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QT8: casa stellare and casa INCIS Piero Bottoni, VIII Triennale 1947-1971 Clara Barana Nicolò Clerici Yan Di Nam Juni Kim Chung Fai Lam Ilaria Mollica Orlando Naj Oleari Tommaso Pacassoni Emiliya Stefanova

Re Co.De!

reshaping contemporary dwelling Thematic Design Studio - BA Architectural Design AUIC School - Politecnico di Milano A.A. 2016/17 Proff. Massimo Bricocoli, Giovanni Hanninen, Gennaro Postiglione + Rodrigo Pemjean and Arch. Francesco Conti, Sofia Coutsoucos, Michele Ignaccolo, Maria Kapitonova, Salvatore Pirina


Index Introduction

p. 4

Historical background The project phase 1

p.6

The project phase 2

The project phase 3 - Implementation

Current situation Connections to Milan’s city center and key highways

Boundaries and entrances of QT8

Facilities and green areas

p.9

Ways of transportation Interviews Casa stellare Description

p.26

Photo survey

Redrawing Casa INCIS

p.38

Description

Photo survey

Redrawing Bibliography

p.58

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The construction of the district during the 40’s

Introduction This booklet will present the main characteristics of the QT8 district in Milan, followed by a study of two buildings located in the area- Casa Incis and Casa Stellare. The description of QT8 consists of historical background describing the three phases of the project and the contemporary situation is illustrated through maps, interviews with residents and photographic survey. The two buildings are analysed through redrawing and photographic survey.

After the WWII Milan severely changed due to bombing and 220,000 people were homeless, so there was the necessity of creating new public housing. (Bottoni, 1952) Architect Piero Bottoni, named director of the VIII Triennale in 1945, decided to make housing the core focus of the 1947 exhibition, building a new district designed in collaboration with Italian architects. He named the district Quartiere Ottava Triennale (QT8), a space where urban planning and architectural requirements met. The area, in the northwest suburbs of Milan, was almost uninhabited and without any urbanistic plan (Bottoni, 1954). The site belonged to the Municipality and had a surface of 940,000 sqm. The plans that brought to the definition of the QT8 were three, and they correspond to the years of the next Triennale exhibitions.

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Monte Stella, 40’s

Monte Stella view from via Cimabue, late 40’s

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The project phase 1

The project phase 2

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Historical Background The Project phase 1 The first plan (1945-47) designed by Bottoni, Cerutti, Gandolfi, Morini, Pollini, Pucci and Putelli on the request of the Municipality. The project was thought as an expansion of Milan and not as a self-sufficient district. The main aim of the project was the creation of a district, where buildings were unified with vegetation and facilities. There were two typologies of buildings: tall collective houses, placed along the borders of the district, and single-family houses. The roads where clearly organized in four levels: the first level defined the borders of the district and linked it with the city. Then there were two perpendicular roads, which divided the district in four different sectors. These two streets connected the perimeter of the neighborhood with its center. The third group of streets is connecting the residences to the other two groups of streets to avoid traffic interference. The last group is composed by the pedestrian paths that connect the residences to the facilities. A park was designed along the entire district with two small hills and a lake placed in the North-West sector. Another important aspect of the project was the definition of the proportion of services for each sector. Bottoni planned an equal distribution of infrastructures, services and residential units for about 5,000 inhabitants per sector. Each quadrant has one kindergarten and two or three shopping areas for basic needs and a primary school for every two quadrants. The other public services, such as the workshop garage, the youth hostel, the youth club, the covered tennis field and a social center were distributed according to the number of the inhabitants. In the middle of the four sectors was placed the center of the neighborhood blend with the commercial, social, recreational and religious activities. Restaurants, cafeterias, a post office, a movie theatre, agencies and banks were also located in the central part of the neighborhood, enclosed in a 22,75 meters tall building, the Casa Collettiva. In 1949, the Communist Party supported by Bottoni, lost his power in the Government of Italy. He was removed as special commissioner of the Triennale and his power over leading the implementation of QT8 was reduced. Due to the change in the political situation, during the second phase private companies started participating in the construction (Tonon, 2005). The Project phase 2 The second phase of the plan was developed between 1947 and 1950 and was designed by Bottoni and Cerutti. Compared to the first phase there were more collective houses and reduced number of single-family houses to accommodate more people. In contrast to the first phase in the second phase the lake and the hill was changed. The large lake disappeared and it was replaced by a smaller one. Bottoni replace the two small hills with a single and larger one which became a landmark for the district and the city. The religious space was defined in this stage by Vico Magistretti who designed the central-plan church connected to the parsonage and spaces for religious activities.

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The project phase 3

The Project phase 3 - Implementation The third phase of the plan of 1953 was developed only by Bottoni and it involved the construction of a new high speed road in the northern part of the city. In this new project two functions were added: an area for craftsmanship and an additional sport area with tennis courts. The total surface increased and a series of high rise star-planned buildings were added in the northern part. The hill increased its dimensions and was named Monte Stella. It reached 100 meters of height and it became landmark in the landscape of Milan. The construction continued for fifteen years and some programs were completed. These programs were the two, three and four storey buildings and two-floored house for the homeless’ in Via Sant’Elia designed by Bottoni. It was also completed the eleven-floored INCIS House in Via Bertinoro, built for state employees, and the star-plan buildings in Via Cimabue, funded by cooperatives and private investors. In contrast, the public parts of the project were growing slowly. In October 1958 only a kindergarten, the church and some of the shops in Via Agrigento were built, but most of the designed services were missing. The absence of two important building, the Casa Giardino and the Casa Collettiva, was an obstacle for QT8 to be considered as a model neighborhood. Together with Pucci, Bottoni designed the Casa Giardino in 1945 a project inspired by rationalism and Le Corbusier. The Casa Collettiva was also designed by Bottoni in 1948-1949 as a union of two building typologies to provide space for social activity (Bottoni, 1949). The missing construction of these two projects was the main reason of the failure of the center of the neighborhood. In 1952, under the critiques of Gio Ponti, Piero Bottoni admitted that without the public center, the project took the risk of creating several isolated units, linked together with the spatial adjacency, without any human relationship (Bottoni, 1952).

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Milan 2nd ring line

Rho FieraMilano

Torino/ Bergamo

QT8

Bus line 68 Bus line 78 Bus line 90,91 Bus line 560 Subway M1

Current situation Boundaries and structure Nowadays the QT8 neighbourhood is mainly residential. The boundaries of the district are defined by viale Alcide de Gasperi in the North and via sant’Elia in the West, viale Serra in the west as part of the internal ring, and the Hippodrome in the South. Therefore, the district it’s a closed system. The two main entrances to QT8 are: the red line metro station QT8, and the access from the ring road (circonvallazione). In 2014, the area was submitted to a retraining project and a pedestrian bridge was constructed. It connects QT8 to Portello to give a chance to cross the speedway even without a car. Instead of the functional centre designed in the original project, nowadays it is present only the marketplace which is abandoned. The lack of this centre is a problem for the district as there is the need of a meeting point for social relations. As detected from the interviews, most of the people living in the area are car owners because, as they said, there is a lack of commercial activities. Population From the interviews, we found out that there are basically 3 types of inhabitants in the area: • elderly people that had lived there for 50 years and more, they moved there when the place was under construction because of the agreement with the Municipality of Milan. • middle-aged people that moved to Milan from other cities for working and chose QT8 because of the green areas that allows to live in a natural environment inside an urban context. • young people, maybe with children, that moved there because of the calm atmosphere that characterizes the neighbourhood and the presence of the schools and lots of playing areas. During the weekend, many users enjoy Monte Stella park and the tennis fields that are big points of attraction. 9


90,91 Milan 2nd ring line

To: Bonola M1 68

To: Cesano Boscone

M

78

M

78

Metro station To: Porta Genova

Bus stop

90,91 Milan 2nd ring line

Rho FieraMilano

Torino/ Bergamo

QT8

10

68


Education

Church

Hotel

Farmacy

Commercial

Hospital

Public green area

Pedestrian road

Sports center

Main axis of QT8

Sports facilities 11


 

 

Main axis of QT8 Main axis of QT8

Roads in QT8

Roads in QT8

Pedestrian Roads in QT8

Pedestrian Roads in QT8

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 

 

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ANTONIO Worker ANTONIO

Living in CASA STELLARE since 2010 Worker Living in CASA STELLARE since 2010

I live in one of the star homes. I feel good in this neighborhood, it looks like little even if it is Iinfeel thegood city. in this ere are the basics service, if I livea in onecountry, of the star homes. neighborhood, it looks it were also the ifcommon, wecity. wouldere be are more like a littlepresent country, even it is in the thehappy basics(Laugh). service, if is were little park, foralso example, was builtwerecently butmore quickly became a crap. it present the common, would be happy (Laugh). I islive here for 7 years. I lived before in another area of Milan. I did little park, for example, was built recently but quickly became a not crap. it very much so in I decided move. I live here for 7 like years. I lived before anothertoarea of Milan. I did not e main meeting point is the Monte andtoamove. nice bar where people like it very much so I Stella decided can sit and meet, also because there is a lot of greenery. e main meeting point is the Monte Stella and a nice bar where people can sit and meet, also because there is a lot of greenery.

FRANCESCA Pensioner FRANCESCA

Living in CASA STELLARE since 1961 Pensioner Living in CASA STELLARE since 1961

I live in the third Casa stellare for 55 years, so I saw grow the neighborhoerethird was Casa the alpha romeo factory, these od.in the I live stellare for 55 years, Isomoved I saw here growbecause the neighborhohousesere were as cooperatives and my building part ofthese the wasbuilt the alpha romeo factory, I moved herewas because od. teachers’ cooperative and my mom was a teacher, and then we bought houses were built as cooperatives and my building was part of the a housewas here. teachers’ cooperative and my mom a teacher, and then we bought a More or Less we all know, therehouse is in some here. sense a country life, would be comfortable there was a library young and people More or Lessifwe all know, there ishaunted in some both senseby a country life,old would be and also it would be good if there was a better cleaning of the parks comfortable if there was a library haunted both by young and old people le was to themselves. and also it would becompletely good if there a better cleaning of the parks What is missing herecompletely are the shops, where do some’ spending, le services, to themselves. otherwise you have to travel by car to the mall, wheredo there is everything, What is missing here are the shops, services, where some’ spending, however,you it is have not easy to reach forto everyone. for to the otherwise to travel by car the mall,We’re wherelucky therejust is everything, however, it is not easy to reachpharmacy. for everyone. We’re lucky just for to the pharmacy. 22


DIEGO

24 DIEGO years old 24Student years old Living in INCIS Studentsince 1993 Living in INCIS since 1993

I live with my mother. I study for university. I like the house because there is viewI towards garden, the spacious I live with my mother. study forthe university. balcony and the fact that I know most of my neighbors. e area is nice I like the house because there is view towards the garden, the spacious becauseand there lotsthat of greenery and the park is near. It is ereally balcony theisfact I know most of my neighbors. area quiet is nice e only problem is there is not much to do accept for the park, place. because there is lots of greenery and the park is near. It is really quietso I usually is gothere out in Buonarroti. is Marghera, not much to do accept for the park, so place. e only problem About the apartment thego only we haveBuonarroti. changed are the railings of I usually outthings in Marghera, the balcony that originally were slanted made them because About the apartment the only things we and havewe changed are theatrailings of our cats were falling down. Also we removed part of the wall and the the balcony that originally were slanted and we made them at because door the kitchen living room. And theofwhole apartment ourseparating cats were falling down.and Also we removed part the wall and the is painted in blue because it is my mother’s favorite color. door separating the kitchen and living room. And the whole apartment is painted in blue because it is my mother’s favorite color.

LULU’ ??? 47 years ??? old Freelancer 47 years old Living INCIS for 6 months Freelancer Living INCIS for 6 months

I’m living on the 3rd oor. It’s a 4 rooms apartment an I’m living with my my children. I’m living on the 3rd oor.wife It’s aand 4 rooms apartment an I’m living with my Sometimes I work at home, sometimes go to work in the o ce near wife and my children. Centrale rail station. Sometimes I work at home, sometimes go to work in the o ce near ICentrale use subway bus. rail and station. We choose this block because it has a and lot ofbus. green and playgrounds for I use subway children to play. We choose this block because it has a lot of green and playgrounds for Is nice! We know the neighborhood, only 3-4 families are friends. children tobut play. About the biggest change we made is breaking down a Is nice!the WeApartment know the neighborhood, but only 3-4 families are friends. wallthe to biggest get a larger Livingroom. About the Apartment change we made is breaking down a wall to get a larger Livingroom.

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Casa Stellare 2, general appearance

Casa Stellare 2, main entrance

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Casa stellare via Cimabue, 2 Casa Stellare from 1955-1957 is one out of the seven forecasted “Case stellari” for the QT8 neighborhood (1953), in the belt added in the northern part of the area assigned, along via Cimabue (which was the limit of the neighborhood in the two previous project). Bottoni realized the first building of the series, commissioned by the Società generale immobiliare (General real estate society) section lstituto per l’edilizia popolare (Social housing real estate institute). In the master plan the buildings were meant to be seven storeys high, but they actually were built nine storeys high, while the forecasted amount of seven buildings decreased to only five. Among the three apartment units, only one occupies a whole sector of the “star”. This sort of design is typical of Bottoni’s work, even underlined in this case by the presence of two opposite terraces on the two sides of the wing, communicating through the interior space. The remaining four and tiny units are located two by two in the other two sectors of the building, each availing the longitudinal side of the wing. They benefit however of a good air circulation through the windows located in the headboard of the block. Building features The building has a typical plan in each wing, which is reflected in all the floors apart from the ground floor. From the first floor to the last the units are identical. The distributive scheme presents four apartments each floor, located around a wide entrance hall, provided with two elevators and one staircase (displaced according to safety reasons to embody a fireproof service staircase). These four units are divided into two single bedroom apartments, one double bedroom apartment and one triple bedroom apartment. The former are characterized by a row of windows on only two sides of the apartments, while the latter two have a wide living-dining room which occupies the whole width of the wing. All the typical apartments are made of: an entrance/ hall, a wide kitchen, a living- dining area and from one to three bedrooms each, according to the dimension of the dwelling unit. All the living-dining rooms have a wide balcony. The apartments occupying the whole “wing” have two balconies, on the opposite sides, while the smaller ones have only one. Importance was also given to the heating/ cooling system to keep the temperature inside the building as close as possible to the wanted value of comfort. Each dwelling is equipped with two vents. The main collective serving area is located in the center of the building. A staircase in the hall leads to a big covered room allowing the access to: the rooms meant to control the general conditions inside the building (heating system, electricity, gas supply); a designated area for motorbikes and bikes deposit and the cellars. Next to these cellars in the public area, each apartment is equipped with a partly aerated and illuminated cellar for more private purposes. A fence is provided for enclosing the whole garden area and the access is made possible from two gates, out of which one is meant for vehicle entrance. The height of the building is the maximum allowed for the QT8 detailed plan.

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via Cimabue, 2

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via Cimabue, 4

via Cimabue, 6

via Cimabue, 8

via Cimabue, 10

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Ground Floor

Typical Plan

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The street leading to the main entrance

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Casa INCIS via Bertinoro, 9 The Casa INCIS is a linear building designed by architect Bottoni. The building is nine-storey high, placed along the helio-thermic axis. It is located via Bertinoro 9 near the South-East entrance of the district, at the beginning of the central axis. The abbreviation INCIS stands for Istituto Nazionale per le Case degli Impiegati dello Stato (national institute for the house of state employs) and for this reason Bottoni wanted to introduce in the common residential flat all the comforts of rural houses or villas. The solution was found in the balcony, used as an element of both vertical and horizontal distribution. Another interesting feature is how the two facades are composed and realized. The one facing the quarter and the Monte Stella is more shaped due to the loggias used for the entrance while the one facing the city it’s more regular and characterized by gratings elements. The grid parts are made up by a small ceramic tiles mosaic design by Bottoni himself that won an award in 1957. The last important and remarkable feature is the importance that Bottoni gave to the common spaces at the ground floor of the building. This is common to all the post-war projects, where the architects imagined taking place social and collective activities. However, the reality shows that such function existed only in the plan of the architect and now the spaces are underused.

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East facade

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West facade

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Photo archive of X Triennale, 1954

How changed the relationship between the space of the doors and the elevator

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Living Room Interior for the X Triennale in 1954

Living room is united with the entrance space and the kitchen.

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“The only things we have changed are the railings of the balcony that originally were slanted and we made them flat because our cats were falling down. A lot of people glazed their balconies but we are exception. “ “This is my favourite place of the whole appartment because there is view towards the garden. When it is warm we stay here all the time ! “

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Ground Floor

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Typical Plan

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Section

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North and South facade

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East facade

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West facade

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Section

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Typology 1

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Typology 2

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Typology 3

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Typology 4

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Typology 5

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Bibliography P. Bottoni, Il quartiere sperimentale modello QT8 della Triennale di Milano, numero monografico di Metron, n.11, novembre-dicembre 1949. P. Bottoni, Urbanistica attuale in Italia, conferenza tenuta alla Scuola dei CIAM a Venezia, Ottobre 1952. P. Bottoni, Il quartiere sperimentale della Triennale di Milano QT8, editoriale Domus, Milano 1954. G. Tonon, QT8 quartiere sperimentale della Triennale storia e bilancio di una esperienza milanese, in “La casa popolare in Lombardia 1903-2003�, Milano 2005.

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02-ReCoDe_QT8  

Case Study: Quartiere QT8 Re Co.De! reshaping contemporary dwelling Thematic Design Studio - BA Architectural Design AUIC School - Polite...

02-ReCoDe_QT8  

Case Study: Quartiere QT8 Re Co.De! reshaping contemporary dwelling Thematic Design Studio - BA Architectural Design AUIC School - Polite...

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