__MAIN_TEXT__
feature-image

Page 1


BEYOND RETROFITTING INVESTIGATING THE ROLE OF SPATIAL QUALITY IN ENERGY PERFORMANCES STRATEGIES

Typological renovation and energy requalification of an existing social housing complex in Romolo, Milan

Politecnico di Milano Scuola AUIC Master of Architecture - Building Environment - Interiors A.Y. 2019/2020 Relator: Gennaro Postiglione Co-relator: Barbara Brollo Students: Alice Cajelli 904129 Gianluca Gujù 903821


INDEX

#

ABSTRACT

#1

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

1.1.1 Intro Retrofitting: the term

Retrofitting and spatial quality Retrofit as an additive process Tension between preservation and modification Building regeneration and citizens’s identification Retrofit as an occasion to rethink spaces for nowadays ways of living The future of cities

#02 PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS 2.1

HOUSING AFFORDABILITY IN ITALY

Social housing in Italy

Policy and governance Retrofit as an additive process

2.1.1 Demography and housing situation in Milan

Targets

Housing demand Social demand in Milan Elderly and young population different demand ALER ALER inhabitants Aler housing

2.1.2 Romolo area in PGT 2030

2.1.3 NIL 45 - Romolo Moncucco

2.1.4 Mobility and functions of the project area


2.1.5 Lynch Analysis 2.1.6 Height analysis

#03 EXISTING BUILDING ANALYSIS

3.1

SURVEY

3.1.2 Photographic survey FOCUS 1 - The towers

3.2

FOCUS 2 - Low buildings FOCUS 3 - Semi-underground parking

ACCESSIBILITY

FOCUS 1 - Accessibility in section

FOCUS 2 - Accessibility through photographic survey FOCUS 3 - Semi-underground parking

3.2.1 Pro and cons analysis

3.3 FUNCTIONAL PROGRAM 3.3.1 Pro and cons analysis 3.4 EXISTING HOUSING OFFERT FOCUS 1 - The goundfloor apartment typologies FOCUS 1 - The floor type plan apartment typologies

3.4.1 Pro and cons analysis

FOCUS 2 - Facade materials

3.5.1 Solar radiation analysis 3.5.2 Pro and cons analysi

3.1.1 Architectural survey

3.5 TECHNOLOGICAL SURVEY FOCUS 1 - Technological survey datasheet

3.6

PROJECT AIMS

3.6.1 Accessibity 3.6.2 Functional program

3.6.3 New housing offert

3.6.4 Building energetic performances

#04 PROJECT

4.1 INTRODUCTION

4.1.1 The structure and the alignments as guidelines for the project

4.2

GROUNDFLOOR

4.2.1 Accessibility FOCUS 1 - Major ramp

FOCUS 2 - Ramp beneath the tower FOCUS 3 - Covered passage under the tower

4.2.2 Functional program

4.3

FIRST FLOOR

4.3.1 Functional program FOCUS - Continuity between green house and roof gardens


4.4

2-8TH FLOORS

FOCUS 2 - Facade material detail_Northern facades

5.1.1 Groundfloor

4.4.1 Floor type plan

5.1.2 First floor_Green house

4.4.2 The distribution spaces

5.1.3 2th to 8th floor type

4.4.3 Apartments typologies

5.1.4 9th floor_10th to 15th floor type

4.4.4 Addition on the southern facade FOCUS 1 - Winter funcitoning daytime

FOCUS 2 - Winter funcitoning night time FOCUS 3 - Summer funcitoning daytime

4.4.5 The southern facades functioning

5.1.5 Conclusion_Results

#06 CONCLUSION

4.4.6 The northern facades functioning #07 BIBLIOGRAPHY

4.5

9TH FLOOR

4.5.1 Functional program 4.5 .2 Floor type plan

4.6

10-15TH FLOORS

4.6 .1 Floor type plan 4.6 .2 The student residences 4.6 .3 Co-living

#05 BUILDING ENERGETIC PERFORMANCES FOCUS 1 - Facade material detail_Sothern facades


Abstract

In recent years, it has been found that the requalification of existing buildings must provide a response to very large and complex problems, concerning social, environmental and economic sustainable goals. The regeneration has historically been caused by cultural, economic and social changes, with different peculiarities from time to time. Over time the motivations have been mainly technological-functional, linked mainly to decay, changement in use or needs and often caused by obsolescence. In recent years the motivations have been environmental or legislative demands for energy optimisations. In fact nowadays, saving resources and safeguarding the environment are influencing scientific research, creating innovation in the field of design and thus allowing the introduction of new products, systems and construction elements. Nonetheless, it has to be noticed that most of these tools’ focus is limited to energy performance and cost. This approach focused on quantitative technical values, although being valuable and effective, offers little or no regard towards the vital aspect of experienced architectural spatial quality. This demonstrates an urgent need for strategies to articulate the spatial potential, in order to influence the sence of well being and the behavioral patterns. . It has been decided to develop a refurbishment project in the field of social housing, since nowadays the theme of requalification and rationalization of the existing social housing built heritage has an important strategic value, as it is fundamental to maximize its efficiency and use in order to meet social, economic and environmental sustainability standards. The social housing stock is characterized, in fact, by numerous shortcomings, with very low technical and qualitative and functional standards, and in general with a problem of little or no maintenance. Thus the starting point of the thesis is the need to refurbish a social housing complex, owned by ALER,located in the Romolo area in Milan and built between 1978 and 1981. The project is the achievement of a methodology to renovate the building in object, which had been developed through the analysis and investigation of the area and the survey of the building in object, focusing on the potentialities and problems related both to quantitative and qualitative aspects. The renovation project is thus the combination of the imporvement of the spatial quality and the quality in use, with the purpose of increasing energy performances.

1 - Conceptual collage

10

11


1

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK


1.1.1 Intro

Retrofitting: the term

Retrofitting ‹retroufìtiñ› s. Engl. [Der. of (to) retrofit, propr. «Update retroactively»], used in ital. to the masculine - In the technical field, modification of a machine, an apparatus, a plant, etc., operated with the inclusion of changes (replacement of parts, addition of new elements) introduced in more recent models, in order to satisfy new needs or to comply with regulatory requirements subsequent to production.1 Technological retrofit interventions represent a specific declination of requalification where this is carried out through innovative technologies and products aimed at adapting or adapting pre-existing products to new needs, offering new services or performances not originally foreseen. The retrofit intervention - etymologically derived from the English noun retrofit which is composed of the two terms retro (active) “retroactive” and (re)fit “repair”. The concept, therefore, more than to restore or improve performance originates, refers to the introduction of new services, not before planned or otherwise not provided. The retrofit, therefore, compensates for phenomena of obsolescence.2 In general terms, retrofitting is defined as a response to an instance of adaptation and modernisation implemented with modified or new parts and devices, characterised by the introduction of efficient “updates” in order to implement existing building systems according to a logic of adaptation, conformation and integration. Language naturally records cultural changes and words tend to dress in new meaning when they are expressed by a context cultural, from scenarios of practice and research that in fact have been modified by new events. Compared to the scenario of interventions on the built, in recent years, in a relatively short period, the need for redevelopment overall of the building was induced in large part by factors completely different from the traditional ones, or from the difficulty /impossibility to consume new soil and from requests for improvement of energy efficiency shared at international level. Thus, next to the consolidated vocabulary of possible interventions on the constructed, relatively new terms appeared, “imported” by another vocabulary, both to classify the transformations and the addition constructions on it, and, this applies to the term retrofit, to define a energy requalification with new features, whose need has matured into supranational contexts.

[1] - English translation of the Italian definition present in Treccani. Retrofitting ‹retroufìtiñ› s. ingl. [der. di (to) retrofit, propr. «aggiornare retroattivamente»], usato in ital. al masch. – Nella tecnica, modifica di una macchina, di un apparecchio, di un impianto, ecc., operata con l’includervi i cambiamenti (sostituzione di parti, aggiunta di nuovi elementi) introdotti in modelli più recenti, allo scopo di soddisfare nuove esigenze o di corrispondere a requisiti normativi successivi al momento della produzione. [2] - Imperadori, M., Costruire sul costruito, Carocci, Roma, 2001. [3] - Zambelli, E., Fenomenologia e tassonomia degli interventi di trasformazione tecnologicoarchitettonica, in Ettore Zambelli (a cura di), Ristrutturazione trasformazione del costruito, Il Sole 24 Ore, Milano, 2004, p. 40. “Le nozioni di “recupero”e di “riabilitazione” non sembrano possedere quell‘energia espressiva che caratterizza un nuovo “paradigma”, culturale e operativo, che dovrebbe essere assunto di fronte al problema della trasformazione urbana.” [4] - Rinaldi, A., Relazione: La riqualificazione del tessuto storico di base: il progetto per Brennone 21 a Reggio Emilia, Bologna Fiere, 2009.

In 2004 Ettore Zambelli stated: “The notions of ” recovery “and” rehabilitation “do not seem to possess that expressive energy that characterizes a new cultural and paradigma operational, which should be assumed in the face of the problem of urban transformation».3 He proposed the term of “Architectural replay”, to provocatively affirm the autonomy of addition operations which, in scope, intensity and dissemination would have the right to establish an autonomous category of intervention. Andrea Rianldi states: «The retrofit interventions concern the existing building heritage, and tend to its redevelopment introducing performances not originally present. The retrofit does not fit in maintenance, as it represents an update, an adaptation, an adaptation of the building, specifically in relation to efficiency energy, but also, by extension, other functions / functions related to environment and sustainability. »4

14

15


[1] - In Dwelling renovation and spatial quality The impact of the dwelling renovation on spatial quality determinants, in International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment, 2015, Acre, F., Wyckmans develop a definition of spatial quality referred to the field of building renovation. [2] - Acre F. and Wyckmans, A., Spatial quality determinants for residential building renovation: A methodological approach to the development of spatial quality assessment. International Journal of Sustainable Building Technology and Urban Development, 2014. [3] - Acre F. & Wyckmans, A., 2015. Dwelling renovation and spatial quality: The impact of the dwelling renovation on spatial quality determinants. International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment [4] - Madsen, U. S., Beim, A., Towards an ecology of tectonics. København: Edition Axel Menges gmbh, 2014. [5] - Hvejsel, M. F., Kirkegaard, P. H. & Bundgaard, S., Towards a Tectonic Approach – energy renovation in a Danish context. Nordic journal of architectural research, 2015.

1 - Adapted from the diagram of the outcomes of an analysis carried out by A. Kamari et al. / in the International Journal of Sustainable Built

Retrofitting and spatial quality

Renovation of the existing buildings is receiving ever-increasing attention in many European countries; there is a drive with focus on climatic interests, energy efficiency, environmental impacts, life-cycle cost, indoor climate, etc. as a response to the urgent need for significantly more sustainable societies, and the challenges of rapidly increasing urbanization. Existing buildings can benefit from adopting a broader approach to sustainability, which seeks to decrease operation and maintenance costs; reduce environmental impacts; and can increase the building’s adaptability, durability, and resilience towards future challenges. Consequently, buildings may be less costly to operate, may grow in value, last longer, and contribute to a preferable, healthier, more convenient environment to the occupants. Alongside the objectives of technological renewal, there is a growing interest in increasing not only the energy performance, but also the social and architectural quality of existing buildings1. The spatial quality in the understanding that architecture is a phenomenon which influence sour sense of wellbeing and behavioral patterns. In engineering and building science research, analysis of sustainable renovations typically focus on what can be measured and observed, whereas in an architectural context, it is important to also consider qualitative experiential parameters specific to a building’s type, age, users and plans for the future. When all these interventions are summated, they can move the renovation case towards the goal of overall sustainability, which demands more holistic renovation approaches.

Environment 6 (2017). The diagram shows the sustainability valueoriented criteria for building renovation analyzed by the authors. The criteria are grouped in three macro categories: - ‘‘Functionality” which refers to technical, environment and used resources (environment). - ‘‘Feasibility” which encompasses financial, process, management, education and institutional indicators (economy) - ‘‘Accountability” which embraces municipal, architectural, cultural, human and community indicators (society). The different shades of blue show the different way of considering the different parameters in the design process. It is possible to see how parameters link with the spatial quality are less considered, compared to the other ones.

integrity

aesthetic

ACCOUNTABILITY identity

16

+ Retrofitting and spatial quality / Intro

energy efficiency material and waste

health and safety

FUNCTIONALITY

sociality

pollution

spatial quality

investement cost

financial structures

FEASIBILITY

Recent research has identified that there is limited attention to the vital aspect of experienced architectural quality in contemporary energy renovation practice6. The Norwegian researchers Acre and Wyckmans state that “…the inattention to the potential of nontechnical dimensions such as spatial quality, by stakeholders involved in the energy renovation of dwellings, constitutes a lost opportunity to increase occupants’ receptiveness to energy renovation.”7

Retrofit as an additive process

The scarcity of resources and new land and the huge heritage to maintain, upgrade and modify in order to update it to the changed performance standards are factors that favour the growth of cities through the transformation of the existing building heritage, aimed at raising the quality level or transferring new qualities to the built environment through the integration of new functions and new performances, especially related to energy. These factors encourage the development of design strategies that are attentive to energy saving and adequate to allow such transformations. The building retrofit identifies with an additive process of integration on the existing. In fact, the operation underlying all retrofit interventions is the addition to existing buildings of new services or performance increases those which were originally missing because they were not requested or because they were not available among the technological possibilities of the original context.

[1] - Acre F. and Wyckmans, A., Spatial quality determinants for residential building renovation: A methodological approach to the development of spatial quality assessment. International Journal of Sustainable Building Technology and Urban Development, 2014. [2] - Acre F. & Wyckmans, A., 2015. Dwelling renovation and spatial quality: The impact of the dwelling renovation on spatial quality determinants. International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment [3] - Madsen, U. S., Beim, A., Towards an ecology of tectonics. København: Edition Axel Menges gmbh, 2014. [4] - Hvejsel, M. F., Kirkegaard, P. H. & Bundgaard, S., Towards a Tectonic Approach – energy renovation in a Danish context. Nordic journal of architectural research, 2015. [5] - Scott, F., On altering architecture, Routledge, Oxon, 2008. [6] - Madsen, U. S., Beim, A., 2015. Værdiskabelse i Bygningsrenovering: en minianalyse af udvalgte koncepter for vurdering af egenskaber og kvaliteter i byggeri. København: CINARK ( Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole) [7] - Acre F. and Wyckmans, A., Spatial quality determinants for residential building renovation: A methodological approach to the development of spatial quality assessment. International Journal of Sustainable Building Technology and Urban Development, 2014. [8] - Pone S., Paradigmi progettuali per il retrofit: addizione, integrazione, sostituzione, sottrazione, in La riqualificazione dell’edilizia residenziale, (a cura di) Paola Ascione, Mariangela Bellomo. [9] - Antonini, J. Gaspari, G. Olivieri, Densificare per migliorare: strategie di riqualificazione del parco italiano di edilizia abitativa sociale, in Techne 04, 2012. [6] - Pone S., Paradigmi progettuali per il retrofit: addizione, integrazione, sostituzione, sottrazione, in La riqualificazione dell’edilizia residenziale, (a cura di) Paola Ascione, Mariangela Bellomo.

Retrofitting strategies often involve a process of densification of the existing9 by means of volumetric additions that make it possible to obtain many different benefits at the same time: new equipment can be installed and the addition itself, on a technological level, increases the performance levels of the building in question.

quality of services

stakeholders engagement and education innovation

Thus the attention to spatial quality represents an important source of potential added value for the inhabitants. According to Fred Scott, we alter buildings to ensure their relevance and significance to society over time5.

Building retrofit implies the obtaining of two macro objective8. The first one is the transfer in the pre-existence of new functions or new performances that may have been unsolicited, not existing in the panorama of technological or non-designed possibilities; the second macro objective is raising the level of existing services, level not originally requested, impossible to reach given the technological context or not designed.

water efficiency

flexibility and management

-

indoor comfort

Including spatial quality in building renovation assessment and measures contributes to making building renovation more attractive by providing added value to building owners and users. In fact it is recognized that the regeneration of a building towards influences the experience of the built environment dramatically in the interior as well as the exterior.1-2-3-4

operation and maintenance cost

1

The different actions of transformation of the constructed in the scientific literature are subject to different types of classification, which differ from each other according to the parameters and criteria on which they are based. These classifications offer themselves as a key to the transformation processes.

Retrofitting and spatial quality / Intro

17


i, ma livelli io nel

e adcaziozione ndone a eseginazione. ultemma ferite mette e alle so otsiva. ncipastenti parae. Ciò

Sergio Pone divides technological retrofit interventions into four categories: replacement, integration, addition and subtraction1. In unitary technological and energy retrofit interventions, several actions often coexist in a single intervention of greater complexity. ADDITION

In most cases, even in the presence of additions built in structural dependence on the original building, the most appropriate construction choice is almost always conceived in the field of light and dry construction technologies, both for technological-constructive reasons of site management and for static-structural reasons.2 In case the additions built cannot burden the building below, the load-bearing structure can be autonomous, inserted into the building or added to the facade. Additions can improve the structural behaviour of the building.

ssi di ediato

The main methods of volumetric addition can in turn be classified into three types3, all depending mainly on the existing structural conditions:

o apnte, e e; larga he dal

– basement additions, linked to the modifications of building basement, ground floor and surrounding areas; – facade additions, that can be realized as cantilever, or hung to the building, or provided with by an independent structure; - rooftop additions.

a può o adea doto del gi che

ion, do hape, ex, able in

y ngth gy

hape,

nt can p by ns can d the self ic, ation ency. es g rge

The addition concerns the action aimed at adding technical elements, parts of the building or entire volumes not existing in the original building. All volumetric additions have the potential to incentivise retrofitting even indirectly, because in configuring themselves as volumetric premiums may, in the medium and long term, result in a competitive advantage and therefore a lower economic impact on the intervention’s financiers.

number of experiences yet available, the ways of addition have been 1classified - Diagram on themain classification of volumetric in three types,8 which addition typologies, from E. Antonini, have been defined basing on both J. Gaspari, G. Olivieri, Densificare per migliorare: strategie di geometric parameters and type of riqualificazione del parco italiano connection of the new structure to di edilizia abitativa sociale, in Techne 04, 2012. the existing one. They have been identified as follows: – basement additions which are mainly linked to the modifications of building basement, ground floor and surrounding areas; – façade additions, that can be realized as cantilever, or hung to the- building, or provided with byper anil retrofit: [1] Pone S., Paradigmi progettuali addizione, integrazione, independent structure,sostituzione, spanning asottrazione, in La riqualificazione dell’econfiguration; dilizia residenziale, (a large variety of size and cura di) Paola Ascione, Mariangela Bellomo. – rooftop additions, whose characteristics depend on the [2] -Ibidem. condition of the original structural building, as well as on the type and [3] -E. Antonini, Olivieri, Densificare geometry of theJ. Gaspari, existingG. roof. per migliorare: strategie di riqualificazione del As shown in the scheme (Fig.1), the parco italiano di edilizia abitativa sociale, in Techne 04, 2012.

TECHNE 04 2012

18

Retrofitting and spatial quality / Intro

Additions along the basement can reconfigure the paths and accesses of the existing base and improve them. In the case of an intervention not on a single building, but on a complex, these additions can facilitate the mending of the paths between the buildings, removing the possible anonymous character of the design of the external space. These additions can accommodate new services and commercial activities, which can improve the financial feasibility of the redevelopment, as well as parking and green areas. The additions on the facade update its perceptual impact. They may concern the introduction of loggias, balconies, distribution spaces, such as balconies and may have an independent load-bearing structure, to which they are connected by joints, without creating thermal bridges or burdening the existing building. The addition of technical or habitable volumes on the facade has often proved useful for the internal redistribution of homes, to adapt them to changing lifestyles or to improve ventilation and internal comfort; the added compartments can improve the functional quality of homes or become real thermal buffers. Adding housing units or an entire floor in coverage can help to reconfigure the shape and volume of a building, to rebalance its proportions and relationships with respect to the urban context.

the users, due to the poor standards provided by the large majority of the units belonging to the social housing stock. Integration concerns the addition of construction elements to components of the existing building, in order to avoid the replacement of these parts, but maintain them and correct their performance, or add new ones. This process usually takes place with dry mounted construction systems in such a way as to ensure their reversibility. Some examples of integration are overcoat insulation, shading systems such as brise-soleil, but also solar thermal or photovoltaic systems.

INTEGRATION

The integration of layers or components into a building subsystem often uses the dry assembly of new elements to the pre-existing; in fact lightweight and dry construction systems are the most suitable forretrofitting. This is done in order to minimize the time and inconvenience. In the event that they cannot weigh on the building below, the load-bearing structure can be autonomous, “surgically” inserted into the building or added to the facade, integrating with it. The replacement concerns the need to remove elements or functional parts and place elements or similar parts with higher performance or new performance not present in the original elements in their place. This action affects more frequently the individual technical elements and plant systems and the objective is to reduce the impacts on the ecosystem by improving energy efficiency, reducing heat loss and in this way also improving internal well-being. In this way it is possible to simultaneously improve functional and technical performance and architectural-spatial performance.

REPLACEMENT

In some cases the replacement can be a more “visible” intervention, when this procedure involves the replacement of more substantial parts of the building, compared to the only functional elements replaced with similar but higher performance elements. Interventions may in fact involve entire parts of the building, such as balconies or loggias. The replacement action involving an intervention on the envelope can improve any degraded appearance of the facades. In this case the replacement may be accompanied by other types of retrofit, i.e. addition, subtraction and integration. The subtraction of walk-on surfaces, entire walls or volumes of the building is aimed at creating voids, completely open or semi-open spaces, or to expand internal voids; if it affects entire sections of the facade can be useful to form semi-open atria, spaces to be used for passive air conditioning if necessary. It can be of interest to give the buildings a less monolithic image (this is often an explicit request of the inhabitants). If associated with enlargements or volumetric additions positioned differently from the building, it can be useful to reorient buildings that are poorly arranged with respect to the heliothermic axis.

SUBTRACTION

The volumetric addition can significantly modify the flat size and configuration, and subsequently its adequacy to the resident needs. By increasing the provision of living and service spaces, the addition can also improve the equipment supply and the level of usability, which is a performance particularly valued by

Retrofitting and spatial quality / Intro

19


[1] - Califano, L., Le addizioni al costruito nelle strategie di retrofit, Tutor: prof. arch. Sergio Pone, Co-tutor: prof. Carmine Piscopo, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II. [2] - Cfr. Cetica, P. A., L’edilizia di terza generazione. Breviario di poetica per il progetto nella strategia del costruire, FrancoAngeli, Milano, 1993, citato in Ginelli, E., a cura di. L’intervento sul costruito. Problemi e orientamenti. Milano: FrancoAngeli, 2002.

Tension between preservation and modification

The complex theme of the intervention on the built environment has different meanings, all oscillating between conservation and transformation. These can concern the question of maintenance or recovery and redevelopment of existing buildings, so as to extend their life cycle, usually improving their original performance, but can also concern a tension towards modification with a design freedom that depends on the desire to adapt to new cultural, social and even economic conditions. The tension between the reasons of conservation and those of modification has accompanied the development of theoretical acquisitions and experiments.1 “The intervention on the built environment is a broad and articulated theme whose interpretation is generally based on the principle of conservationtransformation in which the building and architectural project operates“2. The characteristics of the building and the constraints that may be of a normativelegislative, financial, cultural, technological, morphological and social nature must be taken into account. The static, feasibility and appropriateness constraints that construction on existing buildings entails are accompanied by the possibility of focusing on the development of new housing models and the growth of cities. In the past, the relation between conservation and transformation has been strongly conflicting even with the project in the historical city within the studies on building restoration. Over time, within the scope of the intervention on the existing one, there has been a shift from more conservative positions and interests centred on the preservation of historical buildings to more shifted positions towards a more incisive physical transformation, in particular when the interest in the built environment has expanded to include the suburbs, contemplating both the need for improvement interventions that would combat functional degradation and obsolescence, and the importance of listening to the demands of the inhabitants.2 Designers have often claimed a freedom of expression that could testify to the vitality of architecture and the ability to approach pre-existence by working for consistent transformations and stratifications, reinterpreting it. In this type of intervention, updated construction techniques contrast with pre-existence; in this way, the technological advancement of the construction systems used is revealed and the intervention demonstrates confidence in the growth of cities by stratification and addition. Thus, on the one hand, reflection on the different aspects that have conditioned the transformation of buildings over time and, on the other, recognition of the factors that act today on the need for change.

Building regeneration and citizens’s identification

Retrofitting necessarily leads to an alteration of the artefact with respect to its original appearance. This is reflected in an alteration of the urban context in which it is located and, consequently, in the perception of the inhabitants towards this particular piece of the city.

[1] - Reale, L., Tempo/Soggetto/Soglia. Osservazioni sulla città attraverso la lettura di quattro quartieri romani. [2] - Signorelli, A., Antropologia urbana: introduzione alla ricerca in Italia, Guerini, Milano 1966. [3] - Scott, F., On altering architecture, Routledge, Oxon, 2008.

In fact on the level of perception of space there is a mutual exchange between the observer and the environment; the human subject in the space provides an emotional response and this emotional response becomes a sense of belonging that binds people to the places they live in, from the most intimate sphere of the dwelling to the most private sphere of the neighbourhood where they live.1 Therefore the retrofit interventions, acting on the modification of the built environment, act in the context of the delicate feeling of identification that a community feels towards the place where it is located. Thus, the importance of the relationship between the morphology of buildings and the environmental context must be emphasised. In fact, people recognize themselves within their environment through a series of “social practices” that derive in second analysis also from the environment itself, which is able to determine and act on the idea and the way of living. Following Lynch’s seminal work, many studies recognized that some city elements are memorable or “imageable” not because of their visual stimulus but because they possess some personal, historical, or cultural meaning. The alteration of the image of a piece of a city or a building also causes a change in the mentale image both at the level of the individual and of the community. The tangible and material space of a given place is firmly connected to the imaginary, made up of immaterial and intangible components deriving from a cultural and personal superstructure. A given physical place therefore takes on a symbolic meaning that is defined and constructed over time and is the way this is read by the individual subject, but also by the community of inhabitants. “Space does not exist” - argues Amalia Signorelli paradoxically - “in the sense that there is not a single portion of space that is not subjective. Becoming in this sense a place”. 2 Therefore, “To try to build a new image of these places, regeneration projects should focus on three elements: physical structure, identity and meaning”. 2 the retrofitting strategy of a building should not be understood as an isolated and punctual action, but the particular relationship between urban fact (as Aldo Rossi used to call the different parts of the city) and totality, that is the city, must be analyzed and studied. The retrofit project has to look for a relationship with pre-existence, but at the same time it has to contribute to the creation (or sustenance) of an imaginary shared in time by the inhabitants. Within this perspective, Fred Scott states “… designers work with that of others who have preceded them, when working to alter a building, and also in precedence of those who will come after them. The work of intervention and alteration is thus collective, across generations…”3.

20

Retrofitting and spatial quality / Intro

Retrofitting and spatial quality / Intro

21


[1] - From Dwelling to Dwelling Radical Housing Transformations. [2] - Vittoria, E., Progettazione dell’incertezza, Prospettive Settanta, 1980 [3] - Ibidem. [4] - Bauman, Z., Liquid life, Roma-Bari: Ed. Laterza, 2006. [5] - Brandolini, S., «La trasformazione come esigenza imprescindibile.» In Ristrutturazione e trafsormazione del costruito, di Ettore Zambelli, 3-32. Milano: Il Sole 24 Ore, 2004. [6] - Vittoria, E., Progettazione dell’incertezza, Prospettive Settanta, 1980 [7] - Dierna, Salvatore, e Fabrizio Orlandi. Buone pratiche per il quartiere ecologico. Firenze: Alinea Editrice, 2005

Retrofit as an occasion to rethink spaces for nowadays ways of living

As it can be read in From Dwelling to Dwelling-Radical Housing Transformation, dealing with the building heritage of modern mass housing built throughout Europe after the Second World War “[...] typological uniformity and resistance to variation limit the capacity of buildings to adapt over time.”1 so there is the need of redesigning such spaces to accommodate current needs and lifestyles, in terms of spatial, functional and aesthetic endowment, as well as environmental requirements. In the 1980s Eduardo Vittoria recognised that the “most original contribution” of the Modern Movement was that of recognising that architecture must become the spokesman for the multiplicity of the living, understood as the project of uncertainty, that is, the unpredictability of human life and society in organising itself. Within the Modern Movement were designed structures that potentially had a good degree of flexibility and adaptability, the mutation of the buildings could be controlled by a preordained structure, itself expandable according to a “grid” of preordained rules. The vital charge of the Modern Movement, capable of interpreting industrialized architecture, has been impoverished by the practice of building development. From the studies of the Modern Movement, good intentions to rationalize the growth of cities seem to enter into widespread practice, but in reality they are betrayed by the building speculation of the Second World War, which makes parts of anonymous, monotonous cities grow, in which the space to be inhabited does not dialogue either with the needs of the users or with the surrounding environment. However, “conventional economic, demographic and regulatory parameters have regained the upper hand over a design that legalized uncertainty as the main source of inspiration” and therefore “The living multiplicity of architecture intuited by modern architects since the 1920s (the cell-fabricated-city interdependence), was frustrated when attempts to experiment with new design mechanisms were reintegrated into the archaic system of building management“ From the studies of the Modern Movement, good intentions to rationalize the growth of cities seem to enter into widespread practice, but in reality they are betrayed by the building speculation of the Second World War, which makes parts of anonymous, monotonous cities grow, in which the space to be inhabited does not dialogue either with the needs of the users or with the surrounding environment.

In this “liquid-modern” society in which the situations in which people act change before their ways of acting are able to consolidate into habits and procedures “4 , the need for design open to change is once again emerging and “transformation, as a dynamic and fluid concept, must be conceptualised as an absolute value, to guarantee the liveliness, exchange and livability that underpin the very idea of cities and architecture 5.

[1] - Reale, L., Tempo/Soggetto/Soglia. Osservazioni sulla città attraverso la lettura di quattro quartieri romani.

The concept of transformation already had value in itself for Eduardo Vittoria and was closely linked to the concept of architectural quality, which he defined, in fact, as “potential concept of transformation”. He felt the importance of building an architecture “as a further possibility”, which had in itself the seeds of change to modify/improve the quality of life of the occupants. In designing, therefore, the “notion of virtuality, understood as a way of reconquering the concept of reality with the notion of uncertainty, which is an integral part of it”.6 Uncertainty, therefore, occurs over time as a factor that must be contemplated in the project at all scales and that can only be guaranteed by the possibility of transformation: “In this society without a center, uncertainty itself becomes a category of certainty, and irreversibility is assumed to be reversibility, while immaterial and invisible of the computer and telematic world tend to predominate and guide the material and the visible of the production process” 7 .

The future of cities

Architectural culture today seems to have accepted, at least in Europe, the idea that the reference scenario for the project is now mainly linked to the transformation of the existing rather than expansion, to compensation for the urban fabric rather than to the composition of new textures.1 The cities of the future have also ceased to be represented through new or avantgarde prefigurations. Architects and urban planners are less and less making “projections” and focusing on that visionary gaze that had also constituted a foundation of modern architecture, alongside technical-efficient solutions to the housing problem. In the last thirty years even science fiction has told the future city more as a ruin of our metropolis than as a new territory. Nowadays it is necessary to recognize the value of the city “that already is” to develop its already present qualities.

These reflections show how the knowledge of the passage of time and the willingness to accept factors of flexibility and adaptability to the needs of users was already present in the architecture of the Modern Movement. Eduardo Vittoria had found in it the cue for a “design of uncertainty2”, later impoverished by standardized and transmissible schemes. It could, instead, have provided “qualitative identity of inhabitable places, given back to the individual as a possibility, and not as a constraint, of space3”

22

Retrofitting and spatial quality / Intro

Retrofitting and spatial quality / Intro

23


2

PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS


2.1 Housing affordability in Italy

The Housing Europe Observatory, the research branch of Housing Europe presents every two years a report called ‘The State of Housing in Europe’.

Social housing in Italy

Italy lags behind other European countries, where the creation of social buildings has gone hand in hand with the redevelopment of entire urban areas. In Italy, where the stock of properties available for rent has always been considerably reduced compared to other European countries, the public social housing stock has also been and still is very modest in size. In fact, only 4% of Italy’s entire housing stock is public housing, compared to 15% in France or 30% in the Netherlands. In Italy, therefore, the social support offered to economically and socially weak households in the housing sector is decidedly lacking and in any case not comparable with that existing in other European countries with a similar level of development and wealth. Social housing is a broad term that also refers to first residences and self-construction projects, social condominiums and forms of cohabitation, real estate support services and moderate rents. In short, many answers to a single problem of living Social housing in Italy is not just an evolution of social housing, but a heterogeneous set of experiences straddling public intervention, non-profit and social spontaneity, aimed at providing housing to those who are unable to meet their needs in the housing market.

Policy and governance

In the early 1990s, competence for housing policy in Italy was transferred to the Regions and local authorities, and the central fund for public housing (Gescal Fund) was abolished. Since then, few things have changed. The 2008 national Housing Plan recognized for the first time a substantial role of private capital in contributing to increase affordable housing supply leading to the establishment of private social/affordable housing in Italy and to the entry in the sector of new players, especially dedicated banking foundations, and the creation of a new national financing platform SIF (Sistema Integrato dei Fondi) pooling a national fund, FIA, resources from Cassa Depositi e Prestiti, from the Ministry of Infrastructure and Transport and from other private investors. Promoters have been mainly foundations (in primis Fondazione Housing Sociale, which plays an important role in the management of SIF) and cooperatives (especially cooperatives affiliated to Legacoop Abitanti which have committed to the construction of about 3,000 units). Furthermore, it’s important to mention that cooperatives have played a significant role in the provision of housing for affordable home ownership.

26

1 - Housing Europe, The State of Housing in the EU 2019 - Decoding the new housign reality, 2019.

27


Generally, the sector suffers from severe under-funding, hence a low level of new supply and problems with maintenance and management of the stock. These trends, combined with a policy of selling off the public stock – translate into a constant decrease in the size of the sector. However, interesting public initiatives still exist.

Housing Europe Observatory, The State of Housing in the EU 2019 Decoding the new housing reality Brussels, 1 October 2019.

28

29


2.1.1 Demography and housing situation in Milan

ERS ERS redeemed

0% +1,1%

-21%

+46,9%

Poor private residential building Disiused buildings

Overcrowding index, 2011

Population growth, 1999/2030 1.450.000 1.400.000 1.350.000 1.300.000 1.250.000 1.200.000 1.150.000 1999

2017

2030

Milan’s population will start growing again as early as 2008 and sharply from 2014. In 2017 there were 1,380,873 residents in Milan. The most recent demographic increase is certainly influenced by the dynamics of the foreign component which, growing at an important rate, today reaches a share of 19.4%. The number of families is also increasing, but with an increasingly fragmented composition, they have increased by 15%. In the same years, on the other hand, there has been a significant growth in the weight of the younger classes (from 6 to 34 years old), in particular with the increase in residents between 19 and 24 years old (+21.7%). This trend shows the consolidation of the city’s role in attracting young people, who see Milan as an opportunity to train and start their careers. The growth of these age groups together with the elderly, the reduction in the average number of members per household, the growing share covered by the foreign component, together with the processes of social polarization induced by recent economic dynamics-occupational, are bound to profoundly change, incidencefrom of overcrowded buildings (>15 m²/ab) exceeding 20%. a quali-quantitative point of view, the housing demand.

Targets Edi

e aree in stato di degrado

L’Amministrazione Comunale dal 2014 ha attivato la ree in mappatura e il c stato di degrado e inutilizzo. Tale attività conoscitiva rappresenta una prima fase di un lavoro più ampio contrastare il degrado del tessuto urbano della città esistente. L’elenc composto a partire dalle rilevazioni e ettuate da Municipi, Enti presenti sul territorio, Associazioni e cittadini. I luoghi sono mappati nella tavola R10 | Carta del consumo di suolo all’interno del PdR. L’originaria banca dati è in continua evoluzione ed aggiornamento. Nel caso lo stato di degrado sia comprovato e non risultino azioni in essere o in programma per porvi rimedio, è stata avviata una procedura che prevede la richiesta alle proprietà di messa in sicurezza e di romuovere il recupero. interv

30

Demography and housing situation / Preliminary analysis

Where to put the attention for new interventions ? A city that proposes the widespread regeneration of the existing building heritage, starting from the facilitation of the reorganization of working-class neighbourhoods, recovering vacant housing and favouring interventions to renovate public housing, also through mechanisms that encourage collaboration with private individuals, in order to absorb and regenerate the “basic necessity” demand. Moreover, as already foreseen for railway stations, the articulation of the offer of housing services will favour temporary living and, above all, rent at reduced rates. Social housing, understood as a real service, thus becomes an enabling factor for the development of a city that wants to be attractive not only for affluent classes, but also for the new flowering classes, students and young people on low and middle income in the early stages of their working career and for economically disadvantaged segments, low-income families, separated and single families, elderly people, new citizens, etc.. The aim is to renew the social mix that represents a peculiar and founding value of Milan. Disiused buildings

Demography and housing situation/ Preliminary analysis

31


Relazione Generale

90

Demography

The trend of the real estate market over the years appears to be very different.

Density population change for NIL, 2013-2017

Housing Anregeneration analysis of the data processed by the Milan Chamber of Commerce reveals

a widening of the gap between the centre, where values are growing, and the periphery, which denotes a continuing decline. On the buying and selling market, the values of new residential properties are growing in the most dynamic and innovative parts of the city, characterised by widespread regeneration, in pedestrian areas and in areas where public transport is being improved. On the other hand, prices in peripheral areas are slowing down, with an average decrease in real estate values of 7.8% in ten years. In recent years, the housing issue is therefore a very relevant issue, understood as the need for policies regarding the need for innovative solutions that take into account the characteristics of the new actors that make up the demand for housing. At the basis of this housing problem are mainly economic and income factors, but also social factors.

ERS

Given the fragmentation of demand, it is not possible to think that today a single

+46,9%

Housing regeneration Population growth, 1999/2030 1.450.000 1.400.000 1.350.000 1.300.000 1.250.000 1.200.000 1.150.000 1999

2017

2030

ERS 0% +1,1%

ERS redeemed +46,9%

Poor private building policy residential can respond to the housing problem. Policies must be differentiated

andbuildings targeted, so as to respond to the needs of the different actors that make Disiused

up the demand, from the homeless, to social groups that cannot access the housing market, to non-EU citizens, to young people. Particular attention must be paid to the field of renting; the medium-long term rental formula must Overcrowding index, 2011 provide answers both in terms of flexibility and temporariness. This factor is fundamental at a time when increased labour mobility requires an appropriate social policy that is adapted to the needs of mobility, especially with regard to the issue of housing.

graphy

y population change for NIL, 2013-2017

Social demand in Milan

ERS redeemed

0% +1,1%

Relazione Generale -21%

Housing demand

Poor private residential building

EdiDisiused e aree in stato di degrado buildings

L’Amministrazione Comunale dal 2014 ha attivato la ree in mappatura e il c Overcrowding index, 2011 stato di degrado e inutilizzo. Tale attività conoscitiva Demography and housing situation / Preliminary analysis 32 rappresenta una prima fase di un lavoro più ampio contrastare il degrado del tessuto urbano ation growth, 1999/2030 della città esistente.

Very often, however, social housing is punctuated by a series of dissatisfactions on the part of the inhabitants, particularly with regard to the quality of interventions. In fact, several negative aspects can be attributed to past interventions, which have led to the creation of complexes that are inadequate for the treatment of the housing problem. Many buildings have increased the marginalization of residents who, already in poor conditions, were even more marginalized. Collective open spaces were often inappropriately designed, as they were not conceived as spaces for relationships and aggregation. Building types and housing cutbacks opposed excessive inertia to flexibility. Building with the aim of rethinking to avoid the mistakes of the past. First of all, the new social housing interventions foresee the integration of commercial and/or tertiary services and activities to counteract the single - functionality of the neighborhoods. incidence of overcrowded buildings (>15 m²/ab) exceeding 20%.

In order to define the characteristics of the housing demand, some general elements must be taken into account. First of all, there is a progressive increase in mobility on the labour market, with precarious working relationships and alternation of work and training. This leads to a demand for territorial mobility

Demography and housing situation/ Preliminary analysis

33


4 years old

Two people 28

er % more %arent

Two people 31%

Single 42%

1 - Grafico a torta types of households in social housing 2015 ople Single rrent PGT 46%

Three people

1 and Abitare 2 15% ing Agreement Relazione Generale mmes

Four or more 12%

nd 47.123 m² e social mix per social housing and

gibleSingle 42%

Two people 28

Single 45%

2 - Grafico a torta types of households in Milan 2030

7

r 12

Three people 15%

12 2012 2012 12

characterised by different forms of stay in the same place without this leading located elsewhere. Another aspect and cohabitations. In addition to the trend towards a reduction in average size and an increase in the number of households, there are new dynamics with an important weight in determining housing needs, e.g. children tending to stay long in the home unit, less stable unions, the tendency of the elderly to rejoin their children for care needs. In recent years there has been a great growth in the number of families and a sharp reduction in the average number of members. There are several reasons for this phenomenon: - the decrease in births and hence the lower incidence of families with more than two children and the increase in childless couples; - the process of nuclearisation, i.e. the decrease in extended families and hence the tendency to form more autonomous households. The presence of immigrants people Single reinforces theTwodemands for flexibility, both because of the high territorial 28 45% mobility of these populations and the need for family reunification that they express after a certain period of stay in the territory.

to people the abandonment of the main residence Four or more Three 12% 15% concerns the transformation of the family

Four or more 13%

Three people 14%

Occupated 174

Single 46%

The real estate market, marked by a compression of the rental offer and an increase in prices, is a condition in which there is an extension of housing problems. Some categories of citizens are more affected by the new situation of poverty, including the elderly and pensioners, but also young people struggling with a difficult entry into the world of work. A further element in the evolution of demand is related to households’ demand for higher quality housing, both in terms of better standards and different types of housing, and in terms of the location of housing in relation to the context. In order to reconstruct social demand it is necessary to consider the following forms of housing poverty: - Problems arising from high housing costs: cost as an obstacle to access or a problem of maintaining an acquired housing ADP Scali condition; problems related to the quality of the housing, its suitability to meet Transitional rule degradation, presence of the necessary services, accessibility, the housing need: etc. A second aspect is related to the levels of severity of the problem: situations of vulnerability and risk, mainly caused by a structural weakness or instability of the household, associated with the reduced availability of resources to which are added situations of housing distress, resulting from housing arrangements that are unsatisfactory, dangerous, too expensive, etc..

Elderly and young populations different demand

If the growth of the elderly population is taken into account, this leads to a demand for housing with special performance and typological characteristics. In most cases, the elderly are housed in apartments that have all the necessary facilities to achieve a certain level of living comfort and satisfaction with the apartment. The perceived discomfort depends on other factors, such as the presence of physical barriers that hinder the access and use of space, the lack of lift, the feeling of living in a noisy, damp, too big house with unused space. The problems of the elderly are related to the unsuitability and/or onerousness of the accommodation. Policies will have to move in two directions, on the one hand dealing with “affordability” problems, and on the other hand seeking suitable solutions in terms of typology and context. On the other hand, the social nature of young people’s demand can be related to two different types of problems: the particular housing needs linked to the life cycle and poverty. On the first aspect, the difficulties of young people stem from a weakness in the market which depends not only on economic capacity but above all on the rigidity and character of supply. With regard to the second aspect, the involvement of young people in poverty depends on job insecurity and changes in family and social models. Appropriate measures must take account of the duplicity of problems. In one sense it is a question of addressing problems of typological and dimensional adequacy of supply, in the other hand it is a question of affordability. A particular component is made up of off-site students; in fact, the public offer of student accommodation is still extremely limited. There are about 70,000 students outside of Milan, while housing supply covers only 5% of demand. The risk is therefore that students who do not have sufficient financial resources will not be able to follow a course of study.

The intersection of the two aspects makes it possible to recognize the different critical issues associated with the combination of problem types and levels of severity of the problem itself. Excluding situations of housing exclusion, the area within which situations of hardship and housing poverty mainly occur is the rental sector. In fact, more than 40% of the tenants support more than 20% of their income for rent, a percentage that doubles in the lowest income class.

Four or more 11%

e 2017)

rs old

ADP Scali Transitional rule Two people Single 2 - Grafico a torta types of households in Milan 28 46% 2015

Three people 14%

34

Four or more 13%

Three people 15%

Four or more 12%

Demography and housing situation / Preliminary analysis

Demography and housing situation/ Preliminary analysis

35


media

€ 150,00

-5,2%

dal 2012

70.000 vacant accommodation on the free market (Estimate 2

Composition of households population 18-34 years 84.123 families so distributed in 2015:

ALER

Starting in the 1990s, the increase in the number of households led to an increase in primary demand for housing, accentuated by migration dynamics, separations and divisions of households. In this expansive phase a variety of demands manifested themselves, from that of newly formed families, to that of immigrants, to the temporary demand expressed by workers and students away from home. In this context the transformation of the IACP of Milan into ALER (Azienda Lombarda Edilizia Residenziale) Milan, in 1996, took place.

ALER accommodations in Milan are characterized by a strong static and incapability of innovation. 73.6% of the buildings are over 50 years old and the tenants highlight the need for maintenance interventions, especially related to masonry and painting. Most of the ALER tenants have been living in the same accommodation for a long time, on average for 26 years, and for the moment they do not show any intention to leave. The main reason is economic, as it is often impossible to pay a higher rent. Another reason for wanting to stay in the same accommodation is that it meets the overall needs of the family living there, both in terms of physical characteristics (square metres, number of rooms, light, ventilation, etc.) and in terms of cost (rent level). In addition, the low rent discourages the intention to buy the accommodation, even if it is possible to do so.

The ALER is a public institution of an economic nature with legal personality, entrepreneurial and organizational, patrimonial and accounting autonomy and its own statute approved by the Lombardy Region. The transformation was radical, in that from an Institute with a welfare purpose it passed to a Company with declared economic objectives and “entrepreneurial initiative”. The aims of the new body were: - effectiveness, through valid actions and interventions; - efficiency, trying to minimize the resources to be employed. In the two-year period 1997-1998, the ALER entered into full activity, giving impulse and operativeness to its strategies. The first objective was the requalification of the patrimony inherited from the IACP, composed of 23,500 lodgings.

ALER inhabitants

To understand the socio-demographic characteristics of ALER tenants, the quality of their homes, the perception of the liveability of the neighborhoods, the relationship between tenants and the company, we summarize the results of a survey conducted on a sample of 500 ALER tenants in the city of Milan. The sample is mainly composed of women and people with a low average level of education, mainly due to the fact that their age is unbalanced towards the higher classes. The percentage of widowed people (21.8%) is high, second only to the share of married people (50.2%), and that of retired people (60.6%), followed by a great distance from the employed (25.2%). Both widowers and pensioners are often associated with a single-member household. This type of family, with 31.6%, is second only to the percentage of households consisting of two members, i.e. 33.6%. About one in two respondents was born in Lombardy, while, among those who were not born in Lombardy, more than one in two moved to Milan from the South mainly for work and especially during the years of the economic boom.

ALER housing

Single 62,2%

Other 5,3% Single parent 7,7% Couple without children 10,4%

Couple with at least one child 14,4%

1 - Grafico a torta con tipologie di nuclei famigliari residenti negli alloggi di edilizia sociale

ERS in implementation and programming

Quotas realised in implementation of the current PG

Relazione Generale

70

27.920 m² SL 15.000 m² SL of university residences 290.768 m² SL of which 58.970 concerning the programmes Abitare 1 and A 59.934 m² SL provided for in the Social Housing Agr 171.864 m² SL envisaged in different programmes

Heritage ERP accommodation 27.945 accommodations under MM management 35.109 accommodations under ALER management 4.050 vacant ERP accommodation under MM management The 14% ERP accommodation under MM management

Planned quotas in AdP Railway stations

156.498 m² SL intended for social housing and 47.1 SL of residence in agreement to guarantee the socia (estimation of 2.908 alloggi of about 2.235 per soc 673 for ordinary subsidized housing) of which 40% minimum share for rent.

25.192 applications for ERP 2018 housing, of which 2/3eligible

Residential rental fee (two-room apartments), 2017

zone center ramparts

€/m²/anno € 240,00 € 180,00

ring road decentralization media

Variation -9,9% -3,5%

€ 147,00 € 120,00 € 150,00

-4,1% 0% -5,2%

Year dal 2012 dal 2012

Three people 15%

Four or more 11%

dal 2012 dal 2012 dal 2012

70.000 vacant accommodation on the free market (Estimate 2017)

Composition of households population 18-34 years old 84.123 families so distributed in 2015: Two people 28

Single 62,2% Three people 14%

36

Demography and housing situation / Preliminary analysis

Other 5,3% Single parent 7,7%

Four or more 13%

Single 46%

Three people 15%

Four or more 12%

Demography and housing situation/ Preliminary analysis

37


2.1.2 Romolo area in PGT 2030

The Plan, by the wider policy of urban regeneration, identifies some nodes on which to activate specific development forecasts, linked to the valorisation of infrastructures existing, through processes of functional integration, densification, mending and redevelopment of public space. On a large scale, it is expected the regeneration of the main interchange junctions between the metropolitan area and the urban centre, which will have to evolve from purely monofunctional spaces, not devoid of aspects of physical and social degradation, in neuralgic places in which to affirm conditions of urbanity, integrating valuable functions, also through forms of reuse and densification, and by combining the efficiency of intermodal systems and the urban logistics with the quality of urban space and pedestrian permeability even with the surface enhancement of railway and metro stations, in an integrated public space project.1

[1] - PGT 2030 Milan, pag. 57. [2] - PGT 2030 Milan, pag. 85.

The Plan sets the public space at the centre of regeneration. Its deep and substantial redevelopment is a prerequisite for the rethinking of seven squares - Loreto, Maciachini, Lotto, Romolo, Abbiategrasso, Trento and Corvetto. These are of inconclusive places, between downtown and suburbs, points of discontinuity of the pedestrian network entirely dedicated to the car, in which the quality of the project oriented to increase the permeability and walkability of pedestrians and cyclists is an unavoidable condition for access to possible densification interventions, in the same way as for the regeneration of interchange nodes.2

1

The Romolo area is therefore a strategic area, being an area of urban renewal located along the circular line and part of the system of seven squares that must undergo urban regeneration.

1 - Reworking of the strategic plans contained within the PGT 2030. 2 - Zoom on the Romolo area

pedestrian areas nuclei of ancient formation areas of urban renewal squares railway stops

2

38

PGT Milan 2030 / Preliminary analysis

circular line interchange nodes

PGT Milan 2030/ Preliminary analysis

39


15.4%

2017

Young people (0 to 18 years old)

d)

12.858

2030

2017

2030

Total resident Adults (19 to 64 years old)

Total resident RESIDENT POPULATION

61,8% 61,6%13.552

16.2%

Population (2017)

15.4%

2.1.3 NIL 45 - Romolo Moncucco

12.858

Eximated population (2030)

13.552 12.858

2017

Population (2017)

2017

2030

Young people (0 to 18 years old) YOUNG PEOPLE (from 0 to 18)

2017 2017

Eximated population2030 (2030)

Total resident Adults (19 to 64 years ADULTS (from 19 old) to 64)

2030 2030

From an administrative point of view, the Municipality of Milan is divided into nine decentralized zones, in each of which there is an Area Council.

Elderly years) EDERLYpeople PEOPLE(over (over65 65)

Population (2017)

Eximated population (2030)

61,8%

13.552 61,6%

16.2%

della popolazione del NIL

15.0%

2017

2030 2030

2017 15.8%

Adults (19 to 64 years old)

2030 13.5%

16.0%

Surface

Elderly people (over15.0% 65 years)

13.1%

13.5%

15.0%

12.4%

della popolazione del NIL

Population (2017)

61,8%

22,9%

61,6%

12.4%

22,2% 13.1%

13.5%

10.0%

2017

11.3%

della popolazione del NIL2017

2030

2030

12.4%

10.0%

10.0%

Eximated population (2030)

10.0%

10.0%

Families

22,9%

8.8%

2017

15.0%

5.0%

della popolazione del NIL

5.5%

4.1%

5.0%

2.5%

della popolazione del NIL

4.1%

4.1%

3.8%

4.1%

3.8%

4.9% 2.8%

5.5%

10.0%

4.9%

of the surface of Milan

2.3%

13.5%

13.1%

3.4%

0-2

0-2 3-5

3-5 6-10

11-13

6-10

3-5

14-18

11-13 19-24

Urbanizable

Foreign population

3.4%

Urbanized

8.8% Green areas

Built fabric

6-10

11-13

Families

14-18

19-24

25-34

35-44

45-54

55-64

65-74

14-18 25-34

19-24 35-44

25-34 45-54

35-44 55-64

7.4%

75-84

>85

5.5%

Foreign population

5.0% 10.0%

45-54 55-64 della popolazione 65-74

del NIL 75-84

>85

65-74

1

75-84

>85 4.1%

4.1%

8.8%

NIL 45 demography / Preliminary analysis

Unbuilt fabric

10.0%

Population density

11.3%

Età

Families

3.4%

12.4% 0-2

Main use of distric surface

5.5%

7.4%

2.3%

Età

of distric surface

Urbanized

Population density

Surface

della popolazione del NIL

2.3%

2.4%

40

13.1%

12.4%

4.9%

2.8%

2.4%

2.5%

Età

Surface

11.3%

4.1%

2.8% 2.4%

3.8% 2.5%

5.5% 4.1%

5.5% Use

7.4%

16.0%

15.8%

5.0%

2030

della popolazione del NIL

opolazione del NIL

Infrastructures

13.5%

15.0%

Use of distric surface

16.0%

7.4%

5.5%

10.0%

15.8%

of the surface of Milan

8.8%

22,2%

Infrastructures

Urbanizable

Urbanizable 15.0%

Foreign population

15.0%

Built fabric

Foreign population

Built fabric

Below are the land use data within the NIL45.

della popolazione del NIL

della popolazione del NIL

opolazione del NIL

Green areas

11.3%

Elderly people (over 65 years)

Green areas

The demographic analyses for the NIL45, contained within the PGT 2030 of Urbanized Population density Families Unbuilt fabric Milan, are shown to the side. The diagrams show the forecast of the demographic of the surface of Milan Eximated population (2030) of the population divided by age group in the period between growth or decrease Built fabric 2017 and 2030. In general, the population tends to decrease and this decrease is Families 11.3% Urbanizable Green areas due to the quite substantial decrease of theForeign younger part of the population (0population Urbanized Population density 10.0% 18 years), since, on the contrary, the adult and elderly population tend to grow. Infrastructures 8.8%

della popolazione Population (2017)del NIL

Unbuilt fabric

Surface In the Territory Government Plan the entire municipal of the surface of Milan territory is further divided into Local Identity Units (Nuclei di Identità Locale - NIL), which represent minimum planning units. The Moncucco district is part of theUnbuilt NIL45fabric of the surface of Milan Use of distric surface Main use of distric surface 13.1% Urbanized - San Cristoforo. Population density

15.0%

2017 2017

2030 della popolazione del NIL

15.0% 16.0%

15.8%

12.858

Main use of distric surface

The residential complex under analysis is located in zone 6, in particular in the Surface Use of distric surface Main use of distric surface Moncucco district, in via Russoli 14/16/18/20.

22,9%

22,2%

15.0%

15.4%

Use of distric surface

16.0%

15.8%

3.8%

2.8%

Infrastructures Urbanizable

5.5%

1. Socio-demographic data on the population in NIL 45. Source: Milan PGT 2030

4.9%

3.4%

NIL 45 demography/ Preliminary analysis

2.5% 2.4%

2.3%

41


2.1.4 Mobility and functions of the project area

Zone 6 extends from the circle of the Spanish Bastions to the border between the town and the Municipality of Corsico. In this area there are two underground lines of Milan, in particular the M1 line (stops: Bisceglie, Inganni and Primaticcio) and the M2 line (stops: Porta Genova, Famagosta and Romolo). There are also three railway stations: Porta Genova, Romolo and San Cristoforo. The Romolo stop is the closest to the project area. The Moncucco district is well served from a road and rail transport point of view. As far as car transport is concerned, the area is easily reachable from outside the city, both from the A7 motorway, which connects Milan to Genova, and from the A50 western ring road, which is tangential to the suburban area of Milan from south-east to north-west. The area is also well connected to the city centre, as it is located just outside the ring road of the regions, where the roads that radially depart from the historic centre pass. From an iron transport point of view, the district is served by the Romolo railway station, where the trains of Milan’s suburban railway service, in particular those of the S9 line (Seregno - Milano - Albairate), pass through. The project area is in an optimal position as far as railway connections are concerned, in fact it is only 500 metres from Romolo station. The latter is a stop on the S9 railway line and the M2 underground line. As far as the underground is concerned, the lot of interest is quite close, about 600 metres, also to Famagosta station, also on the M2 line. The two stations of Romolo and Famagosta are connected by bus line 71, which has a stop in via Russoli, in front of the ALER complex. Moreover, from Romolo station there are the circular trolleybus line 90/91 and the intercity car lines 325 for Corsico, 351 for Buccinasco and 47 from P.le Cantore to Q.re Lodovico il Moro. From Famagosta station there are buses of line 320 to Assago, line 95 (from Fieramilanocity station line M1 to Rogoredo station M3) and line 59 (from P.le Cantore to Q.re S. Ambrogio).

1. Map of the Moncucco area with the analysis of the mobility network and existing functions.

sport housing facilities culture

In zone 6 there are two local libraries, several schools (32 nursery schools, 22 primary schools, 15 secondary schools, 9 high schools and 2 universities: IULM and NABA), the San Paolo hospital and a nursing home for the elderly.

health education street market technological and environmental infrastructure university and research religious equipment mobility nodes tram line metro line cycle path

42

43


2.1.5 Lynch Analysis

Lynch’s analysis and graphic reworking was carried out as a strategy to identify at the perceptive experience level what were the sensations given by the neighborhood, immersing oneself in it and being able to analyze the way of moving, living it and orienting oneself. The project area is enclosed between some barriers, indicated as borders, both natural (waterways) and artificial, i.e. the railway and the ring road. Within these edges, where mobility is marked by the presence of important interchange nodes (such as Romolo and Famagosta), mobility becomes calmer and along the same via Russoli, where the building complex object of thesis stands, it is very scarce. The project area is located within an area that is confused: between the buildings of the IULM university campus and the thesis building complex, there is a green area with the function of a park that lacks character. In addition, there is little differentiation between the building in question and the tower buildings in front along the other side of Via Russoli. The lack of character of some of the areas around the project generates points of confusion. There are also some points of meeting and greater affluence of people, indicated as nodes (people), which mainly correspond to the stadiums of various sizes that arise in the area.

1. Map of the Moncucco area with a Lynch analysis.

node (mobility) node (people) landmark point of confusion lack of relation lack of differentiation characterless area district Romolo district lack of relation between borders borders paths paths (pedestrian)

44

Lynch and mobility analysis / Preliminary analysis

Lynch and mobility analysis/ Preliminary analysis

45


2.1.6 Height Analysis

46

47


3

EXISTING BUILDING ANALYSIS


3 EXISTING BUILDING ANALYSIS

3.1 SURVEY 3.2 ACCESSIBILITY 3.3 FUNCTIONAL PROGRAM 3.4 EXISTING HOUSING OFFER 3.5 TECHNOLOGICAL SURVEY 3.6 PROJCT AIMS

50

51


3.1 Preliminary analysis

The case study selected as the theme of the thesis is a social housing complex owned by the ALER located in Via Russoli, in the south-west suburbs of Milan. It was built between 1978 and 1981 and occupies an area of about 12540 square meters. The complex consists of four towers each one which are connected to each other on the ground floor thanks to the presence of low buildings of only one floor. The towers and the low buildings have in common a basement under which there is the parking; this arrangement means that 93% of the volume built is above ground and only 7% is excavated. The area has three fenced green areas at street level and three squares above street level.In the basement and the ground floor of the towers there are cellars, technical and service areas; on the upper floors there are the apartments of different typologies. In the lower buildings there are residences of different types, mainlysingle - room apartments.

14

It can be seen that towers 14, 18 and 20 are perfectly identical to each other, while tower 3 differs from the others, both in the south-east elevation and in the planimetric distribution of the apartments facing this front. In particular, tower 16 is the only one in which there are four-room apartments, while in the others there are only two-room and three-room apartments.

16

LOCALIZATION: Quartiere Moncucco PERIOD: 1978-1981 DESIGNER: I.A.C.P. ALTITUDE: 122 m LATITUDE: 45° 27’ N LONGITUDE: 9° 11 E

After the general framework of the case study and its architectural survey, the distribution - functional and technological aspects have been analysed in detail, as will be seen in the following sections. 0

20

80

18 IULM IULM RESIDENCES

PROGETTO CMR

20

CUCINELLA BUILDING

1. Map of the building complex area.

1.

52

Survey/ Existing building analysis

2.

2. Axonometric scheme of the block where the area of the building complex is located.

Survey/ Existing building analysis

53


3.1 Preliminary analysis

14

3.1.1 Architectural survey 16 The ALER complex under study consists of four eight-storey towers, plus a base floor connecting the buildings. The tower buildings, measuring 22 x 18.9 m, are connected at basement level (altitude about -1.50 m) by a parking level and at mezzanine level (altitude about +1.50 m) by low bodies of one floor above ground, in which are placed small accommodation.

18 1. 20

oli

uss R a

Vi

The low bodies are positioned orthogonally to the towers, so as to form three open courtyards raised above the street level, accessible from via Russoli. The sequence of the courtyards forms a pedestrian plate accessible by ramps and stairs, under which the part of the covered garage is located.

14-18-20 TOWERS 40 apartments each tower 350 m2 each floor 2800 m2 each floor

The access to the apartments in the towers is via a central distribution corridor, which crosses all floors of the towers transversely (from northeast to southwest). As far as the vertical distribution connectors are concerned, there is a staircase and two elevators in each tower; they allow to reach the roof, which is currently flat and practicable only for maintenance. 16 TOWER 32 apartments 350 m2 2800 m2

As far as the technological aspects are concerned, it should be noted that the load-bearing structure of the complex is made up of reinforced concrete beams and pillars, which unload the weight on the ground thanks to plinth foundations and inverted beams. All the floors are made of latero-cement and, in particular, the roof is insulated and ventilated.

LOW BUILDING 8/9 apartments each building 350/400 m2 each building

LOW BUILDING 3 apartments each block 140 m2 each building

1. Axonometric scheme on the existing.

2.

54

Survey/ Existing building analysis

2. Groundfloor of the existing.

Survey/ Existing building analysis

55


Every towers touches the level of the parking, while the low buildings are suspended on pilotis, thus the parking results semi-covered (by the basement in common between the low buildings and the towers). The access to the apartments in the towers is via a central distribution corridor, which crosses all floors of the towers transversely (from northeast to southwest). As far as the vertical distribution connectors are concerned, there is a staircase and two elevators in each tower.

1. Exploded axonometric view of the different levels. 2. Cross section of the tower. stairwell of the tower from the roof to the park the level of the park which is closed under the tower (with cellars) and covered under the low bodies.

The vertical distribution connectors are the only emerging volumes; they allow to reach the roof, which is flat and practicable for ordinary maintenance.

0

1,25

5

2

1

56

Survey/ Existing building analysis

Survey/ Existing building analysis

57


As for the elevations of the towers, they are quite simple and regular. They are treated identically in opposite pairs. In particular, the main elevations are those arranged to the south-east, i.e. facing the pedestrian plate, with the exception of tower 20 facing the street, and those facing north-west, towards the parking level. These fronts are characterized by a succession of windows and loggias arranged vertically in line. The loggias in particular are arranged along the outer sides and lighten the corners of the elevations.

1

0

2

58

Survey/ Existing building analysis

2,5

10

1. Floor type plan. 2. South-east facade.

Survey/ Existing building analysis

59


The shorter elevations of the towers arranged along the south-west and northeast direction are characterized by the presence of a narrow central band with windows, which falls 1.4 meters from the facade and which identifies the distribution corridor externally and guarantees natural lighting. On the sides of this band there are two vertical rows of small windows, while on the sides of the elevations you can distinguish the loggias placed along the other two elevations.

1

0

2,5

10

1. Rooftop plan

2

60

Survey/ Existing building analysis

2. South-west facade

Survey/ Existing building analysis

61


3.1.2 Photographic survey By means of the photographic survey we wish to show aspects of the existing building already dealt with in the previous section, in a further collection of information regarding the building complex and its context. This survey is conducted on several levels, in fact the photographs allow to capture the relationship between the context and the study area, to portray the buildings as a whole and to represent some details. The photographs were taken during the inspections carried out, both for the reconnaissance of the area and for the specific observation of the building. The photos of the state of the art have been divided among them, for reasons of greater clarity, between those relating to the towers, those related to the low buildings and courtyards enclosed between them and those relating to the semi-covered car park located at a lower level than the street.. The first two images on the side are two aerial views of the project area inserted in the context of the Romolo area. The following pages contain the photographic cards, each of which contains a reference keyplan with the optical codes and a series of information referring to the image.

1 - 2 Reworking of images taken froom google maps. Groundfloor plan

62

Survey/ Existing building analysis

Survey/ Existing building analysis

63


1

3

FOCUS 1 - The towers

2

1.Torre 18, north-west and south-west facade from Cuccinella’s building plaza. The brick facade of the low building is also visible, as well as the wall which separates the area of the building complex from the Cuccinella’s building. 2. Torre 14, 16 and 18 from the sidewalk on via Russoli. The north-east facades are visible with the recess corresponding to the section of the internal corridor which distributes the apartments

1

64

Survey/ Existing building analysis

3

3. Thesouth-west.

Survey/ Existing building analysis

65

2


4

3

2 1

FOCUS 2 - Low buildings

1

3

1. The ramp to access to the semi - underground park and the north-west facade of 16 tower. The brick facade of the low building is also visible 2. The court at 1,43 m between the towers 14 and 16. 3. The low building facing the street with the entrances to the single apartments.

2

66

Survey/ Existing building analysis

4

4. The low building from the parking, in which it is visible that it is located on pilotis.

Survey/ Existing building analysis

67


4

3

2 1

FOCUS 2 - Low buildings

1

3

1. The ramp to access to the semi - underground park and the north-west facade of 16 tower. The brick facade of the low building is also visible 2. The court at 1,43 m between the towers 14 and 16. 3. The low building facing the street with the entrances to the single apartments.

2

68

Survey/ Existing building analysis

4

4. The low building from the parking, in which it is visible that it is located on pilotis.

Survey/ Existing building analysis

69


1 2

3

FOCUS 3 - Semi - underground parking

2

1.The north-west facade of 16 tower from the park. 2. The outside area ok the parking.

1

70

Survey/ Existing building analysis

3

3. The covered part of the parking.

Survey/ Existing building analysis

71


3 EXISTING BUILDING ANALYSIS

3.1 SURVEY 3.2 ACCESSIBILITY 3.3 FUNCTIONAL PROGRAM 3.4 EXISTING HOUSING OFFERT 3.5 TECHNOLOGICAL SURVEY 3.6 PROJCT AIMS

72

73


3.2 Accessibility

The ground floor of the building complex is 1.43 m above street level. The access to each of the three squares around which low bodies and towers develop is via a staircase cut diagonally by a ramp that does not comply with current regulations for accessibility. Beside this structure there are ramps parallel to the low buildings that lead to the lower level, i.e. -2.4, where the external car park and the cellars below the towers are located. The coexistence of different levels allows the separation between pedestrian mobility (+1.43 m) and vehicle mobility (-2.4 m). The fact that this is not located directly at street level, but is at a lower level and is partly covered by the building complex itself, characterizes it in a more private way, although it is neither closed nor guarded, factors that are detrimental to safety. 1

Inside the towers there are no significant architectural barriers, as each one has two elevator shafts for vertical distribution.

3

0

5

20

1. Plan of the existing basement, mainly used for parking. 2. Plan of the existing ground floor with representation of the different areas depending on whether they are for public or private use or halfway between the two. accesses to public spaces accesses to private spaces public | semi private | private

2

74

Accessibility / Existing building analysis

3 - Schematic sections on the division between pedestrian mobility that occurs mainly between street level and ground floor (+1.43) and vehicle mobility that occurs between ground and basement level.

Accessibility/ Existing building analysis

75


1

2

FOCUS 1 - Accessibility in section

1. Cross section showing the partially covered parkingbetween the level of the street and the groundfloor of the tower and the low building. 2. Cross section on the low building showing the difference in height between the street and the ground floor of towers and the low building itself. 1

2

76

Accessibility / Existing building analysis

Accessibility/ Existing building analysis

77


ACCESSIBILITY Problems in pictures 1

groundfloor (+1,43 m) ramp

4

groundfloor (+1,43 m) system of ramp and stairs

2 1

3

FOCUS 1 - Accessibility thourgh the photographic survey 1

ACCESSIBILITY Problems in pictures 1

2

underground garage ramp

Pedestrian mobility is served by the presence of a system consisting of a series of low and wide steps diagonally crossed by a pedestrian ramp surrounded by a parapet (1 and 2). The mobility of the vehicles is served by the presence of ramps (3) placed next to the low bodies that reach the level of the car park (4) placed between the street level and the raised level of the ground floor. This car park can also be reached at the sides of the building complex area, through the presence of two additional ramps along the north-south direction. The fact that the car park is located at a different level from the street level gives it a sort of more private character, although not totally. In fact, the accesses to this car park are not guarded, to the detriment of the safety of the inhabitants of the complex who use it.

groundfloor (+1,43 m) ramp groundfloor (+1,43 m) system of ramp and stairs

1. The system of steps and ramp leading to the groundfloor level from the street. 2. Pedestrian ramp which crosses diagonally the low and wide steps leading from the level of the street to the groundfloor level. 3. Ramp next to the low building leading to the semi covered parking below the groundfloor level. 4. The parking. 5. The groundfloor plan with the lements of the accessibility between the street level, the groundfloor and the park. park ramps (picture 3) park ramps at the sides of the area. the pedestrian system of accessibility (picture1 and 2)

stair connecting the tower groundfloor (+1,43) with the parking (-2,50)

3

underground garage ramp the parking (-2,50 m)

4

groundfloor (+1,43 m) ramp groundfloor (+1,43 m) system of ramp and stairs

78

Accessibility / Existing building analysis

Accessibility/ Existing building analysis

79


3.2

Accessibility

3.2.1 pros and cons analysis

The pedestrian accessibility to the groundfloor is chaotic, since the steps are cut diagonally by the ramp. Moreover every plaza stands on its own with a very scarce relation with the other two. In fact there is a path connecting all the three courtyard, but it crosses the groundfloor of the towers which is closed and private. The presence of the ramp next to the low buildings creates even more fragmentation in the usability of the area next to the sidewalk on via Russoli.

PROS

existence of a unique path connecting the whole building

different levels between the groundfloor of the building and the street

elimination of the ramp next to the road

80

Accessibility / Existing building analysis

connection

different shades of private/public spaces

existence of a semi underground

CONS

labyrinthic

caothic

existence of a semi underground

Accessibility/ Existing building analysis

81


3 EXISTING BUILDING ANALYSIS

3.1 SURVEY 3.2 ACCESSIBILITY 3.3 FUNCTIONAL PROGRAM 3.4 EXISTING HOUSING OFFERT 3.5 TECHNOLOGICAL SURVEY 3.6 PROJCT AIMS

82

83


3.3 Functional program

The existing ground floor is currently occupied mainly by the residential function. In fact, inside the lower buildings there are apartments whose entrances take place around the elevated squares. These accommodations have a double view, along the north-east direction, that is towards the squares, and towards the south-west, overlooking the parking lot and towards the Cuccinella building. All the four towers have the same internal scan. The north half presents cellars. The southern part is half occupied by a room left free of functions in towers 16 and 20, while occupied by collective functions managed by the selfmanagement committee of the building complex. In the remaining two towers this room is left free from use.. The remaining tower portion is free of perimeter walls, generating a covered recess that leads to the distribution part positioned in the middle of the towers. The activities for the inhabitants of the building complex hosted in the two rooms described above are: dance therapy, English and computer lessons, reading, sewing; they take place weekly following a board posted on the bulletin board of the ground floors of the towers. Between via Russoli and the elevated squares there are three fenced green areas, therefore for the exclusive use of the inhabitants of the complex. They do not have a specific function.

0

5

20

1. The groundfloor functions.

HOUSING

CELLAR

DISTRIBUTION

EQUIPMENT ROOMS

NOT USED SPACES

FUNCTIONS FOR INHABITANTS AND NEIGHBOURHOOD

84

Functional program / Existing building analysis

Functional program / Existing building analysis

85


3.3

Functional program

3.3.1 pros and cons analysis

The current groundfloor functional program contributes to the fragmentation already underlined in the accessibility section. In fact, the presence of the cellars on the ground floor of the towers makes the spaces in front of them, where the access and distribution is located, less usable and it is more difficult to move from one square to another. The fact that two sides of each square are totally occupied by the residential function inside the lower bodies means that the squares have a rather private character and it is not open to the neighborhood. The presence of fenced green areas in front of the squares also contribute to the closure of the building complex. The presence of spaces for activities organized by the self-management of the building complex means that aggregation is possible between the inhabitants who benefit from it, however the space to host these initiatives is very small and located in an unfortunate position.

PROS

existence of spaces for shared activities

presence of green areas

existence of cellars in the groundloor of the towers

86

Functional program / Existing building analysis

aggregation

CONS

not enough space for flexibility in use

filter between the street and the building

not easily accessible because of enclosures

existence of a semi underground

existence of a semi underground

Functional program / Existing building analysis

87


3 EXISTING BUILDING ANALYSIS

3.1 SURVEY 3.2 ACCESSIBILITY 3.3 FUNCTIONAL PROGRAM 3.4 EXISTING HOUSING OFFERT 3.5 TECHNOLOGICAL SURVEY 3.6 PROJCT AIMS

88

89


pace

190

Total apartments 190 Total apartments Common space 190 2

Free 14 Common space 2

Free 14

Free 14

3.4 Existing housing offert Occupated 174

Occupated 174

d

Occupated 174

105 Adult between 30-60

300 Adult between over 60

30 Child

1

In the 14, 18 and 20 towers there are a total of 40 apartments, distributed from the first to the eighth floor, through a single floor type plan divided into 5 apartments. The tower 16 hosts four apartments on each floor, reaching a total of 32 apartments. The types housed in the towers are three-room and two-room apartments (in tower 16 there is also a type of four-room apartment). The ground floor mainly contains studios divided into two slightly different types, and two-room apartments. The apartments are accessible from a corridor which crosses the towers in the north-east/south-west axis. 3

0

5

20

1. The population attualy resident. 2. The groundfloor and the type floor apartments typologies. studio apartments

two-rooms apartments

three-rooms apartments

four-rooms apartments

2

90

Existing housing offert / Existing building analysis

3. Pie chart describing the apartments which are occupied. The whole complex hosts a total of 188 apartments of which 14 are currently not occupied.

Existing housing offert / Existing building analysis

91


C A C A

A A1

C

A1

A1

FOCUS 1 - The groundfloor apartments typologies

B

0

A1

2,5

10

1. Zoom on the groundfloor plan with all the different typologies of apartments hosted. The apartments on the ground floor are all located in the low-buildings. They have a double overlook. The sides towards the squares have a narrow portico under which there are private entrances, the opposite sides have windows or loggias. They are mainly one-room apartments, but there are also three-room apartments and a single tworoom apartment (B) near tower 14. max.

STUDIO APARTMENT A 32 mq each one Apartments per floor: 12 Apartments in total: 12 A1 30 mq each one Apartments per floor: 11 Apartments in total: 11

A1

max.

TWO-ROOM APARTMENTS

A

B 44 mq Apartments per floor: 1 Apartments in total: 1

C

max.

THREE-ROOM APARTMENTS C 64 mq Apartments per floor: 10 Apartments in total: 10

92

Existing housing offert / Existing building analysis

Existing housing offert / Existing building analysis

93


FOCUS 2 - The floor type plan apartments typologies 0

The apartments typologies housed in the towers are three-room and two-room apartments (in tower 16 there is also a four-room apartment).

C1

B1 C1

C1

B2 B1

D

10

1. Zoom on the towers floor type plan with all the different typologies of apartments hosted.

C1

C1

2,5

The north-west half of the tower is occupied by two typology (C1) of three-room apartments which are the same, but mirrored around an axis. A similar configuration happens with the B1 typologies which results mirrored on the two sides of the southern part of the tower, but in this case between the two B1 apartements there is another doubleroom flat which is slightly different.

max.

TWO-ROOM APARTMENTS B1 46 mq Apartments per floor: 6 Apartments in total: 42 B2 50 mq Apartments per floor: 3 Apartments in total: 21 max.

THREE-ROOM APARTMENTS

C1 66 mq Apartments per floor: 9 Apartments in total:63 max.

FOUR-ROOM APARTMENTS D 86 mq Apartments per floor: 1 Apartments in total: 7

94

Existing housing offert / Existing building analysis

Existing housing offert / Existing building analysis

95


3.4

Existing housing offert 3.4.1 pros and cons analysis

The housing offer of the towers is quite varied. On the ground floor there are apartments whose accessibility should be facilitated, but the problems highlighted in the accessibility section show that the fact that they are located on the ground floor does not actually make them easier to use than the apartments located in the towers, which instead are well served by the distribution that provides two lift bodies per tower. The proximity of the building complex to the IULM university environment could make it a privileged place to host university residences that are currently absent. The presence of students would also favour a greater mixitè.

PROS

existence of different typologies of apartments

presence of green areas

existence of cellars in the groundloor of the towers

96

Existing housing offert / Existing building analysis

variety of solution

CONS

poor flexibility

more easily accessible

direct relation with the courtyards only for the groundfloor inhabitants

presence of IULM

no relation with the university

Existing housing offert / Existing building analysis

97


3 EXISTING BUILDING ANALYSIS

3.1 SURVEY 3.2 ACCESSIBILITY 3.3 FUNCTIONAL PROGRAM 3.4 EXISTING HOUSING OFFERT 3.5 TECHNOLOGICAL SURVEY 3.6 PROJCT AIMS

98

99


3.5 Technological survey

The technological and material survey was conducted starting from the data provided by the ALER archive, from construction manuals of the time and from a previous thesis work1; in addition, a visual investigation was also carried out on the elements most subject to degradation, which made it possible to see the various stratigraphies. The survey was conducted on the main elements of the building complex. The towers have a reinforced concrete frame structure, consisting of rectangular section planks measuring 60x25 cm, resting on foundation plinths, and beams measuring 30x21 cm. The stairwell and elevator rooms are made of 20 cm thick reinforced concrete partitions, resting on continuous foundations with inverted beams. The lower bodies also have a reinforced concrete frame structure, but the pillar sections are square and 30 x 21 cm in size. The vertical opaque closures of the towers are made of hollow bricks of dimensions 15x20x25 cm, to which prefabricated concrete panels of thickness 5 cm are fixed towards the outside. As for the finishing layers, internally they are plastered with lime plaster and plaster, while externally with lime and sand plaster. The opaque vertical closures on the ground floor are double-faced, with full face bricks on the outside and hollow bricks towards the inside; between them a 5 cm air gap is created, which contributes to the thermal insulation of the wall. The transparent closures of all the flats are in extruded aluminum, with single glass.

[1] - Luciano, G., Sonzogni, F., 4 Four - Flexibility - Opportunity - Usability - Renewability; tutor: Malighetti L. E., Politecnico di Milano, 2012-2013.

NO INSULATION

HIGH ENERGY CONSUMPTIONS

WASTE OF MONEY

The horizontal closure against the ground of the residential complex consists of a 50 cm gravel drainage layer, on which rest a 10 cm load-bearing layer in lean concrete and a smoothing layer in concrete, about 2 cm thick. All floors are in brick-cement, composed of joists, lightening blocks in brick and completion casting. The thickness is 16 cm, to which are added 5 of concrete slab with loadsharing reinforcement. The horizontal closures on open spaces have, above the brick-cement slab, a lightweight concrete screed, 24-25 cm thick, and a mortar underlay on which the finishing elements are laid. The internal horizontal partitions have the same stratigraphy, but the thickness of the concrete screed is 8 cm. The roofs, both of the towers and the low bodies, are insulated and ventilated. Above the 3 cm thick layer of insulation made of fibreglass panels and a 7 cm sloping concrete screed; above the latter layer there are brick masonry walls, placed orthogonally to the ribs of the slabs, and on them rest large brick planks integrated with a cast in concrete with a thickness of 5 cm. The attic is completed by a subfloor in mortar and a finishing layer in prefabricated concrete slabs.

100

Technological survey / Existing building analysis

1. Detail section of the existing. Source: Luciano, G., Sonzogni, F., 4 Four - Flexibility - Opportunity - Usability - Renewability; tutor: Malighetti L. E., Politecnico di Milano, 2012-2013. 2. Schemes on the problematic of the existing building performances.

Technological survey / Existing building analysis

101


FOCUS 1 - Technological survey datasheets

In order to summarize all the information collected, we have elaborated some sheets of the technologicalsurvey, each one reporting: - identification of the technical element; - the hypothesis of the stratigraphy and its location within the building (keyplan); - the description of the execution modalities; - the analysis of the stratigraphy (constituent elements, materials and dimensions).

KEYPLAN

KEYPLAN

STRATIGRAPHIES

STRATIGRAPHIES

DESCRIPTION

STRATIGRAPHY ANALYSIS

102

Technological survey / Existing building analysis

DESCRIPTION

STRATIGRAPHY ANALYSIS

Technological survey / Existing building analysis

103


FACADE TOWER WALLS

Housing frames are made of aluminium extruded single-glazed. The sills are made of sheet metal (copper-zinc-titanium laminate)1, ad except for those on the ground floor that are made of natural stone.2 The shading system is made of with pvc roller shutters, which wrap around on a roller placed in a dumpster metallic.1 On the ground floor there are also iron gratings with simple design.2

This masonry is composed of perforated bricks, to which prefabricated concrete panels are fixed on the the external side. The wall is plastered inward with lime plaster and plaster and on the external side with lime and sand

plaster.1

1

Source: archivio ALER di Milano

104

elements

characteristics

materials

dimensions

FINISHING LAYER LOAD-BEARING LAYER LINK LAYER STIFFENING LAYER FINISHING LAYER

plaster pierced bricks bedding mortar prefabricated panels plaster

lime and plaster mortar brick lime, water and sand concrete lime and plaster mortar

2 cm 15x20x25 cm 1,5 cm 5 cm 2 cm

Technological survey / Existing building analysis

elements 1 FRAME 2 GLASS

1

Source: archivio ALER di Milano

2

direct observation

characteristics

materials

dimensions

extruded profile single glazed

aluminium glass

6 mm

Technological survey / Existing building analysis

105


INTERIOR WALLS FACADE TOWER GROUNDFLOOR WALLS

The vertical partition is used to separate the different housings. It consists of two layers of perforated bricks, with a layer of insulation in between. The external surfaces of the wall are plastered.1 It is assumed that each course of brick is 8 cm thick and the insulation is 5 cm thick.2 The partition separating the accommodation from the corridor has the same stratigraphy, but instead of the insulation there is an air gap.1

This masonry is an empty box, with full face bricks on the side outside and pierced brick inwards; a cavity is created between them of air.1 The wall is plastered on the internal side with lime and plaster plaster.2 1

Source: archivio ALER di Milano

2

direct observation

1 2 3 4 5 6

106

elements

characteristics

materials

dimensions

FINISHING LAYER LOAD-BEARING LAYER LINK LAYER AIR LAYER LINK LAYER LOAD-BEARING LAYER

plaster pierced bricks bedding mortar cavity bedding mortat full face bricks

lime and plaster mortar brick lime, water and sand lime, water and sand brick

2 cm 5,5x12x25 cm 1 cm 5 cm 1 cm 5,5x12x25 cm

Technological survey / Existing building analysis

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

1

Source: archivio ALER di Milano

2

hypothesis

elements

characteristics

materials

dimensions

FINISHING LAYER INFILL LAYER LINK LAYER INSULATION LAYER LINK LAYER INFILL LAYER FINISHING LAYER

plaster half-full bricks bedding mortar panels bedding mortar pierced bricks plaster

lime and sand mortar brick lime, water and sand fiberglass lime, water and sand brick lime and sand mortar

1,5 cm 12x12x25 cm 1 cm 5 cm 1 cm 8x25x25 cm 1,5 cm

Technological survey / Existing building analysis

107


INTERIOR WALLS

ROOF FLOORS

The load-bearing layer of the roof is made up of a cement side-cement slab, to which a layer of plaster is added at the bottom and another 6 layers at the top: fibreglass insulation, concrete slope screed, brick masonry on which they rest. brick planks integrated with a concrete casting, bastard mortar connecting layer and finishing layer in prefabricated concrete slabs.1

The vertical partition consists of perforated bricks, plastered on both sides with lime and gypsum plaster.1 Since the total thickness of the partition is about 11 cm, it is assumed that the bricks are 8 cm thick.2 1

Source: archivio ALER di Milano

2

hypothesis

1

elements 1 FINISHING LAYER 2 LINK LAYER

1 2 3 4

108

elements

characteristics

materials

dimensions

FINISHING LAYER INFILL LAYER LINK LAYER FINISHING LAYER

plaster pierced bricks bedding mortar plaster

lime and plaster mortar brick lime, water and sand lime and sand mortar

1,5 cm 8x25x25x cm 1 cm 1,5 cm

Technological survey / Existing building analysis

characteristics

materials

dimensions

slabs bastard mortar

concrete hydraulic lime, cement, water, sand brick conctrete brick concrete fiberglass brick brick case back with concrete, steel reinforcement concrete and steel

4 cm 2 cm

3 LOAD DISTRIBUTION LAYER tavelloni integrative casting 4 VENTILATION LAYER muricci forati 5 SLOPING LAYER screed 6 INSULATION LAYER panels 7 LOAD-BEARING LAYER pignatte joists 8 FINISHING LAYER

Source: archivio ALER di Milano

casting with net plaster

4x140 cm 5 cm 6x12x24 cm 7 cm 3 cm 16x25x38 cm 15x12 cm 5 cm 2 cm

Technological survey / Existing building analysis

109


FLOORS

FLOOR AGAINST THE GROUND

The horizontal closure on open spaces is made up of 5 layers: a side-cement slab, a lightened concrete screed, a connecting layer, a finishing layer in marble tiles and a finishing layer in plaster.1 1

Source: archivio ALER di Milano

2

direct observation

The horizontal closure against the ground consists of 3 layers: a draining gravel layer, a lean concrete screed and a smoothing layer in cement.1 1

elements

characteristics

materials

dimensions

1 FINISHING LAYER

tiles

3 cm

2 LINK LAYER

bastard mortar

marble granules, siliceous sands, cement hydraulic lime, cement, water, sand concrete brick brick case back with concrete, steel reinforcement concrete and steel lime and sand mortar

3 LOAD DISTRIBUTION LAYER lightened screed pignatte 4 LOAD-BEARING LAYER joists 5 FINISHING LAYER

110

casting with net plaster

Technological survey / Existing building analysis

Source: archivio ALER di Milano

2 cm 24 cm 16x25x38 cm 15x12 cm 5 cm 2 cm

elements 1 FINISHING LAYER 2 STIFFENING AND LOAD DISTRIBUTION LAYER 3 DRAINING LAYER

characteristics

materials

dimensions

smoothed screed casting

cement lean concrete

2 cm 10 cm

roadbed

gravel

50 cm

Technological survey / Existing building analysis

111


FLOORS

The horizontal partition has 5 layers: a brick slab, a lightened concrete screed, a connecting layer in mortar, an upper layer in marble tiles and a lower layer in plaster.1 1

Source: archivio ALER di Milano

elements

characteristics

materials

dimensions

1 FINISHING LAYER

tiles

1 cm

2 LINK LAYER

bastard mortar

marble granules, siliceous sands, cement hydraulic lime, cement, water, sand concrete brick brick case back with concrete, steel reinforcement concrete and steel lime and sand mortar

3 LOAD DISTRIBUTION LAYER screed 4 LOAD-BEARING LAYER pignatte joists 5 FINISHING LAYER

112

casting with net plaster

Technological survey / Existing building analysis

1 cm 8 cm 16x25x38 cm 15x12 cm 5 cm 2 cm

Technological survey / Existing building analysis

113


FOCUS 2 - Facades materials

0

1

4

1. North-west facade with materials. 2. South-east facade with materials. brick

concrete

glass

metal

plaster

1

114

Technological survey / Existing building analysis

2

Technological survey / Existing building analysis

115


3.5 Technological survey 3.5.1 Solar radiation analysis

In order to analyze the existing solar radiation, a model of the building on Revit was created and a simulation was conducted. From the results obtained, it is possible to see how the most irradiated surfaces are those shown in red and yellow, which correspond to the roofs and south elevations. Lower levels of solar radiation (green - blue) are present on the north-facing facades and on the backward portions of the facade, such as the loggias and the ground floor portico.

1. Views of the model from different directions with the analysis of the solar radiation.

116

Technological survey / Existing building analysis

Technological survey / Existing building analysis

117


3.5 Technological survey 3.5.2 Pros and cons analysis

In order to summarize all the information collected, we have elaborated some sheets of the technologicalsurvey, each one reporting: - identification of the technical element; - the hypothesis of the stratigraphy and its location within the building (keyplan); - the description of the execution modalities; - the analysis of the stratigraphy (constituent elements, materials and dimensions).

PROS

same treatment of the opposite facades

terraces of the north-west and south-east side

118

Technological survey / Existing building analysis

CONS

variety of solution

no attention to the sun path

interplay of light and shadow

the north-east facade is already pourly irradiated

Technological survey / Existing building analysis

119


3 EXISTING BUILDING ANALYSIS

3.1 SURVEY 3.2 ACCESSIBILITY 3.3 FUNCTIONAL PROGRAM 3.4 EXISTING HOUSING OFFERT 3.5 TECHNOLOGICAL SURVEY 3.6 PROJCT AIMS

120

121


2.1.3 Accessibility

ACCESSIBILITY Ideas for improving

One of the main objectives of the project is to make the ground floor more permeable and usable, so that there is a direct passage between the various squares and therefore also between the ground floors of the towers. Another intention is to replace the current system of ramps and stairs that manages the difference in height between the street level and the ground floor level in a less chaotic way. Moreover, always following the objective of making the ground floor ACCESSIBILITYACCESSIBILITY more usable, there is the objective to eliminate the access ramps to the Ideas for improving semi-basement car park, so as to divide soft mobility from mobility on Ideas for improving wheels, leaving access to vehicles only along the end sides of the project ACCESSIBILITY ACCESSIBILITY ACCESSIBILITY area. would free the area along Via Russoli from vehicle traffic, Ideas This for improving ACCESSIBILITY Ideas for improving Ideas for improving making pedestrian safer. Ideas access for improving EXISTING ISSUES

unique linear path

labyrinthic

direct - unique linear path

chaotic

clearer layering replacement of the existing ramps and stairs

replacement of the existing ramps and stairs

elimination of the ramps next to the road

122

Accessibility / Existing building analysis

AIMS

not clear separation between the two kind of mobility

mobility levels differentiation - eliminationof the ramp next to the road

Accessibility / Existing building analysis

123


2.1.3 Functional program

The guiding intention for the ground floor project is to make it more permeable and open to the use of the neighborhood. Therefore the general intention is to equip the ground floor with common functions, moving part of the housing offer present in the low buildings and relocating it inside the towers. In this way it is possible to obtain space for new functions for the neighbourhood, the inhabitants and the student population of the nearby university complex. The presence of green areas placed between Via Russoli and the squares makes the latter with a more private character but, the intention is to avoid this character, in order to follow the objective of making the ground floor of the building complex more open to the life of the neighborhood, following the resident population desire for openness, also in order to regenerate the area. Therefore these closed areas will be removed and new green areas will be placed on the roofs of low buildings with a specific use (urban gardens) that the existing green areas do not have.

EXISTING ISSUES

AIMS

The function that at the moment is less in tune with the planned character of the ground floor is that of the cellars, which will then be moved to the lower floor, next to the areas already used for this purpose, in the planned extension part. unique linear path

replacement of the existing ramps and stairs

not enough space for flexibility in use

not easily accessible because of enclosures

fragmentation of the groundfloor

124

Functional program / Existing building analysis

possibilities to have more activities and more spread spaces

specific use of the green areas common gardens

unification of the groundfloor - elimination of the cellars at the groundfloor

Functional program / Existing building analysis

125


2.1.3 New housing offert

The current housing is characterized by a strong static nature and requires maintenance work, especially with regard to masonry and painting. Moreover, one of the main problems encountered in the current housing offer is the fact that not all accommodations comply with radiation and ventilation standards, so the internal comfort is not very high. The average age of the current residents of the building complex is unbalanced towards the age group. One way to rebalance this average would be to establish a population of university students within the building complex. This solution would also respond to the need to provide the Romolo area with new residences for university students and the complex, being very close to the IULM, would be an optimal solution. It is therefore planned to extend the towers vertically in order to add accommodation for students. The current distribution corridor, being of very small section, is not very liveable and poorly lit, despite the presence of windows on both end sides along the north-east and south-west front.

EXISTING ISSUES

poor flexibility

more variety addition of terraces to some of the apartments

direct relation with the groundfloor only for the groundfloor inhabitants.

adding of some more suitable functions for the gorundfloor elimination of some

not relation with the university environment

126

New housing offert / Existing building analysis

AIMS

student housing - adding of more floors to each tower

New housing offert / Existing building analysis

127


2.1.3 Building energetic performances

The current elevations have been treated identically with regard to the pairs of elevations located on opposite sides of each tower, so a strategy that took into account the solar path and its repercussions on interior comfort has been absent. The design intervention strategy mainly concerns the creation of an addition along the elevations to the south (south-east and south-west) to generate shading, through a volume consisting of vertical concrete partitions, largely glazed, and to create the conditions to promote radiation in the two remaining elevations positioned to the north. The addition towards the south would create additional volume for the accommodation located in that direction. It is also hypothesized to study the existing stratigraphies, to integrate them and to replace the transparent vertical closures with more performing windows and doors. The vertical closures would also be larger in size so as to respect the aeroilluminant ratio.

EXISTING ISSUES

no attention to the sun path

the north facade is already poorly irradiated by itself

necessity to replace the cover layer of the facades

128

Building energetic performance / Existing building analysis

AIMS

sun shading - addition to something to shade the sun to the more southern facades

more space with the addition of terraces on the southern facades

horizontal differentiation of the basament

Building energetic performance / Existing building analysis

129


4

PROJECT


132

133


4

PROJECT

4.1 4.2

INTRODUCTION GROUNDFLOOR 4.3 FIRST FLOOR 4.4 2-8TH FLOORS 4.5 9TH FLOOR 4.6 10-15TH FLOORS

134

135


4.1 Introduction 4.1.1 the structure and the alignments as guidelines for the project

1.

Following the analysis outlined in the previous section, it was decided to develop the ground floor in order to ensure greater uniformity in the access to the courtyard spaces between the towers and to facilitate the movement in the height difference between the street and the ground floor of the complex (+1.43 m). It was decided to maintain the existing structure and use it as a starting point to redesign the external space, exploiting the axes and generating alignments. Since the need to raise the towers was identified, it was decided to add new selfsupporting structural elements to the existing structure to support the upper floors, so as not to burden the existing structure. The central core has been strengthened and extended in the upper floors. Along the sunniest fronts, the south-west and south-east facades, the added structure consists of a series of deep self-supporting partitions, between which the existing slabs have been extended so as to create bearing spaces capable of innovating the building type and improving the energy behaviour of the building. Along the north-west and north-east fronts of the shorter partitions have been added along the perimeter pillars. Every two floors, these are joined by beams, visible on the faรงade as stringcourses.

1. Structural plan of the existing ground floor with structural axes and alignments of the building. 2. Structural plan of the ground floor with axes and alignments in pic.1 and addition of new axes for the generation of terraces. alignments south-west/north-east of the existing structure alignments north-west/south-east of the existing structure axis south-west/north-east ofthe towers structure axis north-west/south-east of the towers structure new axis south-west/north-east new axis north-west/south-east

0

10

40

3. Axonometric structural scheme of the existing structure of the tower. 4. Axonometric structural additions scheme

extension of the existing core

2.

136

Introduction / Project

3.

4.

additional structural elements

Introduction / Project

137


To support the weight of the new volume, a plate has been inserted on the ninth floor. It will be formed by 80cm cross beams that will rest on the roof slab of the existing building. The new structure will collaborate with the central core and will unload the weight on the new side walls so as not to burden the existing supporting structure. From the plate will then rise new pillars that will help to support the new part of the building, coming to have a structural system completely independent from the one below. The objective is therefore to avoid loads greater than those that the existing building structure could support and the addition of a single plate starting from the new construction allows to have standard size slabs for the upper floors avoiding an excessive use of materials with a consequent saving in terms of weight and costs.

1. Structural scheme in axonometry of vertical structural additions and central core extension 2. Structural scheme of the insertion of a plate on floor 9 as a support structure for the floors above.

extension of the existing core

2.

1.

138

Introduction / Project

additional structural elements

Introduction / Project

139


1. Structural plan of the ground floor of the project, with the annexation of the new structural elements and new staircase and elevator bodies to reach the roof of the first floor.x

0

5

20

alignments south-west/north-east of the existing structure alignments north-west/south-east of the existing structure axis south-west/north-east ofthe towers structure axis north-west/south-east of the towers structure new axis south-west/north-east new axis north-west/south-east projections of new additions plazas at 1.43 m plazas at 0.7 m plazas at street level

1.

140

Introduction / Project

ramps

Introduction / Project

141


4

PROJECT

4.1 INTRODUCTION 4.2 GROUNDFLOOR 4.3 FIRST FLOOR 4.4 2-8TH FLOORS 4.4 9TH FLOOR 4.5 10-15TH FLOORS

142

143


4.2

Groundfloor 4.2.1 accessibility

FULL AND EMPTY SPACES Closed spces

1

The ground floor has been designed in order to increase its Ramps permeability, passage ensuring better accessibility to the courtyards enclosed Internal between the Externalthe passageentire low bodies, treated as squares that can be reached by crossing complex. it was therefore crucial to work on the full and empty spaces. It was decided to separate the soft mobility from the cars, clearly separating the accesses: the access ramps from Via Russoli to the car park below street level have been eliminated and only the side ramps have been maintained. The differences in height of the existing one have been treated by replacing the existing ramp and steps with sloping squares joined by ramps with a very large section that lead directly to the open space enclosed below the towers. The ground floor of each tower is made up of a closed central core containing the ascent spaces, the porter’s lodge and common areas, around which it is possible to walk around the entire perimeter of the tower left free and characterized by the presence of compressions and subsequent expansion, created by the presence of double heights. The space has been designed to have the greatest natural light avoiding physical barriers and leaving the travel space as free and open as possible.

1. Plan of the existing ground floor with different representation (see chapter 3. ) 2. Project ground floor plan

0

5

20

accesses to public spaces accesses to private spaces public | semi private | private

2.

144

Groundfloor / Project

Groundfloor / Project

145


+50,60

FOCUS 1 - Major ramp

+32,10

+28,10

A wide ramp allows access to the level at 1.43 m, which is where the ground floor of the building is located. This ramp runs next to the low building overlooking the road and leads directly to the covered passage underneath the tower. This space begins with a compression and continues with an expansion thanks to the creation of a double height, given by the demolition of part of the first floor slab. From the ramp you can enjoy a free view to the end of the ground floor of the tower, thanks to the demolition of the perimeter walls of the tower. +4,63 0

+1,43

146

Groundfloor / Project

10

1. Cross section of the tower, with the groundfloor and first floor highlighted, which will be discussed specifically on the following pages.

0,00 -2,07

2.5

1.

Groundfloor / Project

147


1 2

FOCUS 1 - Major ramp

1

2

The demolition of part of the first floor slab creates and effect of expansion of the space after the passage in the covered part. With the demolition of the perimeter walls and the addition of the ramp, it is possible to create a linear path which allows you to reach the tower ground floor

148

Groundfloor / Project

1. View from the wider ramp of the central plaza, facing the south-east facade. 2. View from the wider ramp of the northen plaza, facing the north-east facade. 3. Zoom of the groundfloor and first floor of the section of the previous page.

Groundfloor / Project

149


+50,60

FOCUS 2 - Ramp beneath the tower

+32,10

+28,10

Narrower section ramps, aligned with the walls that build the added volume, allow you to reach the first square, located at 0.7 m and then continue perpendicularly in the covered passage below the tower, reaching the level of the latter, at 1.43. Also in this case the passage under the tower takes place through a compression of the space. +4,63 0

2.5

10

+1,43 0,00

-2,07

150

Groundfloor / Project

1.

1. Longitudinal section of the tower, with the groundfloor and first floor highlighted, which will be discussed specifically on the following pages.

Groundfloor / Project

151


2

1

FOCUS 2 - Ramp beneath the tower

1.

2.

The shape of the existing slab allows to create a glassed hole in order to bring more light to the groundfloor

1. View from the narrower ramp of the central plaza next to the lower building facing the street. 2. View from the central plaza, facing the passage beneath the tower, with the continuation of the ramp under the glass house. 3. Zoom of the groundfloor and first floor of the section of the previous page.

The overcast passage unfer the greenhouse and the presence of the ramp emphasize the compression effect of the space

152

Groundfloor / Project

Groundfloor / Project

153


+50,60

FOCUS 3 - Covered passages under the towers

+32,10

+28,10

2

The two central towers have a double height in the north corner, given by the demolition of part of the first floor slab. This intervention allows to gain more airiness and brightness and contrasts with the effect of compression of the space that you have entering from the three entrances that are located around the central core.

+4,63 0 +1,43

154

Groundfloor / Project

10

1. Longitudinal section of the tower, with the groundfloor and first floor highlighted, which will be discussed specifically on the following pages.

0,00

-2,07

2.5

1.

2. Picture of the study maquette

Groundfloor / Project

155


3

1. 3.

1. Axonometric view of the double height and partial demolition of the first floor. 2. Groundfloor double height section.

2.

156

Groundfloor / Project

3. View from the groundfloor of the tower, in which it is possible to see the expansion of the space and then its compression on the access in front of the wider ramp.

Groundfloor / Project

157


2 1

1.

The shape of the existing slab allows to create a glassed hole in order to bring more light to the groundfloor

158

Groundfloor / Project

2.

The demolition of part of the first floor's slab allows to create a sort of glassed bridge where to have a view on the double height terrace

1. View from the groundfloor of the tower, in which it is possible to see the compression of the space and then its dilatiation in the double height part. 2. Opposite view of the previous one, placed where the double height is. It is possible to see the glassed passage of the first floor. 3. Zoom of the groundfloor and first floor of the section of the previous page.

Groundfloor / Project

159


4.2.2 Functional program 1. The existing groundfloor with the current functions.

1.

The ground floor has been reconfigured by inserting new public functions for the inhabitants of the complex and for the neighbourhood. The central cores of the towers contain inside them the areas used for the concierge service, the access hall, the lifts and some common classrooms overlooking the squares. The buildings further north, i.e. closer to the IULM university complex, have been redesigned to house study and reading rooms, conference rooms and a projection room. The low buildings that develop around the central square host a cafeteria area and a neighbourhood market where you can also find the products of the urban gardens on the roofs of the first floor. The southernmost square has a co-working space and a multipurpose room designed to host the weekly initiatives and activities proposed by the selfmanagement of the complex. On the ground floor, interspersed with these functions, some of the accommodation has been maintained (but reconfigured internally), equipping those overlooking the squares with green filter spaces to guarantee privacy.

2. The groundfloor of the project with the planned functions.

0

5

20

BEFORE sqm

1578

HOUSING

580

0

DISTRIBUTION

184

242

PORTER’S LODGE

0

112

ENTRANCE HALL

0

237

EQUIPMENT ROOMS

160

Groundfloor / Project

671

CELLAR

FUNCTIONS FOR INHABITANTS AND NEIGHBOURHOOD

2.

NOW sqm

NOT USED SPACES

137

0

154

1723

24

0

Groundfloor / Project

161


0

5

20

1. The groundfloor proposal

MULTIPURPOSE

CO-WORKING SPACES

BAR

BIO-MARKET

MULTIMEDIA ROOM

READING ROOMS

accesses to public spaces accesses to private spaces

162

Groundfloor / Project

Groundfloor / Project

163


4

PROJECT

4.1 4.2

INTRODUCTION GROUNDFLOOR 4.3 FIRST FLOOR 4.4 2-8TH FLOORS 4.5 9TH FLOOR 4.6 10-15TH FLOORS

164

165


4.3

As we have seen in the previous section, the existing building has the standard floor used for accommodation already from the first floor; the roofs of low buildings do not have a function at the moment.

1.

From a discussion with the neighbourhood committee, it was understood that it would be a wish of the inhabitants of the building complex to have urban vegetable gardens. It was therefore decided to use the roofs of the low buildings for this purpose. In addition, in order to maintain uniformity of function, the towers have greenhouses inside them along the south-west and northeast fronts, which appear on the facade as a glazed volume, under which the accesses to the ground floor of the towers take place. These volumes are aligned with the low bodies and are projecting with respect to the upper floors; this fact guarantees zenithal illumination of the greenhouses. As seen in the previous chapter, the slabs of the two central towers have been partially demolished, so as to generate a double height on the ground floor. Three new staircases equipped with lifts guarantee access to the green roofs. The side towers retain some residential areas.

2.

166

First floor / Project

First floor

1. The existing first floor with the current functions. 2. The firstfloor of the project with the planned functions.

0

5

20

HOUSING

425 sqm

DISTRIBUTION

400 sqm

GLASS HOUSE

662 sqm

URBAN GARDEN

1806 sqm

FUNCTIONS FOR INHABITANTS

105 sqm

EQUIPMENT ROOMS

24sqm

STORAGE

113 sqm

First floor / Project

167


FOCUS - Continuity between green house and roof gardens

1.

4.

1. Axonometric view of the first floor in order to explicit the relation between green house and roof Green house Roof garden 2. Axonometric view of the green house 3. Axonometric view of roof garden

2.

168

First floor / Project

3.

4. Roof garden view

First floor / Project

169


0

5

20

1. The first floor proposal

170

First floor / Project

First floor / Project

171


4

PROJECT

4.1 CONCEPT 4.2 GROUNDFLOOR 4.3 FIRST FLOOR 4.4 2-8TH FLOORS 4.4 9TH FLOOR 4.5 10-15TH FLOORS

172

173


4.4

2-8th floors

max.

TWO-ROOM APARTMENTS B1 EXISTING 46 sqm Apartments per floor: 6 Apartments in total: 42

The apartments have been reconfigured internally, trying to maintain the original division between the different units. By adding a self-supporting volume consisting of terraces on the two fronts to the south, the internal living space has been increased. This is a large, bright space that acts as a mediation between the external and internal environment. This strategy is aimed at improving the comfort and internal usability of the spaces. The addition strategy is counterbalanced by the creation of a loggia in the north-west front, designed as a small subtraction, which is an exception in the treatment of the facade, which tends outwards thanks to the presence of bowwindows to make more use of solar radiation. The access to the apartments is through the distribution corridor maintained in the same original position but treated in such a way as to improve the internal brightness and to limit the feeling of narrowness and spatial constriction. Each floor has also been equipped with two small laundry rooms.

1.

B2 EXISTING 50 sqm Apartments per floor: 3 Apartments in total: 21 BB1 PROPOSAL 53 sqm + 11smq of terrace Apartments per floor: 4 Apartments in total: 32 BB2 PROPOSAL 66 sqm + 7smq of terrace Apartments per floor: 4 Apartments in total: 32 max.

THREE-ROOM APARTMENTS C1 EXISTING 66 sqm Apartments per floor: 9 Apartments in total:63 CC1 PROPOSAL 79 sqm + 6,5smq of terrace Apartments per floor: 4 Apartments in total:32 CC2 PROPOSAL 62 mq + 8,2smq of terrace Apartments per floor: 4 Apartments in total:32

CC3 BB1

CC3 CC2

BB2

BB1

CC2

BB2 CC1

CC3 BB1

CC1

BB1 CC2

BB2 CC1

CC3 PROPOSAL 90 mq Apartments per floor: 4 Apartments in total:32

CC3 CC2

BB2

max.

FOUR-ROOM APARTMENTS

CC1

D1 EXISTING 86 mq Apartments per floor: 1 Apartments in total: 7 0

5

20

1. Existing floor type plan.

2.

174

2-8th floors/ Project

2. Project floor type plan

2-8th floors / Project

175


4.4.1 Floor type

TYPE A

TYPE E

2.

3.

4. 0

1,25

5

1. Floor type 2-9th. 2. Axonometric scheme on the distribution space and the public space. 3. Axonometric scheme on the localization of the apartments.

1. TYPE B

176

2-8th floors/ Project

TYPE C

TYPE D

4. Axonometric scheme on the localization of the terraces.

2-8th floors / Project

177


Live the corridor 4.4.2 The distribution spaces The distribution corridor has been kept in the same position and with the same section, but to give the idea of more space, each apartment has been equipped with an entrance made up of a recess, so the corridor looks like a central plug from which short more private recesses branch out. At the two ends of the corridor, two full-height windows have been created and the doors have been replaced with glazed windows, in order to facilitate the entry of light and improve the quality of space. It was also planned to demolish part of the floor slab of the corridor on the north-east side on alternate floors, so as to create double heights to help in the general attempt to increase the airiness and brightness of the spaces.

2. 1. Entrance in the corridor exiting from the core

1.

178

2-8th floors/ Project

2. Distribution space plan

2-8th floors / Project

179


1.

1. Section showing the partial demolition a part of the slub in order to increase the natural lighting 2. Corridor view_Double height

2.

180

2-8th floors/ Project

3.

3. Corridor view_Mezzanine

2-8th floors / Project

181


4.4.3 Apartments typologies

TYPE A:

Surface in square meters: 90m2 Number of rooms: 2 Number of inhabitants: 3 Number of apartments per tower: 7 Total number of apartments: 28 Room 1: 10,7m2 Room 2: 14m2 2+ Kitchen + Living room: 33m 10m2 loggia

1. Axonometric view of the apartment.

2.

1.

182

2-8th floors/ Project

2. Floor plan of the apartment.

0

1,25

5

2-8th floors / Project

183


TYPE B:

Surface in square meters: 53m2 + 11m2 of terrace Number of rooms: 1 Number of inhabitants: 2 Number of apartments per tower: 7 Total number of apartments: 28 Room 1: 14m2 Kitchen + Living room: 28m2 + 6m2 loggia

1. Axonometric view of the apartment.

2.

2. Floor plan of the apartment.

0

1,25

5

1.

184

2-8th floors/ Project

2-8th floors / Project

185


TYPE C:

Surface in square meters: 66m2+7m2 of terrace Number of rooms: 1 Number of inhabitants: 2 Number of apartments per tower: 7 Total number of apartments: 28 Room 1: 14m2 2+ Kitchen + Living room:33m 10m2 loggia

2.

1. Axonometric view of the apartment. 2. Floor plan of the apartment.

0

1,25

5

1.

186

2-8th floors/ Project

2-8th floors / Project

187


TYPE D: Surface in square meters: 79m2+6,5m2 of terrace Number of rooms: 2 Number of inhabitants: 3 Number of apartments per tower: 7 Total number of apartments: 28 Room 1: 9,5m2 Room 2: 14m2 Kitchen + Living room: 40m2 + 6,5m2 loggia

1. Axonometric view of the apartment.

2.

1.

188

2-8th floors/ Project

2. Floor plan of the apartment.

0

1,25

5

2-8th floors / Project

189


TYPE E:

Surface in square meters: 62 m2+8,2m2 of terrace Number of rooms: 2 Number of inhabitants: 3 Number of apartments per tower: 7 Total number of apartments: 28 Room 1: 9 m2 Room 2: 15,1m2 Kitchen + Living room: 25m2

1. Axonometric view of the apartment.

2.

2. Floor plan of the apartment.

0

1,25

5

1.

190

2-8th floors/ Project

2-8th floors / Project

191


4.4.4 Addition on the southern facade Along the sunniest fronts, the south-east and south-west facades, it was decided to create a living space consisting of a series of self-supporting partitions and the extension of the existing slabs, forming terraces. This space is able to improve thermal, acoustic, light and visual comfort. It is therefore an environment that extends the living space, in particular the living area, thus improving the quality of the accommodation, but also improving energy behaviour. Each terrace consists of a balcony section and the other half of a room designed to be flexible and adapt to different living needs. Its operation may vary according to the seasons and energy needs.

1. Axonometric view of the floor type from 2-9th floor, with the addition. 2. Scheme on the addition of the terraces and the closing part which can be turn into winter gardens.

During the winter period, this space behaves like a direct gain greenhouse in which solar radiation is captured through the large transparent surface consisting of sliding windows and polycarbonate sliding panels that not only provide shade but also increase energy performance. During the day, by opening the folding windows that separate the greenhouse from the inside of the house, the accumulated heat is allowed to enter the house. During the night, the greenhouse works as a buffer space, limiting heat loss to the outside. During the summer, the room can be used as a loggia, opening both the sliding windows and the polycarbonate panels, becoming one with the rest of the terrace. During the night, it is possible to dispose of the heat accumulated through the opening of both the internal windows and the loggia.

2. existing area extension of the existing slabs possible winter gardens

1.

192

2-8th floors/ Project

self-supporting walls

2-8th floors / Project

193


FOCUS 1 - Winter functioning: daytime

View from the inside, during the DAY time in WINTER

The external sliding panels are to be kept closed to create the greenhouse

The sliding panels in the middle of the terraces must remain closed to create the greenhouse effect

194

2-8th floors/ Project

The internal folding windows can be opened to create a bigger living area and to take advantage of the accumulated heat in the greenhouse

2-8th floors / Project

195


Winter functioning: night time

View from the inside, during the NIGHT time in WINTER

The external sliding panels are to be kept closed to create the greenhouse

The sliding panels in the middle of the terraces must remain closed to create the greenhouse effect

196

2-8th floors/ Project

The internal folding windows must be kept closed to let the greenhouse working as a buffer space to limit the heat loss to the outside

2-8th floors / Project

197


Summer functioning

View from the inside, during the DAY time in SUMMER

The sliding panels can be left open to avoid overheating

The sliding panels in the middle of the terraces can be left open to have the full use of the balcony

198

2-8th floors/ Project

The internal folding windows can be opened to create a bigger living area and to permit the natural ventilation

2-8th floors / Project

199


uth-east

4.4.5 The southern facade functioning The extension along the south-east and south-west fronts is made by means of prefabricated steel slabs hooked to the existing slabs and supported by selfsupporting reinforced concrete partitions that run along the entire height of the facades, underlining their verticality. The walls of the old facade have been entirely removed to leave space made up of concrete panels, which can be completely opened up towards the new environment. Along the south-west facade some parts of the old facade have not been demolished, but the outer finishing layer of plastered concrete panels have been replaced by the new package. On the edge of the loggia towards the outside there is a second line of sliding doors and windows that serve to form the greenhouse. The outermost layer consists of sliding polycarbonate panels, installed vertically on a substructure with steel uprights, which perform the function of darkening, but maintain visual continuity towards the outside and in turn provide thermal insulation. This choice of construction makes it possible to make the most of natural lighting.

0

1. SOUTH - EAST FACADE

200

2-8th floors/ Project

2.5

10

1. South-east facade.

2.

2. Axonometric view of the terraces

2-8th floors / Project

201


The south-west facade The southwest facade shows the presence of terraces on its sides, while the central part shows a vertical strip of curtain wall that identifies the presence of the distribution corridor and a part of the facade treated with more traditional windows, with sliding panelsshutters, being at that point present on the addition not terraces, but rooms of the apartments overlooking this facade.

1. The south-west facade. 2. Zoom-in on the different configurations the terraces can have with the different uses of the polycarbonate sliding panels and the glassed sliding panels.

1. 0

2.5

10

2.

202

2-8th floors/ Project

2-8th floors / Project

203


204

2-8th floors/ Project

2-8th floors / Project

205


1. Axonometric view with the south-east facade and the north-east facade.

206

2-8th floors/ Project

2-8th floors / Project

207


4.4.6 The northern facades functioning Along the less irradiated elevations, which are the north-east and north-west facade, the windows are treated as little bow-windows as to capture more light. In this way it is also possible to create sittings inside the various spaces of the apartments. The line of the sittings is visible also from the outside because of the height of the string course, which is higher than the real slab. The string course is every two floors in order to create a giant order. The stringcourses are included between new partitions along the direction of the existing pillars with structural function. Along the north-west front there is the presence of a loggia, conceived as a glazed volume that enters the interior of the building in reverse mode with respect to the addition that occurs in the fronts facing south. Existing facade limit

Existing facade limit

Pilaster

3.

0

2.5

10

1. The north-west facade. 2. Axonometric view of the facade.

1. 2.

3. Scheme on the rhythm of the string course, which is every two floors. End of pilaster

208

2-8th floors/ Project

2-8th floors / Project

209


Along the north-west elevation, since the existing structure is backward with respect to the façade, the partitions are almost entirely enclosed within the façade and emerge from it only by the width of the stringcourse. a. In the additional floors above, the partitions are more visible, since the new walls have been placed on the inner side of the self-supporting partitions. On the northeast facade, as the situation is the exact opposite in the existing facade, the pillars are along the edge of the facade, so they are more clearly marked on the existing floors, while on the upper floors the new walls partly conceal the presence of the partitions.

From 11-16th floors on the north-west facade

From 2-9th floors on the north-east facade

Grès p shock and stre good therma quick to lay, ea darkened

The windows and doors are by means of sliding panels that b. run along tracks placed along the stringcourses, or directly on the façade where stringcourses are not present. The sliding panels consist of a frame within which vertically arranged aluminium elements amplify the verticality of the fronts.

From 11-16th floors on the north-east facade

From 2-9th floors on the north-west facade

Meta

3.

Used for stringco

1. Axonometric view on the angle between the north-east and north-west facade. 2. Scheme about the placement of the walls.

1.

210

2-8th floors/ Project

2.

3. Zoom on the sliding panels of the bow-windows.

2-8th floors / Project

211


212

2-8th floors/ Project

2-8th floors / Project

213


1. Axonometric view with the north-east facade and thesouth-east facade.

214

2-8th floors/ Project

2-8th floors / Project

215


Loggia apartment view

216

2-8th floors/ Project

Three-room apartment view

2-8th floors / Project

217


4

PROJECT

4.1 CONCEPT 4.2 GROUNDFLOOR 4.3 FIRST FLOOR 4.4 2-8TH FLOORS 4.4 9TH FLOOR 4.5 10-15TH FLOORS

218

219


4.5

9th floor

The 9th floor corresponds to the coverage of the existing one and is therefore configured as the first floor additional to the volumetric addition. For this reason it was decided to treat it differently from the rest of the intervention, so as to characterize it in the facade and also in terms of functions. This floor has been designed with a higher inter-storey (4.30 m compared to the 3 m of the existing one and the rest of the additional floors) since it houses common functions for the community. It consists of a closed part, towards the south-east south-west fronts and an open section on the other two sides. The functions housed are linked to physical activity, relaxation and meeting places, which are adapted to the different needs of the various generations of users.

3.

1. Functional program proposed for the 9th floor 2. Cold and heated spaces Cold space

1.

3. Position of the floor in the building

2.

220

9th floors/ Project

9th floors / Project

221


4.5.1 Floor type

All four ninth floors of the towers host common functions, then each one is characterized by the presence of one or more specific functions. the floor plan are all set around the central core that is closed, from the core you can exit in the open area, located north of the plant, where there are relaxation areas, mini golf, basketball and table tennis; in the closed part there are bowling alleys, areas with tables and a self-managed bar area, in addition to toilets.

1. The existing first floor with the current functions. 2. The firstfloor of the project with the planned functions.

DISTRIBUTION

136 sqm

FUNCTIONS FOR INHABITANTS

2064 sqm

EQUIPMENT ROOMS

24sqm

0

222

9th floors/ Project

5

20

9th floors / Project

223


0

5

20

1. The 9th floor proposal

224

9th floors/ Project

9th floors / Project

225


1.

2.

3.

4.

4.5.2 Floor type 1. Leasure activities .Bowls game ground .Ping pong tables

0

0

2,5

10

3. Leasure activities .Bowls game ground .Mini golf courseW

0

2,5

2. Leasure activities .Bowls game ground .Skateboard

4. Leasure activities .Bowls game ground .Basket courts

2,5

0

10

2,5

10

10

SKATEBOARD

226

9th floors/ Project

9th floors / Project

227


4

PROJECT

4.1 CONCEPT 4.2 GROUNDFLOOR 4.3 FIRST FLOOR 4.4 2-8TH FLOORS 4.5 9TH FLOOR 4.6 10-15TH FLOORS

228

229


4.6

10-15th floors

Floors 11 to 16 feature a standard floor that houses student residences and coliving accommodation. There are also two laundry rooms located identically to the 2-9th floors and an area with shared kitchens and dining area. It was decided to include student residences in the volumetric extension to encourage a greater mix of residents in the building complex, as the average age of the residents is currently quite advanced. In addition, this responds to the need to make up for the lack of sufficient student housing in this area occupied by the IULM complex (which is particularly close to the intervention area) and NABA, while at the same time expanding the catchment area. of the building complex. Students can also benefit from specific functions located on the ground floor, such as study rooms and reading areas, as well as a projection room.

STUDENT RESIDENCES

CO-LIVING

FUNCTIONS FOR INHABITANTS

EQUIPMENT ROOMS

DISTRIBUTION

0

230

10-15th floors/ Project

5

20

10-15th floors / Project

231


4.6.1 Floor type

2.

3.

4.

0

1,25

5

1. Floor type 10-15Wth. 2. Axonometric scheme on the distribution space and the public space. 3. Axonometric scheme on the localization of the apartments.

1.

232

10-15th floors/ Project

4. Axonometric scheme on the localization of the terraces.

10-15th floors / Project

233


4.6.2 The student residencies All student residences develop in a similar way. From the distribution corridor you have access to an atrium from which you can access the toilets or directly to the bedroom, which consists of a first part used as the sleeping area, in which the wardrobes with sliding doors also function as dividing elements for the various personal areas, a second area that constitutes the study room, positioned more in the light and the final part, corresponding to the section of the terrace, which constitutes the living and meeting area, which can be open in the form of a balcony or can be kept closed as a veranda. The presence of curtains that can be closed guarantees privacy between the internal environment of the room and that of the veranda.

1.

Living terrace

Study area

Sleeping area

Services

Distribution space

1. Student residence plan 2. Student residence section

0

1,25

5

2.

234

10-15th floors/ Project

10-15th floors / Project

235


4.6.3 Co-living

The northern part of the floor plan houses for each floor an apartment designed for co - living. This apartment consists of a central area shared by the residents with a kitchen, a living rarea and a loggia that forms a glass volume that enters inside the apartment. On either side of this area there are two apartments, each one with its own bathrooms. The apartment to the northwest can accommodate a couple or a single person. It leads into a small antechamber with a sitting area that can be joined or divided to the sleeping area through the opening or closing of sliding panels.

1.

Apartment

Common living area

The remaining portion of the apartment, on the opposite side of the living common area, can be configured as a single apartment that can accommodate a couple and a dependent, or can be divided to accommodate a couple and a single person. Also in this case the space is quite fluid and can be adapted as desired through the use of sliding panels.

Apartment

1. Co-living plan 2. Co-living section

0

1,25

5

2.

236

10-15th floors/ Project

10-15th floors / Project

237


5

BUILDING ENERGETIC PERFORMANCES


FOCUS 1 - Facade materic detail South-east, South-west

Concrete

Polycarbonate panel

Aluminium

Glass

240

Building energetic performances / Project

Building energetic performances / Project

241


5

4 2

Construction details

18

3 7 6 1

19 20

17

As far as the choice of glass for the loggias is concerned, it was decided to use triple-glazed windows for the outermost windows and doubleglazed windows for those on the inside. Triple-glazed windows and doors require a higher investment at the beginning, but then there is a greater gain over time. Triple glazing allows for greater reflection and this avoids overheating in summer due to the increased thermal insulation. Double-glazed windows, on the other hand, allow more light to enter, having a lower reflection value. They require a lower initial investment, but have a lower performance in terms of thermal and acoustic insulation and are able to retain less heat; consequently there is greater heat loss and a higher maintenance cost to obtain a suitable level of comfort. The external windows and doors of the loggias have been equipped with triple-glazed windows and doors because of the high acoustic insulation value, the fact that they are able to retain more heat (thus maximizing the greenhouse effect), but also thanks to the fact that in summer it is possible to avoid an excessive internal overheating due to the high reflective power. The internal windows of the loggia, on the other hand, are double-glazed since, due to the winter garden placed between them and the outside, they need less performance in terms of thermal and acoustic insulation.

13

Therefore, in winter the heat is trapped in the buffer zone and the double glazing can be opened inwards. In summer, thanks to the high reflective power of the triple glazing, excessive overheating is avoided or you can simply keep the glass open or use internal screening systems with the use of curtains.

8 12 9 10 11 14 15

1 - 2.5 cm thick polycarbonate panels mounted inside a frame with wheels at the bottom to allow them to slide in the rail. 2 - U-profile shaped inside as to have the guides for the polycarbonate panels wheels. 3 - sandwhich panel with matt aluminium external finish 4 - insulating panel. 5 - metal parapet. 6 - Schueco triple-glazed sliding doors and windows. 7 - C profile. 8 - external flooring. 9 - tubular. 10 - C-beam. 11 - spray plaster for external finishing. 12 - eave 13 - insulating footfall noise. 14 - thermal insulation 15 - pvc plot 16 - balcony insulation Schรถck Isokorb 17 - double-glazed Schueco book opening windows double glassed. 18 - pignata of the existing brick attic 19 - concrete beam of the existing floor slab 20 - existing internal vertical partition. For stratigraphy, see datasheet in the material relief section

1. Detail section 1:20

16

242

Building energetic performances / Project

Building energetic performances / Project

243


FOCUS 2 - Facade materic detail North-east, North -west

Concrete

Plaster

Aluminium

Glass

244

Building energetic performances / Project

Building energetic performances / Project

245


5 1 2 9

3

10

4 11

The main objective pursued in the design of facades facing north is to improve the radiation, due to the unfavourable position in terms of orientation. For this reason, it was decided to equip these façades with bow-window openings coming out from the façade, creating additional glazed surfaces on the sides to allow the entering of more light. These windows and doors consist of a fixedframein the lower part, while the upper part that can be opened to ensure the ventilation of the interior. With regard to the choice of the windows along the north-facing facades, it was decided to use double-glazed windows to allow more light to enter, as they have a lower level of reflection than triple-glazed windows. The presence of beams to contain the horizontal forces to which the walls positioned along the two north façades are subject, constitute a thickening of the stringcourse that is used as an opportunity to create internal bow-window seating. As far as the opaque infill panels are concerned, it was planned to replace the external finishing layer of the existing one made up of 4 cm thick concrete panels, with the introduction of a layer of insulation to form a thermal coat in order to improve energy performances. The external finishing layer consists of marmorino plaster to give a similar effect to marble stone.

Construction details

1 - aluminium sliding panel, consisting of vertical elements mounted inside a frame with wheels to slide in the rail. 2 - U-profile shaped inside as to have the guide for the wheels of the sliding shutters. 3 - sandwich panel for the outer finish of the matt aluminium shelf band. 4 - wooden aluminium window frames with double glazing. 5 - insulating panel 6 - windowsill 7 - IPE 8 - balcony insulation Schöck Isokorb 9 -existing brick floor piñata 10 - concrete beam of the existing floor slab 11 - existing internal vertical partition. For stratigraphy, see datasheet in the relief section.

6

1. Detail section 1:20 7 8

246

Building energetic performances / Project

Building energetic performances / Project

247


5.1 Comparison between the consumption 5.1.1 Groundfloor

1.

Through the Best Energy plug-in, Open Sketch up study, the existing and project plans were modelled and the consumption for heating and cooling were calculated. To each element of the two models were attributed the stratigraphies of materials and their physical characteristics. After assigning the various materials, the user profiles and the number of people were defined. At this point the outpt data for heating are set and it is decided in which period of time to calculate it (per hour, per week, etc.). Below you can see the consumption of the existing and the project type plan in kWh/sqm. In the following pages, the graphs divided by apartment of consumption before and after the intervention have been shown.

Comparison between Heating consumption

72

33

kWh/sqm 3. EXISTING GRAOUNDFLOOR - 54,2% energy needed

Heating: 217.113 KWh Surface: 3007 sqm

72,20 kWh/sqm

2. PROPOSED GRAOUNDFLOOR

Heating: 101.397 KWh Surface: 3089 sqm

32,82 kWh/smq

1. Existing model used on Best Energy. 2. Project model used on Best Energy f. 3. Comparison in consumption between existing and project

248

Building energetic performances / Project

Building energetic performances / Project

249


5.1 Comparison between the consumption 5.1.2 First floor_Green house

The methodology for tackling the simulation was that of comparison, where possible. The models of the state of the building were initially developed, as mentioned above, the technical characteristics of the internal and external partitions were inserted in order to reproduce the current condition of the building, therefore the total lack of thermal insulation and the presence of windows and glass with no performance at all. Subsequently, the differences were compared with the models of the respective floors and analysed. It is immediately clear that the presence of large windows on the facade has significantly lowered the winter energy requirements. In particular, if we examine the first floor at an initial consumption of 44.51 kWh/sqm, we arrive at a consumption of 7.97 kWh/sqm, with a saving of 82%. On the other hand, there will be higher consumption if we consider the summer period, and in this case the energy performance of glass plays an important role.

Comparison between Heating consumption

44

8

kWh/sqm

1.

3. EXISTING FIRST FLOOR - 82,1% energy needed

Heating: 16.647 KWh Surface: 374 sqm

44,51 kWh/sqm

PROPOSED FIRST FLOOR

Heating: 3.331 KWh Surface: 418 sqm

7,97 kWh/sqm

2. 1. Existing model used on Best Energy. 2. Project model used on Best Energy f. 3. Comparison in consumption between existing and project

250

Building energetic performances / Project

Building energetic performances / Project

251


5.1 Comparison between the consumption 5.1.3 2th to 8th floor type plan

Considering the standard plan, the data for what concerns the existing one are the same as the one on the first floor because the plan repeats the same from the first to the eighth floor. Considering instead the plan after the new intervention, the results found this to be the most performing plan. In fact, thanks to the glazing on the south side and the insertion of a new insulated wall on the north side, winter consumption fell by 91%. In this simulation, the winter period was distinguished from the summer period with different parameters for the two simulations. In fact, even in this case the glazing leads to an increase in the amount of energy required in summer so it was necessary to take into account the use of shielding elements such as

Comparison between Heating consumption

44

4

kWh/sqm 1.

3. EXISTING FLOOR TYPER PLAN

Heating: 16.647 KWh Surface: 374 sqm

44,51 kWh/sqm

- 91,8% energy needed

PROPOSED FLOOR TYPE PLAN

Heating: 1.985 KWh Surface: 542 sqm

3,66 kWh/sqm

2. 1. Existing model used on Best Energy. 2. Project model used on Best Energy f. 3. Comparison in consumption between existing and project

252

Building energetic performances / Project

Building energetic performances / Project

253


APARTMENT A - Run period hourly (W)

APARTMENT B - Run period hourly (W)

1. 1. Comparison chart concerning the energy needed for heating between existing and project the floor type plan

254

Building energetic performances / Project

1. 1. Comparison chart concerning the energy needed for heating between existing and project the floor type plan

existing floor type

existing floor type

proposed floor type

proposed floor type

Building energetic performances / Project

255


APARTMENT C - Run period hourly (J)

APARTMENT D - Run period hourly (J)

1. 1. Comparison chart concerning the energy needed for heating between existing and project the floor type plan

256

Building energetic performances / Project

1. 1. Comparison chart concerning the energy needed for heating between existing and project the floor type plan

existing floor type

existing floor type

proposed floor type

proposed floor type

Building energetic performances / Project

257


APARTMENT E - Run period hourly (J)

1. 1. Comparison chart concerning the energy needed for heating between existing and project the floor type plan

existing floor type proposed floor type

258

Building energetic performances / Project

Building energetic performances / Project

259


5.1 Comparison between the consumption 9th floor 10 to 15 floor type plan

5.1.4

th

In this case, there was no comparison with the existing building because there is taking in account the new part Also for floor 9 and floors 10th to 15th the simulations are consistent with those for the other floor: low consumption in winter and high in summer.

th

Heating consumption

4

15

kWh/sqm 1.

3. PROPOSED 9th FLOOR

Heating: 5.840 KWh Surface: 370 sqm

15,78 kWh/sqm

PROPOSED ADDED FLOORS_10th to 15th

Heating: 1.985 KWh Surface: 542 sqm

3,66 kWh/sqm

2. 1. Existing model used on Best Energy. 2. Project model used on Best Energy f. 3. Comparison in consumption between existing and project

260

Building energetic performances / Project

Building energetic performances / Project

261


5.1 Comparison between the consumption EXISTING GRAOUNDFLOOR Heating: 217.113 KWh Cooling: 25.441 kWh Surface: 3007 sqm

72,20 kWh/sqm 8,46 kWh/sqm

PROPOSED GRAOUNDFLOOR Heating: 101.397 KWh Cooling: 182.957 kWh Surface: 3089 sqm

32,82 kWh/sqm 59,46 kWh/sqm

EXISTING FIRST FLOOR Heating: 16.647 KWh Cooling: 12.869 kWh Surface: 374 sqm PROPOSED FIRST FLOOR Heating: 3.331 KWh Cooling: 21.985 kWh Surface: 418 sqm

5.1.5 Conclusion

The following tables summarize all the values that came out of the simulations with Best Ernergy. The winter-summer consumption of the existing building and the one after the intervention are shown. In conclusion, it can be noted that, on the one hand, winter consumption is really lower than before the retrofitting intervention, while summer consumption was higher.

44,51 kWh/sqm 34,41 kWh/sqm

Energy needed per sqm

88,07

55,19

kWh/mq

kWh/mq

Therefore an average consumption in kWh/sqm per year has been made, taking into account the surface from 13,480 smq to 34,420 smq . The results revealed that the average consumption went from 88.07 kWh/sqm to 55.19 kWh/sqm, with a saving of just over 37% of energy. In conclusion, the ratio of consumption during the year supports the retrofitting of the building.

7,97 kWh/sqm 52,59 kWh/sqm

TOTAL ENERGY DEMAND YEARLY EXISTING FLOOR TYPE PLAN Heating: 16.647 KWh Cooling: 12.869 kWh Surface: 374 sqm PROPOSED FLOOR TYPE PLAN Heating: 1.985 KWh Cooling: 25.481 kWh Surface: 542 sqm

44,51 kWh/sqm 34,41 kWh/sqm

2.

EXISTING Surface: 13.479 sqm Heating: 749.823 KWh Cooling: 437.281 kWh

3,66 kWh/sqm 47,01 kWh/sqm

Energy saved 62,93 kWh/sqm 24,075 kWh/sqm

- 37,32%

of kWh/sqm

Total energy needed:1.187.104 kWh Energy demand per sqm: 88,07 kWh/sqm

PROPOSED 9th FLOOR Heating: 5.840 KWh Cooling: 15.669 kWh Surface: 370 sqm

15,78 kWh/sqm 42,43 kWh/sqm

PROJECT Surface: 34.425 sqm Heating: 241.357 KWh Cooling: 1.658739 kWh

PROPOSED ADDED FLOORS_10th to 15th Heating: 1.985 KWh Cooling: 12.869 kWh Surface: 542 sqm

Total energy needed:1.900.097 kWh

3,66 kWh/sqm 34,41 kWh/sqm

Energy demand per sqm: 55.195 kWh/sqmW 1.

262

Building energetic performances / Project

15,05 kWh/sqm 50,31 kWh/sqm

1. Comparison in consumption between existing and project 2. Energy saving forecast

Building energetic performances / Project

263


6

CONCLUSION


Conclusion

The increase in the intensity and efficiency of the use of the social housing heritage represents a necessity and, at the same time, an opportunity for the redevelopment of important portions of the settlement fabric, in particular in urban and peri-urban areas. The intention of the thesis was to show how it is possible to implement intervention strategies that improve the quantitative aspects and energy performance, respecting the current requirements in terms of energy regulations, which are not detached from the attention to quality space to ensure the right comfort and a perception of living space that is of a high level. The aim of the thesis was to show how the theme of energy requalification can become an opportunity to rethink the built heritage in order to promote additional aspects at an architectural, qualitative and user fruition level, but also the generation of new housing solutions to meet contemporary needs. The preliminary phase of study and analysis of the building complex allowed us to define the main objectives of the project, defined by areas of intervention. The theme of the regeneration of the building has been carried out with a wider perspective of revaluation also of the context, in order to develop its potentials, to create new ones and to improve its economic feasibility with the attraction of a wide and diversified catchment area. Therefore, it was decided to integrate new collective functions in order to increase the area’s catchment area. The strategy was also aimed at rebalancing the average age shifted towards the more adult and elderly groups, both in the area and in the building complex itself, through the attraction of a younger population, made of student. The creation of student housing also solves the need to locate new student residences to support the students of the IULM complex which, as we have seen, is located right near the area. The reconfiguration of the ground floor, obtained mainly through partial demolitions, has generated a more permeable space and therefore more suitable for the collective vocation of the space, eliminating the fragmentation that was detrimental to the optimal use of the ground floor. This collective vocation was also emphasized by a more facilitated and immediate accessibility compared to the existing one, thanks to the creation of squares of degrading levels, joined together by very gently sloping ramps and steps that can also be used to sit. The accommodations have been redesigned to accommodate different types of users and to ensure a high level of internal comfort. The volumetric additions to the south have allowed the extension of the living space and the creation of buffer zones that can be managed by users according to their needs, which optimize and improve the energy performance of the building complex. The living comfort for the accommodation located along the north-east and

266

267


north-west facades is guaranteed by the presence of bow windows, which, due to their overhanging shape, guarantee a greater contribution of radiation along these two facades, which are disadvantaged in this sense due to their orientation. Moreover, the bow windows improve the usability of both collective and private interior spaces, being additional places to sit and enjoy the external view of the new intervention. The volumetric addition on the tower roofs is able to generate revenues from the sale of new constructions in order to allow to reduce the debt for the financing of the initiative. It also explores the possibility of increasing existing volumes through additions that are self-supporting and do not therefore burden the existing structure. The new additions also feature more experimental housing to adapt to new, more flexible living requirements.

268

269


7

BIBLIOGRAPHY


Bibliography

[-] Acre F., Wyckmans, A., Spatial quality determinants for residential building renovation: A methodological approach to the development of spatial quality assessment. International Journal of Sustainable Building Technology and Urban Development, 2014. [-] Acre F., Wyckmans, A., Dwelling renovation and spatial quality: The impact of the dwelling renovation on spatial quality determinants. International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment, 2015. [-] Antonini, E., Gaspari, J., Olivieri, G., Densificare per migliorare: strategie di riqualificazione del parco italiano di edilizia abitativa sociale, Techne 4, Firenze University Press, Firenze, 2012. [-] Ascione, P., Bellomo, M. (A cura di), Retrofit per la residenza. Tecnologie per la riqualificazione del patrimonio edilizio in Campania, Clean Edizioni [-]Bauman, Z., La società dell’incertezza. Bologna: Il Mulino, 1999 [-] Bauman, Z., Vita liquida (titolo orig. Liquid life). Roma-Bari: Ed. Laterza, 2006. [-] Belpoliti ,V., Boarin, P., Davoli, P., Marzot, N., Costruire nel costruito: il riciclo urbano come strategia di rigenerazione sistemica del tessuto consolidato, Techne 10, Firenze University Press, Firenze, 2015. [-] Bötticher, K., Die Tektonik der Hellenen. 2 vols. Potsdam, 1852. [-] Bruzzese A. (2014) Per la costruzione della qualità dello spazio pubblico. Traiettorie

di ricerca in Atti della VIII Giornata di studio INU Una politica per le città italiane, pubblicati su Urbanistica Informazioni, n.257, Rivista bimestrale Anno XXXXI Settembre-Ottobre 2014 ISSN n. 0392-5005 p.37-39.

[-] Califano, L., Le addizioni al costruito nelle strategie di retrofit, Tutor: prof. arch. Sergio Pone, Co-tutor: prof. Carmine Piscopo, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II. [-] Cetica, P. A., L’edilizia di terza generazione. Breviario di poetica per il progetto nella strategia del costruire, FrancoAngeli, Milano, 1993. [-] Comune di Milano, PGT - 2030, Milan, 2019. [-] Dierna, S., «Tecniche, Morfologie, Progetto. Quadro di riferimento.» In Produzione dell’architettura tra tecniche e progetto. Atti del V seminario Osdotta, di AA.VV. e (a cura di) Massimo Laurìa, 215-222. Firenze: Firenze University Press, 2010.

272

273


[-] Dierna, S., e Orlandi, F., Buone pratiche per il quartiere ecologico. Firenze: Alinea Editrice, 2005. [-] Grecchi, M., Malighetti, L. E., Ripensare il costruito. Bologna: Maggioli Editore, 2008. [-] Hvejsel, M. F., Kirkegaard, P. H., Bundgaard, S., Towards a Tectonic Approach – energy renovation in a Danish context. Nordic journal of architectural research, 2015. [-] Jensen, O. M., Virkemidler til fremme af energibesparelser i bygninger, Hørsholm: SBI forlag. SBI, Nr. 2009:06 https://vbn.aau.dk/ws/portalfiles/ portal/17143382/SBi_2009-06.pdf (accessed 29th october 2019).

[-] Pittini A., Laino E., Housing Europe Review 2012, The nuts and bolts of European social housing systems, CECODHAS Housing Europe’s Observatory, Brussels (Belgium), 2011. [-]Sekler, E. F., Structure, construction, tectonics. Aufbau, 1964. [-]Scott, F., On Altering Architecture.New York: Routledge, 2008. [-] Scuderi, G., Adaptive Exoskeleton for the integrated retrofit of social housing building, Supervisor: prof Enzo Siviero, University of Trento, 2016. [-] Reale, L., Tempo/Soggetto/Soglia. Osservazioni sulla città attraverso la lettura di quattro quartieri romani.

[-] Jensen, S.R. & Purup, P.B. & Kirkegaard, P.H. & Petersen, S., Towards a Holistic Approach to Low-Energy Building Design: Introducing Metrics for Evaluation of Spatial Quality. In: editor of organisation, The 33rd International Conference on Passive and Low Energy Architecture. Edinburgh, 3.-5. July 2017, PLEA 2017.

[-] Rinaldi, A., Relazione: La riqualificazione del tessuto storico di base: il progetto per Brennone 21 a Reggio Emilia, Bologna Fiere, mercoledì 30 settembre 2009.

[-] Luciano, G., Sonzogni, F., 4 Four - Flexibility - Opportunity - Usability Renewability; tutor: Malighetti L. E., Politecnico di Milano, 2012-2013.

[-] Signorelli, A., Antropologia urbana: introduzione alla ricerca in Italia, Guerini, Milano 1966.

[-] Lynch, K., L’immagine della città, Marsilio, Padova 1964.

[-] Tschumi, B., Manhattan Transcripts (1976-1981).

[-] Madsen, U. S., Beim, A., Towards an ecology of tectonics. København: Edition Axel Menges gmbh, 2014.

[-] Vittoria, E., «Progettazione dell’incertezza.» Prospettive Settanta, 1980.

[-] Madsen, U. S., Beim, A., Værdiskabelse i Bygningsrenovering: en minianalyse af udvalgte koncepter for vurdering af egenskaber og kvaliteter i byggeri. København: CINARK ( Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole), 2015. [] Marsh, R., Faurbjerg, L. M., Kongebro, S., Arkitektur, energi, renovering : designguide for energi-, dagslys- & indeklimarenovering. Copenhagen: SBi, 2013.

[-] Rossi, A., L’architettura della città. Città studi editore, 1978.

[-] Wessel, J.,“Una nuova vita per i monumenti moderni”. Esperienze di recupero tecnologico e funzionale in Olanda, in Ricerca Tecnologia Architettura, Edizioni ETS, Pisa 2008. [-] Zambelli, E., Fenomenologia e tassonomia degli interventi di trasformazione tecnologico-architettonica, in Ettore Zambelli (a cura di), Ristrutturazione e trasformazione del costruito, Il Sole 24 Ore, Milano, 2004

[-] Mazza, L., Geddes ‘politico’: Vision, Survey, Cityzenship. https://www. academia.edu/3443339/Geddes_politico_Vision_Survey_Cityzenship [-] Seghezzi, E. , A Decision Support Framework for technology related choices in façade retrofit. Relevance and impact of morphological factors on retrofit interventions value”, Supervisor: Prof. Gabriele Masera, Tutor Prof. Fulvio Re Cecconi, The Chair of the Doctoral Program: Prof. Enrico De Angelis, Politecnico di Milano, 2018. [-] Pennestrì, D. La riqualificazione energetica dell’edilizia sociale nei contesti italiano e olandese, Techne 4, Firenze University Press, Firenze, 2012. [-] Perriccioli, M.(A cura di), RE-Cycling Social Housing, Ricerche per la rigenerazione sostenibile dell’edilizia residenziale sociale, Clean Edizioni.

274

275


Acknowledgements

At the end of this path and of these splendid and intense years of university, it is not easy to mention and thank, in a few lines, all the people who have accompanied us. We have made many acquaintances, cultivated friendships and relationships. We would like to dedicate this last work to all the people who have been closed and have supported us. We would like to thank first of all our supervisor Gennaro Postiglione and our cosupervisor Barbara Brollo for giving us the opportunity to carry out this thesis work and the great support given us; we would also like to thank them for their availability and presence, despite the historical-social situation out of the ordinary. We would also like to thank Professor Fabrizio Leonforte and his collaborator Harold Huerto for giving us a fundamental contribution, thanks to the advices in the development of the energy performance analysis. We would also like to extend our sincere thanks to Professors Elsa Garavaglia and Lorenza Petrini for giving us the opportunity to compare ourselves with their knowledge of structural issues. Special thanks also go to Lucia of the Comitato di Autogestione of the building complex in Via Russoli, for the courtesy and willingness to give us the information necessary for the development of the project. Looking back over the academic years, we cannot help but address a special thought to Lucia, Letizia, Elisa, Francesca, Alice, Mericarmen, Michela, Enrico, Filippo, Ana, Daniel, Gwen, Mattheu, Julien, Alessandra, Loris, Silvia, Fiamma, Martina. A special thanks also goes to our families who have shared with us both the happy and carefree moments and the more difficult ones, giving us a fundamental contribution.

Alice e Gianluca

276

277

Profile for Gennaro  Postiglione

Beyond Retrofitting  

INVESTIGATING THE ROLE OF SPATIAL QUALITY IN ENERGY PERFORMANCES STRATEGIES Alice Cajelli, Gianluca Gujù (Diploma Summer 2020) Supervisors:...

Beyond Retrofitting  

INVESTIGATING THE ROLE OF SPATIAL QUALITY IN ENERGY PERFORMANCES STRATEGIES Alice Cajelli, Gianluca Gujù (Diploma Summer 2020) Supervisors:...

Advertisement

Recommendations could not be loaded

Recommendations could not be loaded

Recommendations could not be loaded

Recommendations could not be loaded