 2012. Time Time: Ongoing. Space Space: Street. Cost Cost: -.

HIGHLIGHT

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Private actors actors: Matt Tomasulo.

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For Matt Tomasulo, the inclination to drive in downtown Raleigh, North Carolina, was a

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result more of perceived distance than actual necessity – a tendency endemic in many American cities. As an antidote to this misconception, he devised Walk Raleigh, an

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unsanctioned wayfinding system for pedestrians. Tomasulo hung 27 signs at three

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major Raleigh intersections, each with a directional arrow, a count of how many

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“minutes by foot” are necessary to reach a destination, and a QR code for more information. Though the signs were removed within days of being posted, overwhelming support from the local community led the Raleigh City Council to reinstate Walk Raleigh

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as an official pilot project, promoting a healthier and safer pedestrian environment in

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the city. [From SpontaneousInterventions]

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References: http://walkyourcity.org/ http://www.facebook.com/WalkRaleigh?group_id=0

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The Uni →


MAPPING

NEW CONSTRUCTION

Home / Zappata Romana

ZAPPATA ROMANA

Place Place: Rome (Italy). Date Date: 2012.

RESEARCH

January 27, 2013 · by stefania · in MAPPING, URBAN ACTION, URBAN AGRICULTURE

Time Time: Ongoing. Space Space: Public space.

HIGHLIGHT

Cost Cost: Unknown.

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Private actors actors: StudioUAP, citizens.

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Zappata Romana is a network project on urban gardens in Rome as collective actions

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about urban space appropriation and environmental development. The research is about

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mapping existent gardens and promoting experiences and exchanges among them. All

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the gardens are self-managed and self-constructed, and citizens are directly involved in

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the food production. The presence of these spaces prevents the lots from real estate

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speculation, gives the people more accessible and public spaces, makes the life quality

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better with possibilities to share experiences and common activities. On the website is

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possible to download the guide “how to make a shared garden”, landlords can make their lots available to be hired and people can apply as volunteers taking care of a

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garden. The website is also provided with a map showing that actually Rome has more than 70 gardens.

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139 Tags: high community impact, high diy, high happiness, high sustainability, low politics, low site specific, map, medium aesthetic, medium cost effective, medium professionist presence, medium social network, medium temporary, no friction, pallet, vegetables

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Home / Zebra Crossing

NEW CONSTRUCTION MAPPING

ZEBRA CROSSING January 27, 2013 · by sofia · in NEED, URBAN ACTION

RESEARCH

Place Place: Kassel (Germany). Date Date: 1993. Time Time: few hours. Space Space: Street. Cost Cost: -. Public actors: -.

HIGHLIGHT

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Private actors actors: Gerhard Lang, students, strollers.

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A DIY answer to the question: how can pedestrians legally cross a street wherever they

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want to, and not only at the whim of traffic planners? Gerhard Lang’s zebrastreifen, or “zebra crossing,” allowed a 600-person procession to cross the streets, alleys,

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backyards, and car parks of Kassel without jaywalking. The procession honoured Lang’s

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friend, collaborator, and former professor, Lucius Burckhardt, the inventor of the field

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of Spaziergangswissenschaft, or “Strollology.” Burckhardt adopted the perspective of the stroller in formulating his criticisms of prevailing automobile-centric planning practices.

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Gerhard Lang is a German artist who investigates human perception through its

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relationship with landscape. [From CCA-actions]

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References: http://www.gerhardlang.com/e_work_zebra.html http://cca-actions.org/actions/zebra-protects-pedestrians

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CONSIDERAZIONI

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A partire dai 100 progetti raccolti è stato possibile ricostruire un quadro generale riguardo l’aspetto, le relazioni, e gli ambiti che delineano la corrente attuale delle pratiche spontanee e partecipate. Pur nell’estrema diversità e varietà, l’insieme di queste azioni sono accomunate dal fatto che posseggono un alto potenziale di cambiamento dell’ambiente, che si svolgono sempre toccando temi particolari e agendo attraverso dinamiche spaziali ben definite, e che sono influenzate da diversi fattori i quali possono condizionarsi tra loro. Sono state individuate sia le tematiche più ricorrenti messe in atto da processi partecipativi e bottom-up per avere uno sguardo più ampio su quanto le persone desiderano portare nella propria vita quotidiana al punto da auto organizzarsi per un fine comune, sia il tipo di interazione con cui ogni azione si rapporta nei confronti dello spazio in cui si concretizza, sia gli strumenti più frequentemente utilizzati per attuare gli interventi. I fattori e i valori che concorrono a determinare la natura di ogni progetto (tempo, sosteniblità, presenza di professionista…) non sono slegati l’uno con l’altro, ma alcuni sono in relazione tra loro attraverso rapporti di influenze e dipendenze. L’analisi dei progetti ha portato ad impostare una statistica di correlazioni tra gli indicatori per ottenere le intensità e le modalità delle influenze reciproche e per comprendere quanto la presenza o meno di alcuni valori e attori in gioco potesse cambiare l’esito finale degli interventi. Sulla base di alcuni rapporti ottenuti dall’incrocio di due valori sono stati analizzati i progetti che presentano quelle relazioni, indagando le caratteristiche spaziali, sociali e formali per avere uno sguardo più ampio sul riscontro pratico delle interazioni tra gli indicatori.

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FREQUENZE

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Categorie

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cosa

LEISURE 53%

HIGHLIGHT 18% MAPPING 12%

EDUCATION 22%

NEED 23% URBAN AGRICULTURE 22%

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Le tematiche che connotano ciascuna delle azioni partecipate o spontanee sono raccolte in sei principali categorie: leisure (tempo libero), urban agriculture (agricoltura urbana), need (necessità), education (educazione), highlight (evidenziare) e mapping (mappare). La metà dei progetti presi in analisi riguarda il tema del tempo libero e del divertimento; si manifesta la necessità di riappropriarsi dello spazio pubblico come luogo privilegiato per la socialità e come catalizzatore di comunicazione sociale, condivisione delle passioni individuali e dialogo tra soggetti diversi. La riqualificazione di uno spazio in disuso all’interno del quartiere, l’attivazione di dispositivi mobili per il divertimento che risvegliano dinamiche di interazione con gli utenti come una sorta di agopuntura, l’arredo comune di luoghi urbani anonimi e di passaggio per dare loro carattere e personalità, sono esempi di ciò che le persone attuano per supplire alla carenza di vita e svago collettivi. Altro tipo di necessità è quella più materiale legata a problematiche effettive di quartiere ed accessibilità dello spazio pubblico. Nascono forme di auto organizzazione per risolvere in modo autonomo questioni di ordine pratico a scala locale che l’amministrazione pubblica spesso fatica a percepire e ad affrontare in tempi utili; oppure il bisogno di migliorare luoghi disagiati limitrofi a dove si vive spinge il quartiere se non ad agire, per lo meno a partecipare attivamente al processo di riqualificazione. Frequenti tra le azioni partecipate sono le attività di agricoltura urbana che si manifesta soprattutto attraverso orti, piccole serre e spazi per workshop di sensibilizzazione all’argomento. L’autoproduzione diventa un valore per affrontare la crisi economica e dare sussistenza alle famiglie rispondendo a bisogni materiali, e allo stesso tempo concilia esigenze di impiegare il tempo libero attraverso la condivisione e la creazione di piccole reti locali. Spesso i nuclei di orti urbani sono accompagnati dalla presenza di un market per la vendita diretta dei prodotti, che vengono per lo più consumati nelle vicinanze, instaurando dei meccanismi di microeconomie e alimentando la politica del consumo a kilometro 0. La propensione verso l’agricoltura urbana rispecchia anche il desiderio di rendere più piacevole il luogo in cui si vive portando del verde e delle “oasi” nel cemento dell’ambiente urbano, di avere spazi comuni, o semplicemente di potersi esprimere in prima persona facendo giardinaggio. Il tema dell’agricoltura urbana è affrontato ampiamente anche attraverso intenzioni educative e di sensibilizzazione; il programma di affiancare delle attività di coltivazione agli ambienti scolastici si è notevolmente diffuso negli ultimi anni, con la convinzione che ciascun bambino debba ricevere un’educazione culturale al cibo, sapere da dove provengono i prodotti che mangia e conoscere alcune delle tecniche base di coltivazione da poter condividere con la propria famiglia o con la collettività della scuola.

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FILL A VOID 28%

GUER RILLA 10%

RE USE 11%

URBAN ACTION 32%

PARASITE 4%

RES EARCH 11%

150

NEW CONTRUCTION

4%


I progetti presi in analisi intervengono fisicamente in modo diverso nello spazio a seconda di con che tipo di luogo interagiscono, e sono raccolti in sette categorie: urban action (azione urbana), guerrilla (guerrilla), parasite (parassita), re-use (riuso), fill-a-void (colmare il vuoto), new construction (nuova costruzione), research (ricerca). Il bisogno di appropriazione e di dare carattere ai propri luoghi si manifesta più frequentemente nell’immediato, attraverso azioni urbane; esse sono locali, interstiziali e puntuali nel loro effettuarsi per lo più nello spazio pubblico, all’aperto e nella strada, il luogo più diretto in cui farsi notare e che favorisce lo scambio orizzontale e il proliferarsi di idee essendo un palcoscenico visibile e frequentato da chiunque. Sono tipi di azioni prevalentemente a carattere temporaneo o in cui si utilizzano strumenti che possono cambiare velocemente la percezione di uno spazio (colori, vernici, assi di legno), e quindi anche facilmente organizzabili senza dover incorrere in tempi burocratici. Le azioni urbane sono tipologie di interventi in cui sempre più spesso i confini tra arte e architettura sono sfumati: se gli architetti hanno allargato le loro pratiche oltre la costruzione degli edifici, gli artisti sono usciti dalle gallerie d’arte. Gli interventi artistici in termini di spazialità hanno del potenziale trasformativo, fungono da catalizzatori di interesse e possono modificare la percezione spaziale. Dall’altro alto, l’architettura informale che deriva dall’autocostruzione e da materiali riciclati e ri-assemblati ha enorme potere comunicativo e d’impatto grazie alla quotidianità del proprio linguaggio; si avvicina sempre più ad essere opera d’arte che sperimenta l’uso di materiali e di strumenti i quali normalmente appartengono alla sfera dell’arte, come il colore e la pittura. La questione dei vuoti urbani si presenta sempre più come un’urgenza da affrontare, tema sentito non solo a livello intellettuale ma anche alla scala locale del quartiere; è difficile convivere con la presenza di questi spazi lasciati in attesa di nuovi significati e che hanno un impatto visivo immediato, spesso negativo, essendo circondati di frequente dalle pareti cieche degli stabili confinanti, che richiamano spazialmente la presenza di un’assenza. I vuoti urbani sono lotti inedificati, edifici abbandonati, spazi di risulta che hanno avuto origine dai bombardamenti della guerra, dal processo di de-industrializzazione della città contemporanea o dagli sfrenati affari del mercato immobiliare. La maggior parte dei progetti presi in considerazione affronta il tema di colmare i vuoti urbani, di riappropriarsene, di dare nuove funzioni e significati anche se temporanei; l’agricoltura urbana tende ad instaurarsi in questi tipi di spazi, ma è prevalentemente con altro tipo di attività di tempo libero che le persone si riprendono i vuoti urbani, dal desiderio di nuovi luoghi per la socialità al bisogno fisico di posti dove poter realizzare le proprie necessità.

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Gli strumenti utilizzati nelle azioni urbane e nei progetti partecipati sono oggetti e materiali accessibili a tutti, facilmente maneggiabili anche da chi non è esperto e versatili nelle proprie molteplici proprietà espressive. Appartengono alla sfera del colore, del bisogno di verde, del calore del legno; del riciclo, dell’autocostruzione, dell’espressione individuale e collettiva. La popolarità di uno strumento come la pittura si deve alla sua facile reperibilità, all’immediatezza con cui permette di modificare la percezione spaziale, al rapido collegamento pensiero-mani-pennello che riesce e diverte chiunque. La vernice è il mezzo dell’immediato cambiamento visivo e percettivo dello spazio; con una pennellata veloce si può trasformare un luogo anonimo e grigio cambiandogli volto attraverso il colore, creare nuove situazioni tracciandone a terra i contorni, richiamare all’attenzione collettiva oggetti urbani evidenziandoli. Il metodo più rapido e facile per rinnovare l’aspetto degli oggetti e per conferire una nuova estetica è “dare una mano” di pittura; oltre all’uso più immediato che se ne fa, compositivamente il colore è percepito come elemento capace di suscitare emozioni, sorpresa, attenzione, simbolismi. Il colore viene sperimentato nelle sue capacità espressive anche su materiali di riuso, spesso provenienti da scarti industriali; i pallet, ad esempio, sono piattaforme formate da assi di legno che in ambito di trasporto merci ne facilitano la movimentazione. Questi moduli sono facilmente reperibili: le imprese tendono a scartarli in quanto organizzare un viaggio di ritorno per i pallet risulterebbe più costoso che comprarne di nuovi. L’approccio sostenibile consiste nella riappropriazione e nel riuso di questi oggetti e nella loro sperimentazione in ambito architettonico, costruttivo e artistico. I pallet sono un elementi leggeri, resistenti e costituiti da un materiale, il legno, caratterizzato da forte espressività; la loro misura standard permette compositivamente la creazione di moduli o pattern, oppure di elementi di arredo urbano immediati, resistenti e creativi, costruzioni temporanee assemblate facilmente grazie alla presenza del legno quale materiale montabile a secco e a incastro, senza bisogno di ulteriori procedimenti che allungherebbero i tempi e restringerebbero il campo d’utenza. I rinnovamenti spaziali sempre più spesso vedono l’elemento verde, quali alberi, piante, fiori e ortaggi, come un tipo di infrastruttura leggera che apporta miglioramenti alla qualità di vita e degli spazi. In particolare è frequente l’uso di piante per coltivare in luoghi quali gli orti urbani, in grado di condensare esigenze di autoproduzione e di spazi per la collettività. La piantina diventa uno strumento sociale, attorno alla quale avviene la formazione di comunità che se ne prendono cura, e nello stesso momento formano una rete composta da persone che condividono il proprio tempo libero e gli interessi.

1 Luz na viela, Favela Painting, Place au changement 2 A di città, Football Field, Park-urka, IOT 3 Demolition Detroit Disneyland, All Aboard 4 1415 Mallinckrodt, Canillejas imagina un parque 5 Hortolab, Ecobox, Esto no es un solar 6 Chair Bombing, A di città, Molo Torre 7

R-urban, Caban Unnos, Better Block

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Indicatori

157


Popolarità TIME LIFE

45%

9% ø

22%

24%

medium

low

high

SUSTAINABILITY

12%

11%

ø

low

55%

22% medium

high

COMMUNITY IMPACT

2%

21%

47%

30%

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low

medium

high

!!!

FRICTION

76% ø

11%

12%

low medium

HAPPINESS

18%

medium

low

$

50%

32%

high

COST-EFFECTIVE

49%

21% low

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20% medium

10% high


La maggioranza delle pratiche prese in analisi è di tipo temporaneo; i progetti tendono ad intervenire nello spazio durante un breve lasso di tempo, come ad esempio le azioni urbane, che durano da qualche ora a settimane. La temporaneità quale breve durata si tratta di sostenibilità in termini di processi piuttosto che di oggetti o di luoghi; il concetto di temporaneo si evolve in accordo con le nuove opportunità spaziali, per promuovere usi dinamici dello spazio e processi decisionali liberi.

L’alto valore di sostenibilità è una delle caratteristiche di questo tipo pratiche, dato che sussiste la tendenza ad utilizzare materiali poveri e di riuso e ad assemblarli in costruzioni spontanee ed informali, ad agire su luoghi abbandonati e sottoutilizzati guadagnando in risorse spaziali ed economiche, a non alterare in modo permanente il luogo in cui viene svolta l’azione o il progetto, che spesso ha carattere temporaneo.

L’impatto sulla comunità che un progetto può avere tende ad essere positivo, ma non è ancora un aspetto consolidato in questo ambito. Ciò significa che le pratiche partecipate di frequenze mirano più alla definizione di spazi per il tempo libero ed il divertimento, che pure sono importanti, piuttosto che la risoluzione di problemi sociali, oppure che la partecipazione non è ancora entrata integralmente in ogni fase decisionale e realizzativa a fare parte dei processi di cambiamento spaziale.

Il fatto che quasi totalità dei progetti rientrino nel limite della legalità, e quindi non creino tensioni nè di tipo sociale nè politico, afferma la tendenza degli ultimi decenni che vede ampliata la tolleranza ed il consenso anche amministrativo nei confronti di questo tipo di pratiche spontanee e partecipate. La maggior parte delle azioni illegali come quelle di guerrilla non presenta comunque problemi di ordine sociale e pubblico.

La sensazione di felicità accompagna la maggiorparte delle pratiche partecipate; probabilmente il fatto del coinvolgimento delle persone, la possibilità di scambi eterogenei tra culture diverse e voci differenti e la realizzazione dei desideri espressi durante il processo partecipativo, rende questo tipo di progetti maggiormente sentiti dalla gente. Molti di essi, infatti, si sviluppano rendendo lo spazio comune un luogo sociale e di condivisione.

La produttività in termini economici non risulta essere una delle finalità delle pratiche spontanee; esse non tendono a produrre denaro o beni, ma piuttosto producono scambio sociale e momenti di condivisione. La scala dei valori in questo ambito è decentrata verso la sfera affettiva, informale e umana, verso un’intenzione di coesione micro-sociale e utilizzo degli spazi come bene comune.

159


DO-IT-YOURSELF

9%

19%

ø

low

43%

29% medium

high

PROFESSIONIST PRESENCE

44%

6%

12%

38%

ø

low

medium

high

POLITICS

37%

25%

ø

28% medium

low

10% high

AESTHETIC

23%

19%

43%

15%

ø

low

medium

high

SITE-SPECIFIC

23%

26%

ø

low

28%

23%

medium

high

SOCIAL NETWORKS

31%

30%

ø

low

160

29% medium

10% high


Il processo partecipativo è particolarmente condiviso soprattutto nella fase costruttiva e realizzativa del progetto data la consistente presenza di pratiche di autocostruzione e fai da te. Il professionista spesso mette a disposizione le proprie competenze per arricchire le conoscenze informali delle persone contribuendo al raggiungimento del risultato finale. L’autocostruzione diventa un valore che costituisce un alternativa reale e concreta del cambiamento spaziale.

La consistente presenza di professionisti (architetti, artisti, attivisti urbani) nell’ambito della partecipazione e del bottom-up può significare che è stato accettato il cambiamento del ruolo dell’architetto, seppur in modo graduale rispetto al livello di interazione all’interno del processo progettuale. Il professionista si presta all���apertura nei confronti del contributo informale che possono fornire le persone.

Si riscontra l’assenza di istituzioni politiche tra le azioni partecipate e spontanee, dal momento che molte di esse nascono dal basso appunto. Tuttavia, seppur in minor numero, all’interno di alcuni processi l’amministrazione può rivestire il ruolo di mediatore, o semplicemente esprime consenso nei confronti nell’azione stessa quando essa agisce nella legalità. La legislazione attuale si sta muovendo verso l’apertura nei confronti di questo tipo di pratiche e dei progetti temporanei.

La qualità estetica dei risultati finali è per lo più media; l’eccellenza è raggiunta poche volte e grazie alla presenza di un professionista, ma non sempre quest’ultimo riesce a gestire perfettamente la coesistenza di opere informali derivate dall’autocostruzione, uso di materiali di riuso e precarietà dei progetti stessi. L’opportunità di usare materiali poveri e riciclati non è ancora sfruttata appieno e si dovrebbe sensibilizzare le persone verso un utilizzo consapevole delle risorse a disposizione.

La tendenza attuale delle pratiche partecipate non trova uno specifico riscontro spaziale; gli interventi possono essere di natura mobile, insediandosi solo quando e dove ne è richiesto il bisogno in maniera nomade, oppure progettati apposta per un determinato luogo rispondendo ai bisogni di esso e della comunità circostante. Altri progetti ancora potrebbero essere replicati ovunque grazie all’impiego di materiali di facile reperibilità e linguaggi universali.

In epoca attuale la partecipazione può essere attuata anche attraverso l’uso di social networks come Flickr, Facebook, Twitter e i blog. Tuttavia questo fenomeno non si afferma come tendenza consolidata, ma sono molti i progetti che utilizzano almeno in parte queste piattaforme virtuali per raccogliere consensi, comunicare trasversalmente e senza limiti fisici e ricevere commenti, idee e responsi dagli utenti della rete.

161


162


RELAZIONI

163


Professionist presence

164


Nel contesto delle pratiche spontanee e partecipate, il ruolo dell’architetto è soggetto di ripensamento; il professionista non è più l’unica voce in grado di dare forma al cambiamento, ma altri attori contribuiscono alla creazione di un processo condiviso, il cui esito finale di frequente rimane incerto e dipende da molteplici fattori in campo. La presenza del professionista tuttavia, portando con sè tutto un insieme di competenze, conoscenze e sensibilità nei confronti di molti argomenti che hanno a che fare con la spazialità e la socialità, è in grado di influenzare determinati fattori che concorrono alla definizione del progetto. L’architetto condiziona il livello estetico dell’opera e determina la presenza o meno di attività Do It Yourself e di autocostruzione. Prima di affrontare l’analisi delle relazioni che dipendono dalla presenza del professionista era stata ipotizzata l’esistenza di un rapporto stretto tra il contributo dell’architetto all’interno del progetto e sostenibilità, impatto sulla comunità e felicità presenti nello stesso, ma a seguito dell’operazione statitica svolta questi fattori non sono risultati correlati, data l’esistenza di altre voci che prescindono questi legami.

165


PROFESSIONIST PRESENCE RELAZIONI

PROFESSIONIST PRESENCE

AESTHETIC

La presenza del professionista influenza il livello di estetica dei progetti.

66%

33%

Se il professionista è presente, l’estetica del progetto è maggiore.

High

High

Professionist presence

Aesthetic

Composizione Apporto di conoscenze formali

Ri-creazione Uso di materiali di riciclo secondo una nuova estetica.

Se il professionista è presente, ma il livello estetico è basso, il suo contributo è evidente in termini di funzionalità.

High Professionist presence

Low Aesthetic

Funzionalità progetti funzionali in cui l’estetica è al secondo posto

166


La presenza di un professionista quale un architetto influenza il livello estetico di un progetto. “L’architetto apporta competenze di ordine tecnico e artistico che permetteranno di interpretare il progetto secondo un linguaggio e una forma originali” diceva Giancarlo De Carlo riguardo il ruolo dell’architetto nei processi partecipati. Senza la supervisione di un professionista, è meno probabile che la qualità estetica del risultato finale sia elevata. L’architetto porta coerenza e stile all’intero processo; possiede conoscenze tecniche e rende possibile la realizzazione di una costruzione che sia il più performativa possibile, ma per professione volge l’attenzione anche alla composizione formale del progetto, operando per principi coerenti riguardo la relazione tra materiali, soluzioni tecniche e influenze del contesto. La frequenza nell’uso di materiali di riciclo nei progetti partecipati si presenta come l’occasione per sperimentare la ri-creazione dei materiali stessi, e l’architetto riesce a conferire nuova vita e nuova estetica a ciò che è già stato considerato come scarto. 1 La maggioranza dei casi in cui sia presente un professionista ma il livello estetico del progetto risulti basso è dovuta invece al fatto che ci sia la tendenza a concentrarsi sulla funzionalità del risultato, e quindi l’estetica come valore passa in secondo piano; si tratta di azioni in cui la soddisfazione di bisogni immediati è una priorità in qualsiasi fase del progetto. 2

1 2

Periscope Project, Noorderparkbar, Esto no es un Solar, Un un Salle IOT, Astoria scum river bridge, Noupaticastellum

167


DO IT YOURSELF

PROFESSIONIST PRESENCE

La presenza del professionista influenza il livello di “fai-da-te”.

67%

94% Se il professionista è assente, la presenza di DIY nel progetto è maggiore.

Se il professionista è presente, il livello di DIY è minore.

High

Low

Professionist presence

DIY

Imprese presenza di un’impresa costruttrice

Ricerca progetti che non comprendono attività manuali

Artisti autoproduzione artistica

168


La presenza di un professionista condiziona le attività Do It Yourself all’interno dello svolgersi di un progetto. In casi in cui è assente il professionista quasi la totalità dei progetti presenta esperienze di autocostruzione e la formazione spontanea di gruppi che si dedicano fisicamente alla realizzazione di qualcosa. Dall’altro lato, se il progetto è guidato o supportato da un architetto invece lo svolgimento di attività DIY tende ad abbassarsi; ciò significa che le pratiche di coinvolgimento nell’ autocostruzione non sono ancora una tendenza consolidata all’interno dei processi partecipati. In particolare, se la presenza di un professionista esclude lo svolgimento di azioni DIY è dovuto al fatto che spesso si ricorre ad ingaggiare terzi per realizzare materialmente i progetti (imprese costruttrici o personale retribuito) (1), oppure si tratta di programmi di ricerca che non comprendono in genere attività manuali, ma rimangono nell’ambito teorico (2); anche le performance artistiche sono considerate, se non prevedono l’interazione della gente, come prive di Do It Yourself in quanto l’artista tende quasi sempre a produrre con le proprie mani la propria opera d’arte e ciò fa parte della sua professionalità. (3)

1

Esto no es un solar, Periscope project, Edyble Schoolyard Recycling Tokyo, For Squat, Something is going on in Matsaria 3 Al di qua del giorno, Football Field, Appropriate Subverte Activate 2

169


PROFESSIONIST PRESENCE

HAPPINESS

Professionist presence non influenza il livello di happiness.

80%

83%

La presenza di felicitĂ  nei progetti non varia alla presenza del professionista

High

Low

Professionist Happiness presence

Progettazione Mancanza di coinvolgimento in fase progettuale.

Costruzione Mancanza di coinvolgimento in fase costruttiva.

Partecipazione Mancanza di interazione nell’utilizzo finale.

170


La sensazione di felicità che può suscitare un progetto è indipendente dalla presenza o meno di un professionista. Infatti entrambe le tipologie di progetti, con o senza supervisione di un architetto, hanno la stessa probabilità di influenzare positivamente gli stati d’animo degli utenti e il loro grado di soddisfazione. Nel dettaglio dei progetti in cui la presenza di professionista non contribuisce a suscitare positività e felicità si riscontra mancanza di coinvolgimento totale delle persone. Il sentimento di soddisfazione è fortemente legato al concetto di partecipazione; se essa viene a mancare in fase progettuale, nei casi quindi in cui gli utenti non vengono interpellati e non esiste dialogo tra le parti, le persone tendono a non riconoscersi nel risultato finale. Ugualmente la mancanza di coinvolgimento in fase realizzativa e pratica contribuisce a diminuire il feedback positivo di un progetto; l’autocostruzione infatti diventa un valore aggiunto che dimostra il potere creativo di cambiare con le proprie mani una situazione. 1 Se è previsto un utilizzo finale in cui l’utente interagisce poco con l’opera stessa, è probabile che si abbia minore riscontro positivo sulle persone; infatti quando l’utente non viene considerato come attivatore e fruitore empatico che può contribuire al cambiamento dinamico e sensibile dell’opera, l’esperienza che si fa del progetto rimane esclusivamente di percezione e contemplazione. 2

1 2

Chair bombing, Appropriate Subverte Activate, Roaming Forest All Aboard, Subjective map of Valadares, Local previews

171


PROFESSIONIST PRESENCE

SUSTAINABILITY

Professionist presence NON influenza sustainability.

82%

88%

Il livello di sostenibilitĂ  di un progetto NON varia alla presenza del professionista

High

High

Professionist Sustainability presence

Materiali di riciclo Utilizzo di materiali di riuso.

Vuoto urbano Progetti di riuso di vuoti urbani o edifici abbandonati.

Azioni urbane Non implicano trasformazioni spaziali definitive.

172


La sostenibilità di un progetto non dipende dalla presenza del professionista. Sussiste una tendenza generale alla sostenibilità tra le pratiche partecipate, infatti che l’architetto contribuisca o meno allo svolgimento del progetto non comporta una maggiore o minore propensione ad essa. Le motivazioni sono da ricercare all’interno della definizione di sostenibilità stessa, che si concilia con la sfera delle pratiche partecipate negli usi dei materiali e nell’approccio progettuale. L’utilizzo di materiali di riciclo ritarda la dismissione e lo spreco di risorse, oltre che rendere accessibile a tutti grazie al basso costo la costruzione di opere; l’architetto può incentivare l’uso di materiali di questo tipo e il loro rinnovamento estetico dando un consapevole approccio sostenibile. 1 La maggiorparte dei progetti altamente sostenibili con presenza di un professionista vedono la riqualificazione di vuoti urbani o il riuso di edifici abbandonati, sfruttamento spazi già esistenti sottoutilizzati senza nuovamente consumare suolo. Altri casi sono invece di azioni urbane, che essendo per lo più di breve durata e avendo come palcoscenico lo spazio aperto e la strada, generalmente non implicano trasformazioni spaziali definitive.2 Si denota quindi che la questione sostenibilità non è portata dall’architetto in sé, ma è dovuta ad altri fattori che si presentano in modo ricorrente e che portano valore aggiunto. 3

1

Hortolab, Le 56, Re-Morion A di città, Dispositivo de la Cebada, Un un salle 3 Depave, Better block, TreeKIT 2

173


PROFESSIONIST PRESENCE

COMMUNITY IMPACT

Professionist presence NON influenza community impact.

81%

71%

L’impatto sulla comunità non varia alla presenza del professionista.

High

Low

Professionist Community presence impact

Temporaneo Azioni di breve durata.

Visibilità Progetti con scarsa visibilità e accessibilità.

Utenza Progetti previsti per singole persone,

174


L’impatto sulla comunità generato da un progetto è indipendente dal contributo o meno che un professionista può dare. L’influenza sulla collettività circostante dipende da fattori che prescindono dalla presenza di un professionista ma che si legano maggiormente ai bisogni della comunità stessa e all’utilizzo della partecipazione in sé come strumento sociale che aiuta a indirizzare il risultato tra interesse generale e ragioni individuali. I progetti in cui è meno rilevante l’effetto positivo sulla collettività presentano per la maggiorparte carattere temporaneo, sono di breve durata per cui probabilmente hanno meno tempo per avere influenza consistente sulla comunità1; altri risultano poco visibili e accessibili sia perché sono attuati sul web, sia per il motivo che sono realizzati da una stretta cerchia di persone2. Hanno poco impatto sulla comunità anche i progetti previsti per singole persone non per un’utenza a larga scala.3

1

Football Field, Caban Unnos, Al di qua del giorno TreeKIT, Recycling Tokyo 3 Casa rompecabeza, Parasite, After (Andes) 2

175


Community impact

176


L’impatto sulla comunità determinato da un cambiamento spaziale e sociale dipende da fattori partecipativi e di risoluzione di problemi a livello locale e spesso alla scala del quartiere. Il coinvolgimento attivo nei processi progettuali e nell’utilizzo finale dell’opera contribuisce ad aumentare l’influenza sulla collettività, come pure l’attenzione a risolvere problemi sociali, a realizzare desideri collettivi tenendone conto in fase progettuale. Per questo in questo tipo di pratiche, affinchè esse suscitino consensi e feedback positivi, è importante non solo il risultato finale, ma anche l’intero processo durante il quale possono avvenire scambi dinamici tra culture diverse e opinioni differenti per ottenere connessioni ed eterogeneità all’interno del quartiere. Sono principalmente tre gli elementi che nfluiscono sull’impatto sulla comunità: la durata del progetto, dalla felicità suscitata negli utenti e dalla produttività del nuovo intervento urbano.

177


COMMUNITY IMPACT RELAZIONI

COST EFFECTIVE

COMMUNITY IMPACT

La produzione di beni influenza il livello di impatto sulla comunità

+

$

96%

$

-

68%

Se un progetto è volto alla produzione di beni ha più impatto sulla comunità.

High Cost effective

High Community impact

Agricoltura urbana Attività per il tempo libero che includono autoproduzione e creazione di reti.

178


La produzione di beni, il loro commercio e lo scambio di informazioni che ruota attorno ad esso possono condizionare la comunità e i gruppi sociali coinvolti. Se un progetto è produttivo in termini di denaro o di beni di consumo è possibile che influenzi l’ambiente circostante spazialmente, economicamente e socialmente, in quanto determinerà flussi particolari di persone, circolazione di idee e collaborazione tra parti diverse. Quasi la totalità dei progetti e delle azioni che sono volte alla produzione di beni infatti riescono nello stesso tempo a creare ed accrescere la collettività di quel determinato luogo. In particolare l’agricoltura urbana stimola questo genere di rapporto; i luoghi in cui viene svolta questa attività infatti sono spesso gestiti dai cittadini stessi, i quali si prendono cura direttamente della coltivazione, della raccolta e di frequente anche della vendita di frutta e verdure tramite market a kilometro 0. La presenza di orti urbani garantisce frutta e verdure sempre freschi e incide positivamente sulla spesa domestica contribuendo al risparmio nell’acquisto di beni alimentari, oltre che aumentare la creazione di reti tra i cittadini e favorire lo svolgersi di attività per il tempo libero.1

1

Prinzessinnengarten, Soil Kitchen, City Farm, Le 56, R-urban

179


COMMUNITY IMPACT

TIME LIFE

La durata di un progetto influenza il livello d’impatto sulla comunità.

90%

68%

Si riscontra maggiore impatto sulla comunità quando un’azione è più duratura.

High Time life

High Community impact

Quartiere Progetti di riqualificazione di spazi pubblici e realtà di quartiere.

Se il progetto è temporaneo, l’impatto sulla comunità è minore.

Low

Low

Time life

Community impact

Sensibilizzazione Azioni svolte per sensibilizzare, di durata troppo breve.

Svago Azioni temporanee per il tempo libero.

180


La durata di un progetto influenza la sua capacità di avere impatto sulla comunità. I progetti permanenti o duraturi riescono a cambiare e a condizionare in positivo la collettività circostante in quanto hanno più tempo a disposizione per integrarsi nel luogo, innescare meccanismi sociali ed essere vissuti. Dall’altro lato, la temporaneità delle azioni spesso riduce la possibilità che esse siano impattanti sulla comunità a causa della carenza di tempo per poter consolidare socialmente il cambiamento avvenuto. I progetti che hanno elevata influenza sulla collettività e che presentano carattere permanente riguardano in maggior parte la scala locale, interessando il quartiere come luogo di identità in cui operare; in particolare la riqualificazione di spazi pubblici o di vuoti urbani in modo durevole può portare a cambiare la percezione che il vicinato ha sempre avuto di quel luogo e delle atmosfere che creava, riconsegnando alla comunità una risorsa per lo sviluppo locale in termini di economie informali, servizi autorganizzati e laboratori di sperimentazione urbana. 1 Il carattere temporaneo di un’azione non impedisce comunque di avere impatto positivo sulla comunità; tuttavia può influisce in maniera minore rispetto ad un progetto permanente. Ciò è dovuto al fatto che spesso gli interventi temporanei svolgono un’operazione di sensibilizzazione, concretizzata in azioni urbane di breve durata che non vanno oltre la segnalazione del problema, seppure in maniera creativa ed attraente2; hanno minore impatto sulla comunità anche quelle azioni temporanee per lo svago ed il tempo libero, spesso brevi manifestazioni di desideri ed interessi che promuovono momenti di intensa condivisione, ma che non hanno influenza sulla collettività ed il senso sociale3.

1

Park-urka, Le 56, Can Battlò Al di qua del giorno, Chair bombing, Pagina bianca 3 Raval generator, Caban Unnos, Football Field 2

181


COMMUNITY IMPACT

HAPPINESS

La felicità influenza l’impatto sulla comunità, e viceversa.

82%

55%

L’impatto sulla comunità è maggiore se un progetto suscita felicità

High Happiness

High Community impact

Agricoltura urbana Tempo libero, autoproduzione come valore che crea comunità.

Reti sociali Partecipazione della comunità in fase progettuale e creazione di reti.

Quartiere Recupero di realtà di quartiere e soluzione a problemi della comunità.

182


La capacità di rispondere ai desideri, di condizionare positivamente gli stati d’animo e quindi di suscitare senso di felicità contribuisce ad aumentare socialmente l’influenza di un progetto. Allo stesso tempo, la creazione di reti, la soluzione di alcuni problemi sociali e l’apporto di benefici nei confronti dei cittadini favoriscono in essi un sentimento positivo di realizzazione e soddisfazione. Il rapporto che lega i valori di impatto sulla comunità e di felicità è molto stretto e ambivalente; entrambe sono accomunati dal concetto di condivisione sia di momenti di vita che di circostanze spaziali. Le situazioni che rispecchiano questa duplice relazione si manifestano soprattutto a livello di quartiere, quando i rapporti sono più stretti, i bisogni maggiormente sentiti e la comunicazione avviene in maniera orizzontale tra le parti; i casi di recupero di realtà che influiscono socialmente in modo negativo sulla comunità, per lo più vuoti urbani sentiti dal vicinato come luoghi estranei, sprecati ed equivoci, manifestano un alto grado di correlazione tra coesione sociale, legami comunitari e felicità personale e collettiva nel veder cambiare in positivo un luogo cui si appartiene. 1 L’agricoltura urbana come fenomeno che coinvolge direttamente la presenza e l’impegno dei cittadini in fattori di tempo, relazioni e passioni crea microrealtà di unione sociale e autoproduzione. 2 Inoltre, la partecipazione diretta alle fasi progettuali e il coinvolgimento della gente a livello pratico riguardo progetti che sono volti a rispondere sia bisogni locali sia a problematiche a grande scala, contribuisce ad aumentare il livello di soddisfazione e felicità della persona, che diventa protagonista attiva nel fornire input progettuali e nel concretizzare i miglioramenti spaziali dei luoghi quotidiani 3.

1

Place au changement, Park-urka, Tempelhof, IOT, Esto no es un solar Prinzessinnengarten, Le 56, Hortolab 3 Ordenacion y ocupacion, Park Fiction, Molo Torre, La casa del viento. 2

183


Happiness

184


I processi partecipati sono guidati dai desideri delle persone per raggiungere un progetto comune; la loro importanza sta non sono nell’esito finale, che dev’essere condiviso e partecipato anche nell’uso, ma anche nel processo in sè quale laboratorio di relazioni e realizzazioni personali. La felicità e la soddisfazione suscitati da un progetto nascono dalla capacità delle dinamiche instauratesi di influenzare gli stati d’animo delle persone, di realizzare desideri personali siano essi effimeri o di necessità. Il sentimento di felicità dipende soprattutto dall’impatto sociale che un intervento riesce a scatenare, dalla presenza di do-it-yourself e quindi di partecipazione attiva e concreta, e dalla qualità estetica del progetto.

185


HAPPINESS RELAZIONI

DO IT YOURSELF

HAPPINESS

Do It Yourself influenza il livello di felicità di un progetto.

90%

64%

E’ presente più felicità dove c’è presenza di attività DIY.

High

High

DIY

Happiness

Vuoti urbani Positività nell’autoriattivazione di vuoti urbani nel contesto di quartiere

Condivisione Azioni di ricreazione di spazi sociali per il tempo libero e l’educazione

Autocostruzione Soddisfazione nel cambiare con le proprie mani gli spazi cui si appartiene

186


In un progetto la presenza di attività di autocostruzione influenza il livello di felicità dell’utente. In particolare, il coinvolgimento delle persone attraverso pratiche Do It Yourself incrementa la loro felicità e soddisfazione, in quanto è avviene il coinvolgimento diretto del singolo nel contribuire a concretizzare il progetto. In questi casi si tratta di riattivazione dei vuoti urbani nel contesto di quartiere attraverso episodi di autocostruzione, esperienza che suscita realizzazione personale nel cambiare direttamente gli spazi cui si appartiene attraverso le proprie mani e mostra un’alternativa reale ai tempi spesso lunghi dell’amministrazione pubblica 1. Il DIY di frequente riguarda anche le azioni di ricreazione di spazi sociali per il tempo libero, i quali diventano un’esigenza sentita dato che l’ambito urbano e lo spazio pubblico ne sono carenti 2. Ugualmente, i progetti che rispondono alla correlazione tra felicità e DIY riguardano spesso l’ambito dell’educazione; ciò significa che si ha un riscontro positivo dalle persone ad apprendere in modo attivo, diretto e concreto tecniche costruttive, capacità particolari e conoscenze utili per integrare il proprio stile di vita 3.

1

Tempelhof, Prinzessinnengarten, Ordenacion y ocupacion. Kingshighway skatepark, Hortolab, (Dis)assembled. 3 Institute of Placemaking, Noupaticastellum, Canillejas imagina un parque. 2

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AESTHETIC

HAPPINESS

La bellezza di un progetto influenza la felicità.

90%

71%

C’è maggiore felicità nei progetti in cui con alto livello estetico

High

High

Aesthetic

Happiness

Do It Yourself Soddisfazione nel creare qualcosa di alto valore estetico con le proprie mani

Riuso Migliorata l’estetica di luoghi un tempo abbandonati e non accessibili

Composizione Responso psicologico di serenità nel comprendere ciò che si guarda, chiarezza della forma

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Il livello estetico di un progetto può influenzare il riscontro positivo di felicità suscitato dal progetto stesso. I progetti che presentano alto livello estetico suscitano sentimenti di contentezza e soddisfazione con probabilità maggiore rispetto di a quelli di minor valore estetico. Il metro di giudizio estetico considera la chiarezza della forma e il riscontro di una coerenza d’espressione interna al progetto, riconoscibile e riconducibile a principi generatori. Se nell’esperienza della bellezza e nella sua percezione si comprende la chiarezza di ciò che sta alla base della composizione e si riconosce una logica ed un metodo, si è soddisfatti nell’aver compreso ciò che si vede e si instaura un responso psicologico positivo di serenità. 1 In particolare i progetti con alto valore estetico che suscitano felicità nell’utente presentano un’elevata presenza di attività di Do It Yourself; produrre qualcosa di esteticamente bello coinvolgendo direttamente le proprie mani incrementa la soddisfazione e la felicità nei confronti del proprio lavoro 2. Interventi di riuso di luoghi abbandonati o vuoti urbani, migliorando la loro qualità estetica con il processo riqualificazione, suscitano positività e contentezza, specialmente se si mette a confronto lo stato precedente di quei posti e le atmosfere spesso negative loro legate 3.

1

Noorderparkbar, Esto no es un solar, Periscope project. Park-urka, Molo Torre, Park(ing) 3 Place au changement, City Island, Un un Salle 2

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BIBLIOGRAFIA

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LIBRI

Atelier d’Architecture Autogérée (a cura di), Urban Act. A handbook for alternative practices, PEPRAV, 2007 P. Blundell Jones, D. Petrescu, J. Till (a cura di), Architecture & Participation, Spon Press, London, 2005 G. De Carlo, “Postfazione”, in: Avventure urbane: progettare la città con gli abitanti, M. Scavi, I.Romano, S. Guercio, A. Pillon, M. Robiglio, I. Toussant, Elèuthera, 2002 M. Mostafavi, G. Doherty (a cura di), Ecological Urbanism, Lars Müller Publishers, Baden, 2010 J. M. Richards, Peter Blake, G. De Carlo, L’architettura degli anni Settanta, il Saggiatore, Milano, 1973 P. Savoldi, Giochi di Partecipazione – forme territoriali di azione collettiva, FrancoAngeli DIAP, Milano, 2006

RIVISTE

M. Maggio, “Movimenti urbani e partecipazione”, Archivio di studi urbani e regionali, 82, 2005 J. Prost, “Adaptive Actions”, Field Journal, 2, ottobre 2008 F. Raggi, “Il progetto come utensile sociale”, Abitare, 506, settembre 2010. Spontaneous Interventions – U.S. Pavilion, 13th International Architecture Exhibition at the Venice Biennale, Architect: the Magazine of the American Institute of Architects, Agosto 2012

SITOGRAFIA S. Caracciolo, L’approccio bottom-up, http://qualitiamo.com/edicola/2008070901.html S. Cirugeda, Ordenacion y ocupacion territorial de solares, Recetas Urbanas, 2004, http://www.recetasurbanas.net/index. php?idioma=ESP&REF=1&ID=0008 A. M. Leon, Eme3 2012: Bottom-up, Domus Web, Luglio 2012, http:// www.domusweb.it/en/architecture/eme3-2012-bottom-up-/ R. Murrow, ECObox. Mobile devices and urban tactics, Domus Web, Novembre 2007, http://www.domusweb.it/it/architecture/ecobox-dispositivi-mobili-etattiche-urbane http://www.spatialagency.net

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R. Poletti, Lucien Kroll: una utopia interrotta, Domus Web, Giugno 2010, http://www.domusweb.it/en/architecture/lucien-kroll-utopia-interrupted/ D. Petrescu, How to make a community as well as the space for it, http:// www.re-public.gr/en/?p=60

From: http://www.spontaneousinterventions.org/statements: G. Douglas, Guerrilla Bike Lanes and Other Acts of Civic Improvement through Civil Disobedience, 2012 G. Douglas, Do It Yourself Urban Design in the Help Yourself City C. Lang Ho, Spontaneous Interventions: Design Actions for the Common Good, 2012 T. L. Griffin, American City Interrupted: What Spontaeous Interventions Can Teach Us About taking the city back, 2012 L. Lefaivre, Top Down Meets Bottom-Up, 2012 J. Roberts, Stop Planning Start Acting, 2012

Catalog, Eme3, 2012, http://issuu.com/eme3/docs/eme3_2012_catalogo Press release, Actions: What you can do with the city, Graham Foundation, Ottobre 2009, http://www.grahamfoundation.org/system/press/ pdf/2/original/Actions_PressRelease_2009_10_12.pdf edicola/2008070901.html

http://www.spontaneousinterventions.org http://www.eme3.org/ http://cca-actions.org/

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