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“Youth commune” Millenials Village Re-Thinking modernist architecture according to contemporary conditions Adaptive Re-Use of former “Media House”

° millenials village


Politecnico di Milano Scuolo di Architecture Urbanistica Ingegnera delle Costruzioni AUIC Master degree in Architecture, Architecture of Interiors aa 2017 / 2018

“Youth Commune� Re-Thinking modernist architecture according to contemporary conditions

Studnet: Vigan Zeka 871383 Relatore: Gennaro Postiglione


Content Abstract

010 State of Art 01.1 01.2 01.3 01.4

020

Photograpic survey Users Interviews Study of Functions

Pristina Overview

02.1 Historical overview of the city of Pristina 02.2 Modernist architecture in Pristina (Landmarks) 02.3 A constellation of Modernist buildings in Pristina

030

“Rilindja” Media House

03.1 Historical description of the building, 03.2 Site Analysis 03.3 Case Studies

040

Project

04.1 The Context 04.1 Strategy and design 04.2 Steps 04.3 The “Platform” 04.4 The “Urban Balcony” 04.5 The “Plug-ins”

050

Environments

05.1 Compostion 05.2 Drawings 05.3 New Users 05.4 Urban Impact

Bibliography


Abstract Domineering the silhouette of the city of Pristina, Kosovo, is a building, perhaps no longer interesting in its form but most definitely in its meaning. It is the former Media House building, conceptualized primarily to serve the society as a production mechanism of the first Albanian written newspaper “Rilindja”. Built during the modernization era of Socialist Yugoslavia, it represented not only an efficient productive machine, but a concrete sign of modernity and it is recognized as one of the best examples of brutalist architecture in the region. However, after the destruction of Socialist Yugoslavia in 1980 and the war of Kosovo in 1998-1999 the modernist architecture in Pristina underwent radical transformation, initiated from the new political order with the aim of altering one part of Yugoslavian history regarded as something not domestic. The “Rilindja” Media House building, was one of the victims of this process, its architecture, program and history were altered, it lost its importance, and as a result, a huge part of the architectural and historical heritage of Kosovo was erased. These aspects introduced two key questions for the project: how a disfigured building in the city of Pristina can be transformed into an active social intersection between the city and its citizens? and how does the present situation affect the memory of the past? Aiming to respond these questions and based on the actual need of the city this project proposes a new life for the former “Rilidnja” Media House building, which wants to fuse both the preservation of its identity and the radical transformation of its content, in this way enabling a shift from industrial mechanism to cultural mechanism. Hence proposing a new cultural hub named “Youth commune”, which, through the act of people, not only evolves into a state of acceptance, but becomes part of everyday life. This process aims to start, within a fragmented nation, a journey of self-discovery based on the comprehension of all the values rooted in the past.


Abstract E’ un edificio, forse non più interessante nella sua forma, ma decisamente nel suo significato, a dominare la sagoma della città di Pristina in Kosovo. È l’ex edificio della Media House, concepito principalmente per servire la società come meccanismo di produzione del primo giornale scritto albanese “Rilindja”. Costruito durante l’era della modernizzazione della Jugoslavia socialista, ha rappresentato non solo una macchina produttiva efficiente, ma un segno concreto di modernità, che è riconosciuto come uno dei migliori esempi di architettura brutalista nella regione. Tuttavia, dopo la distruzione della Jugoslavia socialista, nel 1980, e la guerra del Kosovo (1998-1999), l’architettura modernista a Pristina subì una trasformazione radicale, finalizzata all’alterazione dell’eredità proveniente dalla tradizione jugoslava, considerata qualcosa di non appartenente al contesto. Il Media House “Rilindja” è proprio uno di quegli edifici che hanno subito la trasformazione dei loro caratteri architettonici e del loro programma. Una parte enorme del patrimonio architettonico e storico del Kosovo è stata trasformata in questo processo e una serie di punti di riferimento dell’espressione brutalista è stata così cancellata. Della stessa opinione è stato l’architetto che ha progettato l’edificio, Georgi Konstantinovski, che in una conferenza tenuta nel 2015 a Pristina, ha detto; “Oh, sì, questo è in realtà il mio edificio!!”. L’architetto ha però avuto bisogno di alcuni secondi per capirlo, e ha proseguito dicendo “Ora capisci come è cambiato. È rivestito, ha perso la sua importanza, il peso della storia, l’architettura moderna degli anni ‘70. Mi infastidisce perché parte della storia è stata cancellata”. Questi aspetti conducono a due domande chiave: come un edificio sfigurato nella città di Pristina può trasformarsi in un’intersezione sociale attiva tra la città ed i suoi cittadini? e in che modo la situazione attuale influisce sulla memoria del passato? Con l’obiettivo di rispondere a tali domande, e sulla base delle reali necessità della città e dell’analisi storica, viene proposta una trasformazione del programma della Media house “Rilidnja”, ma non del suo ruolo originale, che rimane legato ad una realtà produttiva, non più relativa all’industria, ma devota ad arte e cultura. Viene così proposto “Youth Commune”, che grazie all’interazione con la comunità, non solo viene finalmente accettato, ma diventa parte della vita i tutti i giorni in qualità di nuova casa per l’arte e la cultura. Questo processo si prefigge di dare il via, all’interno di una nazione frammentata, ad un processo di auto scoperta basata sulla conoscenza dei valori radicati nel passato.


010 STATE OF ART

8


The aim of this chapter is the one of showing “Rilidnja� ware house buildingas it is nowadays. Without any personal interpretation, the contents of the next pages are based on observation, analysis and on an effort of gathering informations.

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01.1Photographic survey

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01.2Actual Users After a long observation of the people who transit within the space of the building it is possible to differenciate three different kind of users, that have three different reason for being there and that generate three different “path movement” on the site.

Workers (is considered to be a worker everyone who works in one of the buildings)

Consumer (is considered to be a consumer everyone who visits one of the restaurants/bars, that occur in the complex)

Athlete (is considered to be an athele everyone who visits the gym that takes place in the former” “printing hall”) 18


Train Station

University Campus

City Center

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020 Pristina Overview

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Brutalist Architecture Socialist Modernist Architecture in the city of Pristina

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020 Modernism in Pristina

Historical Overview Looking in retrospective, Pristina had significant changes during through different time periods. Built and destroyed in numerous occasions in the name of progress and modernity, in the name of culturalism, in the name of globalization and privatization (Eliza Hoxha). Skimming through historical writings, one can find traces of Pristina dating from XIII century, were for the first time it’s mentioned as an important settlement and later as a city. It hosted fairs, had a lot of hostels (hane), covered market area with many shops (carshia) and was an important trade point between Thessaloniki and Sarajevo, reflecting the Ottoman identity of the city1 (old town). Pristina maintained It’s Ottoman identity until the end of WWII when it was officially declared as the capital of Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo. On 19 November 1944, a new city with a new image, new identity and new social order started its journey. Fundamental changes were to take place in the city fabric. Similar as in all Yugoslavian republics and two autonomous provinces, Kosovo’s new capital started to develop towards the ideology of modernization, towards Socialist Yugoslav identity. New urban planning projects, government buildings, party headquarters, cultural institutions, theatres and universities of science and art were constructed, in the name of a new social order. The case of Kosovo and its capital, Pristina, is the most particular among other Yugoslavian urban centers, as the only non-Slavic entity with different heritage, culture and history it strived for its own identity and resisted to merge with 22

Kosovo Adriatic Sea Italy

Pristina

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the others. Due to these differences the postwar urbanization of Pristina didn’t parallel the process of modernization, with much of Yugoslavian centers, remaining the poorest and least developed capital. This distinction was visible in all scales of life, most importantly it touched the education of the society. The lack of higher educational institutions like Universities until 1970’s, limited the higher education of Kosovo-Albanians, allowing the federation to control and implement the Socialist Yugoslavian political ideology with more ease. In 1953, the federation instigated unprecedented urban developments with political strategies on the new urban plan for Pristina. The project designed by the Belgrade architect Dragutin Patronic was never fully implemented. It had a modernist ideology and was in harmony with the most developed urban centers of Yugoslavia. With clear political aims initiated from Serbian government in erasing the Kosovar history, only in its initial years of application it destroyed the nucleus of the city (Old Town), in order to “make space for the new”. The heart of the city “divanjolli”, a characteristic urban pattern of Ottoman era in Pristina, together with other important buildings such as a mosque, a church and the only Jewish synagogue, were destroyed, leaving no trace of their historical and architectural values. Such clearings, left space for the new public structures, the new boulevard originally called “Marshall Tito” (figx) and now “Mother Tereza” and the two main administrative institutions “Municipality and Parliament building” designed by the Croatian architect Juraj Neidhart in 1961. Reacting on such action, on her book “Heritage of Prishtina”, Eliza Hoxha states: “One can argue that cities are in permanent change, but in case of Pristina changes came with a big price, they were not installing a new tradition but a tradition of new”.

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“The Glory Days” of Pristina 1970’s The founding ideology of Socialist Yugoslavia was the modernization and brotherhood, through overall uniformity, but giving the Autonomous Republics the freedom to preserve its various ethnic identities in all spheres of life, including architecture. However, in the case of Pristina after losing its prior Ottoman heritage, the city was opened towards new architectural qualities, aiming to bring the modernist identity. Most of architectural projects were imported from different republics of Yugoslavia, but the contribution of local architects trained in the most prominent Yugoslav Universities was present as well. A key figure was the first Kosovar architect, Bashkim Fehmiu (founder of School of Architecture at University of Prishtina, 1978), who had great influence in urban planning and architecture of Kosovo urban centers. The country achieved most of it modernization after gaining political autonomy in 1963. The change from “autonomous region” to “autonomous province”, granted Kosovo the possibility to create its own assembly, administration and judicial institutions. After a great struggle, in 1969 also the first Albanian University opened in Prishtina. The 1970’s are considered the “the golden years”, a period of immense development when the city achieved most of its modernization, in all spheres including political, architectural and cultural. Following the trends of the other five republican capitals that went through modernization process, exceptional achievements were made in public buildings, mass housing and monuments. The city was changing, creating its modernist image. Renown architects were designing buildings with particular architectural and historical importance, among them; Macedonian architect Gerogi Konstantinovski with the building of “Media House” (1971-1978) also known as “Rilindja” which was the first Albanian written media inside the Socialist Yugoslavia; “Hotel Grand” designed by (Kosovar architect) Bashkim Fehmiu and Dragan Kovacevic (Serbian architect) in 1971 and “Technical Faculty of Pristina University” 1972 designed by the renowned Slovenian architect Edvard Ravnikar who worked for a short period in the office of Le Corbusier. Moreover, architects managed to design exceptional architecture by using regionalist elements transformed into modernist architecture (Modern Regionalism). The best such examples are: “National and University Library” as the most iconic building of this gender in Yugoslavia, designed by Croatian architect Andrija Mutnjakovic in 1971 which through its white cubes and domes interprets the traditional white wool hats or traditional oriental structural elements, and “Boro Ramizi” Youth and Sport Center designed by the Slovenian architect Zivorad Jankovic in 1976 which had different abstract symbolization; as the eight Yugoslav federal regions, as an Eagle (Albanian icon) and as the peak of Sharri mountain. 24

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Destruction Trends 1990’s If the 1970’ were seen as “the glory days” for Pristina and Yugoslavia in overall, 1980’s will be the beginning of “the dull days”. Pristina witnesses’ heavy political violence which happened all around Socialist Yugoslavia. After the protests of 1981 in Pristina, which followed the abolishing of political autonomy of Kosovo, the development of the city didn’t continue and we can only find a few interesting buildings in Pristina. Worthy to be mentioned are: “Post office Tower” designed by Halid Muhasilovic in 1983. The tower of “Kek-u” designed by Zoran Zakic in 1984, and the building of “Ljublanska Banka” designed by Ljubisa Radosavljevic. As the political violence increased in Socialist Yugoslavia, ethnical conflicts in Kosovo during 1990’s deepened. In the next 18 years Kosovo was under control and invasion of Serbian military and its violent political ideology left a huge mark in country’s history. Not only there were no public buildings build in this period but a significant number of administrative, residential and mosques of Muslim Kosovar’s were vandalized, damaged or destroyed, leading to the war of 1998. In 1999, with the intervention of international military forces in Kosovo the war ended. A new start, the era of freedom, of independent decision making and moreover identity making started. For Pristina, postwar period brought social-economic problems which for architecture meant a massive confusion and overcrowding of cities coming as a result of not having a clear urban vision. Consequently, the urban morphology and architectural identity created during the period of Socialist Yugoslavia was heavily damaged. Massive changes took place, reflected by new political ideology, almost in a blink of an eye most important buildings in the city went from collective ownership to state ownership and majority of them from state ownership to private ownership. The lack of planning regulations led to bad reuse, revitalization and preservation of buildings with important architectural and historical heritage. Such was the case of Socialist Architectures in Pristina, as: “Kosovo Assembly”, “Media House” building, “Technical Faculty of University of Pristina” building, “University of Philosophy” building, “Hotel Bozur”, “Hotel Grand” etc.

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Pictures of dectruction in Pristina

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Architectural Resilence Vs Continous Discontinuity “Architecture styles mirror political shifts. Not only in aesthetic but also as deeper indicators of changes in state authority, strategies of administration and relation between citizen and state” (Holson 1989; Sennet 1994; Rabinow 1995) – (Power and Architecture) The after war period, is one of tremendous optimism, the smell of freedom, the time of independent decision making. The forming of a new country began under the administration of “UN mission”. Pristina, is again the cradle of dramatic economic, political and social transformations. Almost as in a blink of an eye, the new political ideology that went from Socialist Society it became Democratic Capitalist society had to adapt to the changing conditions and as a result starting to create “new identity”. Regardless of the achievements and the importance of modernist architecture, similarly as in other cities of western Balkans after destruction of Socialist Yugoslavia, countries underwent a huge transformation in all aspects of life, needless to say that the evolution presented the city with new needs. With the change of political ideology from Socialism to Democratic Capitalism, new approach towards these buildings started, they underwent a transformation not only in their functions but also in ownership. From Collective ownership went to State ownership and through the privatization process a relative high number of these complexes became private ownership. Revitalization, reuse, and preservation of Landmark buildings started, especially those located within the city center was initiated from the new political ideology with the purpose of creating the perception of familiarity, representing power and wealth. (Braunfles)1 Unfortunately, the process was carried without proper professional support and considerable number of modernist buildings underwent irreplaceable transformation which had great impact in their architectural and historical heritage. Among the most extreme cases that were victims of transformation without proper professional supervision are; “Media House” building, “Technical Faculty of University of Pristina” building, “Hotel Bozur”, “Hotel Grand”. Today, 20 years after the war, Pristina has become a ghost city, a city without identity. After all transformation carried in the recent years, two can be described as the most extreme examples; former “Media House” building and “Technical Faculty of University of Pristina”, both state properties, in both cases the intervention were made with public money. The interest of this project is to elaborate the development of Pristina after WWII during and after the period of Socialist Yugoslavia 1948-2018, dealing 28

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in particular with the transformation of one of the city’s Socialist Architecture Landmark buildings of significant architectural, cultural and social importance: “The Media House”, built in 1978 by the Macedonian architect Georgi Konstantinovski. The building was transformed in 2008 into “Public Service Ministry” but without any public discussions. A huge part of architectural and historical heritage of Kosovo was transformed in this process, a Landmark for the city and the region for its Brutalist expression is not part of Pristina anymore, the honest concrete façade was covered with alucobond, the peculiar triangles in the façade were demolished and the building that represented the first Albanian written journal in Socialist Yugoslavia does not look the same. When the project for transformation of “Media House” building was presented, it provoked a sense of nostalgia, that the memories of the past ironically are again disappearing, with it also the modernist heritage. The memory of the past was triggered and many protest, debates and writings were arisen, among them “Arber Sadiku” in a paper ironically questions; how many public debates were conducted before the project, was the association of architects asked for an opinion, were the citizens involved in the intervention, did they take permission to intervene from its initial designer, was a public competition held and who selected the wining project? This reaction was encountered in a deaf ear, and the building in 2008 unfortunately started the transformation. The architect who initially designed the building Georgi Konstantinovski, in a lecture held on 2015 in Pristina he said; “Oh, yeah this is actually my building.!!”, however he needed a few seconds to understand that, he continuous “Now you see how it has changed. It is cladded, lost its importance, the weight of history, the modern architecture of the 1970s. It hampers me because part of history has been deleted”. In similar disrepair had fallen also the building of Slovenian architect Edvard Ravinkar for “Technical Faculty of Pristina University”, were numerous interventions had been taken in total opposition with the principle of its Brutalist style.

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What happens if a historical period is diminished from a country? What happens if we don’t embrace these buildings and be proud of them? What is the future for these buildings? Ironically enough, the history is being repeated “we lost the old for the new” and now we are losing “the new for the other new”. Even though, the achievements of modernist era can still be highlighted as the best example to be followed, the city is being introduced with a new image, an image without identity, without spirit, without quality if the transformation continuous with the same trends, Pristina will become a ghost city)1) 29


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Modernism in Pristina

In the immediate aftermath of world war II the country situation was grim, as a consequence of extensive material damage as well as irreparable loss of life. The first five years plan for the 1947-1951 period responded by introducing urbanization as both the goal and the tool of socialist modernization. In this terms architecture was used from the politicians as the main catalysator in creating and rebuilding societies. Pristina, as mentioned prior had been build and destroyed numerous times (See chapter X), however, the achievements of modernist era can still be highlighted as the best example to be followed and used for the future development of the city. Unfortunatly this period is still quite unknown for the broader audience. The modernization of Pristina happened during the period of Socialist regime of Yugoslavia 1948-1980 (see chapter X), beyond its political ideology and Kosovo’s unfair discrimination, Pristina from a rural and not developed city became a modern city with boulevards, public spaces, cultural buildings and university. The first architectural project was the “Urban General Plan” in 1953 (See chapter A) which drastically changed the image of the city, introducing the first boulevard “Marshal Tito” which was the first public space for both man and women together, in the trends of the modernization project of the city conducted by the ideology of Socialist Yugoslavia were constructed numerous buildings, in this project on the following pages will be discussed and analyzed only the best examples under the criteria’s of;

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a) Aesthetic/Architectural qualities b) Historical and political importance c) Cultural importance d) Technology importance e) Economical importance f) Social Development importance

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PRISHT-ina Socialist Modernism 1.

National Library “Media House - Rilindja” 3. “Sport Hall - Boro and Ramizi” 4. “Shoping Center - Germia” 5. “Hotel Grand” 6. “Univeristy of Prishtina” 2.

7.

13.

8.

Students dining place Post office 9. Albanian Institute 10. The Parliament of Kosovo 11. Housing units “Sunny Hill” 12. Bankos Tower

14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

“KEK-U” The Platform “Kurrizi” National Gallery of Kosovo Kosovo Archive Building Neighborhood “Ulpiana” Neighborhood “Dardania”

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2

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“Monument to the Revolution” 1961 Location Adem Jashari Square, Pristine

Inherited Values

Cultural

Hisotrical

Undoubtably, Monuments and Memorials played a profound role in the construction process of socialist Yugoslavia, and their legacy is part of our societies. Monuments commemorating anti-fasicst struggle in WWII, were built around the federation and one of them in 1961 was constructed in Pristina’s main square, designed by Miodrag Zivkovic. Located in the city center, in the new boulevard of “Brotherhood and Unity” which lays on top of the old Ottoman bazaar called “carshia” the design of the monument wasn’t well accepted from the Kosovar citizens due to the destruction that were related with it. However, initiated from the federation the monument represents one of the first modernist creations in the city of Pristina. The monument is made of three separate thin pillars which connects at the top, Socialist Yugoslav the multiethnic citizens of Kosovo, consisting of three separate thin pillars which all connect at the top, each of three pillars represents on of the three ethnicities living and working in Kosovo, the monument stands as a testament of the Yugoslav ideology of “Brotherhood and Unity”, moreover the message of the monument was that it would be a memorial for all fallen warriors of the war no matter their ethnicity. Today, the overall status of this monument is poor, but it survived changes that were made in the new boulevard “Adem Jashari” recently augurated. 34

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Construction period 1961 Designer Miodrag Zivkovic Original name “Monument to the Revolution� Original typology War Memorial Owner State Status of Protection None

Fig1

Inverventions Restauration, 2018 Current name The three Branches Current typology War Memorial Owner State Status of Protection None

Fig1 35


“Kossovo Assembly” 1961 Designed by Juraj Neidhart

Location Adem Jashari Square, Pristine

Inherited Values

Architectural

Hisotrical

Cultural

As in other Socialist cities, politicians used architecture as tool to influence and shape societies, when assembling the capital city what can be a better way to implement an ideology than designing the its administrative institutions. “Kosovo Assembly” was the first state institution project constructed during the Socialist Yugoslavia, situated on top of the old Bazaar, in the borders of two different parts of the city “Old town” and “Modern town”, initially designed by Serbian architect Bogdan Nestrovic in 1948 and later adopted and redesigned by the renowned Croatian architect Juraj Neidhart in 1961. Neidhart was one of the most influential figures in the architecture of Socialist Yugoslavia, graduated from the architecture school of Vienna, a one-time employee in the office of Peter Behrens and Le Corbusier (1932-1936). Moreover, together with his lifelong college Dusan Grabrijan devoted most of his research work on the vernacular architecture of Bosnia and Herzegovina, from 1930s they represented the most consisted efforts to formulate what later will be known as “critical regionalism” and later publish the massive volume “Architecture of Bosnia and the Way to Modernity” (1957). However, the building didn’t survive the political shifts on the after-war period and underwent unreplaceable transformation especially on the façade and the parliament meeting hall, drastically changing the overall appearance of the building. 36

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Construction period 1961 Designer Juraj Neidhart Original name Kosovo Assembly Original typology Government Building Owner State Status of Protection None

Fig1

Inverventions Renovation Current name Kosovo assembly Current typology Government building Owner State Status of Protection None

Fig1 37


Institute of Albanolgy - 1975 Designed by Midograd Pecic

Location Eqrem Qabej Boulevard, Pristine

Inherited Values

Architectural

Hisotrical

Cultural

“Institute of Albanology”, is of remarkable importance for the city of Pristina mainly for two reasons, as the place where the Albanian Language and Culture was studied during Socialist Yugoslavia. In the selected cases it is clear to see that political importance sometimes overcomes the architectural importance, however, the “Institute of Albanolgy” is one of the best projects designed by Midograd Pecic in 1975, after he won an open design competition. He was the author of numerous buildings in Kosovo among them; “Residential Housing” in Gjakova (1978), “Housing Tower Block” in Gjilan (1976) and “Motel Vllaznimi” in Landovic (1979). Located in center along “Eqrem Qabej” boulevard, is part of University Campus of Pristina, the building of “Institute of Albanalogy” as mentioned prior is an important asset for the Kosovo social development meaning its function moreover, through its position and the architectural volume contributes to the overall image of the University Campus and the city center. The building is a reflection of local architecture and uses clean simple materials meaning white mortar, to communicate volumetric quality of its design through its shape and slopped parapets which in addition to the utilitarian role, controlling natural light in order to improve the research work, contributes to the visual image of the building, creating its architectural identity. Today, the building fortunately continues to serve the function it was built for, housing one of the most important research institutes on Albanian culture and literature. 38

Social development

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Construction period 1975 Designer Midograd Pecic Original name Institute of Albanology Original typology Public Building Owner Collective

Fig1

Status of Protection None

Inverventions none Current name Institute of Albanology Current typology Public buidling Owner State Status of Protection None

Fig1 39


Technical Faculty of Pristina university 1975 Designed by Edvard Ravnikar

Location Agim Ramadani str, Pristine

Inherited Values

Architectural

Hisotrical

Cultural

“Technical Faculty of Pristina university” was designed by a renown architect, Edvard Ravnikar (see chapter 010) in 1972. Located in the new neighborhood “Sunny Hill” the project for the Technical Faculty wasn’t completely implemented, initially were supposed to be constructed three buildings, however due to political and financial reasons only one of the structures was constructed. Beyond its cultural and historical importance “Technical Faculty” was of great importance for the late Modern Movement of archtiects, since it was one of the best representatives of Brutalist architecture in the city and region. Clear readability of construction, honest use of materials and geometry were the characteristics of the building. The after-war period for this building presents a period of drastic transformation, a numerous project financed by the municipality of Pristina will be implemented in total opposition with the principles of Brutalism. Starting with the addition of the pitched roof, adding the sanitary facilities in the main façade of the building, as if that wasn’t enough in 2016 a new project with the aim to improve the building’s insulation will undergo, a project that brought many debates and disagreements in the “Kosovo association of architects”, however the government unfortunately didn’t share the same opinion of the architectural importance of the building as a result in 2017 the project for the cladding on the facade will be implemented and the architectural values of the building will remain only in the memories of Pristina citizens. 40

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Construction period 1972 Designer Juraj Neidhart Original name Technical Faculty of Pristina University Original typology University Owner Collective Status of Protection None

Fig1

Inverventions Revitalization, 2006-2008-2017 Current name Technical Faculty of Pristina University Current typology University Owner State Status of Protection None

Fig1 41


Dardania Neighborhood - The spine 1972 1983 Designed by Dragan Jankovic (Plan Office)

Location Dardania Neighborhood, Pristine + Cordinatat

To build everyday living environments within the system of socialist self-management for its newly arrived urban population were among the most comprehensive architectural tasks in socialist Yugoslavia. From mid-60’s with the modernization of Pristina, a diverse architectural need of housing emerged. Pristina relied on architects coming from different parts of federation. However, Bashkim Fehmiu who was one of the first graduated architects in Kosovo (see chapeter X), was the author of the programs for two new residential neighborhoods in Pristina; “Ulpiana” (built during 1960’s), “Dardania” (built during 1970’s). “Dardania neighborhood” designed by Croatian architect Dragan Jankovic and collaborators form the office Plan architect in 1972, takes a considerable area of the town which represents a diverse cluster and single megastructure with utopian idea of separating the vehicular traffic from pedestrians, this separation was realized by lifting the ground floor of the housing blocks and transforming it into a platform for pedestrians, and placing the vehicular traffic and access to the building in the underground, which in fact was the ground level. The best example of platforms concept is represented in the project of “Kurrizi” designed by Drazen Jankovic in 1983 which is the largest housing and shopping complex of its kind in Kosovo.The complex is dived into three levels, the ground level has an enclosed shopping street (Bazar) and parallel to that a tunnel were the vehicles are physically separated from the pedestrians. The second level has a wide boulevard that spans for almost 400 meters with shops aligned on one side and the housing towers which rise above it. Today, after decades of poor maintenance, a walk on the platform but especially a drive through the tunnel lit from above offer a surreal experience. 42

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Construction period 1972- 1983 Designer Dragan Jankovic (Plan Office) Original name “Dardania” - “The Spine” Original typology Collective Housing Owner Collective Status of Protection None

Fig1

Interventions None Current name “Dardania” - “The Spine” Current typology Collective Hosuing Owner Private Status of Protection None

Fig1 43


“Rilindja” Media House 1971 - 1978 Designed by Georgi Konstantinovski

Location Luan Haradinaj str, Pristine

“Rilindja” Media House designed by the renown Macedonian architect Gerorgi Konstantinovski in 1971, located in the city center, its structure consists of two different volumes, the tower of 18 floors and the printing hall with two floors, it represents one of the modernist landmarks in the city. The building is bold in its expression, structure, form, and technology with clear influence acquired from American brutalism. The architectural qualities were the details, in the façade built in white concrete carries one of the peculiar characteristics of the building, the triangles inside of which are spread all the utility tubes, in an interview he mentioned; “ I got the inspiration from my professor Paul Rudolph, who had designed a building in Boston, with all utilities places in the façade”. Beyond architectural qualities, “Rilinjda” for Kosovo is of great importance, was a nest of Albanian intellectual figures, it represents the first written media organization during Socialist Yugoslavia. However, both the building and the organization couldn’t survive political shifts (from collective ownership became state ownership) (see chapter A). 30 November 2008 was the day when “Rilindja” organization stopped its activity in protest, on this date started the transformation of the building started making it what is also today “Public Services Ministry”. Today the former “Rilindja” no longer presents the use for which it was built for, nor does it look as it did in the past, architectural and historical importance of the building was completely lost by cladding of the façade which lead to a total alteration of the building appearance. 44

1. Reference 1 2. This information comes from 3. This information comes from


Construction period 1971- 1978 Designer Georgi Konstantinovski Original name “Rilindja� Media House Original typology Media house Owner Collective Status of Protection None

Fig1

Invervention Date 2008 Current name Public Services Ministry Current typology Government Building Owner State/Under Privatization Status of Protection None

Fig1 45


“Germia” Shopping Center 1973 Designed by Liljana Babic

Location Mother Tereza Square, Pristine

As the trends, in other western parts were developing the consumerism culture, the shopping malls started to open also in Pristina one of the most achieved examples was “Germia” Shopping Center, designed by Liljana Babic in 1973. Located in the main square of the city ”Mother Tereza”, the buildings represent some of the finest achievements of Late modernist movements in the region, it is most recognizable for its volume, massive glass windows and the escalators which proved to be very popular with Pristina citizens especially the kids, since they were the first to be installed in the country. Given the interference done to the building over the last past twenty years the building no longer looks as it did in the past, the building was a subject of continuous transformation in the afterwar period was home of the former “Ministry of Public Services”, later the “Ministry of Public Administration and is currently home to the “Tax Administration of Kosovo and the Ministry of Infrastructure. Recently, the government presented to the public the new plans of tearing down the building and replace it with a brand new “Concert Hall”, this new proposal raised a heated debate and lead a local organization “DoCoMo Mo Kosovo” to present a formal request to the Ministry of Culture, Youth and Sport to list the former “Germia” building as a cultural heritage. The campaign ended saving the building from demolition and on 10/10/2018 the Ministry of Culture, Youth and Sport published the new list of Protected Cultural Heritage assets which included the Germia building. Ironically enough, in the case of former “Germia” building as with other modernist structures, the reactions to preserve its identity came rather late, after drastic transformation of its original structure have already happened. However, this case presents a good sign that we are facing a new level of awareness in the society, on persevering its cultural heritage 46

1. Reference 1 2. This information comes from 3. This information comes from


Construction period 1973 Designer Liljana Babic Original name “Germia� Shopping Center Original typology Shopping Center Owner Collective

Fig1

Invervention Date 2001-2004-2008 Current name Tax Administration of Kosovo and Ministry of Infrastructure Current typology Government Building Owner State/Under Privatization Status of Protection Listed - Modernist Heritage

Fig1 47


Students Canteen 1974 Designed by Dragan Radulovic

Location Eqrem Qabej Boulevard, Pristine

The peak of modernization project of federation was in 1970’s, it coincided as well with a great deal of thought devoted to the design of specialized typologies, among them was student’s canteen. As the concept of federation was to succeed in every field of cultural, economic and political life it required a profound cultural and ethical revolution, indeed continuing of education had a pivotal role in the project of social development. “Students Canteen” It is significantly important asset for the student’s life. Located in the corner of University Campus, designed by the Serbian architect Dragan Radulovic in 1974, it is significant for its façade articulation, balconies and platforms which expand into the open urban space. Moreover, Dragan Radulovic later contributed to the architecture of Kosovo also as a professor in the architecture school of Pristina where he taught the subject of construction. Today, the buildings managed to save the function that was initially design for and its architectural identity, and successfully it continues to be an important pathway for the Pristina’s student life.

48

1. Reference 1 2. This information comes from 3. This information comes from


Construction period 1974 Designer Dragan Radulovic Original name Students Canteen Original typology Students Canteen Owner Collective

Fig1

Invervention Date none Current name Students Canteen Current typology Students Canteen Owner State Status of Protection Listed - Modernist Heritage

Fig1 49


“Grand Pristina” Hotel 1974 Designed by Bashkim Fehmiu and Dragan Kovacevic

Location Mother Tereza Square, Pristine

The evolution of Hotel typologies during Socialist Yugoslavia became a driving force toward modernization, but mainly for mass tourism in the economically deprived coastal regions. However, hotel design became a field of experimentation. In Pristina, the best example was designed by Kosovar architect Bashkim Fehmiu (See chapter A) and Serbian architect Dragan Kovacevic “Hotel Grand” 1974, is a significant asset in a mid-size town striving for modernization by following a logical course of events. Being located in the city center, is part of the urban plan of 1953 designed by Dragutin Petrovic, it represents one of the finest late modernist achievements in Kosovo, moreover, beyond its architectural characteristics it plays a massive role in the urban development of the city center. With its massive volumes the building has the role of entry gate to the “Zahir Pajaziti” square, reflecting on the background of Bashkim Fehmiu as an urbanist we can understand why “Hotel Grand” was positioned in the southern edges of the promenade, his visionary allowed the ectention of multicultural urban areas around the building which have a significant importance in todays public life. The volume, composition and in general the modernist architecture made the building become a Landmark for modern Pristina. During the last two decades numerous of intervention have been done in the interior part and recently was started a project of restauration on the Building’s façade but was never finished due to protest from the citizens and the architect’s union, however it has left already transformed the buildings image and ruined the opportunity of protecting the buildings as a cultural heritage. 50

1. Reference 1 2. This information comes from 3. This information comes from


Construction period 1974 Designer Bashkim Fehmiu and Dragan Kovacevic Original name Hotel Grand Original typology Hotel Owner Collective

Fig1

Invervention Date 2012 Current name Hotel Grand Current typology Hotel Owner State Status of Protection None

Fig1 51


“Boro and Ramizi” Youth and Sport center 1975 Designed by Zivorad Jankovic, Halid Muhasilovic and Sretko Eshpek

Location Luan Haradinaj str, Pristine

In 1974, in Pristina an open competition was called from the federation to design the new Youth and Sport center and six offices were called. The winning project was designed by the Sarajevan based architecture office “DOM”, lead by Zivorad Jankovic, Halid Muhasilovic and Sretko Eshpek in 1975 and constructed in 1977, they were an influential team inside the federation especially in the design of Youth and Sport center buildings among them; “Grip Sport center” (1979) in Split and “Recreational Sport center” in Vojvodina (1982). For the city of Pristina, the project represented a vibrant public space and is considered as modernist functional architecture with its multiple sport and cultural activities; Universal hall, Small hall, swimming pool, exercise room still is an important asset for the social life in the society. The volume, scale, materials used, number of public activities makes the building act as an organic link through the eastern wings linking the “Media House”, and the northern wing to the “City Stadium” and in the project was planed to have a platform linking the building with “Zahir Pajaziti”, such a structure can dominated the surrounding and can be related only to “Media House” building and “Grand Hotel”. Beyond its architectural qualities the building is considered as one of iconic representation the Kosovars identity, through its volume is symbolizes the eight Yugoslav federal regions but also as the Albanian Eagle. After the war the building was badly damaged by a fire and as a result the “Bigg Hall” still remains unused, meanwhile, today the rest of the building is actively used, but not properly maintained this due to its undefined state of ownership, even though built by public contribution of Pristina citizens, the building is owned by the state 52

1. Reference 1 2. This information comes from 3. This information comes from


Construction period 1977 Designer Zivorad Jankovic, Halid Muhasilovic and Sretko Eshpek Original name “Boro and Ramizi� Original typology Multifuncional Cultural Center Owner Collective

Fig1

Invervention Date XXX Current name Boro and Ramizi Current typology Multifuncional Cultural Center Owner State Status of Protection None

Fig1 53


“National and Univerity” Library Designed by Andrija Mutnjakovic

Location University Campus, Pristine

Undoubtably one of the most iconic modernist buildings in Yugoslavia, “The National and University Library”, is part of the most important project for the city during Socialist Yugoslavia, University Campus. The establishment of Pristina University in 1970, was a massive achievement that came after Kosovo gain desirable autonomy in the federation. For its project brought together a group of most prominent and influential architects working in Kosovo to design the new academic facilities among them; labs, institutes, administration etc. The group leaded from the first Kosovar architect with university degree, Bashkim Fehmiu and Serbian architect Bogdan Bogdanovic as consultant, designed the new University Campus projects with all its facilities, moreover in the core was located the building of “National and University Library” which will be designed in 1971 by the Croatian architect Andrija Mutjankovic. Beyond its profound historical significance, the architect sought to create an authentic national architectural expression, which he quite successfully achieved through the building’s basic compositional elements; white cubes and the hexagonal aluminum wrapping that covers the building façade. Ninety-nine cubes or domes used in the building represents references of traditional Balkan architecture that are related to the Byzantine and Ottoman periods, moreover, since the building is quite popular to the Kosovar population it resembles with the traditional white wool hat, meanwhile the aluminum grid is made of 70,000 hexagonal parts which are inspired by the Kosovar filigree and apart for its decorative purpose it provides shade for the reading rooms. As for majority of modernist building in the war period (1998-1999) left some significant damages, however the building of “National and University Library” suffered significant damages only in its interior’s, while the exterior escaped unharmed. Today, the building is actively used and recently it had undergone a conservation project founded by Getty foundation. 54

1. Reference 1 2. This information comes from 3. This information comes from


Designed date 1971 Construction period 1982 Designer Andrija Mutnjakovic Original name National and Univeristy Library Original typology Library Owner Collective

Fig1

Invervention Date 1999 Current name National and University Library Current typology Library Owner State Status of Protection Listed/Morednis Heritage

55


PRISHT-ina

Constellation of Modernist Buildings

56


Constellation _A constellation of something, a group of people or things that are similar.1

57


030 Analysis

58


When approaching to a building which represents immense historical as well as architectural qualities for a society, it creates an illusion for a young architect like myself. When I first visited the building, unfortunately was already transformed (as mentioned prior), however it’s strong structural expression, honest use of materials, form and lighting features (light coming from the sky) gave me a strong impression. In order to have a full understanding of the architecture and historical qualities of the building due to the existing transformed situation I needed to support my analysis on discussion with citizens, workers and architects who had prior experienced the building at original state and on historical and archival documents that are kept at the archive of the city, these interactions helped me to highlight the qualities that today are not present, as is the example of the “Tower” façade which carried one of the most peculiar characteristics of the building, the “Triangles”, inside of which were spread all the utility tubes, which is a direct inspiration Georgi Konstantinovski had from his American professor, Paul Rudolph.

59


The Past

“Rilindja” Media House Building

Located in heart of the city of Pristina, Kosovo, the former “Rilindja” Media House building, build to serve the society as a production mechanism of the first Albanian written newspaper “Rilindja”, It presented not only an efficient industrial machine but a concrete sign of modernity and it is recognized as one of the best examples of brutalist architecture not only in Kosovo but also in the region. The idea for having a representative building for the organization came in the late sixties beginning of seventies, a period that Pristina achieved most of its modernization after gaining autonomy in 1963, this was a period of immense developments and is considered as the “golden years”1 In 1970 was assigned a group of architects and engineers in charge with the renown Macedonian architect Georgi Konstantinovksi (who was a student of Paul Rudolph at °Yale University° of architecture and later acquired an internship at the office of I.M Pei.) The construction started in 1972 but due to financial and political problems the work stopped for a couple of years and was only finished in 1978. When build, the building was rich of details, bold in expression, form and technology with clear influence that Georgi Konstantivoski acquired from his American masters towards brutalism. Composed of two volumes the “Tower” of 18 floors with a total of 17,340 sqm built in white concrete, it carried the most peculiar characteristic of the project in the facade, “the concrete triangles” inside of which are spread all the utility tubes, and the “Printing Hall” composed of two floors with a total of 28,345 sqm.

60

1. Reference 1 2. This information comes from 3. This information comes from


National Museum Stadium

“Mosque” City Center

Train Station

Printing House “Rilindja”

“Mosque”

National Library Technical University Grand Hotel

61


Riliindja

1.view of the interior abandonded space 2. This information comes from 3. This information comes from

62


Re-Do webpage 2. This information comes from 4. Trim Kabashi Photography

63


1.view of the interior abandonded space 2. This information comes from 3. This information comes from

64


Re-Do webpage 2. This information comes from 4. Trim Kabashi Photography

65


1.view of the interior abandonded space 2. This information comes from 3. This information comes from

66


Re-Do webpage 2. This information comes from 4. Trim Kabashi Photography

67


1.view of the interior abandonded space 2. This information comes from 3. This information comes from

68


Re-Do webpage 2. This information comes from 4. Trim Kabashi Photography

69


Describing the organization

“Rilindja” Newspaper Rilindja represents the first written newspaper in Albanian language in Kosovo during Socialist Yugoslav era, in some regards it was considered a nest of intellectual heads of the time. Reflecting on the political situation of the time, the main goal of the organization in its beginings was to inform the Kosovar population through the written media. First publication of “Rilindja” newspaper was released on 12 February 1945 in Prizeren, where it continued to be printed until its 60-th number, initially as four-page weekly newspaper until 27 June 1948 when it started to be published twice a week. Its fame and request from the population started to grow and in November 1958 after being transfered in “Pristina’s regional printing House” it started to be published daily. The idea for having a representative buidling for the organization started in late sixties and more seriously in 1970 when it was assigned a group of architects and engineers in charge with the renown Macedonian architect Georgi Konstanivoski.

1.view of the interior abandonded space 2. This information comes from 3. This information comes from

Feb/12/1945

1945

70


71


“Rilindja” Media House building

Domineering the silhouette of the city of Pristina, Kosovo, is a building, perhaps no longer interesting in its form but most definitely in its meaning. It is former “Rilindja” Media House building, conceptualized primarily to serve the society as a production mechanism of the first Albanian written newspaper “Rilindja”, It presented not only an efficient industrial machine but a concrete sign of modernity and it is recognized as one of the best examples of brutalist architecture not only in Kosovo but also in the region. The idea for having a representative building for the organization came in the late sixties beginning of seventies, a period that Pristina achieved most of its modernization after gaining autonomy in 1963, this was a period of immense developments and is considered as the “golden years”1 In 1970 was assigned a group of architects and engineers in charge with the renown Macedonian architect Georgi Konstantinovksi (who was a student of Paul Rudolph at °Yale University° of architecture and later acquired an internship at the office of I.M Pei.) The construction started in 1972 but due to financial and political problems the work stopped for a couple of years and was only finished in 1978. When build, the building was rich of details, bold in expression, form and technology with clear influence that Georgi Konstantivoski acquired from his American masters towards brutalism. Composed of two volumes the “Tower” of 18 floors with a total of 17,340 sqm built in white concrete, it carried the most peculiar characteristic of the project in the facade, “the concrete triangles” inside of which are spread all the utility tubes, and the “Printing Hall” composed of two floors with a total of 28,345 sqm.

1.view of the interior abandonded space 2. This information comes from 3. This information comes from

Nov/30/1978 72


Printing Hall

Tower

Conference hall

Administration

73


First Transformation

The post-war period will present a new political ideology, a drastic change from Socialism to Capitalism will directly effect the modernist heritage trying to impose power and strength by merely attacking the landmarks. 30 November 2008, the 30-th birthday of the organization was the day when “Rilindja” newspaper stopped its activity in protest due to political pressure, on this date started the new project for the transformation of the building making it what is also today “Ministry of Public Services”, a transformation that had political background. The new project of the “Rilindja” Media House building was conducted without proper analysis and consideration of the buildings historical identity, in this was both the building and organization were significantly destroyd. Of the same opinion was also the architect of the building Georgi Konstanivski, who during a lecture in Pristina on 2015, said; “Oh, yeah this is actually my building.!!”, however he needed a few seconds to understand that, he continuous “Now you see how it has changed. It is cladded, lost its importance, the weight of history, the modern architecture of the 1970s. It hampers me because part of history has been deleted”.

1.This information comes from 2. This information comes from 3. This information comes from

74


ministry of public service abandoned

Nov/30/2008 75


Informal Transformation

From 2008 after the newspaper closed its activity and the building of “Tower” was transformed into the building of “Ministry of Public Service”, the “Printing Hall” remained abandoned for a small period of time. However, in the following years informal activities will be placed in some parts of the building such as; Radio and Tv station “21”, Radio and Tv station “tv7”, Sport Acitvities “Gym” and a private Depo, all in direct opposition with its initial desing and moreover transoforming its architectural features both in its interior and some parts of northern and western exterior facade. However, if compared with the “Tower” the “Printing Hall” still represents its architectural identity of the one initially designed

76


radio and tv station “21” abandoned

sport activities “gym”

radio and tv station “tv7”

depo

restaurant

°sheshi 21°

Nov/30/2019 77

...............


030 The Project

78


Youth “Commune” A modern Culture house is a frame for people to meet. It is the city’s LIVING ROOM

1.view of the interior abandonded space 2. This information comes from 3. This information comes from

79


The Context

Population Analysis Possible users

A city is composed of different kinds of men; similar people cannot bring a city into existence. – ARISTOTLE, politics1

As the aim of the project is to propose a new life for a landmark building in the city center, we must understand what are the characteristics of Pristina inhabitants which will become the new users. Pristina is the capital of Kosovo, that is the youngest country in Europe, which have an estimated population of 2.1 million people with outstanding peculiarity as the youngest population in Europe with 70% under the age of 35 years old and an average of 27.8 years old. From 1948 with the socialist regime and the modernization era of Pristina that happened during that period we witness the phenomenon of migration from rural to urban areas, moreover this phenomenon never stopped, moreover it was increased during post war years 1998-99. However, it is hard to present a clear demographic data throughout last two decades due to lack of registration after 1981 when it was conducted the last registration, Pristina had around 182.000 inhabitants. Today Pristina, it is estimated to have around 450,000 inhabitants {X} according to analysis from World Bank, however, there is presented a huge difference according to registration done in 2014 by the Statistic office there are only 207,708 inhabitants{X}. These two-analysis conducted by the above-mentioned institutes lead us to assume that in the city there is a huge number of daily and weekly users that work, study or visit the city during the week, or they have permanent residence in other cities but live and work in Pristina. Transforming these assumptions into statistics, (according to office of statistics) a peculiar characteristic arises, only in the educational institutes in Pristina are registered 89,560 students ranging from Preschools to Universities, expressed in percentage is 43% of the total population, leading us to understand that one of the biggest reasons of migration is education. Moreover, Pristina as the main administrative, educational, economic and cultural center in Kosovo it also offers the best possibilities for employment, due to these reasons is expected to continue its growth in every aspect, according to the ( Development Plan of Pristina 2012-2022) by 2022 with a growth of 1.5% per year, from new born people is expected to have an additional of 72,000 peoples, moreover analyzing the actual trends of migration is expected that 100,000 inhabitants will be transferred in the Capital. As the end result by 2022 Pristina will have 622,000 inhabitants and this is the number taken for the future plans of the City. 80

1. Reference 1 2. This information comes from 3. This information comes from


1. Reference 1 2. This information comes from 3. This information comes from

Evolution of Inhabitants inhabitants 622,000

625,000 525,000 450,000 425,000 325,000 250,000 225,000 125,000

207,708

24,00 24,00

25,000

Year

1937

1964

1999

2018

2022

Users of the City Students 89,560 Citizens 207,708

Travalers/Workers 216,650

Official nr of Inhabitants 207,708 Estimated nr of Inhabitants 450,000 81


Distribution of Services Services that generate fluxes

The urban structure of Pristina is a testament of the surface that the city covers today and the allocation of some basic services for the community. To have a better understanding, in the map are shown main functions of the city divided into categories. Pristina is tan overlap of different unfinished projects and visions about the city. This is clearly shown by the coexistence of districts of very different sizes and composition in terms of physical features, ownership but most importantly their function. Pristina as the capital city of Kosovo it is also the main administrative, educational, economic, and cultural center. In the after-war period there was a concentration of administrative institutions When analyzing the city’s important services, it is necessary to understand and reflect in its users and the morphology of the city. The city as was mentioned before was developed during different periods with different political ideology. However, today the main concentration of governmental, public, educational and in some respect health, commercial and recreative spaces are concentrated in a small portion of the city. As presented in the map, the center is the area were most of the functions are located and this leads to a conclusion of Center-oriented city.

1. Reference 1 2. This information comes from 3. This information comes from

82


Cultural Buildings

Education

Sports and leisure

83

Religion

Government Buildings

Hotels


Public Spaces - Public Life The center of civic life

When it comes in understanding what is public space, Jahn Gehlx when describing the modernist ideology of public spaces identifies three main type of activates; a) necessary activities (meaning going to school or work, shopping, waiting for a bus or a person), b) optional activities (pursued if there is a wish to do so and if time and place make it possible) and c) social-activities, activities that depend on the presence of the others in public spaces. If we analyze the public space we must also think about the different types of people and what the public space means to them, since different classes tend to use public spaces differently, for this case I have divided into three main categories; Youth, Family and Elderly. Moreover, in case of Pristina from urban morphological analysis conducted we see two peculiar distinction of the city the “Old Town” developed during the Ottoman period and “Modern Pristina” developed during Socialist Yugoslavia period, and as a result there are two different understanding what is public spaces. In the context of this work, the aim is to understand the gathering points in the center of the city. As presented in the map, main attractive points for day visiting by young people are; “Mother Tereza” square, “Kafet e Vogla” street, “National Library”, shopping street … (name the buildings), in the meanwhile main attractive points for families are; “Mother Tereza” Square, “Boro and Ramizi”, “Caffeterias” commercial part, and the main attractive points for elderly people are; “Mother Tereza” Square and “Germia park”. From the map can be concluded that city lacks for green and recreational spaces especially in the city center

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PRISHT-INA Leisure Areas F.

Caffe street 11“Kafet e Vogla” National Library H. “Caffe street” 111 I. “City” Park J. “Taukbahce” Park K. “Caffe street” 1V G.

A.

Centre B. “Caffe street” 1 C. “Kafet e Rakis” D. “Boro and Ramizi” basketball court E. National Museum

E

J

F

B

D

I A

C

G

H

K

Activities for Youth

Activities for Families from 35-65 years

under >35 years

Activities for the Elderly above <65 years

204,721 Residents

=

neccesary activities 56,000 Regular Travelers

optional activities 280,721 Weekly Inhabitants

15,000 - 20,000 Visitors

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social activities


Culture and Entertainment The center of civic life

When analyzing the Cultural life of a city we should take in consideration the importance of the city itself for the country, Kosovo. Being the capital of culture for a Country, one would expect to visit and be informed with artistic historical and up to date achievements, be part of exhibitions, listen to concerts and relax in public spaces. Pristina is most evidently lacking cultural life, Eliza Hoxha who is an architect and professor in UP (University of Pristina) argues that “Pristina needs a concert hall, contemporary art museum, museum for missing persons, museum of the ‘90s, historic museum, parks and greenery, public spaces, public art”…. Pristina needs a Vision https://alb-spirit.com/2018/10/04/ eliza-hoxha-prishtina-escape/ The lack of cultural life in Pristina is justified by the political conflicts that the country underwent in the recent decades. However, most of the cultural activities occurred during the modernization period of Socialist Yugoslavia, we witness the foundation of; National Theatre of Kosovo (1949), National Museum of Kosovo (1949), The national Gallery of Kosovo (1979), Puppet Theatre “Dodona” (1987), these buildings played a major role towards Pristina modern identity, moreover most of recreational and educational facilities also were constructed in that era, such as; National Library (1971) and “Boro and Ramizi” Youth and Sport Center (1976) which are considered also exceptional achievements in terms of architectural qualities. The University of Pristina was founded in 1969 when it also had its first academic year in some departments, instead the architecture school was founded in 1978. During conflict and afterwar period due to political conditions we witness a dry period in terms of new cultural life and only some cultural activities take place such as; “Cinema ABC (2000) and Ethnographic Museum (2002). However, in the recent years the local government with the plan for “Pristina 2022” have outlined the need of the city for a new “Concert Hall” and “New Museums”, moreover is searching and supporting new creative activities, mainly initiatives by young generations that can improve the cultural life in the city. Some successful initiatives are “Future Architecture“ and “TermoKiss” have been added to the cultural map of Pristina.

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https://alb-spirit. com/2018/10/04/ eliza-hoxha-prishtina-escape/

2. This information comes from 3. This information comes from


PRISHT-ina Cultural Buildings

Museum and Cinema

Schools

Sport and Leisure Muesum and Cinema Religion Schools

87

Sports and leisure

Religion


Public Accesibility

Another important aspect to consider, are the analysis of public and private transportation, within the area of interest and between the area and the rest of the city. The “Media House” building has a favorable position located in the city center which is one of the most visited areas in the city due to concentration of administrative, commercial and educational activities, moreover, the neighborhood “Qendra” within it’s boarders is reachable in walking distance, but also it is well organized with pedestrian, and vehicle paths. Looking on the larger portion of territory, we can see that Pristina is “central oriented city”, with four main streets connecting neighbors within the city from north to south but also they are used from travelers passing through Pristina which is one of the main factors that produces traffic chaos, however it is important to mention the public transportation, which is composed of bus lines running from east to west and north to south connecting the whole city with the area.

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PRISHT-ina Accesibility Public transportation

“Besiana” “Kodra e Trimave”

“Park Germia”

A

Prishtine - Peje

4

1

3 3b

10

“Veternik”

“Media House” Rilindja Train Station Train Line S1 Prishtine - Pejë Bus line 1 Bus line 3 Bus line 3b Bus line 4 Bus line 10

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The Strategy

Start

The design strategy aims to preserve its qualities, maximize the re-use of what is already existing and moreover recalling some parts of the “Triangles” in the façade as architectural glimpses of history. As the building is composed of two volumes the intervention will take in consideration different states of two buildings, meaning on one hand the intervention done in the “Tower” (considered a bad intervention that jeopardize the identity of the building) will be removed in this way sending the building one step back and considering that the starting point to undergo a new proposal, a proposal that wants to dialogue with the past, reflect on the present and aspire the future. This is thought to be achieved by working with materials that don’t want to superimpose themselves on top of the structure but more to help it shine.

Observe

Where The “Tower”

What??

The “WareHo Liberate the building from its current function and use

The “Courtya

Expose the traces and memory of the place Create a cultural community

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e??

Spatial arrangment

How?? Introduce Platform Introdue Urban Balcony Introduce Plug-in Volumes Introduce Urban Furnitures

Why?? Recall its historical identity as productive mechanism The needs of the city Integrate the building into city’s realm

ouse”

ard”

Re-Activate

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#1

>Observe

>The building which was primarily designed to serve the society as a production mechanism of the first Albanian written newspaper “Rilindja”, was not only an efficient industrial machine but a concrete sign of modernity for the city of Pristina. Unfortunately, w  ith the recent interventions made in the last years that transformed the main building “ The Tower” into a government institution the “Ministry of Public Service” and partial re-use of “Warehouse” into informal activities has lost its historical and architectural identity. Morever today the building is sourounded with a fence and in this way it creates a physical boundery with the citizens. However,from an archtiectural point of view the building still represents a lot of potential to become an iteractive public space due to its spatial qualities and geographical position, located in city ctenter and close to the train station.

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>analysing current situation of the site and building >collecting material and information

train station

parking entrance

gym entrance

tv station entrance

restaurant entrance

ministry entrance Fence

city center

WareHouse P+1 ground floor 11,900 sqm

Tower P+17 Floor Typology 900 sqm

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first floor 5,630 sqm


#2

>Liberate the building from its current function and use

>How to turn interest of Pristina citizens towards the potential of the building and how to interven on an already disfigured building? The first intervention to be done in the building of â&#x20AC;&#x153;Rilindjaâ&#x20AC;? Media House is to liberate it from its current function and use. This liberation will bring the building to the state of unfinished and in this way prepraring it for its new life. Morever, the post-war political interventions in the Tower and in some parts of easter and western facade of the Printing Hall are to be considered inappropriate and will be removed in this way sending the building one step back and considering that the starting point to undergo a new proposal, a proposal that wants to dialogue with the past, reflect on the present and aspire the future.

94


>The building is ready for new life >Open towards the city

train station

city center

95


#3

>Preserve qualities not freeze spaces

>As the building is one of the best representatives of Brutalist architecture not only in Kosovo but also in the region it is mandatory to preserve its architectural qualities. When I first visited the building, unfortunately was already transformed , however it’s strong structural expression, honest use of materials, form and lighting features (light always coming from up “the sky”) gave me a strong impression. Morever, in order to have a full understanding of the architecture qualities of the building due to the existing transformed situation I needed to support my analysis on discussion with citizens, workers and architects who had prior experienced the building at original state and on historical and archival documents that are kept at the archive of the city, these interactions helped me to highlight the qualities that today are not present, as is the example of the “Tower” façade which carried one of the most peculiar characteristics of the building, the “Triangles”, inside of which were spread all the utility tubes, which is a direct inspiration Georgi Konstantinovski had from his American professor, Paul Rudolph.

96


> Honest use of materials > Envelope > Structure (columns and casseton beam) > Proportion

97


>Generate public relation

>As the regenaration project of the former “Printing Hall” building is aimed to host different activities, also the building should be a reflection of its program, by introducing the tunel entrances as devices to controll activitiy, the building has the possibility of working in different hours in this way creating a complex space that will reflect the need of its citizens. Three tunels will be linked with three different spaces, the first one located in the southern facade will give the “Museum” a possibility to work separatly, while the second one is linked with the “Big Space” and the third one connected with the Multifunctional hall when in case of events and concerts the space can work independently. Moreover, the tunel entrances will also be part of the new architectural representation of the building.

98


>Introducing “Platform” as a bridge connection with the city >Introducing “Urban Balconies” in order to bring life inside

99


>The “Warehouse”

Core idea of this project is to preserve the buildings physical environment by fusing both the preservation of its identity and the radical transformation of its content, enabling a shift from industrial production to a cultural production. The transformation of the former “Rilindja” Media House building will undergo into two phases since the two volumes the “Tower” and “The printing hall” have different conditions. The concept tackles the idea of creating a dynamic spatial framework where different fragments of cultural world have the possibility to clash in unprecedented ways. As an important goal of the project is to create a mechanism of cultural growth for the community, by bringing together Art works and Artist at work (living and creation). As a production of this dynamic space will be the new cultural center as an icon valued form the local to an international level. In the inside space of the former “Printing Hall”, layout is redesinged by removing the internal partiotions and carfully choosing the participating programs aimed to inspire productive activities and informing them with the spatial qualities of the building.s

100


>Volumes as activators >Volumes as Division >In Between spaces

6f. 6e. 6b.

6g. 6d.

6.

6a.

6c.

4b.

4a. 4. 3b. 3.

5. 5a.

2. 1c.

3a.

1b.

1.

1a.

1. Media BookShop 1a. Wc and stair 1b. S

1.Multifunctional Hall 2.Community Living Room 3.Media Bookshop 4.Craft Artist Studio 5.Museum of “Rilidnja” 6.Food Corner 7. Common ground 101


>The Tower

>The second phase of intervention will consider the “Tower” represnted in this project as the “thinking mechanism” (space of the editorial offices), released from its current usage and brought back to the state of unfinished it is awaiting for new interventions. Under same approach the second phase aims preserve the buildings physical environment by fusing both the preservation of its identity and the radical transformation of its content, but in this case enabling a shift from an private thinking mechanism to a public thinking mechanism. Accordingly, creating a dynamic framework of a modern Culture house where different activities such as;Perfomance Hall, Library and Archive, Leisure halls, Co-working and Art Hotel. The combination of new intervention and transformation will make the new building of “Domestic Arcadia” an effective urban node, a complex area of alternative ways of culture permeable to the public and connected to the city, able to retrieve, uncover and make available the richness of the space.

102


>Volumes as activators >Volumes as Division >In Between spaces

103


>Program >Program

>The second phase of intervention will consider the “Tower” represnted in this project as the “thinking mechanism” (space of the editorial offices), released from its current usage and brought back to the state of unfinished it is awaiting for new interventions. Under same approach the second phase aims preserve the buildings physical environment by fusing both the preservation of its identity and the radical transformation of its content, but in this case enabling a shift from an private thinking mechanism to a public thinking mechanism. Accordingly, creating a dynamic framework of a modern Culture house where different activities such as;Perfomance Hall, Library and Archive, Leisure halls, Co-working and Art Hotel will take place. The combination of new intervention and transformation will make the new building of “Rilindja” an effective urban node, a complex area of alternative ways of culture permeable to the public and connected to the city, able to retrieve, uncover and make available the richness of the space.

104


>Volumes as activators >Volumes as Division >In Between spaces

1.Art Hotel 2.Performance Hall 3. Alternative working spaces 4.Entertainment and Sport Activities 5.Observation Balcony 6.Common Ground 7.Administration 8.Restaurant 9.â&#x20AC;&#x153;Rilindjaâ&#x20AC;?Association 105


>The “Courtyard”

Core idea of this project is to preserve the buildings physical environment by fusing both the preservation of its identity and the radical transformation of its content, enabling a shift from industrial production to a cultural production. The transformation of the former “Rilindja” Media House building will undergo into two phases since the two volumes the “Tower” and “The printing hall” have different conditions. The concept tackles the idea of creating a dynamic spatial framework where different fragments of cultural world have the possibility to clash in unprecedented ways. As an important goal of the project is to create a mechanism of cultural growth for the community, by bringing together Art works and Artist at work (living and creation). As a production of this dynamic space will be the new cultural center as an icon valued form the local to an international level. In the inside space of the former “Printing Hall”, layout is redesinged by removing the internal partiotions and carfully choosing the participating programs aimed to inspire productive activities and informing them with the spatial qualities of the building.s

106


>Volumes as activators >Volumes as Division >In Between spaces

107


>The “Courtyard”

Core idea of this project is to preserve the buildings physical environment by fusing both the preservation of its identity and the radical transformation of its content, enabling a shift from industrial production to a cultural production. The transformation of the former “Rilindja” Media House building will undergo into two phases since the two volumes the “Tower” and “The printing hall” have different conditions. The concept tackles the idea of creating a dynamic spatial framework where different fragments of cultural world have the possibility to clash in unprecedented ways. As an important goal of the project is to create a mechanism of cultural growth for the community, by bringing together Art works and Artist at work (living and creation). As a production of this dynamic space will be the new cultural center as an icon valued form the local to an international level. In the inside space of the former “Printing Hall”, layout is redesinged by removing the internal partiotions and carfully choosing the participating programs aimed to inspire productive activities and informing them with the spatial qualities of the building.s

108


>Volumes as activators >Volumes as Division >In Between spaces

1.Green zones 2.Summer Library 3.Sound Art Garden 4.Open Air Cinema 5.Playground 109


Community Stairs

110


111


D3

Legend. 1. Polyacrbonate wall th 12mm 2.CLT (cross laminated timber) beam th14mm smooth finish Legend. 1. Polyacrbonate wall th 12mm 2.CLT (cross laminated timber) beam th14mm smooth finish Legend. 1. Polyacrbonate wall th 12mm 2.CLT (cross laminated timber) beam th14mm smooth finish

112


D4

113


Plug-in Volumes

114


115


4

4

4

4

4

4

1

1

D3

Legend. 1. Polyacrbonate wall th 12mm 2.CLT (cross laminated timber) beam th14mm smooth finish Legend. 1. Polyacrbonate wall th 12mm 2.CLT (cross laminated timber) beam th14mm smooth finish Legend. 1. Polyacrbonate wall th 12mm 2.CLT (cross laminated timber) beam th14mm smooth finish

116


4

4

4

4

4

D4

117


118


119


Red Hall

5

5

3

6

2

1

4

Legend. 1. Polyacrbonate wall th 12mm 2.CLT (cross laminated timber) beam th14mm smooth finish Legend. 1. Polyacrbonate wall th 12mm 2.CLT (cross laminated timber) beam th14mm smooth finish Legend. 1. Polyacrbonate wall th 12mm 2.CLT (cross laminated timber) beam th14mm smooth finish

120


Use of Space

>City’s Living room

>”Re-do” Conference

“hapesira” Night event 121


Urban Balcovny

122


123


D2

Frontal view

Legend. 1. Polyacrbonate wall th 12mm 2.CLT (cross laminated timber) beam th14mm smooth finish Legend. 1. Polyacrbonate wall th 12mm 2.CLT (cross laminated timber) beam th14mm smooth finish Legend. 1. Polyacrbonate wall th 12mm 2.CLT (cross laminated timber) beam th14mm smooth finish

124


6

4 5

3

2

Cross Section

1

125


Master plan University Campus

Summer Library

Kiosk Temporary exhibition Outdoor cinema

Platform

Leisure activities

Sound/Art Garden

City Center

O

Caffeteria

Outdoor workshop

City Center

126


Buss Station

“Dardania”

Train Station

Social Activities

Outdoor Cinema

Users: students

“Dragodan” 0

127

15

Master Plan artist

30

worker

tourist

60

90m


Ground floor

128


129


Life in “Rilindja” Ground floor frontal axo

are you watchin the movie...!!

“Rilidnja” Frozen Museum

Contemporary Art Gallery

how cool is the original facade

Also my children had a good time

BookSto and Caf

The conference is about Modernism

130


I will start a new company

I will start a new company Alternative Working Space

Alternative Working Space

y

What is happening overthere?

Multipurpose Hall

Did you enjoy the exhibition of students

Go see the new Galery its super nicee!!

ore ffe

Users:

Food Corner

students artist worker

This building gives a lot of possibilities

worker

0,5 1,5 2,5

131

4,5

5,5m


First floor

room

132


133


Life in â&#x20AC;&#x153;Rilindjaâ&#x20AC;? Ground floor frontal axo

Administr

Workshop

Meidathequ

Here are so many old magazines

Video Room

134


Tonight they are showing a movie.!!

I will study here always

Come letâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s collaborate in this project

Tech. laboratory

ration

Open Air Cinema

ue

Reading room

Multipurpose Hall

I just saw the documentary of Yugoslavia

It is a great place to relax

Workshop

Do you come here often?

Open air Workshop

Users: students artist worker worker

0,5 1,5 2,5

135

4,5

5,5m


136


137


Longitudinal Section

0,5 1,5 2,5

4,5

5,5m

open air

food Corner social activities

138


Art Workshop workshops

city's Living Room bookshop

139

mediat


mediatechue

entrance exhibition

140


sound / art garden

141


Perspective Section

0,5 1,5 2,5

4,5

5,5m

142


143


Detail Section

0,5 1,5 2,5

4,5

5,5m

144


145


Urban Impact

146


147


Bibliography Unfinished Modernisations - Between Utopia and Pragmatism Arber Sadiki., Reflektime te nje qytetari arkitekt, 2018 Arber Sadiki., Architecture in verse of Professor Bashkim Fehmiu,2016 Arta Jakupi.,Teuta Jashari Kajtazi., Interpretation of architectural identity through landmark architecture: The case of Prishtina, Kosovo from the 1970s to the 1980s, 2017 Barnabas Calder., Raw Concrete; The Beauty of Brutalism French pavilion 16th international architecture exhibition la biennale di Venezia.,Infinite places Florina Jerliu., Preservation of City’s Heritage in The Contemporary State-Building Context: The Case of Prishtina, 2014 Florina Jerliu.,Vlora Navakazi The Socialist Modernization of Prishtina: Interrogating Types of Urban and Architectural Contributions to the City, 2019 Heike Oevermann.,Harald A. Mieg.,Transforming Industrial Heritage and Professional Practice. The Dual Role of Architects: Innerprofessional Excellence and Inter-professional Cooperation Icomos., Approaches for the conservation of Twentieth century architectural heritage., Madrid Document,2014 Ilir Gjinolli., Lulzim Kabashi., Kosovo Modern an architectural primer., 2015 IKS/ESIresearch,Pristina., A Future for Prishtina’s past, 2006, Destroy the Old Build the New Lebbeus Woods., “WAR AND ARCHITECTURE” ; The Sarajevo window. “http.://lebbeuswoods.wordpress.com/. <http:/lebbeuswoods.wordpress. com/2011/12/02war-and-architecture-the-sarajevo-window/>. Lee Nelson., Preservation of Modern Architecture Martino Stierli., Vladimir Kulic., Towards a concrete Utopia: Architecture in Yugoslavia 1948-1980., 2018 Maroje Mrduljaš.,Vladimir Kulic., Modernism In-between: The Mediatory Architectures of Socialist Yugoslavia, 2012 Powell,R.,1985.,Regionalism in Architecture Paulina Swiatek., The Architectural and Urban Heritage of Socialist Realism in Warsaw – an Approach for Evaluation and Conservation Trace., Note on adaptive Re-use N1 tradittion

Sitography

Metamorphosis the continuity of change 1/2hhttps://issuu.com/docomomo_ si/docs/1_pdfsam_docomomo_layout_new_ebook Metamorphosis the continuity of change 2/2https://issuu.com/docomomo_ si/docs/2_docomomo_layout_new_ebook

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Sketch and Figures

149


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Profile for Gennaro  Postiglione

YOUTH COMMUNE [by Vigan Zika, April 2019]  

The “Rilindja” Media House building, was one of the victims of this process, its architecture, program and history were altered, it lost its...

YOUTH COMMUNE [by Vigan Zika, April 2019]  

The “Rilindja” Media House building, was one of the victims of this process, its architecture, program and history were altered, it lost its...

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