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19-06-09

16:01

™ÂÏ›‰·1

ISSN: 1790-4056

π√À¡π√™ 2009

∆∂ÀÃ√™ 9 ¶∂ƒπ∂Ã√ª∂¡∞

Kƒπ∆π∫∏/ ∂ÈÛÙ‹ÌË & ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË

∫ˆÓÛÙ·ÓÙ›ÓÔ˜ ¢. ™ÎÔÚ‰Ô‡Ï˘ ºÈÏÔÛÔÊ›· Ù˘ ÎÚÈÙÈ΋˜ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘ ÛÙȘ Ê˘ÛÈΤ˜ ÂÈÛً̘

∂Í·ÌËÓÈ·›Ô ÂÚÈÔ‰ÈÎfi ∂ÍÒÊ˘ÏÏÔ: ª·ÚÎ ™·ÁοÏ, ∆Ô ÙÛ›ÚÎÔ.

∂ΉfiÙ˘: ∂ΉfiÛÂȘ Ó‹ÛÔ˜ ¶·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹: ISOGRAPH B›ÎÙˆÚÔ˜ √˘ÁÎfi 32 ¶Ï. µ¿ı˘, ÙËÏ.: 5247309 ∆ÈÌ‹ Ù‡¯Ô˘˜: 10

™˘Ó‰ÚÔ̤˜: π‰ÈÒÙ˜: 20 € π‰Ú‡Ì·Ù·/ÔÚÁ·ÓÈÛÌÔ›: 30 ∞ÔÛÙÔÏ‹ Û˘Ó‰ÚÔÌÒÓ: ∫ˆÓÛÙ·ÓÙ›ÓÔ˜ ™‚fiÏ˘ ∂ΉfiÛÂȘ Ó‹ÛÔ˜ ™·ÚÚ‹ 14 10553 ∞ı‹Ó· ÙËÏ./Ê·Í: 210 3250058 e-mail: info@nissos.gr URL: www.nissos.gr

3

∞ÚÈÛÙÔÙ¤Ï˘ ™. °ÎÈfiÏÌ·˜, πˆ¿ÓÓ· ∫. ™Ù·‡ÚÔ˘ ∏ √ÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈ΋ ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË ˆ˜ ¤Ó· ÂÓ·ÏÏ·ÎÙÈÎfi ÌÔÓÙ¤ÏÔ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ∞ÂÈÊÔÚ›· Î·È ÙËÓ ∫ÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋ /¶ÂÚÈ‚·ÏÏÔÓÙÈ΋ ¢ÈηÈÔÛ‡ÓË

15

µ·Û›Ï˘ ∆ÛÂÏʤ˜, ∞ÓÙÈÁfiÓË ¶·ÚÔ‡ÛË £Â·ÙÚÈ΋ ·Ê‹ÁËÛË ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÒÓ È‰ÂÒÓ: ·ÊÔÚÌ‹ ÁÈ· ÌÈ· ‰È·ÏÂÎÙÈ΋ ÚÔÛ¤ÁÁÈÛË Ù˘ Ì¿ıËÛ˘

33

ª¿ÓÔ˜ ™ÎÔ‡ÊÔÁÏÔ˘ ∏ ·ÛÙÈ΋ ¯ˆÚÈ΋ ÔÚÁ¿ÓˆÛË ÛÙË ÌÂÙ¿‚·ÛË ·fi ÙÔ ÊÂÔ˘‰·ÏÈÛÌfi ÛÙÔÓ Î·ÈÙ·ÏÈÛÌfi: ÙÔ ·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ· ÙˆÓ ‚fiÚÂÈˆÓ ∫¿Ùˆ ÈÚÒÓ

59

∂ϤÓË °È·ÓÓ·ÎÔÔ‡ÏÔ˘ ŒÌÊ˘Ï˜ Ù·˘ÙfiÙËÙ˜ Î·È ‰ÈÔ›ÎËÛË Ù˘ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘

77

∫ÒÛÙ·˜ ™ÙÂÚÁÈfiÔ˘ÏÔ˜ ∂ÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ̤ıÔ‰Ô˜ Î·È ··ÁˆÁÈ΋ ˘ÔÛÙ‹ÚÈÍË ÙÔ˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÔ‡ Ú·ÏÈÛÌÔ‡

89

¶·ÓÂÈÛÙËÌÈ·ÎÔ› ‰ËÏÒÓÔ˘Ó: «∂›Ì·ÛÙ ÙÔ ›‰ÈÔ ¤ÓÔ¯ÔÈ Ì ÙÔÓ Û˘Ó¿‰ÂÏÊÔ ∆¿ÎË ¶ÔÏ›ÙË!»

107

√‰ËÁ›Â˜ ÚÔ˜ ÙÔ˘˜ Û˘ÁÁÚ·Ê›˜

109

Abstracts

114


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™ÂÏ›‰·2

∂Í·ÌËÓÈ·›Ô ÂÚÈÔ‰ÈÎfi ÚÈ˙ÔÛ·ÛÙÈÎÒÓ ÚÔÛÂÁÁ›ÛÂˆÓ ÛÙȘ ∂ÈÛً̘ Î·È ÛÙËÓ ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË ™À¡∆∞∫∆π∫∏ ∂¶π∆ƒ√¶∏ ∫. ∞ı·Ó·Û›Ô˘ (∂∫¶∞), º. ∞ÛËÌ·ÎÔÔ‡ÏÔ˘ (∂∫¶∞), °. µÏ·¯¿Î˘ (∂π∂), ∂. °È·ÓÓ·ÎÔÔ‡ÏÔ˘ (∂∞¶), ∞. ∫·ÛÛ¤Ù·˜ (µ/ıÌÈ· ∂Î.), °. ∫·ÙÛÈ·ÌÔ‡Ú· (∂∫¶∞), ∂. ∫ÔϤ˙· (¶·Ó. ¶·ÙÚÒÓ), ∞. ∫Ô˘ÙÛÔ‡Ú˘ (°ÂˆÔÓÈÎfi ¶·Ó.), §. §¿Îη (™¯. ™‡Ì‚Ô˘ÏÔ˜), Ã. §ÂÌÔÓ›‰Ë˜ (¶·Ó. ¢˘Ù. ª·Î‰ÔÓ›·˜), ∂. ¡ÈÎÔÏ·˝‰Ë˜ (∂π∂), ∂. ªfiηÚ˘ (¶·Ó. πˆ·ÓÓ›ÓˆÓ), ¶. ¶·ÓÙ·˙‹˜ (∞¶£), °. ¶··‰¿ÙÔ˜ (∂∫¶∞), ∂. ¶··‰ËÌËÙÚ›Ô˘ (¶·Ó. πˆ·ÓÓ›ÓˆÓ), °. ¶ÂÙÚ¿ÎË (¶¿ÓÙÂÈÔÓ ¶·Ó.), ¶. ¶ÔÏ›Ù˘ (¶·Ó. £ÂÛÛ·Ï›·˜), ª. ƒÂÓÙÂÙ˙‹ (∂ª¶), ∫. ™ÎÔÚ‰Ô‡Ï˘ (∂∫¶∞), Ã. ™Ù·ıÔÔ‡ÏÔ˘ (¶·Ó. £ÂÛÛ·Ï›·˜), °. ™Ù¿ÌÔ˘ (∞¶£), µ. ∆ÛÂÏʤ˜ (∂∫¶∞), °. ºÔ˘ÚÙÔ‡Ó˘ (∞¶£), ∫. ÷ÏÎÈ¿ (∂∫¶∞), ¢. ÷ۿ˘ (∂∫¶∞), ∞. ÃÚÔÓ¿ÎË (¶·Ó. £ÂÛÛ·Ï›·˜) °Ú·ÌÌ·Ù›· ŒÎ‰ÔÛ˘: ∂. ∫ÔϤ˙·, ∂. ¡ÈÎÔÏ·˝‰Ë˜, ∫. ™ÎÔÚ‰Ô‡Ï˘, ¢. ÷ۿ˘

Journal of Radical Approaches to Science and Education Published twice a year EDITORIAL BOARD K. Athanassiou (Univ. of Athens), F. Assimacopoulou (Univ. of Athens), E. Bokaris (Univ. of Ioannina), D. Chassapis (Univ. of Athens), A. Chronaki (Univ. of Thessaly), G. Fourtounis (Univ. of Thessaloniki), K. Halkia (Univ. of Athens), A. Kassetas (Secondary educ.), G. Katsiampoura (Univ. of Athens), E. Koleza (Univ. of Patras), A. Koutsouris (Agricultural Univ.), L. Lakka (Educ. Councellor), Ch. Lemonidis (Univ. of W. Macedonia), E. Nikolaidis (NHRF), P. Pantazis (Univ. of Thessaloniki), Y. Papadatos (Univ. of Athens), E. Papadimitriou (Univ. of Ioannina), G. Petraki (Panteion Univ.), P. Politis (Univ. of Thessaly), M. Rentetzi (NTUA), C. Skordoulis (Univ. of Athens), G. Stamou (Univ. of Thessaloniki), Ch. Stathopoulou (Univ. of Thessaly), V. Tselfes (Univ. of Athens), G.N. Vlahakis (NHRF), H. Giannakopoulou (Open Univ.) Secretariat: D. Chassapis, E. Koleza, E. Nicolaidis, C. Skordoulis The journal is Abstracted in the HUMAN SCIENCES CITATION INDEX (Level III)


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™ÂÏ›‰·3

∫ƒπ∆π∫∏ / ∂¶π™∆∏ª∏ & ∂∫¶∞π¢∂À™∏: 9/09, 3-20

ºÈÏÔÛÔÊ›· Ù˘ ÎÚÈÙÈ΋˜ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘ ÛÙȘ Ê˘ÛÈΤ˜ ÂÈÛً̘ ∫ˆÓÛÙ·ÓÙ›ÓÔ˜ ¢. ™ÎÔÚ‰Ô‡Ï˘ ¶·È‰·ÁˆÁÈÎfi ∆Ì‹Ì· ¢ËÌÔÙÈ΋˜ ∂Î·›‰Â˘Û˘ ∂ıÓÈÎfi Î·È ∫·Ô‰ÈÛÙÚÈ·Îfi ¶·ÓÂÈÛÙ‹ÌÈÔ ∞ıËÓÒÓ ∞¶√ ∆∏¡ ∫ƒπ∆π∫∏ £∂øƒπ∞ ™∆π™ ¶√§π∆π™ªπ∫∂™ ™¶√À¢∂™ H ∫ÚÈÙÈ΋ £ÂˆÚ›· Ù˘ ™¯ÔÏ‹˜ Ù˘ ºÚ·ÁÎÊÔ‡ÚÙ˘ ı· ÌÔÚÔ‡Û ӷ ıˆÚËı› ÌÈ· ÚÔÛ¿ıÂÈ· ·Ó¿Ï˘Û˘ ÙˆÓ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎÒÓ Î·È ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈÎÒÓ ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚÈÛÙÈÎÒÓ ÙÔ˘ ÛÙ·‰›Ô˘ ÙÔ˘ ÌÔÓÔˆÏÈ·ÎÔ‡ ηÈÙ·ÏÈÛÌÔ‡ Ô˘ ΢ÚÈ¿Ú¯ËÛ ·fi ÙË ‰ÂηÂÙ›· ÙÔ˘ ’30 ̤¯ÚÈ ÂÚ›Ô˘ Ù· ̤۷ Ù˘ ‰ÂηÂÙ›·˜ ÙÔ˘ ’60 (Kellner 1989). ™Â ·˘Ù‹ ÙËÓ ÂÚ›Ô‰Ô ÙÔ ÎÚ¿ÙÔ˜ Î·È ÔÈ ÌÂÁ¿Ï˜ ÂȯÂÈÚ‹ÛÂȘ ¿ÛÎËÛ·Ó ·ÛÊ˘ÎÙÈÎfi ¤ÏÂÁ¯Ô fi¯È ÌfiÓÔ ÛÙËÓ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌ›· ·ÏÏ¿ Î·È ÛÙÔ ¿ÙÔÌÔ/˘ÔΛÌÂÓÔ. ∞˘Ù‹ Ë ÂÚ›Ô‰Ô˜ ÂÚÈÁÚ¿ÊÂÙ·È ˆ˜ «ÊÔÚÓÙÈÛÌfi˜» ÁÈ· Ó· ˘ÔÁÚ·ÌÌ›ÛÂÈ ÙÔ Û‡ÛÙËÌ· ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜ Î·È ÙÔ Î·ıÂÛÙÒ˜ ÔÌÔÁÂÓÔÔ›ËÛ˘ ÙÔ˘ ÎÂÊ·Ï·›Ô˘ Ô˘ ÛÙfi¯Â˘Â ÛÙÔ Ó· ·Ú¿ÁÂÈ Ì·˙ÈΤ˜ ÂÈı˘Ì›Â˜, ÚÔÙÈÌ‹ÛÂȘ Î·È Û˘ÌÂÚÈÊÔÚ¤˜. ◊Ù·Ó ÌÈ· ÂÔ¯‹ Ì·˙È΋˜ ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜ Î·È Î·Ù·Ó¿ÏˆÛ˘ Ô˘ ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚÈ˙fiÙ·Ó ·fi ÙËÓ ÔÌÔÈÔÌÔÚÊ›· Î·È ÙËÓ ÔÌÔÈÔÁ¤ÓÂÈ· ÙˆÓ ·Ó·ÁÎÒÓ, Ù˘ ÛΤ„˘ Î·È Ù˘ Û˘ÌÂÚÈÊÔÚ¿˜ Ô˘ Û˘Óı¤ÙÔ˘Ó ÌÈ· «Ì·˙È΋ ÎÔÈÓˆÓ›·». ∞˘Ù‹Ó ÙËÓ ÂÚ›Ô‰Ô, Ë ‰ËÌfiÛÈ· ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË Î·Ù·Û··˙Â Î·È ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔÈÔ‡ÛÂ Ù˘ÔÔÈË̤ӷ ÚÔÁÚ¿ÌÌ·Ù· ÛÔ˘‰ÒÓ Ô˘ ¯ÚË̢ۛ·Ó ˆ˜ fiÚÁ·Ó· Ì·˙ÈÎÔÔ›ËÛ˘ Î·È ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎÔ‡ ÂϤÁ¯Ô˘. °È· ·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ·, Ô H. Marcuse ¿ÛÎËÛ ÎÚÈÙÈ΋ ÛÙÔ˘˜ ÙÚfiÔ˘˜ Ì ÙÔ˘˜ ÔÔ›Ô˘˜ ÔÈ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎÔ› ıÂÛÌÔ›, Ù· ̤۷ Ì·˙È΋˜ ÂÈÎÔÈÓˆÓ›·˜ Î·È ÔÈ ¿ÏϘ ÌÔÚʤ˜ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎÔÔ›ËÛ˘ ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁÔ‡Û·Ó ÙÚfiÔ˘˜ ÛΤ„˘ Î·È Û˘ÌÂÚÈÊÔÚ¿˜, ÁÈ· Ó· ·Ú¿ÁÔ˘Ó ÙÔÓ «ªÔÓԉȿÛÙ·ÙÔ ÕÓıÚˆÔ» (1971). √È ¿ÌÂÛ˜ Î·È ¤ÌÌÂÛ˜ ÂÈÚÚÔ¤˜ Ù˘ ∫ÚÈÙÈ΋˜ £ÂˆÚ›·˜ ÛÙËÓ ÙÚ¤¯Ô˘Û· ÊÈÏÔÛÔÊ›· Ù˘ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘, fiˆ˜ ÔÈ ÊÂÌÈÓÈÛÙÈΤ˜ ·È‰·ÁˆÁÈΤ˜, ÔÈ ÔÏ˘ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈΤ˜ ıˆڛ˜, Ô ÎÚÈÙÈÎfi˜ ÂÁÁÚ·ÌÌ·ÙÈÛÌfi˜ ÎÏ., ¤¯Ô˘Ó ÂËÚ·ÛÙ› ·fi ÙȘ ȉ¤Â˜ ÙˆÓ T. Adorno, M. Horkheimer, H. Marcuse, W. Benjamin, E. Fromm Î·È ÙˆÓ ¿ÏÏˆÓ ÌÂÏÒÓ Ù˘ ™¯ÔÏ‹˜ Ù˘ ºÚ·ÁÎÊÔ‡ÚÙ˘.


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™ÂÏ›‰·4

∫ˆÓÛÙ·ÓÙ›ÓÔ˜ ¢. ™ÎÔÚ‰Ô‡Ï˘

¶·Ú’ fiÏÔ Ô˘ Ë ™¯ÔÏ‹ Ù˘ ºÚ·ÁÎÊÔ‡ÚÙ˘ ‹Ù·Ó ·˘Ù‹ Ô˘ ¿ÛÎËÛ ÙË ÌÂÁ·Ï‡ÙÂÚË ÂÈÚÚÔ‹ ·fi ÙȘ ·Ú·‰fiÛÂȘ ÙÔ˘ ‰˘ÙÈÎÔ‡ Ì·ÚÍÈÛÌÔ‡ ÛÙËÓ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋ ıˆڛ·, ‰‡Ô ¤ÓÓÔȘ Ô˘ Û¯ÂÙ›˙ÔÓÙ·È Ì ÙÔÓ Georg Lukacs Î·È ÙÔÓ Antonio Gramsci _Ë Ú·ÁÌÔÔ›ËÛË Î·È Ë ËÁÂÌÔÓ›·– Â›Ó·È ›Ûˆ˜ ·˘Ù¤˜ Ô˘ ¿ÛÎËÛ·Ó ÙË ÌÂÁ·Ï‡ÙÂÚË Â›‰Ú·ÛË ÛÙȘ Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓ˜ ·Ó·Ï‡ÛÂȘ ÁÈ· ÙË Û¯¤ÛË ∂ÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ Î·È ∫ÔÈÓˆÓ›·˜. √ ªarx ·Ó¤Ï˘Û ÙÔ ÊÂÙȯÈÛÌfi ÙˆÓ ÂÌÔÚÂ˘Ì¿ÙˆÓ ˆ˜ ÙËÓ Î·Ù¿ÛÙ·ÛË ÛÙËÓ Î·ÈÙ·ÏÈÛÙÈ΋ ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹ ‰È¿ ̤ÛÔ˘ Ù˘ ÔÔ›·˜ ÔÈ Û¯¤ÛÂȘ ÌÂٷ͇ ÙˆÓ ·ÓıÚÒˆÓ ·›ÚÓÔ˘Ó ÙÔ ¯·Ú·ÎÙ‹Ú· ÙˆÓ Û¯¤ÛÂˆÓ ÌÂٷ͇ Ú·ÁÌ¿ÙˆÓ Î·È ·ÔÎÙÔ‡Ó ÌÈ· Ï·ÛÙ‹ ·ÓÙÈÎÂÈÌÂÓÈÎfiÙËÙ·. ™ÙÔ ¤ÚÁÔ ÙÔ˘ Lukacs (2006/1923) ÂÈÛËÌ·›ÓÂÙ·È fiÙÈ Ì ÙËÓ ÂÈÎÚ¿ÙËÛË ÙˆÓ Î·ÈÙ·ÏÈÛÙÈÎÒÓ Û¯¤ÛÂˆÓ ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜ Û ÔÏfiÎÏËÚË ÙËÓ ÎÔÈÓˆÓ›·, Ë ÂÌÔÚÂ˘Ì·ÙÈ΋ ÌÔÚÊ‹ Á›ÓÂÙ·È ÙÔ ÚfiÙ˘Ô Ù˘ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋˜ Û¯¤Û˘. ∏ ·Ú¯‹ Ù˘ Ú·ÁÌÔÔ›ËÛ˘ ÂÚÈÁÚ¿ÊÂÈ ÙÔ ÌÂÙ·Û¯ËÌ·ÙÈÛÌfi ÙˆÓ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎÒÓ Î·È ·ÓıÚÒÈÓˆÓ Û¯¤ÛÂˆÓ Û ÂÌÔÚ‡̷ٷ Î·È Ú¿ÁÌ·Ù·, Ì ¿ÏÏ· ÏfiÁÈ· Ë ·ÓıÚÒÈÓË ÂÚÁ·Û›· ‰ÂÓ Â›Ó·È ϤÔÓ ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁÈ΋ ·ÏÏ¿ «Ú·ÁÌÔÔÈ›ٷȻ, Á›ÓÂÙ·È ÂÌfiÚÂ˘Ì· ÙÔ ÔÔ›Ô ˆÏ›ٷÈ. ∏ ËÁÂÌÔÓ›·, ηٿ ÙÔÓ Gramsci, Â›Ó·È Ë ‰È·‰Èηۛ· ‰È·Ù‹ÚËÛ˘ Ù˘ ΢ÚÈ·Ú¯›·˜ ̤ۈ ÙˆÓ Û˘Ó·ÈÓÂÙÈÎÒÓ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎÒÓ Ú·ÎÙÈÎÒÓ Ô˘ ·Ó··Ú¿ÁÔÓÙ·È Û ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈο Ï·›ÛÈ·, fiˆ˜ ÙÔ Û¯ÔÏ›Ô, Ù· ̤۷ Ì·˙È΋˜ ÂÈÎÔÈÓˆÓ›·˜, ÙÔ ÔÏÈÙÈÎfi Û‡ÛÙËÌ·, Ë ÂÎÎÏËÛ›· Î·È Ë ÔÈÎÔÁ¤ÓÂÈ·. ∆¤ÙÔȘ ‰È·‰Èηۛ˜ ·ÓÙÈÚÔÛˆÂ‡Ô˘Ó ÙË ‰˘Ó·ÙfiÙËÙ· ÙÔ˘ Û˘ÛÙ‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ Ó· ·Ó··Ú¿ÁÂÈ ÙÔÓ Â·˘Ùfi ÙÔ˘. ∏ Âȉ›ˆÍË Î·È ·Ô‰Ô¯‹ Ù˘ ‰ËÌfiÛÈ·˜ Û˘Ó·›ÓÂÛ˘, ˆ˜ Ù·ÎÙÈ΋ ÙˆÓ Î˘‚ÂÚÓÒÓÙˆÓ, Â›Ó·È ¤Ó·˜ ÙÚfiÔ˜ Ó· ÚÔˆıÔ‡Ó È‰¤Â˜ Î·È Ó· ηÙ¢ı‡ÓÔ˘Ó ÙËÓ ÎÔÈÓ‹ ÁÓÒÌË ÚÔ˜ ÙÔ˘˜ ÛÙfi¯Ô˘˜ ÙÔ˘˜. ™ÙË ‰È·‰Èηۛ· ËÁÂÌfiÓ¢Û˘, ÔÈ ÔÌ¿‰Â˜ ÂÍÔ˘Û›·˜ ·ÔÛÔ‡Ó ÙË Û˘Ó·›ÓÂÛË ÙˆÓ ÂÍÔ˘ÛÈ·˙Ô̤ӈÓ, ÔÈ ÔÔ›ÔÈ ·ÎÔ‡ÛÈ· Û˘ÌÌÂÙ¤¯Ô˘Ó ÛÙËÓ ˘ÔÙ·Á‹ ÙÔ˘˜ ̤ۈ Ù˘ ·Ô‰Ô¯‹˜ ·ÍÈÒÓ Î·È ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎÒÓ Ú·ÎÙÈÎÒÓ Ô˘ ηıÔÚ›˙ÔÓÙ·È ·fi ÙȘ ÔÌ¿‰Â˜ ÂÍÔ˘Û›·˜. √È Î˘Ú›·Ú¯Â˜ ÔÌ¿‰Â˜ ÂÈ‚¿ÏÏÔ˘Ó ÙËÓ ÎÔÛÌÔıˆڛ· ÙÔ˘˜ ̤ۈ Û˘Ì‚fiψÓ, ‰ÔÌËÌ¤ÓˆÓ ÁÓÒÛˆÓ, ÂÍÂȉÈÎÂ˘Ì¤ÓˆÓ ÁψÛÛÒÓ Î·È ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎÒÓ Ú·ÎÙÈÎÒÓ, ›Ûˆ ·fi ÙȘ Ôԛ˜ ÎÚ‡‚ÔÓÙ·È ¿ÓÈÛÔÈ Û˘Û¯ÂÙÈÛÌÔ› ÚÔÓÔÌ›ˆÓ Î·È ÂÍÔ˘Û›·˜. ∏ ™¯ÔÏ‹ Ù˘ ºÚ·ÁÎÊÔ‡ÚÙ˘ ÂËÚ¤·ÛÂ Î·È ‚Ô‹ıËÛ ӷ ·Ó·‰˘ıÔ‡Ó ¿ÏϘ ÓÂfiÙÂÚ˜ Ì·ÚÍÈÛÙÈΤ˜ ÚÔÛÂÁÁ›ÛÂȘ ÛÙËÓ ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú·, ÙËÓ ÎÔÈÓˆÓ›· Î·È ÙËÓ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË. √È µÚÂÙ·ÓÈΤ˜ ¶ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈΤ˜ ™Ô˘‰¤˜ (British Cultural Studies),


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™ÂÏ›‰·5

ºÈÏÔÛÔÊ›· Ù˘ ÎÚÈÙÈ΋˜ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘ ÛÙȘ Ê˘ÛÈΤ˜ ÂÈÛً̘

5

Ù˘ ™¯ÔÏ‹˜ ÙÔ˘ ª¤ÚÌÈÁ¯·Ì, ÚÔ‚¿ÏÔ˘Ó Û ÌÈ· ÌÂÙ¤ÂÈÙ· ÂÔ¯‹ ÙÔ˘ ÎÂÊ·Ï·›Ô˘, ÁÓˆÛÙ‹ ˆ˜ «ÌÂÙ·ÊÔÚÓÙÈÛÌfi». ª¤Û· ÛÙÔ ·ÓÂÈÛÙ‹ÌÈÔ, ÔÈ µÚÂÙ·ÓÈΤ˜ ¶ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈΤ˜ ™Ô˘‰¤˜ ·Ó¤Ù˘Í·Ó ‰ÈÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈο ÚÔÁÚ¿ÌÌ·Ù· ÁÈ· Ó· ÌÂÏÂÙËı› Ë Û¯¤ÛË Ù˘ ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú·˜ Ì ÙËÓ ÎÔÈÓˆÓ›· Î·È ÙËÓ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋ Î·È ‰È·Ù‡ˆÛ·Ó ÎÚÈÙÈΤ˜ ÁÈ· ÙÔÓ ·Î·‰ËÌ·˚Îfi ηٷÎÂÚÌ·ÙÈÛÌfi Î·È ÙËÓ ÌÔÓÔıÂÌ·ÙÈÎfiÙËÙ· ÙˆÓ ÁÓˆÛÙÈÎÒÓ ·ÓÙÈÎÂÈ̤ӈÓ. √È µÚÂÙ·ÓÈΤ˜ ¶ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈΤ˜ ™Ô˘‰¤˜, fiˆ˜ Î·È Ë ™¯ÔÏ‹ Ù˘ ºÚ·ÁÎÊÔ‡ÚÙ˘, ˘ÔÛÙËÚ›˙Ô˘Ó fiÙÈ Ë ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú· Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ÌÂÏÂÙËı› ̤۷ ÛÙÔ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎfi Ï·›ÛÈÔ fiÔ˘ ·Ú¿ÁÂÙ·È Î·È «Î·Ù·Ó·ÏÒÓÂÙ·È» Î·È ¤ÙÛÈ Ë ÌÂϤÙË Ù˘ Â›Ó·È ÛÙÂÓ¿ Û˘Ó‰Â̤ÓË Ì ÙË ÌÂϤÙË Ù˘ ÎÔÈÓˆÓ›·˜, Ù˘ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋˜ Î·È Ù˘ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌ›·˜. ÀÈÔıÂÙÒÓÙ·˜ ÙË ıˆڛ· Ù˘ ËÁÂÌÔÓ›·˜ ÙÔ˘ Gramsci, ÔÈ µÚÂÙ·ÓÈΤ˜ ¶ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈΤ˜ ™Ô˘‰¤˜ Âȉ›ˆÍ·Ó Ó· ·Ó·Ï‡ÛÔ˘Ó ÙȘ ÔÏÈÙÈΤ˜, ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈΤ˜ Î·È ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈΤ˜ ‰˘Ó¿ÌÂȘ ΢ÚÈ·Ú¯›·˜ Î·È Ó· ÂÈÛËÁËıÔ‡Ó ÙË ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁ›· «·ÓÙÈËÁÂÌÔÓÈÎÒÓ» ‰˘Ó¿ÌÂˆÓ ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈ΋˜ ·ÓÙ›ÛÙ·Û˘. √È ÌÔÚʤ˜ ¶ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈÎÒÓ ™Ô˘‰ÒÓ Ô˘ ·Ó·Ù‡ÛÛÔÓÙ·È Û‹ÌÂÚ· ıˆÚËÙÈÎÔÔÈÔ‡Ó ÌÈ· ÌÂÙ·ÙfiÈÛË ·fi ÙÔ ÛÙ¿‰ÈÔ ÙÔ˘ ÌÔÓÔˆÏÈ·ÎÔ‡ ηÈÙ·ÏÈÛÌÔ‡/ÊÔÚÓÙÈÛÌÔ‡ Û ¤Ó· Ó¤Ô Î·ıÂÛÙÒ˜ ÙÔ˘ ÎÂÊ·Ï·›Ô˘, ÁÓˆÛÙfi ˆ˜ «ÌÂÙ·ÊÔÚÓÙÈÛÌfi» (Harvey 1989) ‹ «ÌÂÙ·ÌÔÓÙÂÚÓÈÛÌfi» (Jameson 1991), Ì ¤Ó·Ó ‰ÈÂıÓÈÎfi Î·È ·ÁÎfiÛÌÈÔ ¯·Ú·ÎÙ‹Ú· Ô˘ ·ÍÈÔÔÈ› ÙË ‰È·ÊÔÚ¿, ÙËÓ ÔÏÏ·ÏfiÙËÙ·, ÙÔÓ ÂÎÏÂÎÙÈÎÈÛÌfi Î·È ÙÔÓ ‰ÈÂ˘Ú˘Ì¤ÓÔ Î·Ù·Ó·ÏˆÙÈÛÌfi, Û ÌÈ· Ó¤· ÎÔÈÓˆÓ›· Ô˘ ‚·Û›˙ÂÙ·È ÛÙËÓ Ù·¯‡ÙËÙ· ÌÂÙ¿‰ÔÛ˘ Ù˘ ÏËÚÔÊÔÚ›·˜ Î·È ÛÙËÓ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈ΋ ÂÎÌÂÙ¿ÏÏ¢ÛË ÙÔ˘ ÂχıÂÚÔ˘ ¯ÚfiÓÔ˘. ∞fi ·˘Ù‹ ÙËÓ ¿Ô„Ë, Ë ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú· ÙˆÓ media, Ë ÌÂÙ·ÌÔÓÙ¤ÚÓ· ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋, Ë ˘ÂÚηٷӿψÛË Î·È Ë ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú· ÙÔ˘ ı¿̷ÙÔ˜ ¤ÁÈÓ·Ó ÔÈ ˘ÔÛÙËÚÈÎÙ¤˜ ÌÈ·˜ Ó¤·˜ Ê¿Û˘ ÛÙËÓ ÂͤÏÈÍË ÙÔ˘ ÎÂÊ·Ï·›Ô˘, ÙÔ˘ «‡ÛÙÂÚÔ˘ ηÈÙ·ÏÈÛÌÔ‡» ‹ ηْ ¿ÏÏÔ˘˜ «Ù¯ÓÔηÈÙ·ÏÈÛÌÔ‡��, Ô˘ ÂÓۈ̷ÙÒÓÂÈ ÙÔ ÌÂÙ·ÌÔÓÙ¤ÚÓÔ image Î·È ÙËÓ ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú· ÙÔ˘ ηٷӷψً (Kellner and Best 2001). ∫·Ù¿ ÙË ‰È¿ÚÎÂÈ· Ù˘ ÙÚ¤¯Ô˘Û·˜ Ê¿Û˘ ÙˆÓ ¶ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈÎÒÓ ™Ô˘‰ÒÓ ˘¿Ú¯ÂÈ ÌÈ· Ù¿ÛË Ó· ·ÁÓÔËıÔ‡Ó ÂÓÙÂÏÒ˜ Ë ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌ›·, Ë ÈÛÙÔÚ›· Î·È Ë ÔÏÈÙÈ΋ ˘¤Ú Ù˘ ¤ÌÊ·Û˘ ÛÙËÓ ÙÔÈÎfiÙËÙ·, ÛÙËÓ ÂÈı˘Ì›· Î·È ÛÙËÓ Î·Ù·Û΢‹ ˘‚ÚȉÈÎÒÓ Ù·˘ÙÔًوÓ. ∏ ¤ÌÊ·ÛË ÛÙ· ÂÓÂÚÁ¿ ·ÎÚÔ·Ù‹ÚÈ·, ÙȘ ·Ó·ÁÓÒÛÂȘ ·ÓÙ›ÛÙ·Û˘, Ù· ·ÓÙÈÔÏÈÙ¢ÙÈο ΛÌÂÓ·, ÙȘ Ô˘ÙÔÈΤ˜ ÛÙÈÁ̤˜ Î.¿. ·ÓÙÈÔÏÈÙ‡ÂÙ·È ÌÈ· ÂÔ¯‹ ÛÙËÓ ÔÔ›· Ù· ¿ÙÔÌ· ÂÎ·È‰Â‡ÔÓÙ·È ˆ˜ ÂÓÂÚÁÔ› ηٷӷψ٤˜ Î·È ÛÙËÓ ÔÔ›· ÙÔ˘˜ ‰›ÓÂÙ·È ÌÈ· ¢ڇÙÂÚË ÂÈÏÔÁ‹ ηٷӷψÙÈÎÒÓ ·Á·ıÒÓ, ÚÔ˚fiÓÙˆÓ Î·È ˘ËÚÂÛÈÒÓ.


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™ÂÏ›‰·6

6

∫ˆÓÛÙ·ÓÙ›ÓÔ˜ ¢. ™ÎÔÚ‰Ô‡Ï˘

¶·Ú¿ÏÏËÏ· Ì ÙË ‰È‡ڢÓÛË ÙˆÓ ÓÂÔÌ·ÚÍÈÎÒÓ ıˆڋÛÂˆÓ Ù˘ ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú·˜ Î·È Ù˘ ÎÔÈÓˆÓ›·˜, ÛÙȘ ¶ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈΤ˜ ™Ô˘‰¤˜ Û˘Ó‰˘¿˙ÔÓÙ·È ÔÈ ıˆÚËÙÈΤ˜ ·Ó·Ï‡ÛÂȘ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌË Î·È ÙÔÓ Î·ÈÙ·ÏÈÛÌfi Ì ıˆڋÛÂȘ ÁÈ· Ù· ÔÏÈÙÈÛÙÈο Ù¯Ӌ̷ٷ, ÙË ÏÔÁÔÙ¯ӛ·, ÙËÓ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ Ê·ÓÙ·Û›·, Ù· ΛÌÂÓ· Ù˘ ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú·˜ ÙˆÓ media Î.¿. ∆Ô ‰›Ô ÙˆÓ ¶ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈÎÒÓ ™Ô˘‰ÒÓ ‰È¢ڇÓÂÙ·È ÒÛÙ ӷ Û˘ÌÂÚÈÏ¿‚ÂÈ Ù· ˙ËÙ‹Ì·Ù· Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘, Ù˘ Ù¯ÓÔÏÔÁ›·˜, Ù· ÂÚÈ‚·ÏÏÔÓÙÈο ˙ËÙ‹Ì·Ù·, ÙËÓ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋ ÙˆÓ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎÒÓ ÎÈÓËÌ¿ÙˆÓ ·ÏÏ¿ Î·È ÙȘ ·Ó·Ï‡ÛÂȘ Ù˘ ›‰È·˜ Ù˘ ∫ÚÈÙÈ΋˜ £ÂˆÚ›·˜, Ë ÔÔ›· ¤¯ÂÈ ÂÌÏÔ˘ÙÈÛÙ› ·fi Ù· ˙ËÙ‹Ì·Ù· Ô˘ ı¤ÙÂÈ Ô ÔÈÎÔÏÔÁÈÎfi˜ ÚÔ‚ÏËÌ·ÙÈÛÌfi˜. ™‡Ìʈӷ Ì ÙËÓ ÚÔÛ¤ÁÁÈÛË ÙˆÓ ¶ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈÎÒÓ ™Ô˘‰ÒÓ, Ë ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌË (̤۷ ‹/Î·È ¤Íˆ ·fi ÙÔ ÂÚÁ·ÛÙ‹ÚÈÔ) Û˘ÁÎÚÔÙÂ›Ù·È Ì ‚¿ÛË Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤Ó˜ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈΤ˜ Ú·ÎÙÈΤ˜, ÁψÛÛÈΤ˜ ·Ú·‰fiÛÂȘ, ÂÁηıȉڇÔÓÙ·˜ Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤Ó˜ Ù·˘ÙfiÙËÙ˜ Î·È ÎÔÈÓfiÙËÙ˜. ∫‡ÚÈÔ ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚÈÛÙÈÎfi Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋˜ ÁÓÒÛ˘, ·ÏÏ¿ Î·È Î¿ı ÁÓˆÛÙÈÎÔ‡ Û˘ÛÙ‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ Â›Ó·È Ë ÙÔÈÎfiÙËÙ· Î·È Ë ÔÏÏ·ÏfiÙËÙ·, ÂÓÒ ·Ú¿ÏÏËÏ· ÓÔÌÈÌÔÔÈÂ›Ù·È Ë Û˘Ó‡·ÚÍË ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈÎÒÓ ÁÓˆÛÙÈÎÒÓ Û˘ÛÙËÌ¿ÙˆÓ. ªÂ ÙÔÓ fiÚÔ «¶ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈ΋ ¶ÚÔÛ¤ÁÁÈÛË Ù˘ ∂ÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋˜ °ÓÒÛ˘» ÂÚÈÁÚ¿ÊÂÙ·È Ë ÌÂϤÙË ÙˆÓ ‰È·ÊfiÚˆÓ Ú·ÎÙÈÎÒÓ Ì¤Û· ·fi ÙȘ Ôԛ˜ Ë ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ÁÓÒÛË ·ÚıÚÒÓÂÙ·È Î·È ·Ó·Ù‡ÛÛÂÙ·È ÛÂ Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤ӷ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈο Î·È ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈο Ï·›ÛÈ· ‹ ÌÂٷʤÚÂÙ·È Î·È ‰È·¯¤ÂÙ·È Û Ӥ·. √È «¶ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈΤ˜ ™Ô˘‰¤˜ Ù˘ ∂ÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋˜ °ÓÒÛ˘» ¤¯Ô˘Ó ˆ˜ ·ÓÙÈΛÌÂÓÔ ¤Ú¢ӷ˜ ÙË Û˘Û¯¤ÙÈÛË ÌÂٷ͇ Ù˘ ηıȤڈÛ˘ Ù˘ ÁÓÒÛ˘ Î·È ÂÎÂ›ÓˆÓ ÙˆÓ Ú·ÎÙÈÎÒÓ ÙȘ Ôԛ˜ ÔÈ ÊÈÏfiÛÔÊÔÈ Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ ıˆÚÔ‡Ó «Ê·ÈÓÔÌÂÓÈΤ˜» ÛÙË ÁÓÒÛË. ∏ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ÁÓÒÛË ıˆÚÂ›Ù·È ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈ΋ ÌÔÚÊ‹ Ô˘ Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ηٷÓÔËı› ̤ۈ ÌÈ·˜ ÏÂÙÔÌÂÚÔ‡˜ ÂͤٷÛ˘ ÙˆÓ ËÁÒÓ ÛÙȘ Ôԛ˜ ‚·Û›˙ÂÙ·È Ë Û˘ÁÎÚfiÙËÛ‹ Ù˘, ÔÈ Î·Ù·ÛÙ¿ÛÂȘ ÛÙȘ Ôԛ˜ ·ÓÙ·ÔÎÚ›ÓÂÙ·È Î·È ÔÈ ÙÚfiÔÈ Ì ÙÔ˘˜ ÔÔ›Ô˘˜ ÌÂÙ·Û¯ËÌ·Ù›˙ÂÈ ÙȘ ηٷÛÙ¿ÛÂȘ ·˘Ù¤˜ Î·È ·ÛΛ Â›‰Ú·ÛË Û ¿ÏϘ.

∞¶√ ∆∏¡ ∫ƒπ∆π∫∏ ¶∞π¢∞°ø°π∫∏ ™∆∏¡ ∂¶∞¡∞™∆∞∆π∫∏ ¶∞π¢∞°ø°π∫∏ ∏ ∫ÚÈÙÈ΋ ¶·È‰·ÁˆÁÈ΋ ÌÂÏÂÙ¿ ÙÔ ÚfiÏÔ ÙÔ˘ Û¯ÔÏ›Ԣ ÛÙË ‰È·Ù‹ÚËÛË Ù˘ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋˜ ‰È·ÛÙڈ̿وÛ˘ ·ÏÏ¿ Î·È ÙȘ ‰˘Ó·ÙfiÙËÙ˜ ÁÈ· ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋ ·ÏÏ·Á‹ ̤۷ ·fi


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ºÈÏÔÛÔÊ›· Ù˘ ÎÚÈÙÈ΋˜ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘ ÛÙȘ Ê˘ÛÈΤ˜ ÂÈÛً̘

7

ÙÔ Û¯ÔÏ›Ô. ™‡Ìʈӷ Ì ÙËÓ ∫ÚÈÙÈ΋ ¶·È‰·ÁˆÁÈ΋, Ë Ì¿ıËÛË Â›Ó·È ÌÈ· ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈο Î·È ÔÏÈÙÈÛÙÈο ÚÔÛ‰ÈÔÚÈṲ̂ÓË ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ·. ¢È·ÌÔÚÊÒÓÂÙ·È Î·È Î·ıÔÚ›˙ÂÙ·È ·fi ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎÔ‡˜, ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈÎÔ‡˜, ÔÏÈÙÈÛÙÈÎÔ‡˜, ÔÏÈÙÈÎÔ‡˜ Î·È ÈÛÙÔÚÈÎÔ‡˜ ·Ú¿ÁÔÓÙ˜, ÔÈ ÔÔ›ÔÈ ÂÎÊÚ¿˙ÔÓÙ·È Ì¤Ûˆ ÙˆÓ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎÒÓ Ú·ÎÙÈÎÒÓ Î·È ÙˆÓ ıÂÛÌÈÎÒÓ Î·ÓfiÓˆÓ Ô˘ ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔÈÔ‡ÓÙ·È ·fi ÙȘ ΢ڛ·Ú¯Â˜ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈΤ˜ ÔÌ¿‰Â˜. ™ÙËÓ ¶·È‰·ÁˆÁÈ΋ ÙÔ˘ ∫·Ù·ÈÂṲ̂ÓÔ˘ (1977), Ô Freire ‰ËÏÒÓÂÈ fiÙÈ ‰ÂÓ ˘¿Ú¯ÂÈ Ô˘‰¤ÙÂÚË ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈ΋ ‰È·‰Èηۛ·. ∏ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË Â›Ù ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ› ˆ˜ ÂÚÁ·ÏÂ›Ô ÁÈ· Ó· ‰È¢ÎÔχÓÂÈ ÙËÓ ÂÓۈ̿وÛË ÛÙË ÏÔÁÈ΋ ÙÔ˘ ˘¿Ú¯ÔÓÙÔ˜ Û˘ÛÙ‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ ‹ Û˘ÓÈÛÙ¿ «Ú·ÎÙÈ΋ ÂÏ¢ıÂÚ›·˜» _ ‰›Ô ¿ÛÎËÛ˘ Ù˘ ÂÏ¢ıÂÚ›·˜, ÂÈÙÚ¤ÔÓÙ·˜ ÛÙÔ˘˜ Ì·ıËÙ¤˜ Ó· ·Û¯ÔÏËıÔ‡Ó ÎÚÈÙÈο Î·È ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁÈο Ì ÙËÓ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÎfiÙËÙ· Î·È Ó· ·Ó·Î·Ï‡„Ô˘Ó Ò˜ Ó· Û˘ÌÌÂÙ¤¯Ô˘Ó ÛÙËÓ ·ÏÏ·Á‹ ÙÔ˘ ÎfiÛÌÔ˘ ÙÔ˘˜. √ Freire ÂȉÈÒÎÂÈ Ó· ÌÂÙ·Û¯ËÌ·Ù›ÛÂÈ ÙÔ˘˜ Ì·ıËÙ¤˜ ·fi ·ÓÙÈΛÌÂÓ· ÙˆÓ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎÒÓ ‰È·‰ÈηÛÈÒÓ Û ¿ÙÔÌ· ˘‡ı˘Ó· ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ·˘ÙÔÓfiÌËÛË Î·È ÙË ¯ÂÈڷʤÙËÛ‹ ÙÔ˘˜. ∏ ÂÚÁ·Û›· ÙÔ˘ Freire ‚ڋΠ·‹¯ËÛË Û ·ÁÎfiÛÌÈ· Îϛ̷η Î·È Ì¤¯ÚÈ ÙË ‰ÂηÂÙ›· ÙÔ˘ ’80 ·Ó·Ù‡¯ıËÎ·Ó ‰È¿ÊÔÚ˜ Û¯ÔϤ˜ Ù˘ ∫ÚÈÙÈ΋˜ ¶·È‰·ÁˆÁÈ΋˜. ™ÙË µfiÚÂÈ· ∞ÌÂÚÈ΋, ·fi ÙË ‰ÂηÂÙ›· ÙÔ˘ ’90 ̤¯ÚÈ Û‹ÌÂÚ·, ‰È¿ÊÔÚÔÈ ÂÚ¢ÓËÙ¤˜ Û˘Ó¤‰ÂÛ·Ó ÙȘ ·ÓÙÈÏ‹„ÂȘ ÙÔ˘ Freire Ì ÂΛӘ Ù˘ ∫ÚÈÙÈ΋˜ £ÂˆÚ›·˜ Ù˘ ™¯ÔÏ‹˜ Ù˘ ºÚ·ÁÎÊÔ‡ÚÙ˘ Î·È ¿ÏϘ ÓÂÔÌ·ÚÍÈÛÙÈΤ˜ ÚÔÛÂÁÁ›ÛÂȘ. ∫ÈÓÔ‡ÌÂÓÔ˜ Û ·˘Ù‹ ÙË ÏÔÁÈ΋, Ô H. Giroux (1988) ·ÚÔ˘ÛÈ¿˙ÂÈ ‰‡Ô fi„ÂȘ Ù˘ ȉÂÔÏÔÁ›·˜ Ù˘ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘: ˆ˜ ‰È·ÛÙÚ‚ψÙÈ΋ Ù¿ÛË ·Ê’ ÂÓfi˜, ˆ˜ ‰È·ÊˆÙÈÛÙÈ΋ ‰‡Ó·ÌË ·Ê’ ÂÙ¤ÚÔ˘. ™ÙËÓ ÚÒÙË Ù˘ fi„Ë, Ë È‰ÂÔÏÔÁ›· Á›ÓÂÙ·È ËÁÂÌÔÓÈ΋, ‰È·ÛÙÚ‚ÏÒÓÔÓÙ·˜ ÙËÓ Î·Ù·ÁÚ·Ê‹ Ù˘ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÎfiÙËÙ·˜ Î·È ÂÌÔ‰›˙ÔÓÙ·˜ ÙÔ ‰È¿ÏÔÁÔ. ™ÙË ‰Â‡ÙÂÚË fi„Ë, Ë È‰ÂÔÏÔÁ›· ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ› ˆ˜ ÚÔ¸fiıÂÛË ÁÈ· ÌÈ· ‰È·‰Èηۛ· ‰È·ÏfiÁÔ˘ Ô˘ ·Ê‹ÓÂÈ ÂÚÈıÒÚÈ· ÁÈ· ÙË Û˘ÓÂȉËÙ‹ Î·È ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋ ¯ÂÈڷʤÙËÛË. √ H. Giroux ÛËÌÂÈÒÓÂÈ fiÙÈ ÏfiÁˆ Ù˘ ˘ÔÙ·Á‹˜ Ù˘ Û ¤Ó· Û˘ÓÙËÚËÙÈÎfi ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎÔÔÏÈÙÈÛÙÈÎfi Ï·›ÛÈÔ Ë ·Ó·ÛÙÔ¯·ÛÙÈ΋ ÈηÓfiÙËÙ· Ù˘ ȉÂÔÏÔÁ›·˜ Â›Ó·È Ôχ ÂÚÈÔÚÈṲ̂ÓË. ™‡Ìʈӷ Ì ÙÔÓ H. Giroux (1988), ÙÔ Û¯ÔÏÈÎfi ÚfiÁÚ·ÌÌ· ÛÔ˘‰ÒÓ ‰ÂÓ ÌÔÚ› Ó· ·ÔÛ˘Ó‰Âı› ·fi Ù· ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈο Î·È ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈο Ï·›ÛÈ¿ ÙÔ˘. ¢ËÏ·‰‹, ÙÔ Û¯ÔÏÂ›Ô Â›Ó·È ¤Ó·˜ ÔÏÈÙÈÎfi˜ ¯ÒÚÔ˜, Ô˘ ·›˙ÂÈ ¤Ó·Ó ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈÎfi ÚfiÏÔ ÛÙËÓ ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹ ȉÂÒÓ Î·È Ù·˘ÙÔÙ‹ÙˆÓ Î·È ÂÈÙÚ¤ÂÈ ÙÔÓ ¤ÏÂÁ¯Ô Ù˘ ·Ó··Ú¿ÛÙ·Û˘, Ù˘ ‰È·ÓÔÌ‹˜ Î·È Î·Ù·Ó¿ÏˆÛ‹˜ ÙÔ˘˜. ∏ ÂÚÁ·Û›· ÙÔ˘ H. Giroux Û˘Ó‰¤ıËÎÂ Û˘¯Ó¿ Ì ÙȘ ÚÔÛ¿ıÂȘ ÙÔ˘ M. Apple ÁÈ· ·Ó¿Ï˘ÛË ÙÔ˘ ηÈÙ·ÏÈÛÙÈÎÔ‡ Û¯ÔÏ›Ԣ ˆ˜ ÂÚÁ·Ï›Ԣ ÂÍÔ˘Û›·˜ ηÈ


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∫ˆÓÛÙ·ÓÙ›ÓÔ˜ ¢. ™ÎÔÚ‰Ô‡Ï˘

΢ÚÈ·Ú¯›·˜ ÙˆÓ ÂȯÂÈÚ‹ÛˆÓ. √ M. Apple (1990) ˘ÔÛÙËÚ›˙ÂÈ fiÙÈ Ë ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË ‰ÂÓ Â›Ó·È Ô˘‰¤ÙÂÚË, Ô ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎfi˜ ÂÌϤÎÂÙ·È Û˘ÓÂȉËÙ¿ ‹ ÌË Û ÌÈ· ÔÏÈÙÈ΋ Ú¿ÍË. ∂›Ó·È ÔÏÈÙÈο ·ÊÂϤ˜ ‹ ·ÏÒ˜ Ù¯ÓÔÎÚ·ÙÈÎfi Ó· ıˆÚËı› Ë Û¯ÔÏÈ΋ Ù¿ÍË ¤Ó·˜ Ô˘‰¤ÙÂÚÔ˜ ÎfiÛÌÔ˜ fiÔ˘ Ë ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋ ·ÓÈÛfiÙËÙ·, Ë È‰ÂÔÏÔÁ›· Î·È Ë ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈ΋ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋ ‰ÂÓ ¤¯Ô˘Ó ÂÈÙÒÛÂȘ ÛÙË Ì¿ıËÛË. ™˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤ӷ, Ô Apple (ÛÙȘ ·Ú¯ÈΤ˜ ¤Ú¢Ӥ˜ ÙÔ˘, ÚÈÓ ·fi ÙËÓ ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈ΋ ÛÙÚÔÊ‹ ÙÔ˘) ÂËÚ¿ÛÙËΠÂÚÈÛÛfiÙÂÚÔ ·fi ÙÔÓ ÛÙÚÔ˘ÎÙÔ˘Ú·ÏÈÛÙÈÎfi Ì·ÚÍÈÛÌfi ÙÔ˘ Althusser Î·È ÙËÓ ÎÚÈÙÈ΋ ÙˆÓ Bowles Î·È Gintis (1976) ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË ÛÙËÓ Î·ÈÙ·ÏÈÛÙÈ΋ ÎÔÈÓˆÓ›·. ™ÙË Û˘Ó¤¯ÂÈ·, Î·È Ô Giroux Î·È Ô Apple ›‰·Ó ÙËÓ ·Ó¿ÁÎË ÁÈ· ıˆڛ˜ ·ÓÙ›ÛÙ·Û˘, Ô˘ ÌÂÙ·Û¯ËÌ·Ù›˙Ô˘Ó ÙËÓ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË Î·È Ê¤ÚÓÔ˘Ó ÛÙÔ ÚÔÛ΋ÓÈÔ ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈο ˙ËÙ‹Ì·Ù· ʇÏÔ˘, Ê˘Ï‹˜ Î·È ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋˜ Ù¿Í˘. ∆Ô ¤ÚÁÔ ÙˆÓ S. Bowles Î·È H. Gintis (1976) ·Ó·‚›ˆÛ ÙÔ ÂӉȷʤÚÔÓ ÁÈ· ÙË Ì·ÚÍÈÛÙÈ΋ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈ΋ ıˆڛ· Î·È ÚÔοÏÂÛÂ Û˘˙ËÙ‹ÛÂȘ Î·È ‰È·Ì¿¯Â˜ ÌÂٷ͇ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎÒÓ Î·È ÂÚ¢ÓËÙÒÓ Ù˘ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘. √ Apple (1990) ˘ÔÛÙËÚ›˙ÂÈ fiÙÈ Ë Ì·ÚÍÈÛÙÈ΋ ·Ó¿Ï˘ÛË Ù˘ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘ ÙˆÓ Bowles Î·È Gintis (1976) ÂÛÙÈ¿˙ÂÈ Î·Ù¿ ¤Ó· ÌÂÁ¿ÏÔ Ì¤ÚÔ˜ ÛÙËÓ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈ΋ ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ›· Î·È ‰Â Ï·Ì‚¿ÓÂÈ ˘fi„Ë ÙË ÛËÌ·Û›· ÙˆÓ «È‰ÂÔÏÔÁÈÎÒÓ Î·È ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈÎÒÓ ‰È·ÌÂÛÔÏ·‚‹Ûˆӻ ÛÙËÓ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋ ·Ó··Ú·ÁˆÁ‹ Î·È ÛÙËÓ ÂÍ·ÛÊ¿ÏÈÛË ÙˆÓ Û¯¤ÛÂˆÓ Ù˘ ΢ÚÈ·Ú¯›·˜ Î·È Ù˘ ˘ÔÙ·Á‹˜. √ Apple ÚÔÙ›ÓÂÈ fiÙÈ ÚÔÎÂÈ̤ÓÔ˘ Ó· Á›ÓÂÈ Î·Ù·ÓÔËÙfi ÙÔ Ò˜ Û˘ÓÙÂÏÂ›Ù·È Ë ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋ ·Ó··Ú·ÁˆÁ‹ ̤۷ ÛÙ· Û¯ÔÏ›· Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ÌÂÏÂÙ‹ÛÔ˘Ì ÙȘ ȉÂÔÏÔÁÈΤ˜ Î·È ÔÏÈÙÈÛÙÈΤ˜ Ú·ÎÙÈΤ˜ Ô˘ Û˘Ì‚·›ÓÔ˘Ó Ì¤Û· ÛÙȘ Û¯ÔÏÈΤ˜ Ù¿ÍÂȘ. ªÂ ¿ÏÏ· ÏfiÁÈ·, ı· Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ÂÛÙÈ¿ÛÔ˘Ì ÛÙÔ Ò˜ Ë ‰Ô˘ÏÂÈ¿ ÙÔ˘ ‰·ÛοÏÔ˘ Û˘ÓÂÈÛʤÚÂÈ ÛÙËÓ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋ ·Ó··Ú·ÁˆÁ‹. √È ÎÚÈÙÈÎÔ› ·È‰·ÁˆÁÔ› Û fiÏÔ ÙÔÓ ÎfiÛÌÔ ¤¯Ô˘Ó ·ÚıÚÒÛÂÈ ÚÔ‚ÏËÌ·ÙÈΤ˜ Û ۯ¤ÛË Ì ÙÔ Ê‡ÏÔ, ÙÔ Á¤ÓÔ˜ Î·È ÙËÓ ÔÏ˘ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈÎfiÙËÙ· Ì ‚¿ÛË ÙȘ Ì·ÚÍÈÛÙÈΤ˜ ¤ÓÓÔȘ Ù˘ Ù¿Í˘ Î·È Ù˘ ËÁÂÌÔÓ›·˜, ÂÂÎÙ›ÓÔÓÙ·˜ Î·È ÂÌÏÔ˘Ù›˙ÔÓÙ·˜ ¤ÙÛÈ ÙÔÓ ÎÏ·ÛÈÎfi Ì·ÚÍÈÛÙÈÎfi ÚÔ‚ÏËÌ·ÙÈÛÌfi. √È ÎÏ·ÛÈΤ˜ Ì·ÚÍÈÛÙÈΤ˜ ıˆڛ˜ ÁÈ· ÙÔ ÎÂÊ¿Ï·ÈÔ Î·È ÙËÓ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË, Ô˘ ¿Ú¯ÈÛ·Ó Ó· ΢ÎÏÔÊÔÚÔ‡Ó ÙË ‰ÂηÂÙ›· ÙÔ˘ ’70, ¤¯Ô˘Ó ·ÓÙÈηٷÛÙ·ı› ηٿ ¤Ó· ÌÂÁ¿ÏÔ Ì¤ÚÔ˜ ·fi ÌÂÙ·ÛÙÚÔ˘ÎÙÔ˘Ú·ÏÈÛÙÈΤ˜ ÂΉԯ¤˜ ÙÔ˘ Ì·ÚÍÈÛÌÔ‡ Ô˘ Û˘ÓÂÍÂÙ¿˙Ô˘Ó Ê‡ÏÔ, Ê˘Ï‹, Ù¿ÍË Î·È ¿ÏϘ Ï¢ڤ˜ ÙÔ˘ ˘ÔÎÂÈ̤ÓÔ˘. √È ÓÂÔÌ·ÚÍÈÛÙÈΤ˜ ıˆڛ˜ ÂȉÈÒÎÔ˘Ó Ó· ·ÔʇÁÔ˘Ó ÌÈ· ÛÙÂÓ‹ ÂÛÙ›·ÛË ÛÙËÓ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋ Ù¿ÍË Î·È ÙËÓ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌ›· Ì ÙÔ Ó· ÙÔÓ›˙Ô˘Ó ÙË ÛËÌ·Û›· Ù˘ ·Ó¿Ù˘Í˘ ıˆÚÈÒÓ ‰È·ÌÂÛÔÏ¿‚ËÛ˘ Î·È ·ÓÙ›ÛÙ·Û˘ Î·È Ù˘ ÂÓۈ̿وÛ˘ ÙˆÓ


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ºÈÏÔÛÔÊ›· Ù˘ ÎÚÈÙÈ΋˜ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘ ÛÙȘ Ê˘ÛÈΤ˜ ÂÈÛً̘

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‰È·ÛÙ¿ÛÂˆÓ Ê‡ÏÔ˘, Ê˘Ï‹˜ Î·È ÛÂÍÔ˘·ÏÈÎfiÙËÙ·˜ Û ÌÈ· ‰ÈÂ˘Ú˘Ì¤ÓË ¤ÓÓÔÈ· ÔÏ˘ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈ΋˜ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘ Î·È ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋˜ ‰ÈηÈÔÛ‡Ó˘. ∆ËÓ ÙÂÏÂ˘Ù·›· ‰ÂηÂÙ›·, Ô Peter McLaren ÎÈÓ‹ıËΠ·fi ÙËÓ ∫ÚÈÙÈ΋ ¶·È‰·ÁˆÁÈ΋ Û ·˘Ùfi Ô˘ ÔÓÔÌ¿˙ÂÈ ∂·Ó·ÛÙ·ÙÈ΋ ¶·È‰·ÁˆÁÈ΋ (McLaren 2000). ∆Ô ¤Ú·ÛÌ· ·fi ÙËÓ ∫ÚÈÙÈ΋ ¶·È‰·ÁˆÁÈ΋ ÛÙËÓ ∂·Ó·ÛÙ·ÙÈ΋ ¶·È‰·ÁˆÁÈ΋ ‰ÂÓ Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ÂÚÌËÓ¢ı› ·ÏÒ˜ ˆ˜ ·ÏÏ·Á‹ ÙÔ˘ ÔÓfiÌ·ÙÔ˜ ÌÈ·˜ ıˆڛ·˜. ∂›Ó·È ÌÈ· ·ÏÏ·Á‹ Ô˘Û›·˜, Ë ·¿ÓÙËÛË ÛÙË Û˘Ó¯‹ ηÈ, ÙȘ ÂÚÈÛÛfiÙÂÚ˜ ÊÔÚ¤˜, ÂÈÙ˘¯‹ ‰È·‰Èηۛ· ¯ÂÈÚ·ÁÒÁËÛ˘ Ù˘ ∫ÚÈÙÈ΋˜ ¶·È‰·ÁˆÁÈ΋˜. √ McLaren ˘ÔÛÙËÚ›˙ÂÈ fiÙÈ ÙÔ Û‡ÛÙËÌ· ¤¯ÂÈ ·Ó·Ù‡ÍÂÈ ¤Ó·Ó ÙÚfiÔ Ó· ÂÓۈ̷ÙÒÓÂÈ fi,ÙÈ ‰ÂÓ ÌÔÚ› Ó· ÔÏÂÌ‹ÛÂÈ Î·È Ó· ÙÔ ÌÂÙ·Û¯ËÌ·Ù›˙ÂÈ ÛÙËÓ ÈÔ ·‰‡Ó·ÙË ÂΉԯ‹ ÙÔ˘. ªÂ ‚¿ÛË ·˘Ùfi, Ô McLaren ÈÛ¯˘Ú›˙ÂÙ·È fiÙÈ Ë ∫ÚÈÙÈ΋ ¶·È‰·ÁˆÁÈ΋ ¤¯ÂÈ Á›ÓÂÈ ÌÈ· ηÚÈηÙÔ‡Ú· Ù˘ ·Ú¯È΋˜ ��‰¤·˜ Î·È Ù˘ ÚÔÛ¿ıÂÈ·˜ ÁÈ· ÌÈ· ‰ÈηÈfiÙÂÚË ÎÔÈÓˆÓ›·. ∏ ›‰È· ‰È·‰Èηۛ· ·Ô‰˘Ó¿ÌˆÛ˘ ¤¯ÂÈ Û˘Ì‚Â› Î·È Ì ÙȘ ȉ¤Â˜ ÙÔ˘ Paulo Freire, Ô˘ ¤¯Ô˘Ó ¿ÚÂÈ ËÈfiÙÂÚË ÌÔÚÊ‹ Î·È ¤¯Ô˘Ó ÂÚÈÔÚÈÛı› ÛÙȘ Ì·ıËÙÔÎÂÓÙÚÈΤ˜ ÚÔÛÂÁÁ›ÛÂȘ Ì¿ıËÛ˘ ·ÔʇÁÔÓÙ·˜ ÙËÓ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋ ÎÚÈÙÈ΋. √ McLaren, ·ÛÎÒÓÙ·˜ ÌÈ· ¤ÓÙÔÓË ÎÚÈÙÈ΋ ÛÙË ÌÂÙ·ÌÔÓÙ¤ÚÓ· ÛÙÚÔÊ‹ (2000), ˘ÔÛÙËÚ›˙ÂÈ fiÙÈ ÔÈ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎÔ› ÔÊ›ÏÔ˘Ó Ó· ˘ÔÛÙËÚ›ÍÔ˘Ó ÙȘ Û˘ÏÏÔÁÈΤ˜ ÚÔÛ¿ıÂȘ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋ ·ÏÏ·Á‹. ÀÈÔıÂÙÒÓÙ·˜ ¤Ó· Ì·ÚÍÈÛÙÈÎfi Ï·›ÛÈÔ, Ë ∂·Ó·ÛÙ·ÙÈ΋ ¶·È‰·ÁˆÁÈ΋ ÊÈÏÔ‰ÔÍ› Ó· ‚ÔËı‹ÛÂÈ ÙÔ˘˜ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎÔ‡˜ Ó· ηٷÓÔ‹ÛÔ˘Ó ‹ Î·È Ó· ˘ÂÚÓÈ΋ÛÔ˘Ó ÙȘ ÌÔÚʤ˜ ηٷ›ÂÛ˘ Ô˘ Û¯ÂÙ›˙ÔÓÙ·È Ì ÙË ‰È·‰Èηۛ· ‰È‰·Ûηϛ·˜ Î·È Ì¿ıËÛ˘ (McLaren et al. 2005). ™¯ÂÙÈο ÚfiÛÊ·Ù·, Ô Peter McLaren (Calabrese-Barton 2001) ‰È·Ù‡ˆÛ ÙȘ ·fi„ÂȘ ÙÔ˘ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË ÙˆÓ ÊÙˆ¯ÒÓ ·È‰ÈÒÓ ÙˆÓ ÂÚÁ·ÙÈÎÒÓ Û˘ÓÔÈÎÈÒÓ ÛÙȘ º˘ÛÈΤ˜ ∂ÈÛً̘, ÚÔÙ›ÓÔÓÙ·˜ ηÙ¢ı‡ÓÛÂȘ ÛÙË ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û‹ ÙÔ˘˜ Ô˘ ‚·Û›˙ÔÓÙ·È ÛÙËÓ ÚÔÛ¿ıÂÈ· ÁÈ· ÂÈ‚›ˆÛË Î·È ·ÌÊÈÛ‚‹ÙËÛË.

∏ ∫ƒπ∆π∫∏ ∂∫¶∞π¢∂À™∏ ™∆π™ ºÀ™π∫∂™ ∂¶π™∆∏ª∂™ √ Dewey, ÛÙÔ ‚È‚Ï›Ô ÙÔ˘ ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË Î·È ¢ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·, ˘ÂÚ·Û›˙ÂÙ·È ÙËÓ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ̤ıÔ‰Ô ˆ˜ ·Ï¿Óı·ÛÙÔ ˘ÔÛÙËÚÈÎÙ‹ Ù˘ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·ÙÈ΋˜ ÛΤ„˘. ∞˘Ù‹ Ë ÚÔÔÙÈ΋ ‰ÂÓ ÙÔ˘ ÂÈÙÚ¤ÂÈ Ó· ‰È·ÎÚ›ÓÂÈ ÙÔÓ ‰ÈÏfi ÚfiÏÔ ÙˆÓ º˘ÛÈÎÒÓ ∂ÈÛÙËÌÒÓ: √È º˘ÛÈΤ˜ ∂ÈÛً̘ ˆ˜ ·ÓÙÈΛÌÂÓÔ ‰È‰·Ûηϛ·˜ ÌÔÚÔ‡Ó Ó· Â͢ËÚÂÙ‹ÛÔ˘Ó Ôχ ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈΤ˜ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈΤ˜ ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ›Â˜, Î·È ˆ˜ ÂÎ ÙÔ‡ÙÔ˘ ı· Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ‰È·Ù˘ˆıÔ‡Ó ÛÔ‚·Ú¿ ÂÚˆÙ‹Ì·Ù· Û¯ÂÙÈο Ì ÙËÓ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋


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∫ˆÓÛÙ·ÓÙ›ÓÔ˜ ¢. ™ÎÔÚ‰Ô‡Ï˘

ÔÚÁ¿ÓˆÛË Ù˘ ∂Î·›‰Â˘Û˘ Û ·˘Ù¤˜: ¢ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁ› Ë ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË ÛÙȘ º˘ÛÈΤ˜ ∂ÈÛً̘ ÎÚÈÙÈο ÛÎÂÙfiÌÂÓÔ˘˜ Ôϛ٘ ‹ ¯ÚËÛÈ̇ÂÈ ˆ˜ ¤Ó· «Ù˘ÊÏfi» ÂÚÁ·ÏÂ›Ô ·ÚÔ¯‹˜ ÈηÓÔÙ‹ÙˆÓ Î·È ‰ÂÍÈÔÙ‹ÙˆÓ Û ÌÈ· ÌÔÚÊ‹ Ô˘ «ÚÔÛ·ÚÌfi˙ÂÙ·È» ÛÙȘ ÂοÛÙÔÙ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈΤ˜ ··ÈÙ‹ÛÂȘ Î·È ÛÙËÓ Ù¯ÓÔÏÔÁÈ΋ ·Ó¿Ù˘ÍË; ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË ÛÙȘ º˘ÛÈΤ˜ ∂ÈÛً̘ Ì ÛÙfi¯Ô ÙË ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›· ı· ÌÔÚÔ‡Û ӷ ÛËÌ·›ÓÂÈ fiÙÈ Ô Ì·ıËÙ‹˜ ·ÔÎÙ¿ ÙȘ ··Ú·›ÙËÙ˜ ÈηÓfiÙËÙ˜ ÒÛÙ ӷ ηٷÛÙ› ÎÚÈÙÈÎfi˜ ·Ó·ÁÓÒÛÙ˘ ıÂÌ¿ÙˆÓ Ô˘ ·ÊÔÚÔ‡Ó ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈο ˙ËÙ‹Ì·Ù·: ÙËÓ ·ÓÂÚÁ›·, ÙËÓ ÂÚÈ‚·ÏÏÔÓÙÈ΋ Ú‡·ÓÛË, ÙȘ ·Ó·ÓÂÒÛÈ̘ ËÁ¤˜ ÂÓ¤ÚÁÂÈ·˜, ÙȘ Û˘Óı‹Î˜ ‰È·‚›ˆÛ˘ ÙˆÓ ÌÂÈÔÓÔÙÈÎÒÓ ÔÌ¿‰ˆÓ ÎÏ. ™Â ÌÈ· ÂÔ¯‹ Ô˘ ÔÏϤ˜ ·ÔÊ¿ÛÂȘ ÙÂÎÌËÚÈÒÓÔÓÙ·È Ì ‚¿ÛË ÙËÓ ∂ÈÛÙ‹ÌË, ÙÔ ·Ó Ë ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË ÛÙȘ º˘ÛÈΤ˜ ∂ÈÛً̘ ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁ› ÎÚÈÙÈο ÛÎÂÙfiÌÂÓÔ˘˜ Ôϛ٘ ‰ÂÓ ÌÔÚ› ·Ú¿ Ó· ıˆÚËı› «˙‹ÙËÌ· ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜». ŒÓ·˜ ‚·ÛÈÎfi˜ ÛÙfi¯Ô˜ ÌÈ·˜ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·ÙÈ΋˜ ∂Î·›‰Â˘Û˘ ÛÙȘ º˘ÛÈΤ˜ ∂ÈÛً̘ Â›Ó·È Ë Û˘ÓÂȉËÙÔÔ›ËÛË Ù˘ «Û˘Ì‚ÔÏÈ΋˜ ‚›·˜» Ô˘ ·ÛÎÂ›Ù·È Ì¤Ûˆ Ù˘ ÁÏÒÛÛ·˜ ÙˆÓ º˘ÛÈÎÒÓ ∂ÈÛÙËÌÒÓ ˘fi ÙË ÌÔÚÊ‹ «·˘ı·›ÚÂÙ˘» ÂÈ‚ÔÏ‹˜ «ÛËÌ·ÛÈÒÓ», ‰ËÏ·‰‹ ·ÓÙÈÏ‹„ˆÓ, ÂÚÌËÓÂÈÒÓ, ·Ú¯ÒÓ Î·È ·ÍÈÔÏÔÁ‹ÛˆÓ. ¶ÔÏϤ˜ ÔÏÈÙÈΤ˜ Î·È ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈΤ˜ ·ÔÊ¿ÛÂȘ Ï·Ì‚¿ÓÔÓÙ·È Ì Â›ÎÏËÛË ÛÙËÓ ∂ÈÛÙ‹ÌË. ∂Ô̤ӈ˜ ÌÈ· ÛÙÂÓ‹ ·ÓÙ›ÏË„Ë Ù˘ ∂ÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ ˆ˜ ÂÚÈÁÚ·ÊÈÎÔ‡ ÂÚÁ·Ï›Ԣ ·ÔÎÚ‡ÙÂÈ ÙËÓ ¿ÏÏË ‰È¿ÛÙ·Û‹ Ù˘ ˆ˜ ÌÔÚÊÔÔÈËÙÈÎÔ‡ ÂÚÁ·Ï›Ԣ. ∆· ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈο, ÔÏÈÙÈο Î·È ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈο Û˘ÌʤÚÔÓÙ· ÌÔÚÔ‡Ó Ó· ÓÔÌÈÌÔÔÈËıÔ‡Ó Ì ÙË ‚Ô‹ıÂÈ· Ù˘ ÈÛ¯˘Ú‹˜ ÁÏÒÛÛ·˜ Ù˘ ∂ÈÛÙ‹Ì˘. ∏ ·fiÎÚ˘„Ë Ù˘ ÌÔÚÊÔÔÈËÙÈ΋˜ ‰È¿ÛÙ·Û˘ Ù˘ ∂ÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ ÌÔÚ› Ó· Ô‰ËÁ‹ÛÂÈ Û ÌÈ· «∞ÔÏ˘Ù·Ú¯›· Ù˘ (Û¯ÔÏÈ΋˜) Ù¿Í˘» (Classroom absolutism), ‰ËÏ·‰‹ Û ÌÈ· ‰fiÌËÛË Ù˘ ÂÈÎÔÈÓˆÓ›·˜ ÌÂٷ͇ ÙˆÓ Ì·ıËÙÒÓ Î·È ÙÔ˘ ‰·ÛοÏÔ˘ Ì ‚¿ÛË ÙËÓ ˘fiıÂÛË fiÙÈ Ë Û¯ÔÏÈ΋ ∂ÈÛÙ‹ÌË ·ÊÔÚ¿ ÌfiÓÔ ·Û΋ÛÂȘ Î·È ÚÔ‚Ï‹Ì·Ù· Ô˘ ¤¯Ô˘Ó Ì›· Î·È ÌfiÓÔ Ì›· ÛˆÛÙ‹ ·¿ÓÙËÛË Î·È fiÙÈ, ÙÂÏÈο, Ô ‰¿ÛηÏÔ˜ Â›Ó·È ÂΛÓÔ˜ Ô˘ ı· ·ÍÈÔÏÔÁ‹ÛÂÈ ÙÔ Â›Â‰Ô Ù˘ Ù¿Í˘. ∏ «·ÔÏ˘Ù·Ú¯›· Ù˘ Ù¿Í˘» ÚÔˆı› ÌÈ·˜ ÌÔÚÊ‹ ÂÈÎÔÈÓˆÓ›·˜ Ô˘ ÂÌÔ‰›˙ÂÈ ÙËÓ ·Ó¿Ù˘ÍË ÌÈ·˜ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·ÙÈ΋˜ ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú·˜. ∏ ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË ÛÙȘ º˘ÛÈΤ˜ ∂ÈÛً̘ Ì ÛÙfi¯Ô ÙË ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›· ‰ÂÓ ÌÔÚ› Ó· ‚·ÛÈÛÙ› Û ÛÙÂÚÂfiÙ˘· ‰È‰·Ûηϛ·˜ Î·È Ì¿ıËÛ˘ Ô˘ ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚ›˙ÔÓÙ·È ·fi ÙÔ ÚfiÙ˘Ô Ù˘ ·˘ıÂÓÙ›·˜. ∂›Ó·È ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈÎfi Ó· ˘¿ÚÍÂÈ ÌÈ· ·ÏÏËÏÂ›‰Ú·ÛË ÛÙËÓ Ù¿ÍË Ô˘ ˘ÔÛÙËÚ›˙ÂÈ ÙÔ ‰È¿ÏÔÁÔ Î·È ÙË ‰È·Ú·ÁÌ¿Ù¢ÛË. ∏ ·ÔÏ˘Ù·Ú¯›· Ù˘ Û¯ÔÏÈ΋˜ Ù¿Í˘ Â›Ó·È ÌÈ· «ÚÔÛ·ÚÌÔÛÙÈ΋» ÂÓ¤ÚÁÂÈ· Ì ÙËÓ ¤ÓÓÔÈ· fiÙÈ ‰ÂÓ ÚÔηÏ› η̛· Ù˘¯‹ Ù˘ ΢ڛ·Ú¯Ë˜ ÂÍÔ˘Û›·˜ ‹ ηӤӷ


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17-06-09

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ºÈÏÔÛÔÊ›· Ù˘ ÎÚÈÙÈ΋˜ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘ ÛÙȘ Ê˘ÛÈΤ˜ ÂÈÛً̘

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Û˘Û¯ÂÙÈÛÌfi ‰˘Ó¿ÌˆÓ. ªÈ· Ù¤ÙÔÈ· ‰fiÌËÛË ÙÔ˘ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎÔ‡ Û˘ÛÙ‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ ‰È·ÛÊ·Ï›˙ÂÈ fiÙÈ ÔÈ ÈηÓfiÙËÙ˜ ηٷӤÌÔÓÙ·È Ì ٤ÙÔÈÔ ÙÚfiÔ, ÒÛÙ ӷ Û˘ÓÙËÚÂ›Ù·È Ë ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋ Î·È ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈ΋ ‰ÔÌ‹ ÙÔ˘ Û˘ÛÙ‹Ì·ÙÔ˜. ∆· ÙÂÏÂ˘Ù·›· ¯ÚfiÓÈ· ¤¯Ô˘Ó ‰ÂÈ ÙÔ Êˆ˜ Ù˘ ‰ËÌÔÛÈfiÙËÙ·˜ ·fi„ÂȘ Ô˘ ı›ÁÔ˘Ó ˙ËÙ‹Ì·Ù· ÎÚÈÙÈ΋˜ ÚÔÛ¤ÁÁÈÛ˘ ÛÙËÓ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË ÙˆÓ º˘ÛÈÎÒÓ ∂ÈÛÙËÌÒÓ. ∏ Slay (2001) ˘ÔÛÙËÚ›˙ÂÈ fiÙÈ Ù· ˙ËÙ‹Ì·Ù· ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú·˜ Î·È ÎÔÛÌÔ·ÓÙ›Ï˄˘ ÂËÚ¿˙Ô˘Ó ÙË Ì¿ıËÛË ÛÙȘ º˘ÛÈΤ˜ ∂ÈÛً̘ Î·È ··Û¯ÔÏÔ‡Ó ¤ÓÙÔÓ· ÙÔ˘˜ ‰·ÛοÏÔ˘˜ ÙˆÓ º˘ÛÈÎÒÓ ∂ÈÛÙËÌÒÓ. √ Hodson (1999) ÂÚÈÁÚ¿ÊÂÈ ÙËÓ ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË ÛÙȘ º˘ÛÈΤ˜ ∂ÈÛً̘ ˆ˜ ÌÈ· ‰È·‰Èηۛ· ÂÈÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÔ‡, fiÔ˘ ÎÂÓÙÚÈÎfi ÚfiÏÔ ·›˙ÂÈ Ë Â˘·ÈÛıËÙÔÔ›ËÛË ÙˆÓ Ì·ıËÙÒÓ Û ˙ËÙ‹Ì·Ù· ‰È·ÎÚ›ÛÂˆÓ Î·È ‰ÈÎ·ÈˆÌ¿ÙˆÓ ÛÙË Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓË ÎÔÈÓˆÓ›·. ∞ÚÁfiÙÂÚ·, Ô ›‰ÈÔ˜ Û˘ÁÁڷʤ·˜ (Hodson 2003) ı· Â·Ó¤ÏıÂÈ ˘ÔÛÙËÚ›˙ÔÓÙ·˜ fiÙÈ ÁÈ· Ó· χÛÔ˘Ì ٷ Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓ· ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈο Î·È ÂÚÈ‚·ÏÏÔÓÙÈο ÚÔ‚Ï‹Ì·Ù· ¯ÚÂÈ¿˙ÂÙ·È ÌÈ· Ó¤· ÁÂÓÈ¿ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈο Î·È ÔÏÈÙÈο ÂÁÁÚ¿ÌÌ·ÙˆÓ ÔÏÈÙÒÓ Ô˘ ı· Û˘ÌÌÂÙ¤¯Ô˘Ó ÂÓÂÚÁ¿ ÛÙȘ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈΤ˜ ‰ÈÂÚÁ·Û›Â˜. √ Û˘ÓÂÎÙÈÎfi˜ ÈÛÙfi˜ ÙˆÓ ÚÔ·Ó·ÊÂÚıÂÈÛÒÓ ·fi„ÂˆÓ Â›Ó·È fiÙÈ Ë ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ Ú·ÎÙÈ΋ Û˘ÁÎÚÔÙÂ›Ù·È fi¯È ÌfiÓÔ ÈÛÙÔÚÈο ·ÏÏ¿ Î·È ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈο Î·È ËıÈο ÂÓÒ Ë ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË ÛÙȘ º˘ÛÈΤ˜ ∂ÈÛً̘ ‰ÂÓ ÌÔÚ› ·Ú¿ Ó· Ï·Ì‚¿ÓÂÈ ˘fi„Ë Ù˘ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈΤ˜, ÔÏÈÙÈΤ˜, ËıÈΤ˜ ÛÙ¿ÛÂȘ Î·È ·Í›Â˜. ªÂ ‚¿ÛË ÙȘ ıˆÚËÙÈΤ˜ ‰ÈÂÚÁ·Û›Â˜ Ô˘ ·Ó·Ù‡¯ıËÎ·Ó ÛÙ· ÚÔËÁÔ‡ÌÂÓ·, ÌÈ· ∫ÚÈÙÈ΋ ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË ÛÙȘ º˘ÛÈΤ˜ ∂ÈÛً̘ Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· Û˘ÁÎÚÔÙËı› Á‡Úˆ ·fi ÙÔ˘˜ ÂÍ‹˜ ¿ÍÔÓ˜: ñ ÙËÓ ÎÚÈÙÈ΋ ηٷÓfiËÛË Ù˘ ¯Ú‹Û˘ ÙˆÓ º˘ÛÈÎÒÓ ∂ÈÛÙËÌÒÓ ÛÙÔ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎfi, ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈÎfi Î·È ÔÏÈÙÈÎfi Û‡ÛÙËÌ·, ·fi ÙÔ Â›Â‰Ô ÙˆÓ Î·ıËÌÂÚÈÓÒÓ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈÎÒÓ ·ÓÙ·ÏÏ·ÁÒÓ Ì¤¯ÚÈ ÙËÓ ÎÚÈÙÈ΋ ÂÚÌËÓ›· ıÂÌ¿ÙˆÓ Ô˘ ÚÔ‚¿ÏÏÔÓÙ·È ·fi Ù· ̤۷ ÂÓË̤ڈÛ˘ ñ ÙËÓ ·ÓÙ›ÏË„Ë ÙˆÓ º˘ÛÈÎÒÓ ∂ÈÛÙËÌÒÓ ˆ˜ ÎÂÓÙÚÈÎÔ‡ ÛÙÔÈ¯Â›Ô˘ Ù˘ ·ÓıÚÒÈÓ˘ ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú·˜ ̤۷ ·fi ÙË ÌÂϤÙË Î·È ·Ó¿Ï˘ÛË Ù˘ ÈÛÙÔÚÈ΋˜ ÂͤÏÈÍ‹˜ ÙÔ˘ Î·È Ù˘ Â›‰Ú·Û˘ ÙÔ˘ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎÔ‡ Ï·ÈÛ›Ô˘ Û ·˘Ù‹ ÙËÓ ÂͤÏÈÍË ñ ÙÔ ¯·Ú·ÎÙ‹Ú· Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋˜ Ú·ÎÙÈ΋˜. ¶Ò˜ ‰ËÏ·‰‹ Ë ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌË ÂÍ·ÚÙ¿Ù·È ·fi ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎÔ‡˜ Î·È ÔÏÈÙÈÎÔ‡˜ ·Ú¿ÁÔÓÙ˜ Â͈ÙÂÚÈÎÔ‡˜ ÚÔ˜ ·˘Ù‹ Î·È Ò˜ ·ÓÙÈÙ›ıÂÙ·È ‹ ÚÔÛ·ÚÌfi˙ÂÙ·È Û’ ·˘Ù‹ ÙËÓ ÂÍ¿ÚÙËÛË ñ ÙȘ Ú·ÎÙÈΤ˜ Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋˜ ÎÔÈÓfiÙËÙ·˜ Î·È Ò˜ ÂËÚ¿˙Ô˘Ó ÙÔ Â›‰Ô˜ ÙˆÓ ÂÚ¢ÓËÙÈÎÒÓ ÂÚˆÙ‹ÛÂˆÓ Ô˘ Ù›ıÂÓÙ·È ÛÂ Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤Ó˜ ÈÛÙÔÚÈΤ˜ ÂÚÈfi‰Ô˘˜


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17-06-09

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∫ˆÓÛÙ·ÓÙ›ÓÔ˜ ¢. ™ÎÔÚ‰Ô‡Ï˘

ñ ÙȘ Ú·ÎÙÈΤ˜, ÂÔÈı‹ÛÂȘ Î·È ·Í›Â˜ Ô˘ Û˘ÓÈÛÙÔ‡Ó ÙÔ ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈÎfi Ï·›ÛÈÔ Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ Î·È ÙÔ Ò˜ ·˘Ùfi ÙÔ ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈÎfi Ï·›ÛÈÔ ÌÂÙ·‚¿ÏÏÂÙ·È ÈÛÙÔÚÈο ñ ηٿ fiÛÔ Ë ÂÍÂȉÈÎÂ˘Ì¤ÓË ÁÏÒÛÛ· Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ Î·È ÔÈ ÌÔÚʤ˜ Ù˘ ÁÚ·Ê‹˜ Î·È ÙÔ˘ Ï·ÈÛ›Ô˘ ‰È·ÏfiÁÔ˘ Ù˘ Â›Ó·È ·ÚÂÌÊÂÚ›˜ ‹ ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈΤ˜ Ì ·˘Ù¤˜ ¿ÏÏˆÓ ÎÔÈÓÔÙ‹ÙˆÓ Î·È ÙȘ ÁÂÓÈÎfiÙÂÚ˜ ÂÈÙÒÛÂȘ Ô˘ ÌÔÚ› Ó· ¤¯ÂÈ ÛÙËÓ ÓÔÌÈÌÔÔ›ËÛË ÙÔ˘ ΢ڛ·Ú¯Ô˘ ÏfiÁÔ˘ ñ Ë ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌË, Û˘ÌÂÚÈÏ·Ì‚·ÓÔÌ¤ÓˆÓ ÙˆÓ ÂÔÈı‹ÛÂˆÓ ÁÈ· ÙȘ ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘˜ Ù˘ ·ÏÏ¿ Î·È ÙˆÓ ÂÔÈı‹ÛÂˆÓ ÁÈ· Ù· ·ÓÙÈΛÌÂÓ· ÌÂϤÙ˘ Ù˘, ¤¯ÂÈ ‰È·ÌÔÚʈı› ÈÛÙÔÚÈο ·fi ÙËÓ ˘ÂÚÂÎÚÔÛÒËÛË ÛÙȘ Ù¿ÍÂȘ Ù˘ Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈÌ¤ÓˆÓ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎÒÓ Î·ÙËÁÔÚÈÒÓ. ∂ͤٷÛË ÂÎÂ›ÓˆÓ ÙˆÓ ÛÙÔȯ›ˆÓ Ù˘ Ô˘ ÙËÓ Î·ıÈÛÙÔ‡Ó ÂÚÈÛÛfiÙÂÚÔ ‹ ÏÈÁfiÙÂÚÔ Û˘Ì‚·Ù‹ Ì ¤Ó· ‰È·ÚÎÒ˜ ‰È¢ڢÓfiÌÂÓÔ ·ÁÎfiÛÌÈÔ Ê¿ÛÌ· ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈÎÒÓ Ù·˘ÙÔÙ‹ÙˆÓ ∏ ÂÈÛ·ÁˆÁ‹ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈο ÎÚÈÙÈÎÒÓ ‰È·ÛÙ¿ÛÂˆÓ ÛÙÔ ·Ó·Ï˘ÙÈÎfi ÚfiÁÚ·ÌÌ· ÙˆÓ º˘ÛÈÎÒÓ ∂ÈÛÙËÌÒÓ ·Ó·‰ÂÈÎÓ‡ÂÈ ˙ËÙ‹Ì·Ù· Ù· ÔÔ›· ÛÙÔ¯Â‡Ô˘Ó ·¢ı›·˜ ÛÙË ‰È‰·Ûηϛ· ˆ˜ ËıÈÎfi Î·È ÔÏÈÙÈÎfi ÂÁ¯Â›ÚËÌ·. √È ‰¿ÛηÏÔÈ, ˆ˜ «‰È·ÓÔÔ‡ÌÂÓÔÈ ÙÔ˘ ÌÂÙ·Û¯ËÌ·ÙÈÛÌÔ‡» Û‡Ìʈӷ Ì ÙËÓ ∫ÚÈÙÈ΋ ¶·È‰·ÁˆÁÈ΋ (Giroux 1988), ı· Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· Û˘ÌÌÂÙ¿Û¯Ô˘Ó ÛÙȘ ·ÏÏ·Á¤˜ ·ÎÚÈ‚Ò˜ ÁÈ·Ù› ·˘ÙÔ› Â›Ó·È ÂΛÓÔÈ Ô˘ «Ê¤ÚÔ˘Ó» Î·È ÓÔÌÈÌÔÔÈÔ‡Ó Î˘Ú›·Ú¯Â˜ ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈΤ˜ ·Í›Â˜. ∏ ∫ÚÈÙÈ΋ ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË ÛÙȘ º˘ÛÈΤ˜ ∂ÈÛً̘ ˘ÔÛÙËÚ›˙Ô˘Ì fiÙÈ ı· Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ÍÂÎÈÓ‹ÛÂÈ ·fi ÙËÓ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË ÙˆÓ ‰·ÛοψÓ. ∫·Ù¿ ÙËÓ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û‹ ÙÔ˘˜ ÔÈ ‰¿ÛηÏÔÈ ı· Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ÂÓı·ÚÚ‡ÓÔÓÙ·È ÚÔÎÂÈ̤ÓÔ˘ Ó· ÂÍÂÙ¿ÛÔ˘Ó ÎÚÈÙÈο ÙȘ ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈΤ˜ ÙÔ˘˜ Ú·ÎÙÈΤ˜, Ó· ·Ó·Ù‡ÍÔ˘Ó ÈηÓfiÙËÙ˜ ÒÛÙ ӷ ÔÚ·Ì·ÙÈÛÙÔ‡Ó Î·È Ó· ÂÊ·ÚÌfiÛÔ˘Ó ÂÓ·ÏÏ·ÎÙÈÎÔ‡˜ ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈÎÔ‡˜ ÚÔÛ·Ó·ÙÔÏÈÛÌÔ‡˜. √È ‰¿ÛηÏÔÈ ı· Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ·Ó·˙ËÙ‹ÛÔ˘Ó ÌÈ· ‚·ı‡ÙÂÚË Î·Ù·ÓfiËÛË ÙÔ˘ Ò˜ Î·È ÁÈ·Ù› ÔÈ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈΤ˜ Î·È Ù¯ÓÔÏÔÁÈΤ˜ ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ˜ ‰ÔÌÔ‡ÓÙ·È fi¯È ÌfiÓÔ ÈÛÙÔÚÈο Î·È ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈο ·ÏÏ¿ Î·È ËıÈο Î·È fiÙÈ Ë ÎÚÈÙÈ΋ Î·È ¯ÂÈÚ·ÊÂÙË̤ÓË ÁÓÒÛË ‰ÂÓ ÌÔÚ› Ó· ‚·Û›˙ÂÙ·È ·ÔÎÏÂÈÛÙÈο ÛÙËÓ Î·Ù·ÓfiËÛË Ù˘ ıˆڛ·˜ ·ÏÏ¿ ı· Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ‰›ÓÂÙ·È ¤ÌÊ·ÛË Î·È Û fiÏ· Ù· ›‰Ë ηٷÓfiËÛ˘ Ô˘ ÂÓı·ÚÚ‡ÓÔ˘Ó ÙÔ˘˜ Ì·ıËÙ¤˜ Ó· ‰Ú¿ÛÔ˘Ó.


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ºÈÏÔÛÔÊ›· Ù˘ ÎÚÈÙÈ΋˜ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘ ÛÙȘ Ê˘ÛÈΤ˜ ÂÈÛً̘

13

µπµ§π√°ƒ∞ºπ∫∂™ ∞¡∞º√ƒ∂™ Freire, P. (1977), ∏ ∞ÁˆÁ‹ ÙÔ˘ ∫·Ù·ÈÂṲ̂ÓÔ˘, ∂Ή. ƒ¿·, ∞ı‹Ó·. §Ô‡Î·Ù˜, °Î. (2006), ∏ ¶Ú·ÁÌÔÔ›ËÛË Î·È Ë ™˘Ó›‰ËÛË ÙÔ˘ ¶ÚÔÏÂÙ·ÚÈ¿ÙÔ˘, ∂ÎÎÚÂ̤˜, ∞ı‹Ó·. Marcuse, H. (1971), √ ªÔÓԉȿÛÙ·ÙÔ˜ ÕÓıÚˆÔ˜, ∂Ή. ¶··˙‹ÛË, ∞ı‹Ó·. Apple, M. (1990), Ideology and Curriculum, Routledge, New York (2nd edition). Bourdieu, P. (1992), Language and Symbolic Power, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. Bowels, S., Gintis, H. (1976), Schooling in Capitalist America, Basic Books, NY. Calabrese-Barton, A. (2001), “Capitalism, Critical Pedagogy and Urban Science Education: An Interview with Peter McLaren”, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 38(8), Û. 847-859. Giroux, H. (1988), Teachers as Intellectuals: Toward a Critical Pedagogy of Learning, Bergin and Garvey Publishers. Giroux, H. (1989), Schooling and the Struggle for Public Life, Routledge Publishing. Harvey, D. (1989), The Condition of Postmodernity, Basil Blackwell. Hodson, D. (1999), “Going Beyond Cultural Pluralism: Science Education for Sociopolitical Action”, Science Education, 83, Û. 775-796. Hodson, D. (2003), “Time for Action: Science Education for an Alternative Future”, Intern. Journal of Science Education, 25(6), Û. 645-670. Jameson, F. (1991), Postmodernism: The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism, Verso, London. Kellner, D. (1989), Critical Theory, Marxism and Modernity, The John Hopkins University Press. Kellner, D., Best, D. (2001), The Postmodern Adventure: Science, Technology and Cultural Studies at the Third Millenium, Guilford Press. McLaren, P. (2000), Che Guevara, Paulo Freire, and the Pedagogy of Revolution, Rowman and Littlefield. McLaren, P., Farahmandpur R. (2005), Teaching Against Global Capitalism and the New Imperialism, Rowman and Littlefield. Slay, J. (2001), “Research Perspectives on Culturally Sensitive Science Education”, Intercaltural Education, 12(2), Û. 173-184.


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The He.P.H.a.E.S.T.U.S. Project Hellenic Philosophy, History and Environmental Science Teaching Under Scrutiny Seventh Framework Programme Regpot-2008-1 The Programme of History, Philosophy and Didactics of Science and Technology (HPDST) is a Programme of the Institute of Neohellenic Research of the National Hellenic Research Foundation in collaboration with the Laboratory of Science Education, Epistemology and Educational Technology (ASEL) of the Department of Education, University of Athens. In order to contribute through science and society activities to the regional sustainable development, the Program HPDST has been supported by the 7th FP (project Hephaestus). The project aims to two way secondments with European research units, recruitments of experienced researchers, a series of conferences, workshops and seminars, and dissemination and promotional activities. Hephaestus site www.hpdst.gr


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™ÂÏ›‰·15

∫ƒπ∆π∫∏ / ∂¶π™∆∏ª∏ & ∂∫¶∞π¢∂À™∏: 9/09, 15-32

∏ √ÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈ΋ ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË1 (Global Education) ˆ˜ ¤Ó· ÂÓ·ÏÏ·ÎÙÈÎfi ÌÔÓÙ¤ÏÔ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ∞ÂÈÊÔÚ›· Î·È ÙËÓ ∫ÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋ /¶ÂÚÈ‚·ÏÏÔÓÙÈ΋ ¢ÈηÈÔÛ‡ÓË ªÈ· ÎÚÈÙÈ΋ ·ÔÙ›ÌËÛË ∞ÚÈÛÙÔÙ¤Ï˘ ™. °ÎÈfiÏÌ·˜, πˆ¿ÓÓ· ∫. ™Ù·‡ÚÔ˘ ∂ıÓÈÎfi Î·È ∫·Ô‰ÈÛÙÚÈ·Îfi ¶·ÓÂÈÛÙ‹ÌÈÔ ∞ıËÓÒÓ ∞¶√ ∆√ ∫π¡∏ª∞ °π∞ ∆∏ ¢π∂£¡∏ ∫∞∆∞¡√∏™∏ ™∆∏¡ √π∫√Àª∂¡π∫∏ ∂∫¶∞π¢∂À™∏ ™‡ÓÙÔÌË ÈÛÙÔÚÈ΋ ·Ó·‰ÚÔÌ‹ – ∏ ‰ÈÂıÓ‹˜ ·Ú¿ÌÂÙÚÔ˜ ∏ √ÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈ΋ ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË ÚԤ΢„ fi¯È ÌfiÓÔ ·fi ÙË Û‡ÓıÂÛË ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈÎÒÓ ÌÂٷ͇ ÙÔ˘˜ ·È‰·ÁˆÁÈÎÒÓ ıˆڋÛÂˆÓ ·ÏÏ¿ ΢ڛˆ˜ ˆ˜ ·fiÚÚÔÈ· Û‡ÓıÂÛ˘ ÚÔËÁÔ‡ÌÂÓˆÓ ÎÈÓËÌ¿ÙˆÓ ÛÙÔ ¯ÒÚÔ Ù˘ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘. ∆Ô ÂӉȷʤÚÔÓ Ù˘ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘ ÁÈ· Ù· ·ÁÎfiÛÌÈ· ı¤Ì·Ù· ˘Ê›ÛÙ·Ù·È ·fi ÙÔ 1920, fiÙ·Ó ÚÔԉ¢ÙÈÎÔ› ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎÔ› È‰Ú‡Ô˘Ó ÙËÓ √Ì¿‰· ¶·ÁÎfiÛÌÈ·˜ ∂Î·›‰Â˘Û˘ (World Education Fellowship) Ì ÙËÓ ¤Î‰ÔÛË ÙÔ˘ ÂÚÈÔ‰ÈÎÔ‡ The New Era Î·È ÛÙ· Ù¤ÏË Ù˘ ‰ÂηÂÙ›·˜ ÙÔ˘ 1930 Ì ÙËÓ ›‰Ú˘ÛË ÙÔ˘ ™˘Ì‚Ô˘Ï›Ô˘ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË ÛÙ· ¶·ÁÎfiÛÌÈ· ¶ÔÏÈÙÈο ¢ÈηÈÒÌ·Ù· (Council for Education in World Citizenship). ™ÙË ‰ÂηÂÙ›· ÙÔ˘ 1960 Ô James Henderson Î·È ÔÈ Û˘ÓÂÚÁ¿Ù˜ ÙÔ˘ ÛÙÔ πÓÛÙÈÙÔ‡ÙÔ ∂Î·›‰Â˘Û˘ ÙÔ˘ ¶·ÓÂÈÛÙËÌ›Ô˘ ÙÔ˘ §ÔÓ‰›ÓÔ˘ ÂÈÛ¿ÁÔ˘Ó ÙÔÓ fiÚÔ «ÛÔ˘‰¤˜ ÁÈ· ÙÔÓ ÎfiÛÌÔ» (world studies) ˆ˜ Û˘ÓÙÔÌÔÁÚ·Ê›· ·Ó·ÁÓÒÚÈÛ˘ Ù˘ ·Ó¿Á΢ ÂÈÛ·ÁˆÁ‹˜ Ù˘ ÔÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈ΋˜ ‰È¿ÛÙ·Û˘ ÛÙ· ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈο ÚÔÁÚ¿ÌÌ·Ù· (Hicks 2003). ∆· ÈÔ ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈο –·ÏÏ¿ Î·È Ù· ·Ï·ÈfiÙÂÚ·– Ï·›ÛÈ· ·Ó·ÊÔÚ¿˜ Ù˘ ÔÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈ΋˜ ‰È¿ÛÙ·Û˘ ÛÙËÓ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË, ÙˆÓ ÔÔ›ˆÓ ÔÈ ·Ú¯¤˜ Û˘ÁÎÚÔÙÔ‡Ó ÙË ‚¿ÛË Ù˘ √ÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈ΋˜ ∂Î·›‰Â˘Û˘, ıˆÚÔ‡ÓÙ·È Ë ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË ÁÈ· ÙË ¢ÈÂıÓ‹ ∫·Ù·ÓfiËÛË (education for international understanding), Ë ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ∞Ó¿-


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∞.™. °ÎÈfiÏÌ·˜, π.∫. ™Ù·‡ÚÔ˘ Î·È ∫.¢. ™ÎÔÚ‰Ô‡Ï˘

Ù˘ÍË (development education)-∞ÁˆÁ‹ ÙÔ˘ ∆Ú›ÙÔ˘ ∫fiÛÌÔ˘ (Third World Pedagogy), Ë ÔÏ˘ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈ΋ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË (multicultural education) Î·È Ë ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ∂ÈÚ‹ÓË (peace education). ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË ÁÈ· ÙË ¢ÈÂıÓ‹ ∫·Ù·ÓfiËÛË (education for international understanding) √È È‰¤Â˜ Ù˘ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘ ÁÈ· ÙË ‰ÈÂıÓ‹ ηٷÓfiËÛË ‰È·Ù˘ÒÓÔÓÙ·È, ÁÈ· ÚÒÙË ÊÔÚ¿, ÛÙÔÓ ÚfiÏÔÁÔ Ù˘ ¢È·Î‹Ú˘Í˘ Ù˘ UNESCO ÙÔ 1945, Ë ÔÔ›· ÂÎÏ·˚·ÂÈ Î·È ÙÔÓ fiÚÔ, ˆ˜ Â·ÎfiÏÔ˘ıÔ ÙˆÓ ÂÈÙÒÛÂˆÓ ÙÔ˘ µã ¶·ÁÎfiÛÌÈÔ˘ ¶ÔϤÌÔ˘. ∏ ȉ¤· Ù˘ ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁ›·˜ ÌÈ·˜ ‰ÈÂıÓÈ΋˜ ‡·Ù˘ ÂÍÔ˘Û›·˜ Î·È Ù·˘Ùfi¯ÚÔÓ· ÔÈ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈΤ˜ ‰È·‰Èηۛ˜ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ÚÔÛ¤ÁÁÈÛË Î·È ÁÓÒÛË ÙˆÓ Ï·ÒÓ ÌÂٷ͇ ÙÔ˘˜ Û˘ÓÈÛÙ¿ ‚·ÛÈÎfi Âȯ›ÚËÌ· Ù˘ UNESCO ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ÂÁηı›‰Ú˘ÛË Ù˘ ÂÈÚ‹Ó˘ ÛÙÔÓ ÎfiÛÌÔ. ™ÙË ÌÂÙ·ÔÏÂÌÈ΋ ·˘Ù‹ ÂÚ›Ô‰Ô ÔÈ ÚÔÙ¿ÛÂȘ Ù˘ UNESCO ‚Ú›ÛÎÔ˘Ó ·ÓÙ·fiÎÚÈÛË ÂÚÈÛÛfiÙÂÚÔ Û ¯ÒÚ˜ fiˆ˜ Ë π·ˆÓ›·, Ë ÔÔ›· ˆ˜ ËÙÙË̤ÓË ¯ÒÚ· ¤¯ÂÈ ‚ÈÒÛÂÈ ÙÔÓ ÙÚfiÌÔ ÙÔ˘ ¡·ÁηۿÎÈ Î·È Ù˘ ÃÈÚÔ̷ۛ, Î·È ÏÈÁfiÙÂÚÔ Û ¯ÒÚ˜ fiˆ˜ ÔÈ ∏ӈ̤Ó˜ ¶ÔÏÈÙ›˜ ∞ÌÂÚÈ΋˜ Î·È Ë ªÂÁ¿ÏË µÚÂÙ·Ó›·, ÔÈ Ôԛ˜ ÂÛÙÈ¿˙Ô˘Ó ÂÚÈÛÛfiÙÂÚÔ ÛÙËÓ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË ÁÈ· Ù· ∞ÓıÚÒÈÓ· ¢ÈηÈÒÌ·Ù· Î·È Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤ӷ Û ı¤Ì·Ù· Ê˘ÏÂÙÈÎÒÓ ‰È·ÎÚ›ÛˆÓ. √ æ˘¯Úfi˜ ¶fiÏÂÌÔ˜ ÛÙË Û˘Ó¤¯ÂÈ· ÂËÚ¿˙ÂÈ ÙÔ ‰È¿ÏÔÁÔ ÛÙÔ ¯ÒÚÔ Ù˘ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘ ·ÎfiÌ· Î·È ÛÙËÓ π·ˆÓ›·, ÙËÓ ÚÒÙË ¯ÒÚ· Ô˘ ·Ô΋ڢÍ ÙÔÓ fiÏÂÌÔ ÛÙÔ ™‡ÓÙ·ÁÌ· ÙÔ˘ 1950. ªÂ ÙËÓ ¤ÓÙ·ÍË Ù˘ ™Ô‚ÈÂÙÈ΋˜ ŒÓˆÛ˘ ÛÙËÓ UNESCO ÙÔ 1954 Î·È ¿ÏÏˆÓ ¯ˆÚÒÓ Ô˘ ›¯·Ó ÚÔÛÊ¿Ùˆ˜ ·ÓÂÍ·ÚÙËÙÔÔÈËı› ÙÔ 1960, ηı›ÛÙ·Ù·È ÔÏÔ¤Ó· Î·È ÈÔ ‰‡ÛÎÔÏÔ Ó· ·Ó·ÎÙËı› Ë ÔÌÔʈӛ· Ô˘ ¯·Ú·ÎÙ‹ÚÈ˙ ٷ ·Ú¯Èο ȉÂÒ‰Ë Ù˘ UNESCO, Ì ·ÔÙ¤ÏÂÛÌ· ·fi ÙÔ 1974 Ô fiÚÔ˜ «∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË ÁÈ· ¢ÈÂıÓ‹ ∫·Ù·ÓfiËÛË» Ó· ˘Ê›ÛÙ·Ù·È ÌfiÓÔ ˆ˜ ÚËÙÔÚÈÎfi Û¯‹Ì· (Fujikane 2003). ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ∞Ó¿Ù˘ÍË (Development Education)-∞ÁˆÁ‹ ÙÔ˘ ∆Ú›ÙÔ˘ ∫fiÛÌÔ˘ (Third World Pedagogy) √È ‰‡Ô ·˘ÙÔ› fiÚÔÈ ·Ó¿ÁÔÓÙ·È ÛÙËÓ ÂÚ›Ô‰Ô Ù˘ ·ÔÈÎÈÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜, fiÙ·Ó Ì¤ÚÔ˜ ÙÔ˘ ÚfiÏÔ˘ Ù˘ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘ ‹Ù·Ó Ó· ˘ÔÛÙËÚ›˙ÂÈ ÙȘ ·ÔÈÎÈÔÎÚ·ÙÈΤ˜ ÔÏÈÙÈΤ˜ ÛÙÔ Û¯ÔÏÂ›Ô Î·È ÛÙËÓ ÎÔÈÓˆÓ›·. ™ÙË ‰È¿ÚÎÂÈ· ÙÔ˘ ·ÁÒÓ· ηٿ Ù˘ ·ÔÈÎÈÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜ Î·È ÙËÓ ·ÓÂÍ·ÚÙËÛ›· ÙˆÓ ÚÒËÓ ·ÔÈÎÈÒÓ, ΢ڛˆ˜ ÙȘ ‰ÂηÂٛ˜ ÙÔ˘ 1950 Î·È ÙÔ˘ 1960, Ô ‰ÈÂıÓ‹˜ ÚÔ‚ÏËÌ·ÙÈÛÌfi˜ ÚÔÛ·Ó·ÙÔÏ›˙ÂÙ·È ÛÙËÓ ‡·ÚÍË ·ÓÈ-


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√ÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈ΋ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË

17

ÛÔÙ‹ÙˆÓ Î·È Ù· ÚÔ‚Ï‹Ì·Ù· Ô˘ ·ÓÙÈÌÂÙˆ›˙Ô˘Ó ÔÈ «˘Ô-·Ó¿Ù˘ÍË» ¯ÒÚ˜. ∂ȉÈο ÛÙËÓ «∞ÁˆÁ‹ ÙÔ˘ ∆Ú›ÙÔ˘ ∫fiÛÌÔ˘», Ë ÚÔÛÔ¯‹ ÂÛÙÈ¿˙ÂÙ·È ÛÙËÓ ÂÍ¿ÚÙËÛË ÙˆÓ ·Ó·Ù˘ÛÛfiÌÂÓˆÓ ¯ˆÚÒÓ ·fi ÙȘ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈΤ˜ ‰Ô̤˜, ·ÏÏ¿ Î·È ÛÙË Û¯¤ÛË Ô˘ ˘¿Ú¯ÂÈ ·Ó¿ÌÂÛ· ÛÙËÓ ·Ó¿Ù˘ÍË ÙÔ˘ ·ÔηÏÔ‡ÌÂÓÔ˘ ¶ÚÒÙÔ˘ ∫fiÛÌÔ˘ Î·È ·˘Ù‹Ó ÙÔ˘ ∆Ú›ÙÔ˘ ∫fiÛÌÔ˘. ∆·˘Ùfi¯ÚÔÓ·, Ë UNESCO ÛÙÚ¤ÊÂÈ ÙÔ ÂӉȷʤÚÔÓ Ù˘ ÚÔ˜ ÙËÓ ·ÚÔ¯‹ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈ΋˜ ‚Ô‹ıÂÈ·˜ ΢ڛˆ˜ ÁÈ· ÙË ÛÙÔȯÂÈÒ‰Ë ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË (Fujikane 2003, Hicks 2003), ÂÓÒ ÔÏϤ˜ ‰È·Î˘‚ÂÚÓËÙÈΤ˜ ·ÏÏ¿ ΢ڛˆ˜ ÌË Î˘‚ÂÚÓËÙÈΤ˜ ÔÚÁ·ÓÒÛÂȘ ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈÔÔÈÔ‡ÓÙ·È ·) ÛÙËÓ ÂÓË̤ڈÛË ÙÔ˘ ÎÔÈÓÔ‡ ÁÈ· Ù· ÚÔ‚Ï‹Ì·Ù· ÙˆÓ ·Ó·Ù˘ÛÛfiÌÂÓˆÓ ¯ˆÚÒÓ Î·È ‚) ÛÙÔ fiÛÔ ÂËÚ¿˙ÂÈ Ë Î·Ù·Ó¿ÏˆÛË Ê˘ÛÈÎÒÓ fiÚˆÓ ÛÙÔ µÔÚÚ¿ ÙȘ ¢ηÈڛ˜ ·Ó¿Ù˘Í˘ Ô˘ ¤¯ÂÈ Ô ¡fiÙÔ˜. ∞˘Ù¤˜ ÔÈ ‚·ÛÈΤ˜ ȉ¤Â˜ ¤¯Ô˘Ó ÙÒÚ· ϤÔÓ Á›ÓÂÈ ÎÂÓÙÚÈο ˙ËÙ‹Ì·Ù· ÛÙË ÏÂÁfiÌÂÓË «∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ∞ÂÈÊfiÚÔ ∞Ó¿Ù˘ÍË» (Education for Sustainable Development, ESD). ø˜ Û˘Ó¤ÂÈ·, ÙÔ Î›ÓËÌ· ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ÂÓË̤ڈÛË ÙˆÓ ÔÏÈÙÒÓ, ÙÔ ÔÔ›Ô ÔÓÔÌ¿ÛÙËΠÛÙ· ̤۷ Ù˘ ‰ÂηÂÙ›·˜ ÙÔ˘ 1970 ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ∞Ó¿Ù˘ÍË (development education), ¤ıÂÛ ÙȘ ‚¿ÛÂȘ ÂÈÛ·ÁˆÁ‹˜ ÙÔ˘ ÂÓ ÏfiÁˆ ·ÓÙÈÎÂÈ̤ÓÔ˘ ÛÙ· ∞Ó·Ï˘ÙÈο ¶ÚÔÁÚ¿ÌÌ·Ù· Ù˘ Ù˘È΋˜ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘ ÙˆÓ ·Ó·Ù˘ÁÌ¤ÓˆÓ ¯ˆÚÒÓ, Û «ÌÈ· ÚÔÛ¿ıÂÈ· Ó· ·ÓÙ·ÔÎÚÈı› Ë ¶·È‰·ÁˆÁÈ΋ ÛÙ· ·ÁÎfiÛÌÈ·, ÙÔÈο ‹ Î·È ÂÍ·ÙÔÌÈÎÂ˘Ì¤Ó· ÚÔ‚Ï‹Ì·Ù· Ù˘ ˘ÂÚ·Ó¿Ù˘Í˘ Î·È Ù˘ ˘o·Ó¿Ù˘Í˘» (Fujikane 2003). ¶ÔÏ˘ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈ΋ ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË (Multicultural Education) – ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ∂ÈÚ‹ÓË (Peace Education) ™Â ·ÓÙ›ıÂÛË Ì ÙËÓ ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ∞Ó¿Ù˘ÍË, Ô ‰È¿ÏÔÁÔ˜ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ÔÏ˘ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈ΋ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË ·ÔÙÂÏ› ̤ÚÔ˜ Ù˘ Â›ÛËÌ˘ ËÌÂÚ‹ÛÈ·˜ ‰È¿Ù·Í˘, ÙÔ˘Ï¿¯ÈÛÙÔÓ ÛÙȘ ∏¶∞, ÙË ªÂÁ¿ÏË µÚÂÙ·Ó›· Î·È ÙË °ÂÚÌ·Ó›·, ˆ˜ Ë Î˘‚ÂÚÓËÙÈ΋ ·ÓÙ·fiÎÚÈÛË ÛÙ· ÚÔ‚Ï‹Ì·Ù· Ù˘ ¤ÓÙ·Í˘ ÙˆÓ ÌÂÙ·Ó·ÛÙÒÓ, ÁÂÁÔÓfi˜ ÙÔ ÔÔ›Ô ÂËÚ¿˙ÂÈ ÙȘ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈΤ˜ Ú·ÎÙÈΤ˜, Ì ·ÔÙ¤ÏÂÛÌ· ÔÈ Â›ÛË̘ ΢‚ÂÚÓËÙÈΤ˜ ÂΉԯ¤˜ Ù˘ ÔÏ˘ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈ΋˜ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘ Ó· Ô‰ËÁËıÔ‡Ó Û ·‰È¤ÍÔ‰Ô Ì¤¯ÚÈ ÙÔ Ù¤ÏÔ˜ Ù˘ ‰ÂηÂÙ›·˜ ÙÔ˘ 1980. ∏ ·ÓÙ›ÏË„Ë, fï˜, fiÙÈ Ë ‰È‰·Ûηϛ· Ù˘ ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈ΋˜ ·Ú¿‰ÔÛ˘ ÙˆÓ ÌÂÈÔÓÔÙÈÎÒÓ ÎÔÈÓÔÙ‹ÙˆÓ ÂÓÈÛ¯‡ÂÈ Ù· ÛÙÂÚÂfiÙ˘·, ÙËÓ ÚÔηٿÏË„Ë Î·ıÒ˜ Î·È ÙËÓ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋ ·ÔÌfiÓˆÛ˘ Î·È ·ÊÔÌÔ›ˆÛ˘ ÙˆÓ ÌÂÙ·Ó·ÛÙÒÓ Ì¤Ûˆ ÙˆÓ ıÂÛÌÈÎÒÓ ‰È·ÎÚ›ÛˆÓ, ·Ó·‰ÂÈÎÓ‡ÂÈ ÙËÓ


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™ÂÏ›‰·18

18

∞.™. °ÎÈfiÏÌ·˜, π.∫. ™Ù·‡ÚÔ˘ Î·È ∫.¢. ™ÎÔÚ‰Ô‡Ï˘

·Ó¿ÁÎË ÁÈ· ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋ ‰Ú¿ÛË ÂÚÈÛÛfiÙÂÚÔ ·Ú¿ ÁÈ· ÔÏ˘ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈ΋ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË Î·È ‰È·ÌÔÚÊÒÓÂÈ ÙÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ Ù˘ ∞ÓÙÈÚ·ÙÛÈÛÙÈ΋˜ ∂Î·›‰Â˘Û˘ (Anti-racist Education) Î·È ÂÓ Û˘Ó¯›· Ù˘ ∂Î·›‰Â˘Û˘ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ∂ÈÚ‹ÓË (Peace Education). ™ÙËÓ ·Ó·ıÂÒÚËÛË Ù˘ ¤ÓÓÔÈ·˜ Ù˘ ∂Î·›‰Â˘Û˘ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ∂ÈÚ‹ÓË, ÙË ‰ÂηÂÙ›· 1970, ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈÎfi ÚfiÏÔ ·›˙Ô˘Ó ÔÈ ÚÈ˙ÔÛ·ÛÙÈΤ˜ ıˆڛ˜ ÙÔ˘ Galtang ÁÈ· ÙË «‰È·ÚıÚˆÙÈ΋ ‚›·» (structural violence), fiÔ˘ Ë ÂÈÚ‹ÓË ‰ÂÓ ıˆÚÂ›Ù·È ·ÏÒ˜ Ë ·Ô˘Û›· ÙÔ˘ ÔϤÌÔ˘ ·ÏÏ¿ ‰›ÓÂÙ·È ¤ÌÊ·ÛË ÛÙËÓ «ÈÛ¯˘Ú‹ ‹ ÂÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌËÙÈ΋ ÂÈÚ‹ÓË» (Galtang 1971), Î·È ÔÈ È‰¤Â˜ ÙÔ˘ Freire ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ·ÂÏ¢ı¤ÚˆÛË ·fi ÙËÓ Î·Ù·›ÂÛË Ì¤Ûˆ Ù˘ ‰Ú¿Û˘. ∏ ·È‰·ÁˆÁÈ΋ ıˆڛ· ÙÔ˘ Freire, fiˆ˜ ·ÔÙ˘ÒÓÂÙ·È ÛÙ· ¤ÚÁ· ÙÔ˘ ∞ÁˆÁ‹ ÙˆÓ ∫·Ù·ÈÂÛÌ¤ÓˆÓ (Freire 2000) Î·È √ ¢È¿ÏÔÁÔ˜ ˆ˜ ∫·ÓfiÓ·˜ (Freire 1980), Û˘ÓÙÂÏ› ÛÙË ÌÂÙ·ÙfiÈÛË Ù˘ ÂÛÙ›·Û˘ ÙÔ˘ ›‰ÈÔ˘ ÙÔ˘ ÂÚȯÔ̤ÓÔ˘ Ù˘ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ÂÈÚ‹ÓË _ ·fi ÙËÓ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË Û¯ÂÙÈο Ì (about) ÙËÓ ÂÈÚ‹ÓË ÚÔ˜ ÙË ‰È·‰Èηۛ· ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘ Ì ÛÎÔfi (for) ÙËÓ ÂÈÚ‹ÓË. ∆· ÚÔ·Ó·ÊÂÚfiÌÂÓ· ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈο ÎÈÓ‹Ì·Ù·, Ù· ÔÔ›· ۯ‰fiÓ ¿ÓÙ· ‚Ú›ÛÎÔÓÙ·È ÂÎÙfi˜ Î·È ÂÓ¿ÓÙÈ· ÙˆÓ ÔÏÈÙÈÎÒÓ Ù˘ Â›ÛËÌ˘ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘, ı¤ÙÔ˘Ó ÙȘ ‚¿ÛÂȘ ÁÈ· ÙÔÓ Â·Ó·ÚÔÛ‰ÈÔÚÈÛÌfi ÙÔ˘ ÚfiÏÔ˘ Ù˘ Â›ÛËÌ˘ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘ Î·È ÚÔηÏÔ‡Ó ÙÔ Î˘Ú›·Ú¯Ô ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎfi ·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ· οı ¯ÒÚ·˜ fiÛÔÓ ·ÊÔÚ¿ ÙȘ ‰ÈÂıÓ›˜ ·Ú·Ì¤ÙÚÔ˘˜ Ô˘ ÂÈÛ¿ÁÔÓÙ·È ÛÙÔ ÂοÛÙÔÙ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎfi Û‡ÛÙËÌ· (Fujikane, 2003).

√π∫√Àª∂¡π∫∏ ∂∫¶∞π¢∂À™∏ ∆Ô 1995, ÛÙÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ ÙÔ˘ ¶ÂÚÈÊÂÚÂÈ·ÎÔ‡ ™˘Ó‰ڛԢ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ √ÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈ΋ ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË, ÙÔ ÔÔ›Ô ÔÚÁ·ÓÒıËΠ·fi ÙËÓ UNICEF MENA (Middle East and North Africa) ÛÙÔÓ §›‚·ÓÔ, Ô Selby ‰È·Ù˘ÒÓÂÈ ÙoÓ ÔÚÈÛÌfi Ù˘ √ÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈ΋˜ ∂Î·›‰Â˘Û˘ ˆ˜ ÂÍ‹˜: ∏ √ÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈ΋ ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË Â›Ó·È ¤Ó· ÔÏÈÛÙÈÎfi ·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ· ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘, ÙÔ ÔÔ›Ô ÛÙÔȯÂÈÔıÂÙ› ÙË ‰È·Û‡Ó‰ÂÛË ÙˆÓ ·ÓıÚÒÈÓˆÓ ÎÔÈÓÔًوÓ, ÙfiˆÓ Î·È ·ÓıÚÒˆÓ, ÙÔ Û˘Û¯ÂÙÈÛÌfi fiÏˆÓ ÙˆÓ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎÒÓ, ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈÎÒÓ Î·È Ê˘ÛÈÎÒÓ Ê·ÈÓfiÌÂÓˆÓ, ÙË ‰È·ÂÚ·ÙfiÙËÙ· Ù˘ ʇÛ˘ ÙÔ˘ ¯ÚfiÓÔ˘ –·ÚÂÏıfiÓ, ·ÚfiÓ, ̤ÏÏÔÓ_ Î·È ÙËÓ ·ÏÏËÏÔÛ˘ÌÏËڈ̷ÙÈ΋ ʇÛË Ù˘ ÓÔËÙÈ΋˜, Û˘Ó·ÈÛıËÌ·ÙÈ΋˜, Ê˘ÛÈ΋˜ Î·È ÓÂ˘Ì·ÙÈ΋˜ ‰È¿ÛÙ·Û˘ ÙˆÓ ·ÓıÚÒÈÓˆÓ fiÓÙˆÓ. ¶ÂÚÈÏ·Ì‚¿ÓÂÈ ı¤Ì·Ù· ·Ó¿Ù˘Í˘, ÈÛfiÙËÙ·˜, ÂÈÚ‹Ó˘, ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋˜ Î·È ÂÚÈ‚·ÏÏÔÓÙÈ΋˜ ‰ÈηÈÔÛ‡Ó˘ Î·È ÂÚÈ‚·ÏÏÔÓÙÈ΋˜ ·ÂÈÊÔÚ›·˜. ™ÙÔ ‰›Ô Ù˘ Û˘ÌÂÚÈÏ·Ì‚¿ÓÔÓÙ·È ÙÔ ÚÔÛˆÈÎfi, ÙÔ ÙÔÈÎfi, ÙÔ ÂıÓÈÎfi Î·È ÙÔ Ï·ÓËÙÈÎfi.


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™ÂÏ›‰·19

19

√ÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈ΋ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË

™‡ÌʈÓË Ì ÙÔ˘˜ ηÓfiÓ˜ Î·È ·Ú¯¤˜ Ù˘ √ÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈ΋˜ ∂Î·›‰Â˘Û˘ Â›Ó·È Î·È Ë ·È‰·ÁˆÁÈ΋ ıÂÒÚËÛË Ô˘ ÚÔ·ÙÂÈ, Ë ÔÔ›· Â›Ó·È ‚Ȉ̷ÙÈ΋, Û˘ÌÌÂÙÔ¯È΋, ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·ÙÈ΋ Î·È ÚÔÛ·Ó·ÙÔÏÈṲ̂ÓË ÛÙËÓ ·ÏÏ·Á‹. ø˜ ÛÎÔfi˜ ‰Â Ù˘ √ÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈ΋˜ ∂Î·›‰Â˘Û˘ ÔÚ›˙ÂÙ·È ÙÔ Ó· ˘ÂÚÓÈ΋ÛÂÈ: ·) ÙÔ ‰È·¯ˆÚÈÛÌfi ÙÔ˘ ÎfiÛÌÔ˘ Û ·ÓÙÈÌ·¯fiÌÂÓ˜ ÔÌ¿‰Â˜, ÙÔ˘˜ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎÔ‡˜, ÂıÓÈÎÔ‡˜ Î·È Î¿ı ÌÔÚÊ‹˜ ·ÓÙ·ÁˆÓÈÛÌÔ‡˜ Ô˘ Ô‰ËÁÔ‡Ó Û ¤ÓÔϘ Û˘ÁÎÚÔ‡ÛÂȘ Û ‰È¿ÊÔÚ˜ ÂÚÈÔ¯¤˜ ÙÔ˘ ÎfiÛÌÔ˘, ‚) ÙË ‰˘Û·ÚÌÔÓ›· ·Ó¿ÌÂÛ· ÛÙÔÓ ¿ÓıÚˆÔ Î·È ÙË Ê‡ÛË, Ë ÔÔ›· ÂÈʤÚÂÈ ÙËÓ ·ÂÈÏ‹ Ù˘ ÔÈÎÔÏÔÁÈ΋˜ ηٷÛÙÚÔÊ‹˜, Î·È Á) ÙÔÓ Î·Ù·ÎÂÚÌ·ÙÈÛÌfi Ù˘ ·ÓıÚÒÈÓ˘ ÛΤ„˘ Î·È Ó‡̷ÙÔ˜.

√π ¢π∞™∆∞™∂π™ ∆∏™ £∂øƒ∏∆π∫√ ¶§∞π™π√

√π∫√Àª∂¡π∫∏™

∂∫¶∞π¢∂À™∏™

∆Ô ÂÓÓÔÈÔÏÔÁÈÎfi Ï·›ÛÈÔ Ù˘ √ÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈ΋˜ ∂Î·›‰Â˘Û˘ ‰È·ÌÔÚÊÒÓÂÙ·È ÙÔ 1976 fiÙ·Ó Ô Robin Richardson (Richardson 1976) ‰È·Ù˘ÒÓÂÈ ÙÔÓ ÚÒÙÔ ÂÓÓÔÈÔÏÔÁÈÎfi ¯¿ÚÙË Ù˘ ∫ÔÈÓˆÓ›·˜ Ù˘ √ÈÎÔ˘Ì¤Ó˘ Î·È Û¯ËÌ·ÙÔÔÈ› ÙË ıˆÚËÙÈ΋ ‚¿ÛË ÁÈ· ÙË ‰ÈÂÚ‡ÓËÛË ıÂÌ¿ÙˆÓ Ô˘ ·ÊÔÚÔ‡Ó ÔÏfiÎÏËÚÔ ÙÔÓ Ï·Ó‹ÙË.

∂π∫√¡∞ 1: £ÂˆÚËÙÈÎfi ¶Ï·›ÛÈÔ ‰ÈÂÚ‡ÓËÛ˘ ÔÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈÎÒÓ ıÂÌ¿ÙˆÓ (Richardson, 1976)


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20

13:20

™ÂÏ›‰·20

∞.™. °ÎÈfiÏÌ·˜, π.∫. ™Ù·‡ÚÔ˘ Î·È ∫.¢. ™ÎÔÚ‰Ô‡Ï˘

∆Ô ıˆÚËÙÈÎfi ·˘Ùfi Ï·›ÛÈÔ ıˆڋıËΠÛËÌ·ÓÙÈ΋ ηÈÓÔÙÔÌ›· ÛÙÔ ¯ÒÚÔ Ù˘ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘, ηıÒ˜ Ë ‰ÈÂÚ‡ÓËÛË ·ÌÊÈÏÂÁfiÌÂÓˆÓ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎÒÓ Î·È ÂÚÈ‚·ÏÏÔÓÙÈÎÒÓ ıÂÌ¿ÙˆÓ ÂÌ›ÙÂÈ Û ٤ÛÛÂÚȘ ÌÂÁ·Ï‡ÙÂÚ˜ ηÙËÁÔڛ˜: ÙË ÊÙÒ¯ÂÈ·, ÙËÓ Î·Ù·›ÂÛË, ÙȘ Û˘ÁÎÚÔ‡ÛÂȘ (fiÏÂÌÔÈ) Î·È ÙÔ ÂÚÈ‚¿ÏÏÔÓ. ∆Ô 1988 ÔÈ Pike Î·È Selby, ÛÙËÚÈ˙fiÌÂÓÔÈ ÛÙȘ ·fi„ÂȘ ÙÔ˘ Richardson, ·Ó·Ù‡ÛÛÔ˘Ó ÙÔ ÂÓÓÔÈÔÏÔÁÈÎfi Ï·›ÛÈÔ ÙÔ˘ ‰›Ô˘, ÚÔ‚¿ÏÏÔÓÙ·˜ ·˘Ùfi Ô˘ ·ÔοÏÂÛ·Ó «ÔÈ Ù¤ÛÛÂÚȘ ‰È·ÛÙ¿ÛÂȘ Ù˘ ÔÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈÎfiÙËÙ·˜» Î·È ÔÈ Ôԛ˜ Û˘ÓÈÛÙÔ‡Ó ÙÔÓ «˘Ú‹Ó·» ‹ ÙËÓ «ÂÛˆÙÂÚÈ΋ ‰È¿ÛÙ·ÛË» Ù˘ ÔÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈ΋˜ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘: Ë ‰È¿ÛÙ·ÛË ÙÔ˘ ¯ÒÚÔ˘, ÙÔ˘ ¯ÚfiÓÔ˘, Ë ıÂÌ·ÙÈ΋ ‰È¿ÛÙ·ÛË, ηıÒ˜ Î·È ÙÔ˘ ·ÓıÚÒÈÓÔ˘ ‰˘Ó·ÌÈÎÔ‡, ÙÔ ÔÔ›Ô ·ÔÙÂÏ› ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈ΋ Û˘ÓÈÛÙÒÛ· Ù˘ «ÂÛˆÙÂÚÈ΋˜ ‰È¿ÛÙ·Û˘», ÂÓÒ ‰È·Ù˘ÒÓÔÓÙ·È ¤ÓÙ ÛÎÔÔ›, ˆ˜ ÙÔ «ÂÏ¿¯ÈÛÙÔ ‰˘Ó·Ùfi fiÚÈÔ» Î·È ‚¿ÛÂÈ ÙˆÓ ÔÔ›ˆÓ Û˘ÁÎÚÔÙÂ›Ù·È Ë ÔÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈ΋ ‰È¿ÛÙ·ÛË Ù˘ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘.

∂π∫√¡∞ 2: √È Ù¤ÛÛÂÚȘ ‰È·ÛÙ¿ÛÂȘ Ù˘ √ÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈ΋˜ ∂Î·›‰Â˘Û˘. (Pike & Selby 1995)

1. ™˘ÛÙËÌÈ΋ Â›ÁÓˆÛË: √È Ì·ıËÙ¤˜ ı· Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ÂÍÔÈÎÂȈıÔ‡Ó Ì ÙÔÓ Û˘ÛÙËÌÈÎfi ÙÚfiÔ ÛΤ„˘ fiÛÔÓ ·ÊÔÚ¿ ÙËÓ Î·Ù·ÓfiËÛË Ù˘ Û˘ÛÙËÌÈ΋˜ ʇÛ˘ ÙÔ˘ ÎfiÛÌÔ˘ Î·È ÙËÓ ÚfiÛÎÙËÛË ÌÈ·˜ ÔÏÈÛÙÈ΋˜ ıÂÒÚËÛ˘ ÙˆÓ ‰˘Ó·ÙÔÙ‹ÙˆÓ Î·È ÙˆÓ ÈηÓÔÙ‹ÙˆÓ ÙÔ˘˜.


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2. ∂›ÁÓˆÛË ÚÔÔÙÈ΋˜: √È Ì·ıËÙ¤˜ ı· Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ÌÔÚÔ‡Ó Ó· ·Ó·ÁÓˆÚ›˙Ô˘Ó fiÙÈ Ë ı¤·ÛË ÙÔ˘ ÎfiÛÌÔ˘ ‰ÂÓ ÌÔÚ› Ó· Â›Ó·È ÂÓÈ·›· ÁÈ· fiÏÔ˘˜ ÙÔ˘˜ ·ÓıÚÒÔ˘˜ Î·È Ó· ·Ó·Ù‡ÛÛÔ˘Ó ÙÔ ·›ÛıËÌ· Ù˘ ·Ô‰Ô¯‹˜ ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈÎÒÓ ıˆڋÛˆÓ. 3. ∂›ÁÓˆÛË ÁÈ· ¤Ó· ˘ÁȤ˜ ÂÚÈ‚¿ÏÏÔÓ: √È Ì·ıËÙ¤˜ ı· Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ·Ê˘ÓÈÛÙÔ‡Ó Î·È Ó· ηٷÓÔ‹ÛÔ˘Ó ÙȘ Û˘Óı‹Î˜ ·Ó¿Ù˘Í˘ Î·È ÙȘ Ù¿ÛÂȘ Ô˘ ‰È·ÌÔÚÊÒÓÔÓÙ·È Û ÔÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈÎfi Â›‰Ô, Ó· ·Ó·Ù‡ÍÔ˘Ó Î·Ù·ÓfiËÛË, Ë ÔÔ›· ‚·Û›˙ÂÙ·È ÛÙËÓ ÏËÚÔÊfiÚËÛË ÁÈ· ÙȘ ȉ¤Â˜ Ù˘ ‰ÈηÈÔÛ‡Ó˘, Ù· ·ÓıÚÒÈÓ· ‰ÈηÈÒÌ·Ù· Î·È ÙËÓ Â˘ı‡ÓË Î·ıÒ˜ Î·È ¤Ó·Ó ÌÂÏÏÔÓÙÈÎfi ÚÔÛ·Ó·ÙÔÏÈÛÌfi fiÛÔÓ ·ÊÔÚ¿ ÙȘ ÂÈÙÒÛÂȘ ÙˆÓ Ú¿ÍÂˆÓ Ô˘ ·Ó·Ê¤ÚÔÓÙ·È ÛÙË ‰È·Ù‹ÚËÛË ÙÔ˘ Ï·Ó‹ÙË. 4. ∂›ÁÓˆÛË ÂÌÏÔ΋˜ Î·È ÂÙÔÈÌfiÙËÙ·˜: √È Ì·ıËÙ¤˜ ı· Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ·Ê˘ÓÈÛÙÔ‡Ó ÛÙÔ ÁÂÁÔÓfi˜ fiÙÈ ÔÈ ÂÈÏÔÁ¤˜ Î·È ÔÈ ÂÓ¤ÚÁÂȤ˜ ÙÔ˘˜ Û ·ÙÔÌÈÎfi Î·È Û˘ÏÏÔÁÈÎfi Â›Â‰Ô ¤¯Ô˘Ó ÂÈÙÒÛÂȘ ÛÙÔ ÔÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈÎfi ·ÚfiÓ Î·È ÙÔ Ì¤ÏÏÔÓ. ∂›Û˘ ¯ÚÂÈ¿˙ÂÙ·È Ó· ·Ó·Ù‡ÍÔ˘Ó ÙȘ ··Ú·›ÙËÙ˜ ‰ÂÍÈfiÙËÙ˜ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋˜ Î·È ÔÏÈÙÈ΋˜ ‰Ú¿Û˘ ÒÛÙ ӷ ηٷÛÙÔ‡Ó ÂÓÂÚÁÔ› ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·ÙÈÎÔ› Ôϛ٘, ÈηÓÔ› Ó· Û˘ÌÌÂÙ¤¯Ô˘Ó ÛÙȘ ‰È·‰Èηۛ˜ Ï‹„˘ ·ÔÊ¿ÛˆÓ. 5. ∂˘Ú‡ÙËÙ· ÛΤ„˘: √È Ì·ıËÙ¤˜ ı· Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· Û˘ÓÂȉËÙÔÔÈ‹ÛÔ˘Ó fiÙÈ Ë ‰È·‰Èηۛ· Ì¿ıËÛ˘ Â›Ó·È ¤Ó· Û˘Ó¯¤˜ Ù·Í›‰È ÁÓÒÛ˘ ¯ˆÚ›˜ ÚÔηıÔÚÈṲ̂ÓÔ ‹ ÙÂÏÈÎfi ÚÔÔÚÈÛÌfi Î·È fiÙÈ ÔÈ Ó¤ÔÈ ÙÚfiÔÈ ı¤·Û˘ ÙÔ˘ ÎfiÛÌÔ˘ ·Ó·˙ˆÔÁÔÓÔ‡Ó ÙËÓ ›‰È· ÙË ÛΤ„Ë (Hicks, 2003).

∫ƒπ∆π∫√π ¢π∞§√°√π °π∞ ∆∏¡ √π∫√Àª∂¡π∫∏ ∂∫¶∞π¢∂À™∏ √ÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈ΋ ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË Î·È ∞ÂÈÊÔÚ›· √È ÙÚ¤¯Ô˘Û˜ Û˘˙ËÙ‹ÛÂȘ Ù˘ ÂÔ¯‹˜ Ì·˜ Û¯ÂÙÈο Ì ÙËÓ √ÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈ΋ ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚ›˙ÔÓÙ·È ·fi ÙÔÓ ÙÚfiÔ Ì ÙÔÓ ÔÔ›Ô ÚÔÛÂÁÁ›˙ÔÓÙ·È ÔÈ È‰¤Â˜ Ù˘ ·ÂÈÊÔÚ›·˜ Î·È Ù˘ ‰ÈηÈÔÛ‡Ó˘, ηıÒ˜ Î·È ·fi ÙÔÓ ÙÚfiÔ Ì ÙÔÓ ÔÔ›Ô ÚÔÛÂÁÁ›˙ÂÙ·È Ë Û¯¤ÛË ·Ó¿ÌÂÛ· ÛÙËÓ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈ΋ ·Ó¿Ù˘ÍË Î·È ÛÙËÓ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË. ∏ ȉ¤· Ù˘ ·ÂÈÊÔÚ›·˜ ÛÙËÓ √ÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈ΋ ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË ÂÈÛ¿ÁÂÙ·È Î˘Ú›ˆ˜ ·fi ÚÈ˙ÔÛ¿ÛÙ˜ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎÔ‡˜ Ù˘ ¶ÂÚÈ‚·ÏÏÔÓÙÈ΋˜ ∂Î·›‰Â˘Û˘, ÔÈ ÔÔ›ÔÈ ÂÈÛËÁÔ‡ÓÙ·È ÙË ‰È·ÌfiÚʈÛË ÂÓfi˜ ÂÚÈÛÛfiÙÂÚÔ ÎÚÈÙÈÎÔ‡ Ï·ÈÛ›Ô˘ ̤۷ ÛÙÔ ÔÔ›Ô ‰›ÓÂÙ·È Ë ‰˘Ó·ÙfiÙËÙ· ÚÔÛ¤ÁÁÈÛ˘ ÙˆÓ È‰ÂÔÏÔÁÈÒÓ Î·È ÙˆÓ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎÒÓ Î·Ù·ÛÙ¿ÛÂˆÓ Ô˘ Û¯ÂÙ›˙ÔÓÙ·È Ì ÙËÓ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË Î·È ÙÔ ÂÚÈ‚¿ÏÏÔÓ (Hicks &


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Holden 1995). ∆Ô ÂÚÒÙËÌ·, ÂÔ̤ӈ˜, ÙÔ ÔÔ›Ô ‰È·Ù˘ÒÓÂÙ·È Â›Ó·È «ÙÈ ı· ÌÔÚÔ‡Û ӷ ÚÔÛʤÚÂÈ Ë ıÂÒÚËÛË Ù˘ √ÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈ΋˜ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘ ÛÙËÓ ¶ÂÚÈ‚·ÏÏÔÓÙÈ΋ ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË Î·È Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤ӷ ÛÙËÓ ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ∞ÂÈÊÔÚ›·;». ™ÙÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ ·˘Ùfi ‰È·ÌÔÚÊÒÓÔÓÙ·È ÔÈ ÂÍ‹˜ ÚÔÙ¿ÛÂȘ: ·) ∏ ‰˘Ó·ÌÈ΋ ·ÓÙ›ÏË„Ë ÙÔ˘ «¯ÒÚÔ˘», fiˆ˜ ‰È·ÌÔÚÊÒÓÂÙ·È ÛÙËÓ √ÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈ΋ ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË, ÚÔÛʤÚÂÈ ÌÈ· ÂÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌËÙÈ΋ Î·È ÂÚÈÂÎÙÈ΋ ÚÔÛ¤ÁÁÈÛË Û¯ÂÙÈο Ì ÙÔ «¯ÒÚÔ» Î·È ÙËÓ «Îϛ̷η». ∆Ô «ÙÔÈÎfi» Î·È ÙÔ «ÔÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈÎfi» ÂÌÂÚȤ¯ÔÓÙ·È ÙÔ ¤Ó· ÛÙÔ ¿ÏÏÔ. ÃÚÂÈ·˙fiÌ·ÛÙ ÙË ÁÓÒÛË Ô˘ ÚÔÛʤÚÂÈ Ë ÔÏfiÙËÙ· Ì ÙËÓ ¤ÓÓÔÈ· Ù˘ ηٷÓfiËÛ˘ ÙˆÓ ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈÎÒÓ ÂÍÂÏ›ÍÂˆÓ Î·È Ù¿ÛˆÓ, Ë ÔÔ›· ·ÔÙÚ¤ÂÈ ·fi ÙË ÌÔÓfiÏ¢ÚË ıÂÒÚËÛË ÙÔ˘ ÙÔÈÎÈÛÌÔ‡ Ô˘ ÂÈϤÁÂÈ Ó· ·ÁÓÔ› ÙÔ ÔÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈÎfi Î·È ·ÔÙÂÏ› Â›Ì·¯Ô ÛËÌÂ›Ô Ù˘ ‰È¤ÓÂ͢ ·Ó¿ÌÂÛ· ÛÙËÓ ÔÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈ΋ ıÂÒÚËÛË ÙˆÓ ÂÚÈ‚·ÏÏÔÓÙÈÎÒÓ ÚÔ‚ÏËÌ¿ÙˆÓ Î·È Ù˘ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘ Ô˘ ·ÊÔÚ¿ ÛÂ Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤ӷ ÂÚÈ‚·ÏÏÔÓÙÈο ÚÔ‚Ï‹Ì·Ù· ÂÓfi˜ ÙfiÔ˘ (place-based), fiÔ˘ ÂÏÏԯ‡ÂÈ Ô Î›Ó‰˘ÓÔ˜ ·Ú¿‚Ï„˘ Ù˘ ÔÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈ΋˜ ‰È¿ÛÙ·Û˘ ÛÙËÓ ÚÔÛ¿ıÂÈ· ÂÓÛÙÂÚÓÈÛÌÔ‡ ÙÔ˘ ÙÔÈÎÈÛÌÔ‡ ‹ Ù˘ ‚ÈÔÔÈÎÈÏfiÙËÙ·˜ (Selby 1999). ‚) ∏ ıÂÌ·ÙÈ΋ ‰È¿ÛÙ·ÛË (Ë ÚÔÛ¤ÁÁÈÛË Ï‹ıÔ˘˜ ıÂÌ¿ÙˆÓ) Ù˘ √ÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈ΋˜ ∂Î·›‰Â˘Û˘ ÚÔÛʤÚÂÈ Ù· ̤۷ Ì ٷ ÔÔ›· Ë ¶ÂÚÈ‚·ÏÏÔÓÙÈ΋ ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË ÌÔÚ› Ó· ÂÍÂÚ¢ӋÛÂÈ, Û ÌÂÁ·Ï‡ÙÂÚÔ Â‡ÚÔ˜ Î·È Ì ÌÂÁ·Ï‡ÙÂÚË ¤ÓÙ·ÛË, ÙËÓ ·ÏÏËÏÂ›‰Ú·ÛË ·Ó¿ÌÂÛ· ÛÙ· ı¤Ì·Ù· ÂÚÈ‚¿ÏÏÔÓÙÔ˜ Î·È Û ¿ÏÏ· Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓ· ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈο ı¤Ì·Ù· Î·È ·ÓÙÈΛÌÂÓ· Û˘˙‹ÙËÛ˘. ∂ÈϤÔÓ, Ë ‰È¿ÛÙ·ÛË ·˘Ù‹ ‰›ÓÂÈ ÙË ‰˘Ó·ÙfiÙËÙ· ‰ÈÂÚ‡ÓËÛ˘ ÙÔ˘ Ï·ÈÛ›Ô˘ Î·È ÙˆÓ ÔÚ›ˆÓ ÙÔ˘ ‰È·ÏfiÁÔ˘ Ô˘ ·Ó·Ù‡ÛÛÂÙ·È, ΢ڛˆ˜ ÌÂÙ¿ ÙË ™‡ÓÔ‰Ô ∫ÔÚ˘Ê‹˜ ÙÔ˘ ƒ›Ô (1992), Û¯ÂÙÈο Ì ÙȘ ÚˆÙÔ‚Ô˘Ï›Â˜ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ·ÂÈÊfiÚÔ ·Ó¿Ù˘ÍË, ÙËÓ ·ÂÈÊÔÚ›· Î·È ÙÔ ·ÂÈÊfiÚÔ Ì¤ÏÏÔÓ. Á) ™ËÌ·ÓÙÈ΋ ·Ú¿ÌÂÙÚÔ˜ ÛÙÔ ‰È¿ÏÔÁÔ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ∞ÂÈÊfiÚÔ ∞Ó¿Ù˘ÍË, ÙËÓ ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ∞ÂÈÊÔÚ›· Î·È ÙËÓ √ÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈ΋ ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË Â›Ó·È Ë ‰È¿ÛÙ·ÛË ÙÔ˘ ¯ÚfiÓÔ˘, ΢ڛˆ˜ fiÛÔÓ ·ÊÔÚ¿ ÙÔÓ ÌÂÏÏÔÓÙÈÎfi ÚÔÛ·Ó·ÙÔÏÈÛÌfi. √È ·ÓˆÙ¤Úˆ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈΤ˜ ıˆڋÛÂȘ ¤¯Ô˘Ó ÎÔÈÓfi ÙfiÔ ÚÔ‚ÏËÌ·ÙÈÛÌÔ‡ ÙȘ ¤ÓÓÔȘ Ù˘ Û˘ÌÌÂÙÔ¯È΋˜ ˘¢ı˘ÓfiÙËÙ·˜ Î·È Ù˘ Û˘ÌÌÂÙÔ¯È΋˜ ‰ÈηÈÔÛ‡Ó˘ ÚÔ˜ ÙȘ ÌÂÏÏÔÓÙÈΤ˜ ÁÂÓȤ˜. ∏ ‰È¿ÛÙ·ÛË ÙÔ˘ ¯ÚfiÓÔ˘ Ù˘ √ÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈ΋˜ ∂Î·›‰Â˘Û˘ ·Ó·Ê¤ÚÂÙ·È ÛÙË Û˘Ó‡·ÚÍË ÙˆÓ ÂÍ‹˜ ·Ú·Ì¤ÙÚˆÓ ÙÔ˘ ̤ÏÏÔÓÙÔ˜: Ù· Èı·Ó¿ ̤ÏÏÔÓÙ·, Ù· ÂÊÈÎÙ¿ ̤ÏÏÔÓÙ· Î·È Ù· ÚÔÙÈÌËÙ¤· ̤ÏÏÔÓÙ·. ∏ Û˘Ó‡·ÚÍË ·˘Ù‹ Ì·˜ ÂÈÙÚ¤ÂÈ ÙËÓ Î·Ù·ÓfiËÛË ÌÈ·˜ ¢Ú›·˜ Îϛ̷η˜ ÂÈÏÔÁÒÓ, ̤ۈ Ù˘ ‰È·‰Èηۛ·˜ Ù˘ ÎÚÈ-


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ÙÈ΋˜ ·ÌÊÈÛ‚‹ÙËÛ˘ Î·È ·ÔÛ·Ê‹ÓÈÛ˘ ÙˆÓ ËıÈÎÒÓ ·ÍÈÒÓ, ηıÒ˜ Â›Û˘ Î·È ÙË ‰È·ÌfiÚʈÛË ÂÓfi˜ ÂÓ·ÏÏ·ÎÙÈÎÔ‡ ̤ÏÏÔÓÙÔ˜ (Selby 1999, Bell 2004, Power 2006). ‰) ∏ ÂÛˆÙÂÚÈ΋ ‰È¿ÛÙ·ÛË Ù˘ √ÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈ΋˜ ∂Î·›‰Â˘Û˘ ÂÈÛ¿ÁÂÙ·È ˆ˜ ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈ΋ Û˘ÓÈÛÙÒÛ· ÛÙÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ Ù˘ ¶ÂÚÈ‚·ÏÏÔÓÙÈ΋˜ ∂Î·›‰Â˘Û˘ Ì ÙËÓ ¤ÓÓÔÈ· fiÙÈ Ë ˆÚÈÌfiÙËÙ· ÂÓfi˜ ·ÙfiÌÔ˘, ΢ÚÈÔÏÂÎÙÈο ÔÏÔÎÏËڈ̤ÓÔ˘, ÚÔ·ÙÂÈ ·fi ÙË ‰È·ÏÂÎÙÈ΋ Û¯¤ÛË ·Ó¿ÌÂÛ· ÛÙÔ ¿ÙÔÌÔ Î·È ÙÔ Û‡ÓÔÏÔ, fiÔ˘ ˆ˜ Û‡ÓÔÏÔ ÂÓÓÔÂ›Ù·È Î·È Ë ÎÔÈÓˆÓ›· Î·È ÙÔ Ê˘ÛÈÎfi ÂÚÈ‚¿ÏÏÔÓ (Selby 1999). ∏ √ÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈ΋ ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË ˆ˜ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋ ‰ÈηÈÔÛ‡ÓË ∏ √ÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈ΋ ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË ıˆÚÂ›Ù·È ÛÙȘ ̤Ú˜ Ì·˜ «Ë ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË ÂΛÓË Ô˘ Ú��ÂÙÔÈÌ¿˙ÂÈ ÙÔ˘˜ Ì·ıËÙ¤˜ Ó· ÂÓۈ̷وıÔ‡Ó, Î·È Ó· Û˘ÓÂÈÛʤÚÔ˘Ó, ÛÙÔ ·Ó·‰˘fiÌÂÓÔ ·ÁÎfiÛÌÈÔ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎfi ÂÚÈ‚¿ÏÏÔÓ» (Zsebik 2000). ÕÚ· Ë √ÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈ΋ ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË Î·ı›ÛÙ·Ù·È Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈο ·ÁÎfiÛÌÈ·, ηıfiÛÔÓ ÌÔÚ› Ó· ˘¿ÚÍÂÈ, ıˆÚËÙÈο, ÙfiÛÔ Ì¤Û· Û ‰ÈÂıÓ‹ fiÛÔ Î·È Û ÂıÓÈο Ï·›ÛÈ·. ∫·Ù¿ Û˘Ó¤ÂÈ· ¤Ó· ÛËÌÂ›Ô Ô˘ ¯Ú‹˙ÂÈ ÚÔÛÔ¯‹˜, Û fi,ÙÈ ·ÊÔÚ¿ ÙË ‰È¿ÛÙ·ÛË Ù˘ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋˜ ‰ÈηÈÔÛ‡Ó˘ ̤۷ ÛÙËÓ √ÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈ΋ ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË, Â›Ó·È Ë Û¯¤ÛË ÌÂٷ͇ √ÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈ΋˜ ∂Î·›‰Â˘Û˘ Î·È ·ÁÎÔÛÌÈÔÔ›ËÛ˘. ∏ ϤÔÓ ÚfiÛÊ·ÙË ‚È‚ÏÈÔÁÚ·Ê›· Û¯ÂÙÈο Ì ÙËÓ ·ÁÎÔÛÌÈÔÔ›ËÛË ÂÛÙÈ¿˙ÂÈ ÌfiÓÔ ÛÙȘ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈΤ˜ Û˘ÓÈÛÙÒÛ˜ Ù˘ ‰È·‰Èηۛ·˜ ·˘Ù‹˜. √È ÂÚÈÛÛfiÙÂÚ˜ ÂÌÊ·Ó›ÛÂȘ ÙÔ˘ fiÚÔ˘ «·ÁÎÔÛÌÈÔÔ›ËÛË» ÛÙ· ̤۷ Ì·˙È΋˜ ÂÓË̤ڈÛ˘ ÂÛÙÈ¿˙Ô˘Ó ÛÙËÓ ·ÁÎfiÛÌÈ· ÂÍ¿ψÛË ÙˆÓ ÓÂÔÊÈÏÂχıÂÚˆÓ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈÎÒÓ È‰ÂÒÓ Î·È Ú·ÎÙÈÎÒÓ (Rizvi 2000). ¶·Ú’ fiÏ’ ·˘Ù¿, ÌÂÚÈÎÔ› ÌÂÏÂÙËÙ¤˜ ‚ϤÔ˘Ó ¤Ú· ·fi ·˘Ù¤˜ ÙȘ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈΤ˜ Ù˘¯¤˜ Î·È ÂÛÙÈ¿˙Ô˘Ó ÙËÓ ÚÔÛÔ¯‹ ÙÔ˘˜ ÛÙÔ ÚfiÏÔ ÙˆÓ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎÒÓ, ÔÏÈÙÈÎÒÓ Î·È ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈÎÒÓ –Û˘ÌÂÚÈÏ·Ì‚·ÓÔÌ¤ÓˆÓ Î·È ÙˆÓ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎÒÓ– ·Ú·ÁfiÓÙˆÓ ÛÙËÓ ·ÁÎÔÛÌÈÔÔ›ËÛË (Waters 2001, Wiseman 1998, Walker 2000). ∞ÓÂÍ¿ÚÙËÙ· ·fi ÙËÓ ÔÙÈ΋ ÁˆÓ›· Ô˘ ˘ÈÔıÂÙ› ηÓ›˜ fiÛÔÓ ·ÊÔÚ¿ ÙË ‰È·‰Èηۛ· Ù˘ ·ÁÎÔÛÌÈÔÔ›ËÛ˘, ¤Ó· Ú¿ÁÌ· Â›Ó·È ‚¤‚·ÈÔ: Ë ·ÁÎÔÛÌÈÔÔ›ËÛË Î·È Ë √ÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈ΋ ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË Ê·›ÓÔÓÙ·È Ó· Â›Ó·È ¿ÚÚËÎÙ· Û˘Ó‰Â‰Â̤Ó˜. ¶·ÚfiÙÈ Ë Ì›· Â›Ó·È ·Ú¿Ï¢ÚË Û˘Ó¤ÂÈ· Ù˘ ¿ÏÏ˘, Â›Ó·È ‰‡ÛÎÔÏÔ Ó· ÂÈ Î·Ó›˜ ÔÈÔ Â›Ó·È ÙÔ ·›ÙÈÔ Î·È ÔÈÔ ¤Ó· Èı·Ófi ÙÔ˘ ·ÔÙ¤ÏÂÛÌ·.


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∞.™. °ÎÈfiÏÌ·˜, π.∫. ™Ù·‡ÚÔ˘ Î·È ∫.¢. ™ÎÔÚ‰Ô‡Ï˘

ŒÓ· ¿ÏÏÔ ÛÙÔÈ¯Â›Ô Ô˘ Â›Ó·È ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈÎfi Ó· ÙÔÓÈÛÙ› Û ۯ¤ÛË Ì ÙËÓ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋ ‰ÈηÈÔÛ‡ÓË, Â›Ó·È Ë Â›‰Ú·ÛË Ù˘ ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈ΋˜ ÔÈÎÈÏfiÙËÙ·˜ ÛÙÔÓ ÙÚfiÔ Ô˘ ˘ÏÔÔÈÂ›Ù·È Ë √ÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈ΋ ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË. ∂ÍÈÛÔÚÚÔÒÓÙ·˜ ÙË ÌÔÓ·‰ÈÎfiÙËÙ· Î·È ÙËÓ ÔÈÎÈÏfiÙËÙ· √ ÎÂÓÙÚÈÎfi˜ ÛÙfi¯Ô˜ ÂÓfi˜ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·ÙÈο ‰ÔÌË̤ÓÔ˘ ¤ıÓÔ˘˜-ÎÚ¿ÙÔ˘˜ ÔÊ›ÏÂÈ Ó· Â›Ó·È Ë ‰fiÌËÛË ÌÈ·˜ ¢·›ÛıËÙ˘ ÈÛÔÚÚÔ›·˜ ÌÂٷ͇ Ù˘ ÌÔÓ·‰ÈÎfiÙËÙ·˜ οı ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÔ‡ ·fi ÙË Ì›· Î·È Ù˘ ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈ΋˜ ÔÈÎÈÏfiÙËÙ·˜ ·fi ÙËÓ ¿ÏÏË (Banks et al. 200l). √È Ôϛ٘ Û ÌÈ· ÔÏ˘Ô›ÎÈÏË ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·ÙÈ΋ ÎÔÈÓˆÓ›· ı· Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· Â›Ó·È Û ı¤ÛË Ó· ‰È·ÙËÚÔ‡Ó ÙË Û‡Ó‰ÂÛ‹ ÙÔ˘˜ Ì ÙËÓ ·Ú¯È΋ ÙÔ˘˜ ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈ΋ ÎÔÈÓfiÙËÙ·, ηıÒ˜ Î·È Ó· Û˘ÓÂÈÛʤÚÔ˘Ó ·ÔÙÂÏÂÛÌ·ÙÈο ÛÙÔÓ ÎÔÈÓ¿ ‰È·ÌÔÚʈ̤ÓÔ ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌfi Ù˘ ¯ÒÚ·˜. ∫·Ù¿ Û˘Ó¤ÂÈ·, Ë ‰È·Û‡Ó‰ÂÛË ÙˆÓ ÔÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈÎÒÓ, ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎÒÓ Î·È ÂÚÈ‚·ÏÏÔÓÙÈÎÒÓ ıÂÌ¿ÙˆÓ Ì ٷ ȉȷ›ÙÂÚ· ı¤Ì·Ù·-ÚÔ‚Ï‹Ì·Ù· ÙÔ˘ οı ¤ıÓÔ˘˜-ÎÚ¿ÙÔ˘˜ ·ÔÙÂÏ› ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈ΋ Û˘ÓÈÛÙÒÛ· Ù˘ √ÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈ΋˜ ∂Î·›‰Â˘Û˘ ÁÈ· ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋ Î·È ÂÚÈ‚·ÏÏÔÓÙÈ΋ ‰ÈηÈÔÛ‡ÓË. √ ÁÚ·ÌÌ·ÙÈÛÌfi˜ Î·È Ë ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ÂÓÂÚÁfi ÔÏÈÙÂÈfiÙËÙ· ˆ˜ ·Ú¿ÌÂÙÚÔÈ Ù˘ √ÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈ΋˜ ∂Î·›‰Â˘Û˘ ÁÈ· ∫ÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋ ¢ÈηÈÔÛ‡ÓË √ fiÚÔ˜ ÁÚ·ÌÌ·ÙÈÛÌfi˜ (literacy), fiˆ˜ ·˘Ùfi˜ ÔÚ›˙ÂÙ·È Î·È ·ÔΈ‰ÈÎÔÔÈÂ›Ù·È Î˘Ú›ˆ˜ ÛÙ· ·ÁÁÏÔÛ·ÍÔÓÈο ÎÚ¿ÙË Î·È ÙȘ ∏¶∞, ÂÚÈÏ·Ì‚¿ÓÂÈ Î·È ÙËÓ È‰ÈfiÙËÙ· ÙÔ˘ ÂÓÂÚÁÔ‡ ÔÏ›ÙË, Ô ÔÔ›Ô˜ ÌÔÚ› Î·È Û˘ÌÌÂÙ¤¯ÂÈ ÙfiÛÔ Û ÂıÓÈο fiÛÔ Î·È Û ·ÁÎfiÛÌÈ· Ï·›ÛÈ·. ∆· ÌÂÁ¿Ï· ÚÔ‚Ï‹Ì·Ù· ÙÔ˘ Ï·Ó‹ÙË ‰ÂÓ ÚÔ¤Ú¯ÔÓÙ·È ·fi ·ÓıÚÒÔ˘˜ Ô˘ ‰ÂÓ Â›Ó·È ÂÁÁÚ¿ÌÌ·ÙÔÈ, ·ÓÙ›ıÂÙ·, Ê·›ÓÔÓÙ·È Ó· ÚÔ¤Ú¯ÔÓÙ·È ·fi ·ÓıÚÒÔ˘˜ –‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈÎÒÓ ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÒÓ, Ê˘ÏÒÓ, ıÚËÛÎÂÈÒÓ Î·È ÂıÓÈÎÔًوӖ Ô˘ ·‰˘Ó·ÙÔ‡Ó ‹ ·ÚÓÔ‡ÓÙ·È Ó· Û˘Ó˘¿ÚÍÔ˘Ó Î·È Ó· Û˘ÓÂÚÁ·ÛÙÔ‡Ó ÁÈ· Ó· χÛÔ˘Ó Ù· ‰‡ÛÎÔÏ· ÚÔ‚Ï‹Ì·Ù· ÙÔ˘ ÎfiÛÌÔ˘ Ì·˜, fiˆ˜ Â›Ó·È Ë ˘ÂÚı¤ÚÌ·ÓÛË ÙÔ˘ Ï·Ó‹ÙË, ÔÈ ÂȉË̛˜ Î·È ÔÈ ·Ûı¤ÓÂȘ, Ë ÊÙÒ¯ÂÈ·, Ô Ú·ÙÛÈÛÌfi˜, ÔÈ Ê˘ÏÂÙÈΤ˜ ‰È·ÎÚ›ÛÂȘ Î·È ÔÈ fiÏÂÌÔÈ. ∂Ô̤ӈ˜, ÔÈ ÂÁÁÚ¿ÌÌ·ÙÔÈ Ôϛ٘ ÛÙȘ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·ÙÈΤ˜ ÔÏ˘ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈΤ˜ ÎÔÈӈӛ˜ Â›Ó·È ··Ú·›ÙËÙÔ Ó· ·Ó·Ù‡ÍÔ˘Ó Î·È ÙÔÓ ÔÏ˘ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈÎfi ÁÚ·ÌÌ·ÙÈÛÌfi. √ ÔÏ˘ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈÎfi˜ ÁÚ·ÌÌ·ÙÈÛÌfi˜ (multicultural literacy) Û˘Ó›ÛÙ·Ù·È ÛÙȘ ‰ÂÍÈfiÙËÙ˜ Î·È ÙȘ ÈηÓfiÙËÙ˜ Ó· ·Ó·ÁÓˆÚ›˙ÂÈ Î¿ÔÈÔ˜ Î·È ÙȘ ȉÂÔÏÔÁÈÎÔÔÏÈÙÈΤ˜ ·Ú·Ì¤ÙÚÔ˘˜ Ù˘ ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜ Ù˘


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√ÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈ΋ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË

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ÁÓÒÛ˘ Î·È Ù· Û˘ÌʤÚÔÓÙ· Ô˘ ˘Ê›ÛÙ·ÓÙ·È (Banks 1996), Ó· ·Ó·Î·Ï‡ÙÂÈ ÙȘ ÚÔ¸Ôı¤ÛÂȘ Ù˘ ÁÓÒÛ˘, Ó· ÚÔÛÂÁÁ›˙ÂÈ ÙË ÁÓÒÛË ·fi ÔÈΛϘ ÂıÓÈΤ˜ Î·È ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈΤ˜ ÚÔÔÙÈΤ˜ Î·È Ó· ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔÈ› ÙË ÁÓÒÛË ÒÛÙ ӷ ηıÔ‰ËÁÂ›Ù·È Ë ‰Ú¿ÛË, Ë ÔÔ›· ı· ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁ‹ÛÂÈ ¤Ó·Ó ·ÓıÚÒÈÓÔ Î·È ‰›Î·ÈÔ ÎfiÛÌÔ. ∏ ÂÓÂÚÁfi˜ ÔÏÈÙÂÈfiÙËÙ· Î·È Ë ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ÂÓÂÚÁfi ÔÏÈÙÂÈfiÙËÙ· ÔÚ›˙ÔÓÙ·È Î·È ÂÊ·ÚÌfi˙ÔÓÙ·È ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈο ̤۷ ÛÙ· ‰È¿ÊÔÚ· ¤ıÓË Î·È Ì¤Û· ÛÙ· ‰È¿ÊÔÚ· ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈο, ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈο Î·È ÔÏÈÙÈο Ï·›ÛÈ·. √È ‰‡Ô ·˘Ù¤˜ ¤ÓÓÔȘ ÙÂÏÔ‡Ó ˘fi ‰È·Ú·ÁÌ¿Ù¢ÛË Û ÔÏÏ¿ ¤ıÓË-ÎÚ¿ÙË Û fiÏÔ ÙÔÓ ÎfiÛÌÔ. ∫·Ù¿ Û˘Ó¤ÂÈ·, ˘¿Ú¯Ô˘Ó ÎÔÈÓ¿ ÚÔ‚Ï‹Ì·Ù·, ˙ËÙ‹Ì·Ù· Î·È ı¤Ì·Ù·, fiˆ˜ Ë ·Ó¿ÁÎË Ó· ÚÔÂÙÔÈÌ·ÛÙÔ‡Ó ÔÈ Ì·ıËÙ¤˜ Û ‰È¿ÊÔÚ· ¤ıÓË ÒÛÙ ӷ ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ‹ÛÔ˘Ó ÙfiÛÔ ÂÓÙfi˜ ÙˆÓ Û˘ÓfiÚˆÓ ÙÔ˘˜ fiÛÔ Î·È ‰È·ÎÚ·ÙÈο. ÕÚ· Â›Ó·È ¯Ú‹ÛÈÌË Ë ‡·ÚÍË ‰ÈÂıÓÈÎÒÓ ÔÌ¿‰ˆÓ Ô˘ ı· ÂÓÙÔ›ÛÔ˘Ó ·˘Ù¿ Ù· ÎÔÈÓ¿ ‰ÈÂıÓÈο ı¤Ì·Ù· Î·È ÚÔ‚Ï‹Ì·Ù· Î·È ı· ‰È·ÌÔÚÊÒÛÔ˘Ó Î·Ù¢ı˘ÓÙ‹ÚȘ ÁÚ·Ì̤˜ ÁÈ· ÙË ‰È·Ú·ÁÌ¿Ù¢ÛË Î·È ÙËÓ ·ÓÙÈÌÂÙÒÈÛ‹ ÙÔ˘˜. ™ÙÔ ‰›Ô Ù˘ √ÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈ΋˜ ∂Î·›‰Â˘Û˘, Ô Banks (Banks 2003, 2004, Banks et al. 2005) ı¤ÙÂÈ ÙË ‰È‰·Ûηϛ· ÁÈ· ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋ ‰ÈηÈÔÛ‡ÓË ÛÙËÓ ÚÒÙË ÁÚ·ÌÌ‹ ÙˆÓ ÛÙfi¯ˆÓ Ù˘ √ÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈ΋˜ ∂Î·›‰Â˘Û˘. √ Banks ‰È·ÌÔÚÊÒÓÂÈ ÙËÓ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋ ‰ÈηÈÔÛ‡ÓË Ì fiÚÔ˘˜ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ÂÓÂÚÁfi ÔÏÈÙÂÈfiÙËÙ·. ™ÙÔ «¢ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›· Î·È ÔÈÎÈÏfiÙËÙ·: ·Ú¯¤˜ Î·È ¤ÓÓÔȘ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË ÂÓÂÚÁÒÓ ÔÏÈÙÒÓ Û ÌÈ· ·ÁÎÔÛÌÈÔÔÈË̤ÓË ÂÔ¯‹» (Banks et al. 2005), ·Ó·ÁÓˆÚ›˙ÂÈ Ù¤ÛÛÂÚȘ ‚·ÛÈΤ˜ ·Ú¯¤˜ Ô˘ ı· fiÊÂÈÏ·Ó Ó· Â›Ó·È Ô ÎÂÓÙÚÈÎfi˜ ¿ÍÔÓ·˜ ÙˆÓ ÚÔÁÚ·ÌÌ¿ÙˆÓ Ù˘ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ÂÓÂÚÁfi ÔÏÈÙÂÈfiÙËÙ·. ∞˘Ù¤˜ Â›Ó·È ÔÈ ÂÍ‹˜: Ë ÌÔÓ·‰ÈÎfiÙËÙ· Î·È Ë ÔÈÎÈÏfiÙËÙ·, Ë ·ÁÎfiÛÌÈ· ·ÏÏËÏÔÛ‡Ó‰ÂÛË, Ù· ·ÓıÚÒÈÓ· ‰ÈηÈÒÌ·Ù· Î·È Ë Û˘ÌÌÂÙÔ¯È΋ ‰Ú¿ÛË. √È ÙÚÂȘ ÚÒÙ˜ ·Ú¯¤˜ ·Ó·Ê¤ÚÔÓÙ·È ÛÙ· ÚÔÙÂÈÓfiÌÂÓ· ÛËÌ›· Ô˘ Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ÂÛÙÈ¿˙Ô˘Ó Ù· ÚÔÁÚ¿ÌÌ·Ù· ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘ ÁÈ· ÂÓÂÚÁfi ÔÏÈÙÂÈfiÙËÙ·, ÂÓÒ Ë ÙÂÏÂ˘Ù·›· ·Ú¯‹ ·ÔÙÂÏ› ÙËÓ ·Ó·ÁÓÒÚÈÛË ÙÔ˘ fiÙÈ ÁÈ· Ó· Â›Ó·È ·ÔÙÂÏÂÛÌ·ÙÈο ·˘Ù¿ Ù· ÚÔÁÚ¿ÌÌ·Ù· ÔÈ Ì·ıËÙ¤˜ ı· Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ÂÓı·ÚÚ‡ÓÔÓÙ·È Ó· ÌÂÙ·Û¯ËÌ·Ù›ÛÔ˘Ó ÙË ÁÓÒÛË Û ‰Ú¿ÛË. ∂Ó¤ÚÁÂÈ·-ÎÏÂȉ› ÁÈ· Ó· ÂÈÙ¢¯ıÔ‡Ó ÔÈ ÚÔ·Ó·ÊÂÚı›Û˜ ·Ú¯¤˜, ·Ó·Ê¤ÚÂÈ Ô Banks (Banks 2004), Â›Ó·È ÙÔ Ó· ·ÊÔÌÔȈıÔ‡Ó Ë ÁÓÒÛË, ÔÈ ‰ÂÍÈfiÙËÙ˜ Î·È ÔÈ ÛÙ¿ÛÂȘ ÔÈ Û¯ÂÙÈΤ˜ Ì ÙËÓ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋ ‰ÈηÈÔÛ‡ÓË. √ Gaudelli (Gaudelli 2003) Û˘˙ËÙ¿ ÙËÓ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋ ‰ÈηÈÔÛ‡ÓË Ì fiÚÔ˘˜ ‰Ú¿Û˘ ÙˆÓ ÔÏÈÙÒÓ, ¤Ó· ·fi Ù· ¤ÍÈ ı¤Ì·Ù· Ô˘ ·Ó·ÁÓˆÚ›˙ÂÈ ˆ˜ ÙȘ ·ÚȘ ·Ú·Ì¤ÙÚÔ˘˜ ÛÙËÓ ·Ó¿Ù˘ÍË Ù˘ √ÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈ΋˜ ∂Î·›‰Â˘Û˘. ™‡Ìʈӷ Ì ·˘ÙfiÓ (Gaudelli 2003), Ë ¤ÌÊ·ÛË ÛÙËÓ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋ ‰ÈηÈÔÛ‡ÓË Û˘Ó›ÛÙ·Ù·È ÛÙÔ Ó· ‰È¢-


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∞.™. °ÎÈfiÏÌ·˜, π.∫. ™Ù·‡ÚÔ˘ Î·È ∫.¢. ™ÎÔÚ‰Ô‡Ï˘

ÎÔχÓÔÓÙ·È «‰Ú¿ÛÂȘ Ô˘ ·ÏÏ¿˙Ô˘Ó ÙËÓ ·ÓÙ›ÏË„Ë ÂÚ› ÙÔ˘ ·ÙfiÌÔ˘» (Gaudelli 2003:23) Î·È fi¯È ÙfiÛÔ ÛÙÔ Ó· ˘ÔÛÙËÚ›˙ÂÙ·È Ô ·ÎÙÈ‚ÈÛÌfi˜ per se. ∫ÚÈÙÈΤ˜ Ì·ÚÍÈÛÙÈΤ˜ ÙÔÔıÂÙ‹ÛÂȘ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ √ÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈ΋ ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË ¢È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈΤ˜ ·fi„ÂȘ Û¯ÂÙÈο Ì ÙËÓ √ÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈ΋ ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË Î·È ÙË ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋ ‰ÈηÈÔÛ‡ÓË ‰È·Ù˘ÒÓÔÓÙ·È ÂΠ̤ÚÔ˘˜ Ì·ÚÍÈÛÙÒÓ ·È‰·ÁˆÁÒÓ. ŒÓ· ÎÏ·ÛÈÎfi –‹‰Ë– ‚È‚Ï›Ô Ô˘ ·Ó·‰ÂÈÎÓ‡ÂÈ ÙË ı¤ÛË ÙˆÓ Ì·ÚÍÈÛÙÒÓ, ΢ڛˆ˜ ÎÚÈÙÈÎÒÓ ·È‰·ÁˆÁÒÓ, ·¤Ó·ÓÙÈ ÛÙËÓ √ÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈ΋ ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË Â›Ó·È ÙÔ ‚È‚Ï›Ô ÙˆÓ Peter McLaren Î·È Ramin Farahmandpur, ¢È‰¿ÛÎÔÓÙ·˜ ∂Ó¿ÓÙÈ· ÛÙÔÓ ¶·ÁÎfiÛÌÈÔ ∫·ÈÙ·ÏÈÛÌfi Î·È ÙÔÓ ¡¤Ô πÌÂÚÈ·ÏÈÛÌfi (Teaching Against Global Capitalism and the New Imperialism) (McLaren & Farahmandpur 2005). √È Û˘ÁÁÚ·Ê›˜ ¤¯Ô˘Ó ˆ˜ ·ÚÈÔ ÛÙfi¯Ô ÙÔ Ó· ÂÈÎÚ›ÓÔ˘Ó ÛÊÔ‰Ú¿ ÙËÓ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈ΋ ·ÁÎÔÛÌÈÔÔ›ËÛË, Î·È Î˘Ú›ˆ˜ ÙȘ Û˘Ó¤ÂȤ˜ Ù˘: ÙÔÓ ·ÁÎfiÛÌÈÔ Î·ÈÙ·ÏÈÛÌfi, ÙË ÌÂÙ·ÓˆÙÂÚÈÎfiÙËÙ·, ÙÔÓ ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈÎfi ˘‚ÚȉÈÛÌfi Î·È ÙÔÓ «Ó¤Ô ÈÌÂÚÈ·ÏÈÛÌfi». ∏ ÎÚÈÙÈ΋ ·˘Ù‹ ÙˆÓ Û˘ÁÁڷʤˆÓ Â›Ó·È ÛÙËÚÈÁ̤ÓË ÛÙȘ Û¯ÂÙÈΤ˜ ÙÔÔıÂÙ‹ÛÂȘ Ù˘ Ì·ÚÍÈÛÙÈ΋˜ ıˆڛ·˜, ÂÓÒ ˆ˜ ÂÓ·ÏÏ·ÎÙÈ΋ ÌÔÚÊ‹ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘ ¤Ó·ÓÙÈ Ù˘ √ÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈ΋˜ ÚÔÙ›ÓÔ˘Ó ·˘Ùfi Ô˘ ÔÓÔÌ¿˙ÂÙ·È «∫ÚÈÙÈ΋ ∂·Ó·ÛÙ·ÙÈ΋ ¶·È‰·ÁˆÁÈ΋». °È· ÙÔÓ McLaren Î·È ÙÔÓ Farahmandpur, Ë ·ÁÎÔÛÌÈÔÔ›ËÛË Â›Ó·È ¤Ó·˜ ·Ú·Ï·ÓËÙÈÎfi˜ Î·È Â˘ÊËÌÈÛÙÈÎfi˜ fiÚÔ˜, Ô ÔÔ›Ô˜ Û˘ÁηχÙÂÈ ÙÔ «¿Û¯ËÌÔ» ÚfiÛˆfi ÙÔ˘: ÙÔÓ ÈÌÂÚÈ·ÏÈÛÌfi Î·È Î˘Ú›ˆ˜ ÙÔÓ ÔÏÈÙÈÛÙÈÎfi ÈÌÂÚÈ·ÏÈÛÌfi, ÙÔ Û¯¤‰ÈÔ ÙˆÓ ‰˘ÙÈÎÒÓ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÒÓ ÁÈ· ÌÔÓÔÌÂÚ‹ ˘ÂÚÔ¯‹ Î·È ·ÁÎfiÛÌÈ· ΢ÚÈ·Ú¯›·, ÙËÓ ÂÎÌÂÙ¿ÏÏ¢ÛË Ù˘ ÂÚÁ·Û›·˜, ÙËÓ ˘ÔÛÙËÚÈ˙fiÌÂÓË ·fi ÙÔ ÎÚ¿ÙÔ˜ ÙÚÔÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·, ÙË ÛÙÚ·ÙȈÙÈÎÔÔ›ËÛË ÙÔ˘ ‰È·ÛÙ‹Ì·ÙÔ˜, ÙËÓ ÔÌÔÁÂÓÔÔ›ËÛË ÙˆÓ ªª∂ ηÈ, Ù¤ÏÔ˜, ¤Ó·Ó ηÈÙ·ÏÈÛÌfi Ô ÔÔ›Ô˜ ÌÂÙ·ÙÚ¤ÂÈ ÙÔ Ê˘ÛÈÎfi ÂÚÈ‚¿ÏÏÔÓ Û ·Ï˘Û›‰· ÂÌÔÚÈÎÒÓ Î¤ÓÙÚˆÓ (Planet Mall), Ì ÛÙfi¯Ô Ù· ‚Ú·¯˘ÚfiıÂÛÌ· Î¤Ú‰Ë Î·È Û ‚¿ÚÔ˜ Ù˘ ÔÈÎÔÏÔÁÈ΋˜ ˘Á›·˜ Î·È Ù˘ ·ÓıÚÒÈÓ˘ ·ÍÈÔÚ¤ÂÈ·˜. ∂Ô̤ӈ˜, ηٿ ÙËÓ ¿Ô„Ë ÙˆÓ Û˘ÁÁڷʤˆÓ, Ë ·ÁÎÔÛÌÈÔÔ›ËÛË «Î·ÓÈ‚·ÏÔÔÈ› ÙË ˙ˆ‹ ˆ˜ Û‡ÓÔÏÔ» (McLaren & Farahmandpur 2005:15). ™‡Ìʈӷ Ì ÙÔ˘˜ McLaren Î·È Farahmandpur, ÔÈ ÌÂÙ·ÓˆÙÂÚÈΤ˜ ıˆڛ˜ Ì ÙÔ Ó· ˘ÈÔıÂÙÔ‡Ó ÛȈËÚ¿ ÌÈ· ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌ›· Ù˘ ·ÁÔÚ¿˜, Ì ÙÔ Ó· ÂÛÙÈ¿˙Ô˘Ó ÛÙÔÓ ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈÎfi ‰È¿ÏÔÁÔ (culturalist discourse), Ì ÙÔ Ó· ·ÓËÁ˘Ú›˙Ô˘Ó ÙÔ ı¿Ó·ÙÔ ÙÔ˘ ÔÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈÛÌÔ‡ (universalism) ÂȘ fiÊÂÏÔ˜ ÙÔ˘ «˘ÂÚ·ÙÔÌÈÛÌÔ‡», Ì ÙÔ Ó· ·ÚÓÔ‡ÓÙ·È Ó· ‰Â¯ÙÔ‡Ó fiÙÈ «‚ÚÈÛÎfiÌ·ÛÙ Û ÌÈ· ÌÂÙ··ÔÈÎÈÔÎÚ·ÙÈ΋ Ê¿ÛË», ¤ÊÙÔ˘Ó ÙÂÏÈο ı‡Ì·Ù· ÛÙËÓ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋ Ù˘ Ù·˘ÙfiÙËÙ·˜, Ë ÔÔ›· ¯·Ú·-


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ÎÙËÚ›˙ÂÈ ÌÈ· «Úfi¯ÂÈÚË ÌÔÚÊ‹ ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈÎfiÙËÙ·˜», Î·È Î·Ù·ÚÚ¤Ô˘Ó Û ÌÈ· ÌÔÚÊ‹ «ÊÈÏÂÏ¢ıÂÚÈÛÌÔ‡ Î·È Ù˘¯¿Ú·ÛÙ˘ ÂͤÁÂÚÛ˘» (McLaren & Farahmandpur 2005: 25, 18). ™˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤ӷ, ÚÔ‚¿ÏÏÔ˘Ó ÙË ı¤ÛË fiÙÈ Û οı ÌÔÚÊ‹ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘ «Ë Ì·ÚÍÈÛÙÈ΋ ·Ó¿Ï˘ÛË ı· ¤ÚÂ ӷ ¯ÚËÛÈ̇ÂÈ ˆ˜ ·ÍȈ̷ÙÈÎfi ÂÚÁ·ÏÂ›Ô ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ·ÌÊÈÛ‚‹ÙËÛË ÙˆÓ ÛËÌÂÚÈÓÒÓ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎÒÓ Û¯¤ÛˆÓ, ÙˆÓ Û¯ÂÙÈ˙fiÌÂÓˆÓ Ì ÙËÓ ·ÁÎÔÛÌÈÔÔ›ËÛË ÙÔ˘ ÎÂÊ·Ï·›Ô˘ Î·È Ì ÙȘ ÓÂÔÊÈÏÂχıÂÚ˜ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈΤ˜ ÔÏÈÙÈΤ˜ Ô˘ ·ÎÔÏÔ˘ıÔ‡Ó ˆ˜ ·ÔÙ¤ÏÂÛÌ¿ Ù˘» (McLaren & Farahmandpur 2005: 22). √ÌÔÏÔÁÔ‡Ó ¿ÓÙˆ˜ fiÙÈ «Ë Ì·ÚÍÈÛÙÈ΋ ıˆڛ· ·ÔÙÂÏ› ¤Ó· ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎfi Û‡ÛÙËÌ· ·Ó¿Ï˘Û˘ Ô˘ ·ÊÔÚ¿ Ù· ·ÓıÚÒÈÓ· ˘ÔΛÌÂÓ· Î·È ‰È·ÙÚ¤¯ÂÈ Ù· ÌÈÎÚ¿ Ú¿ÁÌ·Ù· Ù˘ ηıËÌÂÚÈÓfiÙËÙ·˜, ÂÔ̤ӈ˜ ı· Ú¤ÂÈ Û˘Ó¯Ҙ Ó· Â·ÓÂÍÂÙ¿˙ÂÙ·È» (McLaren & Farahmandpur 2005: 22). ø˜ ÌÈ· ·È‰·ÁˆÁÈ΋ Ô˘ Ó· ·Óı›ÛÙ·Ù·È Û ·˘Ùfi ÙÔÓ «Ó¤Ô ÈÌÂÚÈ·ÏÈÛÌfi», ÔÈ McLaren Î·È Farahmandpur ÚÔÙ¿ÛÛÔ˘Ó, ÂÓ·ÏÏ·ÎÙÈο ˆ˜ ÚÔ˜ ÙËÓ √ÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈ΋ ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË, ÌÈ· «FreireÈ·Ó‹», «ÛÔÛÈ·ÏÈÛÙÈ΋» ·È‰·ÁˆÁÈ΋ «Ù˘ ÂÚÁ·ÙÈ΋˜ Ù¿Í˘», ÛÙËÓ ÔÔ›· Â›Û˘ ·Ó·Ê¤ÚÔÓÙ·È Ì ÙÔ fiÓÔÌ· «Â·Ó·ÛÙ·ÙÈÎfi˜ ÔÏ˘ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌfi˜», «Â·Ó·ÛÙ·ÙÈ΋ Ú¿ÍË ÂÓÂÚÁÔ‡ ÔÏÈÙÂÈfiÙËÙ·˜» ‹ «∂·Ó·ÛÙ·ÙÈ΋ ∫ÚÈÙÈ΋ ¶·È‰·ÁˆÁÈ΋». ÃÚÂÈ·˙fiÌ·ÛÙ ÙËÓ «∂·Ó·ÛÙ·ÙÈ΋ ∫ÚÈÙÈ΋ ¶·È‰·ÁˆÁÈ΋», ϤÓÂ, ÁÈ·Ù› ·˘Ùfi Ô˘ ÙÒÚ· ·ÔηÏԇ̠«∫ÚÈÙÈ΋ ¶·È‰·ÁˆÁÈ΋» ÔÊ›ÏÂÈ Ó· οÓÂÈ Î¿ÙÈ ÂÚÈÛÛfiÙÂÚÔ ·fi ÙÔ Ó· ÍËÏÒÓÂÈ Û˘Ó¯Ҙ fi,ÙÈ ÂÍ˘Ê·›ÓÂÈ Î·ıËÌÂÚÈÓ¿ Ë ÂÌÔÚÂ˘Ì·ÙÈ΋ ÏÔÁÈ΋ ÙÔ˘ ÎÂÊ·Ï·›Ô˘. √Ê›ÏÂÈ Ó· ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌ‹ÛÂÈ ¤Ó· Ó¤Ô fiÚ·Ì· ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ÎÔÈÓˆÓ›·, ·ÂÏ¢ıÂڈ̤ÓÔ ·fi ÙÔ ÓfiÌÔ Ù˘ ·Í›·˜ ÙÔ˘ ÎÂÊ·Ï·›Ô˘. ªÈ· ∫ÚÈÙÈ΋ ¶·È‰·ÁˆÁÈ΋, ÚÔÎÂÈ̤ÓÔ˘ Ó· ÚÔ¿ÁÂÈ ÌÈ· Â·Ó·ÛÙ·ÙÈ΋ Ú¿ÍË, Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· Â›Ó·È Û ı¤ÛË Ó· ˘ÔÛÙËÚ›˙ÂÈ ÙÔÓ ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈÎfi ·ÁÒÓ· ÙˆÓ ÂÚÁ·ÙÒÓ Î·È Ó· Û˘ÓÙÔÓ›ÛÂÈ Ù¤ÙÔÈÔ˘ ›‰Ô˘˜ ·ÁÒÓ˜, ˆ˜ ̤ÚÔ˜ ÂÓfi˜ ¢ڇÙÂÚÔ˘ ‰È·Û˘ÓÔÚÈ·ÎÔ‡ Û˘Ó‰ÈηÏÈÛÌÔ‡ ÙˆÓ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎÒÓ ÎÈÓËÌ¿ÙˆÓ, Ô ÔÔ›Ô˜ Ì ÙË ÛÂÈÚ¿ ÙÔ˘ Ó· ÛÙԯ‡ÂÈ ÛÙÔ Ó· ÔÚÁ·ÓÒÓÂÈ Î·È Ó· ˘ÔÛÙËÚ›˙ÂÈ ÙȘ ÂÚÁ·ÙÈΤ˜ Ù¿ÍÂȘ Î·È ÙÔ˘˜ ÂÚÈıˆÚÈÔÔÈË̤ÓÔ˘˜ ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈÎÔ‡˜ ÂÚÁ·˙fiÌÂÓÔ˘˜ ÎÈ ÂÚÁ¿Ù˜, ÛÙËÓ ÚÔÛ¿ıÂÈ¿ ÙÔ˘˜ Ó· ‰ÈÂÍ¿ÁÔ˘Ó Ó¤Ô˘˜ ‰ÈÂıÓ›˜ ·ÓÙÈηÈÙ·ÏÈÛÙÈÎÔ‡˜ ·ÁÒÓ˜ ÛÙËÓ ÔÚ›· ÁÈ· ÙÔ ÛÔÛÈ·ÏÈÛÌfi (McLaren & Farahmandpur 2005: 150). √È McLaren Î·È Farahmandpur Û˘ÓÔ„›˙Ô˘Ó ·˘Ù¤˜ ÙȘ ·È‰·ÁˆÁÈΤ˜ ı¤ÛÂȘ ÙÔ˘˜ Ì ÙËÓ ·Ú·Ù‹ÚËÛË fiÙÈ «‰ÂÓ ¯ÚÂÈ·˙fiÌ·ÛÙ ٛÔÙ· ÏÈÁfiÙÂÚÔ ·fi ÌÈ· ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋ Â·Ó¿ÛÙ·ÛË» (McLaren & Farahmandpur 2005: 152). À¿Ú¯Ô˘Ó ‚¤‚·È· Î·È Ì·ÚÍÈÛÙ¤˜ Ô˘ ‰È·ÊˆÓÔ‡Ó ÂÓ Ì¤ÚÂÈ Ì ÙȘ ı¤ÛÂȘ ·˘Ù¤˜ (Ibrahim 2007). £ÂˆÚÔ‡Ó ‰ËÏ·‰‹ fiÙÈ ‰ÂÓ Â›Ó·È Û·Ê¤˜, ̤۷ ÛÙÔ ıˆ-


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ÚËÙÈÎfi Ï·›ÛÈÔ Ù˘ ∂·Ó·ÛÙ·ÙÈ΋˜ ∫ÚÈÙÈ΋˜ ¶·È‰·ÁˆÁÈ΋˜, ÙÔ Ò˜ ·ÓÙÈÌÂÙˆ›˙ÂÙ·È ÙÔ ı¤Ì· Ù˘ ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈÎfiÙËÙ·˜, ›ÙÂ Ê˘ÏÂÙÈ΋˜ ›Ù ٷÍÈ΋˜ ›Ù ÙÔ˘ ʇÏÔ˘ ›Ù Ù˘ ÛÂÍÔ˘·ÏÈÎfiÙËÙ·˜ ›Ù ·ÎfiÌË Î·È Ù˘ ۈ̷ÙÈ΋˜ ‹ ÓÂ˘Ì·ÙÈ΋˜ ÈηÓfiÙËÙ·˜, ÌÂٷ͇ ¿ÏψÓ. ∆ÂÏÈο ¿ÓÙˆ˜ ÛÙÔ ˙‹ÙËÌ· ÙÔ˘ ·Ó Â›Ó·È ÂÊÈÎÙ‹ Ë √ÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈ΋ ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË Û‹ÌÂÚ·, ÔÈ Ì·ÚÍÈÛÙ¤˜ ·È‰·ÁˆÁÔ› Ù˘ ∂·Ó·ÛÙ·ÙÈ΋˜ ∫ÚÈÙÈ΋˜ ¶·È‰·ÁˆÁÈ΋˜ Ê·›ÓÂÙ·È Ó· Û˘ÌʈÓÔ‡Ó ÛÙÔ fiÙÈ Â›Ó·È, ·ÏÏ¿ ÁÈ· Ó· ÂÈÙ¢¯ı› Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ‰È·ÌÔÚʈı› ÌÈ· Ó¤·, ÂÓÙÂÏÒ˜ ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈ΋ Î·È ÚÈ˙ÔÛ·ÛÙÈ΋ ·ÓÙ›ÏË„Ë ÂÚ› ÙÔ˘ ÙÈ Â›Ó·È «Û‡ÓÔÚÔ», ÙÈ Â›Ó·È «·È‰·ÁˆÁÈ΋» Î·È ÙÈ Â›Ó·È «·ÁÎÔÛÌÈÔÔ›ËÛË». ªÈ· Ù¤ÙÔÈ· ·ÓÙ›ÏË„Ë ÔÊ›ÏÂÈ Ó· Â›Ó·È ÛÙËÚÈÁ̤ÓË ÛÙÔ Ì·ÚÍÈÛÌfi Î·È ÙËÓ Ù·ÍÈ΋ ¿ÏË, Ó· ÛÙԯ‡ÂÈ ‰Â ¿ÓÙÔÙ ÛÙËÓ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋ Â·Ó¿ÛÙ·ÛË (Ibrahim 2007). ™‡Ìʈӷ Ì ÙË Ì·ÚÍÈÛÙÈ΋ ·Ó¿Ï˘ÛË, Ë ÔÔ›· ‰È·Ù˘ÒÓÂÙ·È ·fi ̤ÚÔ˘˜ Ù˘ ƒÈ˙ÔÛ·ÛÙÈ΋˜ ∂Î·›‰Â˘Û˘ (radical education) (Johnson 1979), ÔÈ ¿ÍÔÓ˜ ÁÈ· ÙÔ Û˘Û¯ÂÙÈÛÌfi Ì ÙËÓ √ÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈ΋ ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË ‰È·ÚıÚÒÓÔÓÙ·È ˆ˜ ÂÍ‹˜: ÎÚÈÙÈ΋ ÙÔ˘ ˘¿Ú¯ÔÓÙÔ˜ Û˘ÛÙ‹Ì·ÙÔ˜, ÂÓ·ÏÏ·ÎÙÈÎÔ› ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎÔ› ÛÙfi¯ÔÈ, ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ·ÏÏ·Á‹ ÙÔ˘ ÎfiÛÌÔ˘ Î·È ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË ÁÈ· fiÏÔ˘˜. ™ËÌ·ÓÙÈÎÔ› ¿ÍÔÓ˜ ‰È·Û‡Ó‰ÂÛ˘ Ù˘ ª·ÚÍÈÛÙÈ΋˜ ƒÈ˙ÔÛ·ÛÙÈ΋˜ ∂Î·›‰Â˘Û˘ Ì ÙËÓ √ÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈ΋ ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË Â›Ó·È Ë ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ∞ÏÏ·Á‹ ÙÔ˘ ∫fiÛÌÔ˘ Î·È Ë ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË ÁÈ· ŸÏÔ˘˜. ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ∞ÏÏ·Á‹ ÙÔ˘ ∫fiÛÌÔ˘ √È ÚÈ˙ÔÛ¿ÛÙ˜ ·È‰·ÁˆÁÔ› ‰È·Ù›ÓÔÓÙ·È fiÙÈ ˘¿Ú¯Ô˘Ó ÙÚÈÒÓ ÂȉÒÓ ÚÔÔÙÈΤ˜ ÂͤÏÈ͢ Ô˘ ÌÔÚÔ‡Ó Ó· ‚ÔËı‹ÛÔ˘Ó ÛÙËÓ Î·Ù‡ı˘ÓÛË ·˘Ù‹, ̤۷ ÛÙÔ ıˆÚËÙÈÎfi Ï·›ÛÈÔ Ù˘ Ï·˚΋˜ ·˘ÙfiÓÔÌ˘ ‰Ú¿Û˘ (Hatcher 1995): ·) Ë ¤ÌÊ·ÛË ÛÙȘ ¡¤Â˜ ∆¯ÓÔÏÔÁ›Â˜ – Î·È ÂȉÈÎfiÙÂÚ· ÛÙËÓ ∆¯ÓÔÏÔÁ›· ÙˆÓ ¶ÏËÚÔÊÔÚÈÒÓ, ÔÈ Ôԛ˜ ÌÔÚÔ‡Ó Ó· ÂÈÙÚ¤„Ô˘Ó ÛÙÔÓ Ì·ıËÙ‹ Ôχ ÌÂÁ·Ï‡ÙÂÚÔ Â‡ÚÔ˜ ÂÈÏÔÁÒÓ Î·È Ó· ˘ÔÓÔ̇ÛÔ˘Ó ÙÔ ÚfiÏÔ ÙÔ˘ ‰·ÛοÏÔ˘ ˆ˜ ÎÏÂȉÔÎÚ¿ÙÔÚ· Ù˘ ÁÓÒÛ˘, ÂÓÈÛ¯‡ÔÓÙ·˜ Û˘Á¯ÚfiÓˆ˜ ÙÔ ÚfiÏÔ ÙÔ˘ ÙÂÏÂ˘Ù·›Ô˘ ˆ˜ ‰È¢ÎÔÏ˘ÓÙ‹ Ù˘ Ì·ıËÛȷ΋˜ ‰È·‰Èηۛ·˜, ‚) Â›Ó·È ·Ó·Áη›· Ë ·‡ÍËÛË ÙˆÓ ‰ÈÎ·ÈˆÌ¿ÙˆÓ ÙˆÓ Ì·ıËÙÒÓ. ∏ Ô˘ÛÈ·ÛÙÈ΋ ȉÈfiÙËÙ· ÙÔ˘ ÂÓÂÚÁÔ‡ ÔÏ›ÙË Û ÌÈ· ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·ÙÈ΋ ÎÔÈÓˆÓ›· ÍÂÎÈÓ¿ÂÈ ·fi ÙÔ Û¯ÔÏ›Ô, Á) Ë ·ÔÌfiÓˆÛË ÙÔ˘ Û¯ÔÏ›Ԣ Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ÙÂı› ˘fi ·›ÚÂÛË. ÃÚÂÈ¿˙ÂÙ·È Ó· ÏËÊı› ÛÔ‚·Ú¿ ˘fi„Ë Ë ·ÓÙ›ÏË„Ë ÂÚ› ÌÈ·˜ «ÎÔÈÓˆÓ›·˜ Ô˘ Û˘ÓÔÏÈο Ì·ı·›ÓÂÈ», Î·È Ó· ÌÔÚÔ‡Ó Ó· Â›Ó·È ÚÔÛ‚¿ÛÈ̘ fiϘ ÔÈ Ù˘¯¤˜ Ù˘ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋˜, ÂȯÂÈÚËÌ·ÙÈ΋˜ Î·È ‚ÈÔÌ˯·ÓÈ΋˜ ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ·˜ ÁÈ·


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‰ÈÂÚ‡ÓËÛË ·fi ÙËÓ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË (Hatcher 1995: 3-4). √ Hatcher ηٷϋÁÂÈ fiÙÈ Ô Û˘Ó‰˘·ÛÌfi˜ ÙˆÓ ÙÚÈÒÓ ·˘ÙÒÓ ÂÍÂÏ›ÍÂˆÓ ÌÔÚ› Ó· ‚¿ÏÂÈ ÙË Û¯ÔÏÈ΋ Ù¿ÍË Î·È ÙÔ Û¯ÔÏÂ›Ô ÛÙÔ Â›ÎÂÓÙÚÔ ÂÓfi˜ ÔχÏÔÎÔ˘ ‰ÈÎÙ‡Ô˘ Ì¿ıËÛ˘ Î·È Ó· ‚ÔËı‹ÛÂÈ ÛÙÔ Ó· ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁËı› ÌÈ· ηÈÓÔ‡ÚÁÈ· Ï·˚΋ ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú· ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË (Hatcher 1995: 4). ∆· ÚÔËÁÔ‡ÌÂÓ· ‰ÂÓ ÛËÌ·›ÓÔ˘Ó fiÙÈ Ù· Û¯ÔÏ›· ı· Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ·ÓÙÈηٷÛÙ‹ÛÔ˘Ó ÙËÓ Î·ÈÙ·ÏÈÛÙÈ΋ ÚÔ·Á¿Ó‰· Ì ÙË ÛÔÛÈ·ÏÈÛÙÈ΋ ÚÔ·Á¿Ó‰·. ª¿ÏÏÔÓ ÛËÌ·›ÓÔ˘Ó fiÙÈ Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ·Ú¤¯ÔÓÙ·È ÛÙÔ˘˜ Ì·ıËÙ¤˜ ÂÓ·ÏÏ·ÎÙÈΤ˜ ÂÚÌËÓ›˜ ÙÔ˘ ÁÈ·Ù› Î·È Ò˜ Ù· Ú¿ÁÌ·Ù· Û˘Ì‚·›ÓÔ˘Ó fiˆ˜ Û˘Ì‚·›ÓÔ˘Ó (Shor 1992: 15-16). ™ÙË ‰È·ÏÂÎÙÈ΋ ıÂÒÚËÛË Ù˘ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘, Ë ÎÚÈÙÈ΋ ÛΤ„Ë Â›Ó·È Î·ıÔÚÈÛÙÈÎfi˜ ·Ú¿ÁÔÓÙ·˜, ·ÏÏ¿ Ë ÎÚÈÙÈ΋ ÛΤ„Ë ¯ÚÂÈ¿˙ÂÙ·È ÙË Ê·ÓÙ·Û›·, ̤ۈ Ù˘ ÔÔ›·˜ ÔÈ Ì·ıËÙ¤˜/ÊÔÈÙËÙ¤˜ Î·È ÔÈ ‰È‰¿ÛÎÔÓÙ˜ ÂÍ·ÛÎÔ‡ÓÙ·È ÛÙÔ Ó· ÔÚ·Ì·Ù›˙ÔÓÙ·È ÌÈ· Ó¤· ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÎfiÙËÙ· (Freire & Shor 1987: 186-187). ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË ÁÈ· ŸÏÔ˘˜ √È ÚÈ˙ÔÛ¿ÛÙ˜ ·È‰·ÁˆÁÔ› ·Û¯ÔÏÔ‡ÓÙ·È Ì ÙÔ Ò˜ Ó· ·ÔÎÙ‹ÛÔ˘Ó ÁÓÒÛË Î·È Î·Ù·ÓfiËÛË Î·È ÔÈ ÂÓ‹ÏÈÎÔÈ Î·È ÂÛÙÈ¿˙Ô˘Ó ÛÙËÓ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË fiÏˆÓ ÙˆÓ ÔÏÈÙÒÓ ˆ˜ ÌÂÏÒÓ ÌÈ·˜ ÎÔÈÓˆÓ›·˜ Ì ‰ÈηÈfiÙÂÚË ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋ ‰È·ÛÙڈ̿وÛË. ™ÙÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ ·˘Ù‹˜ Ù˘ ·ÓÙ›Ï˄˘, ‰ÂÓ Á›ÓÂÙ·È ¤ÓÙÔÓË ‰È¿ÎÚÈÛË ·Ó¿ÌÂÛ· ÛÙËÓ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË ÙˆÓ «·È‰ÈÒÓ» Î·È Û ·˘Ù‹ ÙˆÓ «ÂÓËϛΈӻ (Û ·ÓÙ›ıÂÛË Ì ÙËÓ ·ÓÙ›ÏË„Ë ÂÚ› ·È‰È΋˜ ËÏÈΛ·˜ Ù˘ ÌÂÛÔ·ÛÙÈ΋˜ Ù¿Í˘), ·ÓÙÈı¤Ùˆ˜ ··ÈÙÂ›Ù·È ÌÈ· ÈÔ Ì·ÎÚÔÚfiıÂÛÌË ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈ΋ ÛÙÚ·ÙËÁÈ΋, ÌÈ· Ó¤· ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË ÂÓ Á¤ÓÂÈ, Ë ÔÔ›· ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚ›˙ÂÙ·È ·fi ÔÚÈṲ̂ӷ Ì›˙ÔÓ· ˙ËÙ‹Ì·Ù· ÔÏÈÙÈ΋˜. ∫·Ù’ ·Ú¯‹Ó, ÔÈ Î‡ÚÈÔÈ ÛÙfi¯ÔÈ ÌÈ·˜ Ù¤ÙÔÈ·˜ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈ΋˜ ÛÙÚ·ÙËÁÈ΋˜ ı· ‹Ù·Ó ÔÈ ÂÍ‹˜: Ë ‰ËÌfiÛÈ· ·ÚÔ¯‹ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘ ÚÔ Î·È Î·Ù¿ ÙË ‰È¿ÚÎÂÈ· ÙÔ˘ ÂÚÁ·ÛÈ·ÎÔ‡ ‚›Ô˘, ˘ËÚÂÙÒÓÙ·˜ fiÏÔ˘˜ ÙÔ˘˜ Ôϛ٘ Û fiÏË ÙË ‰È¿ÚÎÂÈ· Ù˘ ˙ˆ‹˜ ÙÔ˘˜, Ë ÚÔ·ÁˆÁ‹ ÌÈ·˜ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·ÙÈο ÂÏÂÁ¯fiÌÂÓ˘ Î·È ÏÔÁÔ‰ÔÙÔ‡Û·˜ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈ΋˜ ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ›·˜ Û fiϘ ÙȘ ‚·ıÌ›‰Â˜ Î·È Ë ÂÊ·ÚÌÔÁ‹ ÙˆÓ ·Ú¯ÒÓ Ù˘ ÈÛfiÙËÙ·˜ Î·È Ù˘ ÂÍ¿ÏÂȄ˘ ÙˆÓ ‰È·ÎÚ›ÛÂˆÓ Û fiÏ· Ù· ÙÌ‹Ì·Ù· Ù˘ ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ›·˜ ·˘Ù‹˜ (Cole 2004). ∂›Û˘ ı· Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ÎËÚ˘¯ı› ·Ú¿ÓÔÌË Î¿ı ‰È¿ÎÚÈÛË ÛÙËÓ ·ÚÔ¯‹ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘ ‹ ÂÈÌfiÚʈÛ˘ Û ÔÔÈ·‰‹ÔÙ ÔÌ¿‰· ·ÙfiÌˆÓ Ì ÁÓÒÌÔÓ· ÙËÓ ËÏÈΛ·, ÙË Ê˘Ï‹, ÙÔ Ê‡ÏÔ, ÙËÓ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋ Ù¿ÍË, ÙÔÓ ÛÂÍÔ˘·ÏÈÎfi ÚÔÛ·Ó·ÙÔÏÈÛÌfi


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∞.™. °ÎÈfiÏÌ·˜, π.∫. ™Ù·‡ÚÔ˘ Î·È ∫.¢. ™ÎÔÚ‰Ô‡Ï˘

(gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgendered ‹ ·ÏÏÈÒ˜ LGBT) ‹ Ù¤ÏÔ˜ ÙË ÛˆÌ·ÙÈ΋ Î·È ÓÂ˘Ì·ÙÈ΋ ÈηÓfiÙËÙ· ‹ ·Ó·ËÚ›·. £ÂˆÚÔ‡ÌÂ, ÂÓ Î·Ù·ÎÏ›‰È, fiÙÈ Ë ·ÎfiÏÔ˘ıË ÚfiÙ·ÛË Û˘ÓÔ„›˙ÂÈ ÙËÓ ÙÔÔı¤ÙËÛË ÌÈ·˜ ÛˆÛÙ¿ ÚÔÛ·Ó·ÙÔÏÈṲ̂Ó˘ √ÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈ΋˜ ∂Î·›‰Â˘Û˘ –·fi Ì·ÚÍÈÛÙÈ΋ ÛÎÔÈ¿– ·¤Ó·ÓÙÈ ÙfiÛÔ ÛÙÔ ı¤Ì· Ù˘ ∞ÂÈÊÔÚ›·˜ fiÛÔ Î·È Û ·˘Ùfi Ù˘ ∫ÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋˜ ¢ÈηÈÔÛ‡Ó˘: «∫¿ı ¿ÙÔÌÔ Î·È Î¿ı ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋ ÔÌ¿‰· ı· Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ‚ÈÒÓÂÈ ÙËÓ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË ˆ˜ οÙÈ Ô˘ Û˘ÓÂÈÛʤÚÂÈ ÛÙË ‰È΋ ÙÔ˘ ÚfiÔ‰Ô, ·ÏÏ¿ ÙËÓ ›‰È· ÛÙÈÁÌ‹ Ë ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ÂÍ·ÛÊ·Ï›˙ÂÈ fiÙÈ ÙÔ˘Ï¿¯ÈÛÙÔÓ ¤Ó· ̤ÚÔ˜ ÙˆÓ ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈÔÙ‹ÙˆÓ Ù˘ ˙ˆ‹˜ ÙÔ˘ ηıÂÓfi˜ Ì·˜ Â›Ó·È Â›Û˘ ۯ‰ȷṲ̂ÓÔ ÒÛÙ ӷ ‚ÔËı¿ ÛÙÔ Ó· ‰È·ÛÊ·Ï›˙ÂÙ·È ÙÔ Ì¤ÏÏÔÓ ÙÔ˘ Ï·Ó‹ÙË Ô˘ ÎÏËÚÔÓÔÌ‹Û·ÌÂ. [...] ∏ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›· ‰ÂÓ Â›Ó·È ‰˘Ó·Ù‹ ·Ó ‰ÂÓ ˘¿Ú¯ÂÈ ¤Ó·˜ ÂχıÂÚÔ˜ ‰ËÌfiÛÈÔ˜ ‰È¿ÏÔÁÔ˜, Û¯ÂÙÈÎfi˜ Ì ÙȘ ÂÓ·ÏÏ·ÎÙÈΤ˜ ÚÔÙ¿ÛÂȘ Ô˘ ˘¿Ú¯Ô˘Ó ÁÈ· ÙÔ Ò˜ Ó· ‰È·¯ÂÈÚÈÛÙԇ̠ÙÔ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎfi Î·È ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈÎfi Ì·˜ Û‡ÛÙËÌ·. [...]. ŸÏ˜ ÔÈ ÎÔÈӈӛ˜ ·ÏÂ‡Ô˘Ó ÁÈ· Ù· ›‰È· ˙ËÙ‹Ì·Ù·. ™‹ÌÂÚ· ÌÔÚԇ̠ӷ ÂÍ·Ï›„Ô˘Ì ÙË ÊÙÒ¯ÂÈ· [...] Û˘ÓÔÏÈο. ªÔÚԇ̠ӷ ·ÔÊ·Û›ÛÔ˘Ì ӷ ÚÔÛÂÁÁ›ÛÔ˘Ì ÙÔ Ì¤ÏÏÔÓ ÂÂÓ‰‡ÔÓÙ·˜ ÛÙ·ıÂÚ¿ Û ÌÈ· Ì·˙È΋ ÂÎÛÙÚ·Ù›· ÒÛÙ ӷ ÂÓı·ÚÚ˘Óı› Ô Î·ı¤Ó·˜ Ó· Û˘ÌÌÂÙ¿Û¯ÂÈ Û οı ÛÙ¿‰ÈÔ Ù˘ ˙ˆ‹˜ ÙÔ˘ Û ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË Î·È ÂÈÌfiÚʈÛË. ªÈ· ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË Ô˘ ı· ·˘Í¿ÓÂÈ ÙËÓ ·Ú·ÁˆÁÈ΋, ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋, ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈ΋ Î·È ÂÚÈ‚·ÏÏÔÓÙÈ΋ ·Ó¿Ù˘ÍË Ì ÙÚfiÔ˘˜ Ô˘ ‰ÂÓ ¤¯Ô˘Ì ·Ú¯›ÛÂÈ ·ÎfiÌË Ó· ÔÚ·Ì·ÙÈ˙fiÌ·ÛÙ ηӻ (Hillcole Group 1997: 94-95). ŸÛÔ ÁÈ· ÙÔ ·Ó Â›Ó·È ÂÊÈÎÙ‹ ÌÈ· Ù¤ÙÔÈ· ÛÙÔ¯ÔıÂÛ›· ÁÈ· ÙËÓ √ÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈ΋ ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË, fiˆ˜ ϤÂÈ Ô Alex Callinicos (Callinicos 2000), ÙÔ Ó· ÙÂı› Û ÈÛ¯˘Ú‹ ·ÌÊÈÛ‚‹ÙËÛË ÙÔ ÙÚ¤¯ÔÓ Îϛ̷ ··ÈÙ› ı¿ÚÚÔ˜, Ê·ÓÙ·Û›· Î·È ‰‡Ó·ÌË ı¤ÏËÛ˘ Ô˘ ·ÔÚÚ¤Ô˘Ó ·fi ÙËÓ ·‰ÈΛ· Ô˘ Ì·˜ ÂÚÈ‚¿ÏÏÂÈ. ¶¿ÓÙˆ˜, «Î¿Ùˆ ·fi ÙËÓ ÂÈÊ¿ÓÂÈ· ÙˆÓ ˘ÔÙÈı¤ÌÂÓˆÓ ÎÔÚÂÛÌ¤ÓˆÓ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÒÓ Ì·˜, ·˘Ù¤˜ ÔÈ ·ÚÂÙ¤˜ ˘¿Ú¯Ô˘Ó Û ·ÊıÔÓ›·. Õ·Í Î·È ÙÂıÔ‡Ó Û ΛÓËÛË, ÌÔÚÔ‡Ó Ó· ʤÚÔ˘Ó ÛÙÔÓ ÎfiÛÌÔ Ù· ¿Óˆ-οو» (Callinicos 2000: 129).

™∏ª∂πø™∏ 1 √ fiÚÔ˜ «√ÈÎÔ˘ÌÂÓÈ΋ ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË» ÚÔÙÈÌ‹ıËΠ¤Ó·ÓÙÈ ÙÔ˘ Â›ÛËÌ· ·Ô‰ÂÎÙÔ‡ ÛÙËÓ ÂÏÏËÓÈ΋ ‚È‚ÏÈÔÁÚ·Ê›· fiÚÔ˘ «¶·ÁÎfiÛÌÈ· ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË», ÂÂȉ‹ ıˆÚԇ̠fiÙÈ ·Ô‰›‰ÂÈ Î·Ï‡ÙÂÚ· ÙÔ ÂÚȯfiÌÂÓÔ ·˘Ù‹˜ Ù˘ ıÂÒÚËÛ˘ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘ Û fi,ÙÈ ·ÊÔÚ¿ ÙËÓ Â˘·ÈÛıËÙÔÔ›ËÛË ÛÂ


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·ÁÎfiÛÌÈ· ˙ËÙ‹Ì·Ù· Î·È ÙËÓ ·ÓÙÈÌÂÙÒÈÛË Ù˘ ·ÓıÚˆfiÙËÙ·˜ ˆ˜ ÔÏfiÙËÙ·, ÂÓ ·ÓÙÈı¤ÛÂÈ Ì ÙÔÓ fiÚÔ «¶·ÁÎfiÛÌÈ·» Ô˘ Â›Ó·È Û¯ÂÙÈο Ô˘‰¤ÙÂÚÔ˜ ÂÓÓÔÈÔÏÔÁÈο Î·È ·Ú·¤ÌÂÈ Û ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈΤ˜ Û˘ÓÈÛÙÒÛ˜.

µπµ§π√°ƒ∞ºπ∫∂™ ∞¡∞º√ƒ∂™ Banks, J.A. (Âd.) (1996), Multicultural education, transformative knowledge, and action: Historical and contemporary perspectives, Teachers College Press, New York. Banks, J.A. (2003), “Teaching Literacy for Social Justice and Global Citizenship”, Language Arts, 81(1), Û. 18-19. Banks, J.A. (2004), “Teaching for Social Justice, Diversity and Citizenship in a Global World”, The Educational Forum, 68, Û. 289-298. Banks, J.A., Cookson, P., Gay G., Hawley, W.D., Irvine, J.J., Nieto, S., Schofield, J.W., Stephan, W.G. (2001), Diversity within unity: Essential principles for teaching and learning in a multicultural society, Center for Multicultural Education, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash. Banks, J.A., Banks, C.A. Cortes, C.E, Hahn, C., Merryfield, M., Moodley, K.A., Murhy-Shigematsu, S., Osler, A., Park, C. (2005), Democracy and Diversity: Principles and Concepts for Educating Citizens in a Global Age, Center for Multicultural Education. Bell, D. (2004), “Creating Green Citizens? Political Liberalism and Environmental Education”, Journal of Philosophy of Education, 38 (1), Û. 37-53. Callinicos, A. (2000), Equality, Polity Press, Oxford. Cole, M. (2004), “New Labour, Globalization and Social Justice: The Role of Education”, Fischman, G.E. (ed.), Critical Theories, Radical Pedagogies, and Global Conflicts, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Lanham, Maryland, Û. 3-22. Freire, P. (1980), Dialog als Prinzip, Jugenddienst-Verlag, Wuppertal. Freire, P. (2000), Pedagogy of the Oppressed (Trans.: Myra Bergman Ramos), Continuum [Seabury], 30th Anniversary Edition, New York. Freire, P., Shor, I. (1987), A Pedagogy for Liberation: Dialogues on Transforming Education, Macmillan, Basingstoke, England. Fujikane, H. (2003), “Approaches to Global Education in the United States, the United Kingdom and Japan”, International Review of Education, 49(1-2), Û. 133-155. Galtang, J. (1971), “A Structural Theory of Imperialism”, Journal of Peace Research, 8, Û. 81-117. Gaudelli, W. (2003), “Where in the world have you been? An overview of Global Education”, Gaudelli, W. (ed.), World Class: Teaching and Learning in Global Times, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ, Û. 3-26. Hatcher, R. (1995), “Popular self-activity and state provision: The strategic debate in education”, Socialist Teacher, 23, Û. 4. Hicks, D., Holden, C. (1995), “Exploring the Future: a missing dimension in environmental education”, Environmental Education Research, 1(2), Û. 185-192. Hicks, D. (2003), “Thirty Years of Global Education: a reminder of key principles and precedents”, Educational Review, 55(3), Û. 265-275. Hillcole Group (1997), Rethinking Education and Democracy: A Socialist Alternative for the Twenty-First Century, Tufnell Press, London.


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Ibrahim, A. (2007), “Linking Marxism, Globalization, and Citizenship Education: Toward a Comparative and Critical Pedagogy Post 9/11”, Educational Theory 57(1), Û. 89-103. Johnson, R. (1979), “Really Useful Knowledge: Radical Education and Working-Class Culture, 1790-1848”, Clarke, J., Critcher, C., Johnson, R. (eds), Working Class Culture: Studies in History and Theory, Hutchinson, London Û.75-102. McLaren, P., Farahmandpur, R. (2005), Teaching Against Global Capitalism and the New Imperialism: A Critical Pedagogy, Rowman & Littlefield, Lanham, Maryland. Pike, G., Selby, D. (1988), Global teacher, global learner, Hodder & Stoughton, London. Pike, G., Selby, D. (1995), Reconnecting: from national to global curriculum, World Wide Fund for Nature, UK, Guildford. Power, C. (2006), “Education for the future: An international perspective”, Educational Research for Policy and Praxis, 5(2), Û. 165-174. Richardson, R. (1976), Learning for Change in World Society: reflections, activities and resources, World Studies Project, London. Rizvi, F. (2000), “International Education and the Production of Global Imagination”, Burbules N.C., Torres C.A. (eds), Globalisation and Education: Critical Perspectives, Routledge, New York, Û. 205-226. Selby, D. (1999), “Global Education: Towards a Quantum Model of Environmental Education”, Canadian Journal of Environmental Education., 4, Û. 125-141. Shor, I. (1992), Empowering Education: Critical Teaching for Social Change, University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Walker, G. (2000), “International education: connecting the national to the global”, Hayden M., Thompson J. (eds), International schools & international education: Improving teaching, management & quality, Kogan Page Limited, London, Û. 193-204. Waters, M. (2001), Globalization (Key Ideas), Routledge, London (2nd Edition). Zsebik, P. (2000), “The politics of international education”, Hayden M., Thompson J. (eds), International schools & international education: Improving teaching, management & quality, Kogan Page Limited, London, Û. 62-69.


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£Â·ÙÚÈ΋ ·Ê‹ÁËÛË ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÒÓ È‰ÂÒÓ: ∞ÊÔÚÌ‹ ÁÈ· ÌÈ· ‰È·ÏÂÎÙÈ΋ ÚÔÛ¤ÁÁÈÛË Ù˘ Ì¿ıËÛ˘ µ·Û›Ï˘ ∆ÛÂÏʤ˜, ∞ÓÙÈÁfiÓË ¶·ÚÔ‡ÛË ∆Ì‹Ì· ∂η›‰Â˘Û˘ Î·È ∞ÁˆÁ‹˜ ÛÙËÓ ¶ÚÔÛ¯ÔÏÈ΋ ∏ÏÈΛ· ∂ıÓÈÎfi Î·È ∫·Ô‰ÈÛÙÚÈ·Îfi ¶·ÓÂÈÛÙ‹ÌÈÔ ∞ıËÓÒÓ ∂π™∞°ø°∏ ™ÙËÓ ÂÚÁ·Û›· ·˘Ù‹ ÚÔÛ·ıԇ̠ӷ ÚÔÛÂÁÁ›ÛÔ˘Ì ÙÔ Â˘Ú‡ ˙‹ÙËÌ· Ù˘ Ì¿ıËÛ˘ ̤۷ ÛÙÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ Ù˘ ıÂÛÌÔıÂÙË̤Ó˘ ˘Ô¯ÚˆÙÈ΋˜ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘. ∞ÊÔÚÌ‹ ÁÈ· ÌÈ· Ù¤ÙÔÈ·, «ÂÎ ‚¿ıÚˆÓ» ·Ó·˙‹ÙËÛË ·ÔÙÂÏ› ÙÔ ÂӉȷʤÚÔÓ Ì·˜ ÁÈ· ÙË ‰È‰·Ûηϛ·-Ì¿ıËÛË ÙˆÓ º˘ÛÈÎÒÓ ∂ÈÛÙËÌÒÓ (º∂) Ô˘ ÂÍ·ÎÔÏÔ˘ı› Â›ÌÔÓ· Ó· ·ÚÔ˘ÛÈ¿˙ÂÈ ‰ÈÂıÓÒ˜ ÌÈÎÚ‹ ÚfiÔ‰Ô Î·È ÈÛ¯˘Ú‹ ·ÓÙ›ÛÙ·ÛË Û ÂÎÙÂٷ̤Ó˜ ÚÔÛ¿ıÂȘ. °È· ·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ·, Ë ¤Ú¢ӷ ÛÙË ¢È‰·ÎÙÈ΋ ÙˆÓ º∂ (¢º∂), ·Ú¿ÁÔÓÙ·˜ ‰È‰·ÎÙÈΤ˜ ÚÔÛÂÁÁ›ÛÂȘ Ô˘ ˘ÔÛÙËÚ›˙ÔÓÙ·È Î˘Ú›ˆ˜ ·fi ÁÓˆÛȷΤ˜ ıˆڛ˜ ÂÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌËÙÈÎÔ‡ Ù‡Ô˘ (ÛÙËÚÈÁ̤Ó˜ ÛÙȘ «È‰¤Â˜ ÙˆÓ Ì·ıËÙÒÓ»), Û˘Û¯ÂÙÈṲ̂Ó˜ Ù·˘Ùfi¯ÚÔÓ· Ì Ï‹ıÔ˜ ·Ú¿ÏÏËÏˆÓ ÌÂÙ·‚ÏËÙÒÓ (ÛÙ¿ÛÂȘ, ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÏÔÁÈΤ˜ Î·È ÔÓÙÔÏÔÁÈΤ˜ ÂÔÈı‹ÛÂȘ, «ÁÏÒÛÛ˜», ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú·, ÂӉȷʤÚÔÓÙ· Î.Ô.Î.), ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁ› ·ÔÛÙ¿ÛÂȘ ·fi ÙȘ Ú·ÎÙÈΤ˜ ÙˆÓ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎÒÓØ ·ÔÛÙ¿ÛÂȘ Ô˘ ÂÈ̤ÓÔ˘Ó Î·È ‰È¢ڇÓÔÓÙ·È (Duit & Treagust 2003). ∆ËÓ ›‰È· ÛÙÈÁÌ‹ Î·È ÔÈ Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓ˜ ÁÓˆÛȷΤ˜ ıˆڛ˜ (Klein 2006) ı¤ÙÔ˘Ó Û ·ÌÊÈÛ‚‹ÙËÛË ÙË ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁÈ΋, ÙÔ˘Ï¿¯ÈÛÙÔÓ, ·Í›· ÙˆÓ «È‰ÂÒÓ ÙˆÓ Ì·ıËÙÒÓ», ÌÈ·˜ Î·È ıˆÚÔ‡Ó fiÙÈ Ë ÁÓÒÛË Û˘ÁÎÚÔÙ›ٷÈ, ηٿ ηÓfiÓ·, ·fi ·Û·Ê›˜ ¤ÓÓÔȘ Ô˘ Ë ÛËÌ·Û›· ÙÔ˘˜ ηıÔÚ›˙ÂÙ·È Î¿ı ÊÔÚ¿ ·fi ÙÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ. £¤ÙÔ˘Ó Â›Û˘ Û ·ÌÊÈÛ‚‹ÙËÛË ÙÔ˘˜ ηıÈÂڈ̤ÓÔ˘˜ ÛÙËÓ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË ÙÚfiÔ˘˜ ÂÈÎÔÈÓˆÓ›·˜ Ì ÙÔ˘˜ Ì·ıËÙ¤˜ (‰È¿ÏÔÁÔ˜ Ì Û‚·ÛÌfi ÛÙȘ «ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈΤ˜ ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁ›Â˜» Î·È ÊÙˆ¯fi ·ÈÛıËÙËÚÈ·Îfi ÂÚȯfiÌÂÓÔ), ÌÈ·˜ Î·È ıˆÚÔ‡Ó fiÙÈ Ë ÌÂÓ ÛΤ„Ë Â›Ó·È Ì¿ÏÏÔÓ ·ÈÛıËÙËÚȷο ·Ú¿ Ù˘Èο (.¯. ÏÔÁÈο) ıÂÌÂÏȈ̤ÓË, Ë ‰Â «ÁÏÒÛÛ·» ·fi ÙË Ê‡ÛË Ù˘ ÌÂÙ·ÊÔÚÈ΋ Î·È ·ÊËÁËÌ·ÙÈ΋. ∞fi ÙËÓ ¿ÏÏË ÌÂÚÈ¿, ÙÔ ÚÔ˜ ‰È‰·Ûηϛ· Î·È Ì¿ıËÛË ÂÚȯfiÌÂÓÔ ÙˆÓ º∂ ·Ó·Û‡ÚÂÙ·È ·Ó·fiÊ¢ÎÙ· ·fi Ù· «ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈο ΛÌÂÓ·» (·˘ıÂÓÙÈο, Û¯ÔÏÈ-


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µ·Û›Ï˘ ∆ÛÂÏʤ˜, ∞ÓÙÈÁfiÓË ¶·ÚÔ‡ÛË

ο, ÈÛÙÔÚÈο, ÂÎÏ·˚΢ÙÈο ÎÏ). ∆· ΛÌÂÓ· ·˘Ù¿ ‰È·¯ÂÈÚ›˙ÔÓÙ·È Î·Ù¿ ηÓfiÓ· ¤Ó· ›‰Ô˜ ÏfiÁÔ˘ ‰˘ÛÓfiËÙÔ˘ ÁÈ· ÙÔ˘˜ ·Ì‡ËÙÔ˘˜ ÛÙÔÓ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎfi ¯ÒÚÔ (ÔÈ ¤ÓÓÔȘ ·ÚÔ˘ÛÈ¿˙ÔÓÙ·È ˆ˜ ÌÔÓÔÛ‹Ì·ÓÙ˜ Î·È ·ÓÂÍ¿ÚÙËÙ˜ ·fi ÙÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ, ‰ÔÌË̤Ó˜ Î·È ÂÈÎÔÈÓˆÓ›ÛÈ̘ ÏÔÁÈο, Ì ÊÚ¿ÛÂȘ Ô˘ ·Ó··ÚÈÛÙÔ‡Ó ÙËÓ «·Ï‹ıÂÈ·» Î.Ô.Î.) Î·È Ì¿ÏÏÔÓ ·Û‡Ì‚·ÙÔ˘ Ì Ï·›ÛÈ· ηıËÌÂÚÈÓ‹˜ ˙ˆ‹˜ (VanEijck & Roth 2007). √È ‰È‰·ÎÙÈΤ˜ ÚÔÛ¿ıÂȘ Â›Û˘ Ô˘ οÓÔ˘Ó ¯Ú‹ÛË ÔÏÏ·ÏÒÓ Î·È ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈÎÒÓ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÒÓ ·Ó··Ú·ÛÙ¿ÛÂˆÓ ÙÔ˘ ÂÚȯÔ̤ÓÔ˘ (ÌÔÓ٤Ϸ, ·Ó·ÏÔÁ›Â˜, ÂÍÈÛÒÛÂȘ, Û¯¤‰È·, ÁÚ·Ê‹Ì·Ù·, ÂÈÎfiÓ˜, ÚÔÛÔÌÔÈÒÛÂȘ) ÌÔÚ› Ó· ÂÈÙÚ¤Ô˘Ó ÙË ‰È·¯Â›ÚÈÛË ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈÎÒÓ ÂÈÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ·ÎÒÓ/ÂÎÊÚ·ÛÙÈÎÒÓ Ì¤ÛˆÓ (ÏÂÎÙÈο, Ì·ıËÌ·ÙÈο, ÔÙÈο, ·ÚÂÌ‚·ÙÈο) (Yore & Treagust 2006), ·ÏÏ¿ ηٿ ÙËÓ ¿Ô„‹ Ì·˜ ‰ÂÓ ÍÂʇÁÔ˘Ó ·fi ÙȘ ‰Ô̤˜ ÙˆÓ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÒÓ ÎÂÈ̤ӈÓ. ∆Ô ÂÚÒÙËÌ¿ Ì·˜ Û¯ÂÙ›˙ÂÙ·È Ì ÙÔ ÙÈ ı· Û˘Ì‚Â› ·Ó οÔÈÔ˜ ·ÏÏ¿ÍÂÈ ÚÈ˙Èο ÙÔ Û‡ÛÙËÌ· ·Ó··Ú¿ÛÙ·Û˘ Î·È ÂÚ¿ÛÂÈ, ÁÈ· ·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ·, ÛÙË ı·ÙÚÈ΋ ¤ÎÊÚ·ÛË ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÒÓ ˙ËÙËÌ¿ÙˆÓ. £· ˆÊÂÏËı› Ë ‰È‰·Ûηϛ· Î·È Ì¿ıËÛË ÙˆÓ º∂ ·fi ÙÔ ÁÂÁÔÓfi˜ fiÙÈ ÔÈ ı·ÙÚÈΤ˜ ·Ó··Ú·ÛÙ¿ÛÂȘ ÌÔÚÔ‡Ó Ó· ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ‹ÛÔ˘Ó ·ÔÙÂÏÂÛÌ·ÙÈÎfiÙÂÚ· (·ÓÙÈÌÂÙˆ›˙Ô˘Ó ÙȘ ¤ÓÓÔȘ Ì ÌÈÎÚfiÙÂÚË ·˘ÛÙËÚfiÙËÙ·, ÛÙËÚ›˙ÔÓÙ·È ÛÙËÓ ·ÈÛıËÙËÚȷ΋ ‰È·¯Â›ÚÈÛ‹ ÙÔ˘˜, ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔÈÔ‡Ó ÌÂÙ·ÊÔÚÈΤ˜ Î·È ·ÊËÁËÌ·ÙÈΤ˜ ‰Ô̤˜ Î.Ô.Î.) ‹ ı· ˙ËÌȈıÔ‡Ó (ı· ÛÙÚ·ÊÔ‡Ó Û ·ÓÈÌÈÛÙÈΤ˜ ηÙ¢ı‡ÓÛÂȘ, ı· ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ‹ÛÔ˘Ó ÙÂÏÂÔÏÔÁÈο, Î.Ô.Î.); ™ÙËÓ Î·Ù‡ı˘ÓÛË ·˘ÙÔ› ÔÈ Û˘ÁÁÚ·Ê›˜ ¤¯Ô˘Ó Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÔÔÈ‹ÛÂÈ ÌÈ· ÂÎÙÂٷ̤ÓË ÛÂÈÚ¿ ÂÚ¢ÓÒÓ (¶·ÚÔ‡ÛË & ∆ÛÂÏʤ˜ 2007, ∆ÛÂÏʤ˜ Î·È ¶·ÚÔ‡ÛË 2008·,‚, Tselfes & Paroussi 2008, Paroussi & Tselfes 2006, 2007, 2008·,‚),1 Ì ¤ÌÊ·ÛË ÛÙËÓ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎÒÓ ·È‰ÈÒÓ ÚÔÛ¯ÔÏÈ΋˜ ËÏÈΛ·˜Ø ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË Ô˘ ·ÊÔÚ¿ ÌÈ· Û¯ÔÏÈ΋ ‚·ıÌ›‰· fiÔ˘ Ë ı·ÙÚÈ΋ ¤ÎÊÚ·ÛË ·Ê’ ÂÓfi˜ ¤¯ÂÈ ‰ÈÂȉ‡ÛÂÈ ÛÙËÓ Ú¿ÍË, ·Ê’ ÂÙ¤ÚÔ˘ Ê·›ÓÂÙ·È Ó· ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ› ·ÔÙÂÏÂÛÌ·ÙÈο. ™ÙËÓ ·ÚÔ‡Û· ÂÚÁ·Û›· ÂȯÂÈÚԇ̠ÌÈ· ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈ΋ (Û ۯ¤ÛË Ì ÙȘ ÚÔËÁÔ‡ÌÂÓ˜) ıˆÚËÙÈ΋ ÚÔÛ¤ÁÁÈÛË Û ¤Ó· ̤ÚÔ˜ ·fi Ù· ‰Â‰Ô̤ӷ Ì·˜, ÂÏ›˙ÔÓÙ·˜ fiÙÈ ı· ÌÔÚ¤ÛÔ˘Ì ӷ ·Ó·‰Â›ÍÔ˘Ì ÙȘ ‰Ô̤˜ ÛÙȘ Ì·ıËÛȷΤ˜ ÔÚ›˜ ÙˆÓ ÊÔÈÙËÙÚÈÒÓ Ì·˜ ̤۷ ÛÙÔ È‰ÈfiÚÚ˘ıÌÔ ·˘Ùfi ‰ÈÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎfi Ï·›ÛÈÔ ‰È‰·Ûηϛ·˜-Ì¿ıËÛ˘.


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£Â·ÙÚÈ΋ ·Ê‹ÁËÛË ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÒÓ È‰ÂÒÓ

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£∂øƒ∏∆π∫√ ¶§∞π™π√ ™Â ÚÒÙË Ê¿ÛË ı· ÂȯÂÈÚ‹ÛÔ˘Ì ӷ ÂÚÈÁÚ¿„Ô˘Ì ÙÔ Ê·ÈÓfiÌÂÓÔ Ù˘ Ì¿ıËÛ˘ ̤۷ Û ¤Ó· Ï·›ÛÈÔ ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈ΋˜ (cultural) ÚÔÛ¤ÁÁÈÛ˘ ÙÔ˘ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎÔ‡ ÂÚÈ‚¿ÏÏÔÓÙÔ˜. ø˜ ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú· ı· ıˆÚԇ̠¤Ó· Û‡ÛÙËÌ· ·fi ‰ÔÌÈο Û˘Ó‰Â‰Â̤ӷ ۇ̂ÔÏ·, ÂÚÁ·Ï›· Î·È Ù¯Ӌ̷ٷ, ηıÒ˜ Î·È ¤Ó· Û‡ÛÙËÌ· ·fi Ú·ÎÙÈΤ˜ (‰ÔÌÈο Û˘Ó‰Â‰Â̤Ó˜ ÛÂÈÚ¤˜ ڿ͈Ó), Û ‰È·ÏÂÎÙÈ΋ Û¯¤ÛË ÌÂٷ͇ ÙÔ˘˜ (Sewell 1992, 1999). ∆Ô «‰È¿‚·ÛÌ·» Ù˘ ‰È·ÏÂÎÙÈ΋˜ ·˘Ù‹˜ Û¯¤Û˘ ÙÔ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÔÔÈԇ̠·ÎÔÏÔ˘ıÒÓÙ·˜ ÙÔ˘˜ Tobin & Roth (2007: 3-5). ªÂ ‚¿ÛË ÙÔ «‰È¿‚·ÛÌ·» ·˘Ùfi, ı· ÌÔÚÔ‡Û·Ì ӷ ԇ̠fiÙÈ Ë ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú· ‰È·¯ÂÈÚ›˙ÂÙ·È ¤Ó· Û‡ÛÙËÌ· ‰ÔÌÈο Û˘Ó‰Â‰ÂÌ¤ÓˆÓ Û˘Ì‚fiÏˆÓ (.¯. ۇ̂ÔÏ· Ô˘ Û˘ÁÎÚÔÙÔ‡Ó ÙÔÓ ·˘ıÂÓÙÈÎfi ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎfi ÏfiÁÔ, Ô˘ ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔÈÂ›Ù·È ÛÙÔ ¯ÒÚÔ ÙˆÓ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÒÓ ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈÔÙ‹ÙˆÓ Î·È ÂÚÈÏ·Ì‚¿ÓÂÈ –·ÏÏ¿ ‰ÂÓ Ù·˘Ù›˙ÂÙ·È Ì– ·˘ÙfiÓ Ô˘ Û˘Ó·ÓÙ¿ÌÂ Î·È ÛÙ· ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈο ΛÌÂÓ·), ¤Ó· Û‡ÛÙËÌ· ÂÚÁ·Ï›ˆÓ (Û˘Û΢¤˜, fiÚÁ·Ó· ÎÏ., ÔÏÏ¿ ·fi Ù· ÔÔ›· ¤¯Ô˘Ó ÚÔ·„ÂÈ ˆ˜ Ù¯Ӌ̷ٷ ̤۷ ÛÙËÓ ›‰È· ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú·) Î·È ¤Ó· Û‡ÛÙËÌ· Ù¯ÓËÌ¿ÙˆÓ (΢ڛˆ˜ ÂÚÁ·ÛÙËÚȷΤ˜ ηٷÛ΢¤˜ Î·È ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈο ΛÌÂÓ·). √È ÂÓ ÏfiÁˆ ÔÓÙfiÙËÙ˜ Û˘Ó‰¤ÔÓÙ·È ÌÂٷ͇ ÙÔ˘˜ ·ÏÏ¿ Î·È Ì ÙȘ Â���ÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈΤ˜ Ú·ÎÙÈΤ˜. ™ÙÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ ÌÈ·˜ ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú·˜ ÔÈ Ú·ÎÙÈΤ˜ ·ÔÙÂÏÔ‡Ó Î¿ı ÛÙÈÁÌ‹ ¤Ó· Û‡ÓÔÏÔ Èı·ÓÒÓ (‰˘Ó·ÙÒÓ Ó· Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÔÔÈËıÔ‡Ó) ÛÂÈÚÒÓ ·fi ‰Ú¿ÛÂȘ, ·fi ÙȘ Ôԛ˜ οÔȘ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÔÔÈÔ‡ÓÙ·È. ™ÙËÓ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú·, ÁÈ· ·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ·, ˘¿Ú¯Ô˘Ó ·ÚÎÂÙ¤˜ ÛÙ·ıÂÚÔÔÈË̤Ó˜ Ú·ÎÙÈΤ˜ (Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÔÔÈÔ‡ÓÙ·È Û˘¯Ó¿), Û ‚·ıÌfi Ô˘ Ó· Û˘ÁÎÚÔÙÔ‡Ó ·ÊËÚË̤Ó˜ «ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁ›Â˜». ™ÙË «˙ˆ‹» ‚¤‚·È· ÌÈ·˜ ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú·˜ ÔÈ ‰Ú¿ÛÂȘ ÙˆÓ ·ÙfiÌˆÓ Â›Ó·È ·˘Ù¤˜ Ô˘ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÔÔÈÔ‡Ó ÙȘ Èı·Ó¤˜/‰˘Ó·Ù¤˜ Ú·ÎÙÈΤ˜ Î·È ÙȘ Û˘Ó‰¤Ô˘Ó ÌÂ Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤Ó˜ ‰Ô̤˜ Û˘Ì‚fiψÓ, ÂÚÁ·Ï›ˆÓ Î·È Ù¯ÓËÌ¿ÙˆÓ. √È ‰È·‰Èηۛ˜ ·˘Ù¤˜ ·Ó··Ú¿ÁÔ˘Ó ÙËÓ ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú· (ÁÈ· ·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ·, fiÙ·Ó ·ÎÔÏÔ˘ıÔ‡Ó ÌÈ· «ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁ›·» ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔÈÔ‡Ó Ù˘ÔÔÈË̤ӷ ÂÚÁ·Ï›· Î·È ÛÙËÚ›˙ÔÓÙ·È Û ‰ËÌÔÛÈÂ˘Ì¤Ó· ΛÌÂÓ·) ·ÏÏ¿ Î·È ÙËÓ ·Ó·ÓÂÒÓÔ˘Ó (·Ú¿ÁÔ˘Ó ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈΤ˜ ‰Ô̤˜ ‹ Ú·ÎÙÈΤ˜). ŒÙÛÈ, ÛÙËÓ ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌË ¤Ó· ηÈÓÔ‡ÚÁÈÔ Ù¤¯ÓËÌ· ÌÔÚ› Ó· ÌÂÙ·ÙÚ·› Û ÂÚÁ·ÏÂ›Ô ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜ ‰Â‰ÔÌ¤ÓˆÓ Ô˘ ‰ÂÓ Ù·ÈÚÈ¿˙Ô˘Ó Ì ٷ ıˆÚËÙÈο ΛÌÂÓ·. ∆fiÙÂ, Ù· ΛÌÂÓ· ·Ó·ÚÔÛ·ÚÌfi˙ÔÓÙ·È ‹/Î·È ÔÈ Ú·ÎÙÈΤ˜ ·Ú·Ù‹ÚËÛ˘ ·ÏÏ¿˙Ô˘Ó ‹/Î·È Ë ÏÔÁÈ΋ ‰È·¯Â›ÚÈÛ˘ ÙˆÓ Û˘Ì‚fiÏˆÓ ·Ó·‰ÔÌÂ›Ù·È (Hacking 1992). ø˜ ·ÔÙ¤ÏÂÛÌ·, Ë ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú· ÂÍÂÏ›ÛÛÂÙ·È, ÂÚÈÛÛfiÙÂÚÔ ‹ ÏÈÁfiÙÂÚÔ «Â·Ó·ÛÙ·ÙÈο». ∫ÈÓËÙ‹ÚÈ· ‰‡Ó·ÌË Û’ ·˘Ù‹ ÙËÓ ÂͤÏÈÍË Ê·›ÓÂÙ·È Ó·


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µ·Û›Ï˘ ∆ÛÂÏʤ˜, ∞ÓÙÈÁfiÓË ¶·ÚÔ‡ÛË

Â›Ó·È Ë ·ÓÙ›ıÂÛË ·Ó··Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜-·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜ Ô˘ ηÙ¢ı‡ÓÂÈ ÙȘ ‰Ú¿ÛÂȘ. ∆Ô Ó¤Ô (Ë ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹ Ó¤ˆÓ Û˘Ì‚fiψÓ, ÂÚÁ·Ï›ˆÓ, Ù¯ÓËÌ¿ÙˆÓ, ‰ÔÌÒÓ ‹ Ú·ÎÙÈÎÒÓ) ¤Ú¯ÂÙ·È Ì ‰Ú¿ÛÂȘ Ó· ÂÓ·ÓÙȈı› ÛÙËÓ ·Ó··Ú·ÁˆÁ‹, ÛÙËÓ ÔÔ›· ÙËÓ ›‰È· ÛÙÈÁÌ‹ ÛÙËÚ›˙ÂÙ·È. ªÂ ÙËÓ ›‰È· ÚÔÛ¤ÁÁÈÛË, Ë Û¯ÔÏÈ΋ ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌË ·ÔÙÂÏ› ¤Ó· ¤Ó·˘ÛÌ· ÁÈ· Ó· ͉Èψı› Ë ‰˘Ó·ÌÈ΋ Ù˘ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈ΋˜ (Î·È ·ÛÊ·ÏÒ˜ fi¯È ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋˜) ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú·˜ Ô˘ Ê·›ÓÂÙ·È Ó· ¤¯ÂÈ ·ÁÎfiÛÌÈ· ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚÈÛÙÈο (Tobin et al. 1994). ™ÙËÓ ÂÚ›ÙˆÛË Ù˘ Û¯ÔÏÈ΋˜ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ ÔÈ ıÂÛÌÔ› Ê·›ÓÂÙ·È Ó· ÂȉÈÒÎÔ˘Ó ÙËÓ ·Ó··Ú·ÁˆÁ‹ οÔÈˆÓ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÒÓ ‰ÔÌÒÓ Î·È Ú·ÎÙÈÎÒÓ (ÂÚȯfiÌÂÓÔ Î·È ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁ›Â˜), Û ¤Ó·Ó ÏËı˘ÛÌfi ÌË ÂȉÈÎÒÓ. ªÂ fiÚÔ˘˜ ÂÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈÛÌÔ‡, ı· ÌÔÚÔ‡Û·Ì ӷ ԇ̠fiÙÈ Ë ·ÓÙ›ıÂÛË ÂȯÂÈÚÂ›Ù·È Ó· ÂÁηٷÛÙ·ı› ÌÂٷ͇ ÙˆÓ ÛÙÔȯ›ˆÓ Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋˜ ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú·˜ Î·È ·˘ÙÒÓ Ù˘ ηıËÌÂÚÈÓ‹˜-ÂÌÂÈÚÈ΋˜ ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú·˜ ÙˆÓ Ì·ıËÙÒÓ. ∂‰Ò, fï˜, Ù· ·Ó·Ï˘ÙÈο ÚÔÁÚ¿ÌÌ·Ù· Î·È ÔÈ Ú·ÎÙÈΤ˜ Ù˘ ·ÍÈÔÏfiÁËÛ˘ ÙˆÓ Ì·ıËÙÒÓ (ÛÙÔȯ›· Ù˘ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈ΋˜ ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú·˜) Û˘ÁÎÚÔÙÔ‡Ó ¤Ó· ÈÛ¯˘Úfi ϤÁÌ· Ô˘ ηıÔÚ›˙ÂÈ ÂÎ ÙˆÓ ÚÔÙ¤ÚˆÓ Ù· fiÚÈ· Ù˘ ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜ ÙˆÓ Ì·ıËÙÒÓ Û ۯ¤ÛË Ì ÙËÓ ÂÌÂÈÚÈ΋ ÙÔ˘˜ ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú·Ø fiÚÈ· Ô˘ ÙËÓ ›‰È· ÛÙÈÁÌ‹ οÓÔ˘Ó ÙËÓ ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹ (Û ۯ¤ÛË Ì ÙËÓ Î·ıËÌÂÚÈÓ‹-ÂÌÂÈÚÈ΋ ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú·) Ó· Ê·›ÓÂÙ·È Û·Ó ·Ó··Ú·ÁˆÁ‹ (Û ۯ¤ÛË Ì ÙËÓ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú·). ∆Ô ÁÂÁÔÓfi˜ ·˘Ùfi ÓÔÌ›˙Ô˘Ì fiÙÈ ‰È·¯¤ÂÈ ÙË ‰È·ÏÂÎÙÈ΋ ·ÓÙ›ıÂÛË ·Ó··Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜-·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜ Ô˘ ı· ÌÔÚÔ‡Û ӷ ÁÂÓÓ‹ÛÂÈ ÙÔ «Ó¤Ô». ¢È·¯¤ÂÈ ‰ËÏ·‰‹ ÙËÓ ·ÓÙ›ıÂÛË Ô˘ ÚÔηÏ› Ú¿ÍÂȘ Ì¿ıËÛ˘: ÔÈ Ì·ıËÙ¤˜ ‰ÂÓ ‰ÚÔ˘Ó Û ·ÓÙ›ıÂÛË Ì ÙËÓ ÂÌÂÈÚÈ΋ ÙÔ˘˜ ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú·Ø ‰ÂÓ ‰ÚÔ˘Ó Ô‡Ù Û ·ÓÙ›ıÂÛË Î·È Ì ÙËÓ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋. ¢ÂÓ ÛÙËÚ›˙ÔÓÙ·È, Â›Û˘, Ô‡Ù ÛÙË ÌÈ· Ô‡Ù ÛÙËÓ ¿ÏÏË. ∏ ÂÌÂÈÚÈ΋ ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú· ÙˆÓ Ì·ıËÙÒÓ ‰ÂÓ ·ÓÙÈÛÙ¤ÎÂÙ·È ÛÙËÓ ·ÏÏ·Á‹ Ù˘ Ô‡Ù ÛÙËÚ›˙ÂÈ ÙËÓ ·Ó··Ú·ÁˆÁ‹ Ù˘ (ÌÈ·˜ Î·È ·ÔÙÂÏ› ‰È·‰Â‰Ô̤ÓË ÂÔ›ıËÛË ˆ˜ Â›Ó·È ·ÙÂÏ‹˜, Ï·Óı·Ṳ̂ÓË Î·È Ôχ ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈ΋ ·fi ÙËÓ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋)Ø Î·È Ë ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú· Ù˘ Û¯ÔÏÈ΋˜ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ ‰ÂÓ Ê·›ÓÂÙ·È Ó· Âȉ¤¯ÂÙ·È ·ÏÏ·Á¤˜ (ÌÈ·˜ Î·È ·ÚÔ˘ÛÈ¿˙ÂÙ·È ˆ˜ ÌÔÓ·‰È΋, ·ÁÎfiÛÌÈ·, ·ÌÂÙ¿‚ÏËÙË Î·È ·ÏËı‹˜). ŒÙÛÈ, Ë ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈ΋ ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú·, Ô˘ ÂÈ‚¿ÏÏÂÈ ·˘Ù¤˜ ÙȘ ÛÙÚ‚ÏÒÛÂȘ, Ê·›ÓÂÙ·È Ó· ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ› Î·È Ó· ÂÍÂÏ›ÛÛÂÙ·È Ì¤Ûˆ ¿ÏÏˆÓ ·ÓÙÈı¤ÛÂˆÓ (.¯. ·˘ÙÒÓ Ô˘ ÎÈÓÔ‡Ó ÙȘ ÎÔÈӈӛ˜ ÔÈ Ôԛ˜ ÛÙËÚ›˙Ô˘Ó Ù· ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈο Û˘ÛÙ‹Ì·Ù· – ‰È·ÎÚ›ÛÂȘ, ·ÓÈÛfiÙËÙ˜ ÎÏ.). ∏ ηٿÛÙ·ÛË ·˘Ù‹ Ê·›ÓÂÙ·È Ó· Û˘Ì·Ú·Û‡ÚÂÈ Î·È Ó· ·Ô‰˘Ó·ÌÒÓÂÈ Î·ÈÓÔÙƠ̂˜ (fiˆ˜ ÁÈ· ·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ· Ë ·È‰·ÁˆÁÈ΋ ̤ıÔ‰Ô˜ «project» ‹ ÔÈ ‰È·ıÂÌ·ÙÈΤ˜ ÚÔÛÂÁÁ›ÛÂȘ) Ô˘ ı· ÌÔÚÔ‡Û·Ó ›Ûˆ˜ Ó· ÂÈ‚ÈÒÛÔ˘Ó ÛÙÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ Ù˘ ·ÓÙ›ıÂÛ˘ ·Ó··Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜-


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™ÂÏ›‰·37

£Â·ÙÚÈ΋ ·Ê‹ÁËÛË ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÒÓ È‰ÂÒÓ

37

·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜ Ù˘ ηıËÌÂÚÈÓ‹˜ ÂÌÂÈÚÈ΋˜ ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú·˜, ·Ó ‰ÂÓ Î·Ù·ÙÚ¤¯ÔÓÙ·Ó ·fi ÙȘ a priori ‰ÂÛ̇ÛÂȘ Î·È Ú·ÎÙÈΤ˜ Ù˘ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈ΋˜ ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú·˜ (Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤ÓÔ ÂÚȯfiÌÂÓÔ, ÛÙfi¯ÔÈ ·Ó·Ï˘ÙÈÎÔ‡ ÚÔÁÚ¿ÌÌ·ÙÔ˜, ·ÍÈÔÏfiÁËÛË Ì·ıËÙÒÓ Ì ‚¿ÛË ·˘Ùfi ÙÔ ÂÚȯfiÌÂÓÔ Î·È ÙÔ˘˜ ÛÙfi¯Ô˘˜ Î.Ô.Î.). ∏ ‰È΋ Ì·˜ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈ΋/ÂÚ¢ÓËÙÈ΋ ÚÔÛ¿ıÂÈ· ÂÍÂÏ›ÛÛÂÙ·È ÛÙÔ ¯ÒÚÔ Ù˘ ÚÔÙ˘¯È·Î‹˜, ·ÓÂÈÛÙËÌȷ΋˜ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎÒÓ ÚÔÛ¯ÔÏÈ΋˜ ËÏÈΛ·˜. ∞˘Ùfi ÛËÌ·›ÓÂÈ fiÙÈ ·ÓÙÈÌÂÙˆ›˙ÂÈ ·Ó·fiÊ¢ÎÙ· ‰Ô̤˜ Î·È Ú·ÎÙÈΤ˜ Ù˘ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈ΋˜ ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú·˜. ™ÙÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ ·˘Ùfi, ÂȯÂÈÚ‹Û·Ì ӷ ÛÙ‹ÛÔ˘Ì ÌÈ· ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ·, fiÔ˘ ÙÔ «Ó¤Ô» (Ë Ì¿ıËÛË) ı· ÌÔÚÔ‡Û ӷ ÚÔ·„ÂÈ ·fi ÙȘ ÊÔÈÙ‹ÙÚȘ Ì ÙË ‰Ú¿ÛË ÙÔ˘˜ ¿Óˆ Û ÌÈ·, ηٷÛ΢·Ṳ̂ÓË ÂÎ ÙˆÓ ÚÔÙ¤ÚˆÓ, ·ÓÙ›ıÂÛË ·Ó··Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜-·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜ (Î·È fi¯È ÂÚȯfiÌÂÓÔ, ÛÙfi¯Ô˘˜ ÎÏ.). ∂‰Ò, ·Í›˙ÂÈ ÙÔÓ ÎfiÔ Ó· ÂÈÛËÌ·Óı› fiÙÈ ÙÔ «Ó¤Ô»/Ë Ì¿ıËÛË ı· ·ÔÙÂÏÔ‡Û ¤Ó· ‰È‰·ÎÙÈÎfi-ÂÚ¢ÓËÙÈÎfi ˙ËÙÔ‡ÌÂÓÔ, Ô˘ ı· ÌÔÚÔ‡Û ӷ ··ÓÙËı› ÌfiÓÔ ÌÂÙ¿ ÙÔ Ù¤ÏÔ˜ Ù˘ ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ·˜, Î·È fi¯È ¤Ó·Ó ÂÎ ÙˆÓ ÚˆÙ¤ÚˆÓ ÂÈÏÂÁ̤ÓÔ ÛÙfi¯Ô. ∂ÈϤͷÌÂ Ë ·ÓÙ›ıÂÛË ·Ó··Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜-·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜ Ó· ÂΉËψı› ηْ ·Ú¯‹Ó ÛÙÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ Ù˘ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘ ÙˆÓ ÊÔÈÙËÙÚÈÒÓ ÛÙË ı·ÙÚÈ΋ ¤ÎÊÚ·ÛË. °È ·˘Ùfi ÔÈ ÊÔÈÙ‹ÙÚȘ Ô˘ Û˘ÌÌÂÙ›¯·Ó ÛÙË ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ· ›¯·Ó ·Ú·ÎÔÏÔ˘ı‹ÛÂÈ Ì ÂÈÙ˘¯›· Ì·ı‹Ì·Ù· ı¿ÙÚÔ˘ ÛÎÈÒÓ Î·È ÎÔ˘ÎÏÔı¿ÙÚÔ˘ Û ÚÔËÁÔ‡ÌÂÓ· ÂÍ¿ÌËÓ· ÛÔ˘‰ÒÓ. ™Ù· Ì·ı‹Ì·Ù· ·˘Ù¿ ›¯·Ó ÂÈÙ‡¯ÂÈ Ó· ‰ÔÌ‹ÛÔ˘Ó Î·È Ó· ·ÚÔ˘ÛÈ¿ÛÔ˘Ó ÌÈ· ÙÔ˘Ï¿¯ÈÛÙÔÓ Û‡ÓÙÔÌË ı·ÙÚÈ΋ ÛÔ˘‰‹ ÛÙËÚÈÁ̤ÓË Û ÌÈ· ÎÂÓÙÚÈ΋ ȉ¤·. ªÂ ÙË ÏÔÁÈ΋ ·˘Ù‹, ÛÙË Û¯Â‰È·˙fiÌÂÓË ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ· Ë ‰Ô˘ÏÂÈ¿ ÙÔ˘˜ ı· ‹Ù·Ó Ó· ·Ó··Ú¿ÁÔ˘Ó ı·ÙÚÈΤ˜ ‰Ô̤˜ Î·È Ú·ÎÙÈΤ˜ ÁÈ· Ó· ·Ó··Ú·ÛÙ‹ÛÔ˘Ó ÌÈ· ¿ÏÏË ÎÂÓÙÚÈ΋ ȉ¤·. ∞fi ÙËÓ «fiÚÙ·» ·˘Ù‹ ıˆڋ۷Ì fiÙÈ ÌÔÚԇ̠ӷ ÂÈÛ¿ÁÔ˘Ì ÙËÓ ·ÓÙ›ıÂÛË Î·È ˆ˜ ÂÎ ÙÔ‡ÙÔ˘ ÙËÓ ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹. ∞·ÈÙ‹Û·ÌÂ Ë È‰¤· Ô˘ ı· ÔÚÁ¿ÓˆÓ ÙËÓ Î¿ı ı·ÙÚÈ΋ ÛÔ˘‰‹ Ó· ‹Ù·Ó ·fi ÙÔ ¯ÒÚÔ Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘. √È ÏfiÁÔÈ ÁÈ· ÙÔ˘˜ ÔÔ›Ô˘˜ ıˆڋ۷Ì fiÙÈ Ë ı·ÙÚÈ΋ ·Ó··Ú¿ÛÙ·ÛË ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÒÓ È‰ÂÒÓ ı· ¤‚·˙ ÙȘ ÊÔÈÙ‹ÙÚȘ Û ÌÈ· ‰È·‰Èηۛ· ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜ Ó¤ˆÓ ı·ÙÚÈÎÒÓ ‰ÔÌÒÓ Î·È Ú·ÎÙÈÎÒÓ Â›Ó·È ÔÏÏÔ›. °È· ·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ·, ÔÈ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈΤ˜ ȉ¤Â˜ ‰ÂÓ Ì·›ÓÔ˘Ó Â‡ÎÔÏ· Û ÌÈ· ‰ÔÌ‹ ·Ê‹ÁËÛ˘. ™¯Â‰fiÓ fiϘ ÔÈ Û¯ÂÙÈΤ˜ ÚÔÙ¿ÛÂȘ Ô˘ ¤¯Ô˘ÌÂ Û˘Ó·ÓÙ‹ÛÂÈ ÛÙË ¢º∂ Ó· ÚÔÙ›ÓÔ˘Ó ·ÊËÁ‹ÛÂȘ (.¯. Millar & Osborn 1998) ÚÔÙ›ÓÔ˘Ó ÙÂÏÈο ÂÚÈÁڷʤ˜ ¯ˆÚ›˜ ·ÊËÁËÌ·ÙÈ΋ ‰ÔÌ‹ (Norris et al. 2005). ∞ÓÙ›ıÂÙ·, Ë ı·ÙÚÈ΋ ·Ó··Ú¿ÛÙ·ÛË ··ÈÙ› ·ÊËÁËÌ·ÙÈ΋ ‰ÔÌ‹. ∂›Û˘, Ë Û˘Ó‡·ÚÍË Ù˘ ı·ÙÚÈ΋˜ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘ Ì ÙËÓ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË ÛÙËÓ ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌË Ê·›ÓÂÙ·È Ó· ›ӷÈ, ÛÙÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ Ù˘ ÂÎ·È-


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™ÂÏ›‰·38

µ·Û›Ï˘ ∆ÛÂÏʤ˜, ∞ÓÙÈÁfiÓË ¶·ÚÔ‡ÛË

‰Â˘ÙÈ΋˜ ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú·˜ (Î·È fi¯È ÌfiÓÔ), ÂÍ·ÈÚÂÙÈο ‰˘Û¯ÂÚ‹˜. ∆· ‰‡Ô ·˘Ù¿ ‰›· ‰ËÏÒÓÔÓÙ·È Î·Ù¿ ηÓfiÓ· ˆ˜ ·Û‡Ì‚·Ù·, ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈο (Snow 1964), ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈο (McManus & Furnham 2006) Î·È Èı·ÓÒ˜ ÁÓˆÛȷο (Hudson 1974). ∆Ô ÂfiÌÂÓÔ ˙‹ÙËÌ· ÙÔ˘ ۯ‰ȷÛÌÔ‡ ÛÙÔ ÔÔ›Ô ı· ¤ÚÂ ӷ ¿ÚÔ˘Ì ı¤ÛË ‹Ù·Ó ·˘Ùfi Ù˘ ÂÈÏÔÁ‹˜ ÎÂÈÌ¤ÓˆÓ ‹ Î·È ‰È·‰ÈηÛÈÒÓ, ·’ fiÔ˘ ÔÈ ÊÔÈÙ‹ÙÚȘ ı· ·ÓÙÏÔ‡Û·Ó ÙȘ ÚÔ˜ ı·ÙÚÈ΋ ·Ó··Ú¿ÛÙ·ÛË ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈΤ˜ ȉ¤Â˜. √È ÂÈÏÔÁ¤˜ Ô˘ ̤¯ÚÈ ÙÒÚ· ‰ÔÎÈÌ¿Û·Ì ‹Ù·Ó: Ù˘È΋ ÂÚÁ·ÛÙËÚȷ΋ ‰È‰·Ûηϛ· º∂Ø Î›ÌÂÓ· ÂÎÏ·˚ÎÂ˘Ì¤Ó˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ (Ì ÈÛÙÔÚÈ΋/ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÏÔÁÈ΋ ηÙ‡ı˘ÓÛË)Ø ·˘ıÂÓÙÈο ΛÌÂÓ· ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ (fiÔ˘ ·Ó··Ú›ÛÙ·Ù·È Ì¤ÚÔ˜ ÙÔ˘Ï¿¯ÈÛÙÔÓ Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋˜ ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ·˜ Î·È fi¯È ÌfiÓÔ ÙÔ ÙÂÏÈÎfi Ù˘ ÚÔ˚fiÓ). ∫·È ÔÈ ÙÚÂȘ ·˘Ù¤˜ ËÁ¤˜ ÙˆÓ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÒÓ È‰ÂÒÓ ÚÔηÏÔ‡Û·Ó ÛÙÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ Ù˘ ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ¿˜ Ì·˜ ÌÈ· Ó¤· ·ÓÙ›ıÂÛË: ÔÈ ÊÔÈÙ‹ÙÚȘ, ÛÙÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ Ù˘ Û¯ÔÏÈ΋˜ ÙÔ˘˜ ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú·˜ (Ì ‚¿ÛË ÙËÓ ÔÔ›· ·ÓÙÈÌÂÙˆ›˙Ô˘Ó ÙËÓ ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌË ˆ˜ Û‡ÓÔÏÔ ÌÔÓÔÛ‹Ì·ÓÙˆÓ Î·È ·ÏËıÒÓ ‰ÔÌÒÓ Î·È Ú·ÎÙÈÎÒÓ), ÂȯÂÈÚÔ‡Û·Ó Ó· ·Ó··Ú¿ÁÔ˘Ó Î¿ÔȘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈΤ˜ ȉ¤Â˜ (ˆ˜ Û¯ÔÏÈΤ˜) Î·È Ó· ÙȘ ÌÂٷʤÚÔ˘Ó ÛÙÔ ı·ÙÚÈÎfi Ï·›ÛÈÔ. ∏ ÌÂÙ·ÊÔÚ¿ ·˘Ù‹ ÂÌÊ¿ÓÈ˙ ·ÓÙÈÛÙ¿ÛÂȘ (ÙÔ˘Ï¿¯ÈÛÙÔÓ ·fi ÙȘ ·ÊËÁËÌ·ÙÈΤ˜ ı·ÙÚÈΤ˜ ‰Ô̤˜). ∂Ô̤ӈ˜ Ë ‰Ú¿ÛË ÙˆÓ ÊÔÈÙËÙÚÈÒÓ ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁÔ‡ÛÂ Î·È ÛÙÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ ÌÈ·˜ ·ÓÙ›ıÂÛ˘ ·Ó··Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜-·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜ Û¯ÔÏÈÎÒÓ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÒÓ È‰ÂÒÓ. ∏ ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁÈ΋ ·˘Ù‹ ·ÓÙ›ıÂÛË ıˆڋ۷Ì fiÙÈ ı· Ï˘ÓfiÙ·Ó (·Ó Ï˘ÓfiÙ·Ó) Ì ÌÂÁ·Ï‡ÙÂÚË Â˘ÎÔÏ›· Î·È Û «ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎfiÙÂÚ˜» ηÙ¢ı‡ÓÛÂȘ, ηıÒ˜ ÔÈ ËÁ¤˜ ÙˆÓ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÒÓ È‰ÂÒÓ ÌÂÙ·ÙÔ›˙ÔÓÙ·Ó ·fi ÙËÓ ÚÒÙË ÚÔ˜ ÙËÓ ÙÚ›ÙË ÂÈÏÔÁ‹ Ì·˜: Ù· ÂÚÁ·ÛÙËÚȷο Ì·ı‹Ì·Ù· «ÛÎÏ‹Ú·ÈÓ·Ó» ÙȘ Û¯ÔÏÈΤ˜ ÂÔÈı‹ÛÂȘ (ÛÙËÓ Î·Ù‡ı˘ÓÛË Ù˘ ·Ó··Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜) Î·È ı· ‰˘ÛÎfiÏ¢·Ó, Ì¿ÏÏÔÓ, ÙËÓ ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹Ø Ù· ÂÎÏ·˚΢ÙÈο ΛÌÂÓ·, Ì ٷ ÈÛÙÔÚÈο Î·È ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÏÔÁÈο ÙÔ˘˜ Û¯fiÏÈ·, ı· «¯·Ï¿ÚˆÓ·Ó» ÙȘ Û¯ÔÏÈΤ˜ ÂÔÈı‹ÛÂȘ Î·È ¤ÙÛÈ ›Ûˆ˜ ı· ¤‰ÈÓ·Ó Â˘ÎÔÏfiÙÂÚ· ‰˘Ó·ÙfiÙËÙ˜ ·ÓÙÈÌÂÙÒÈÛ˘ Ù˘ ·ÓÙ›ıÂÛË˜Ø Ù· ·˘ıÂÓÙÈο ΛÌÂÓ· ÙÔ˘ °·ÏÈÏ·›Ô˘, Ì ÙËÓ ·ÊËÁËÌ·ÙÈ΋ Î·È ÂÓ ÔÏÏÔ›˜ ı·ÙÚÈ΋ ÙÔ˘˜ ‰ÔÌ‹, Ì¿ÏÏÔÓ ı· ·ÂÏ¢ı¤ÚˆÓ·Ó ÙȘ ÊÔÈÙ‹ÙÚȘ ·fi ÔÏϤ˜ ·fi ÙȘ Û¯ÔÏÈΤ˜ ÂÔÈı‹ÛÂȘ ÙÔ˘˜Ø ¿ÏψÛÙÂ Ô °·ÏÈÏ·›Ô˜ Â›Ó·È «Ôχ ÈÔ ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌÔÓ·˜» ·fi ÙÔÓ ÔÔÈÔ‰‹ÔÙ ‰¿ÛηÏfi ÙÔ˘˜. ™¯ËÌ·ÙÈο, ÔÈ ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ˜ Ô˘ ÔÚÁ·ÓÒÛ·Ì ˘Ôı¤Ù·Ì fiÙÈ ı· ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁÔ‡Ó (ÛÙÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ Ù˘ ‰È·ÏÂÎÙÈ΋˜ ·ÓÙ›ıÂÛ˘ ·Ó··Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜-·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜), fiˆ˜ Ê·›ÓÂÙ·È ÛÙËÓ ÂÈÎfiÓ· 1. ∞fi ÙË ‰È·‰Èηۛ· ·˘Ù‹ ÂÚÈ̤ӷÌ ӷ ÚÔ·„ÂÈ Ë Ì¿ıËÛË ˆ˜ ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹, ›Ù ı·ÙÚÈÎÒÓ Â›Ù ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÒÓ ‰ÔÌÒÓ Î·È Ú·ÎÙÈÎÒÓ.


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17-06-09

13:21

™ÂÏ›‰·39

£Â·ÙÚÈ΋ ·Ê‹ÁËÛË ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÒÓ È‰ÂÒÓ

39

∂ÈÎfiÓ· 1. ∏ ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ· ÂÈ‚¿ÏÏÂÈ ÛÙȘ ÊÔÈÙ‹ÙÚȘ, Ì fiÚÔ˘˜ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘, Ó· ·Ó··Ú¿ÁÔ˘Ó ı·ÙÚÈΤ˜ Î·È ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈΤ˜ ‰Ô̤˜ Î·È Ú·ÎÙÈΤ˜Ø Ë, Ì ›‰ÈÔ˘˜ fiÚÔ˘˜, ÂÈÛ·ÁˆÁ‹ ÙˆÓ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÒÓ È‰ÂÒÓ ÛÙÔÓ ı·ÙÚÈÎfi ¯ÒÚÔ ·ÔÛÙ·ıÂÚÔÔÈ› ÙȘ ·Ó··Ú·ÁˆÁ¤˜ ‰›ÓÔÓÙ·˜ ‰˘Ó·ÙfiÙËÙ˜ ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜ (Ì¿ıËÛ˘) Î·È ÛÙÔ˘˜ ‰‡Ô ¯ÒÚÔ˘˜ (ı·ÙÚÈÎfi Î·È ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎfi).

™ÙËÓ ÂÚÁ·Û›· ·˘Ù‹ ı· ·ÚÔ˘ÛÈ¿ÛÔ˘ÌÂ Î·È ı· ·Ó·Ï‡ÛÔ˘Ì ÔÈÔÙÈο ‰Â‰Ô̤ӷ ·fi ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ˜ ÙˆÓ ÊÔÈÙËÙÚÈÒÓ, fiÔ˘ ˆ˜ ËÁ‹ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÒÓ È‰ÂÒÓ ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔÈ‹ıËÎ·Ó ·˘ıÂÓÙÈο ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈο ΛÌÂÓ· (¢È¿ÏÔÁÔ˜ ÁÈ· Ù· ‰‡Ô ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈÎfiÙÂÚ· ÎÔÛÌÈο Û˘ÛÙ‹Ì·Ù· ÙÔ˘ °·ÏÈÏ·›Ô˘). ™Ùfi¯Ô˜ Ù˘ ·Ó¿Ï˘Û˘ Â›Ó·È Ó· ‰Â›ÍÔ˘Ì ÙÔÓ ÙÚfiÔ Ì ÙÔÓ ÔÔ›Ô Ë ıˆÚËÙÈ΋ Ì·˜ ÚÔÛ¤ÁÁÈÛË ÂÓÙÔ›˙ÂÈ Î·È ‰ÈηÈÔÏÔÁ› ÙË Ì¿ıËÛË ÛÙÔ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎfi Ï·›ÛÈÔ, ηıÒ˜ Î·È ¤Ó· ·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ· Ì¿ıËÛ˘ (·ÔÙ¤ÏÂÛÌ·) ÛÙÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ ‰È·¯Â›ÚÈÛ˘ Ù˘ ‰È·ÏÂÎÙÈ΋˜ ·ÓÙ›ıÂÛ˘ Ù¤¯Ó˘ Î·È ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘.

ª∂£√¢√§√°π∞ ∏ ‰ÔÌ‹ Ù˘ ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ·˜ ¶ÂÓ‹ÓÙ· ÂÙ¿ (57) ÊÔÈÙ‹ÙÚȘ ÙÔ˘ ∆Ì‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ ∂Î·›‰Â˘Û˘ Î·È ∞ÁˆÁ‹˜ ÛÙËÓ ¶ÚÔÛ¯ÔÏÈ΋ ∏ÏÈΛ·, ÙÔ˘ ¶·ÓÂÈÛÙËÌ›Ô˘ ∞ıËÓÒÓ Â¤ÏÂÍ·Ó Ó· ·Ú·ÎÔÏÔ˘ı‹ÛÔ˘Ó ¤Ó· ‰ÈÏfi ÂÍ·ÌËÓÈ·›Ô Ì¿ıËÌ· (12 ÂÍ¿ˆÚ·) Ì ٛÙÏÔ «£Â·ÙÚÈΤ˜ ÂÊ·ÚÌÔÁ¤˜ Î·È ‰È‰·ÎÙÈ΋ Ù˘ Ê˘ÛÈ΋˜». √È ÊÔÈÙ‹ÙÚȘ ›¯·Ó ·Ú·ÎÔÏÔ˘ı‹ÛÂÈ ÛÂ


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™ÂÏ›‰·40

µ·Û›Ï˘ ∆ÛÂÏʤ˜, ∞ÓÙÈÁfiÓË ¶·ÚÔ‡ÛË

ÚÔËÁÔ‡ÌÂÓ· ÂÍ¿ÌËÓ· ÙÔ˘Ï¿¯ÈÛÙÔÓ ¤Ó· Ì¿ıËÌ· ı¿ÙÚÔ˘ ÛÎÈÒÓ/ÎÔ˘ÎÏÔı¤·ÙÚÔ˘ Î·È ¤Ó· ¢º∂. ∆Ô Ì¿ıËÌ· ÍÂΛÓËÛ Ì ÌÈ· ı·ÙÚÈ΋ ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ·. √È ÊÔÈÙ‹ÙÚȘ ÎÏ‹ıËÎ·Ó ÛÙÔ ¿ÎÔ˘ÛÌ· Ù˘ Ϥ͢ «°·ÏÈÏ·›Ô˜» Ó· Û˘ÁÎÚÔÙ‹ÛÔ˘Ó ÌÈÎÚ¤˜ ÔÌ¿‰Â˜ (̤¯ÚÈ 5 ¿ÙÔÌ·), Ó· ÔÚÁ·ÓÒÛÔ˘Ó Î·È Ó· ·ÚÔ˘ÛÈ¿ÛÔ˘Ó Ì Ù¯ÓÈΤ˜ ÙÔ˘ ı¿ÙÚÔ˘ ÛÎÈÒÓ ÌÈ· ÌÈÎÚ‹ ÛÔ˘‰‹ Û¯ÂÙÈ΋ Ì ÙȘ ȉ¤Â˜ Ô˘ ¤ÊÂÚÓ ÛÙÔ Ì˘·Ïfi ÙÔ˘˜ Ô ‰È¿ÛËÌÔ˜ ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌÔÓ·˜ (1 ÂÍ¿ˆÚÔ): Ú·ÎÙÈΤ˜ ı·ÙÚÈ΋˜ ·Ó··Ú¿ÛÙ·Û˘ ȉÂÒÓ Ì¤Ûˆ ÂÈÎfiÓ·˜ (ÓÙÈ˙¿ÈÓ Î·È Î›ÓËÛË) Î·È ‹¯Ô˘ (ÂÚÈÏ¿Ì‚·ÓÂ Î·È ÏfiÁÔ). ™ÙË Û˘Ó¤¯ÂÈ·, ‰ÒÛ·Ì ÛÙȘ ÊÔÈÙ‹ÙÚȘ ¤Ó· ÂÎÙÂٷ̤ÓÔ ¯ÚÔÓÔÏfiÁÈÔ Ù˘ ˙ˆ‹˜ ÙÔ˘ °·ÏÈÏ·›Ô˘ Î·È ˙ËÙ‹Û·Ì ·fi ÙËÓ Î¿ı ÔÌ¿‰· Ó· ÊÙÈ¿ÍÂÈ ÌÈ· ÌÈÎÚ‹ ÚÔÊÔÚÈ΋ ·ÚÔ˘Û›·ÛË, fiÔ˘ ı· ÂÌÊ·Ó›˙ÔÓÙ·Ó ÔÈ ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈΤ˜ Ù˘¯¤˜ Ù˘ ˙ˆ‹˜ ÙÔ˘ (ÚÔÛˆÈ΋, ÔÈÎÔÁÂÓÂȷ΋, Â·ÁÁÂÏÌ·ÙÈ΋, ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋, ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋ Î.Ô.Î.): Ú·ÎÙÈΤ˜ Ù˘È΋˜ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈ΋˜ ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ·˜ Ì ÈÛÙÔÚÈÎfi Î·È ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎfi ÂÚȯfiÌÂÓÔ. ªÂÙ¿ ÙÔ Ù¤ÏÔ˜ ÙˆÓ Û˘˙ËÙ‹ÛÂˆÓ Ô˘ Û˘Ófi‰Â„·Ó ÙȘ ·ÚÔ˘ÛÈ¿ÛÂȘ, ˙ËÙ‹ıËΠ·fi ÙËÓ Î¿ı ÔÌ¿‰· Ó· ÔÚÁ·ÓÒÛÂÈ Î·È Ó· ·ÚÔ˘ÛÈ¿ÛÂÈ ¤Ó·Ó ÌÈÎÚfi ı·ÙÚÈÎfi ·˘ÙÔۯ‰ȷÛÌfi (Ì ¯Ú‹ÛË ÛÎÈÒÓ ·fi ·ÓıÚÒÈÓ· ÛÒÌ·Ù· Î·È ·ÓÙÈΛÌÂÓ·) Ì ı¤Ì· ÙË ˙ˆ‹ ÙÔ˘ °·ÏÈÏ·›Ô˘: ı·ÙÚÈΤ˜ Ú·ÎÙÈΤ˜ ÛÙËÚÈÁ̤Ó˜ Û ȉ¤Â˜ ·fi ÙËÓ ÈÛÙÔÚ›· ‹ Î·È ÙËÓ ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌË. ™ÙÔ ÂfiÌÂÓÔ ‚‹Ì· ÛÙڷʋηÌ ÛÙ· ·˘ıÂÓÙÈο ΛÌÂÓ·. ∂›¯·Ì ÛÙË ‰È¿ıÂÛ‹ Ì·˜ ÌÈ· ÂÍ·ÈÚÂÙÈ΋ ÌÂÙ¿ÊÚ·ÛË ÂÎÙÂÙ·Ì¤ÓˆÓ ·ÔÛ·ÛÌ¿ÙˆÓ ·fi ÙÔ ¢È¿ÏÔÁÔ,2 Ô˘ ·ÊÔÚÔ‡Û (ÂÎÙfi˜ ·fi ÙËÓ ÂÈÛ·ÁˆÁ‹ Î·È ÙÔÓ ÚfiÏÔÁÔ ÙÔ˘ A. Einstein) ˙ËÙ‹Ì·Ù· fiˆ˜ ÙÔ Î¤ÓÙÚÔ ÙÔ˘ Û‡Ì·ÓÙÔ˜ Î·È ÙË ı¤ÛË Ù˘ Á˘ Û ۯ¤ÛË Ì ·˘Ùfi, ÙËÓ ÔÌÔÈfiÙËÙ· Ù˘ Á˘ Ì (‹ Ë ‰È·ÊÔÚ¿ Ù˘ ·fi) Ù· Ô˘Ú¿ÓÈ· ÛÒÌ·Ù·, ÙË ÌÔÚÊ‹ Ù˘ ÂÈÊ¿ÓÂÈ·˜ Ù˘ ÛÂÏ‹Ó˘, ÙËÓ ËÌÂÚ‹ÛÈ· Î·È ÂÙ‹ÛÈ· ÂÚÈÛÙÚÔÊ‹ Ù˘ Á˘, ÙËÓ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋/ÊÈÏÔÛÔÊÈ΋ ̤ıÔ‰Ô, ÙȘ ‰˘Ó·ÙfiÙËÙ˜ Ù˘ ·ÓıÚÒÈÓ˘ ηٷÓfiËÛ˘ Ó· ÚÔÛÂÁÁ›ÛÂÈ ÙËÓ ·Ï‹ıÂÈ· Î.Ô.Î. (‰ÂÓ ·Û¯ÔÏËı‹Î·Ì Ì Î›ÌÂÓ· Ô˘ ·ÊÔÚÔ‡Û·Ó ÙÔ ˙‹ÙËÌ· ÙˆÓ ·ÏÈÚÚÔÈÒÓ). ∞fi ÙȘ ÊÔÈÙ‹ÙÚȘ ˙ËÙ‹ıËΠӷ ÌÂÏÂÙ‹ÛÔ˘Ó Ù· ΛÌÂÓ· ·˘Ù¿, Ó· ÂÈϤÍÔ˘Ó ·Ó¿ ÔÌ¿‰· Î·È Ó· ÂÛÙÈ¿ÛÔ˘Ó Û ¤Ó· ˙‹ÙËÌ· ¿Óˆ ÛÙÔ ÔÔ›Ô ÔÈ Û˘ÓÔÌÈÏËÙ¤˜ ÙÔ˘ ¢È·ÏfiÁÔ˘ ÂȯÂÈÚËÌ·ÙÔÏÔÁÔ‡Ó Î·È Û˘ÁÎÚÔ‡ÔÓÙ·È Î·È, Ù¤ÏÔ˜, Ó· ·ÚÔ˘ÛÈ¿ÛÔ˘Ó ÌÈ· Û‡ÓÙÔÌË ÂÈÛ‹ÁËÛË (10ã), ÔÚÁ·ÓˆÌ¤ÓË Ì ‰È·Ê¿ÓÂȘ, fiÔ˘ Ó· Ê·›ÓÂÙ·È ÙÔ ‚·ÛÈÎfi ÂÚÒÙËÌ· Á‡Úˆ ·fi ÙÔ ÔÔ›Ô ÂÍÂÏ›ÛÛÂÙ·È Ë Û‡ÁÎÚÔ˘ÛË, Ó· Ê·›ÓÔÓÙ·È Ù· Âη٤ڈıÂÓ ÂȯÂÈÚ‹Ì·Ù·, Ó· ‰ËÏÒÓÂÙ·È Ë ÂÎÙ›ÌËÛË Ù˘ ÔÌ¿‰·˜ ÁÈ· ÙÔ ÔÈ· ¿Ô„Ë ÙÂÏÈο ÂÈÎÚ·Ù› ηÈ, Ù¤ÏÔ˜, Ó· ‰ÈηÈÔÏÔÁÂ›Ù·È Ë ÂÎÙ›ÌËÛË ·˘Ù‹: Ù˘È΋ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈ΋ ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ·, Ì ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎfi/ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÏÔÁÈÎfi ÂÚȯfiÌÂÓÔ.


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£Â·ÙÚÈ΋ ·Ê‹ÁËÛË ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÒÓ È‰ÂÒÓ

41

™Ù· ÂfiÌÂÓ· ¤ÓÙ ÂÍ¿ˆÚ· ÙÔ˘ Ì·ı‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ ÔÈ ÔÌ¿‰Â˜ ÙˆÓ ÊÔÈÙËÙÚÈÒÓ ·Ó¤Ï·‚·Ó Ó· ÔÚÁ·ÓÒÛÔ˘Ó ÌÈ· Û‡ÓÙÔÌË ı·ÙÚÈ΋ ÛÔ˘‰‹ Ì ÎÂÓÙÚÈ΋ ȉ¤· Ô˘ Ó· ÚÔ¤Ú¯ÂÙ·È ·fi ÙÔ ˙‹ÙËÌ· ÛÙÔ ÔÔ›Ô Î·ıÂÌÈ¿ ›¯Â ÂÛÙÈ¿ÛÂÈ Î·È ·Ó·Ù‡ÍÂÈ: ¯Ú‹ÛË ı·ÙÚÈÎÒÓ Ú·ÎÙÈÎÒÓ. ∞·Ú¿‚·ÙÔ˜ ηÓfiÓ·˜ ÙˆÓ ı·ÙÚÈÎÒÓ ÛÔ˘‰ÒÓ ‹Ù·Ó fiÙÈ Û ·˘Ù¤˜ ‰ÂÓ ı· ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔÈËı› ηıfiÏÔ˘ ÏfiÁÔ˜ (Ë Ú·ÎÙÈ΋ Ù˘ ÂÎÊÔÚ¿˜ ÏfiÁÔ˘ ›¯Â Ê·Ó› fiÙÈ ÂÍÔ˘‰ÂÙ¤ÚˆÓ Û ÌÂÁ¿ÏÔ ‚·ıÌfi ÙË ¯Ú‹ÛË ÙˆÓ ¿ÏÏˆÓ ı·ÙÚÈÎÒÓ Ú·ÎÙÈÎÒÓ). √È ı·ÙÚÈΤ˜ ·˘Ù¤˜ ÛÔ˘‰¤˜ ı· ¤ÚÂ ӷ ·Ó·Ù‡ÛÛÔÓÙ·È ·fi ÙËÓ Î¿ı ÔÌ¿‰· ηْ ·Ú¯‹Ó ·˘ÙfiÓÔÌ·, ÁÈ· Ó· ·Ó·‰Âȯı› Ë ÌÂÁ·Ï‡ÙÂÚË ‰˘Ó·Ù‹ ÔÈÎÈÏ›· ÛÙÔ ı·ÙÚÈÎfi ·ÔÙ¤ÏÂÛÌ·. ∆·˘Ùfi¯ÚÔÓ·, Ë ÔÚ›· Ù˘ οı ÔÌ¿‰·˜ ı· ¤ÚÂ ӷ ÁÓˆÛÙÔÔÈÂ›Ù·È ÛÙÔ Û‡ÓÔÏÔ ÙˆÓ Û˘ÌÌÂÙ¯fiÓÙˆÓ, ÒÛÙ ÔÈ ÙÂÏÈΤ˜ ÛÔ˘‰¤˜ Ó· ÌÔÚÔ‡Ó Ó· ·ÚıÚˆıÔ‡Ó Û ÌÈ· ÂÓÈ·›· ·Ú¿ÛÙ·ÛË (Á‡Úˆ ·fi ÌÈ· ÂÓÈ·›· ÎÂÓÙÚÈ΋ ȉ¤·). ™Ù· ÙÂÏÂ˘Ù·›· ‰‡Ô ÂÍ¿ˆÚ· ÙÔ˘ Ì·ı‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ Î·È ·ÓÂÍ¿ÚÙËÙ· ·fi ÙÔ Â›Â‰Ô «ˆÚ›Ì·ÓÛ˘» Ù˘ οı ÂÈ̤ÚÔ˘˜ ı·ÙÚÈ΋˜ ÛÔ˘‰‹˜, Û˘ÁÎÚÔÙ‹ıËÎÂ Ë ‰ÔÌ‹ Ù˘ ÙÂÏÈ΋˜ ·Ú¿ÛÙ·Û˘. °È· ÙÔ ÛÎÔfi ·˘Ùfi Ë Î¿ı ÔÌ¿‰· ı· ¤ÚÂ ӷ ÂÈϤÍÂÈ ¤Ó· ÌÈÎÚfi ÎÔÌÌ¿ÙÈ ·fi Ù· ΛÌÂÓ· ÙÔ˘ ¢È·ÏfiÁÔ˘ ˆ˜ ÂÈÛ·ÁˆÁ‹ ÛÙË ı·ÙÚÈ΋ Ù˘ ÛÔ˘‰‹ (Ù· ÂÈÏÂÁ̤ӷ ΛÌÂÓ· ı· ¤ÚÂ ӷ ÂÎÊÚ¿˙Ô˘Ó ÙËÓ ÎÂÓÙÚÈ΋ ȉ¤· Ù˘ ÛÔ˘‰‹˜). £· ¤ÚÂ Â›Û˘ Ó· ÚÔÙ›ÓÔ˘Ó ¤Ó· ·ÓÙ›ÛÙÔÈ¯Ô ÎÔÌÌ¿ÙÈ ˆ˜ ÂÈÛ·ÁˆÁ‹ ÛÙË Û˘ÓÔÏÈ΋ ·Ú¿ÛÙ·ÛË. √È ÂÈ̤ÚÔ˘˜ ·ÚÔ˘ÛÈ¿ÛÂȘ, Û˘˙ËÙ‹ÛÂȘ Î·È ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ˜ Ì·ÁÓËÙÔÛÎÔ‹ıËηÓ. ∆Ô Û‡ÓÔÏÔ ÙˆÓ Ì·ÁÓËÙÔÛÎÔ‹ÛÂˆÓ ·ÔÙ¤ÏÂÛ ٷ ‰Â‰Ô̤ӷ Ì·˜. ∏ ·Ó¿Ï˘ÛË ÙˆÓ ‰Â‰ÔÌ¤ÓˆÓ ø˜ ÌÔÓ¿‰· ·Ó¿Ï˘Û˘ ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔÈ‹ıËΠÙÔ Û‡ÓÔÏÔ Î¿ı ·˘ÙfiÓÔÌ˘ ·ÚÔ˘Û›·Û˘ Ô˘ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÔÔ›ËÛÂ Ë Î¿ı ÔÌ¿‰· ÌÂÙ¿ ÙÔ ¤Ú·˜ Ù˘ ηıÂÌ›·˜ ·fi ÙȘ ÚÔËÁÔ‡ÌÂÓ˜ ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ˜. ªÂ ÙË ÏÔÁÈ΋ ·˘Ù‹, ÁÈ· οı ÔÌ¿‰· ·Ó·Ï‡ıËÎÂ: Ë ·ÚÔ˘Û›·ÛË Ù˘ 1˘ ı·ÙÚÈ΋˜ ÛÔ˘‰‹˜ (£™1) Ô˘ ÛÙËÚ›¯ıËΠÛÙȘ ÚÔ¸¿Ú¯Ô˘Û˜ ȉ¤Â˜ ÙˆÓ ÊÔÈÙËÙÚÈÒÓ ÁÈ· ÙÔÓ °·ÏÈÏ·›ÔØ Ë ·ÚÔ˘Û›·ÛË Ë Û¯ÂÙÈ΋ Ì ÙȘ Ù˘¯¤˜ Ù˘ ˙ˆ‹˜ ÙÔ˘ °·ÏÈÏ·›Ô˘ (∑°), fiˆ˜ ·˘Ù‹ ÚԤ΢„ ÌÂÙ¿ ÙË ÌÂϤÙË ÙÔ˘ ¯ÚÔÓÔÏfiÁÈÔ˘Ø Ô ı·ÙÚÈÎfi˜ ·˘ÙÔۯ‰ȷÛÌfi˜ (£∞) Ô˘ ÛÙËÚ›¯ıËΠ۠ȉ¤Â˜ ·fi ÙËÓ ÚÔËÁÔ‡ÌÂÓË ·ÚÔ˘Û›·ÛËØ Ë ·ÚÔ˘Û›·ÛË ÙÔ˘ ÂÚȯÔ̤ÓÔ˘ (¶¶) ·fi ÙÔ ·fiÛ·ÛÌ· ÙÔ˘ ÎÂÈ̤ÓÔ˘ ÙÔ˘ °·ÏÈÏ·›Ô˘Ø Ë ‰Â‡ÙÂÚË Î·È ÙÂÏÈ΋ ı·ÙÚÈ΋ ÛÔ˘‰‹ (£™2) Ô˘ ÛÙËÚ›¯ıËΠÛÙÔ Î›ÌÂÓÔ ·˘Ùfi.


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µ·Û›Ï˘ ∆ÛÂÏʤ˜, ∞ÓÙÈÁfiÓË ¶·ÚÔ‡ÛË

∫¿ı ·ÚÔ˘Û›·ÛË ·Ó·Ï‡ıËΠÛÙË ‚¿ÛË ÙˆÓ ‰ÔÌÒÓ Î·È ÙˆÓ Ú·ÎÙÈÎÒÓ Ô˘ ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔÈ‹ıËÎ·Ó Û’ ·˘Ù‹. ™˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤ӷ, ÂÓÙÔ›ÛÙËÎ·Ó Ù· ۇ̂ÔÏ·, Ù· ÂÚÁ·Ï›·, Ù· Ù¯Ӌ̷ٷ (‰Ô̤˜), ηıÒ˜ Î·È ÔÈ Ú·ÎÙÈΤ˜ Ô˘ ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔÈ‹ıËηÓ. ∆· ۇ̂ÔÏ·, ÛÙÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ ÙˆÓ ı·ÙÚÈÎÒÓ ·ÚÔ˘ÛÈ¿ÛˆÓ, ÂÓÙÔ›ÛÙËÎ·Ó Ì¤Ûˆ ÙÔ˘ «Û˘Ó¯ԇ˜» ÓÙÈ˙¿ÈÓ-ΛÓËÛË-‹¯Ô˜/ÏfiÁÔ˜, fiˆ˜ ÙÔ ÂÚÈÁÚ¿ÊÂÈ Ô Tillis (1992). ™ÙÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ ÙˆÓ ÚÔÊÔÚÈÎÒÓ ·ÚÔ˘ÛÈ¿ÛˆÓ, Ù· ۇ̂ÔÏ· ÂÓÙÔ›ÛÙËÎ·Ó Î˘Ú›ˆ˜ Ì ·Ó¿Ï˘ÛË ÂÚȯÔ̤ÓÔ˘ ÙÔ˘ ÏfiÁÔ˘ Ô˘ ·ÚıÚÒıËÎÂ Î·È Î·Ù·ÁÚ¿ÊËÎÂ. ∫·È Ù· ‰‡Ô ›‰Ë Û˘Ì‚fiÏˆÓ ıˆڋıËÎ·Ó fiÙÈ ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁÔ‡Ó ÛÙȘ ·ÚÔ˘ÛÈ¿ÛÂȘ ˆ˜ ÛËÌ›· Ô˘, Û‡Ìʈӷ Ì ÙËÓ ÚÔÛ¤ÁÁÈÛË ÙÔ˘ Pierce (1964), Û˘Ó‰¤Ô˘Ó ¤Ó· ·ÓÙÈÚÔÛˆ‡ÔÓ (ÛËÌ·›ÓÔÓ) Ì ¤Ó· ‰ÈÂÚÌËÓ‡ÔÓ (ÛËÌ·ÈÓfiÌÂÓÔ) ÛÙÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ ÂÓfi˜ ·Ó·ÊÂÚfiÌÂÓÔ˘. ∆· ÂÚÁ·Ï›· Î·È Ù· Ù¯Ӌ̷ٷ Ô˘ ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔÈ‹ıËÎ·Ó ÂÓÙÔ›ÛÙËÎ·Ó ·fi ÙȘ Ì·ÁÓËÙÔÛÎÔ‹ÛÂȘ. π‰È·›ÙÂÚË ÛËÌ·Û›· ·Ô‰ÒÛ·Ì ÛÙ· ۇ̂ÔÏ· Ô˘ ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔÈ‹ıËÎ·Ó ·fi ÙËÓ ÂÚÈÔ¯‹ Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ (ۇ̂ÔÏ· Ô˘ Û˘Ó‰¤ÔÓÙ·Ó Â›Ù Ì ÙÔ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎfi ÂÚȯfiÌÂÓÔ Â›Ù Ì ÙȘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈΤ˜ Ú·ÎÙÈΤ˜ – ·˘Ù¿ Ô˘ ÂÓÓÔÔ‡Ó ‹ οÓÔ˘Ó, Û‡Ìʈӷ Ì ÙȘ ÊÔÈÙ‹ÙÚȘ, ÔÈ ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌÔÓ˜). ∆Ș Ú·ÎÙÈΤ˜ ÙˆÓ ÊÔÈÙËÙÚÈÒÓ ÙȘ ·Ó··Ú·ÛÙ‹Û·Ì ˆ˜ ÙÚfiÔ˘˜ Ì ÙÔ˘˜ ÔÔ›Ô˘˜ ·˘Ù¤˜ Û˘Ó‰¤Ô˘Ó ۇ̂ÔÏ·, ÂÚÁ·Ï›· Î·È Ù¯Ӌ̷ٷ ÛÙȘ ·ÚÔ˘ÛÈ¿ÛÂȘ ÙÔ˘˜. √È Ú·ÎÙÈΤ˜ ·˘Ù¤˜ ıˆڋ۷Ì fiÙÈ ÌÔÚÔ‡Ó Ó· ÂÓÙ·¯ıÔ‡Ó ÛÙËÓ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈ΋-ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ‹ ÛÙËÓ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈ΋-ı·ÙÚÈ΋ ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú· ÙˆÓ ÊÔÈÙËÙÚÈÒÓ ·Ó¿ÏÔÁ· Ì ÙÔ Â›‰Ô˜ Ù˘ ·ÚÔ˘Û›·Û˘ Ô˘ ÂȯÂÈÚÔ‡Ó. £ÂˆÚ‹Û·Ì Â›Û˘ fiÙÈ ÌÔÚԇ̠ӷ ·ÔÊ·Û›˙Ô˘Ì ÁÈ· οı Ú·ÎÙÈ΋ ·Ó ·ÔÙÂÏ› ·Ó··Ú·ÁˆÁ‹ ‹ ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹. ∞Ó··Ú·ÁˆÁ‹ Ú·ÎÙÈÎÒÓ ıˆڋ۷Ì fiÙÈ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÔÔÈÂ›Ù·È ÛÙȘ ‰‡Ô ÚÒÙ˜ ·ÚÔ˘ÛÈ¿ÛÂȘ (ÙË ı·ÙÚÈ΋ £™1 Î·È ÙËÓ ÚÔÊÔÚÈ΋ ∑°). ∞fi ÂΛ Î·È ÌÂÙ¿, Ú·ÎÙÈΤ˜ Ô˘ ÂÌÊ·Ó›˙ÔÓÙ·Ó ÁÈ· ÚÒÙË ÊÔÚ¿ ÛÙȘ ÂfiÌÂÓ˜ ·ÚÔ˘ÛÈ¿ÛÂȘ Î·È ‰ÂÓ ÂÈ‚¿ÏÏÔÓÙ·Ó ·fi ÙÔ˘˜ ‰È‰¿ÛÎÔÓÙ˜ ÙȘ ıˆڋ۷Ì ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹ (Î·È ¿Ú· Ì¿ıËÛË). ∆¤ÏÔ˜, ıˆڋ۷Ì fiÙÈ ÌÔÚԇ̠ӷ ‰ÈηÈÔÏÔÁ‹ÛÔ˘Ì ÙËÓ ÂÌÊ¿ÓÈÛ‹ ÙÔ˘˜ ÛÙË ‚¿ÛË ÙˆÓ ·ÓÙÈı¤ÛÂˆÓ Ô˘ ÁÂÓÓÈÔ‡ÓÙ·È (fiÙ·Ó, ÁÈ· ·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ·, ÔÈ ÊÔÈÙ‹ÙÚȘ ÚÔÛ·ıÔ‡Ó Ó· ÂÓÙ¿ÍÔ˘Ó ÙȘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈΤ˜ ȉ¤Â˜ ÛÙËÓ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈ΋-ı·ÙÚÈ΋ ÙÔ˘˜ ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú·). ™¯ËÌ·ÙÈο, Ë ·Ó¿Ï˘Û‹ Ì·˜ ·ÎÔÏÔ‡ıËÛ ÙÔ ‰È¿ÁÚ·ÌÌ· Ô˘ Ê·›ÓÂÙ·È ÛÙËÓ ÂÈÎfiÓ· 2.


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£Â·ÙÚÈ΋ ·Ê‹ÁËÛË ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÒÓ È‰ÂÒÓ

43

∂È��fiÓ· 2. ∆Ô ÙÚ›ÁˆÓÔ Ô˘ Û¯ËÌ·Ù›˙ÂÙ·È (‰Ô̤˜-Ú·ÎÙÈΤ˜-ÚÔ‚·ÏÏfiÌÂÓ˜ ȉ¤Â˜) ¤¯ÂÈ ÌÂÙ·‚·ÏÏfiÌÂÓÔ «Î¤ÓÙÚÔ ‚¿ÚÔ˘˜» Û fi,ÙÈ ·ÊÔÚ¿ ÙËÓ ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹, Ì ÙË ÏÔÁÈ΋ fiÙÈ Û ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈΤ˜ ÂÚÈÔ¯¤˜ ÙÔ˘ ÙËÓ ÚÔˆı› ¤Ó·ÓÙÈ Ù˘ ·Ó··Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜. ™ÙȘ ηÙ¢ı‡ÓÛÂȘ ·˘Ù¤˜ ıˆÚԇ̠fiÙÈ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÔÔÈÂ›Ù·È Ì¿ıËÛË

∞¶√∆∂§∂™ª∞∆∞ ∂‰Ò ı· ·ÚÔ˘ÛÈ¿ÛÔ˘ÌÂ Î·È ı· Û¯ÔÏÈ¿ÛÔ˘Ì ٷ ·ÔÙÂϤÛÌ·Ù· ·fi ÙȘ ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ˜ ÌÈ·˜ ÔÌ¿‰·˜ ÙÚÈÒÓ ÊÔÈÙËÙÚÈÒÓ. ∆· ·ÔÙÂϤÛÌ·Ù· ·˘Ù¿ ı· Ù· ·ÓÙÈÌÂÙˆ›˙Ô˘Ì ˆ˜ ÚÔ˚fiÓ Ù˘ Û˘ÏÏÔÁÈ΋˜ ‰Ú¿Û˘ ÙˆÓ ÊÔÈÙËÙÚÈÒÓ Î·È ˆ˜ ÂÓ‰ÂÈÎÙÈο ÁÈ· ÙÔ Û‡ÓÔÏÔ Ù˘ ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ·˜. ™ÙËÓ ÚÒÙË ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ· (£™1) ÔÈ ÊÔÈÙ‹ÙÚȘ ·ÚÔ˘Û›·Û·Ó ÌÈ· ı·ÙÚÈ΋ ÛÔ˘‰‹ Ì Ù¯ÓÈΤ˜ ÙÔ˘ ı¿ÙÚÔ˘ ÛÎÈÒÓ. ∏ ÛÔ˘‰‹ ÔÏÔÎÏËÚˆÓfiÙ·Ó Û ̛· ÛÎËÓ‹ Î·È Ì ¤Ó· ÚfiÛˆÔ Ô˘ ÌÈÏÔ‡ÛÂ. ∆Ô ÚfiÛˆÔ ·ÓÙÈÚÔÛˆ‡ÔÓÙ·Ó ·fi ÌÈ· ÛηÏÈÛÙ‹ ÊÈÁÔ‡Ú·-Ù¤¯ÓËÌ· (ÌÔ‡ÛÙÔ ·ÚıÚˆÙfi ÎÂÊ¿ÏÈ Î·È ¯¤ÚÈ Ô˘ ÎÚ·ÙÔ‡Û ÌÈ· ‰ÈfiÙÚ·). ∆Ô ÓÙÈ˙¿ÈÓ Ù˘ ÊÈÁÔ‡Ú·˜ (ÌÂÁ¿ÏÔ ÎÔÏ¿ÚÔ Î·È ÛÔ‚·Úfi ·ÓÙÚÈÎfi ÚfiÛˆÔ Ì ÏÔ‡ÛÈ· Ì·ÏÏÈ¿) ·Ú¤ÂÌ Û ÈÛÙÔÚÈÎfi ·Ó·ÊÂÚfiÌÂÓÔ. ∏ ‰ÈfiÙÚ· ‰ÈÂÚÌ‹Ó¢ ÙËÓ È‰ÈfiÙËÙ· ÙÔ˘ ·ÛÙÚÔÓfiÌÔ˘. ∏ ÊÈÁÔ‡Ú· ‹Ù·Ó ÛÙËÚÈÁ̤ÓË Ì η‚›ÏȘ Û ÙÚ›· ÛËÌ›· Ô˘ Â¤ÙÚÂ·Ó ÙÔ ¯ÂÈÚÈÛÌfi Ù˘ ·fi Ì·ÎÚÈ¿ Î·È ÙËÓ Î›ÓËÛË ÙÔ˘ ÎÂÊ·ÏÈÔ‡ Î·È ÙÔ˘ ¯ÂÚÈÔ‡ Û ۯ¤ÛË Ì ÙÔ ÛÒÌ·. ºˆÙÈ˙fiÙ·Ó ·fi ¤Ó· ʈÙÈÛÙÈÎfi (ÛÔÙ) ΈÓÈ΋˜ ‰¤ÛÌ˘ Î·È Ë ı·ÙÚÈ΋ ÂÈÎfiÓ· ÚÔ‚¿ÏÏÔÓÙ·Ó ·ÛÚfiÌ·˘ÚË, ¿Óˆ Û ÔıfiÓË ·fi Ú˘˙fi¯·ÚÙÔ (ËÌȉȷʷӤ˜ ¯·ÚÙ› ۯ‰›Ô˘), ˆ˜ ÛÎÈ¿ Û ΢ÎÏÈÎfi ʈÙÂÈÓfi ÊfiÓÙÔ. µ·ÛÈÎfi Û˘ÛÙ·ÙÈÎfi Ù˘ ı·ÙÚÈ΋˜


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µ·Û›Ï˘ ∆ÛÂÏʤ˜, ∞ÓÙÈÁfiÓË ¶·ÚÔ‡ÛË

ÛÔ˘‰‹˜ ·ÔÙÂÏÔ‡ÛÂ Ô ÏfiÁÔ˜, Ô ÔÔ›Ô˜ ¿Ú¯È˙ Ì ÙËÓ Â›ÛÔ‰Ô Ù˘ ÊÈÁÔ‡Ú·˜ ÛÙË ÛÎËÓ‹ Î·È ÙÂÏ›ˆÓ Ì ÙËÓ ¤ÍÔ‰fi Ù˘: «Ã·›ÚÂÙÂ. ∂ÁÒ ÂÈÌ› ·ÛÙÚÔÓfiÌÔ˜. √ Â› ÔÏÏ¿ ¤ÙË ÂÍ·ÛÎÒÓ ¤Ó· ÌfiÓÔÓ Â¿ÁÁÂÏÌ·, ·ÔÙÂÏÔ‡ÌÂÓÔÓ ÂÎ Ì˘ÛÙËÚ›ˆÓ Î·È ÂÎϋ͈Ó. √ÚÒ ÙÔÓ Ô˘Ú·ÓfiÓ ÙÔÓ ¤Ó·ÛÙÚÔÓ ¿ÏÏ·ÏÔ˜, ¢ÚÈÛÎfiÌÂÓÔ˜ ÂÓ ÂÎÛÙ¿ÛÂÈ ÂÎ ÙÔ˘ ÌÂÁ·Ï›Ԣ ·˘ÙÔ‡. ŸÏ· Ù· ·Ó·Î·Ï˘Êı¤ÓÙ· ˘’ ÂÌÔ‡ ‰È·Ï·ÏÒ Â› ·ÓÙfi˜ ÙfiÔ˘. ∆Ô fiÓÔÌ¿ ÌÔ˘ ԢΠ¤¯ÂÈ ÙfiÛËÓ ÛËÌ·Û›· fiÛËÓ Ù· ÏÂÁfiÌÂÓ¿ ÌÔ˘Ø fiÙÈ Ë ÁË ÂÚÈÛÙÚÔÊ‹Ó ¤¯ÂÈ. ∂Ș ÙÔ Â·ÓÂȉ›ӻ. ∏ ΛÓËÛË ÙÔ˘ ÎÂÊ·ÏÈÔ‡ ‹Ù·Ó Û˘ÓÙÔÓÈṲ̂ÓË Ì ÙÔ Ú˘ıÌfi ÙÔ˘ ÏfiÁÔ˘ (‰ÈÂÚÌËÓ‡ÔÓÙ·˜ ÙÔ ÁÂÁÔÓfi˜ fiÙÈ Ù· ÏÂÁfiÌÂÓ· ÂÎʤÚÔÓÙ·È ·fi ÙÔ ÚfiÛˆÔ Ô˘ ·ÓÙÈÚÔÛˆ‡ÂÈ Ë ÊÈÁÔ‡Ú·) ÂÓÒ Ë Î›ÓËÛË ÙÔ˘ ¯ÂÚÈÔ‡ Ì ÙÔ ÙËÏÂÛÎfiÈÔ ‰ÈÂÚÌ‹Ó¢ ΢ڛˆ˜ ÙÔÓ ÙÚfiÔ Ì ÙÔÓ ÔÔ›Ô ÁÈÓfiÙ·Ó Ë ·Ú·Ù‹ÚËÛË ÙÔ˘ Ô˘Ú·ÓÔ‡. ∏ ¯Ú‹ÛË (·Ú·Êı·Ṳ́Ó˘) ·Ú¯·›·˜ ÂÏÏËÓÈ΋˜ ÁÏÒÛÛ·˜ Û˘Ó¤‚·Ï Â›Û˘ ÛÙËÓ ·Ó·ÊÔÚ¿ Û ÈÛÙÔÚÈÎfi ¯ÚfiÓÔ Î·È Û οÔÈÔ ‚·ıÌfi ‰ÈÂÚÌ‹Ó¢ ÙÔ ˘„ËÏfi ·ÚÔ˜ ÙˆÓ ÏÂÁÔ̤ӈÓ. ∆Ô ÂÚȯfiÌÂÓÔ ÙÔ˘ ÂÎÊÂÚfiÌÂÓÔ˘ ÏfiÁÔ˘ ‰ÈÂÚÌ‹Ó¢ ÙȘ ·fi„ÂȘ ÙˆÓ ÊÔÈÙËÙÚÈÒÓ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ· Ù˘ ÂÔ¯‹˜ ÙÔ˘ °·ÏÈÏ·›Ô˘: ÌÈ· ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ· ÚÔÛˆÈ΋˜ ·Ó·Î¿Ï˘„˘ (Ù· ·Ó·Î·Ï˘Êı¤ÓÙ· ˘’ ÂÌÔ‡), ÛÙËÚÈÁ̤ÓË ÛÙËÓ ·Ú·Ù‹ÚËÛË (√ÚÒ ÙÔÓ Ô˘Ú·ÓfiÓ), Ô˘ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÔÔÈÂ›Ù·È ·fi ·ÊÔÛȈ̤ÓÔ˘˜ ·ÓıÚÒÔ˘˜ (Â› ÔÏÏ¿ ¤ÙË ¤Ó· ÌfiÓÔÓ Â¿ÁÁÂÏÌ·), ÔÈ ÔÔ›ÔÈ ‰È·‰›‰Ô˘Ó Ì ÂÈÌÔÓ‹ ÙË ÁÓÒÛË ÙÔ˘˜ (‰È·Ï·ÏÒ Â› ·ÓÙfi˜ ÙfiÔ˘)Ø ÌÈ· ÁÓÒÛË Ô˘ ÂÎÙÈÌÔ‡Ó ÂÚÈÛÛfiÙÂÚÔ Î·È ·fi ÙÔÓ ›‰ÈÔ ÙÔÓ Â·˘Ùfi ÙÔ˘˜ (∆Ô fiÓÔÌ¿ ÌÔ˘ ԢΠ¤¯ÂÈ ÙfiÛËÓ ÛËÌ·Û›· fiÛËÓ Ù· ÏÂÁfiÌÂÓ¿ ÌÔ˘). ™ÙË ı·ÙÚÈ΋ ·˘Ù‹ ÛÔ˘‰‹ ıˆÚԇ̠fiÙÈ Á›ÓÂÙ·È ·Ó··Ú·ÁˆÁ‹ ÙfiÛÔ Ù˘ ı·ÙÚÈ΋˜, fiÛÔ Î·È Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋˜-ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈ΋˜ ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú·˜ ÙˆÓ ÊÔÈÙËÙÚÈÒÓ. ∏ ÔÌ¿‰· ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔ›ËÛ ÎÏ·ÛÈΤ˜ ‰Ô̤˜ ÙÔ˘ ı¿ÙÚÔ˘ ÛÎÈÒÓ: ¯Ú‹ÛË ÙÔ˘ ÓÙÈ˙¿ÈÓ ÁÈ· Ó· ÛËÌ·ÓıÔ‡Ó ÔÈ ¯·Ú·ÎÙ‹Ú˜ ÙˆÓ ÚÔÛÒˆÓ Î·È ÙÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ Ù˘ ‰Ú¿Û˘ ÙÔ˘˜ (ۇ̂ÔÏ·), ÛηÏÈÛÙ‹ ÊÈÁÔ‡Ú· (Ù¤¯ÓËÌ·), ·‰È·Ê·Ó¤˜ ¯·ÚÙfiÓÈ, ·ÚıÚÒÛÂȘ Ì ÌÂÙ·ÏÏÈÎÔ‡˜ Û˘Ó‰ÂÙ‹Ú˜, η‚›ÏȘ-ÛÙËÚ›ÁÌ·Ù·, ËÌȉȷʷӋ˜ ÔıfiÓË, ÚÔ‚ÔϤ·˜ Ï¢ÎÔ‡ ʈÙfi˜ (ÂÚÁ·Ï›·). ÃÚËÛÈÌÔÔ›ËÛ Â›Û˘ ÎÏ·ÛÈ΋ ı·ÙÚÈ΋ Ú·ÎÙÈ΋: Û‡Ó‰ÂÛË ÙÔ˘ Ù¯Ӌ̷ÙÔ˜ (ÊÈÁÔ‡Ú·) Ì ÙÔÓ ÂÎÊÂÚfiÌÂÓÔ ÏfiÁÔ, Ì ‚·ÛÈÎfi ÊÔÚ¤· ÌËÓ˘Ì¿ÙˆÓ ÙÔÓ ÙÂÏÂ˘Ù·›Ô. ∏ Ú·ÎÙÈ΋ ·˘Ù‹ ÌÔÚ› Ó· ıˆÚËı› ÎÏ·ÛÈ΋ Î·È ÛÙÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋˜-ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈ΋˜ ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú·˜ (fiÔ˘ fi,ÙÈ ‰ÂÓ ÌÔÚ› Ó· ·ÚıÚˆı› Ì ÏfiÁÔ –‹ Î·È ¿ÏÏ· ÁÚ·Ù¿ ۇ̂ÔÏ·– Â›Ó·È Û·Ó Ó· ÌËÓ ˘¿Ú¯ÂÈ). ™ÙÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ Ù˘ ›‰È·˜ ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú·˜ ÂÓÙ¿ÛÛÂÙ·È Î·È Ë ·Ó··Ú·ÁˆÁ‹ ÙˆÓ Û˘Ì‚fiÏˆÓ Ô˘ ÂÚÈÁÚ¿ÊÔ˘Ó ÙËÓ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ· (ۯ‰fiÓ «ËÚˆÈ΋» Î·È ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈ΋ ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ·, Ô˘ ·ÛÎÂ›Ù·È ÌÂ


003

17-06-09

13:21

™ÂÏ›‰·45

£Â·ÙÚÈ΋ ·Ê‹ÁËÛË ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÒÓ È‰ÂÒÓ

45

·˘Ù·¿ÚÓËÛË ·fi ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈÎÔ‡˜ ·ÓıÚÒÔ˘˜Ø ÙÔ ·ÔÙ¤ÏÂÛÌ¿ Ù˘ – Ë ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ÁÓÒÛË – Ù·˘Ù›˙ÂÙ·È Ì ÙÔÓ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎfi ÏfiÁÔ). ™ÙË ‰Â‡ÙÂÚË ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ· Ë ›‰È· ÔÌ¿‰· ÊÔÈÙËÙÚÈÒÓ ·ÚÔ˘Û›·Û ÌÈ· ÂÈÎfiÓ· Ù˘ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋˜ ˙ˆ‹˜ ÙÔ˘ °·ÏÈÏ·›Ô˘. ∏ ·ÚÔ˘Û›·ÛË ÛÙËÚ›¯ıËΠÛÙË ÌÂϤÙË ÂÓfi˜ ¯ÚÔÓÔÏÔÁ›Ô˘ Ô˘ ›¯Â ηٷÛ΢·ÛÙ› ·fi ÙÔ˘˜ ‰È‰¿ÛÎÔÓÙ˜ (ΛÌÂÓÔ Ô˘ ·ÚÔ˘Û›·˙ Ì ¯ÚÔÓÔÏÔÁÈ΋ ÛÂÈÚ¿ (1564-1642) 147 ÁÂÁÔÓfiÙ· Ù· ÔÔ›· ·Ó·Ê¤ÚÔÓÙ·Ó ÛÙË ˙ˆ‹ ÙÔ˘ °·ÏÈÏ·›Ô˘ ‹ Û¯ÂÙ›˙ÔÓÙ·Ó Ì’ ·˘Ù‹ – ¯ˆÚ›˜ Ó· ·Ó·Ï‡ÔÓÙ·È ‹ Ó· Û˘Ó‰¤ÔÓÙ·È ÌÂٷ͇ ÙÔ˘˜), ÛÙË ‚¿ÛË ÏËÚÔÊÔÚÈÒÓ Ô˘ ·Ó·Û‡ÚıËÎ·Ó ·fi ÙË ‰ÈÎÙ˘·Î‹ ı¤ÛË The Galileo Project (http://galileo.rice.edu/index.html). ∆Ô ÂÚȯfiÌÂÓÔ ÙÔ˘ ¯ÚÔÓÔÏÔÁ›Ô˘ Û˘˙ËÙ‹ıËΠÂÎÙÂÓÒ˜ Ì ÙÔ Û‡ÓÔÏÔ ÙˆÓ ÊÔÈÙËÙÚÈÒÓ ÚÈÓ ·fi ÙËÓ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÔÔ›ËÛË ÙˆÓ ÂÈ̤ÚÔ˘˜ ·ÚÔ˘ÛÈ¿ÛˆÓ. √È ‰Ô̤˜ Î·È ÔÈ Ú·ÎÙÈΤ˜ Ô˘ ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔÈ‹ıËÎ·Ó ·fi ÙȘ ÊÔÈÙ‹ÙÚȘ ÛÙËÓ ·ÚÔ˘Û›·Û‹ ÙÔ˘˜ (Î·È Ô˘ ‰ÂÓ ‰È¤ÊÂÚ·Ó Û οÙÈ ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈÎfi ·fi ·˘Ù¤˜ Ô˘ ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔ›ËÛ·Ó ÔÈ ¿ÏϘ ÔÌ¿‰Â˜) ıˆÚԇ̠fiÙÈ ·ÔÙÂÏÔ‡Ó ·Ó··Ú·ÁˆÁ‹ ‰ÔÌÒÓ Î·È Ú·ÎÙÈÎÒÓ Ù˘ Ù˘È΋˜ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈ΋˜-ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋˜ ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú·˜ ÙÔ˘˜. ™˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤ӷ ÔÈ ÊÔÈÙ‹ÙÚȘ Â¤ÏÂÍ·Ó Î·È ·ÚÔ˘Û›·Û·Ó Ì ¯ÚÔÓÔÏÔÁÈ΋ ÛÂÈÚ¿ Ù· ÁÂÁÔÓfiÙ· Ô˘ ıÂÒÚËÛ·Ó fiÙÈ Û¯ÂÙ›˙ÔÓÙ·È Ì ÙËÓ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋ ˙ˆ‹ ÙÔ˘ °·ÏÈÏ·›Ô˘, ¯ˆÚ›˜ Ó· ÌÂÙ·‚¿ÏÏÔ˘Ó ÙȘ ÊÚ¿ÛÂȘ ÙÔ˘ ·Ú¯ÈÎÔ‡ ÎÂÈ̤ÓÔ˘, ¯ˆÚ›˜ Ó· Û¯ÔÏÈ¿ÛÔ˘Ó ÙȘ ÌÂٷ͇ ÙÔ˘˜ Û¯¤ÛÂȘ Î·È ¯ˆÚ›˜ Ó· ÌÔÚ¤ÛÔ˘Ó Ó· ÂÚÈÁÚ¿„Ô˘Ó ÚËÙ¿ Ù· ÎÚÈÙ‹ÚÈ· Ì ‚¿ÛË Ù· ÔÔ›· Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÔÔ›ËÛ·Ó ÙËÓ ÂÈÏÔÁ‹ ÙˆÓ ÁÂÁÔÓfiÙˆÓ (·Ó Î·È Ë ÂÈÏÔÁ‹ ‹Ù·Ó Û¯ÂÙÈο ÂÈÙ˘¯‹˜). ™˘ÌÏËڈ̷ÙÈο, ÔÈ ÊÔÈÙ‹ÙÚȘ ¤ÊÂÚ·Ó Î·È ‰È¿‚·Û·Ó ¤Ó· ÂÈϤÔÓ ÌÈÎÚfi ΛÌÂÓÔ (ʈÙÔÙ˘›· ·fi ÌÈ· Û¯ÔÏÈ΋ ÂÁ΢ÎÏÔ·›‰ÂÈ·), ÙÔ ÔÔ›Ô ÂÚÈ›¯Â ÎÚ·˘ÁϤ˜ ÈÛÙÔÚÈΤ˜ ·Ó·ÎÚ›‚ÂȘ (Ù˘ÈÎfi «ÚÔ·Á·Ó‰ÈÛÙÈÎfi» ΛÌÂÓÔ ÁÈ· ÙË ÌÂÁ·ÏÔÊ˘˝· ÙˆÓ ÂÈÛÙËÌfiÓˆÓ). ™ÙÔ Î›ÌÂÓÔ ·˘Ùfi ˘‹Ú¯Â Î·È ¤Ó· ÛΛÙÛÔ ÙÔ˘ °·ÏÈÏ·›Ô˘, ÛÙÔ ÔÔ›Ô ‰¤ÛÔ˙ ÙÔ ÌÂÁ¿ÏÔ ÎÔÏ¿ÚÔ Ô˘ ÂÌÊ·Ó›ÛÙËΠÛÙÔ ÓÙÈ˙¿ÈÓ Ù˘ ÚÒÙ˘ ı·ÙÚÈ΋˜ ÛÔ˘‰‹˜ ÙˆÓ ÊÔÈÙËÙÚÈÒÓ. ªÂ ‚¿ÛË Ù· ÚÔËÁÔ‡ÌÂÓ·, ÌÔÚԇ̠ӷ ԇ̠fiÙÈ Û fi,ÙÈ ·ÊÔÚ¿ ÙËÓ ·Ó··Ú·ÁˆÁ‹ ÙˆÓ ‰ÔÌÒÓ ÔÈ ÊÔÈÙ‹ÙÚȘ ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔ›ËÛ·Ó ˆ˜ ۇ̂ÔÏ· ÙȘ «¤Á΢Ú˜» ÊÚ¿ÛÂȘ ÙÔ˘ ¯ÚÔÓÔÏÔÁ›Ô˘ (ÊÚ¿ÛÂȘ Ô˘ ‰fiıËÎ·Ó ÁÚ·Ù¤˜ Î·È «ÂÈۋ̈˜» ·fi ÙÔ˘˜ ‰È‰¿ÛÎÔÓÙ˜) ‹ Ù˘ ÂÁ΢ÎÏÔ·›‰ÂÈ·˜, ¯ˆÚ›˜ Ó· ÙÔÏÌ‹ÛÔ˘Ó Ó· ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁ‹ÛÔ˘Ó Ó¤· ۇ̂ÔÏ· (ÊÚ¿ÛÂȘ Ô˘ Ó· ·Ó·Ê¤ÚÔÓÙ·È ÛÙȘ Û¯¤ÛÂȘ ÙˆÓ ÁÂÁÔÓfiÙˆÓ, ÛÙ· ÎÚÈÙ‹ÚÈ· ÂÈÏÔÁ‹˜ Î.Ô.Î.). ø˜ ÂÚÁ·Ï›· ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔ›ËÛ·Ó Ù· ΛÌÂÓ· Ô˘ ›¯·Ó ÛÙË ‰È¿ıÂÛ‹ ÙÔ˘˜ Î·È ÙÔ Ù¤¯ÓËÌ· Ô˘ ηٷÛ··Û·Ó ‹Ù·Ó Â›Û˘ ΛÌÂÓÔ, ÙÔ ÔÔ›Ô Î·È ‰È¿‚·Û·Ó ÛÙËÓ ·ÚÔ˘Û›·Û‹ ÙÔ˘˜. ∏ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈ΋ Ú·ÎÙÈ΋ ÙÔ˘˜ ·ÔÙÂÏÔ‡Û ÌÈ· Ú·ÎÙÈ΋ ÌÂÙ·ÊÔÚ¿˜ ̤ÚÔ˘˜ Ù˘


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46

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™ÂÏ›‰·46

µ·Û›Ï˘ ∆ÛÂÏʤ˜, ∞ÓÙÈÁfiÓË ¶·ÚÔ‡ÛË

«Â›ÛËÌ˘» ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈ΋˜ ÁÓÒÛ˘: Û˘Ó¤‰ÂÛ·Ó ¿ÚÚËÙ· –ÛÙÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ Ù˘ ÂÓÙÔÏ‹˜ Ô˘ ‹Ú·Ó ·fi ÙÔ˘˜ ‰È‰¿ÛÎÔÓÙ˜– ̤ÚÔ˜ ·fi Ù· ۇ̂ÔÏ· Ù· ÔÔ›· ¿ÓÙÏËÛ·Ó ·fi Ù· ΛÌÂÓ·-Ù¯Ӌ̷ٷ Ô˘ ›¯·Ó ÛÙË ‰È¿ıÂÛ‹ ÙÔ˘˜ Î·È ‰È¿‚·Û·Ó ÙÔ ÂÚȯfiÌÂÓÔ ÙÔ˘ Ù¯Ӌ̷ÙÔ˜-ÎÂÈ̤ÓÔ˘ Ô˘ ηٷÛ··Û·Ó. ∏ ı·ÙÚÈ΋ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈ΋ Ú·ÎÙÈ΋ Ô˘ Û˘Ófi‰Â„ ÙËÓ ÚÔÊÔÚÈ΋ ·ÚÔ˘Û›·ÛË ıˆÚԇ̠fiÙÈ ·ÔÙÂÏ› Â›Û˘ ·Ó··Ú·ÁˆÁ‹ ÌÈ·˜ Ù˘È΋˜ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈ΋˜ Ú·ÎÙÈ΋˜: ÌÈ· ·fi ÙȘ ÊÔÈÙ‹ÙÚȘ Ù˘ ÔÌ¿‰·˜ ¿Ú¯ÈÛ ӷ ‰È·‚¿˙ÂÈ ¯·ÌËÏfiʈӷ Î·È ¿¯ÚˆÌ·/‰ÂÈÏ¿ ÙÔ Î›ÌÂÓÔØ ÌÂÙ¿ ÙË Û¯ÂÙÈ΋ ·Ú·Ù‹ÚËÛË ÙˆÓ ‰È‰·ÛÎfiÓÙˆÓ Û˘Ó¤¯ÈÛ ÙÔ ‰È¿‚·ÛÌ· Ì ‰˘Ó·ÙfiÙÂÚË ÊˆÓ‹ Ô˘ ÛÙ·‰È·Î¿ Î·È ¿ÏÈ ÂÍ·ÛıÂÓÔ‡ÛÂ. ™ÙË Û˘˙‹ÙËÛË Ô˘ ·ÎÔÏÔ‡ıËÛ ÔÈ ÊÔÈÙ‹ÙÚȘ ÌÈÏÔ‡Û·Ó ÌfiÓÔ ÁÈ· Ó· ··ÓÙ‹ÛÔ˘Ó (΢ڛˆ˜ ÛÙÔ˘˜ ‰È‰¿ÛÎÔÓÙ˜) Ì ·‚¤‚·ÈË Î·È ¯·ÌËÏ‹ Â›Û˘ ʈӋ. ¶ÚfiÎÂÈÙ·È ÁÈ· ÌÈ· ı·ÙÚÈ΋-ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈ΋ Ú·ÎÙÈ΋ Ô˘ ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔÈÔ‡Ó ÔÈ ‰È‰·ÛÎfiÌÂÓÔÈ ÛÙȘ ÚÔÊÔÚÈΤ˜ ÙÔ˘˜ ·ÚÔ˘ÛÈ¿ÛÂȘ, Ì ÙËÓ ÔÔ›· Û˘Ó‰¤Ô˘Ó ÙÔ ÂÚÁ·ÏÂ›Ô ÙÔ˘ ÏfiÁÔ˘ Ì ÙË ¯·ÌËÏ‹ Î·È ·‚¤‚·ÈË ‰È·ÌfiÚʈÛË ÙÔ˘ ‹¯Ô˘ ÁÈ· Ó· ÚÔηϤÛÔ˘Ó ÙËÓ ·Ó¿‰Ú·ÛË ÙˆÓ ‰È‰·ÛÎfiÓÙˆÓ. ∞fi ÙËÓ ·Ó¿‰Ú·ÛË ·˘Ù‹ ÔÈ ‰È‰·ÛÎfiÌÂÓÔÈ ·ÓÙÏÔ‡Ó Û˘Ó‹ıˆ˜ ÏËÚÔÊÔÚ›· ÁÈ· ÙÔ ·Ó «Ï¤Ó ۈÛÙ¿ Ú¿ÁÌ·Ù·» –Ú¿ÁÌ·Ù· Ô˘ ı· ‹ıÂÏ·Ó Ó· ·ÎÔ‡ÛÔ˘Ó ÔÈ ‰È‰¿ÛÎÔÓÙ˜– Î·È ÚÔÛ·ÚÌfi˙ÔÓÙ·È ·Ó·ÏfiÁˆ˜ (‰Â˜ ηÓfiÓ˜ Ù˘ Fatima: Larson 1965). ™ÙÔÓ ı·ÙÚÈÎfi ·˘ÙÔۯ‰ȷÛÌfi (£∞) Ô˘ ·ÎÔÏÔ‡ıËÛÂ, Ë ÔÌ¿‰· ÙˆÓ ÊÔÈÙËÙÚÈÒÓ Â¤ÏÂÍ ˆ˜ ı¤Ì· ÙËÓ «ÎÔڇʈÛË ÙÔ˘ ‰Ú¿Ì·ÙÔ˜» Ù˘ ˙ˆ‹˜ ÙÔ˘ °·ÏÈÏ·›Ô˘: ÙË ‰›ÎË ÙÔ˘ ÛÙËÓ πÂÚ¿ ∂ͤٷÛË. √ ·˘ÙÔۯ‰ȷÛÌfi˜ ÂÍÂÏ›¯ıËΠ۠٤ÛÛÂÚȘ ÛÎËÓ¤˜. ™ÙËÓ ÚÒÙË (Î·È ÛÙËÓ ·ÚÈÛÙÂÚ‹ ÔıfiÓË ·fi ÙȘ ÙÚÂȘ Ô˘ Û˘ÁÎÚÔÙÔ‡Û·Ó ÙÔ ÛÎËÓÈÎfi) ÂÌÊ·Ó›˙ÂÙ·È Ë ÛÎÈ¿ ÂÓfi˜ ·ÓıÚÒÈÓÔ˘ ÛÒÌ·ÙÔ˜ Ô˘ οıÂÙ·È, ÎÚ·Ù¿ ÌÈ· ‰ÈfiÙÚ· Î·È ·Ú·ÙËÚ› ÚÔ˜ ÙÔÓ Ô˘Ú·Ófi. ∏ Û˘ÓÔÏÈ΋ ÂÈÎfiÓ· ·ÓÙÈÚÔÛˆ‡ÂÈ ÙÔÓ °·ÏÈÏ·›Ô. ∆Ô ÓÙÈ˙¿ÈÓ Î·È Ë Î›ÓËÛË ‰ÈÂÚÌËÓÂ‡Ô˘Ó ÙËÓ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ÙÔ˘ ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ· (¤ÌÊ·ÛË ÛÙËÓ ·Ú·Ù‹ÚËÛË). ™ÙË ÛÎËÓ‹ ÂÌÊ·Ó›˙ÂÙ·È ¤Ó· ‰Â‡ÙÂÚÔ ÚfiÛˆÔ (·ÓÙÈÚÔÛˆ‡ÂÙ·È Â›Û˘ ·fi ÛÎÈ¿ ÛÒÌ·ÙÔ˜) Ô˘ ÎÚ·Ù¿ ÛÙÔ ¤Ó· ¯¤ÚÈ ÙÔ˘ ¤Ó· ¯ÔÓ��Úfi ÛÎÔÈÓ›. ¶ÏËÛÈ¿˙ÂÈ ÙÔÓ °·ÏÈÏ·›Ô, ÙÔ˘ ·›ÚÓÂÈ ÙË ‰ÈfiÙÚ· Î·È ÙËÓ ÂÙ¿ÂÈ Î¿Ùˆ. ™ÙË ‰Â‡ÙÂÚË ÛÎËÓ‹ (Î·È ÛÙËÓ ÎÂÓÙÚÈ΋ ÔıfiÓË) ÂÌÊ·Ó›˙ÔÓÙ·È Û ÛÎÈ¿ ÌfiÓÔ Ù· ¯¤ÚÈ· Î·È ·fi Ù· ‰‡Ô ÛÒÌ·Ù·. ∆Ô ¤Ó· ˙¢Á¿ÚÈ ¯¤ÚÈ· (ÚÔÛ·Ó·ÙÔÏÈṲ̂ӷ ·fi ÙËÓ ÏÂ˘Ú¿ ÙÔ˘ °·ÏÈÏ·›Ô˘) Â›Ó·È ÚÔÙÂٷ̤ӷ Î·È Âӈ̤ӷ. ∆Ô ‰Â‡ÙÂÚÔ ˙¢Á¿ÚÈ ¯¤ÚÈ· ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔÈ› ÙÔ ÛÎÔÈÓ› ÁÈ· Ó· ‰¤ÛÂÈ Ù· ÚÒÙ·. ∆Ô ÓÙÈ˙¿ÈÓ Î·È Ë Î›ÓËÛË ÛÙË ‰Â‡ÙÂÚË ÛÎËÓ‹ ‰ÈÂÚÌËÓÂ‡Ô˘Ó ÙË «Û‡ÏÏË„Ë ÙÔ˘ °·ÏÈÏ·›Ô˘»Ø ÌÈ· Û‡ÏÏË„Ë Ô˘ ÈÛÙÔÚÈο ‰ÂÓ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÔÔÈ‹ıËΠÔÙ¤ (Ô °·ÏÈÏ·›Ô˜ ‰ÂÓ «ÚÔÛ‹Ïı ‚È·›ˆ˜» ÛÙËÓ πÂÚ¿ ∂ͤٷÛË Î·È ÙÔ


003

17-06-09

13:21

™ÂÏ›‰·47

£Â·ÙÚÈ΋ ·Ê‹ÁËÛË ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÒÓ È‰ÂÒÓ

47

ÁÂÁÔÓfi˜ ·˘Ùfi η٤ÛÙË Û·Ê¤˜ ÙfiÛÔ ÛÙÔ ¯ÚÔÓÔÏfiÁÈÔ fiÛÔ Î·È ÛÙË Û˘˙‹ÙËÛ‹ ÙÔ˘). ∏ ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ›· Ù˘ ‰Â‡ÙÂÚË ÛÎËÓ‹˜ ηıÈÛÙ¿, Â›Û˘, ۷ʤ˜ fiÙÈ Ë ÛÎÈ¿ Ì ÙÔ ÛÎÔÈÓ› (ÛÙËÓ ÚÒÙË ÛÎËÓ‹) ·ÓÙÈÚÔÛˆ‡ÂÈ ¤Ó·Ó ‰ÂÛÌÔʇϷη. ∆Ô ·Ó·ÊÂÚfiÌÂÓÔ ÙÔ˘ Û˘ÓÔÏÈÎÔ‡ ·˘ÙÔۯ‰ȷÛÌÔ‡ ·ÔηχÙÂÙ·È Ì ۷ʋÓÂÈ· ÛÙËÓ ÙÚ›ÙË ÛÎËÓ‹ (‰ÂÍÈ¿ ÔıfiÓË): ‰Ò, ÂÌÊ·Ó›˙ÂÙ·È ÌÈ· ÙÚ›ÙË ÛÎÈ¿ ÛÒÌ·ÙÔ˜, fiÚıÈ·, ÎÚ·ÙÒÓÙ·˜ ¤Ó·Ó ÛÙ·˘Úfi, Û ÎÔÓÙÚ¿ÛÙ ÎfiÎÎÈÓÔ˘ ʈÙÈÛÌÔ‡. ∏ ÛÎÈ¿ Ô˘ ·ÓÙÈÚÔÛˆ‡ÂÈ ÙÔÓ °·ÏÈÏ·›Ô ‚Ú›ÛÎÂÙ·È ÁÔÓ·ÙÈÛÙ‹ ÌÚÔÛÙ¿ ÙÔ˘ Î·È ›Ûˆ Ù˘ ÛÙ¤ÎÂÙ·È Ô ‰ÂÛÌÔʇϷη˜. ∆Ô ÓÙÈ˙¿ÈÓ, Ë Î›ÓËÛË Î·È Ô ‹¯Ô˜ ‰ÈÂÚÌËÓÂ‡Ô˘Ó ÙË ‰È·‰Èηۛ· Ù˘ ‰›Î˘: Ë ÛÎÈ¿ Ì ÙÔ ÛÙ·˘Úfi ÛÙ¤ÎÂÙ·È ÂÈ‚ÏËÙÈο Î·È ·Û‡ÌÌÂÙÚ· „ËÏ‹ (·ÔÙ¤ÏÂÛÌ· ηٿÏÏËÏÔ˘ ʈÙÈÛÌÔ‡) Î·È Ì ÙË ÛÙ·ıÂÚ‹ ΛÓËÛË ÙÔ˘ ÂÓfi˜ ¯ÂÚÈÔ‡ (Ì ÚÔÙÂٷ̤ÓÔ ÙÔ ¤Ó· ‰¿¯Ù˘ÏÔ) ‰ÈÂÚÌËÓ‡ÂÈ ÙËÓ ·Ô‰ÔÎÈÌ·Û›· Ù˘ ÂÎÎÏËÛ›·˜ ÚÔ˜ ÙÔÓ °·ÏÈÏ·›ÔØ Ô °·ÏÈÏ·›Ô˜, Ô˘ ηٿ ‰È·ÛÙ‹Ì·Ù· ÛËÎÒÓÂÈ Ù· ¯¤ÚÈ· Î·È ÙÔ ÎÂÊ¿ÏÈ, ‰ÈÂÚÌËÓ‡ÔÓÙ·˜ ÌÈ· ÌÔÚÊ‹ ·ÓÙ›ÛÙ·Û˘, ηٷϋÁÂÈ ÛÙÔ Ù¤ÏÔ˜ Ù˘ ÛÎËÓ‹˜ ·Î›ÓËÙÔ˜, ÁÔÓ·ÙÈÛÙfi˜ Î·È Ì Û΢Ì̤ÓÔ ÎÂÊ¿ÏÈ. ™ÙËÓ Ù¤Ù·ÚÙË ÛÎËÓ‹ ÔÈ ÛÎȤ˜ Ô˘ ·ÓÙÈÚÔÛˆÂ‡Ô˘Ó ÙÔÓ °·ÏÈÏ·›Ô Î·È ÙÔÓ ‰ÂÛÌÔʇϷη ÂÈÛÙÚ¤ÊÔ˘Ó ÛÙÔÓ ·Ú¯ÈÎfi ¯ÒÚÔ (·ÚÈÛÙÂÚ‹ ÔıfiÓË). √ °·ÏÈÏ·›Ô˜ οıÂÙ·È ÛÙË ı¤ÛË Ô˘ ÂÌÊ·Ó›ÛÙËΠÛÙËÓ ÚÒÙË ÛÎËÓ‹Ø Ô ‰ÂÛÌÔʇϷη˜ ÙÔ˘ ÛÙÚ¤ÊÂÈ ÙËÓ Ï¿ÙË Î·È Î·Ù·Ï‹ÁÂÈ fiÚıÈÔ˜ Î·È ·Î›ÓËÙÔ˜, ÎÚ·ÙÒÓÙ·˜ ¿ÓÙ· ÛÙ· ¯¤ÚÈ· ÙÔ˘ ÙÔ ÛÎÔÈÓ›. ∆Ô ÌÂÁ·Ï‡ÙÂÚÔ Ì¤ÚÔ˜ ÙˆÓ ‰ÔÌÒÓ Î·È ÙˆÓ Ú·ÎÙÈÎÒÓ Ô˘ ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔÈ‹ıËÎ·Ó Î·È ÛÙËÓ ·ÚÔ˘Û›·ÛË ·˘Ù‹ Ê·›ÓÂÙ·È Ó· ·ÔÙÂÏ› Â›Û˘ ·Ó··Ú·ÁˆÁ‹ ‰ÔÌÒÓ Î·È Ú·ÎÙÈÎÒÓ ·fi ÙËÓ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈ΋ ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú· ÙˆÓ ÊÔÈÙËÙÚÈÒÓ (ı·ÙÚÈ΋ Î·È ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋). ∞fi Ù· ı·ÙÚÈο ۇ̂ÔÏ· Ô˘ ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔÈ‹ıËÎ·Ó (ÏËÓ ÙˆÓ ÛÎÈÒÓ ÙˆÓ ÛˆÌ¿ÙˆÓ Ô˘ ÂÈ‚Ï‹ıËÎ·Ó ·fi ÙÔ˘˜ ‰È‰¿ÛÎÔÓÙ˜), ÌÔÚԇ̠ӷ ԇ̠fiÙÈ ÌfiÓÔ Ô ÎfiÎÎÈÓÔ˜ ʈÙÈÛÌfi˜ ÛÙË ÛÎËÓ‹ Ù˘ ‰›Î˘, Û ·ÓÙ›ıÂÛË Ì ÙȘ ¿ÏϘ ·ÛÚfiÌ·˘Ú˜ ÛÎËÓ¤˜ (‰ÈÂÚÌ‹Ó¢ ÙËÓ ¤ÓÙ·ÛË Ù˘ ‰È·‰Èηۛ·˜), ·ÔÙÂÏÔ‡Û ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹. £Â·ÙÚÈ΋ ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹, Û Â›Â‰Ô Ú·ÎÙÈÎÒÓ, ı· ÌÔÚÔ‡Û·Ì Â›Û˘ Ó· ԇ̠fiÙÈ ·ÔÙÂÏÔ‡ÛÂ Î·È Ë ·Ê‹ÁËÛË Ù˘ «Û‡ÏÏ˄˘» ÙÔ˘ °·ÏÈÏ·›Ô˘. ™ÙË Û˘˙‹ÙËÛË Ô˘ ·ÎÔÏÔ‡ıËÛ ÙËÓ ·ÚÔ˘Û›·ÛË ÔÈ ÊÔÈÙ‹ÙÚȘ ˘ÔÛÙ‹ÚÈÍ·Ó fiÙÈ Ì ÙÔÓ ÙÚfiÔ Ô˘ Â¤ÏÂÍ·Ó ·ÊËÁ‹ıËÎ·Ó ÙËÓ Ô˘Û›· Ù˘ ÚÔÛ·ÁˆÁ‹˜ ÙÔ˘ °·ÏÈÏ·›Ô˘ ÛÙËÓ πÂÚ¿ ∂ͤٷÛË: «∏ ÚÔÛ·ÁˆÁ‹ ‹Ù·Ó ‚›·ÈË! ÕÏÏÔ Ô˘ ‰ÂÓ ÙÔÓ Û˘Ó¤Ï·‚·Ó. ∆ÔÓ ·›ÏËÛ·Ó. ¶Ò˜ ·ÏÏÈÒ˜ ı· ÌÔÚÔ‡Û·Ì ӷ ÙÔ ·ÚÔ˘ÛÈ¿ÛÔ˘Ì ·˘Ùfi;» ∂‰Ò ÏÔÈfiÓ ıˆÚԇ̠fiÙÈ ÔÈ ÊÔÈÙ‹ÙÚȘ ηٷÛ··Û·Ó ı·ÙÚÈο ۇ̂ÔÏ· Ô˘ ÂÓÒ ‚Ú›ÛÎÔÓÙ·Ó Û ·ÓÙ›ıÂÛË Ì ٷ ۇ̂ÔÏ· Ô˘ ÚÔ¤‚·ÏÏ·Ó Ù· ΛÌÂÓ·, ÂÙ‡¯·ÈÓ·Ó Ó· ·Ô‰ÒÛÔ˘Ó Ú·ÏÈÛÙÈο ÙÔ ·Ó·ÊÂÚfiÌÂÓÔ Ù˘ ÈÛÙÔÚÈ΋˜ ηٿÛÙ·Û˘ (Û ·Ó·ÏÔÁ›· Ì ¤Ó· ·ÏÔÔÈË̤ÓÔ ·Ó·ÊÂÚfiÌÂÓÔ). ªÈ· Ú·ÎÙÈ΋


003

17-06-09

48

13:21

™ÂÏ›‰·48

µ·Û›Ï˘ ∆ÛÂÏʤ˜, ∞ÓÙÈÁfiÓË ¶·ÚÔ‡ÛË

Ô˘ ‰ÈηÈÔÏÔÁÂ›Ù·È ·fi ÙË ı·ÙÚÈ΋ ۇ̂·ÛË. ∂›Ó·È ÂӉȷʤÚÔÓ fiÙÈ ÔÈ ı·ÙÚÈΤ˜ ·˘Ù¤˜ ·Ú·ÁˆÁ¤˜ ˘ÚÔ‰ÔÙ‹ıËÎ·Ó ·fi ÙÔ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎfi-ÈÛÙÔÚÈÎfi ÂÚȯfiÌÂÓÔ, ÙÔ ÔÔ›Ô ÔÈ ÊÔÈÙ‹ÙÚȘ ÙÔ ·ÓÙÈÌÂÙÒÈÛ·Ó ÛÙÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ Ù˘ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈ΋˜ ÙÔ˘˜ ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú·˜ (¤ÌÊ·ÛË ÛÙ· ۇ̂ÔÏ· Ô˘ ÌÔÚÔ‡Ó Ó· ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ‹ÛÔ˘Ó ˆ˜ ÎÂÓÙÚÈο ÓÔ‹Ì·Ù·, ÌÈÎÚ‹ ÛËÌ·Û›· ÛÙȘ ÏÂÙÔ̤ÚȘ Ô˘ ÌÔÚÔ‡Ó Ó· ÂÍËÁ‹ÛÔ˘Ó ÙȘ ·Ó·ÙÚÔ¤˜ Î.Ô.Î.). ∏ ٤ٷÚÙË ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ· (¶¶) ‹Ù·Ó ÈÂÛÙÈο «·Î·‰ËÌ·˚΋». ∏ ÔÌ¿‰· ÙˆÓ ÊÔÈÙËÙÚÈÒÓ ÌÂϤÙËÛ ¤Ó· ÙÌ‹Ì· ÙÔ˘ ÎÂÈ̤ÓÔ˘ ·fi ÙÔ ¢È¿ÏÔÁÔ, ÛÙÔÓ ÔÔ›Ô Ô ™·Ï‚È¿ÙÈ ¤ÂÈı ÙÔÓ ™ÈÌÏ›ÎÈÔ Ó· ۯ‰ȿÛÂÈ ÙÔ ËÏÈ·Îfi Û‡ÛÙËÌ· (∞ÊÚÔ‰›ÙË, ÕÚË, ∂ÚÌ‹, ¢›·, ∫ÚfiÓÔ Î·È ◊ÏÈÔ) Ì ΤÓÙÚÔ ·Ú·Ù‹ÚËÛ˘ ÛÙË °Ë. ∆Ô Û¯¤‰ÈÔ ÛÙËÚÈ˙fiÙ·Ó ÛÙ· Ê·ÈÓfiÌÂÓ· ·fi ÙË °Ë ÌÂÁ¤ıË ÙˆÓ Ï·ÓËÙÒÓ. ∆· ÌÂÁ¤ıË ·˘Ù¿, fiÙ·Ó ÔÈ Ï·Ó‹Ù˜ Â›Ó·È ÛÂ Û˘˙˘Á›· Ì ÙÔÓ ◊ÏÈÔ Î·È fiÙ·Ó Â›Ó·È Û ·ÓÙ›ıÂÛË Ì’ ·˘ÙfiÓ (‹ fiÙ·Ó ‚Ú›ÛÎÔÓÙ·È ÛÙËÓ ÚˆÈÓ‹ ‹ ÙË ‚Ú·‰ÈÓ‹ ÙÔ˘˜ Û˘˙˘Á›·), ‰›ÓÔ˘Ó ÙÂÎÌ‹ÚÈ· ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ·fiÛÙ·Û‹ ÙÔ˘˜ ·fi ÙË °Ë. ªÂ ÙÔÓ ÙÚfiÔ ·˘Ùfi ÂÈÛËÌ·›ÓÔÓÙ·È ÙÔ˘Ï¿¯ÈÛÙÔÓ ‰‡Ô ÛËÌ›· Ù˘ ÙÚԯȿ˜ ÙÔ˘˜. ∞Ó ÌÂÙ¿ ·’ ·˘Ùfi οÔÈÔ˜ ÂȯÂÈÚ‹ÛÂÈ Ó· ¯·Ú¿ÍÂÈ ÙȘ ΢ÎÏÈΤ˜ ÙÚԯȤ˜ ÙˆÓ Ï·ÓËÙÒÓ ¤ÙÛÈ ÒÛÙ ӷ ‰È¤Ú¯ÔÓÙ·È ·fi Ù· ÛËÌ›· ·˘Ù¿, ÔÈ ÙÚԯȤ˜ ‰Â›¯ÓÔ˘Ó ÔÌfiÎÂÓÙÚ˜ Î·È Ô ◊ÏÈÔ˜ ‚Ú›ÛÎÂÙ·È ÂÚ›Ô˘ ÛÙÔ Î¤ÓÙÚÔ ÙÔ˘˜. ∆Ô Âȯ›ÚËÌ· ·fi ÎÂÈ Î·È ÌÂÙ¿ Â›Ó·È ÂÍ·ÈÚÂÙÈο ÈÛ¯˘Úfi: ÙÔ Û¯¤‰ÈÔ Ê¤ÚÓÂÈ ÙË °Ë (ÙË ı¤ÛË ·Ú·Ù‹ÚËÛ˘) οÔ˘ ÌÂٷ͇ ∞ÊÚÔ‰›Ù˘ Î·È ÕÚË (ÛÙËÓ ÂÚÈÔ¯‹ ‰ËÏ·‰‹ ÙˆÓ Ô˘Ú¿ÓÈˆÓ ÛˆÌ¿ÙˆÓ Ô˘ fiÏÔÈ Û˘ÌʈÓÔ‡Ó fiÙÈ ÎÈÓÔ‡ÓÙ·È) Î·È ·Ê‹ÓÂÈ ÙÔÓ ◊ÏÈÔ ÛÙÔ Î¤ÓÙÚÔ. ∆Ô ÙÂÎÌ‹ÚÈÔ ·˘Ùfi ·˘Í¿ÓÂÈ ÙËÓ Èı·ÓfiÙËÙ· Ó· ÎÈÓÂ›Ù·È Ë °Ë (ÂÙ‹ÛÈ· ΛÓËÛË) ·Ú¿ Ô ◊ÏÈÔ˜. √È ÊÔÈÙ‹ÙÚȘ ÛÙËÓ ·ÚÔ˘Û›·Û‹ ÙÔ˘˜ (Ì ¯Ú‹ÛË ‰È·Ê·ÓÂÈÒÓ ppt) ÂÓÙfiÈÛ·Ó Ù· ‚·ÛÈο ÛËÌ›· ÙˆÓ ÂÚÈÁÚ·ÊÒÓ Î·È ÙȘ ·ÚÔ˘Û›·Û·Ó ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔÈÒÓÙ·˜ ÙfiÛÔ Ì ÏÂÎÙÈο ۇ̂ÔÏ· (ÂÈÏÂÁ̤Ó˜ ÊÚ¿ÛÂȘ ·fi ÙÔ Î›ÌÂÓÔ), fiÛÔ Î·È ÁˆÌÂÙÚÈο Û¯‹Ì·Ù· (Ô˘ ‰ÂÓ ÂÚÈÏ·Ì‚¿ÓÔÓÙ·Ó ÛÙÔ Î›ÌÂÓÔ Ô˘ ›¯·Ó ÛÙ· ¯¤ÚÈ· ÙÔ˘˜). ÃÚËÛÈÌÔÔ›ËÛ·Ó Â›Û˘ Ì ·ÚÎÂÙ‹ ÂÈÙ˘¯›· ÙÔ «ÂÚÁ·Ï›Ի (ÚfiÁÚ·ÌÌ·) ·ÚÔ˘Û›·Û˘ Ô˘ ›¯Â ÂÈ‚ÏËı› ·fi ÙÔ˘˜ ‰È‰¿ÛÎÔÓÙ˜. ªÂ ·ÚÎÂÙ‹ Â›Û˘ ÂÈÙ˘¯›· ·ÚÔ˘Û›·Û·Ó ÙÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ Ù˘ Û˘˙‹ÙËÛ˘ (·ÊÔÚÔ‡Û ÙÔ ·Ó Ë °Ë Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÔÔÈ› ‹ fi¯È ÂÙ‹ÛÈ· ÂÚÈÛÙÚÔÊ‹ Á‡Úˆ ·fi ÙÔÓ ◊ÏÈÔ), ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔÈÒÓÙ·˜ ¿ÏÈ ÊÚ¿ÛÂȘ ·fi ÙÔ Î›ÌÂÓÔ, ‰ÔÌË̤Ó˜ ÛÙË ‚¿ÛË Ù˘ Ù˘È΋˜ ÏÔÁÈ΋˜ Î·È ·ÓÙÈ·Ú·‚¿ÏÏÔÓÙ¿˜ Ù˜ ˆ˜ ·ÓÙ›ıÂÙ˜. ∆Ô ÛËÌÂ›Ô Ô˘ ÛÙ¿ıËÎ·Ó È‰È·›ÙÂÚ· ·ÔÙ¤ÏÂÛ ÌÈ· ÊÚ¿ÛË ÙÔ˘ ™·Ï‚È¿ÙÈ: «¢ÂÓ ÌÔÚÒ ·Ú¿ Ó· ı·˘Ì¿˙ˆ ·¤Ú·ÓÙ· ÙÔ ‡„Ô˜ ÙÔ˘ Ó‡̷ÙÔ˜ ÂÎÂ›ÓˆÓ Ô˘ [...] Ì ÙË ˙ˆËÚfiÙËÙ· Ù˘ Â˘Ê˘˝·˜ ÙÔ˘˜ ¿ÛÎËÛ·Ó ¤Ó· ÂÍ·Ó·ÁηÛÌfi ÛÙȘ ›‰È˜ ÙȘ ·ÈÛı‹ÛÂȘ ÙÔ˘˜, ‰›ÓÔÓÙ·˜ ÌÂÁ·Ï‡ÙÂÚË ·Í›· Û’ ·˘Ùfi Ô˘ ÙÔ˘˜ ˘·-


003

17-06-09

13:21

™ÂÏ›‰·49

£Â·ÙÚÈ΋ ·Ê‹ÁËÛË ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÒÓ È‰ÂÒÓ

49

ÁfiÚÂ˘Â Ë ÏÔÁÈ΋ ·’ fi,ÙÈ Û’ ·˘Ùfi Ô˘ ÙÔ˘˜ ¤‰ÂÈ¯Ó·Ó Ôχ ηı·Ú¿ Î·È ¯ˆÚ›˜ ÂÍ·Ó·ÁηÛÌÔ‡˜ ÔÈ ÂÌÂÈڛ˜ ÙˆÓ ·ÈÛı‹ÛÂÒÓ ÙÔ˘˜». ∆Ë ÊÚ¿ÛË ·˘Ù‹ Â·Ó¤Ï·‚·Ó ‰‡Ô ÊÔÚ¤˜ (ÁÚ·Ù¿) ÛÙȘ ‰È·Ê¿ÓÂȤ˜ ÙÔ˘˜ Î·È ÙË ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔ›ËÛ·Ó ÁÈ· Ó· ηٷϋÍÔ˘Ó (ÚÔÊÔÚÈο) fiÙÈ: «¡·È. ∆Ô Î›ÌÂÓÔ ›ıÂÈ fiÙÈ Ô ™·Ï‚È¿ÙÈ ¤¯ÂÈ ‰›ÎÈÔ [...] ∂›Ó·È Î·È ÙÔ Û¯‹Ì· Ô˘ Û˘ÌÊÒÓËÛÂ Î·È ¤Î·ÓÂ Ô ™ÈÌÏ›ÎÈÔ˜. ∞ÏÏ¿ Ò˜ Ó· Â›Ó·È ‚¤‚·ÈÔ˜ ηÓ›˜ [...] fiÙ·Ó ¿ÏÏ· ‚ϤÂȘ Î·È ¿ÏÏ· ÈÛ¯‡Ô˘Ó [...] ŸÙ·Ó ‰˘Ô ¿ÓıÚˆÔÈ ÎÔÈÙ¿˙Ô˘Ó Ù· ›‰È· Ú¿ÁÌ·Ù· Î·È ‚ϤÔ˘Ó ¿ÏÏ·». ªÂ ‚¿ÛË Ì¿ÏÈÛÙ· ÙËÓ ·ÓËÛ˘¯›· ÙÔ˘˜ ·˘Ù‹ ˙‹ÙËÛ·Ó Ó· Ì¿ıÔ˘Ó «Ò˜ Â›Ó·È ÙÂÏÈο Ù· Ú¿ÁÌ·Ù·;» (·Ó··Ú·ÁˆÁ‹ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈ΋˜ Ú·ÎÙÈ΋˜). ªÂ ÙËÓ Â˘Î·ÈÚ›· ÔÈ ‰È‰¿ÛÎÔÓÙ˜ ÂÚȤÁÚ·„·Ó ÌÈ· ·fi ÙȘ ÂÈÎfiÓ˜ Ô˘ ·Ô‰›‰ÔÓÙ·È Û‹ÌÂÚ· ÛÙÔ Û‡Ì·Ó, ÂÈ̤ÓÔÓÙ·˜ fiÙÈ ·˘Ù‹ Â›Ó·È ÌÈ· ÛËÌÂÚÈÓ‹ ÂÎÙ›ÌËÛË Ô˘ ‰ÂÓ Â›Ó·È ˘Ô¯ÚˆÙÈÎfi fiÙÈ ı· ÈÛ¯‡ÂÈ Î·È ·‡ÚÈÔ. √È ÊÔÈÙ‹ÙÚȘ ÛÙËÓ ·ÚÔ˘Û›·Û‹ ÙÔ˘˜ ·Ó··Ú‹Á·Á·Ó ۇ̂ÔÏ·, Ù¯Ӌ̷ٷ Î·È Ú·ÎÙÈΤ˜ Ô˘ ‰È·¯ÂÈÚ›˙ÔÓÙ·È ÛÙËÓ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋-ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈ΋ ÙÔ˘˜ ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú· (ÊÚ¿ÛÂȘ ·fi Ù· ΛÌÂÓ·, Ó¤· ΛÌÂÓ· Ì ·Ó··Ú·ÁˆÁ‹ / ·Ó·Û‡ÓÙ·ÍË ÙˆÓ ÊÚ¿ÛÂˆÓ ·˘ÙÒÓ Î.Ô.Î.). ¶·Ú‹Á·Á·Ó fï˜ Î·È ¤Ó·Ó Û˘ÏÏÔÁÈÛÌfi Ô˘ ‰ÂÓ ÌÔÚԇ̠ӷ ԇ̠fiÙÈ ÚÔ‚¿ÏÏÂÙ·È ÚËÙ¿ ·fi ÙÔ Î›ÌÂÓÔ ÙÔ˘ °·ÏÈÏ·›Ô˘ (ÙÔ˘Ï¿¯ÈÛÙÔÓ ·˘Ùfi Ô˘ ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔ›ËÛ·Ó): ·Ó ·˘Ù¿ Ô˘ ‚ϤÔ˘Ì ‰ÂÓ Â›Ó·È ¤ÙÛÈ fiˆ˜ Ù· ‚ϤÔ˘ÌÂ, Â›Ó·È ‰‡ÛÎÔÏÔ Ó· ›̷ÛÙ ‚¤‚·ÈÔÈ ÁÈ· οÙÈ. ∞fi ÙËÓ ¿ÏÏË ÌÂÚÈ¿ Ù· ı·ÙÚÈο ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚÈÛÙÈο Ù˘ ·ÚÔ˘Û›·Û˘ ÙÔ˘˜ ›¯·Ó ÛÙÔȯ›· ·Ó··Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜ Ù˘ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈ΋˜ ÙÔ˘˜ ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú·˜ (ÂÌÊ¿ÓÈÛË Î·È Î›ÓËÛË ÙˆÓ Ù›ÙÏˆÓ Î·È ÙˆÓ ÎÂÈ̤ӈÓ, ¯ÚˆÌ·ÙÈÎÔ› Û˘Ó‰˘·ÛÌÔ›, ‰È·ÎÔÛÌËÙÈΤ˜ ÂÈÎfiÓ˜, Ô˘ Ê·›ÓÂÙ·È Ó· ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔÈ‹ıËÎ·Ó ÁÈ· Ó· οÓÔ˘Ó «Â˘¯¿ÚÈÛÙ˜ ÛÙÔ Ì¿ÙÈ» ÙȘ ‰È·Ê¿ÓÂȘ). ∂›¯·Ó fï˜ Î·È ÛÙÔȯ›· ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜ Û˘Û¯ÂÙÈṲ̂ӷ Ì ÙËÓ Î·Ù·Û΢‹ ÙÔ˘ Û¯‹Ì·ÙÔ˜: Ë Î›ÓËÛË Î·È Ù· Âʤ Â‰Ò ‹Ù·Ó ·fiÏ˘Ù· ÚÔÛ·ÚÌÔṲ̂ӷ ÛÙÔ ÂÚȯfiÌÂÓÔ, ÙËÓ ·Ó··Ú¿ÛÙ·ÛË ÙÔ˘ ÔÔ›Ô˘ Î·È ˘ËÚÂÙÔ‡Û·Ó (Ë ÂÌÊ¿ÓÈÛË ÙˆÓ ÛÙÔȯ›ˆÓ ÙÔ˘ Û¯‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ ·ÎÔÏÔ˘ıÔ‡Û ÙËÓ ÂÌÊ¿ÓÈÛË ÙˆÓ ÊÚ¿ÛÂˆÓ ÙÔ˘ ÎÂÈ̤ÓÔ˘ Ô˘ ÙÔ ÂÚȤÁÚ·Ê·Ó). ™˘ÓÔÏÈο ÌÔÚԇ̠ӷ ԇ̠fiÙÈ ÛÙË ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ· ·˘Ù‹ ÔÈ ÊÔÈÙ‹ÙÚȘ ·Ú‹Á·Á·Ó ÌÈ· ı·ÙÚÈ΋ Ú·ÎÙÈ΋ ·Ó··Ú¿ÛÙ·Û˘ Ù˘ ηٷÛ΢‹˜ ÂÓfi˜ Û¯‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ ·fi ÙË ÁψÛÛÈ΋ ÂÚÈÁÚ·Ê‹ ÂÓfi˜ ÂÚÈÔÚÈṲ̂ÓÔ˘ ·ÚÈıÌÔ‡ ‰Â‰Ô̤ӈÓ. ¶·Ú‹Á·Á·Ó Â›Û˘ ÌÈ· ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ Ú·ÎÙÈ΋: ÙË ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁ›· ÂÓfi˜ ÂÚˆÙ‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ Ô˘ ‰ÂÓ ·ÊÔÚ¿ ÙÔ Ò˜ ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁÔ‡Ó Ù· Ú¿ÁÌ·Ù· (ÎÏ·ÛÈÎfi ÂÚȯfiÌÂÓÔ) ·ÏÏ¿ ÙÔ Ò˜ ÂÌ›˜ ÌÔÚԇ̠ӷ ‚‚·Èˆıԇ̠ÁÈ’ ·˘Ùfi. °È· ÙËÓ ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹ Î·È ·ÚÔ˘Û›·ÛË Ù˘ ÙÂÏÈ΋˜ ı·ÙÚÈ΋˜ ÙÔ˘˜ ÛÔ˘‰‹˜ (£™2) ÔÈ ÊÔÈÙ‹ÙÚȘ ·ÎÔÏÔ‡ıËÛ·Ó (Ì ÙËÓ Â›‚ÏÂ„Ë ÙˆÓ ‰È‰·ÛÎfiÓÙˆÓ) ÙË ‰È·-


003

17-06-09

50

13:21

™ÂÏ›‰·50

µ·Û›Ï˘ ∆ÛÂÏʤ˜, ∞ÓÙÈÁfiÓË ¶·ÚÔ‡ÛË

‰Èηۛ· Ô˘ ÚԂϤÂÈ Ë ı·ÙÚÈ΋-ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈ΋ ÙÔ˘˜ ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú·: ·fiÊ·ÛË ÁÈ· ÙËÓ È‰¤· Ô˘ ı¤ÏÔ˘Ì ӷ ·Ó··Ú·ÛÙ‹ÛÔ˘Ì ı·ÙÚÈο, ηٷÛ΢‹ ÌÈ·˜ ·Ê‹ÁËÛ˘ ÁÂÁÔÓfiÙˆÓ Ô˘ ‰È·ÙÚ¤¯ÔÓÙ·È/ηıÔ‰ËÁÔ‡ÓÙ·È ·fi ÙËÓ È‰¤· ·˘Ù‹, ۯ‰ȷÛÙÈ΋ ÚÔÛ¤ÁÁÈÛË Ù˘ ·Ê‹ÁËÛ˘ Ì ÌÔÚÊ‹ ÂÈÎfiÓˆÓ (ηٷÛ΢‹ ÙÔ˘ story board), ÂÈÏÔÁ‹ ηٿÏÏËÏ˘ ı·ÙÚÈ΋˜ Ù¯ÓÈ΋˜, ÂÈÏÔÁ‹ ÂÚÁ·Ï›ˆÓ Î·È Î·Ù·Û΢‹ Ù¯ÓËÌ¿ÙˆÓ, ÚÒÙË ‰ÔÎÈÌ‹ ·Ú¿ÛÙ·Û˘ (Ì ¤ÌÊ·ÛË ÛÙȘ ‰È·ÊÔÚ¤˜ ÙÔ˘ ÙÈ ı¤ÏÔ˘Ì ӷ Ê·Ó› Î·È ÙÈ ÙÂÏÈο Ê·›ÓÂÙ·È), ÂÈÛÙÚÔÊ‹ Î·È ·Ó·ıÂÒÚËÛË (ηٷÛ΢ÒÓ, Ù¯ÓÈÎÒÓ, ·Ê‹ÁËÛ˘...), ÂfiÌÂÓË ‰ÔÎÈÌ‹ Ì ÙËÓ ›‰È· ¤ÌÊ·ÛË ·ÏÏ¿ ·Ú¿ÏÏËÏË ÚÔÛ¿ıÂÈ· ¿ÛÎËÛ˘ ÛÙÔ˘˜ ¯ÂÈÚÈÛÌÔ‡˜, ÂfiÌÂÓË ‰ÔÎÈÌ‹ Î.Ô.Î., ̤¯ÚÈ Ó· ·Ú¯›ÛÂÈ Ó· Ȥ˙ÂÈ Ô ¯ÚfiÓÔ˜. ∆fiÙÂ Ë ‰ÔÌ‹ Ù˘ ÛÔ˘‰‹˜ ÛÙ·ıÂÚÔÔÈÂ›Ù·È Î·È Ë ¤ÌÊ·ÛË ‰›ÓÂÙ·È ÛÙËÓ ¿ÛÎËÛË ÛÙÔ˘˜ ¯ÂÈÚÈÛÌÔ‡˜ (¿ÛÎËÛË ÛÙËÓ Î›ÓËÛË ÙˆÓ Ù¯ÓËÌ¿ÙˆÓ, ÛÙËÓ ÂÓ·ÏÏ·Á‹ ÙÔ˘ ʈÙÈÛÌÔ‡, ÛÙÔ Û˘ÓÙÔÓÈÛÌfi Ì ÙÔÓ ‹¯Ô Î.Ô.Î.). √È ÊÔÈÙ‹ÙÚȘ Â¤ÏÂÍ·Ó ˆ˜ ÎÂÓÙÚÈ΋ ȉ¤· Ù˘ ı·ÙÚÈ΋˜ ÙÔ˘˜ ÛÔ˘‰‹˜ ÙËÓ ·ÏÏ·Á‹ ÛÙËÓ ÂÈÎfiÓ· ÙÔ˘ Û‡Ì·ÓÙÔ˜ Ô˘ ÂÈʤÚÂÈ Ë ·ÏÏ·Á‹ ÛÙÔ Û‡ÛÙËÌ· ÙˆÓ ‚·ÛÈÎÒÓ Ì·˜ ÂÔÈı‹ÛˆÓ. ∏ Û‡ÓÙÔÌË ·Ê‹ÁËÛË Ô˘ ηٷÛ··Û·Ó «ÌÈÏÔ‡Û» ÁÈ· ÌÈ· ·Ú¯È΋ ÂÈÎfiÓ· ÂÓfi˜ Û‡Ì·ÓÙÔ˜ ÂÚÈÔÚÈṲ̂ÓÔ˘ ÛÙȘ ‰È·ÛÙ¿ÛÂȘ Ù˘ °Ë˜, ÙÔ ÔÔ›Ô ÌÂÙ·‚Ï‹ıËΠ̠ÙËÓ ·Ú¤Ì‚·ÛË Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ Û ¤Ó· Û‡Ì·Ó ÌÂÁ¿ÏÔ Î·È ÔÌÔÁÂÓ¤˜, fiÔ˘ Ë °Ë Â›Ó·È «[...] Û·Ó Ó· ÌËÓ ˘¿Ú¯ÂÈ Ô˘ıÂÓ¿». ∏ ·Ê‹ÁËÛË ·˘Ù‹ ‰ÂÓ Â›¯Â Û·Ê‹ ·ÊËÁËÌ·ÙÈο ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚÈÛÙÈο (‹Ù·Ó Ì¿ÏÏÔÓ ÂÚÈÁÚ·Ê‹ ¯ˆÚ›˜ ‹Úˆ·, ‰ÈÂΉÈÎÔ‡ÌÂÓÔ ·Á·ıfi, ÂÌfi‰È· Î.Ô.Î.). √È ÊÔÈÙ‹ÙÚȘ fï˜ Â¤ÌÂÓ·Ó ÛÙËÓ ÂÈÏÔÁ‹ Ù˘ ȉ¤·˜ Î·È fiÙÈ «Î¿ˆ˜ “ı· ÙÔ ‚ÚÔ˘Ó” ÛÙËÓ ÔÚ›·». √È ÊÔÈÙ‹ÙÚȘ Â¤ÌÂÓ·Ó Â›Û˘ Ó· ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔÈ‹ÛÔ˘Ó ÙȘ Ù¯ÓÈΤ˜ ÙÔ˘ Ì·‡ÚÔ˘ ı¤·ÙÚÔ˘, ÚÈÓ ·ÎfiÌË ‰ÔÌ‹ÛÔ˘Ó ÙËÓ ·Ê‹ÁËÛË Î·È ÙÔ story board. ∏ Ú·ÎÙÈ΋ ·˘Ù‹ ÌÔÈ¿˙ÂÈ Ì ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹ (·Ó·‰È·Ù¿ÛÛÂÈ Ù· ηıÈÂڈ̤ӷ ÙˆÓ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎÒÓı·ÙÚÈÎÒÓ Ú·ÎÙÈÎÒÓ)Ø Î·È ÙÔ ÈÔ Èı·Ófi Â›Ó·È fiÙÈ ÚԤ΢Ù ·fi ÙËÓ ÂÌÂÈÚ›· ÙˆÓ ÊÔÈÙËÙÚÈÒÓ ˆ˜ ı·ÙÒÓ (ÌÈ· Èı·Ó‹ ıÂÙÈ΋ ÂÌÂÈÚ›· ·fi ÙËÓ ·Ú·ÎÔÏÔ‡ıËÛË Û¯ÂÙÈ΋˜ ·Ú¿ÛÙ·Û˘). ∏ ÙÂÏÈ΋ ı·ÙÚÈ΋ ÛÔ˘‰‹ Ô˘ ·ÚÔ˘Û›·Û·Ó ‹Ù·Ó ÂÚÈÛÛfiÙÂÚÔ ÂÚÈÁÚ·ÊÈ΋ (Ù˘ ÎÂÓÙÚÈ΋˜ ȉ¤·˜) Î·È ÏÈÁfiÙÂÚÔ ·ÊËÁËÌ·ÙÈ΋ (ÛÙËÚÈÁ̤ÓË ÛÙËÓ ÎÂÓÙÚÈ΋ ȉ¤·). √È Ù¯ÓÈΤ˜ Ô˘ ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔÈ‹ıËÎ·Ó ÙÂÏÈο ‹Ù·Ó ÌÂÈÎÙ¤˜. ∏ ·Ú¿ÛÙ·ÛË ÂÚÈÏ¿Ì‚·Ó ÙÚÂȘ ÛÎËÓ¤˜ Ô˘ ÂÍÂÏ›ÛÛÔÓÙ·Ó ¿Óˆ Û ÙÚÂȘ ÔıfiÓ˜. ∏ ÚÒÙË ÛÎËÓ‹ ÍÂÎÈÓ¿ÂÈ Ì ÙËÓ ÚÔ‚ÔÏ‹ ÂÓfi˜ ÙÂÚ¿ÛÙÈÔ˘ «˙ˆÓÙ·ÓÔ‡» ¯ÂÚÈÔ‡ Ô˘ Î¿Ï˘Ù ÙËÓ ÎÂÓÙÚÈ΋ ÔıfiÓË (Û ΢ÎÏÈÎfi ʈÙÂÈÓfi ˘fi‚·ıÚÔ Ô˘ ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁÔ‡Û ÛÔÙ ¯·ÌËÏ‹˜ ÈÛ¯‡Ô˜). ∆Ô Â›‰ˆÏÔ ÙÔ ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁÔ‡Û ÎÔ›ÏÔ Î¿ÙÔÙÚÔ ›Ûˆ ·fi ÙËÓ ÔıfiÓË. ∆Ô ¯¤ÚÈ Ù˘ ÊÔÈÙ‹ÙÚÈ·˜ Ô˘ «¤·È˙» ·ÓÙÈÚÔÛÒ¢ ÙÔ ¯¤ÚÈ ÙÔ˘ £ÂÔ‡, ÙÔ ÔÔ›Ô Ì ÙËÓ Î›ÓËÛË ‰ÈÂÚÌ‹-


003

17-06-09

13:21

™ÂÏ›‰·51

£Â·ÙÚÈ΋ ·Ê‹ÁËÛË ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÒÓ È‰ÂÒÓ

51

Ó¢ ÙȘ ÂÓÙÔϤ˜ ∆Ô˘. ∏ ·Ó··Ú¿ÛÙ·ÛË Ù˘ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÔÔ›ËÛ˘ ÙˆÓ ÂÓÙÔÏÒÓ ÁÈÓfiÙ·Ó ÛÙË ‰ÂÍÈ¿ ÔıfiÓË Ì Ù¯ÓÈΤ˜ ÙÔ˘ ı¿ÙÚÔ˘ ÛÎÈÒÓ. ™Ù· ‰È·‰Ô¯Èο Ó‡̷ٷ ÙÔ˘ ¯ÂÚÈÔ‡ ÂÌÊ·Ó›˙ÔÓÙ·Ó Ô ◊ÏÈÔ˜, Ë ™ÂÏ‹ÓË, Ë °Ë Î·È ÌÂÙ¿ ‰¤ÓÙÚ· ʇÙÚˆÓ·Ó ¿Óˆ Ù˘ Î·È Ô˘ÏÈ¿ ÂÙÔ‡Û·Ó. ™ÙË ‰Â‡ÙÂÚË ÛÎËÓ‹ Î·È ÂÓÒ ÛÙË ‰ÂÍÈ¿ ÔıfiÓË ·Ú¤ÌÂÓÂ Ë Ï‹Ú˘ ÂÈÎfiÓ· ÙÔ˘ ÎfiÛÌÔ˘ fiˆ˜ ÙÔÓ ‰ËÌÈÔ‡ÚÁËÛÂ Ô £Âfi˜, ÛÙËÓ ÎÂÓÙÚÈ΋ ÔıfiÓË ÂÌÊ·ÓÈ˙fiÙ·Ó Ë ÊÈÁÔ‡Ú· ÂÓfi˜ ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌÔÓ· (Û¯ËÌ·ÙÈ˙fiÙ·Ó ·fi ÛÎÈ¿ ·ÓıÚÒÈÓÔ˘ ÛÒÌ·ÙÔ˜ Î·È ÙËÓ È‰ÈfiÙËÙ¿ ÙÔ˘ ÙË ‰ÈÂÚÌ‹ÓÂ˘Â Ë ÛÎÈ¿ ÂÓfi˜ «·Î·‰ËÌ·˚ÎÔ‡» η¤ÏÔ˘ Ô˘ ÊÔÚÔ‡ÛÂ). ∏ ÌÔ˘ÛÈ΋ ·ÔÎÙÔ‡Û ÈÔ ÁÚ‹ÁÔÚÔ Ú˘ıÌfi Î·È Ô «ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌÔÓ·˜» ¿Ú¯È˙ ӷ ÌÂÙ·ÎÈÓÂ›Ù·È ÚÔ˜ Ù· ·ÚÈÛÙÂÚ¿. ™ÙËÓ ÙÚ›ÙË ÛÎËÓ‹, Ë ÂÈÎfiÓ· Ù˘ ‰ÂÍÈ¿˜ ÔıfiÓ˘ ¤Û‚ËÓÂ Î·È Ì ÙË Û˘Óԉ›· Ù˘ ·Ú¯È΋˜ ÌÔ˘ÛÈ΋˜ ¿Ú¯È˙ ӷ ·ÔηχÙÂÙ·È Ë ÂÈÎfiÓ· Ù˘ ·ÚÈÛÙÂÚ‹˜ «ÔıfiÓ˘». ™’ ·˘Ù‹ Ê·›ÓÔÓÙ·Ó Î·Ù·ÓÂÌË̤ӷ ÛÙÔ ¯ÒÚÔ Î·È Û ·ÚÎÂÙfi ‚¿ıÔ˜ Ï‹ıÔ˜ ·fi Ô˘Ú¿ÓÈ· ÛÒÌ·Ù·, ¿ÏÏ· ‰È¿¯˘Ù· Î·È ¿ÏÏ· ÔÚÁ·ÓˆÌ¤Ó· Û ‰·ÎÙ˘Ï›Ô˘˜ (Ì ÙÔ ÓÙÈ˙¿ÈÓ ÙÔ˘˜ ‰ÈÂÚÌ‹Ó¢·Ó Á·Ï·Í›Â˜). ∏ ÂÈÎfiÓ· ‹Ù·Ó ηٷÛ΢·Ṳ̂ÓË Ì Ù¯ÓÈΤ˜ Ì·‡ÚÔ˘ ı¤·ÙÚÔ˘ (ÛÊ·ÈÚÈο Ô˘Ú¿ÓÈ· ÛÒÌ·Ù· Î·È ‰·ÎÙ‡ÏÈÔÈ ·fi ‚·Ì̤ÓÔ Î·Ù¿ÏÏËÏ· ÊÂÏÈ˙fiÏ, Ô˘ ʈٛ˙ÔÓÙ·Ó ·fi ‰‡Ô Ï¿Ì˜ black light). ∏ ÂÚÈÁÚ·ÊÈ΋ ʇÛË Ù˘ Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤Ó˘ ÛÔ˘‰‹˜ ÌÂÙ·ÙÔ›˙ÔÓÙ·Ó ÚÔ˜ ·Ê‹ÁËÛË ‰Â‰Ô̤ÓÔ˘ fiÙÈ Ù· ÁÂÁÔÓfiÙ· ‰ÈÂÚÌ‹Ó¢·Ó ÙË ‰Ú¿ÛË Î¿ÔÈˆÓ ˘ÔÎÂÈÌ¤ÓˆÓ (£ÂÔ‡ Î·È ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌÔÓ·). ∏ ·ÓÙÈÛÙÔȯ›· ÙˆÓ ‰‡Ô ‰Ú¿ÛÂˆÓ ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁÔ‡Û ¤Ó· «·ÏÏfiÌÂÓÔ» ·Ó·ÊÂÚfiÌÂÓÔ ÛÙË Û˘ÓÔÏÈ΋ ÛÔ˘‰‹: ∞Ó Ô ıÂfi˜ ‰ËÌÈÔ‡ÚÁËÛ ÙÔÓ ÎfiÛÌÔ Ù˘ ‰ÂÍÈ¿˜ ÔıfiÓ˘, Ë ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌË ‰ËÌÈÔ‡ÚÁËÛ ÙÔÓ ÎfiÛÌÔ Ù˘ ·ÚÈÛÙÂÚ‹˜; ∞Ó Ë ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌË ·Ó··ÚÈÛÙ¿ ÙÔÓ ÎfiÛÌÔ fiˆ˜ ÛÙËÓ ·ÚÈÛÙÂÚ‹ ÔıfiÓË, ÙfiÙÂ Ë Ú¿ÍË ÛÙË ‰ÂÍÈ¿ Â›Ó·È Â›Û˘ ·Ó··Ú¿ÛÙ·ÛË; ∏ ·‚‚·ÈfiÙËÙ· ÙÔ˘ ·Ó·ÊÂÚfiÌÂÓÔ˘ ·˘ÙÔ‡ Û˘Ó¤ÏÂÂ, Ì¿ÏÏÔÓ, Ì ÙËÓ ·‚‚·ÈfiÙËÙ· Ô˘ ‰È¤ÙÚ¯ ÙËÓ È‰¤· Ô˘ ›¯·Ó ·ÔÊ·Û›ÛÂÈ Ó· ·Ó··Ú·ÛÙ‹ÛÔ˘Ó ÔÈ ÊÔÈÙ‹ÙÚȘ Î·È ¿ÊËÓ ÛÙÔÓ ı·ً ÂÚÈıÒÚÈ· ÁÈ· ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈΤ˜ ·Ó·ÁÓÒÛÂȘ. ™ÙËÓ ÙÂÏÂ˘Ù·›· ·˘Ù‹ ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ· ıˆÚԇ̠fiÙÈ ÔÈ ÊÔÈÙ‹ÙÚȘ ÏÂÈÙÔ‡ÚÁËÛ·Ó ·Ú·ÁˆÁÈο Û ÌÂÚÈο ·ÎfiÌË ÛËÌ›· Ù˘ ı·ÙÚÈ΋˜ Î·È Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋˜-ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈ΋˜ ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú·˜. §ÂÈÙÔ‡ÚÁËÛ·Ó ·Ú·ÁˆÁÈο, ÚÔÛ·ıÒÓÙ·˜ Ó· ‰È·ÚÚ‹ÍÔ˘Ó ÙË ÛÂÈÚ¿ ÙˆÓ ı·ÙÚÈÎÒÓ-ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎÒÓ ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈÔÙ‹ÙˆÓ (ÛÙÔ fiÓÔÌ· ÙˆÓ ·Ú¯ÈÎÒÓ ÙÔ˘˜ ÂÈÏÔÁÒÓ) Î·È ¤Ù˘¯·Ó, ‰È·ÙËÚÒÓÙ·˜ ÌfiÓÔ ÙËÓ Ú·ÎÙÈ΋ ÙˆÓ ‰È·‰Ô¯ÈÎÒÓ ‰ÔÎÈÌÒÓ Î·È ‰ÈÔÚıÒÛˆÓ/·Ó·ıˆڋÛˆÓ. §ÂÈÙÔ‡ÚÁËÛ·Ó Â›Û˘ ·Ú·ÁˆÁÈο Î·È ÛÙÔ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎfi-ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎfi Ï·›ÛÈÔ. ∂‰Ò, ·fi Ù· ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈο ۇ̂ÔÏ· ÌÂÙ¤ÊÂÚ·Ó ÛÙËÓ ·ÚÔ˘Û›·Û‹ ÙÔ˘˜ ÌfiÓÔ ÌÈ· ÂÈÎfiÓ·. ™ÙËÓ Ú·ÎÙÈ΋ ÙÔ˘˜, Û˘Ó¤‰ÂÛ·Ó ÙËÓ ÂÈÎfiÓ· ·˘Ù‹ Ì ıÂÔÏÔÁÈΤ˜ ÂÔÈı‹ÛÂȘ


003

17-06-09

52

13:21

™ÂÏ›‰·52

µ·Û›Ï˘ ∆ÛÂÏʤ˜, ∞ÓÙÈÁfiÓË ¶·ÚÔ‡ÛË

Î·È ·Ó··Ú·ÛÙ¿ÛÂȘ, Û˘Û¯ÂÙÈ˙fiÌÂÓ˜ ¿Óˆ Û ¤Ó· ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÏÔÁÈÎfi ·Ó·ÊÂÚfiÌÂÓÔ Ô˘ Â¤ÙÚÂ ÙË ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ›· Ù˘ ·‚‚·ÈfiÙËÙ·˜, ÙËÓ ›‰È· ÛÙÈÁÌ‹ Ô˘ ˘Ô‰‹ÏˆÓ ÙË ÏÔÁÈ΋ Ù˘ ÚÔfi‰Ô˘. ÷ڷÎÙËÚÈÛÙÈÎfi, Â›Û˘ ·˘Ù‹˜ Ù˘ Ú·ÎÙÈ΋˜ Â›Ó·È ÙÔ ÁÂÁÔÓfi˜ fiÙÈ ·fi ÙÔ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎfi ΛÌÂÓÔ ·Ó·ÊÔÚ¿˜ ‰ÂÓ ÌÂÙ¤ÊÂÚ·Ó ·ÔÛ¿ÛÌ·Ù·Ø ÌÂÙ¤ÊÂÚ·Ó ÙÔ ¿ÚÚËÙÔ Îϛ̷ Ù˘ ·ÌÊÈ‚ÔÏ›·˜, Ù˘ ·Ó·˙‹ÙËÛ˘ Î·È Ù˘ Û‡ÁÎÚÔ˘Û˘/Û‡ÁÎÚÈÛ˘ Ì fi,ÙÈ Ë ÈÛÙÔÚÈ΋-ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈ΋ ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú· ·Ó·Ê¤ÚÂÈ ÛÙËÓ ÂÎÎÏËÛ›· Î·È ÙȘ ÂÔÈı‹ÛÂȘ Ù˘.

™À∑∏∆∏™∏, ¢π¢∞∫∆π∫√𠶃√µ§∏ª∞∆π™ª√π ∫∞π ¡∂∞ ∂ƒ∂À¡∏∆π∫∞ ∂ƒø∆∏ª∞∆∞ ∆· ·ÔÙÂϤÛÌ·Ù· Ù˘ ‰Ô˘ÏÂÈ¿˜ ÙˆÓ ÊÔÈÙËÙÚÈÒÓ (ÌÈ·˜ ÔÌ¿‰·˜) Ô˘ ·ÚÔ˘ÛÈ¿Û·Ì ‰Â›¯ÓÔ˘Ó ÙÔ˘Ï¿¯ÈÛÙÔÓ ‰‡Ô Ú¿ÁÌ·Ù·. ∆Ô ÚÒÙÔ ıˆÚԇ̠fiÙÈ Û¯ÂÙ›˙ÂÙ·È Ì ÙË ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ›· ÙˆÓ ·ÓÙÈı¤ÛÂˆÓ ·Ó··Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜-·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜ ÛÙË ‰È·‰Èηۛ· Ù˘ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈ΋˜ ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ·˜ Î·È ÈÔ Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤ӷ ÛÙȘ ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ˜ Ô˘ ÌÔÚԇ̠ӷ ·ÓÙÈÌÂÙˆ›˙Ô˘Ì ˆ˜ Ì¿ıËÛË. ∆Ô ‰Â‡ÙÂÚÔ ıˆÚԇ̠fiÙÈ Â›Ó·È ·ÂÏ¢ıÂÚˆÙÈ΋ Ë ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ›· Ù˘ ·ÓÙ›ıÂÛ˘ Ù˘ ı·ÙÚÈ΋˜ Ì ÙËÓ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ¤ÎÊÚ·ÛË, Û ¤Ó· Ï·›ÛÈÔ Ô˘ ‰ÂÓ ÌÔÚÔ‡Ó Ó· ÂϤÁÍÔ˘Ó ÂÎ ÙˆÓ ÚÔÙ¤ÚˆÓ ÔÈ ‰È‰¿ÛÎÔÓÙ˜. ™Â Û¯¤ÛË Ì ÙË ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ›· Ù˘ ‰È·ÏÂÎÙÈ΋˜ ·ÓÙ›ıÂÛ˘ ·Ó··Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜-·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜ ˆ˜ ËÁ‹˜ ‰Ú¿ÛÂˆÓ Ô˘ ÌÔÚÔ‡Ó Ó· Ô‰ËÁ‹ÛÔ˘Ó Û ̿ıËÛË, Ë ·Ó¿Ï˘Û‹ Ì·˜ ‰›ÓÂÈ ·ÚÎÂÙ¿ ·Ú·‰Â›ÁÌ·Ù·. ŒÓ· ÂӉȷʤÚÔÓ ·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ· ÛÙÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ Ù˘ ı·ÙÚÈ΋˜-ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈ΋˜ ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú·˜ ÂÌÊ·Ó›˙ÂÙ·È ÛÙËÓ ÙÚ›ÙË ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ· (£™1). ∂‰Ò ÔÈ ÊÔÈÙ‹ÙÚȘ ÂȯÂÈÚÔ‡Ó Ó· ·Ó··Ú¿ÁÔ˘Ó ı·ÙÚÈο ÙËÓ ÚÔÛ·ÁˆÁ‹ ÙÔ˘ °·ÏÈÏ·›Ô˘ ÛÙËÓ πÂÚ¿ ∂ͤٷÛË. ∏ ÈÛÙÔÚÈ΋ ÙÔ˘˜ ÂÓË̤ڈÛË «Ï¤ÂÈ» fiÙÈ ·˘Ù‹ Ë ÚÔÛ·ÁˆÁ‹ ‹Ù·Ó Â› Ù˘ Ô˘Û›·˜ ‚›·ÈË, ·ÏÏ¿ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÔÔÈ‹ıËΠ̠¤Ó· «ÂÈÎ¿Ï˘ÌÌ· Û˘Ó·›ÓÂÛ˘» (Ë πÂÚ¿ ∂ͤٷÛË Ù˘ ƒÒÌ˘ ÂÓË̤ڈÛ ۷ÊÒ˜ Î·È Â·ÓÂÈÏËÌ̤ӈ˜ ÙÔÓ °·ÏÈÏ·›Ô fiÙÈ ·Ó ‰ÂÓ ÚÔÛ¤ÏıÂÈ «ÔÈÎÂÈÔıÂÏÒ˜» ı· ÙÔÓ Û˘ÏÏ¿‚ÂÈ). ∆Ô Û‡ÓıÂÙÔ ·˘Ùfi ÁÂÁÔÓfi˜ ı· ÌÔÚÔ‡Û ·fi ÌfiÓÔ ÙÔ˘ Ó· ·ÔÙÂϤÛÂÈ È‰¤· ÁÈ· ÌÈ· ·˘ÙfiÓÔÌË Û‡ÓÙÔÌË ı·ÙÚÈ΋ ÛÔ˘‰‹ (Ï‹„Ë ÌÈ·˜ ·ÓıÚÒÈÓ˘ ·fiÊ·Û˘ οو ·fi ÙËÓ ›ÂÛË ·ÏÏËÏÔÛ˘ÁÎÚÔ˘fiÌÂÓˆÓ Êfi‚ˆÓ, ÂȉÈÒ͈Ó, Û˘ÌÊÂÚfiÓÙˆÓ...). ∆Ô Ó· ÂÓÙ¿ÍÂȘ ÌÈ· Ù¤ÙÔÈ· ı·ÙÚÈ΋ ÛÔ˘‰‹ ÛÙÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ ÌÈ·˜ ¿ÏÏ˘ (Ô˘ ÂȯÂÈÚ› Ó· ·Ó·‰Â›ÍÂÈ ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈ΋ ȉ¤·) ÌÔÚ› Ó· Â›Ó·È ı·ÙÚÈο ηٷÛÙÚÔÊÈÎfi. ∞˘Ùfi ÔÈ ÊÔÈÙ‹ÙÚȘ ÙÔ ¤Ì·ı·Ó ̤۷ ·fi ÙË ‰Ú¿ÛË ÙÔ˘˜. ∫·È


003

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13:21

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£Â·ÙÚÈ΋ ·Ê‹ÁËÛË ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÒÓ È‰ÂÒÓ

53

ÌÔÚ› ÙÔ ·ÔÙ¤ÏÂÛÌ· Ó· «Î·ÙËÁÔÚËı›» ÁÈ· ·Ó··Ú·ÁˆÁ‹ ÌÈ·˜ ÚÔ¸¿Ú¯Ô˘Û·˜ ·ÓÙ›Ï˄˘: Ë ı·ÙÚÈ΋ χÛË Ô˘ Â¤ÏÂÍ·Ó ·ÔÙÂÏ› ‰È·‰Â‰Ô̤ÓÔ «Ì‡ıÔ» ÁÈ· ÙË ‰›ÎË ÙÔ˘ °·ÏÈÏ·›Ô˘. ŸÌˆ˜ Ù· ‰Â‰Ô̤ӷ Ì·˜ ›ıÔ˘Ó fiÙÈ Ë ÂÈÏÔÁ‹ ‹Ù·Ó ·ÔÙ¤ÏÂÛÌ· Û‡ÁÎÚÔ˘Û˘ ·Ó··Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜-·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜ Î·È Ë ‰Ú¿ÛË ÙˆÓ ÊÔÈÙËÙÚÈÒÓ ÂÚÈÏ¿Ì‚·Ó ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹ (ıÂÌÈÙ‹ ÛÙÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ Ù˘ ı·ÙÚÈ΋˜ ۇ̂·Û˘). ∂ÈÛËÌ·›ÓÔ˘Ì ÙÔ ÛËÌÂ›Ô ·˘Ùfi Î·È ˘ÔÛÙËÚ›˙Ô˘Ì fiÙÈ Â›Ó·È ‰ÈÎfi Ì·˜ ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁÈÎfi Úfi‚ÏËÌ· ÙÔ ·Ó ı· ·Ó·˙ËÙ‹ÛÔ˘Ì ÙËÓ ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹ ÛÙË ‰Ú¿ÛË ÙˆÓ ÊÔÈÙËÙÚÈÒÓ ‹ ÛÙÔ ÙÂÏÈÎfi ÙÔ˘˜ ÚÔ˚fiÓ/Ù¤¯ÓËÌ·. ∞Ó ÙËÓ ·Ó·˙ËÙ‹ÛÔ˘Ì ÛÙË ‰Ú¿ÛË, ı· ÙË ‚Úԇ̠(ı· ÂÓÙÔ›ÛÔ˘Ì ̿ıËÛË). ∞Ó ÙËÓ ·Ó·˙ËÙ‹ÛÔ˘Ì ÛÙÔ ÙÂÏÈÎfi ÚÔ˚fiÓ (ÌfiÓÔ ÙÈ Â›·Ó ‹ ÙÈ ¤‰ÂÈÍ·Ó ÔÈ ÊÔÈÙ‹ÙÚȘ) –‚Ϥ ÂÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌËÙÈΤ˜ ÂÚ¢ÓËÙÈΤ˜ Ú·ÎÙÈΤ˜(;)– ‰ÂÓ ı· ÙË ‚Úԇ̠(ı· ÂÓÙÔ›ÛÔ˘Ì ̿ÏÏÔÓ ¯Ú‹ÛË ÚÔ¸¿Ú¯Ô˘Û·˜ ·ÓÙ›Ï˄˘). ŒÓ· ‰Â‡ÙÂÚÔ ·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ·, ÂÍ›ÛÔ˘ ÂӉȷʤÚÔÓ, Û˘Ó·ÓÙ¿Ì ÛÙËÓ Ù¤Ù·ÚÙË ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ· fiÔ˘ ·fi ÙÔ Î›ÌÂÓÔ ÙÔ˘ ¢È·ÏfiÁÔ˘ ÔÈ ÊÔÈÙ‹ÙÚȘ ÂÍ¿ÁÔ˘Ó ¤Ó· ÌË ÚËÙ¿ ‰È·Ù˘ˆÌ¤ÓÔ ÛÙÔ Î›ÌÂÓÔ ÂÚÒÙËÌ·. ™ÙË ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ· ·˘Ù‹ ÔÈ ÊÔÈÙ‹ÙÚȘ ÂȯÂÈÚÔ‡Ó Ó· ·Ó··Ú¿ÁÔ˘Ó, ÛÙÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋˜-ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈ΋˜ ÙÔ˘˜ ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú·˜, ÙÔ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎfi ÂÚȯfiÌÂÓÔ. Ÿˆ˜ Ê·›ÓÂÙ·È ·fi ÙËÓ ·Ó¿Ï˘Û‹ Ì·˜, Ë ·Ó··Ú·ÁˆÁ‹ ÚÔ¯ÒÚËÛ ̤¯ÚÈ ÙÔ ÛËÌÂ›Ô ÂΛÓÔ fiÔ˘ Ë ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ·ÓÙ›ıÂÛË Ô˘ ‰È¤ÙÚ¯ ÙÔ Î›ÌÂÓÔ (Ë ·Ó··Ú·ÁˆÁ‹ Ì ‚¿ÛË ÙËÓ ·Ú·Ù‹ÚËÛË Ô‰ËÁÔ‡Û Û ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈΤ˜ ·Ó··Ú·ÛÙ¿ÛÂȘ) ¤ÁÈÓ ÚËÙ‹: «[...] £·˘Ì¿˙ˆ ·¤Ú·ÓÙ· ÙÔ ‡„Ô˜ ÙÔ˘ Ó‡̷ÙÔ˜ ÂÎÂ›ÓˆÓ Ô˘ [...] ¤‰ˆÛ·Ó ÌÂÁ·Ï‡ÙÂÚË ·Í›· Û’ ·˘Ùfi Ô˘ ÙÔ˘˜ ˘·ÁfiÚÂ˘Â Ë ÏÔÁÈ΋ ·’ fi,ÙÈ Û’ ·˘Ùfi Ô˘ ÙÔ˘˜ ¤‰ÂÈ¯Ó·Ó Ôχ ηı·Ú¿ Î·È ¯ˆÚ›˜ ÂÍ·Ó·ÁηÛÌÔ‡˜ ÔÈ ÂÌÂÈڛ˜ ÙˆÓ ·ÈÛı‹ÛÂÒÓ ÙÔ˘˜». ∂‰Ò, Ë ·Ó··Ú·ÁˆÁ‹ Ì ‚¿ÛË ÙËÓ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋-ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈ΋ ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú· ‚¤‚·ÈˆÓ ·Ó··Ú·ÛÙ¿ÛÂˆÓ «ÂÎÚ‹ÁÓ˘Ù·È» Î·È Ô‰ËÁ› ÛÙËÓ ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹: «¶Ò˜ Ó· Â›Ó·È ‚¤‚·ÈÔ˜ ηÓ›˜... fiÙ·Ó ¿ÏÏ· ‚ϤÂȘ Î·È ¿ÏÏ· ÈÛ¯‡Ô˘Ó»; ∞˘Ùfi, Û‡Ìʈӷ Ì ÙËÓ ÚÔÛ¤ÁÁÈÛ‹ Ì·˜, ·ÔÙÂÏ› Ì¿ıËÛË, ¿Û¯ÂÙ· ·fi ÙÔ ·Ó ÙÔ Ó¤Ô ÂÚÒÙËÌ· ı· ··ÓÙËı› οÔÙ ‹ fi¯È. ª¿ıËÛË Ô˘ ÙËÓ ÚÔοÏÂÛÂ Ë ÚÔÛ¿ıÂÈ· ·Ó··Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜ ÂÓfi˜ ÎÂÈ̤ÓÔ˘ Ô˘ ÂÚÈÁÚ¿ÊÂÈ ÂÚÈÛÛfiÙÂÚÔ Î¿ÔȘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈΤ˜ ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ˜ ·Ú¿ οÔÈÔ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎfi ÚÔ˚fiÓ-ÁÓÒÛË. ª¿ıËÛË Ô˘ ÙËÓ ÚÔοÏÂÛÂ Ë ¯Ú‹ÛË ÙÔ˘ ·˘ıÂÓÙÈÎÔ‡ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÔ‡ ÏfiÁÔ˘ (ÙÔÓ ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔÈÔ‡Ó Î·È Û‹ÌÂÚ· ÔÈ ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌÔÓ˜ ÛÙË ‰Ô˘ÏÂÈ¿ ÙÔ˘˜) Î·È fi¯È Ë ¯Ú‹ÛË ÙÔ˘ ÏfiÁÔ˘ Ô˘ Û˘Ó·ÓÙ¿Ì ÛÙ· Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓ· ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈο ΛÌÂÓ·Ø ÂÓfi˜ Έ‰ÈÎÔÔÈË̤ÓÔ˘ ÏfiÁÔ˘ Ô˘ ·ÔÙÂÏ› ÂÚÈÛÛfiÙÂÚÔ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎfi Ù¤¯ÓËÌ· ·Ú¿ ‰ÔÌ‹ Û˘Ì‚fiÏˆÓ ÂÈÎÔÈÓˆÓ›·˜ (∆ÛÂÏʤ˜ & ¶·ÚÔ‡ÛË 2008‚).


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µ·Û›Ï˘ ∆ÛÂÏʤ˜, ∞ÓÙÈÁfiÓË ¶·ÚÔ‡ÛË

∆¤ÏÔ˜, Ì ¤Ó· ·ÎfiÌË ·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ· ÌÔÚԇ̠ӷ ‰Â›ÍÔ˘Ì ÙËÓ ·ÂÏ¢ıÂÚˆÙÈ΋ ‰‡Ó·ÌË Ô˘ Ê·›ÓÂÙ·È Ó· ¤¯ÂÈ Ë ‰È·¯Â›ÚÈÛË Ù˘ ·ÓÙ›ıÂÛ˘ Ù˘ ı·ÙÚÈ΋˜ Î·È Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋˜ ·Ó··Ú¿ÛÙ·Û˘ ÛÙÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ, ¿ÓÙ·, Ù˘ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈ΋˜ ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú·˜. ™ÙËÓ ÙÂÏÂ˘Ù·›· ı·ÙÚÈ΋ ÛÔ˘‰‹ (£™2) ÔÈ ÊÔÈÙ‹ÙÚȘ ‹ıÂÏ·Ó Ì οı ÙÚfiÔ Ó· ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔÈ‹ÛÔ˘Ó ÙËÓ Ù¯ÓÈ΋ ÙÔ˘ Ì·‡ÚÔ˘ ı¤·ÙÚÔ˘. ∞˘Ù‹ Ë «ÂÌÌÔÓ‹» Ê·›ÓÂÙ·È Ó· ηıÔ‰‹ÁËÛ ÙËÓ Î·Ù·Û΢‹ Ù˘ Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓ˘ ÂÈÎfiÓ·˜ ÙÔ˘ Û‡Ì·ÓÙÔ˜ (fiˆ˜ ÙËÓ ÂÚȤÁÚ·„·Ó ÔÈ ‰È‰¿ÛÎÔÓÙ˜), ·Ú¿ Ë Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓË ÂÈÎfiÓ· ÙÔ˘ Û‡Ì·ÓÙÔ˜ Ó· ¯ÚÂÈ¿ÛÙËΠˆ˜ Ù¯ÓÈ΋ ·˘Ù‹ ÙÔ˘ Ì·‡ÚÔ˘ ı¤·ÙÚÔ˘. ŸÌˆ˜, Ë Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÔÔ›ËÛË ·˘Ù‹˜ Ù˘ ÂÈı˘Ì›·˜ ÚÔοÏÂÛ ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹-Ì¿ıËÛË. °È· ÚÒÙË ÊÔÚ¿ ÛÙËÓ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈ΋ Ì·˜ ˙ˆ‹ ›‰·Ì ¤Ó· Û‡Ì·Ó (fi¯È Ô˘Ú·Ófi) ηٷÛ΢·Ṳ̂ÓÔ ·fi ÂÎ·È‰Â˘fiÌÂÓ˜, Ô˘ ÂÚÈÏ¿Ì‚·Ó ÌfiÓÔ ÛÊ·ÈÚÈο ʈÙÂÈÓ¿ ÛÒÌ·Ù· (fi¯È «·ÛÙÂÚ¿ÎÈ·»), ηٷÓÂÌË̤ӷ ÛÙÔ ¯ÒÚÔ ÔÌÔÁÂÓÒ˜, Û ۯËÌ·ÙÈÛÌÔ‡˜ Á·Ï·ÍÈÒÓ Î·È ÛÙÔ ÔÔ›Ô ‰ÂÓ ˘‹Ú¯Â Ô˘ıÂÓ¿ –Ô‡Ù ˆ˜ ˘ÔÓÔÔ‡ÌÂÓÔ– Ë °Ë! ∆ËÓ Î·Ù·Û΢‹ ·˘Ù‹ ‰ÂÓ Ê·›ÓÂÙ·È Ó· ÙËÓ ˘ÔΛÓËÛ ηÌÈ¿ ÏÔÁÈ΋ ·ÓٛʷÛË Ì ÚÔ¸¿Ú¯Ô˘Û˜ ·ÓÙÈÏ‹„ÂȘ. ∫·Ù¿ ÙË ‰È¿ÚÎÂÈ· Ù˘ ηٷÛ΢‹˜ ÂÌÊ·Ó›ÛÙËÎ·Ó Î·È Ï‡ıËÎ·Ó ÔÏϤ˜ ·ÓÙÈÊ¿ÛÂȘ Ì ÚÔ¸¿Ú¯Ô˘Û˜ ·ÓÙÈÏ‹„ÂȘ. ŸÌˆ˜, ÔÈ ‰È·‰Èηۛ˜ ·˘Ù¤˜ ‹Ù·Ó ‰È·¯ÂÈÚÈÛÙÈÎÔ‡ Ù‡Ô˘. ∫ÈÓËÙ‹ÚÈ· ‰‡Ó·ÌË ·ÔÙÂÏÔ‡Û ¿ÓÙ· Ë ÂÈı˘Ì›· Ó· Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÔÔÈËı› Ë Î·Ù·Û΢‹ (Ì ¯Ú‹ÛË Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤Ó˘ Ù¯ÓÈ΋˜). ™˘ÓÔÏÈο ˘ÔÛÙËÚ›˙Ô˘Ì fiÙÈ Ì ÙȘ ÚÔËÁÔ‡ÌÂÓ˜ ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ˜ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÔÔÈ‹ıËΠ̿ıËÛË. ªÂ ÙÔÓ ÈÛ¯˘ÚÈÛÌfi ·˘Ùfi ÂÓÓÔԇ̠fiÙÈ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÔÔÈ‹ıËΠ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹ Ô˘ ÎÚ›ıËΠˆ˜ Ù¤ÙÔÈ· ·fi ÙË ¯Ú‹ÛË ÙÔ˘ «Ó¤Ô˘» ̤۷ Û ¤Ó· Ï·›ÛÈÔ ·Ó··Ú·ÁˆÁÈ΋˜ ‰Ú¿Û˘. ªÂ ηӤӷ ÙÚfiÔ ‰ÂÓ ÂÓÓÔԇ̠fiÙÈ ÔÈ ÊÔÈÙ‹ÙÚȘ «¤Ì·ı·Ó» οÔÈÔ «ÓfiÌÔ», οÔÈÔ «Ù‡Ô», οÔÈÔ «ÔÚÈÛÌfi», οÔÈ· «Ì¤ıÔ‰Ô» Ó· χÓÔ˘Ó «·Û΋ÛÂȘ» ‹ «ÚÔ‚Ï‹Ì·Ù·». ∂›Ó·È ‰ËÏ·‰‹ ÁÂÁÔÓfi˜ fiÙÈ Û˘Ó¿ÓÙËÛ·Ó Ï›Á· Ú¿ÁÌ·Ù· ·’ ·˘Ù¿ Ô˘ Û˘Ó·ÓÙÔ‡Ó ÛÙ· Û¯ÔÏÈο Ì·ı‹Ì·Ù· ÙˆÓ Ê˘ÛÈÎÒÓ ÂÈÛÙËÌÒÓ Î·È fiÙÈ Ë Ì¿ıËÛË Ô˘ ¤Ù˘¯·Ó Â›Ó·È Èı·ÓfiÓ fiÙÈ ‰ÂÓ ı· ÌÔÚÔ‡Û ӷ ÙȘ ‚ÔËı‹ÛÂÈ Ó· ‰È·¯ÂÈÚÈÛÙÔ‡Ó Ì ÂÈÙ˘¯›· Ù˘ÈΤ˜ Û¯ÔÏÈΤ˜ ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ˜. ∆Ô ÁÂÁÔÓfi˜ ·˘Ùfi ‰ÂÓ ÙÔ ıˆÚԇ̠·ÔÙ˘¯›· Ù˘ Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤Ó˘ ÚÔÛ¿ıÂÈ·˜, ÌÈ·˜ Î·È ¤Ú· ·fi ÙÔÓ «ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎfi ÁÚ·ÌÌ·ÙÈÛÌfi» Ô˘ Ì ¢ÎÔÏ›· ı· ÌÔÚÔ‡Û·Ì ӷ ‰Â›ÍÔ˘Ì fiÙÈ ¤Ù˘¯·Ó ÔÈ ÊÔÈÙ‹ÙÚȤ˜ Ì·˜, ›¯·Ì ÙËÓ Â˘Î·ÈÚ›· Ó· ‰Ô‡Ì ÙȘ ‰È·‰Èηۛ˜ Ì¿ıËÛ˘ ̤۷ ·fi ÌÈ· ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈ΋ ıˆÚËÙÈ΋ «Ì·ÙÈ¿» Ô˘ ÛÂ Û˘Ó‰˘·ÛÌfi Ì ٷ ‰Â‰Ô̤ӷ Ì·˜ ‚¿˙ÂÈ Î¿ÔÈ· ÂÚˆÙ‹Ì·Ù· ÛÙÔ ÂÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌËÙÈÎfi Ï·›ÛÈÔ ¤Ú¢ӷ˜ Ù˘ ¢º∂:


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£Â·ÙÚÈ΋ ·Ê‹ÁËÛË ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÒÓ È‰ÂÒÓ

55

ªÔÚ› Ë ÏÔÁÈ΋ ·ÓÙ›ıÂÛË ·Ó¿ÌÂÛ· ÛÙȘ ÂÌÂÈÚÈΤ˜-ηıËÌÂÚÈÓ¤˜ ıˆڋÛÂȘ ÙˆÓ Ê·ÈÓÔÌ¤ÓˆÓ Î·È ÛÂ Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤ӷ ÂÚÁ·ÛÙËÚȷο Ê·ÈÓfiÌÂÓ· Ó· ·ÔÙÂϤÛÂÈ ÙËÓ ÎÈÓËÙ‹ÚÈ· ‰‡Ó·ÌË Ô˘ ı· ÛÙÚ¤„ÂÈ ÙËÓ ·Ó··Ú·ÁˆÁ‹ ÙˆÓ ÂÌÂÈÚÈÎÒÓ-ηıËÌÂÚÈÓÒÓ ıˆڋÛÂˆÓ ÚÔ˜ ÙËÓ ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹ Ó¤ˆÓ (ÂÚÈÛÛfiÙÂÚÔ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÒÓ); ∞Ó Ó·È, ÙfiÙ ̋ˆ˜ ÙÔ «Â›ÛËÌÔ» Û¯ÔÏÈÎfi ÂÚȯfiÌÂÓÔ ‰ÂÓ ı· ¤ÚÂ ӷ Û˘ÁÎÚÔÙÂ›Ù·È ·fi ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈΤ˜ ·Ó··Ú·ÛÙ¿ÛÂȘ ÙˆÓ Ê˘ÛÈÎÒÓ Ê·ÈÓÔ̤ӈÓ, ·ÏÏ¿ ·fi ÂÌÂÈÚÈΤ˜ (ÒÛÙ ӷ ÌÔÚ› Ó· Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÔÔÈËı› ηْ ·Ú¯‹Ó Ë ‰È·‰Èηۛ· Ù˘ ·Ó··Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜ Î·È ÛÙË Û˘Ó¤¯ÂÈ· Ë ‰È·ÏÂÎÙÈ΋ Û‡ÁÎÚÔ˘ÛË ·Ó··Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜-·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜ ÙˆÓ ÂÌÂÈÚÈÎÒÓ ıˆڋÛˆÓ, Ì ·ÊÔÚÌ‹ ÂÈÏÂÁ̤ӷ ÂÚÁ·ÛÙËÚȷο Ê·ÈÓfiÌÂÓ·);

™∏ª∂πø™∂π™ 1 ™ÙÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ ÙÔ˘ ÚÔÁÚ¿ÌÌ·ÙÔ˜ «∫·Ô‰›ÛÙÚÈ·˜ 2004-05 Î·È 2006-07» Ô˘ ¯ÚËÌ·ÙÔ‰ÔÙÂ›Ù·È ·fi ÙËÓ ∂ÈÙÚÔ‹ ∂Ú¢ÓÒÓ ÙÔ˘ ∂∫¶∞. 2 ∆Ë ÌÂÙ¿ÊÚ·ÛË ¤¯ÂÈ Î¿ÓÂÈ Ë ª·ÚÁ·Ú›Ù· ∫Ô˘ÏÂÓÙÈ·ÓÔ‡.

µπµ§π√°ƒ∞ºπ∫∂™ ∞¡∞º√ƒ∂™ Duit, R., Treagust, D. (2003), “Conceptual change: a powerful framework for improving science teaching and learning”, International Journal of Science Education, 25, Û. 671-688. Hacking, I. (1992), “The Self Vindication of the Laboratory Sciences”, A. Pickering (ed.), Science as Practice and Culture, The University Chicago Press, Chicago, Û. 29-64. Hudson, L. (1974), Contrary imaginations, Penguin, Harmondsworth. Klein, P. (2006), “The Challenges of Scientific Literacy: From the Viewpoint of Second-Generation Cognitive Science”, International Journal of Science Education, 28, Û. 143-178.


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µ·Û›Ï˘ ∆ÛÂÏʤ˜, ∞ÓÙÈÁfiÓË ¶·ÚÔ‡ÛË

Larson, J. (1995), “Fatima’s rules and other elements of an unintended chemistry curriculum”, ·Ó·ÎÔ›ÓˆÛË ÛÙÔ The annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco, CA. McManus, I., Furnham, A. (2006), “Aesthetic activities and aesthetic attitudes: Influences of education, background and personality on interest and involvement in the arts”, British Journal of Psychology, 97, Û. 555-587. Millar, R., Osborne, J. (1998), Beyond 2000: Science Education for the Future, King’s College, London. Norris, S., Guilbert, S., Smith, M., Hakimelahi, L., Phillips, L. (2005), “A Theoretical Framework for Narrative Explanation in Science”, Science Education, 89, Û. 535-563. Paroussi, A., Tselfes, V. (2006), “Crossing the Borders between Science and Shadow Theatre: the Case of Light (Part I)”, N. Govas, N. Choleva (eds), Theatre/Drama & Education: Creating New Roles for 21st Century. Proceedings of the 5th Athens International Theater and Drama Education Conference, Hellenic Theatre/Drama Education Network, Athens, Û. 119-128. Paroussi, A., Tselfes, V. (2007), “Crossing the Borders between Science and Shadow Theatre: the Case of Light (Part II)”, ·Ó·ÎÔ›ÓˆÛË ÛÙÔ the IDEA World Congress, Honk Kong 2007, Planting Human Ideas: Global Vision in Local Knowledge (accepted for publication in the proceedings). ¶·ÚÔ‡ÛË, ∞., ∆ÛÂÏʤ˜, µ. (2007), «¢ÈÂÚ¢ÓÒÓÙ·˜ ÌÈ· ı·ÙÚÈ΋ ‰È¿ÚıÚˆÛË ÙÔ˘ Ï·ÈÛ›Ô˘ ‰È‰·Ûηϛ·˜ Î·È Ì¿ıËÛ˘ ÙˆÓ Ê˘ÛÈÎÒÓ ÂÈÛÙËÌÒÓ», ¢. ∫ÔÏÈfiÔ˘ÏÔ˜ (ÂÈÌ.), πÛÙÔÚ›·, ºÈÏÔÛÔÊ›· Î·È ¢È‰·Ûηϛ· ÙˆÓ º˘ÛÈÎÒÓ ∂ÈÛÙËÌÒÓ: ∏ ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈ΋ Û˘ÓÈÛÙÒÛ· ÙˆÓ Ê˘ÛÈÎÒÓ ÂÈÛÙËÌÒÓ ÛÙËÓ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË, ∆∂∂∞¶∏, ¶∞, ¶¿ÙÚ·, Û. 621-637. Paroussi, A., Tselfes, V. (2008·), “Shadow Theatre and Physics in Early Childhood Teachers’ Education”, Education and Theatre (Special Edition), 9, Û. 83-94. Paroussi, A., Tselfes, V. (2008‚), “Creative trajectories-learning trajectories: the presentation of theatrical ideas based on Galileo’s scientific work”, ·Ó·ÎÔ›ÓˆÛË ÛÙÔ 6th Athens International Theater and Drama Education Conference (accepted for publication in the proceedings). Peirce, C. (1964), Collected papers, C. Hartshorne & P. Weiss (eds), Belkan Press, Cambridge.


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£Â·ÙÚÈ΋ ·Ê‹ÁËÛË ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÒÓ È‰ÂÒÓ

57

Sewell, W. (1992), “A theory of structure: Duality, agency and transformation”, American Journal of Sociology, 98, Û. 1-29. Sewell, W. (1999), “The concept(s) of culture”, V. Bonnel, L. Hunt (eds), Beyond the cultural turn, University of California Press, Berkeley, Û. 35-61. Snow, C. (1964), The two cultures and a second look, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Tillis, S. (1992), Toward an aesthetics of the puppet, Greenwood Press, New York. Tobin, K., Roth, W-M. (2007), The culture of science education, Sense Publishers, Rotterdam /Taipei. Tobin, K., Tippins, D., Gallard, A. (1994), “Research on instructional strategies for teaching science”, D. Gabel (ed.), Handbook of Research on Science Teaching and Learning, Macmillan Publishing Company, New York. Tselfes, V., Paroussi, ∞. (2008), “Science and Theatre Education: A Crossdisciplinary Approach of Scientific Ideas Addressed to Student Teachers of Early Childhood Education”, Science & Education, On line first: DOI:10.1007/s11191-008-9158-2 (Î·È ÛÙÔ http://www.springerlink.com/ content/v755771nj0361342/fulltext.pdf). ∆ÛÂÏʤ˜, µ., ¶·ÚÔ‡ÛË, ∞. (2008·), «∆Ô ÂÚȯfiÌÂÓÔ ÙˆÓ º˘ÛÈÎÒÓ ∂ÈÛÙËÌÒÓ ˆ˜ ÁÓÒÛË ·È‰·ÁˆÁÈÎÔ‡ Ï·ÈÛ›Ô˘: ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎÒÓ ÚÔÛ¯ÔÏÈ΋˜ ËÏÈΛ·˜ ÛÙȘ º˘ÛÈΤ˜ ∂ÈÛً̘ ̤ۈ ÂÊ·ÚÌÔÁÒÓ ÙÔ˘ ı¿ÙÚÔ˘ ÛÎÈÒÓ», µ. ÃÚËÛÙ›‰Ô˘ (ÂÈÌ.), ∂Î·È‰Â‡ÔÓÙ·˜ Ù· ÌÈÎÚ¿ ·È‰È¿ ÛÙȘ º˘ÛÈΤ˜ ∂ÈÛً̘: ∂Ú¢ÓËÙÈÎÔ› ÚÔÛ·Ó·ÙÔÏÈÛÌÔ› Î·È ·È‰·ÁˆÁÈΤ˜ Ú·ÎÙÈΤ˜, ∞ÊÔÈ ∫˘ÚȷΛ‰Ë, ∞ı‹Ó·, 235-253. ∆ÛÂÏʤ˜, µ., ¶·ÚÔ‡ÛË, ∞. (2008‚), «£¤·ÙÚÔ Î·È ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌË ÛÙËÓ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË», £Â·ÙÚÈÎfiÙËÙ· Î·È ıˆڛ·, ¡‹ÛÔ˜, ∞ı‹Ó· (‰ÂÎÙfi ÁÈ· ‰ËÌÔÛ›Â˘ÛË). Van Eijck, M., Roth, W-M. (2007), “Keeping the Local Local: Recalibrating the Status of Science and Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) in Education”, Science Education, 91, Û. 926-947. Yore, L., Treagust, D. (2006), “Current realities and future possibilities: Language and science literacy-empowering research and informing instruction”, International Journal of Science Education, 28, Û. 291-314.


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™ÂÏ›‰·58

Ӥ˜ ΢ÎÏÔÊÔڛ˜ ·fi ÙȘ ÂΉfiÛÂȘ Ó‹ÛÔ˜

ªÈ· ÊÈÏÔÛÔÊÈ΋ ÌÂϤÙË ÁÈ· ÙÔÓ ÎÈÓËÌ·ÙÔÁÚ¿ÊÔ, ·ÏÏ¿, Î·È ÌÈ· ÎÈÓËÌ·ÙÔÁÚ·ÊÈ΋˜ Ì·ÙÈ¿˜ ÛÔ˘‰‹ ÛÙË ÊÈÏÔÛÔÊ›·.

∫ÂÓÙÚÈ΋ ‰È¿ıÂÛË: ™·ÚÚ‹ 14, 10553 ∞ı‹Ó·, ÙËÏ./Ê·Í 210 3250058 µÈ‚ÈÔˆÏ›Ô: ¶ÂÛÌ·˙fiÁÏÔ˘ 5 (™ÙÔ¿ ÙÔ˘ ‚È‚Ï›Ô˘) ÙËÏ.: 210 3213583


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∫ƒπ∆π∫∏ / ∂¶π™∆∏ª∏ & ∂∫¶∞π¢∂À™∏: 9/09, 59-76

∏ ·ÛÙÈ΋ ¯ˆÚÈ΋ ÔÚÁ¿ÓˆÛË ÛÙË ÌÂÙ¿‚·ÛË ·fi ÙÔ ÊÂÔ˘‰·ÏÈÛÌfi ÛÙÔÓ Î·ÈÙ·ÏÈÛÌfi: ÙÔ ·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ· ÙˆÓ ‚fiÚÂÈˆÓ ∫¿Ùˆ ÈÚÒÓ ª¿ÓÔ˜ ™ÎÔ‡ÊÔÁÏÔ˘ ™¯ÔÏ‹ ∞Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙfiÓˆÓ ªË¯·ÓÈÎÒÓ, ∂ıÓÈÎfi ªÂÙÛfi‚ÈÔ ¶ÔÏ˘Ù¯Ó›Ô

∂π™∞°ø°∏ ∏ ÌÂÙ¿‚·ÛË ·fi ÙË ÊÂÔ˘‰·Ú¯›· ÛÙÔÓ Î·ÈÙ·ÏÈÛÌfi, fiˆ˜ Î·È Î¿ı ÌÂÙ¿‚·ÛË ·fi ¤Ó·Ó ÙÚfiÔ ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜ Û ¤Ó·Ó ¿ÏÏÔ, ·ÔÙÂÏ› ÌÈ· ÂÚ›ÏÔÎË ÈÛÙÔÚÈ΋ ‰È·‰Èηۛ·, ÁÂÌ¿ÙË ·Û˘Ó¤¯ÂȘ, ·ÏÈÓˆ‰›Â˜ Î·È ·ÓÙ›ÚÚÔ˜ ‰˘Ó¿ÌÂȘ, Ë ÔÔ›·, ·ÎÚÈ‚Ò˜ ÁÈ· ÙÔ ÏfiÁÔ ·˘Ùfi, Â›Ó·È ÂÍ·ÈÚÂÙÈο ‰‡ÛÎÔÏÔ Ó· ÂÚÈÁÚ·Ê› Û˘ÓÔÏÈο. ∞˘Ùfi Ô˘ ÂȯÂÈÚÂ›Ù·È ÛÙ· fiÚÈ· Ù˘ ·ÚÔ‡Û·˜ Û˘Ì‚ÔÏ‹˜ Â›Ó·È Ó· ÛËÌÂȈıÔ‡Ó ÔÚÈṲ̂ӷ ÎÂÓÙÚÈο ÛËÌ›· Ù˘ ÈÛÙÔÚÈ΋˜ ‰È·‰Èηۛ·˜ Ù˘ ÌÂÙ¿‚·Û˘, fi¯È ÛÙË ÁÂÓÈÎfiÙËÙ¿ ÙÔ˘˜, ·ÏÏ¿ ÛÙËÓ È‰È·›ÙÂÚË ÔÏÏ·Ó‰È΋ ÙÔ˘˜ ÂΉԯ‹. ™ÙÔ Â›ÎÂÓÙÚÔ Ù˘ ÌÂϤÙ˘ ÙˆÓ Û‡ÓıÂÙˆÓ ·˘ÙÒÓ ÈÛÙÔÚÈÎÒÓ ÌÂÙ·Û¯ËÌ·ÙÈÛÌÒÓ Ù›ıÂÙ·È Ë Û¯¤ÛË fiÏ˘ Î·È ˘·›ıÚÔ˘. ∏ ‰È·‰Èηۛ· Ù˘ ÌÂÙ¿‚·Û˘ ÛÙÔÓ Î·ÈÙ·ÏÈÛÌfi ÛÙË ¢˘ÙÈ΋ ∂˘ÚÒË ÙÔÔıÂÙÂ›Ù·È ÈÛÙÔÚÈο ÛÙËÓ ÂÚ›Ô‰Ô ÌÂٷ͇ ÙÔ˘ 14Ô˘ Î·È ÙÔ˘ 18Ô˘ ·ÈÒÓ·. ∏ ÂÚ›Ô‰Ô˜ ·˘Ù‹ ÂÁηÈÓÈ¿˙ÂÙ·È Ì ÙËÓ ÎÚ›ÛË ÙÔ˘ ÊÂÔ˘‰·ÏÈÛÌÔ‡ ηٿ ÙÔn 14Ô ·ÈÒÓ·, Ô˘ ÛËÌ·ÙÔ‰ÔÙÂ›Ù·È ·fi ÙËÓ Î·Ù·ÎfiÚ˘ÊË ÙÒÛË Ù˘ ÁˆÚÁÈ΋˜ Î·È ‚ÈÔÙ¯ÓÈ΋˜ ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜, ÙËÓ ÂÍ¿ψÛË Ù˘ ª·‡Ú˘ ¶·ÓÒÏ˘, ÙË ‰ËÌÔÁÚ·ÊÈ΋ Û˘ÚÚ›ÎÓˆÛË, ÙËÓ ·Ô·ÛÙÈÎÔÔ›ËÛË Î·È ÙËÓ Î¿Ì„Ë ÙˆÓ ÂÌÔÚÈÎÒÓ Û˘Ó·ÏÏ·ÁÒÓ.1 ∞ÎÔÏÔ˘ı› ÌÈ· Ê¿ÛË ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈ΋˜ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈ΋˜ ·Ó¿Ù˘Í˘, Ë ÔÔ›· ÂÎÙ›ÓÂÙ·È Î·Ù¿ ÚÔÛ¤ÁÁÈÛË ·fi Ù· ̤۷ ÙÔ˘ 15Ô˘ ¤ˆ˜ Ù· ̤۷ ÙÔ˘ 17Ô˘ ·ÈÒÓ·2 Î·È ÚÔËÁÂ›Ù·È Ù˘ ÙÂÏÈ΋˜ ÂÈÎÚ¿ÙËÛ˘ ÙÔ˘ ηÈÙ·ÏÈÛÙÈÎÔ‡ ÙÚfiÔ˘ ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜. ™ÙÔ ‰È¿ÛÙËÌ· ·˘Ùfi Û˘ÓÙÂÏÂ›Ù·È Ë ÌÂÁ¿ÏË ¤ÍÔ‰Ô˜ ÙˆÓ ∂˘Úˆ·›ˆÓ ηٷÎÙËÙÒÓ Î·È ÂÌfiÚˆÓ ÛÙȘ πÓ‰›Â˜, ÙËÓ Õˆ ∞Ó·ÙÔÏ‹ Î·È ÙÔÓ ¡¤Ô ∫fiÛÌÔ Î·È Ô Û¯ËÌ·ÙÈÛÌfi˜ ÌÈ·˜ ·ÁÎfiÛÌÈ·˜ ·ÁÔÚ¿˜. ∆ËÓ ›‰È· ÂÔ¯‹ ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁÔ‡ÓÙ·È Ù· ÚÒÙ· ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈο Ú‹ÁÌ·Ù· ÛÙË ‚¿ÛË Î·È ÙÔ ÂÔÈÎÔ‰fiÌËÌ· ÙÔ˘ ÊÂÔ˘‰·ÏÈÎÔ‡ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎÔ‡ Û¯ËÌ·ÙÈÛÌÔ‡, Ù· ÔÔ›·, Û ȉÂÔÏÔÁÈÎfi Î·È ÔÏÈÙÈÎfi Â›‰Ô, ¤Ú¯ÔÓÙ·È ÁÈ·


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ÚÒÙË ÊÔÚ¿ ÛÙÔ ÚÔÛ΋ÓÈÔ Ì ÙË ªÂÙ·ÚÚ‡ıÌÈÛË. √È Î·ÈÙ·ÏÈÛÙÈΤ˜ Û¯¤ÛÂȘ ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜ ·Ú¯›˙Ô˘Ó ‚·ıÌÈ·›· Ó· ÂÈÎÚ·ÙÔ‡Ó. √È ÔÏÈÙÈΤ˜ ÂÍÂÏ›ÍÂȘ Ù˘ ÂÚÈfi‰Ô˘ ÂȉÈο ÛÙËÓ ÂÚÈÔ¯‹ ÙˆÓ ∫¿Ùˆ ÈÚÒÓ ÂÚÈÏ·Ì‚¿ÓÔ˘Ó Â˘‰È¿ÎÚÈÙ· ÛÙÔȯ›· ·ÛÙÈ΋˜ ∂·Ó¿ÛÙ·Û˘, fiˆ˜ ı· ·Ó·Ù˘¯ı› ÛÙË Û˘Ó¤¯ÂÈ·. £· Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· Á›ÓÂÈ ÂÎ ÙˆÓ ÚÔÙ¤ÚˆÓ ÌÈ· ‰È¢ÎÚ›ÓÈÛË Û¯ÂÙÈο Ì ÙȘ ÁˆÁÚ·ÊÈΤ˜ ÔÓÔ̷ۛ˜ Ô˘ ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔÈÔ‡ÓÙ·È ÛÙÔ Î›ÌÂÓÔ. ∏ ÂÚÁ·Û›· ÂÛÙÈ¿˙ÂÙ·È ÛÙÔÓ ÁˆÁÚ·ÊÈÎfi ¯ÒÚÔ ÙÔÓ ÔÔ›Ô Î·Ù·Ï·Ì‚¿ÓÂÈ ÙÔ ÛËÌÂÚÈÓfi ÎÚ¿ÙÔ˜ Ù˘ √ÏÏ·Ó‰›·˜, Ô˘ ‰ÈÂıÓÒ˜ ·ÔηÏÂ›Ù·È ∫¿Ùˆ ÃÒÚ˜. ∏ ÔÓÔÌ·Û›· ·˘Ù‹ Â›Ó·È Î·Ù·¯ÚËÛÙÈ΋, ηıÒ˜ ÈÛÙÔÚÈο ÛÙȘ ∫¿Ùˆ ÃÒÚ˜ Û˘ÁηٷϤÁÔÓÙ·È Â›Û˘ ÙÔ µ¤ÏÁÈÔ Î·È ¤Ó· ÙÌ‹Ì· Ù˘ µfiÚÂÈ·˜ °·ÏÏ›·˜. ∞fi ÙËÓ ¿ÏÏË ÏÂ˘Ú¿, Ë ¯Ú‹ÛË ÙÔ˘ fiÚÔ˘ «√ÏÏ·Ó‰›·» ÂÓ¤¯ÂÈ ÙÔÓ Î›Ó‰˘ÓÔ Û‡Á¯˘Û˘ Ì ÙËÓ ∂·Ú¯›· Ù˘ √ÏÏ·Ó‰›·˜, Ë ÔÔ›· ηχÙÂÈ ÌfiÓÔ ÙÔ ‰˘ÙÈÎfi ÙÌ‹Ì· Ù˘ ¯ÒÚ·˜. ™ÙÔ Î›ÌÂÓÔ ÔÈ ÔÓÔ̷ۛ˜ «µfiÚÂȘ ∫¿Ùˆ ÃÒÚ˜» Î·È «√ÏÏ·Ó‰›·» ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔÈÔ‡ÓÙ·È ·‰È·ÎÚ›Ùˆ˜ ÁÈ· Ó· ÔÚ›ÛÔ˘Ó ÙË ÁˆÁÚ·ÊÈ΋ ÂÈÎÚ¿ÙÂÈ· ÙÔ˘ Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓÔ˘ ÎÚ¿ÙÔ˘˜, ÂÓÒ fiÙ·Ó Á›ÓÂÙ·È ÏfiÁÔ˜ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ÂÈ̤ÚÔ˘˜ ‰ÈÔÈÎËÙÈ΋ ÌÔÓ¿‰· ÂÈÛÙÚ·Ù‡ÂÙ·È Ô fiÚÔ˜ «∂·Ú¯›· Ù˘ √ÏÏ·Ó‰›·˜».

∏ ª∂∆∞µ∞™∏ ™∆∏¡ √§§∞¡¢π∞ ∫∞π ∏ Ãøƒπ∫∏ ∆∏™ ∂∫ºƒ∞™∏ ªÂÏÂÙÒÓÙ·˜ ÙË Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤ÓË ÂÚ›ÙˆÛË ÙˆÓ µfiÚÂÈˆÓ ∫¿Ùˆ ÈÚÒÓ, ı· ›¯Â ÛËÌ·Û›· Ó· ÛÙ·ı› ηÓ›˜ Û ÔÚÈṲ̂ӷ ÎÔÌ‚Èο ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈο Î·È ÔÏÈÙÈο ÁÂÁÔÓfiÙ· Ù˘ ÔÏÏ·Ó‰È΋˜ ÈÛÙÔÚ›·˜, Ù· ÔÔ›· ·Ú·¤ÌÔ˘Ó Û ÂȉÈο ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚÈÛÙÈο Ù˘ ÈÛÙÔÚÈ΋˜ ‰È·‰Èηۛ·˜ ‰È·ÌfiÚʈÛ˘ ÙÔ˘ Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤ÓÔ˘ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎÔ‡ Û¯ËÌ·ÙÈÛÌÔ‡. Œ¯ÂÈ ÓfiËÌ· Ó· ÂÈÌ›ÓÂÈ Î·Ó›˜ ÌfiÓÔ ÛÙ· ÛËÌ›· ÂΛӷ Ô˘ ÂÈÎÔÓÔÁÚ·ÊÔ‡Ó ÙËÓ È‰ÈÔÌÔÚÊ›· Ù˘ ÔÏÏ·Ó‰È΋˜ ÂÚ›ÙˆÛ˘, ‰ËÏ·‰‹ ÙȘ ȉȷÈÙÂÚfiÙËÙ˜ ‹ ÙȘ ·ÔÎÏ›ÛÂȘ ·fi ÙȘ ÁÂÓÈΤ˜ ‰ÔÌÈΤ˜ ‰ÈÂÚÁ·Û›Â˜ Ù˘ ÌÂÙ¿‚·Û˘ ÛÙË ¢˘ÙÈ΋ ∂˘ÚÒË Û˘ÓÔÏÈο. §›ÁÔ ÌÂÙ¿ ÙÔ ¤ÙÔ˜ 1000 ÔÈ ÂȉÚÔ̤˜ ÙˆÓ µ›ÎÈÓÁΘ ÛÙËÓ ÂÚÈÔ¯‹ ÙˆÓ ∫¿Ùˆ ÈÚÒÓ ÛÙ·Ì·ÙÔ‡Ó ÔÚÈÛÙÈο. ∆ËÓ ÂÚ›Ô‰Ô ·˘Ù‹ ‚Ú›ÛÎÔÓÙ·È Û Ï‹ÚË ÂͤÏÈÍË ÔÈ, Û ÌÂÁ¿ÏÔ ‚·ıÌfi ·Ú¿ÏÏËϘ, ‰È·‰Èηۛ˜ ÂίÚÈÛÙÈ·ÓÈÛÌÔ‡ Î·È ÊÂÔ˘‰·ÏÔÔ›ËÛ˘ ÙˆÓ µfiÚÂÈˆÓ ∫¿Ùˆ ÈÚÒÓ, ÔÈ Ôԛ˜ ÔÏÔÎÏËÚÒÓÔÓÙ·È Ì¤¯ÚÈ ÙÔÓ 13Ô ·ÈÒÓ· ·ÎfiÌ· Î·È ÛÙȘ ÈÔ Î·ı˘ÛÙÂÚË̤Ó˜ ÂÚÈÔ¯¤˜ (Lambert 1971: 64). ™ÙËÓ ›‰È· ÂÚ›Ô‰Ô ÙÔÔıÂÙÂ›Ù·È Ë Á¤ÓÓËÛË ÙÔ˘ ÔÏÏ·Ó‰ÈÎÔ‡ Û˘ÓÙ¯ÓÈ·ÎÔ‡ Û˘ÛÙ‹Ì·-


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ÙÔ˜, ‚·ÛÈÎfi˜ ¿ÍÔÓ·˜ ÙÔ˘ ÔÔ›Ô˘ ˘‹ÚÍ ÂÍ·Ú¯‹˜ Ô ÎÏ¿‰Ô˜ Ù˘ ˘Ê·ÓÙÔ˘ÚÁ›·˜ Î·È ÂÌÔÚ›·˜ ˘Ê·ÛÌ¿ÙˆÓ. ∏ ·Ó¿Î·Ì„Ë ÙÔ˘ ÂÌÔÚ›Ô˘ ·ÔÙÂÏ› Ì›· ·fi ÙȘ ·ÚȘ fi„ÂȘ ÙˆÓ ÌÂÙ·Û¯ËÌ·ÙÈÛÌÒÓ Ù˘ ÂÚÈfi‰Ô˘. ¶¤Ú·Ó ÙÔ˘ ÔÚÁ·ÓÈÎÔ‡ ÚfiÏÔ˘ Ô˘ ÔÈ ÂÌÔÚÈΤ˜ Û˘Ó·ÏÏ·Á¤˜ η٤¯Ô˘Ó Ô‡Ùˆ˜ ‹ ¿Ïψ˜ ÛÙÔ ÂÛˆÙÂÚÈÎfi ÙÔ˘ ÊÂÔ˘‰·ÏÈÎÔ‡ ÙÚfiÔ˘ ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜ (ª¤ÚÈÓÁÎÙÔÓ 1986: 277), ˘¿Ú¯Ô˘Ó Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤ӷ ÈÛÙÔÚÈο ÂÚÈÛÙ·ÙÈο Ô˘ η٤ÛÙËÛ·Ó ÙȘ Û˘Óı‹Î˜ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ·Ó¿Î·Ì„Ë ·˘Ù‹ ÈÔ ÚfiÛÊÔÚ˜: Ë Ï‹ÍË ÙˆÓ ÂȉÚÔÌÒÓ, Ë ÛÙÔȯÂÈ҉˘ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋ ÂÓÔÔ›ËÛË, Ë ·ÍÈÔÛËÌ›ˆÙË ‰ËÌÔÁÚ·ÊÈ΋ ·‡ÍËÛË Î·È Ë ÂÌÔÚÈ΋ Â·Ó·Û‡Ó‰ÂÛË Ì ÙËÓ ∞Ó·ÙÔÏ‹, Ë ÔÔ›·, ÛÙËÓ ÂÚÈÔ¯‹ Ô˘ Ì·˜ ÂӉȷʤÚÂÈ, ‰ÚÔÌÔÏÔÁÂ›Ù·È Î˘Ú›ˆ˜ ̤۷ ·fi ÙÔ ÁÂÚÌ·ÓÈÎfi ÂÌfiÚÈÔ Ù˘ µ·ÏÙÈ΋˜ Î·È Ì ‚·ÛÈÎfi ÎÔÚÌfi ÙË Ã·ÓÛ·ÙÈ΋ ŒÓˆÛË (Lambert 1971: 137). ™Â ¯ˆÚÈÎfi Â›Â‰Ô ı· ÌÔÚÔ‡Û ·Ê·ÈÚÂÙÈο Î·È ÂÎ ÙˆÓ ÚÔÙ¤ÚˆÓ Ó· ÂÈˆı› fiÙÈ ·fi ÙÔÓ 14Ô ¤ˆ˜ ÙÔÓ 17Ô ·ÈÒÓ· ·Ú·ÙËÚÂ›Ù·È ÌÈ· ÛÙ·‰È·Î‹ ÌÂٷΛÓËÛË ÙÔ˘ ΤÓÙÚÔ˘ ‚¿ÚÔ˘˜ Ù˘ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌ›·˜, Î·È Î·Ù’ Â¤ÎÙ·ÛË Ù˘ ·ÛÙÈÎÔÔ›ËÛ˘, ÙˆÓ ∫¿Ùˆ ÈÚÒÓ ·fi ÙÔ ¡fiÙÔ ÚÔ˜ ÙÔ µÔÚÚ¿ Î·È ·fi ÙËÓ ∞Ó·ÙÔÏ‹ ÚÔ˜ ÙË ¢‡ÛË. ªÈ·, ¤ÛÙˆ ·‰ÚÔÌÂÚ‹˜, ÂÚÈÁÚ·Ê‹ Ù˘ ÂͤÏÈ͢ Ù˘ ÂÌÔÚÈ΋˜ ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ·˜ Î·È Ù˘ ‚ÈÔÙ¯ÓÈ΋˜ ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜ ·fi ÙË ÌÈ· ÏÂ˘Ú¿ Î·È ÙˆÓ ÔÏÈÙÈÎÒÓ Î·È È‰ÂÔÏÔÁÈÎÒÓ ÌÂÙ·Û¯ËÌ·ÙÈÛÌÒÓ ·fi ÙËÓ ¿ÏÏË ÌÔÚ› Ó· ·Ó·‰Â›ÍÂÈ ÔÚÈṲ̂Ó˜ ·fi ÙȘ ‚·ÛÈΤ˜ ·Èٛ˜ ÙÔ˘ Ê·ÈÓÔ̤ÓÔ˘ ·˘ÙÔ‡. ∏ ‰ÔÌ‹ ÙˆÓ ·Ó·ÁÂÓÓËı¤ÓÙˆÓ ÂÌÔÚÈÎÒÓ ‰ÈÎÙ‡ˆÓ ·ÔÙÂÏ› ÎÂÓÙÚÈÎfi ÚÔÛ‰ÈÔÚÈÛÙÈÎfi ·Ú¿ÁÔÓÙ· Ù˘ ¯ˆÚÈ΋˜ ¤ÎÊÚ·Û˘ Ù˘ ‰˘ÙÈÎÔÂ˘Úˆ·˚΋˜ ÚˆÙ·Ú¯È΋˜ ·ÛÙÈÎÔÔ›ËÛ˘. √ ¶ÈÚ¤Ó Û¯ÔÏÈ¿˙ÂÈ ˆ˜ «¤Ó·˜ ¯¿ÚÙ˘ Ù˘ ∂˘ÚÒ˘, fiÔ˘ ı· ÙÔÓÈ˙fiÙ·Ó Ë Û¯ÂÙÈ΋ ÛËÌ·Û›· ÙˆÓ ÂÌÔÚÈÎÒÓ Ô‰ÒÓ, ı· Û˘Ó¤ÈÙÂ, ۯ‰fiÓ ·fiÏ˘Ù·, Ì ÌÈ· ¯·ÚÙÔÁÚ¿ÊËÛË Ù˘ Û¯ÂÙÈ΋˜ ÛËÌ·Û›·˜ ÙˆÓ ·ÛÙÈÎÒÓ Û˘ÁÎÚÔÙËÌ¿ÙˆÓ» (¶ÈÚ¤Ó 2003: 145). ∞ÎfiÌ· ÎÈ ·Ó ·˘Ùfi ‰ÂÓ ÈÛ¯‡ÂÈ ·fiÏ˘Ù· ÁÈ· ÙȘ ∫¿Ùˆ ÃÒÚ˜, ·Ó·ÌÊ›‚ÔÏ· ÂÍ·ÎÔÏÔ˘ı› Ó· ¤¯ÂÈ È‰È·›ÙÂÚË ÛËÌ·Û›· ÁÈ· ÙËÓ Î·Ù·ÓfiËÛË ÌÈ·˜ ÛÂÈÚ¿˜ ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈÎÒÓ ÈÛÙÔÚÈÎÒÓ ÙÔÌÒÓ ÛÙË ¯ˆÚÈ΋ ·Ó¿Ù˘ÍË Ù˘ ÂÚÈÔ¯‹˜. ∫·Ù¿ ÙÔ 13Ô ·ÈÒÓ·, fiÙ·Ó ÛÙȘ ∫¿Ùˆ ÃÒÚ˜ ÂÌÊ·Ó›˙ÔÓÙ·È ÔÈ ÚÒÙÔÈ ÔÈÎÈÛÌÔ› Ô˘ ·ÔÎÙÔ‡Ó ‰ÈηÈÒÌ·Ù· fiÏ˘, ÙÔ ‰›ÎÙ˘Ô ÙˆÓ ÂÌÔÚÈÎÒÓ ‰ÚfiÌˆÓ Ù˘ ∂˘ÚÒ˘ ¤¯ÂÈ ˆ˜ Â›ÎÂÓÙÚÔ ÙȘ ÂÌÔÚÔ·ÓËÁ‡ÚÂȘ Ù˘ ‰ȿ‰·˜ Ù˘ ∫·Ì·Ó›·˜ ÛÙË ÛËÌÂÚÈÓ‹ °·ÏÏ›· (∆ÚÔ˘¿, §·Óȇ, ª·Ú Û˘Ú øÌ), ÔÈ Ôԛ˜ ÙËÓ ÂÔ¯‹ ÂΛÓË ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁÔ‡Ó Ù·˘Ùfi¯ÚÔÓ· ˆ˜ ˘ÔÙ˘Ò‰Ë ¯ÚËÌ·ÙÈÛÙ‹ÚÈ· ÂÌÔÚÂ˘Ì¿ÙˆÓ (¶ÈÚ¤Ó 2003: 145 ). ™ÙË Ê¿ÛË ·˘Ù‹ Ë ·ÛÙÈ΋ ·Ó¿Ù˘ÍË ÙˆÓ ∫¿Ùˆ ÈÚÒÓ ÂÓÙÔ›˙ÂÙ·È Î·Ù¿ ‚¿ÛË ÛÙË ºÏ¿Ó‰Ú·, Ì ÙË ªÚ˘˙ Ó· ·›˙ÂÈ ÚˆÙ·ÁˆÓÈÛÙÈÎfi ÚfiÏÔ, ÁÂÁÔ-


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Ófi˜ Ô˘ Èı·ÓfiÓ Ó· Û˘Ó‰¤ÂÙ·È Î·È Ì ÙË ÁÂÈÙÓ›·ÛË Ù˘ ÂÚÈÔ¯‹˜ Ì ÙÔ˘˜ ÙfiÔ˘˜ ÙˆÓ ÂÌÔÚÔ·ÓËÁ‡ÚˆÓ. ∫·Ù¿ ÙÔÓ 14Ô Î·È ÙÔÓ 15Ô ·ÈÒÓ·, ˆÛÙfiÛÔ, Û˘ÓÙÂÏÔ‡ÓÙ·È ‚·ıȤ˜ ·ÏÏ·Á¤˜ ÛÙÔÓ ÂÌÔÚÈÎfi ¯¿ÚÙË Ù˘ ∂˘ÚÒ˘. ∆· ·ÚÈ· ÂÌÔÚÈο ‰›ÎÙ˘· ÌÂÙ·ÙÚ¤ÔÓÙ·È ·fi Ô‰Èο Û ˘‰¿ÙÈÓ·-ı·Ï¿ÛÛÈ· Î·È ÔÙ¿ÌÈ·. ∆·˘Ùfi¯ÚÔÓ·, ·ÔÎÙÔ‡Ó ¤Ó·Ó ÔÏ˘ÎÂÓÙÚÈÎfi ¯·Ú·ÎÙ‹Ú·, Ô ÔÔ›Ô˜ ·ÚıÚÒÓÂÙ·È Á‡Úˆ ·fi ÙË µÂÓÂÙ›· Î·È ÙË °¤ÓÔ‚· ÛÙÔ ¡fiÙÔ Î·È ÙȘ fiÏÂȘ Ù˘ ÿÓÛ·˜, ÙË ªÚ˘˙ ηÈ, ·ÚÁfiÙÂÚ·, ÙËÓ ∞Ì‚¤ÚÛ· ÛÙÔ µÔÚÚ¿. √ ƒ‹ÓÔ˜ ·Ó·‰ÂÈÎÓ‡ÂÙ·È Û ‚·ÛÈ΋ ·ÚÙËÚ›· ÙÔ˘ ¯ÂÚÛ·›Ô˘ ÂÌÔÚ›Ô˘. √È ·Ó·Î·Ù·Ù¿ÍÂȘ ·˘Ù¤˜ ¢ÓfiËÛ·Ó ÂӉ¯Ô̤ӈ˜ ÙȘ ÂÌÔÚÈΤ˜ fiÏÂȘ ÙˆÓ µfiÚÂÈˆÓ ∫¿Ùˆ ÈÚÒÓ ÂȘ ‚¿ÚÔ˜ ÙˆÓ ·ÓÙÈÛÙÔ›¯ˆÓ ÙÔ˘˜ ÛÙȘ ¡fiÙȘ ∫¿Ùˆ ÃÒÚ˜. º·›ÓÂÙ·È, ˆÛÙfiÛÔ, fiÙÈ Ë ÛÙ·‰È·Î‹ ÌÂÙ¿ıÂÛË ÙÔ˘ ΤÓÙÚÔ˘ ‚¿ÚÔ˘˜ Ù˘ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈ΋˜ ·Ó¿Ù˘Í˘ ·fi ÙË ºÏ¿Ó‰Ú· ÛÙË µÚ·‚¿ÓÙË Î·È ÛÙË Û˘Ó¤¯ÂÈ· ÛÙËÓ √ÏÏ·Ó‰›· ˘‹ÚÍ ηٿ ·ÚÈÔ ÏfiÁÔ ·ÔÙ¤ÏÂÛÌ· ÙÔ˘ ·ÓÙ·ÁˆÓÈÛÌÔ‡ ÛÙÔ ‰›Ô Ù˘ ˘Ê·ÓÙÔ˘ÚÁ›·˜, ηıÒ˜ Î·È ÌÈ·˜ ÛÂÈÚ¿˜ ÔÏÈÙÈÎÒÓ ÂÍÂϛ͈Ó, fiˆ˜ ı· Á›ÓÂÈ ÈÔ Ê·ÓÂÚfi ÛÙË Û˘Ó¤¯ÂÈ·. √È Û¯¤ÛÂȘ Ì ÙË Ã·ÓÛ·ÙÈ΋ ŒÓˆÛË3 ·ÔÙÂÏÔ‡Ó ¤Ó·Ó ·fi ÙÔ˘˜ ‚·ÛÈÎÔ‡˜ ·Ú¿ÁÔÓÙ˜ Ô˘ ηıÔÚ›˙Ô˘Ó ÙË Û¯¤ÛË ‰‡Ó·Ì˘ ÌÂٷ͇ ÙˆÓ ÔÏÏ·Ó‰ÈÎÒÓ ÂÌÔÚÈÎÒÓ fiÏÂˆÓ ÙÔ˘ ⁄ÛÙÂÚÔ˘ ªÂÛ·›ˆÓ·. √È ÂÚÈÛÛfiÙÂÚ˜ fiÏÂȘ ÙˆÓ ·Ó·ÙÔÏÈÎÒÓ µfiÚÂÈˆÓ ∫¿Ùˆ ÈÚÒÓ ÚÔÛ¯ˆÚÔ‡Ó ÛÙË Ã¿ÓÛ·. H ·ÎÌ‹ ÙÔ˘ ÊÚÈÛÈ·ÎÔ‡ ÂÌÔÚ›Ô˘, fiˆ˜ Î·È ÙÔ˘ ÂÌÔÚ›Ô˘ ÙˆÓ ÏÂÁfiÌÂÓˆÓ «fiÏÂˆÓ ÙÔ˘ ÕÈÛÂÏ» (Gutkind 1971: 15) _Kampen, Zwolle, Zutphen, Deventer_ Û˘ÓÙÂÏÂ›Ù·È ÛÙÔ˘˜ ÎfiÏÔ˘˜ Ù˘. ∞ÓÙÈı¤Ùˆ˜, ÔÈ fiÏÂȘ ÙˆÓ Â·Ú¯ÈÒÓ Ù˘ √ÏÏ·Ó‰›·˜ Î·È Ù˘ ∑ËÏ·Ó‰›·˜ ·Ó·Ù‡ÛÛÔ˘Ó ÙËÓ ÂÌÔÚÈ΋ ÙÔ˘˜ ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ· ¤Íˆ Î·È ÂÓ¿ÓÙÈ· ÛÙËÓ ŒÓˆÛË, ÁÂÁÔÓfi˜ Ô˘ ÙȘ ηٷ‰Èο˙ÂÈ ÛÙËÓ ·Ê¿ÓÂÈ· ̤¯ÚÈ Ù· ̤۷ ÙÔ˘ 14Ô˘ ·ÈÒÓ·. ∞fi ÂΛÓË ÙËÓ ÂÚ›Ô‰Ô Î·È ÌÂÙ¿, ˆÛÙfiÛÔ, ÔÈ fiÏÂȘ Ù˘ ¢‡Û˘ ·Ó·Ù‡ÛÛÔÓÙ·È ·ÏÌ·Ùˆ‰Ò˜ ÂȘ ‚¿ÚÔ˜ ÙˆÓ ·Ó·ÙÔÏÈÎÒÓ. ∫Ú›ÛÈÌÔ ‰›Ô Ù˘ ·ÏÏ·Á‹˜ ÙˆÓ Û˘Û¯ÂÙÈÛÌÒÓ ·ÔÙ¤ÏÂÛ ÙÔ ÂÌfiÚÈÔ Ú¤Áη˜. √ ÂÎÙÔÈÛÌfi˜ ÙˆÓ fiÏÂˆÓ Ù˘ ÷ÓÛ·ÙÈ΋˜ ŒÓˆÛ˘ ·fi ·˘Ù¤˜ Ù˘ ¢˘ÙÈ΋˜ √ÏÏ·Ó‰›·˜ Û˘Ó‰¤ÂÙ·È ÂÓ Ì¤ÚÂÈ Ì ÙËÓ Ù¯ÓÈ΋ ÚfiÔ‰Ô (Ù¯ÓÔÏÔÁÈΤ˜ ηÈÓÔÙƠ̂˜ ÛÙÔÓ ÔÏÏ·Ó‰ÈÎfi ·ÏÈ¢ÙÈÎfi ÛÙfiÏÔ Î·È ÂÍÔÏÈÛÌfi, Ó¤· ̤ıÔ‰Ô˜ Û˘ÓÙ‹ÚËÛ˘ „·ÚÈÒÓ), ηıÒ˜ Î·È ÌÂ Ù˘¯·›· Ê˘ÛÈο ÂÚÈÛÙ·ÙÈο, fiˆ˜ Ë ÌÂÙ·Ó¿ÛÙ¢ÛË ÙˆÓ ÎÔ·‰ÈÒÓ Ù˘ Ú¤Áη˜ ·fi ÙË µ·ÏÙÈ΋ ÛÙË µfiÚÂÈ· ı¿Ï·ÛÛ·. °È· ÙËÓ Î·Ù·ÓfiËÛË Ù˘ ȉȷÈÙÂÚfiÙËÙ·˜ Ù˘ ÂÚ›ÙˆÛ˘ Ù˘ fiÏ˘ ÙˆÓ ∫¿Ùˆ ÈÚÒÓ Â›Ó·È Ôχ ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈÎfi Ó· ÏËÊı› ˘fi„Ë Ô ÂÍ·Ú¯‹˜ ÂÓÈÛ¯˘Ì¤ÓÔ˜ (Û˘ÁÎÚÈÙÈο Ì ÙËÓ ˘fiÏÔÈË ‰˘ÙÈ΋ ∂˘ÚÒË) ÚfiÏÔ˜ Ô˘ ‰È·‰Ú·Ì·Ù›˙ÂÈ Ë ‚ÈÔÙ¯ӛ· ÛÙË ÛÊ·›Ú· Ù˘ ÔÏÏ·Ó‰È΋˜ ·ÛÙÈ΋˜ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌ›·˜, fiˆ˜ ÙÔÓ›˙ÂÈ Ô Van der


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Wee (Van der Wee 1988: 319). ∏ ·˘ÍË̤ÓË ‚·Ú‡ÙËÙ· Ù˘ ‚ÈÔÙ¯ÓÈ΋˜ ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜ Û˘Ó·ÚıÚÒÓÂÙ·È Ì ÌÈ· Û¯ÂÙÈο ÚÒÈÌË ·Ó¿Ù˘ÍË Ù˘ ÌÈÛıˆÙ‹˜ ÂÚÁ·Û›·˜, Ë ÔÔ›· Â›Ó·È ·ÚÎÂÙ¿ ‰È·‰Â‰Ô̤ÓË, Û ÌÈ· ¤ÛÙˆ ˘ÔÙ˘Ò‰Ë ÌÔÚÊ‹, ‹‰Ë ·fi ÙÔÓ 13Ô ·ÈÒÓ·. √ ÛÏÙÔÓ, Ì¿ÏÈÛÙ·, ˘ÔÛÙËÚ›˙ÂÈ fiÙÈ ÛÙȘ ·Ú¯¤˜ ÙÔ˘ 14Ô˘ ·ÈÒÓ· ÔÈ ∫¿Ùˆ ÃÒÚ˜ ‚Ú›ÛÎÔÓÙ·È ÛÙÔ Î·ÙÒÊÏÈ ÙÔ˘ ηÈÙ·ÏÈÛÙÈÎÔ‡ ÙÚfiÔ˘ ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜, ·fi ÙËÓ ¿Ô„Ë Ù˘ Û˘ÁΤÓÙÚˆÛ˘ ÎÂÊ·Ï·›Ô˘ Î·È ÂÚÁ·Û›·˜ Î·È Ù˘ ÔÚÁ¿ÓˆÛ˘ Ù˘ ÚÔÌ‹ıÂÈ·˜ ÚÒÙ˘ ‡Ï˘ Î·È ÒÏËÛ˘ ÙÔ˘ ÙÂÏÂȈ̤ÓÔ˘ ÂÌÔÚ‡̷ÙÔ˜ ( ÛÏÙÔÓ 1986: 226). ∆Ô ÁÈ·Ù› Ë ‰È·ÏÂÎÙÈ΋ ·ÓÙ›ıÂÛË ÌÂٷ͇ ÊÂÔ˘‰·ÏÈÎÒÓ Î·È ÎÂÊ·Ï·ÈÔÎÚ·ÙÈÎÒÓ ·Ú·ÁˆÁÈÎÒÓ Û¯¤ÛÂˆÓ Ï‡ıËΠ˘¤Ú ÙˆÓ ÚÒÙˆÓ ÛÙȘ ∫¿Ùˆ ÃÒÚ˜ ÙÔ˘ 14Ô˘ ·ÈÒÓ· Î·È ˘¤Ú ÙˆÓ ‰Â‡ÙÂÚˆÓ ÛÙËÓ ∞ÁÁÏ›· ÙÔ˘ 17Ô˘ Â›Ó·È ÌÈ· Ôχ ÌÂÁ¿ÏË ÈÛÙÔÚ›·. ∆Ô Û›ÁÔ˘ÚÔ, ¿ÓÙˆ˜, Â›Ó·È fiÙÈ Ë ÚÒÈÌË ·Ó¿Ù˘ÍË Ù˘ ‚ÈÔÌ˯·ÓÈ΋˜ ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜ ¤¯ÂÈ ÌÈ· ÛÂÈÚ¿ ·fi ·ÍÈÔÛËÌ›ˆÙ˜ Û˘Ó¤ÂȘ ÛÙÔ ¯·Ú·ÎÙ‹Ú· ÙÔ˘ Û˘ÓÙ¯ÓÈ·ÎÔ‡ Û˘ÛÙ‹Ì·ÙÔ˜, ÙËÓ ·ÛÙÈ΋ ·Ó¿Ù˘ÍË Î·È ÙË ¯ˆÚÈ΋ ‰ÔÌ‹ ÙˆÓ µfiÚÂÈˆÓ ∫¿Ùˆ ÈÚÒÓ. √ Van der Wee ‰È·ÎÚ›ÓÂÈ ÛÙȘ ∫¿Ùˆ ÃÒÚ˜ ÙÔ˘ ªÂÛ·›ˆÓ· ÙȘ ÂÍ‹˜ ÙÚÂȘ ηÙËÁÔڛ˜ Ù¯ÓÈÙÒÓ (Van der Wee 1988: 320): ñ ¶·Ú·ÁˆÁÔ› ·ÏÒÓ ÚÔ˚fiÓÙˆÓ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ÙÔÈ΋ ·ÁÔÚ¿ (ÛȉËÚÔ˘ÚÁÔ›, ÊÔ˘ÚÓ¿Úˉ˜, ˙˘ıÔÔÈÔ›, Ù·ËÙÔ˘ÚÁÔ› ÎÏ.), ÔÚÁ·ÓˆÌ¤ÓÔÈ ÛÙȘ Â›ÛË̘ Û˘ÓÙ¯ӛ˜. ñ ∂ȉÈÎÂ˘Ì¤ÓÔÈ ·Ú·ÁˆÁÔ› ÚÔ˚fiÓÙˆÓ ÔÏ˘ÙÂÏ›·˜, ηٿ ·ÚÈÔ ÏfiÁÔ ˘Ê·ÛÌ¿ÙˆÓ ˘„ËÏ‹˜ ÔÈfiÙËÙ·˜, Ù· ÔÔ›· ·¢ı‡ÓÔÓÙ·È ÙfiÛÔ ÛÙËÓ ÙÔÈ΋, fiÛÔ Î·È ÛÙËÓ Â͈ÙÂÚÈ΋ ·ÁÔÚ¿. Ÿˆ˜ Î·È ÔÈ Ù¯ӛÙ˜ Ù˘ ÚÒÙ˘ ηÙËÁÔÚ›·˜, Â›Ó·È ÔÚÁ·ÓˆÌ¤ÓÔÈ ÛÙȘ Â›ÛË̘, ·Ó·ÁÓˆÚÈṲ̂Ó˜ ·fi ÙËÓ ·ÛÙÈ΋ ÎÔÈÓfiÙËÙ·, Û˘ÓÙ¯ӛ˜. ñ ¶·Ú·ÁˆÁÔ› ÌË Ù˘ÔÔÈËÌ¤ÓˆÓ ÚÔ˚fiÓÙˆÓ, ÚÔÔÚÈÛÌ¤ÓˆÓ Î˘Ú›ˆ˜ ÁÈ· ÂÍ·ÁˆÁ¤˜. √È Ù¯ӛÙ˜ ·˘Ù‹˜ Ù˘ ηÙËÁÔÚ›·˜ ÂÎÚÔÛˆÔ‡Ó ÙËÓ ˆ˜ ¤Ó· ‚·ıÌfi ÂχıÂÚË ·fi Ù· ÚfiÙ˘· ÙˆÓ Û˘ÓÙ¯ÓÈÒÓ ‚ÈÔÙ¯ӛ·, ·Ó·Ù‡ÛÛÔÓÙ·˜, ·Ú¯Èο ÙÔ˘Ï¿¯ÈÛÙÔÓ, ÙË ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ¿ ÙÔ˘˜ ¤Íˆ Î·È Û˘¯Ó¿ ÂÓ¿ÓÙÈ· ÛÙȘ Â›ÛË̘ Û˘ÓÙ¯ӛ˜. ∏ ÂÚÁ·Û›· ÙÔ˘˜ Â›Ó·È ·ÓÂȉ›Î¢ÙË, ·ÚÔ˘ÛÈ¿˙ÂÈ, fï˜, Û˘ÁÎÚÈÙÈο ·˘ÍË̤ÓË ·Ú·ÁˆÁÈÎfiÙËÙ·, ÁÂÁÔÓfi˜ Ô˘ ÔÊ›ÏÂÙ·È Û ¤Ó·Ó οˆ˜ ÈÔ ÚÔËÁ̤ÓÔ Ù¯ÓÈÎfi ηٷÌÂÚÈÛÌfi. ∫·È Û ·˘Ù‹ ÙËÓ Î·ÙËÁÔÚ›· ÎÏÂȉ› ·ÔÙÂÏ› Ô ÎÏ¿‰Ô˜ Ù˘ ˘Ê·ÓÙÔ˘ÚÁ›·˜, Î·È Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤ӷ ÔÈ ÌÔÓ¿‰Â˜ ·Ú·Û΢‹˜ ÊÙËÓÒÓ ˘Ê·ÛÌ¿ÙˆÓ.


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∂›Ó·È Ê·ÓÂÚfi fiÙÈ Ô ÙÚ›ÙÔ˜ ÎÏ¿‰Ô˜ Ù˘ ‚ÈÔÙ¯ÓÈ΋˜ ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜, fiÓÙ·˜ ·Ú¯Èο ·ÓÂÍ¿ÚÙËÙÔ˜ ·fi ÙÔ˘˜ Û˘ÓÙ¯ÓÈ·ÎÔ‡˜ ÂÚÈÔÚÈÛÌÔ‡˜, ·ÔÙÂÏ› ÙÔ ÚÔÓÔÌÈ·Îfi ‰›Ô Â·Ó·ÛÙÈÎÔÔ›ËÛ˘ ÙˆÓ ·Ú·ÁˆÁÈÎÒÓ Û¯¤ÛˆÓ. ªÂ ·˘Ù‹ ÙËÓ ¤ÓÓÔÈ· ı· ÌÔÚÔ‡Û ӷ ÂÈˆı› fiÙÈ Ë ÂÈÛ‰Ô¯‹ ÙˆÓ ÔÚÁ·ÓÒÛÂˆÓ ÙˆÓ Ù¯ÓÈÙÒÓ Ù˘ ÙÚ›Ù˘ ηÙËÁÔÚ›·˜ ÛÙÔ Û˘ÓÙ¯ÓÈ·Îfi Û‡ÛÙËÌ·, ·ÓÂÍ·Úًو˜ ÙÔ˘ fiÛÔ ËÚˆÈο ηٷÎÙ‹ıËΠ‹ ÙÔ˘ fiÛÔ ‚ÂÏÙ›ˆÛ ÙÔ˘˜ fiÚÔ˘˜ ‰È·‚›ˆÛ˘ ÙˆÓ ÌÂÏÒÓ Ù˘, ¤·ÈÍ ·ÓÙÈÎÂÈÌÂÓÈο ·ÓÙȉڷÛÙÈÎfi ÚfiÏÔ ÛÙËÓ ÔÚ›· ÂͤÏÈ͢ ÙÔ˘ ˘fi ÌÂϤÙË ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎÔ‡ Û¯ËÌ·ÙÈÛÌÔ‡ ÚÔ˜ ÙÔÓ Î·ÈÙ·ÏÈÛÙÈÎfi ÙÚfiÔ ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜. ∏ Û¯¤ÛË ÌÂٷ͇ ÙˆÓ Ù¯ÓÈÙÒÓ ÙÔ˘ ‰Â‡ÙÂÚÔ˘ Î·È ÙÔ˘ ÙÚ›ÙÔ˘ ÎÏ¿‰Ô˘, fiˆ˜ ·ÚıÚÒÓÂÙ·È Ì ÙË ÁÂÓÈÎfiÙÂÚË ·ÓÙ›ıÂÛË ·Ó¿ÌÂÛ· Û Ù¯ӛÙ˜ Î·È ÂÌfiÚÔ˘˜, Ê·›ÓÂÙ·È ˆ˜ ‰È·‰Ú·Ì·Ù›˙ÂÈ Âͤ¯ÔÓÙ· ÚfiÏÔ ÛÙËÓ ÔÚ›· Ù˘ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈ΋˜ ·Ó¿Ù˘Í˘ Î·È Ù˘ ÂͤÏÈ͢ ÙˆÓ ·Ú·ÁˆÁÈÎÒÓ Û¯¤ÛˆÓ, ηıÒ˜ Î·È ÛÙË ‰È·ÌfiÚʈÛË ÙÔ˘ ¯¿ÚÙË Ù˘ ÔÏÏ·Ó‰È΋˜ ·ÛÙÈÎÔÔ›ËÛ˘, fiÛÔ ÎÈ ·Ó ·˘Ùfi ‰ÂÓ Á›ÓÂÙ·È Ì ‡ÎÔÏ· ÔÚ·Ùfi ÙÚfiÔ. ∏ ·ÓÙ›ıÂÛË ÌÂٷ͇ ÂȉÈÎÂ˘Ì¤Ó˘ Î·È ·ÓÂȉ›Î¢Ù˘ ÂÚÁ·Û›·˜ ·Ó¿ÁÂÙ·È Û ÙÂÏÈ΋ ·Ó¿Ï˘ÛË ÛÙËÓ ·ÓÙ›ıÂÛË ÌÂٷ͇ fiÏ˘ Î·È ˘·›ıÚÔ˘. ∆Ô Ê·ÈÓfiÌÂÓÔ Ù˘ Ì·ÓÈÊ·ÎÙÔ‡Ú·˜ Ù˘ ˘·›ıÚÔ˘ ÂÌÊ·Ó›˙ÂÙ·È ÛÙȘ ∫¿Ùˆ ÃÒÚ˜ ·fi ÙÔÓ 15Ô ·ÈÒÓ· ‹‰Ë, ‰‡Ô ·ÈÒÓ˜ ÓˆÚ›ÙÂÚ· ·’ fi,ÙÈ ÛÙËÓ ˘fiÏÔÈË ¢˘ÙÈ΋ ∂˘ÚÒË (Van der Wee 1988: 346). ∆ËÓ ›‰È· ÂÚ›Ô‰Ô ·Ú·ÙËÚÂ›Ù·È ÌÈ· Î¿Ì„Ë Ù˘ ÁˆÚÁ›·˜,4 Ë ÔÔ›· ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁ› ¤Ó· ÏÂfiÓ·ÛÌ· ·Ú·ÁˆÁÈÎÔ‡ ÏËı˘ÛÌÔ‡ Ù˘ ˘·›ıÚÔ˘. ∆Ô ÊÙËÓfi ·ÓÂȉ›Î¢ÙÔ ÂÚÁ·ÙÈÎfi ‰˘Ó·ÌÈÎfi Î·È ÙÔ Î·ıÂÛÙÒ˜ ·ÓÂÍ·ÚÙËÛ›·˜ ·fi ÙȘ Û˘ÓÙ¯ӛ˜ ¤ÏÎÂÈ ÙȘ ·Ú·‰ÔÛȷΤ˜ ‚ÈÔÙ¯ÓÈΤ˜ ÌÔÓ¿‰Â˜ ·Ú·Û΢‹˜ ˘Ê·ÛÌ¿ÙˆÓ ¯·ÌËÏ‹˜ ÔÈfiÙËÙ·˜ ÛÙËÓ ‡·ÈıÚÔ. ∆Ô ÁÂÁÔÓfi˜ ·˘Ùfi, ÛÂ Û˘Ó‰˘·ÛÌfi Ì ÔÚÈṲ̂ÓÔ˘˜ ‰ÈÔÈÎËÙÈÎÔ‡˜ ÏfiÁÔ˘˜, Û˘Ó¤‚·Ï ηٿ Ì›˙ÔÓ· ÏfiÁÔ ÛÙËÓ Â‰Ú·›ˆÛË Ù˘ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈ΋˜ Î·È ‰ËÌÔÁÚ·ÊÈ΋˜ ˘ÂÚÔ¯‹˜ Ù˘ µÚ·‚¿ÓÙ˘ ÂȘ ‚¿ÚÔ˜ Ù˘ ÈÔ ·ÛÙÈÎÔÔÈË̤Ó˘ ºÏ¿Ó‰Ú·˜ Î·È ÙÔÓ ·Ú·ÁΈÓÈÛÌfi Ù˘ ªÚ˘˙ ·fi ÙËÓ ∞Ì‚¤ÚÛ· ηٿ ÙÔÓ 15Ô Î·È ÙÔÓ 16Ô ·ÈÒÓ·. ∏ ȉÈÔÌÔÚÊ›·, fï˜, Ù˘ ÂÚ›ÙˆÛ˘ ÙˆÓ ∫¿Ùˆ ÈÚÒÓ ‰ÂÓ Â›Ó·È ÌfiÓÔ ¯ÚÔÓÈ΋. ∏ ¤ÍÔ‰Ô˜ Ù˘ ·Ú·‰ÔÛȷ΋˜ ˘Ê·ÓÙÔ˘ÚÁ›·˜ Ù˘ fiÏ˘ ÛÙËÓ ‡·ÈıÚÔ ‰ÂÓ Û˘Óԉ‡ÂÙ·È ·fi Û¯ÂÙÈ΋ ˘Ô‚¿ıÌÈÛË Ù˘ ·ÛÙÈ΋˜ ‚ÈÔÙ¯ӛ·˜. ∞ÓÙ›ıÂÙ·, Ë Û˘ÓÙ¯Óȷ΋ ‚ÈÔÙ¯ӛ· Ù˘ fiÏ˘ ‰È·ÙËÚ› ÙË ˙ˆÙÈÎfiÙËÙ¿ Ù˘ ÛÙÚÂÊfiÌÂÓË ÛÙËÓ ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹ ˘Ê·ÛÌ¿ÙˆÓ ÔÏ˘ÙÂÏ›·˜, Ë ÔÔ›· ··ÈÙ› ÙËÓ ÂȉÈ΋ Ù¯ÓÔÁÓˆÛ›· ÙˆÓ Û˘ÓÙ¯ÓÈ·ÎÒÓ Ù¯ÓÈÙÒÓ. ∫·È, ·ÓÙÈÛÙÚfiʈ˜, Ë Â¿ÓÔ‰Ô˜ Ù˘ ·Ï‹˜ ˘Ê·ÓÙÔ˘ÚÁ›·˜ ÛÙËÓ fiÏË Î·Ù¿ ÙÔÓ 17Ô ·ÈÒÓ· ‰ÂÓ Ê·›ÓÂÙ·È Ó· Ô‰ËÁ› ¿ÌÂÛ· ÛÙËÓ ·Ú·ÎÌ‹ Ù˘ ‚ÈÔÙ¯ӛ·˜ Ù˘ ˘·›ıÚÔ˘ (Van der Wee 1988: 351). ªÈ· ‰Â‡ÙÂÚË Ê¿ÛË ÂÓ›Û¯˘Û˘ Ù˘ ˘Ê·ÓÙÔ˘ÚÁ›·˜ Ù˘ ˘·›ıÚÔ˘ ÌÂÙ¿ ÙÔ 1660, Ë


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65

ÔÔ›· ·˘Ù‹ ÙË ÊÔÚ¿ Û˘Ì›ÙÂÈ ¯ÚÔÓÈο Ì ÙÔ ·Ó¿ÏÔÁÔ Ê·ÈÓfiÌÂÓÔ ÛÙË ¢˘ÙÈ΋ ∂˘ÚÒË Û˘ÓÔÏÈÎfiÙÂÚ·, Ê·›ÓÂÙ·È Ó· Û˘Ó‰¤ÂÙ·È Î¿ˆ˜ Ì ÙËÓ ÎÚ›ÛË ÙˆÓ ÔÏÏ·Ó‰ÈÎÒÓ fiψÓ, ˆÛÙfiÛÔ Û›ÁÔ˘Ú· ‰ÂÓ ·ÔÙÂÏ› ÙË ‚·ÛÈ΋ Ù˘ ·ÈÙ›· (Van der Wee 1988: 360). ™Â ÁÂÓÈΤ˜ ÁÚ·Ì̤˜ ÌÔÚ› Ó· ÂÈˆı› fiÙÈ ÛÙȘ ∫¿Ùˆ ÃÒÚ˜ Ë Û˘Ó‡·ÚÍË Ù˘ ‚ÈÔÙ¯ӛ·˜ Ù˘ fiÏ˘ Ì ·˘Ù‹Ó Ù˘ ˘·›ıÚÔ˘ ‰ÂÓ ¤¯ÂÈ ÙÔ ¯·Ú·ÎÙ‹Ú· ÍÂοı·Ú˘ ·ÓÙȉȷÛÙÔÏ‹˜. ∏ ÂȉÈ΋ ·˘Ù‹ Û¯¤ÛË ·ÓÙ·ÁˆÓÈÛÌÔ‡, ·ÏÏ¿ Î·È ·ÏÏËÏÔÙÚÔÊÔ‰fiÙËÛ˘, Û˘Óı¤ÙÂÈ ÙÔ ‚·ÛÈÎfi ˘fiÛÙڈ̷ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ Î·Ù·ÓfiËÛË ÙˆÓ Â¿ÏÏËÏˆÓ Î‡ÎÏˆÓ ·ÛÙÈÎÔÔ›ËÛ˘ Î·È ·Ô·ÛÙÈÎÔÔ›ËÛ˘ Ô˘ ηٷÁÚ¿ÊÔÓÙ·È ÌÂٷ͇ ÙÔ˘ 14Ô˘ Î·È ÙÔ˘ 17Ô˘ ·ÈÒÓ·. ∆Ô Ê·ÈÓfiÌÂÓÔ ·˘Ùfi ÌÔÚ› ηÓ›˜ Ó· ÙÔ ·Ó·ÁÓÒÛÂÈ ˆ˜ ÌÈ· fi„Ë Ù˘ Û¯ÂÙÈο ·Ì‚Ï˘Ì¤Ó˘ ·ÓÙ›ıÂÛ˘ ÌÂٷ͇ fiÏ˘ Î·È ˘·›ıÚÔ˘ Ô˘ Ê·›ÓÂÙ·È Ó· ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚ›˙ÂÈ ÙËÓ √ÏÏ·Ó‰›· ηٿ ÙËÓ ÂÚ›Ô‰Ô Ù˘ ÌÂÙ¿‚·Û˘.5 ∏ ȉÈfiÙ˘Ë ¯ˆÚÈ΋ ‰ÔÌ‹ ÙˆÓ Â·Ú¯ÈÒÓ Ù˘ √ÏÏ·Ó‰›·˜, Ù˘ ∑ËÏ·Ó‰›·˜ Î·È Ù˘ √˘ÙÚ¤¯Ù˘ ·ÔÙÂÏ›, ηٿ ÌÈ· ¤ÓÓÔÈ·, ÙÔ ·ÔÙ‡ˆÌ· ÙÔ˘ ÂȉÈÎÔ‡ ¯·Ú·ÎÙ‹Ú· Ù˘ Û¯¤Û˘ fiÏ˘ Î·È ˘·›ıÚÔ˘. ∏ ȉÈÔÌÔÚÊ›· ÙÔ˘ ¯¿ÚÙË Ù˘ ·ÛÙÈ΋˜ Û˘ÁÎÚfiÙËÛ˘ ÙˆÓ Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈÌ¤ÓˆÓ Â·Ú¯ÈÒÓ Û˘Ó›ÛÙ·Ù·È ÛÙËÓ ‡·ÚÍË ÂÓfi˜ ˘ÎÓÔ‡ ‰ÈÎÙ‡Ô˘ ·ÛÙÈÎÒÓ Û˘ÁÎÚÔÙËÌ¿ÙˆÓ, ÌÈÎÚÔ‡ Û¯ÂÙÈο ÌÂÁ¤ıÔ˘˜, ÙÔ ÔÔ›Ô, ÏfiÁˆ ÙˆÓ Ôχ ÌÈÎÚÒÓ ÂӉȿÌÂÛˆÓ ·ÔÛÙ¿ÛˆÓ, Ù›ÓÂÈ Ó· ¿ÚÂÈ Ù· fiÚÈ· ÌÂٷ͇ fiÏ˘ Î·È ˘·›ıÚÔ˘. ™ÙËÓ ÂÚ›Ô‰Ô ·˘Ù‹ ›Ûˆ˜ ·Ó¿ÁÔÓÙ·È ÔÈ Ú›˙˜ Ù˘ Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓ˘ ÔÏÏ·Ó‰È΋˜ ¯ˆÚÈ΋˜ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÎfiÙËÙ·˜, Ë ÔÔ›· ΢ÚÈ·Ú¯Â›Ù·È ·fi ÙÔ ÏÂÁfiÌÂÓÔ Radstad, ¤Ó· Û˘Ó¯¤˜ ÔÏÂÔ‰ÔÌÈÎfi Û˘ÁÎÚfiÙËÌ·, ÂÎÙÂÓ¤˜ ·ÏÏ¿ ·Ú·Èfi, ÙÔ ÔÔ›Ô Î·Ï‡ÙÂÈ ÙË ‰˘ÙÈ΋ fi¯ıË Ù˘ √ÏÏ·Ó‰›·˜, ¤¯ÔÓÙ·˜ ÚÔ·„ÂÈ ·fi ÙË Û˘Ó¤ÓˆÛË ÌÈ·˜ ÛÂÈÚ¿˜ ÂÈ̤ÚÔ˘˜ fiÏÂˆÓ (√˘ÙÚ¤¯ÙË, ÕÌÛÙÂÚÓÙ·Ì, Haarlem, Leiden, ÿÁË, Delft, ƒfiÙÂÚÓÙ·Ì, Doredrecht). ∞fi ÙËÓ ¿ÏÏË ÏÂ˘Ú¿, Ë ÌÂȈ̤ÓË Ô͇ÙËÙ· Ù˘ ·ÓÙ›ıÂÛ˘ ÌÂٷ͇ fiÏ˘ Î·È ˘·›ıÚÔ˘ ›ӷÈ, ÂӉ¯Ô̤ӈ˜, ¤Ó·˜ ·fi ÙÔ˘˜ ·Ú¿ÁÔÓÙ˜ Ô˘ ÂÍËÁÔ‡Ó ÙËÓ ·Ó·ÎÔ‹ Ù˘ ÔÚ›·˜ ÙÔ˘ ÔÏÏ·Ó‰ÈÎÔ‡ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎÔ‡ Û¯ËÌ·ÙÈÛÌÔ‡ ÚÔ˜ ÙÔÓ Î·ÈÙ·ÏÈÛÌfi Î·È ÙËÓ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈ΋ ÔÈÛıÔ‰ÚfiÌËÛË ÙÔ˘ 18Ô˘ ·ÈÒÓ·, Ë ÔÔ›· ·ÎÔÏÔ˘ı› ÙÔÓ «ÃÚ˘Ûfi ∞ÈÒÓ·» Ù˘ ÔÏÏ·Ó‰È΋˜ ÈÛÙÔÚ›·˜. ¶ÚÈÓ ÊÙ¿ÛÔ˘Ì Û ·˘Ùfi, fï˜, ı· Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· Á›ÓÂÈ ÌÈ· οˆ˜ ÂÎÙÂÓ¤ÛÙÂÚË ·Ó·ÊÔÚ¿ Û ‰‡Ô ·ÏÏËϤӉÂÙ· ÈÛÙÔÚÈο ÁÂÁÔÓfiÙ·, Ù· ÔÔ›· ‰ËÌÈÔ‡ÚÁËÛ·Ó ÂÓ ÔÏÏÔ›˜ ÙȘ ÔÏÈÙÈΤ˜ Î·È È‰ÂÔÏÔÁÈΤ˜ ÚÔ¸Ôı¤ÛÂȘ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ·ÁÎfiÛÌÈ· ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈ΋ ΢ÚÈ·Ú¯›· ÙˆÓ µfiÚÂÈˆÓ ∫¿Ùˆ ÈÚÒÓ, Î·È ÙÔ˘ ÕÌÛÙÂÚÓÙ·Ì ÂȉÈÎfiÙÂÚ·,


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ª¿ÓÔ˜ ™ÎÔ‡ÊÔÁÏÔ˘

ηٿ ÙÔÓ 17Ô ·ÈÒÓ·: ÙË ‰È¿‰ÔÛË ÙÔ˘ ηςÈÓÈÛÌÔ‡ Î·È ÙÔÓ ·ÁÒÓ· ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ·ÂÏ¢ı¤ÚˆÛË ·fi ÙËÓ ÈÛ·ÓÈ΋ ηÙÔ¯‹. ¶Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ·Ó·ÊÂÚı› Â‰Ò fiÙÈ Ô 80ÂÙ‹˜ fiÏÂÌÔ˜ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ·ÂÏ¢ı¤ÚˆÛË ÂÚȤ¯ÂÈ ÛÙÔȯ›· ·ÛÙÈ΋˜ Â·Ó¿ÛÙ·Û˘. ∞fi ·˘Ù‹ ÙË ÛÎÔÈ¿ ·ÔÙÂÏ› Û˘Ó¤¯ÂÈ· Ù˘ ÂÌʇÏÈ·˜ ‰È·Ì¿¯Ë˜ ÌÂٷ͇ Hooks Î·È Cods, Ë ÔÔ›· ͤÛ·Û ÙÔ 1345 ˆ˜ ·ÁÒÓ·˜ ÁÈ· ÙË ‰È·‰Ô¯‹ ÙÔ˘ ÎfiÌË Ù˘ √ÏÏ·Ó‰›·˜ °Ô˘ÏȤÏÌÔ˘ ÙÔ˘ ¢ã ·ÏÏ¿ ÂÍÂÏ›¯ıËΠ۠·ÓÔȯً Û‡ÁÎÚÔ˘ÛË ÌÂٷ͇ ÊÂÔ˘‰·Ú¯ÒÓ Á·ÈÔÎÙËÌfiÓˆÓ Î·È ·ÛÙÈÎÒÓ ÎÔÈÓÔًوÓ. ∫·Ù¿ ÙËÓ ÔÚ›· Ù˘ ‰È·Ì¿¯Ë˜, Ë ÔÔ›· ‰È‹ÚÎÂÛ ÂÚ›Ô˘ ÂÓ¿ÌÈÛË ·ÈÒÓ·, Ë ÔÏÏ·Ó‰È΋ Û˘ÓÙ¯Óȷ΋ ·ÛÙÈ΋ Ù¿ÍË, ÛÂ Û˘ÌÌ·¯›· Ì ÙÔÓ ÎfiÌË Ù˘ √ÏÏ·Ó‰›·˜, ¤Ù˘¯Â ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈΤ˜ ηٷÎÙ‹ÛÂȘ, Î·È ÚÈÓ ·’ fiÏ· ÙËÓ ·Ú·¯ÒÚËÛË ‰ÈÎ·ÈˆÌ¿ÙˆÓ fiÏ˘ ÛÙÔ˘˜ ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈÎfiÙÂÚÔ˘˜ ÔÈÎÈÛÌÔ‡˜ Ù˘ ÂÚÈÔ¯‹˜ (ÂÎÙfi˜ Ù˘ ÿÁ˘) Î·È ÙËÓ Â¤ÎÙ·ÛË Ù˘ ·ÛÙÈ΋˜ ÂÍÔ˘Û›·˜ Û ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈο ÙÌ‹Ì·Ù· Ù˘ ˘·›ıÚÔ˘. √È ÂÈÙ˘¯›Â˜ Ù˘ ·ÛÙÈ΋˜ Ù¿Í˘ ¢ı‡ÓÔÓÙ·È ÁÈ· ÙËÓ Î¿Ì„Ë Ù˘ ÁˆÚÁ›·˜ ηٿ ÙÔ 15Ô ·ÈÒÓ· Î·È ÙË Û˘Ó·ÎfiÏÔ˘ıË ·Ó·‰ÈÔÚÁ¿ÓˆÛË Ù˘ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌ›·˜ Ù˘ ˘·›ıÚÔ˘. ∆ËÓ ›‰È· ÂÚ›Ô‰Ô ·Ó·Ù‡ÛÛÂÙ·È ÙÔ ıÚËÛ΢ÙÈÎfi ΛÓËÌ· Moderne Devotie Á‡Úˆ ·fi ÙÔ˘˜ «∞‰ÂÚÊÔ‡˜ Ù˘ ∫ÔÈÓ‹˜ ∑ˆ‹˜», ÌÈ· ¯ÚÈÛÙÈ·ÓÈ΋ ÎÔÈÓfiÙËÙ· Ô˘ ȉڇıËΠ·fi ÙÔÓ Geert Grote ÙÔ˘ Deventer ÌÂ Ù˘ÈÎfi ÛÎÔfi ÙËÓ ÚÔÒıËÛË Î·È ‰È¿‰ÔÛË ÙˆÓ ·ÍÈÒÓ Ù˘ ÂÏÂËÌÔÛ‡Ó˘, Ù˘ ÓËÊ·ÏÈfiÙËÙ·˜ Î·È Ù˘ Ù·ÂÈÓÔÊÚÔÛ‡Ó˘. ∏ Ù·ÍÈ΋ ÊfiÚÙÈÛË ÙÔ˘ ÎÈÓ‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ ·ÔÙ˘ÒÓÂÙ·È ÛÙË Ì¿¯Ë ÙÔ˘ ÂÓ·ÓÙ›ÔÓ ÙˆÓ ÚÔÓÔÌ›ˆÓ ÙÔ˘ ηıÔÏÈÎÔ‡ ÎÏ‹ÚÔ˘, Ô ÔÔ›Ô˜ ÂÎÚÔÛˆ› ȉÂÔÏÔÁÈο Î·È ÔÏÈÙÈο Ù· ηÙÂÛÙË̤ӷ Û˘ÌʤÚÔÓÙ· Ù˘ ÊÂÔ˘‰·ÏÈ΋˜ ¿Ú¯Ô˘Û·˜ Ù¿Í˘.6 ∞Ó Ë ‰È·Ì¿¯Ë ÌÂٷ͇ Cods Î·È Hooks ·ÔÙÂÏ› ÙÔ ÚÒÙÔ ÎÂÓÙÚÈÎfi ÂÂÈÛfi‰ÈÔ Ù˘ Ù·ÍÈ΋˜ ·ÓÙ›ıÂÛ˘ ÌÂٷ͇ ·ÛÙÒÓ Î·È ÊÂÔ˘‰·Ú¯ÒÓ ÛÙÔ ÔÏÈÙÈÎfi Â›‰Ô, ÙÔ Moderne Denotie οÓÂÈ ÙÔ ›‰ÈÔ ÛÙÔ È‰ÂÔÏÔÁÈÎfi Â›‰Ô. ∆Ô Moderne Devotie, Ì·˙› Ì ÔÚÈṲ̂ӷ ÏÈÁfiÙÂÚÔ ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈο ÎÈÓ���Ì·Ù·, fiˆ˜ ·˘Ùfi Á‡Úˆ ·fi ÙÔÓ ÌÈÓÔÚ›ÙË ÌÔÓ·¯fi Johannes Brugmans, Û˘Ó¤‚·Ï·Ó ·ÔÊ·ÛÈÛÙÈο ÛÙË ‰È·ÌfiÚʈÛË ÂÓfi˜ Îϛ̷ÙÔ˜ ıÚËÛ΢ÙÈ΋˜ ·ÓÔ¯‹˜ Î·È ÌÂÙÚÈÔ¿ıÂÈ·˜ ¤Íˆ Î·È Ì¤Û· ÛÙÔ˘˜ ÎfiÏÔ˘˜ Ù˘ ÔÏÏ·Ó‰È΋˜ ÂÎÎÏËÛ›·˜, Ôχ ÚÈÓ ·fi ÙËÓ ÂΉ‹ÏˆÛË Ù˘ ªÂÙ·ÚÚ‡ıÌÈÛ˘. ∆Ô È‰ÂÔÏÔÁÈÎfi ÛÙÔÈ¯Â›Ô Ù˘ ·ÓÂÎÙÈÎfiÙËÙ·˜ ‹Ú ÛÙË Û˘Ó¤¯ÂÈ· Î·È ÎÔÛÌÈ΋ ¤ÎÊÚ·ÛË Ì¤Û· ·fi ÙÔ ÊÈÏÂχıÂÚÔ Ô˘Ì·ÓÈÛÌfi ÙÔ˘ ∂Ú¿ÛÌÔ˘ (1469-1536).7 ∞˘Ùfi˜ ›ӷÈ, ηٿ ÙÔÓ Lambert, Ô ÏfiÁÔ˜ ÁÈ· ÙÔÓ ÔÔ›Ô Ë ıÂÌÂÏ›ˆÛË ÙÔ˘ ÚÔÙÂÛÙ·ÓÙÈÛÌÔ‡ ÛÙȘ µfiÚÂȘ ∫¿Ùˆ ÃÒÚ˜ ˘‹ÚÍ ۯÂÙÈο ηı˘ÛÙÂÚË̤ÓË. √È È‰È·›ÙÂÚ˜ Û˘Óı‹Î˜ ÙÔ˘ Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤ÓÔ˘ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎÔ‡ Û¯ËÌ·ÙÈÛÌÔ‡, Ì¿ÏÈÛÙ·, η٤ÛÙËÛ·Ó ÙÔ ¤‰·ÊÔ˜ Ôχ ÈÔ ÚfiÛÊÔÚÔ


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∏ ·ÛÙÈ΋ ¯ˆÚÈ΋ ÔÚÁ¿ÓˆÛË

67

ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ÂÈÎÚ¿ÙËÛË ÙÔ˘ ηςÈÓÈÛÌÔ‡, ·Ú¿ ÙÔ˘ ÏÔ˘ıËÚ·ÓÈÛÌÔ‡. «∆Ô ÔÏÏ·Ó‰ÈÎfi ÂÚÈ‚¿ÏÏÔÓ […] ‰›ÓÂÈ ¤ÌÊ·ÛË ÛÙËÓ ·Í›· Ù˘ ∂ÚÁ·Û›·˜ ÂÚÈÛÛfiÙÂÚÔ ·’ fi,ÙÈ Û ·˘Ù‹ Ù˘ ¶›ÛÙ˘» (Lambert 1971: 182). ∏ ÂÍ¿ψÛË ÙÔ˘ ηςÈÓÈÛÌÔ‡ ÛÙȘ ∫¿Ùˆ ÃÒÚ˜ ÙÔÔıÂÙÂ›Ù·È Ô˘ÛÈ·ÛÙÈο ÛÙ· ̤۷ ÙÔ˘ 16Ô˘ ·ÈÒÓ· Î·È ·›ÚÓÂÈ, ÙÔ˘Ï¿¯ÈÛÙÔÓ Û ÚÒÙË Ê¿ÛË, ÙÔ ¯·Ú·ÎÙ‹Ú· Ù˘ ÂÓ·ÓÙ›ˆÛ˘ ÛÙÔÓ ÈÛ·ÓÈÎfi ˙˘Áfi. √ 80ÂÙ‹˜ fiÏÂÌÔ˜ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ·ÂÏ¢ı¤ÚˆÛË ÍÂÎÈÓ¿ ˆ˜ ·ÓÙÈ·Ú¿ıÂÛË ÌÂٷ͇ ηςÈÓÈÛÌÔ‡ Î·È Î·ıÔÏÈÎÈÛÌÔ‡. ∏ ıÚËÛ΢ÙÈ΋ ‰È·Ì¿¯Ë ÂÎÊÚ¿˙ÂÈ ÛÙÔ ‚¿ıÔ˜ Ù˘ ÙÔÓ ·ÁÒÓ· ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ·ÂÏ¢ı¤ÚˆÛË Î·È ·˘Ùfi˜ Ì ÙË ÛÂÈÚ¿ ÙÔ˘ ÂΉËÏÒÓÂÙ·È Ù·˘Ùfi¯ÚÔÓ· ˆ˜ ÔÏÈÙÈÎfi˜ ·ÁÒÓ·˜ Ù˘ ·ÛÙÈ΋˜ Ù¿Í˘ ÂÓ·ÓÙ›ÔÓ ÙˆÓ ÊÂÔ˘‰·Ú¯ÒÓ Á·ÈÔÎÙËÌfiÓˆÓ. ◊, ÈÔ ·Ï¿, Ô ·ÂÏ¢ıÂÚˆÙÈÎfi˜ ·ÁÒÓ·˜ Û˘ÓÙÂÏÂ›Ù·È ˘fi ÙËÓ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋ Î·È È‰ÂÔÏÔÁÈ΋ ËÁÂÌÔÓ›· Ù˘ ·ÛÙÈ΋˜ Ù¿Í˘ ÙˆÓ Û˘ÓÙ¯ÓÈÒÓ, ÁÂÁÔÓfi˜ Ô˘ ÙÔ˘ ÚÔÛ‰›‰ÂÈ ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚÈÛÙÈο ·ÛÙÈ΋˜ Â·Ó¿ÛÙ·Û˘, ¤ÛÙˆ ÚÒÈÌ˘, ÌÂÚÈ΋˜ Î·È ·ÓÔÏÔÎÏ‹ÚˆÙ˘.8 ∏ ¤ÓÙ·ÍË ÛÙÔÓ ÈÛ·ÓÈÎfi ÎÏ¿‰Ô ÙÔ˘ Ô›ÎÔ˘ ÙˆÓ ∞„‚Ô‡ÚÁˆÓ9 ·ÚÔ˘ÛÈ¿˙ÂÈ ÔÚÈṲ̂ӷ ÏÂÔÓÂÎÙ‹Ì·Ù· ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ÔÏÏ·Ó‰È΋ ÂÌÔÚÈ΋ ·ÛÙÈ΋ Ù¿ÍË: Ë ÔÏÈÙÈ΋ ÂÓÔÔ›ËÛË ÂÍ·ÛÊ·Ï›˙ÂÈ ÌÈ· Ï›ÁÔ-Ôχ ÂÓÈ·›· ÂÛˆÙÂÚÈ΋ ·ÁÔÚ¿, ÂÓÒ Ë ·¤Ú·ÓÙË ¤ÎÙ·ÛË Ù˘ ·˘ÙÔÎÚ·ÙÔÚ›·˜ ·Ú¤¯ÂÈ ÙË ‰˘Ó·ÙfiÙËÙ· ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈ΋˜ Â¤ÎÙ·Û˘ ÙˆÓ ÂÌÔÚÈÎÒÓ Û˘Ó‰¤ÛˆÓ. ¶·Ú’ fiÏ’ ·˘Ù¿, Ë ÔÏÈÙÈ΋ ηٷ›ÂÛË, ÔÈ Â·¯ı›˜ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈΤ˜ ÂÈÛÊÔÚ¤˜ ÁÈ· ÙȘ ·Ó¿ÁΘ ÙˆÓ ÔÏÂÌÈÎÒÓ ÂȯÂÈÚ‹ÛÂˆÓ ÙÔ˘ ∫·ÚfiÏÔ˘, Ô ÂÚÈÔÚÈÛÌfi˜ Ù˘ ·˘ÙÔÓÔÌ›·˜ ÙˆÓ fiÏÂˆÓ Î·È Ô ·ÚÂÌ‚·ÙÈÛÌfi˜ ÛÙÔ ÔÏÏ·Ó‰ÈÎfi ÂÌfiÚÈÔ ÚÔ˜ fiÊÂÏÔ˜ ÙÔ˘ ÈÛ·ÓÈÎÔ‡ ÛÙ¤ÌÌ·ÙÔ˜ ÂÁ›ÚÔ˘Ó Û‡ÓÙÔÌ· ·ÓÙȉڿÛÂȘ ·fi ÙËÓ ÏÂ˘Ú¿ ÙˆÓ ·ÛÙÈÎÒÓ ÎÔÈÓÔًوÓ. ∆Ô 1550 Ô ∫¿ÚÔÏÔ˜, ˆ˜ ·¿ÓÙËÛË ÛÙËÓ ÂÈÙ·¯˘ÓfiÌÂÓË ÂÍ¿ψÛË ÙÔ˘ ηςÈÓÈÛÌÔ‡, ÂÈÛ¿ÁÂÈ ÙËÓ ÔÈÓ‹ ÙÔ˘ ı·Ó¿ÙÔ˘ ·¤Ó·ÓÙÈ Û οı ÌÔÚÊ‹˜ ·›ÚÂÛË, ÁÂÁÔÓfi˜ Ô˘ ‰ÈÔÁÎÒÓÂÈ ÙËÓ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋ ‰˘Û·Ú¤ÛÎÂÈ·. ∏ ÙÔÔı¤ÙËÛË Ù˘ ª·ÚÁ·Ú›Ù·˜ Ù˘ ¶¿ÚÌ·˜ ÛÙË ı¤ÛË ÙÔ˘ ΢‚ÂÚÓ‹ÙË ÙˆÓ ∫¿Ùˆ ÈÚÒÓ ÙÔ 1559 Ô͇ÓÂÈ ÂÚ·ÈÙ¤Úˆ ÙËÓ Î·Ù¿ÛÙ·ÛË. ∆Ô 1566 ÍÂÛÔ‡Ó ‚›·È˜ ÂÈÎÔÓÔÎÏ·ÛÙÈΤ˜ ÂÍÂÁ¤ÚÛÂȘ_ Ô Î·ıÔÏÈÎÈÛÌfi˜ ÛÙË Û˘Ó›‰ËÛË ÙˆÓ ÂÍÂÁÂÚÌ¤ÓˆÓ ¤¯ÂÈ Û˘Ó‰Âı› ¿ÚÚËÎÙ· Ì ÙÔÓ ÈÛ·ÓÈÎfi ˙˘Áfi. √ º›ÏÈÔ˜ µã ÛÙ¤ÏÓÂÈ ÂÎÛÙÚ·Ù¢ÙÈÎfi ÛÒÌ· ÁÈ· Ó· ηٷÓ›ÍÂÈ ÙËÓ ÚÔÙÂÛÙ·ÓÙÈ΋ ÂͤÁÂÚÛË, ˘ÚÔ‰ÔÙÒÓÙ·˜ ¤ÙÛÈ ÙÔÓ 80ÂÙ‹ fiÏÂÌÔ. √È ÂÍÂÁÂṲ́Ó˜ Â·Ú¯›Â˜ ÂÓÒÓÔÓÙ·È ˘fi ÙËÓ ËÁÂÛ›· ÙÔ˘ °Ô˘ÏȤÏÌÔ˘ ÙÔ˘ ™ÈˆËÏÔ‡, Ú›ÁÎÈ· Ù˘ √Ú¿ÓÁ΢, Î·È ·ÚÁfiÙÂÚ· ÙÔ˘ ‰È·‰fi¯Ô˘ ÙÔ˘, Ú›ÁÎÈ· ª·˘ÚÈΛԢ. √È ÛÙÚ·ÙȈÙÈΤ˜ ÂÈÙ˘¯›Â˜ ÙˆÓ ÂÍÂÁÂÚÌ¤ÓˆÓ ‚·Û›˙ÔÓÙ·È ÛÙËÓ ÔÏÏ·Ó‰È΋ Ó·˘ÙÈ΋ ‰‡Ó·ÌË. √È ÂÚÈ‚fiËÙÔÈ Geuzen (˙ËÙÈ¿ÓÔÈ Ù˘ ı¿Ï·ÛÛ·˜) ηٷʤÚÔ˘Ó ‚·ÚÈ¿ Ï‹ÁÌ·Ù· ÛÙÔÓ ÈÛ·ÓÈÎfi ÛÙfiÏÔ Î·È ·ÂÏ¢ıÂÚÒÓÔ˘Ó ÌÈ·


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ª¿ÓÔ˜ ™ÎÔ‡ÊÔÁÏÔ˘

ÛÂÈÚ¿ ·fi fiÏÂȘ. √ fiÏÂÌÔ˜ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ·ÂÏ¢ı¤ÚˆÛË ÂÍÂÏ›ÛÛÂÙ·È Û‡ÓÙÔÌ· Û ÂÌʇÏÈÔ: ÙÔ 1579 Û¯ËÌ·Ù›˙ÔÓÙ·È Ë ŒÓˆÛË ÙÔ˘ ∞Ú¿˜ Î·È Ë ŒÓˆÛË Ù˘ √˘ÙÚ¤¯Ù˘. ∏ ÚÒÙË Ù¿ÛÛÂÙ·È ÛÙÔ Ï¢Úfi ÙÔ˘ ÈÛ·ÓÈÎÔ‡ ıÚfiÓÔ˘, Ë ‰Â‡ÙÂÚË Û˘ÓÂÓÒÓÂÈ ÙȘ Â·Ó·ÛÙ·ÙË̤Ó˜ Â·Ú¯›Â˜. ™Â ÙÂÏÈ΋ ·Ó¿Ï˘ÛË, ¿ÓÙˆ˜, Î·È Û›ÁÔ˘Ú· Ì ·ÓÙÈÊ·ÙÈÎfi ÙÚfiÔ, Ë Û‡ÁÎÚÔ˘ÛË ÌÂٷ͇ ÙˆÓ ‰‡Ô ∂ÓÒÛÂˆÓ ·ÓÙÈÛÙÔȯ› ÛÙË Û‡ÁÎÚÔ˘ÛË ÌÂٷ͇ ÊÂÔ˘‰·ÏÈÎÒÓ Î·È ·ÛÙÈÎÒÓ Û˘ÌÊÂÚfiÓÙˆÓ. ∞ÔÊ·ÛÈÛÙÈ΋˜ ÛËÌ·Û›·˜ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ¤Î‚·ÛË ÙÔ˘ ÔϤÌÔ˘ ˘‹ÚÍÂ Ë ÌÂÙ·ÛÙÚÔÊ‹ ÙÔ˘ ÕÌÛÙÂÚÓÙ·Ì (Ë ÏÂÁfiÌÂÓË Alteratie), Ô˘, ÂÓÒ ·Ú¯Èο ‚ÚÈÛÎfiÙ·Ó ÛÙÔ Ï¢Úfi ÙˆÓ πÛ·ÓÒÓ, ÙÔ 1578 ÂÚÓ¿ ÛÙÔ ÛÙÚ·ÙfiÂ‰Ô ÙˆÓ ÂÍÂÁÂṲ́ӈÓ.10 ∆Ô 1587 Ë Â·Ó¿ÛÙ·ÛË ÛÙȘ ¡fiÙȘ ∫¿Ùˆ ÃÒÚ˜ ηٷÓ›ÁÂÙ·È ÔÚÈÛÙÈο. ™ÙÔ µÔÚÚ¿, ˆÛÙfiÛÔ, Û˘Ó¯›˙ÂÈ ÙȘ ıÚÈ·Ì‚Â˘ÙÈΤ˜ Ù˘ ÂÈÙ˘¯›Â˜ ¤ˆ˜ fiÙÔ˘, ÙÔ 1609, ÔÈ ÂÊÙ¿ Â·Ú¯›Â˜ Ù˘ ŒÓˆÛ˘ Ù˘ √˘ÙÚ¤¯Ù˘ (√ÏÏ·Ó‰›·, ∑ËÏ·Ó‰›·, √˘ÙÚ¤¯ÙË, ºÚÈÛ›·, Gelderland, Groningen, Overijssel) ‰È·ÎËÚ‡ÛÛÔ˘Ó ÙËÓ ·ÓÂÍ·ÚÙËÛ›· ÙÔ˘˜. ∏ ›‰Ú˘ÛË Ù˘ √ÏÏ·Ó‰È΋˜ ¢ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜ (Ë ÔÔ›· ÂÚÈÏ·Ì‚¿ÓÂÈ ·ÎfiÌ· ÙȘ Â·Ú¯›Â˜ Ù˘ µfiÚÂÈ·˜ µÚ·‚¿ÓÙ˘, ÙÔ˘ §ÈÌ‚Ô‡ÚÁÔ˘ Î·È Ù˘ Drenthe) ÂÈ΢ÚÒÓÂÙ·È Â›ÛËÌ· ÙÔ 1648 Ì ÙË ™˘Óı‹ÎË ÙÔ˘ ª¸nster.11 √ 80ÂÙ‹˜ fiÏÂÌÔ˜ ÚÔοÏÂÛ (‹ ÂÈÙ¿¯˘ÓÂ) ‚·ı›˜ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈÎÔ‡˜, ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎÔ‡˜ Î·È ÔÏÈÙÈÎÔ‡˜ ÌÂÙ·Û¯ËÌ·ÙÈÛÌÔ‡˜ ÛÙËÓ ÂÚÈÔ¯‹ ÙˆÓ µfiÚÂÈˆÓ ∫¿Ùˆ ÈÚÒÓ Î·È ¿ÏÏ·Í ¿Ú‰ËÓ ÙÔ˘˜ ‰ÈÂıÓ›˜ Û˘Û¯ÂÙÈÛÌÔ‡˜ ‰‡Ó·Ì˘. ™˘ÓÂ›· ÙÔ˘ ·ÁÒÓ· ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ·ÂÏ¢ı¤ÚˆÛË ÁÂÓÓÈ¤Ù·È Û Â›Â‰Ô ·ÓÙÈÎÂÈÌÂÓÈÎÒÓ fiÚˆÓ ÙÔ ÔÏÏ·Ó‰ÈÎfi ÎÚ¿ÙÔ˜ Î·È Û Â›Â‰Ô ˘ÔÎÂÈÌÂÓÈÎÒÓ Ë ÔÏÏ·Ó‰È΋ ÂıÓÈ΋ Û˘Ó›‰ËÛË (Burke 1956: 107). ∏ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋ ËÁÂÌÔÓ›· Ù˘ ·ÛÙÈ΋˜ Ù¿Í˘ ηٿ ÙË ‰È¿ÚÎÂÈ· ÙÔ˘ ÔϤÌÔ˘ ÌÂÙ·ÊÚ¿˙ÂÙ·È ÛÙË ‰ÈÔÈÎËÙÈ΋ ˘ÂÚÔ¯‹ ÙÔ˘ ÛÒÌ·ÙÔ˜ ÙˆÓ °ÂÓÈÎÒÓ ∆¿ÍÂˆÓ Â› ÙˆÓ ÚÈÁΛˆÓ Ù˘ √Ú¿ÓÁ΢. ∏ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋ ÂÓ›Û¯˘ÛË Ù˘ ÔÏÏ·Ó‰È΋˜ ·ÛÙÈ΋˜ Ù¿Í˘ Û˘Ó‰˘¿˙ÂÙ·È Ì ̛· ÂÓÙ˘ˆÛȷ΋ ·‡ÍËÛË Ù˘ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈ΋˜ Ù˘ ‰‡Ó·Ì˘, Ë ÔÔ›· ·ÔÙÂÏ› ηÚfi Ù˘ ÔÏÏ·Ó‰È΋˜ ÂÌÔÚÈ΋˜ Î·È Ó·˘ÙÈÏȷ΋˜ ÌÔÓÔÎÚ·ÙÔÚ›·˜ ÙÔ˘ 17Ô˘ ·ÈÒÓ·. √ «ÃÚ˘Ûfi˜ ∞ÈÒÓ·˜» Ù˘ ÔÏÏ·Ó‰È΋˜ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌ›·˜ ‚·Û›ÛÙËΠÛÙÔÓ ·Ó›Û¯˘ÚÔ ÔÏÏ·Ó‰ÈÎfi ÛÙfiÏÔ. ¶·Ú¿ÁÔÓÙ˜ Ô˘ ¢ÓfiËÛ·Ó ÙËÓ ·Ó¿Ù˘ÍË Ù˘ ÔÏÏ·Ó‰È΋˜ Ó·˘ÙÈÏ›·˜, ηıÈÛÙÒÓÙ·˜ ÙȘ µfiÚÂȘ ∫¿Ùˆ ÃÒÚ˜ ÙË Û˘ÓÙÚÈÙÈο ÌÂÁ·Ï‡ÙÂÚË Ó·˘ÙÈ΋ ‰‡Ó·ÌË ÙÔ˘ ÎfiÛÌÔ˘ ηٿ ÙÔÓ 17Ô ·ÈÒÓ·, ˘‹ÚÍ·Ó ·Ê’ ÂÓfi˜ Ë Ù¯ÓÈ΋ ˘ÂÚÔ¯‹ Ù˘ ÔÏÏ·Ó‰È΋˜ Ó·˘ËÁÈ΋˜ Î·È Ë ·Ó¿Ù˘ÍË ÙÔ˘ fluyt, ÂÓfi˜ ÚˆÙÔÔÚÈ·ÎÔ‡ Ù‡Ô˘ ÈÛÙÈÔÊfiÚÔ˘ Ô˘ ›¯Â ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈο ÂÚÈÔÚÈṲ̂ÓÔ ÎfiÛÙÔ˜ ηٷÛ΢‹˜ Î·È Â¤ÙÚÂ ÙË ‰Ú·ÛÙÈ΋ Ì›ˆÛË ÙÔ˘ ÏËÚÒÌ·ÙÔ˜, ·Ê’ ÂÙ¤ÚÔ˘ ÙÔ Û‡ÛÙËÌ· rederij, Ì ÙÔ ÔÔ›Ô ÔÏÏÔ› ÌÈÎÚÔ› ÂÂÓ‰˘Ù¤˜ Û˘ÓÂÚÁ¿˙ÔÓÙ·Ó ÁÈ· ÙËÓ


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69

ηı¤Ï΢ÛË Î·È ÙÔÓ ÂÍÔÏÈÛÌfi ÂÓfi˜ ÛοÊÔ˘˜. √ ÔÏÏ·Ó‰ÈÎfi˜ ÂÌÔÚÈÎfi˜ ÛÙfiÏÔ˜ ‹Ù·Ó ÙfiÛÔ ÚÔÛÔ‰ÔÊfiÚÔ˜, ÒÛÙÂ, Û‡Ìʈӷ Ì ÙÔÓ Lambert, ÚÈÓ ·fi ÙËÓ ·ÂÏ¢ı¤ÚˆÛË ·¤‰È‰Â ÛÙÔ ÈÛ·ÓÈÎfi ÛÙ¤ÌÌ· 4 ÊÔÚ¤˜ ÌÂÁ·Ï‡ÙÂÚ· ¤ÛÔ‰· ·’ fi,ÙÈ Ù· ÔÚ˘¯Â›· ÙÔ˘ Ó¤Ô˘ ÎfiÛÌÔ˘ (Lambert 1971: 187). ∏ ·ÏÈ›· Î·È Ë Ê·Ï·ÈÓÔıËÚ›· ˘‹ÚÍ·Ó Â›Û˘ ˙ˆÙÈÎfiÙ·ÙÔÈ ÙÔÌ›˜ Ù˘ ÔÏÏ·Ó‰È΋˜ Ó·˘ÙÈ΋˜ ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ·˜. ∏ Î¿Ì„Ë ÙˆÓ fiÏÂˆÓ ÙˆÓ ¡fiÙÈˆÓ ∫¿Ùˆ ÈÚÒÓ, Î·È È‰È·›ÙÂÚ· Ù˘ ∞Ì‚¤ÚÛ·˜, ÌÂÙ¿ ÙËÓ ·Ó·Î·Ù¿ÏË„‹ ÙÔ˘˜ ·fi ÙÔÓ ÈÛ·ÓÈÎfi ÛÙÚ·Ùfi ÙÔÓÒÓÂÈ ·ÎfiÌ· ÂÚÈÛÛfiÙÂÚÔ ÙËÓ ÔÏÏ·Ó‰È΋ ·ÛÙÈ΋ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌ›·.12 ∆Ô Î¤ÓÙÚÔ ‚¿ÚÔ˘˜ Ù˘ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈ΋˜ ·Ó¿Ù˘Í˘ ÙˆÓ ∫¿Ùˆ ÈÚÒÓ ÌÂÙ·Ù›ıÂÙ·È ÛÙȘ Â·Ú¯›Â˜ Ù˘ √ÏÏ·Ó‰›·˜ Î·È Ù˘ ∑ËÏ·Ó‰›·˜. ∞fi ÙË Ì›· ÏÂ˘Ú¿ ¤Ó·˜ ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈÎfi˜ ·ÚÈıÌfi˜ ÚÔÙÂÛÙ·ÓÙÒÓ ºÏ·Ì·Ó‰ÒÓ Î·È µ·ÏfiÓˆÓ Ù¯ÓÈÙÒÓ, ΢ڛˆ˜ ˘Ê·ÓÙÔ˘ÚÁÒÓ, ηٷʇÁÂÈ, ˘fi ÙËÓ ›ÂÛË ÙÔ˘ ηıÔÏÈÎÈÛÌÔ‡, ÛÙȘ µfiÚÂȘ ∫¿Ùˆ ÃÒÚ˜ ÂÓÈÛ¯‡ÔÓÙ·˜ ÙËÓ ÔÏÏ·Ó‰È΋ ‚ÈÔÙ¯ӛ· Û ÂÚÁ·ÙÈÎfi ‰˘Ó·ÌÈÎfi Î·È Û Ù¯ÓÔÁÓˆÛ›·. ∞fi ÙËÓ ¿ÏÏË, ¤Ó· ÌÂÁ¿ÏÔ Ì¤ÚÔ˜ Ù˘ ÂÌÔÚÈ΋˜ ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ·˜ ÙˆÓ ÏÈÌ·ÓÈÒÓ ÙˆÓ ¡fiÙÈˆÓ ∫¿Ùˆ ÈÚÒÓ ÌÂÙ·Î˘Ï›ÂÙ·È ·Ó·ÁηÛÙÈο ÛÙÔ µÔÚÚ¿. ∏ ÂͤÏÈÍË ·˘Ù‹ Û˘Ì›ÙÂÈ Ì ÌÈ· ÁÂÓÈÎfiÙÂÚË ·Ó·‰È¿ÚıÚˆÛË ÙˆÓ ·ÁÎfiÛÌÈˆÓ ÂÌÔÚÈÎÒÓ ‰ÈÎÙ‡ˆÓ. ∏ ·Ú·ÎÌ‹ ÙˆÓ ÈÙ·ÏÈÎÒÓ ÂÌÔÚÈÎÒÓ fiÏÂˆÓ Î·È Ù˘ ÷ÓÛ·ÙÈ΋˜ §›Áη˜, ·fi ÙËÓ ÔÔ›· ÔÈ ÔÏÏ·Ó‰ÈΤ˜ fiÏÂȘ ¤¯Ô˘Ó ·Ô¯ˆÚ‹ÛÂÈ ‹‰Ë ·fi ÙÔÓ 15Ô ·ÈÒÓ·, ηıÒ˜ Î·È Ë ÎÚ›ÛË ÙÔ˘ ÂÌÔÚ›Ô˘ Ù˘ ∫ÂÓÙÚÈ΋˜ ∂˘ÚÒ˘ ˆ˜ ·ÔÙ¤ÏÂÛÌ· ÙÔ˘ ∆ÚÈ·ÎÔÓÙ·ÂÙÔ‡˜ ¶ÔϤÌÔ˘ (1618-1648) ÚÔÛ‰›‰Ô˘Ó ÛÙËÓ √ÏÏ·Ó‰›· ÙÔ ÚfiÏÔ ÙÔ˘ ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈÎfiÙÂÚÔ˘ ÂÌÔÚÈÎÔ‡ ÎfiÌ‚Ô˘. ∆· ÔÏÏ·Ó‰Èο ˘ÂÚfiÓÙÈ· Ù·Í›‰È· Î·È Ë ‰È›ۉ˘ÛË ÛÙȘ ∞Ó·ÙÔÏÈΤ˜ Î·È ¢˘ÙÈΤ˜ πÓ‰›Â˜ ÂÂÎÙ›ÓÔ˘Ó ÂÚ·ÈÙ¤Úˆ ÙËÓ ÔÏÏ·Ó‰È΋ ÂÌÔÚÈ΋ ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ· ÂȘ ‚¿ÚÔ˜ Ù˘ ÈÛ·ÓÈ΋˜ Î·È Ù˘ ÔÚÙÔÁ·ÏÈ΋˜. ∞ÎfiÌ· Î·È ÙfiÙÂ, ˆÛÙfiÛÔ, ÙÔ ‚·ÏÙÈÎfi ÂÌfiÚÈÔ ‰ÂÓ ¤·„ ӷ ·ÔÙÂÏ› ÙËÓ Î·Ú‰È¿ Ù˘ ÔÏÏ·Ó‰È΋˜ ÂÍ·ÁˆÁÈ΋˜ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌ›·˜. ∞ÙÌÔÌ˯·Ó‹ Ù˘ ÔÏÏ·Ó‰È΋˜ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌ›·˜ ÙÔ˘ «ÃÚ˘ÛÔ‡ ∞ÈÒÓ·» Â›Ó·È ÙÔ ÕÌÛÙÂÚÓÙ·Ì. ∆Ô ÌÂÁ·Ï‡ÙÂÚÔ Ì¤ÚÔ˜ Ù˘ ÔÏÏ·Ó‰È΋˜ ÂÌÔÚÈ΋˜ ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ·˜ ÂÈÎÂÓÙÚÒÓÂÙ·È ÛÙÔ ÏÈÌ¿ÓÈ ÙÔ˘. ∆Ô 1585 ȉڇÂÙ·È ÙÔ ÃÚËÌ·ÙÈÛÙ‹ÚÈÔ ∂ÌÔÚÂ˘Ì¿ÙˆÓ, Ù· ‰ÂÏÙ›· ÙÔ˘ ÔÔ›Ô˘ ‰ËÌÔÛȇÔÓÙ·È Û fiÏË ÙËÓ ∂˘ÚÒË (Cipolla 1980: 347). ∏ ‚ÈÔÙ¯ÓÈ΋ ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ· Ô˘ ·Ó·Ù‡ÛÛÂÙ·È ÛÙËÓ fiÏË Î·È ÛÙËÓ ÂÚÈ‚¿ÏÏÔ˘Û· ÂÚÈÔ¯‹ ÙÔ˘ Zaanstreek ÂÎÙÔ›˙ÂÈ ÛÙ·‰È·Î¿ Ù· ÌÂÁ¿Ï· ‚ÈÔÙ¯ÓÈο ΤÓÙÚ· ÙÔ˘ 15Ô˘ Î·È ÙÔ˘ 16Ô˘ ·ÈÒÓ· (Leiden, Delft, Haarlem). ∂ÈϤÔÓ, Ë ™˘Óı‹ÎË ÙÔ˘ ª¸nster ÂÍ·ÛÊ·Ï›˙ÂÈ ÙË ‰ÈÔÈÎËÙÈ΋ ÚˆÙÔηı‰ڛ· ÙÔ˘ ÕÌÛÙÂÚÓÙ·Ì ·¤Ó·ÓÙÈ ÛÙȘ ˘fiÏÔÈ˜ ÔÏÏ·Ó‰ÈΤ˜ fiÏÂȘ.


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ª¿ÓÔ˜ ™ÎÔ‡ÊÔÁÏÔ˘

∏ ·ÎÙÈÓÔ‚ÔÏ›· ÙÔ˘ ÕÌÛÙÂÚÓÙ·Ì ÙÔ˘ 17Ô˘ ·ÈÒÓ· ÛÙËÓ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÎfiÙËÙ· ÍÂÂÚÓ¿ ηٿ Ôχ Ù· Û‡ÓÔÚ· ÙˆÓ µfiÚÂÈˆÓ ∫¿Ùˆ ÈÚÒÓ. ∏ fiÏË ‰È·ı¤ÙÂÈ ÙË ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈÎfiÙÂÚË ‰ÈÂıÓ‹ ·ÁÔÚ¿ Î·È ·ÔÙÂÏ› ·Ó·ÌÊÈÛ‚‹ÙËÙ· ÙËÓ ÚˆÙÂ‡Ô˘Û· Ù˘ ·ÁÎfiÛÌÈ·˜ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌ›·˜. ™Â Â›Â‰Ô ¯ˆÚÈ΋˜ ·Ó¿Ù˘Í˘ ·Ó·‰ÂÈÎÓ‡ÂÙ·È ÛÙÔ ·‰È·ÊÈÏÔÓ›ÎËÙÔ Î¤ÓÙÚÔ Ù˘ ∂˘ÚÒ˘, Ë ÔÔ›· ¤¯ÂÈ ¯¿ÛÂÈ Î·È ¿ÏÈ ÙËÓ ÔÏ˘ÎÂÓÙÚÈ΋ Ù˘ ‰ÔÌ‹ (Van der Wee 1988: 356). ∏ ÚˆÙfiÁÓˆÚË ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈ΋ ·Ó¿Ù˘ÍË Ù˘ ÂÚÈfi‰Ô˘ ‰ÂÓ ı· Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· Ê·ÓÙ·ÛÙ› ηÓ›˜ fiÙÈ Â���¯Â ˆ˜ ·ÔÙ¤ÏÂÛÌ· ÙËÓ Â˘ËÌÂÚ›· ÙÔ˘ ÔÏÏ·Ó‰ÈÎÔ‡ Ï·Ô‡ ÛÙÔ Û‡ÓÔÏfi ÙÔ˘. ∏ Û˘ÛÛÒÚ¢ÛË ÏÔ‡ÙÔ˘ Ê·›ÓÂÙ·È fiÙÈ ˆÊ¤ÏËÛ ηٿ ·ÚÈÔ ÏfiÁÔ ÙË Û˘ÓÙ¯Óȷ΋ ·ÛÙÈ΋ Ù¿ÍË ÙˆÓ Û˘ÓÙ¯ÓÈÒÓ, ·ÔÏ‹ÁÔÓÙ·˜ ÛÙË Û¯ÂÙÈ΋ fi͢ÓÛË ÙˆÓ Ù·ÍÈÎÒÓ ·ÓÙÈı¤ÛÂˆÓ (Van Zanden 1993: 18). √È ÂÈÊ·Ó›˜ ·ÛÙÈΤ˜ ηÙÔÈ˘ ÙÔ˘ ÕÌÛÙÂÚÓÙ·Ì ÂÌÊ·Ó›˙ÔÓÙ·È Ù·˘Ùfi¯ÚÔÓ· Ì ٷ ÂÚÁ·ÙÈο ÚÔ¿ÛÙÈ·. ∏ Ù·ÍÈ΋ fiψÛË Ù˘ ÔÏÏ·Ó‰È΋˜ ÎÔÈÓˆÓ›·˜ ÙÔ˘ 17Ô˘ ·ÈÒÓ·, ˆÛÙfiÛÔ, Â›Ó·È Ôχ ÏÈÁfiÙÂÚÔ ¤ÓÙÔÓË ·’ fi,ÙÈ Û ¿ÏϘ ÂÚÈÔ¯¤˜ Ù˘ ∂˘ÚÒ˘ ηٿ ÙËÓ ›‰È· ÂÚ›Ô‰Ô, ÁÂÁÔÓfi˜ Ô˘ Û˘Ó‰¤ÂÙ·È Î·È Ì ÙÔ Û˘ÁÎÚÈÙÈο ·˘ÍË̤ÓÔ ‡„Ô˜ ÙˆÓ ÌÈÛıÒÓ (De Vries 1993: 69). ∂›Ó·È ȉȷ›ÙÂÚ· ÂӉȷʤÚÔÓ ÙÔ ÁÂÁÔÓfi˜ fiÙÈ ÔÈ µfiÚÂȘ ∫¿Ùˆ ÃÒÚ˜, ·Ú¿ ÙÔ Â‡ÚÔ˜ Ù˘ ÂÌÔÚÂ˘Ì·ÙÈ΋˜ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌ›·˜ Î·È ÙËÓ ¤ÎÙ·ÛË Ù˘ Û˘ÛÛÒÚ¢Û˘ ÎÂÊ·Ï·›Ô˘, ‰ÂÓ ¤Ú·Û·Ó ·˘ÙÔ‰‡Ó·Ì· ÛÙÔÓ Î·ÈÙ·ÏÈÛÙÈÎfi ÙÚfiÔ ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜. ¶·Ú’ fiÙÈ Ô √ÏÏ·Ó‰fi˜ Ô˘ÚÈÙ·Ófi˜ ÚÔÙÂÛÙ¿ÓÙ˘ ·ÔÙÂÏ› ÙÔ Î·ÙÂÍÔ¯‹Ó ·Ú¯¤Ù˘Ô ÙÔ˘ ÎÂÊ·Ï·ÈÔÎÚ¿ÙË, Ë ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈ΋ ÙÔ˘ ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ· ÛÙ¿ıËΠÈÛÙÔÚÈο ·‰‡Ó·ÙÔ Ó· Ô‰ËÁ‹ÛÂÈ ÛÙËÓ ÔÏÔÎÏËÚˆÙÈ΋ ÂÈÎÚ¿ÙËÛË ÙˆÓ ÎÂÊ·Ï·ÈÔÎÚ·ÙÈÎÒÓ Û¯¤ÛÂˆÓ ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜. ∆Ô ÂÌÔÚÈÎfi Î·È ÙÔ ÙÔÎÔÁÏ˘ÊÈÎfi ÎÂÊ¿Ï·ÈÔ ‰ÂÓ ¤¯·Û·Ó ÔÙ¤ ÙËÓ ËÁÂÌÔÓÈ΋ ÙÔ˘˜ ı¤ÛË ·¤Ó·ÓÙÈ ÛÙÔ ‚ÈÔÌ˯·ÓÈÎfi. ∏ ÔÏÏ·Ó‰È΋ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌ›· Ê·›ÓÂÙ·È fiÙÈ ÂÁÎψ‚›ÛÙËΠÛÙËÓ «ÂÔ¯‹ ÙÔ˘ ÂÌÔÚÈÎÔ‡ ÎÂÊ·Ï·›Ô˘»_ Î·È Ï‹ÚˆÛ ÙÔÓ ·‰È¤ÍÔ‰Ô ÌÂÙ·‚·ÙÈÎfi Ù˘ ¯·Ú·ÎÙ‹Ú· Ì ÙË ‰Ú·Ì·ÙÈ΋ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈ΋ ÔÈÛıÔ‰ÚfiÌËÛË ·fi ÙÔ 1660 Î·È ÌÂÙ¿. ∏ ÌÂÙ¿‚·ÛË ÛÙÔÓ Î·ÈÙ·ÏÈÛÌfi ÔÏÔÎÏËÚÒıËΠÙÂÏÈο ÛÙËÓ ∞ÁÁÏ›·, Ë ÔÔ›· ηٿ ÙÔÓ 17Ô ·ÈÒÓ· ‹Ù·Ó ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈο ·ÛıÂÓ¤ÛÙÂÚË ÂÌÔÚÈο. ∂›Ó·È Ôχ ‰‡ÛÎÔÏÔ Ó· ÂÓÙÔ›ÛÂÈ Î·Ó›˜ Ì ·ÎÚ›‚ÂÈ· Ù· ÛÙÔȯ›· Ô˘ ηıÔÚ›˙Ô˘Ó ÙË ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈ΋ χÛË Ù˘ ‰È·ÏÂÎÙÈ΋˜ ·ÓÙ›ıÂÛ˘ ÌÂٷ͇ ÊÂÔ˘‰·ÏÈÎÒÓ Î·È ÎÂÊ·Ï·ÈÔÎÚ·ÙÈÎÒÓ ·Ú·ÁˆÁÈÎÒÓ Û¯¤ÛÂˆÓ ÛÙËÓ √ÏÏ·Ó‰›· Î·È ÛÙËÓ ∞ÁÁÏ›·. ªÔÚÔ‡Ó, ˆÛÙfiÛÔ, Ó· ·Ó·ÊÂÚıÔ‡Ó ÂÓ Û˘ÓÙÔÌ›· ÔÚÈṲ̂ӷ ÛËÌ›· Ù· ÔÔ›· ‰È·ÊÔÚÔÔÈÔ‡Ó Î·Ù·Ê·ÓÒ˜ ÙËÓ ÂÚ›ÙˆÛË ÙˆÓ µfiÚÂÈˆÓ ∫¿Ùˆ ÈÚÒÓ:


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∏ ·ÛÙÈ΋ ¯ˆÚÈ΋ ÔÚÁ¿ÓˆÛË

71

ñ ∏ Û¿ÓȘ ÚÒÙˆÓ ˘ÏÒÓ Î·È Ë ·ÛıÂÓ‹˜ ÂÁ¯ÒÚÈ· ·Ú·ÁˆÁÈ΋ ‚¿ÛË ÙˆÓ µfiÚÂÈˆÓ ∫¿Ùˆ ÈÚÒÓ. ∆Ô ÁÂÁÔÓfi˜ ·˘Ùfi ÂÍ·ÚÙ¿ ÙËÓ ÔÏÏ·Ó‰È΋ ‚ÈÔÌ˯·Ó›· ·fi ÙȘ ·ÁÔÚ¤˜ ÙÔ˘ Â͈ÙÂÚÈÎÔ‡ Î·È Î·ıÈÛÙ¿ ÙËÓ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌ›· Ù˘ ¯ÒÚ·˜ Û ÌÂÁ¿ÏÔ ‚·ıÌfi ÌÂÙ·Ú·ÙÈ΋. «¶Ú¤ÂÈ Î·Ó›˜ Ó· ‰ÂÈ ÙÔ˘˜ √ÏÏ·Ó‰Ô‡˜, fiˆ˜ ·˘ÙÔ› Ú¿ÁÌ·ÙÈ Â›Ó·È, ÔÈ ÌÂÛ¿˙ÔÓÙ˜ ÛÙÔ ÂÌfiÚÈÔ, ÔÈ ·Ú¿ÁÔÓÙ˜ Î·È ÔÈ ÌÂÛ›Ù˜ Ù˘ ∂˘ÚÒ˘ […]. ∞ÁÔÚ¿˙Ô˘Ó ÁÈ· Ó· ÌÂÙ·Ô˘ÏÔ‡Ó, ÂÈÛ¿ÁÔ˘Ó ÁÈ· Ó· ÂÍ¿ÁÔ˘Ó Î·È ÙÔ ÌÂÁ·Ï‡ÙÂÚÔ Ì¤ÚÔ˜ ÙÔ˘ ÙÂÚ¿ÛÙÈÔ˘ ÂÌÔÚ›Ô˘ ÙÔ˘˜ ÙÚÔÊÔ‰ÔÙÂ›Ù·È ·fi fiÏ· Ù· ̤ÚË ÙÔ˘ ÎfiÛÌÔ˘, ÁÈ· Ó· Â›Ó·È Û ı¤ÛË Ó· ÙÚÔÊÔ‰ÔÙ‹ÛÔ˘Ó ÙÔÓ ÎfiÛÌÔ ÛÙË Û˘Ó¤¯ÂÈ·».13∏ ÔÏÏ·Ó‰È΋ ·ÛÙÈ΋ Ù¿ÍË Î·ÚÒÓÂÙ·È Ì ÙÔÓ ÙÚfiÔ ·˘Ùfi ¤Ó· ÔÛfi ˘ÂÚÂÚÁ·Û›·˜, ÌÂÁ¿ÏÔ ÔÛÔÛÙfi ÙÔ˘ ÔÔ›Ô˘ ·ÔÛ¿Ù·È ÂÎÙfi˜ ÙˆÓ Û˘ÓfiÚˆÓ Î·È Û‡Ìʈӷ Ì ÙȘ ·Ú·ÁˆÁÈΤ˜ Û¯¤ÛÂȘ Ô˘ ÂÈÎÚ·ÙÔ‡Ó Û ¿ÏÏÔ˘˜ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎÔ‡˜ Û¯ËÌ·ÙÈÛÌÔ‡˜. ∞fi ÙËÓ ¿ÏÏË ÏÂ˘Ú¿, Ë ·ÛıÂÓ‹˜ ÂÁ¯ÒÚÈ· ·Ú·ÁˆÁÈ΋ ‚¿ÛË Î·Ù¢ı‡ÓÂÈ ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈο ÎÂÊ¿Ï·È· ÛÙÔ Â͈ÙÂÚÈÎfi, ÂȉÈο ÌÂÙ¿ ÙÔ 1660, ‰È·‰Èηۛ· Ô˘ Ô‰ËÁ› ÛÙËÓ ·ÔÛ˘ÛÛÒÚ¢ÛË ÙˆÓ ÎÚ›ÛÈÌˆÓ ÁÈ· ÙË ÌÂÙ¿‚·ÛË fiÚˆÓ Û ÂıÓÈÎfi Â›‰Ô. ñ √ ¯·ÌËÏfi˜ ‚·ıÌfi˜ Û˘ÁΤÓÙÚˆÛ˘ Ù˘ ÂÍÔ˘Û›·˜, Ô ÔÔ›Ô˜ ‰ÂÓ ÂÈÙÚ¤ÂÈ ÙËÓ ÂÊ·ÚÌÔÁ‹ ÌÈ·˜ Û˘ÓÂÔ‡˜ Î·È Û˘ÓÂÎÙÈ΋˜ ÌÂÚηÓÙÈÏÈÛÙÈ΋˜ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋˜.14 √ ÎÚ·ÙÈÎfi˜ ·ÚÂÌ‚·ÙÈÛÌfi˜ ˘‹ÚÍ ÈÛÙÔÚÈο ··Ú·›ÙËÙÔ˜ fiÚÔ˜ ÁÈ· ÙË Û˘ÛÛÒÚ¢ÛË ÎÂÊ·Ï·›Ô˘ Û ÂıÓÈ΋ ‚¿ÛË Î·È ÙËÓ ÚÔÒıËÛË ÙˆÓ Î·ÈÙ·ÏÈÛÙÈÎÒÓ ·Ú·ÁˆÁÈÎÒÓ Û¯¤ÛˆÓ. ™ÙËÓ ÂÚ›ÙˆÛË Ù˘ √ÏÏ·Ó‰›·˜, ˆÛÙfiÛÔ, Ë Ú‡ıÌÈÛË Ù˘ ·ÁÔÚ¿˜ Î·È Ô ¤ÏÂÁ¯Ô˜ Ù˘ ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜ ·Ú·Ì¤ÓÔ˘Ó ÛÙË ‰ÈηÈÔ‰ÔÛ›· ÙˆÓ Û˘ÓÙ¯ÓÈ·ÎÒÓ ÔÚÁ·ÓÒÛÂˆÓ (Klein Î·È Veluwenkamp 1993: 45), ÔÈ Ôԛ˜ ‰È·ÙËÚÔ‡Ó Û ÌÂÁ¿ÏÔ ‚·ıÌfi ÙËÓ ·˘ÙÔÓÔÌ›· ÙÔ˘˜ ·fi ÙËÓ ÎÂÓÙÚÈ΋ ÂÍÔ˘Û›·.15 ∏ Û˘Óı‹ÎË ·˘Ù‹ ÁÂÓÓ¿ ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈΤ˜ ·ÓÙÈÊ¿ÛÂȘ Î·È ·ÏÈÓˆ‰›Â˜, ÂÓÒ ·fi ÙËÓ ¿ÏÏË ·ÔÙ˘Á¯¿ÓÂÈ Ó· ·Ú¤¯ÂÈ Ù· ÎÚ›ÛÈÌ· ÌÂÁ¤ıË ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ÂÚ·ÈÙ¤Úˆ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈ΋ ·Ó¿Ù˘ÍË ÙˆÓ fiÏÂˆÓ Ù˘ ÂÚÈÔ¯‹˜. ñ ∏ Û¯ÂÙÈο ÂÚÈÔÚÈṲ̂ÓË Ô͇ÙËÙ· ÙˆÓ Ù·ÍÈÎÒÓ ·ÓÙÈı¤ÛˆÓ, Ë ÔÔ›· ·ÓÙ·Ó·ÎÏ¿Ù·È Î·È ÛÙÔÓ ·Ì‚Ï˘Ì¤ÓÔ ¯·Ú·ÎÙ‹Ú· Ù˘ ·ÓÙ›ıÂÛ˘ fiÏ˘ Î·È ˘·›ıÚÔ˘. ∆Ô ÁÂÁÔÓfi˜ ·˘Ùfi ·Ó·ÎfiÙÂÈ ÙË ‰È·‰Èηۛ· Á¤ÓÓËÛ˘ ÙÔ˘ ÛÙÚ·ÙÔ‡ ÙˆÓ ÌÈÛıˆÙÒÓ ÂÚÁ·ÙÒÓ. ∞fi ÙËÓ ¿ÏÏË ÏÂ˘Ú¿, Ë ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈ΋ Î·È ÔÏÈÙÈ΋ ÈÛ¯‡˜ ÙˆÓ Û˘ÓÙ¯ÓÈÒÓ ·ÔÙÂÏ› ·Ó·ÛÙ·ÏÙÈÎfi ·Ú¿ÁÔÓÙ· Û οı ÚÔÛ¿ıÂÈ· Â·Ó·ÛÙÈÎÔÔ›ËÛ˘ ÙˆÓ ·Ú·ÁˆÁÈÎÒÓ Û¯¤ÛˆÓ. ªÂ ÙÔÓ ÙÚfiÔ ·˘Ùfi ‰È·ÈˆÓ›˙ÂÙ·È Ë ÚˆÙÔηı‰ڛ· ÙÔ˘ ‰Â‡ÙÂÚÔ˘ ÌË Â·Ó·ÛÙ·ÙÈÎÔ‡ ‰ÚfiÌÔ˘ ηٿÎÙËÛ˘ Ù˘ ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜ ·fi ÙÔ ÎÂÊ¿Ï·ÈÔ, fiˆ˜ ÙÔÓ ÂÚÈÁÚ¿ÊÂÈ Ô ª·ÚÍ (ª·ÚÍ 1978, 3: 423).16


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ª¿ÓÔ˜ ™ÎÔ‡ÊÔÁÏÔ˘

∂¶π§√°√™ ∏ ·ÚÔ‡Û· Û˘Ì‚ÔÏ‹ ‰ÂÓ ÊÈÏÔ‰ÔÍ› Ó· ÂÚÈÁÚ¿„ÂÈ ÂÍ·ÓÙÏËÙÈο ÙËÓ ÈÛÙÔÚÈ΋ ‰È·‰Èηۛ· Ù˘ ÌÂÙ¿‚·Û˘ ÙˆÓ µfiÚÂÈˆÓ ∫¿Ùˆ ÈÚÒÓ ÛÙÔÓ Î·ÈÙ·ÏÈÛÌfi. °È· ÙÔ ÏfiÁÔ ·˘Ùfi, ¿ÏψÛÙÂ, Ë ÈÛÙÔÚÈ΋ ·Ó·ÊÔÚ¿ ÛÙ·Ì·Ù¿ÂÈ ÚÈÓ ·fi ÙËÓ ÂÚ›Ô‰Ô Ù˘ ÙÂÏÈ΋˜ ÂÈÎÚ¿ÙËÛ˘ ÙˆÓ ÎÂÊ·Ï·ÈÔÎÚ·ÙÈÎÒÓ Û¯¤ÛÂˆÓ ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜, ̤۷ ·fi ÙË ÁÂӛ΢ÛË ÙÔ˘ Û˘ÛÙ‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ Ù˘ ÌÈÛıˆÙ‹˜ ÂÚÁ·Û›·˜, Ô˘ ·ÔÙÂÏ› Î·È ÙÔ Î·Ù¯ÔÍ‹Ó ÎÚÈÙ‹ÚÈÔ ÁÈ· ÙË ÌÂÙ¿‚·ÛË. ™Ùfi¯Ô˜ ‹Ù·Ó Ó· ÂÓÙÔÈÛÙÔ‡Ó Î·È Ó· ÙÂÎÌËÚȈıÔ‡Ó ÔÚÈṲ̂Ó˜ Û˘Óı‹Î˜, ÈÛÙÔÚÈΤ˜ Û˘ÁÎ˘Ú›Â˜ Î·È ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚÈÛÙÈο Ù˘ ÌÂÙ·‚·ÙÈ΋˜ ÂÚÈfi‰Ô˘ ÛÙȘ µfiÚÂȘ ∫¿Ùˆ ÃÒÚ˜ Ô˘ ‰È·ÊÔÚÔÔÈÔ‡Ó ÙËÓ ÂÚ›ÙˆÛ‹ ÙÔ˘˜ ·fi ÙÔ ÁÂÓÈÎfi ÌÔÓÙ¤ÏÔ Ù˘ ÈÛÙÔÚÈ΋˜ ‰È·‰Èηۛ·˜ Ù˘ ÌÂÙ¿‚·Û˘ ÛÙË ¢˘ÙÈ΋ ∂˘ÚÒË ‹, ¤ÛÙˆ, ÂÍÂȉÈÎÂ‡Ô˘Ó Ù· ÂÚÌËÓ¢ÙÈο Û¯‹Ì·Ù· ÁÈ· ÙË Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤ÓË ÂÚÈÔ¯‹. ∆· Û˘ÌÂÚ¿ÛÌ·Ù· ÌÈ·˜ Ù¤ÙÔÈ·˜ ¤Ú¢ӷ˜ ı· ÌÔÚÔ‡Û·Ó Ó· Û˘Ì‚¿ÏÔ˘Ó ÛÙËÓ Î·Ù·ÓfiËÛË ÙÔ˘ Ê·ÈÓÔÌÂÓÈÎÔ‡ ÈÛÙÔÚÈÎÔ‡ ·Ú·‰fiÍÔ˘ Ù˘ √ÏÏ·Ó‰›·˜, Ô˘ ·fi ·È¯Ì‹ Ù˘ ·ÁÎfiÛÌÈ·˜ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌ›·˜ Î·È Â›ÎÂÓÙÚÔ Ù˘ ·ÁÎfiÛÌÈ·˜ ÂÌÔÚÂ˘Ì·ÙÈ΋˜ ΢ÎÏÔÊÔÚ›·˜ ηٿ ÙÔ 17Ô ·ÈÒÓ·, η٤ÏËÍ ÂÓ¿ÌÈÛË ·ÈÒÓ· ·ÚÁfiÙÂÚ· ÌÈ· ηı˘ÛÙÂÚË̤ÓË ·ÁÚÔÙÈ΋ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌ›·. ∏ Û˘Ì‚ÔÏ‹ Â›Ó·È ‚·ÛÈṲ̂ÓË Û ÌÈ· ¢ڇÙÂÚË ÂÚ¢ÓËÙÈ΋ ÂÚÁ·Û›· Ô˘ ı¤ÙÂÈ ÛÙÔ ÛÙfi¯·ÛÙÚfi Ù˘ fi¯È ÌfiÓÔ ÙȘ ›‰È˜ ÙȘ ÈÛÙÔÚÈΤ˜ ‰ÈÂÚÁ·Û›Â˜ Ù˘ ÌÂÙ¿‚·Û˘ ÛÙËÓ ÂÚÈÔ¯‹ ÙˆÓ µfiÚÂÈˆÓ ∫¿Ùˆ ÈÚÒÓ, ·ÏÏ¿ Î·È ÙËÓ ÔÏ˘Â›Â‰Ë Î·È ÂÚ›ÏÔÎË Û¯¤ÛË ÙÔ˘˜ Ì ÙÔ˘˜ ÌÂÙ·Û¯ËÌ·ÙÈÛÌÔ‡˜ Ù˘ ¯ˆÚÈ΋˜ ÔÚÁ¿ÓˆÛ˘, ÙËÓ ÂͤÏÈÍË Ù˘ Û¯¤Û˘ fiÏ˘ Î·È ˘·›ıÚÔ˘ ηÈ, ‚¤‚·È·, ÙËÓ ·ÛÙÈÎÔÔ›ËÛË. ∏ ‰ÈÂÚ‡ÓËÛË ·˘Ù‹˜ Ù˘ Û¯¤Û˘ ·ÔÙÂÏ› ¤Ó· ·Î·Óı҉˜ Úfi‚ÏËÌ·, Ôχ ÂÚÈÛÛfiÙÂÚÔ ·ÊÔ‡ Ë ¯ˆÚÈ΋ ÔÚÁ¿ÓˆÛË ‰ÂÓ ÌÔÚ› Ó· Ù·ÍÈÓÔÌËı› Î·È Ó· ÌÂÏÂÙËı› Û ¤Ó· ÌfiÓÔ Â›‰Ô, ·ÏÏ¿ ·ÔÙÂÏ› Ù·˘Ùfi¯ÚÔÓ· ÛÙÔÈ¯Â›Ô ÙÔ˘ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎÔ‡ Î·È Ù¯ÓÈÎÔ‡ ηٷÌÂÚÈÛÌÔ‡ ÂÚÁ·Û›·˜, ·ÓÙÈΛÌÂÓÔ Î·È ÚÔ˚fiÓ ÔÏÈÙÈÎÒÓ ·ÓÙÈı¤ÛˆÓ, ηıÒ˜ Î·È ÊÔÚ¤· ȉÂÔÏÔÁÈÎÒÓ, ·ÈÛıËÙÈÎÒÓ Î·È Û˘Ì‚ÔÏÈÎÒÓ ÚÔÛ‰ÈÔÚÈÛÌÒÓ. ¶·Ú·Ì¤ÓÂÈ, ˆÛÙfiÛÔ, ÙÔ ÁÂÁÔÓfi˜ fiÙÈ ÌÈ· Ù¤ÙÔÈ· ÚÔÛ¤ÁÁÈÛË ı· ‹Ù·Ó ¯Ú‹ÛÈÌË ÒÛÙÂ, ÌÂٷ͇ ¿ÏψÓ, Ó· ʈÙÈÛÙÔ‡Ó ÔÚÈṲ̂Ó˜ ÂÁÁÂÓ›˜ Ù¿ÛÂȘ Î·È ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚÈÛÙÈο Ô˘ Â›Ó·È ÂÁÁÂÁÚ·Ì̤ӷ ÛÙË ‰ÔÌ‹, ÙË ¯ˆÚÈ΋ Ê˘ÛÈÔÁӈ̛· Î·È ÙË ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ›· ÙˆÓ ÔÏÏ·Ó‰ÈÎÒÓ fiψÓ. º˘ÛÈο, ÛÙ· fiÚÈ· ÌÈ·˜ ÙfiÛÔ Û‡ÓÙÔÌ˘ ‰ËÌÔÛ›Â˘Û˘ Ô Û˘Û¯ÂÙÈÛÌfi˜ Ì ÙÔÓ ¯ˆÚÈÎfi ·Ú¿ÁÔÓÙ· ‰ÂÓ ÌÔÚÔ‡Û ·Ú¿ Ó· Â›Ó·È ÂÚÈÔÚÈṲ̂ÓÔ˜, ·ÚÂÓıÂÙÈÎfi˜ Î·È Û¯ÂÙÈο ÂÏÏÂÈÙÈÎfi˜, ȉ›ˆ˜ ÛÙÔ ‚·ıÌfi Ô˘ ·Ú¤ÏÂÈ ¤Ó· ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈÎfi Î·È ÂȉÈο ÔÏÏ·Ó‰ÈÎfi ·Ú¿ÁÔÓÙ·: Ù· ȉȷ›ÙÂÚ· ÁˆÌÔÚÊÔÏÔÁÈο Î·È ÎÏÈÌ·ÙÔÏÔÁÈο


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∏ ·ÛÙÈ΋ ¯ˆÚÈ΋ ÔÚÁ¿ÓˆÛË

73

¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚÈÛÙÈο Ù˘ ÂÚÈÔ¯‹˜, Ë Î·ÙÔ›ÎËÛË Ù˘ ÔÔ›·˜ ··ÈÙ› ‰È·Ú΋ ÂÁÁÂÈÔ‚ÂÏÙȈÙÈο ¤ÚÁ·. ∆· ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚÈÛÙÈο ·˘Ù¿ ηıÈÛÙÔ‡Ó ÙÔ ÔÏÏ·Ó‰ÈÎfi ÙÔ›Ô ÌÈ· ηÙÂÍÔ¯‹Ó ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋ ηٷÛ΢‹, Î·È ÙȘ µfiÚÂȘ ∫¿Ùˆ ÃÒÚ˜ ۯ‰fiÓ ¤Ó· ›ڷ̷ ÁÈ· ÙË ÌÂϤÙË Ù˘ ¿Ï˘ ÙÔ˘ ·ÓıÚÒÔ˘ Ì ÙË Ê‡ÛË.

™∏ª∂πø™∂π™ 1 ∞ÎfiÌ· Î·È Ê·ÈÓÔÌÂÓÈο Ù˘¯·›· ‹ Â͈ÙÂÚÈο ÈÛÙÔÚÈο ÂÚÈÛÙ·ÙÈο, fiˆ˜ Ë ÂÍ¿ψÛË ÂȉËÌÈÒÓ, ›ӷÈ, Û ÙÂÏÈ΋ ·Ó¿Ï˘ÛË, ‚·ı‡Ù·Ù· ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈο, Ì ÙËÓ ¤ÓÓÔÈ· fiÙÈ ÔÈ Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤Ó˜ ˘ÏÈΤ˜ Û˘Óı‹Î˜ Ù˘ ·Ú·ÁˆÁÈ΋˜ Î·È ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋˜ ÔÚÁ¿ÓˆÛ˘ Â›Ó·È Ô˘ ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁÔ‡Ó ÙȘ ÈÛÙÔÚÈΤ˜ ÚÔ¸Ôı¤ÛÂȘ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ÂΉ‹ÏˆÛ‹ ÙÔ˘˜. À’ ·˘Ùfi ÙÔ Ú›ÛÌ· Ô Cipolla ·Ú·ÙËÚ› fiÙÈ Ë ÂÍ¿ψÛË Ù˘ ª·‡Ú˘ ¶·ÓÒÏ˘ ·ÔÙÂÏ› Û ÌÂÁ¿ÏÔ ‚·ıÌfi ·fiÙÔÎÔ Ù˘ ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈ΋˜ Û˘ÁΤÓÙÚˆÛ˘ ÏËı˘ÛÌÔ‡ ÛÙȘ ·Óı˘ÁÈÂÈÓ¤˜ fiÏÂȘ ÙÔ˘ ⁄ÛÙÂÚÔ˘ ªÂÛ·›ˆÓ·, Î·È ÂÔ̤ӈ˜, ÛÙÔ ‚¿ıÔ˜, Ù˘ ·Ó¿Ù˘Í˘ ÙÔ˘ ÂÌÔÚ›Ô˘ Î·È ÙÔ˘ Û˘ÓÙ¯ÓÈ·ÎÔ‡ Û˘ÛÙ‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ (Cipolla 1988 : 211) 2 ∆Ô ·fiÛ·ÛÌ· Â›Ó·È ‚·ÛÈṲ̂ÓÔ ÛÙËÓ ÂÚÈÔ‰ÔÏfiÁËÛË Ô˘ ÚÔÙ›ÓÂÈ Ô ÃfiÌÛÌ·Ô˘Ì (ÃfiÌÛÌ·Ô˘Ì 1986 : 233). ∏ ÂÚÈÔ‰ÔÏfiÁËÛË ·ÔÎÏ›ÓÂÈ ÂÏ·ÊÚÒ˜ ·fi Ù· ÔÚfiÛËÌ· Ô˘ Ù›ıÂÓÙ·È ÛÙË Û˘Ó¤¯ÂÈ· ÙÔ˘ ÎÂÈ̤ÓÔ˘, ÙfiÛÔ ÂÂȉ‹ ¤¯ÂÈ Á›ÓÂÈ ·ÔÎÏÂÈÛÙÈο Ì ÁÓÒÌÔÓ· ÙËÓ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈ΋ ·Ó¿Ù˘ÍË, ·ÓÂÍ·Úًو˜ ÙˆÓ ·Ú·ÁˆÁÈÎÒÓ Û¯¤ÛÂˆÓ ÛÙȘ Ôԛ˜ ·˘Ù‹ ‚·Û›˙ÂÙ·È, fiÛÔ Î·È ÁÈ·Ù› Ë ›‰È· Ë ¯ÚÔÓÔÏfiÁËÛË ÙˆÓ ‰È·ÊfiÚˆÓ Ê¿ÛÂˆÓ Ù˘ ÌÂÙ¿‚·Û˘ ‰ÂÓ ÌÔÚ› Ó· Â›Ó·È ·Ôχو˜ ·ÛÊ·Ï‹˜. 3 ∏ ÂÌÔÚÈ΋ Î·È ÛÙÚ·ÙȈÙÈ΋ Û˘ÌÌ·¯›· Ù˘ ÷ÓÛ·ÙÈ΋˜ ŒÓˆÛ˘ ȉڇÂÙ·È ÙÔ 1241 Ì ÙË Û˘Óı‹ÎË ÌÂٷ͇ ∞Ì‚Ô‡ÚÁÔ˘ Î·È §‡ÌÂÎ. ™ÙË Ì¤ÁÈÛÙË ·ÎÌ‹ Ù˘ Ë ŒÓˆÛË ÂÚÈÏ·Ì‚¿ÓÂÈ ¿Óˆ ·fi 90 fiÏÂȘ-̤ÏË. 4 ∏ Î¿Ì„Ë ·˘Ù‹ ÔÊ›ÏÂÙ·È ÂÓ Ì¤ÚÂÈ ÛÙËÓ ·ÒÏÂÈ· ηÏÏÈÂÚÁ‹ÛÈÌÔ˘ ‰¿ÊÔ˘˜ ÏfiÁˆ Ù˘ ·Ófi‰Ô˘ Ù˘ ÛÙ¿ıÌ˘ ÙÔ˘ ÓÂÚÔ‡ Î·È ÂÓ Ì¤ÚÂÈ ÛÙË ÌÂٷ·ÏÈÛË ÛÙËÓ ÎÙËÓÔÙÚÔÊ›·. ªÂ ÙËÓ ¤ÓÓÔÈ· ·˘Ù‹ Â›Ó·È Ù·˘Ùfi¯ÚÔÓ· ·ÈÙ›· Î·È ·ÔÙ¤ÏÂÛÌ· Ù˘ ·Ó¿Ù˘Í˘ Ù˘ ˘Ê·ÓÙÔ˘ÚÁ›·˜ Ù˘ ˘·›ıÚÔ˘ (Lambert 1971: 124 Î·È 158). 5 ∏ ·Ú·Ù‹ÚËÛË ·˘Ù‹ ‰Ó ÛËÌ·›ÓÂÈ, ·fi ÙËÓ ¿ÏÏË, fiÙÈ ı· Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ˘Ôı¤ÛÂÈ Î·Ó›˜ ÌÈ· ·‰È¿ÚÚËÎÙË ÂÓfiÙËÙ· fiÏ˘ Î·È ˘·›ıÚÔ˘ ÛÙËÓ ÂÚ›ÙˆÛË ÙˆÓ ∫¿Ùˆ ÈÚÒÓ. ∏ ·ÔÙ˘¯›·, Ì¿ÏÈÛÙ·, ÙˆÓ ˘Ê·ÓÙÔ˘ÚÁÈÎÒÓ fiÏÂˆÓ Ù˘ ºÏ¿Ó‰Ú·˜ Ó· Û˘ÁÎÚÔÙËıÔ‡Ó Û fiÏÂȘ-ÎÚ¿ÙË ·Ó¿ÏÔÁ˜ ·˘ÙÒÓ Ù˘ πÙ·Ï›·˜ ¤¯ÂÈ ·Ô‰Ôı› ·fi ÙÔÓ Nicholas ÛÙËÓ «·ÔÎÏÂÈÛÙÈ΋ ÂÓ·Û¯fiÏËÛË ÙˆÓ ·ÛÙÒÓ Ì ÙËÓ fiÏË Î·È Ù· ·ÛÙÈο Û˘ÌʤÚÔÓÙ·», Ë ÔÔ›· ·ÔÎÏ›ÂÈ ÙËÓ ÔÈÎÔ‰fiÌËÛË ÌÈ·˜ ‚ÈÒÛÈÌ˘ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈ΋˜ ÂÓfiÙËÙ·˜ ÌÂٷ͇ fiÏ˘ Î·È ˘·›ıÚÔ˘, ‚Ï. D.M. Nicholas 1968, «Town and Countryside: Social and Economic Tensions in 14th century Flanders» (ÛÙÔ ¶ÚÔοÙÛÈ 1986: 263). 6 ∞˘Ùfi ·Ó·ÓÙ›ÚÚËÙ· ÈÛ¯‡ÂÈ, ·Ú¿ ÙË Û‡ÁÎÚÔ˘ÛË Û˘ÌÊÂÚfiÓÙˆÓ ÌÂٷ͇ ÂÎÎÏËÛÈ·ÛÙÈÎÒÓ Î·È ÎÔÛÌÈÎÒÓ ·Ú¯fiÓÙˆÓ, Ë ÔÔ›·, fiÛÔ ÔÍ›˜ ÌÔÚʤ˜ Î·È ·Ó ·›ÚÓÂÈ ÂÓ›ÔÙÂ, ‰ÂÓ ·‡ÂÈ Ó· Â›Ó·È ÌÈ· ·ÓÙ›ıÂÛË ÂÓ‰ÔÊÂÔ˘‰·ÏÈ΋.


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7 ∏ ÊÈÏÂχıÂÚË «·ÓÔ¯‹ ÛÙË ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈÎfiÙËÙ·» ·ÔÙÂÏ› ̤¯ÚÈ Û‹ÌÂÚ· ‚·ÛÈÎfi Û˘ÛÙ·ÙÈÎfi ÛÙÔÈ¯Â›Ô Ù˘ ÔÏÏ·Ó‰È΋˜ ΢ڛ·Ú¯Ë˜ ȉÂÔÏÔÁ›·˜. √È ÚfiÛÊ·Ù˜ Ú·ÙÛÈÛÙÈΤ˜ ‰È·‰ËÏÒÛÂȘ Î·È Ë ¿ÓÔ‰Ô˜ Ù˘ ¿ÎÚ·˜ ‰ÂÍÈ¿˜, ˆÛÙfiÛÔ, ‰Â›¯ÓÔ˘Ó fiÙÈ ÙÔ ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚÈÛÙÈÎfi ·˘Ùfi Ù›ıÂÙ·È ÛÙËÓ Ú¿ÍË ˘fi ·›ÚÂÛË. 8 ∫·È ‰ÂÓ ı· ÌÔÚÔ‡Û ӷ Â›Ó·È Î¿ÙÈ ÂÚÈÛÛfiÙÂÚÔ, ‰Â‰Ô̤ÓÔ˘ ÙÔ˘ ¯·ÌËÏÔ‡ ‚·ıÌÔ‡ ÂÍ¿ψÛ˘ ÙˆÓ ÎÂÊ·Ï·ÈÔÎÚ·ÙÈÎÒÓ ·Ú·ÁˆÁÈÎÒÓ Û¯¤ÛˆÓ. 9 ∏ ÈÛÙÔÚ›· Ù˘ ˘·ÁˆÁ‹˜ ÙˆÓ ∫¿Ùˆ ÈÚÒÓ ÛÙÔ ÈÛ·ÓÈÎfi ÛÙ¤ÌÌ· ¤¯ÂÈ ˆ˜ ÂÍ‹˜: ÙÔ 1430 Ë ÂÚÈÔ¯‹ (ÂÎÙfi˜ Ù˘ Â·Ú¯›·˜ Gelderland) ÂÓÔÔÈÂ›Ù·È ˘fi ÙËÓ ÂÍÔ˘Û›· ÙÔ˘ ºÈÏ›Ô˘ µã ÙÔ˘ ∫·ÏÔ‡, Ô˘ ·Ó‹ÎÂÈ ÛÙÔÓ Ô›ÎÔ Ù˘ µÔ˘ÚÁÔ˘Ó‰›·˜. ∆Ô 1477 Ë ª·Ú›· Ù˘ µÔ˘ÚÁÔ˘Ó‰›·˜ ·ÓÙÚ‡ÂÙ·È ÙÔÓ ª·ÍÈÌÈÏÈ·Ófi ÙˆÓ ∞„‚Ô‡ÚÁˆÓ, ·˘ÙÔÎÚ¿ÙÔÚ· Ù˘ ∞Á›·˜ ƒˆÌ·˚΋˜ ∞˘ÙÔÎÚ·ÙÔÚ›·˜. ∆Ô 1482 Ô ÁÈÔ˜ ÙÔ˘˜ º›ÏÈÔ˜ ∞ã Ô øÚ·›Ô˜ Á›ÓÂÙ·È ‰Ô‡Î·˜ ÙˆÓ ∫¿Ùˆ ÈÚÒÓ, ÔÈ Ôԛ˜ ÂÚÓÔ‡Ó ¤ÙÛÈ ÛÙ· ¯¤ÚÈ· Ù˘ ‰˘Ó·ÛÙ›·˜ ÙˆÓ ∞„‚Ô‡ÚÁˆÓ. Œ¯ÔÓÙ·˜ ·ÓÙÚ¢Ù› ÙËÓ πˆ¿ÓÓ· ÙËÓ ∆ÚÂÏ‹, ÎfiÚË ÙÔ˘ ºÂÚ‰ÈÓ¿Ó‰Ô˘ Ù˘ ∞Ú·ÁÔÓ›·˜ Î·È Ù˘ πÛ·‚¤ÏÏ·˜ Ù˘ ∫·ÛÙ›Ï˘, Ô º›ÏÈÔ˜ Á›ÓÂÙ·È ÙÔ 1506 ‚·ÛÈÏÈ¿˜ Ù˘ πÛ·Ó›·˜. ªÂÙ¿ ÙÔ ı¿Ó·ÙÔ ÙÔ˘ ºÈÏ›Ô˘, Ô ÁÈÔ˜ ÙÔ˘ ∫¿ÚÔÏÔ˜ ∂ã Á›ÓÂÙ·È ‚·ÛÈÏÈ¿˜ ÙÔ˘ ‚·ÛÈÏ›Ԣ «fiÔ˘ Ô ‹ÏÈÔ˜ ‰Â ‰‡ÂÈ ÔÙ¤», ÙÔ ÔÔ›Ô ÂÚÈÏ·Ì‚¿ÓÂÈ ÙËÓ ∞Á›· ƒˆÌ·˚΋ ∞˘ÙÔÎÚ·ÙÔÚ›·, ÙËÓ ∞˘ÛÙÚ›·, ÙËÓ πÛ·Ó›· Î·È ÙȘ ÎÙ‹ÛÂȘ Ù˘ ÛÙËÓ ∞ÌÂÚÈ΋ ηÈ, ‚¤‚·È·, ÙȘ ∫¿Ùˆ ÃÒÚ˜. 10 √È Ù·Ï·ÓÙ‡ÛÂȘ Ù˘ ·ÛÙÈ΋˜ ÎÔÈÓfiÙËÙ·˜ ÙÔ˘ ÕÌÛÙÂÚÓÙ·Ì ·ÔÙÂÏÔ‡Ó ·ÎfiÌ· ÌÈ· ¤Ó‰ÂÈÍË ÙÔ˘ ‰˘Ó¿ÌÂÈ ·ÓÙȉڷÛÙÈÎÔ‡ ÚfiÏÔ˘ Ù˘ ÂÌÔÚÈ΋˜ ·ÛÙÈ΋˜ Ù¿Í˘. 11 ∏ ÌÔÓ·Ú¯›· Â·Ó¤Ú¯ÂÙ·È ÛÙËÓ √ÏÏ·Ó‰›· ÙÔ 1806, ÌÂÙ¿ ÙËÓ Î·Ù¿ÎÙËÛ‹ Ù˘ ·fi ÙÔÓ ¡·ÔϤÔÓÙ·. øÛÙfiÛÔ, Î·È Î·Ù¿ ÙËÓ ÂÚ›Ô‰Ô Ù˘ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜ ÙÔ ·Í›ˆÌ· ÙÔ˘ ΢‚ÂÚÓ‹ÙË (stadhouder) ·Ú·Ì¤ÓÂÈ ÛÙËÓ Ô˘Û›· ÎÏËÚÔÓÔÌÈÎfi. 12 º·›ÓÂÙ·È fiÙÈ ÔÈ √ÏÏ·Ó‰Ô› ‰ÂÓ Ù‹ÚËÛ·Ó È‰È·›ÙÂÚ· Û˘ÓÙÚÔÊÈ΋ ÛÙ¿ÛË ·¤Ó·ÓÙÈ ÛÙȘ fiÏÂȘ ÙˆÓ ¡fiÙÈˆÓ ∫¿Ùˆ ÈÚÒÓ Î·Ù¿ ÙËÓ ÂÚ›Ô‰Ô ·˘Ù‹. ∞ÓÙÈı¤Ùˆ˜, Û˘Ó¤‚·Ï·Ó ¤ÌÚ·ÎÙ· ÛÙËÓ ÂÈ‚Ú¿‰˘ÓÛË Ù˘ ·Ó¿Î·Ì„‹˜ ÙÔ˘˜, ·ÔÎÏ›ÔÓÙ·˜ ·fi ı·Ï¿ÛÛ˘ Ù· ÏÈÌ¿ÓÈ· Ù˘ ÂÚÈÔ¯‹˜ (Cipolla 1988: 345). 13 Defoe, «A plan of the English Commerce»: 192 (ÛÙÔ Cipolla 1988: 349). 14 √ Rubin ÈÛ¯˘Ú›˙ÂÙ·È fiÙÈ Ë ÂÔ¯‹ ÙÔ˘ ÌÂÚηÓÙÈÏÈÛÌÔ‡ ˘‹ÚÍÂ Ë ÂÔ¯‹ ÙÔ˘ ÂÌÔÚÈÎÔ‡ ÎÂÊ·Ï·›Ô˘, fiˆ˜ Î·È Ù˘ ·fiÏ˘Ù˘ ÌÔÓ·Ú¯›·˜. ∞Ó·ÌÊ›‚ÔÏ· ηٿ ÙÔÓ 16Ô Î·È ÙÔÓ 17Ô ·ÈÒÓ· ÙÔ ÂÌÔÚÈÎfi ÎÂÊ¿Ï·ÈÔ ÂÈÎÚ·Ù› ÁÂÓÈο ÙÔ˘ ‚ÈÔÌ˯·ÓÈÎÔ‡. ™ÙÔÓ fiÚÔ «ÚÒÈÌÔ˜ ηÈÙ·ÏÈÛÌfi˜», Ô˘ ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔÈ› ÂÓ·ÏÏ·ÎÙÈο Ô Rubin (Rubin 1989: ÎÂÊ. 1) ›Ûˆ˜ ÌÔÚ› Ó· ÂÂÎÙ·ı› Ë ‚¿ÛÈÌË ¤ÓÛÙ·ÛË ÙÔ˘ ¶ÚÔοÙÛÈ ÁÈ· ÙÔÓ fiÚÔ «ÂÌÔÚÈÎfi˜ ηÈÙ·ÏÈÛÌfi˜». √ πÙ·Ïfi˜ ÈÛÙÔÚÈÎfi˜ ıˆÚ› ˆ˜ Ù¤ÙÔÈÔ˘ ›‰Ô˘˜ ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚÈÛÌÔ› ÂÓ¤¯Ô˘Ó ÙÔÓ Î›Ó‰˘ÓÔ Ù˘ ·Ú·‰Ô¯‹˜ ÂÓfi˜ ˘ÔıÂÙÈÎÔ‡ ‰È·ÎÚÈÙÔ‡ ÙÚfiÔ˘ ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜, ÂӉȿÌÂÛÔ˘ ÙÔ˘ ÊÂÔ˘‰·ÏÈÎÔ‡ Î·È ÙÔ˘ ηÈÙ·ÏÈÛÙÈÎÔ‡, Û ÌÈ· ÂÚ›Ô‰Ô Ô˘ ÔÊ›ÏÂÈ ÙÔÓ ÂȉÈÎfi Ù˘ ¯·Ú·ÎÙ‹Ú· ·ÏÒ˜ ÛÙÔ fiÙÈ Â›Ó·È ÌÂÙ·‚·ÙÈ΋. ∫¿ÙÈ Ù¤ÙÔÈÔ ¯ÚÂÒÓÂÈ ÛÙÔÓ ™Ô˘‹˙˘, Ô˘ ÌÈÏ¿ÂÈ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ «ÚÔηÈÙ·ÏÈÛÙÈ΋ ÂÌÔÚÂ˘Ì·ÙÈ΋ ÂÚ›Ô‰Ô» ÙÔ˘ 15Ô˘ Î·È ÙÔ˘ 16Ô˘ ·ÈÒÓ· (¶ÚÔοÙÛÈ 1986: 196). 15 ªÂ ·˘Ù‹ ÙËÓ ¤ÓÓÔÈ· Â›Ó·È Ì¿ÏÏÔÓ ¿ÛÙÔ¯Ë Ë ·Ú·Ù‹ÚËÛË ÙÔ˘ Huizinga ˆ˜ Ë ÔÏÏ·Ó‰È΋ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌ›· ˘ÂÚˉ¿ ÙË ÌÂÚηÓÙÈÏÈÛÙÈ΋ Ê¿ÛË ÂÚÓÒÓÙ·˜ ·¢ı›·˜ ÛÙÔ ÊÈÏÂÏ¢ıÂÚÈÛÌfi (fiˆ˜ ·Ú·Ù›ıÂÙ·È ÛÙÔÓ Benevolo 1997: 215) 16 ∏ ÌÂÙ¿‚·ÛË ·fi ÙÔÓ ÊÂÔ˘‰·ÏÈÎfi ÙÚfiÔ ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜ ¤¯ÂÈ ‰‡Ô ÛΤÏË. √ ·Ú·ÁˆÁfi˜ Á›ÓÂÙ·È ¤ÌÔÚÔ˜ Î·È Î·ÈÙ·ÏÈÛÙ‹˜, Û ·ÓÙ›ıÂÛË Ì ÙË Ê˘ÛÈ΋ ·ÁÚÔÙÈ΋ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌ›· Î·È ÙȘ Û˘ÓÙ¯Óȷο ÔÚÁ·ÓˆÌ¤Ó˜ ¯ÂÈÚÔÙ¯ÓÈΤ˜ ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ˜ ÙˆÓ ÌÂ۷ȈÓÈÎÒÓ ‚ÈÔÌ˯·ÓÈÒÓ ÛÙȘ fiÏÂȘ. ∞˘Ùfi Â›Ó·È ÙÔ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈο Â·Ó·ÛÙ·ÙÈÎfi ÌÔÓÔ¿ÙÈ. ◊, ·ÏÏÈÒ˜, Ô ¤ÌÔÚÔ˜ ¤ıÂÛ οو ·fi ÙÔÓ


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¿ÌÂÛÔ ¤ÏÂÁ¯fi ÙÔ˘ ÙËÓ ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹. ŸÛÔ ÎÈ ·Ó Ô ÙÚfiÔ˜ ·˘Ùfi˜ ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ› ÈÛÙÔÚÈο ˆ˜ ÌÂÙ·‚·ÙÈÎfi ÛÙ¿‰ÈÔ –Ú‚Ï. ÙÔÓ ÕÁÁÏÔ ¤ÌÔÚÔ ˘Ê·ÛÌ¿ÙˆÓ ÙÔ˘ 17Ô˘ ·ÈÒÓ·, Ô˘ ʤÚÓÂÈ ÙÔ˘˜ ˘Ê·ÓÙ¤˜, ·Ó Î·È ·ÓÂÍ¿ÚÙËÙÔ˘˜, οو ·fi ¤ÏÂÁ¯fi ÙÔ˘ Ô˘ÏÒÓÙ·˜ ÙÔ˘˜ ÙÔ Ì·ÏÏ› Î·È ·ÁÔÚ¿˙ÔÓÙ·˜ ·fi ·˘ÙÔ‡˜ ÙÔ ÙÂÏÂȈ̤ÓÔ ‡Ê·ÛÌ·– ‰ÂÓ ÌÔÚ› ·fi ÌfiÓÔ˜ ÙÔ˘ Ó· Û˘Ì‚¿ÏÏÂÈ ÛÙËÓ Î·Ù¿ÚÁËÛË ÙÔ˘ ·ÏÈÔ‡ ÙÚfiÔ˘ ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜, ·ÏÏ¿ Ù›ÓÂÈ Ì¿ÏÏÔÓ Ó· ÙÔÓ Û˘ÓÙËÚ› Î·È Ó· ÙÔÓ ‰È·ÙËÚ› ˆ˜ ÚÔ¸fiıÂÛ‹ ÙÔ˘.

µπµ§π√°ƒ∞ºπ∫∂™ ∞¡∞º√ƒ∂™ µenevolo, L. (1997), H fiÏË ÛÙËÓ ∂˘ÚÒË, ∂ÏÏËÓÈο °Ú¿ÌÌ·Ù·, ∞ı‹Ó·. Burke, G.J. (1956), The making of Dutch Towns, Cleaver-Hume Press. Cipolla, C.M. (1988), H ∂˘ÚÒË ÚÈÓ ·fi ÙË ‚ÈÔÌ˯·ÓÈ΋ Â·Ó¿ÛÙ·ÛË. ∫ÔÈÓˆÓ›· Î·È ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌ›· 10001700 Ì.Ã., £Â̤ÏÈÔ, ∞ı‹Ó·. De Vries, J. (1993), “The Labour Market”, Economic and and Social History in the Netherlands, Ù. 4. Gutkind, E.A. (1970), Urban development in Western Europe: The Netherlands and Great Britain, Free Press, New York. Klein, P.W., Veluwenkamp, J. W. (1993), “The role of the enterpreneur in the economic expansion of the Dutch Republic”, Economic and Social History in the Netherlands, 4. Lambert, A.M. (1971), The making of the Dutch Landscape, Seminar Press Ltd. ª·ÚÍ, K. (1978), ∆Ô ∫ÂÊ¿Ï·ÈÔ, ™‡Á¯ÚÔÓË ∂Ô¯‹, ∞ı‹Ó·, 1, 3. ¶ÈÚ¤Ó, ∞. (2003), √È fiÏÂȘ ÙÔ˘ ªÂÛ·›ˆÓ·, µÈ‚ÏÈfiÚ·Ì·, ∞ı‹Ó·. Rubin, π.π. (1994), πÛÙÔÚ›· √ÈÎÔÓÔÌÈÎÒÓ £ÂˆÚÈÒÓ, ∫ÚÈÙÈ΋, ∞ı‹Ó·. ™Ô˘‹˙˘, ¶., ÛÏÙÔÓ, ƒ., ∆·Î·¯¿ÛÈ, ∫., ¶ÚÔοÙÛÈ, ∆˙., ÃÔÌÛÌ¿Ô˘Ì, ∂., ª¤ÚÈÓÁÎÙÔÓ, ∆˙. Î.¿ (1986), ∏ ÌÂÙ¿‚·ÛË ·fi ÙÔ ÊÂÔ˘‰·ÏÈÛÌfi ÛÙÔÓ Î·ÈÙ·ÏÈÛÌfi, £Â̤ÏÈÔ, ∞ı‹Ó·. Van der Wee, ∏. (1988), The Rise and Decline of Urban Industries in Italy and in the Low Countries. Late Middle Ages-Early Modern Times, Herman. Van Zanden, J.L. (1993), «Economic growth in the Golden Age the development of the economy of Holland», Economic and and Social History in the Netherlands, 4.

µπµ§π√°ƒ∞ºπ∞ µ¤ÌÂÚ, ª. (2003), ∏ ¶fiÏË, ∫¤ÓÙ·˘ÚÔ˜, ∞ı‹Ó·. µ¤ÌÂÚ, ª. (1997), ∏ ¶ÚÔÙÂÛÙ·ÓÙÈ΋ ∏ıÈ΋ Î·È ÙÔ ¶Ó‡̷ ÙÔ˘ ∫·ÈÙ·ÏÈÛÌÔ‡, Gutenberg, ∞ı‹Ó·. Berger, J. (1986), H ÂÈÎfiÓ· Î·È ÙÔ ‚ϤÌÌ·, √‰˘ÛÛ¤·˜, ∞ı‹Ó·. Blaue, J. (2006), Atlas Maior of 1665, Tascen. Braudel, F. (1992), H ‰˘Ó·ÌÈ΋ ÙÔ˘ ηÈÙ·ÏÈÛÌÔ‡, ∞ÏÂÍ¿Ó‰ÚÂÈ·, ∞ı‹Ó·. Braudel, F. (1995), ÀÏÈÎfi˜ ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌfi˜, √ÈÎÔÓÔÌ›· Î·È ∫·ÈÙ·ÏÈÛÌfi˜, ªπ∂∆, ∞ı‹Ó·. Dutt, A.K., Costa, F.J. (1985), Public Planning in the Netherlands, Oxford University Press. ‘∂ÓÁÎÂϘ, º. (2004), ∏ ∫·Ù·ÁˆÁ‹ Ù˘ √ÈÎÔÁ¤ÓÂÈ·˜, Ù˘ ·ÙÔÌÈ΋˜ ȉÈÔÎÙËÛ›·˜ Î·È ÙÔ˘ ∫Ú¿ÙÔ˘˜, £Â̤ÏÈÔ, ∞ı‹Ó·. ∑ÔÏ›, ƒ. (1991), ∏ fiÏË Î·È Ô ·ÛÙÈÎfi˜ ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌfi˜, ™‡Á¯ÚÔÓË ∂Ô¯‹, ∞ı‹Ó·.


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ŒÌÊ˘Ï˜ Ù·˘ÙfiÙËÙ˜ Î·È ‰ÈÔ›ÎËÛË Ù˘ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘ ∂ϤÓË °È·ÓÓ·ÎÔÔ‡ÏÔ˘ ∂ÏÏËÓÈÎfi ∞ÓÔÈÎÙfi ¶·ÓÂÈÛÙ‹ÌÈÔ ∞fi Û¯ÂÙÈΤ˜ ÌÂϤÙ˜ ¤¯ÂÈ ‰È·ÈÛÙˆı› fiÙÈ Ù· ÔÛÔÛÙ¿ ÙˆÓ Á˘Ó·ÈÎÒÓ Ô˘ ·ÛÎÔ‡Ó ‰ÈÔ›ÎËÛË Û¯ÔÏ›ˆÓ ηıÒ˜ Î·È ‰ÈÔ›ÎËÛË ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎÒÓ ÂÚÈÊÂÚÂÈÒÓ ‰ÂÓ Â›Ó·È ·Ó¿ÏÔÁ· ÙÔ˘ ·ÚÈıÌÔ‡ ÙˆÓ Á˘Ó·ÈÎÒÓ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎÒÓ Ù˘ ÚˆÙÔ‚¿ıÌÈ·˜ Î·È Ù˘ ‰Â˘ÙÂÚÔ‚¿ıÌÈ·˜ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘ (ÂÓ‰ÂÈÎÙÈο ∫∂£π 2008). ∂ÓÒ, ‰ËÏ·‰‹, ÔÈ Á˘Ó·›Î˜ ·ÔÙÂÏÔ‡Ó ÙËÓ ÏÂÈÔÓfiÙËÙ· ÙÔ˘ ÏËı˘ÛÌÔ‡ ÙˆÓ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎÒÓ, η٤¯Ô˘Ó Û ÂÍ·ÈÚÂÙÈο ¯·ÌËÏ¿ ÔÛÔÛÙ¿ ‰È¢ı˘ÓÙÈΤ˜ ı¤ÛÂȘ Û fiϘ ÙȘ ‚·ıÌ›‰Â˜ Ù˘ ÂÎ¿È‰Â˘Û˘. ∆È ·ÎÚÈ‚Ò˜ ÛËÌ·›ÓÂÈ ·˘Ù‹ Ë ¿ÓÈÛË Î·Ù·ÓÔÌ‹ ·Ó‰ÚÒÓ Î·È Á˘Ó·ÈÎÒÓ Û ‰È¢ı˘ÓÙÈΤ˜ ı¤ÛÂȘ; ™‡Ìʈӷ Ì ÌÈ· ¿Ô„Ë ·˘Ùfi ÛËÌ·›ÓÂÈ fiÙÈ Ù· Û¯ÔÏ›· Î·È ÁÂÓÈÎfiÙÂÚ· ÔÈ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎÔ› ıÂÛÌÔ› ¤¯Ô˘Ó ÔÚÁ·Óˆı› Ì ÙÚfiÔ Ô ÔÔ›Ô˜ ÚÔˆı› ÙÔ˘˜ ¿Ó‰Ú˜ Û ı¤ÛÂȘ Ù˘È΋˜ ÂÍÔ˘Û›·˜ Î·È ÈÛ¯‡Ô˜ (authority, power). ∞fi ÙËÓ ›‰È· ÔÙÈ΋, Û ıˆÚËÙÈÎfi Â›‰Ô, ‰È·Ù˘ÒÓÂÙ·È Ë ÂΉԯ‹ fiÙÈ ·ÎfiÌ· Î·È ˆ˜ ÂÓÓÔÈÔÏÔÁÈ΋ ηٷÛ΢‹ Ë «‰ÈÔ›ÎËÛË» Â›Ó·È ÚÔηÙÂÈÏËÌ̤ÓË ˘¤Ú ÙˆÓ ·Ó‰ÚÒÓ (.¯. Jill Blackmore 1993, Donna Schmitt 1994). ∞Ó ·˘Ù‹ Ë ÂΉԯ‹ Â›Ó·È ÔÚı‹ (Î·È Ì ‚¿ÛË Ù· ÂÌÂÈÚÈο ‰Â‰Ô̤ӷ ÌÔÚ› Ó· ›ӷÈ), ÙÔ Û¯ÔÏÂ›Ô ˆ˜ ÔÚÁ¿ÓˆÛË Î·È Ë ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË ˆ˜ ‰È·‰Èηۛ· ÌÂٷʤÚÔ˘Ó ÚfiÙ˘· ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎÒÓ Û¯¤ÛÂˆÓ ÂÍÔ˘Û›·˜. ∫·È ÚÔ‚¿ÏÏÔ˘Ó ·˘Ù¿ Ù· ÚfiÙ˘· Ù·˘Ùfi¯ÚÔÓ· ÛÙÔ˘˜ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎÔ‡˜ Î·È Ì Ôχ ÌÂÁ·Ï‡ÙÂÚ˜ ÂÈÙÒÛÂȘ ÁÈ· ÙË ÌÂÏÏÔÓÙÈ΋ ÙÔ˘˜ ˙ˆ‹ ÛÙÔ˘˜ Ì·ıËÙ¤˜. ∂ÓÙÂÏÒ˜ ÂÈÁÚ·ÌÌ·ÙÈο ı· ı›Íˆ ÛÙ· ÂfiÌÂÓ· ˙ËÙ‹Ì·Ù· ¤ÌÊ˘ÏˆÓ ÚÔηٷϋ„ÂˆÓ ÛÙȘ ÚÔÛÂÁÁ›ÛÂȘ Ù˘ ‰ÈÔ›ÎËÛ˘ ÙÔ˘ Û¯ÔÏ›Ԣ Î·È ı· ÛÎÈ·ÁÚ·Ê‹Ûˆ ‰È·ÛÙ¿ÛÂȘ ÌÈ·˜ ¿ÏÏ˘ ÔÙÈ΋˜, Ë ÔÔ›· ÂȉÈÒÎÂÈ Ó· Û˘Û¯ÂÙ›ÛÂÈ Ù· ˙ËÙ‹Ì·Ù· ·˘Ù¿ Ì ÁÂÓÈÎfiÙÂÚ· ˙ËÙ‹Ì·Ù· ÙˆÓ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎÒÓ Û¯¤ÛÂˆÓ ÂÍÔ˘Û›·˜ Û ¤Ó·Ó ÎfiÛÌÔ ÛÙÔÓ ÔÔ›Ô ÔÈ ‰È¿ÊÔÚ˜ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈΤ˜ ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ›Â˜ ÙˆÓ ·ÙfiÌˆÓ –ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎÒÓ, ‰ÈÔÈÎËÙÈÎÒÓ ÛÙÂϯÒÓ Î·È ‰È¢ı˘ÓÙÒÓ, ÁÔÓ¤ˆÓ_ ·Ó··Ú¿ÁÔÓÙ·È ·fi ÁÂÓÈ¿ Û ÁÂÓÈ¿ ‹‰Ë «¤ÌÊ˘Ï˜», ‹‰Ë «¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚÈṲ̂Ó˜». ∞˘ÙÔ› ÔÈ «¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚÈÛÌÔ›» ηıÔÚ›˙Ô˘Ó ÙÈ Â›Ó·È ÂÈÙÚÂÙfi, ÙÈ Â›Ó·È Û˘ÓËıÈṲ̂ÓÔ, ÙÈ Â›Ó·È «Î·ÓÔÓÈÎfi» ÁÈ· Ù· ·ÁfiÚÈ· Î·È Ù· ÎÔÚ›ÙÛÈ·, ÁÈ· ÙÔ˘˜ ¿Ó‰Ú˜ Î·È ÙȘ Á˘Ó·›Î˜. ªÂ ÙËÓ ˘Ô-


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∂ϤÓË °È·ÓÓ·ÎÔÔ‡ÏÔ˘

ÁÚ¿ÌÌÈÛË fiÙÈ ·˘Ù‹ Ë ¿ÏÏË ÔÙÈ΋ ·ÚıÚÒÓÂÙ·È ÚÔ˜ ÙÔ ·ÚfiÓ ÌfiÓÔ ˆ˜ ÎÚÈÙÈ΋ ÛÙȘ ΢ڛ·Ú¯Â˜ ÏÔÁÈΤ˜. ¢ÈÂÚ¢ÓÒÓÙ·˜ ÙËÓ ÈÛfiÙËÙ· ÙˆÓ Ê‡ÏˆÓ ÛÙË ‰ÈÔ›ÎËÛË Ù˘ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘ ı· Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ÂÎÎÈÓ‹ÛÔ˘Ì ·fi ÙËÓ ·Ú·‰Ô¯‹ fiÙÈ ÚfiÎÂÈÙ·È ÁÈ· ¤Ó· ȉȷ›ÙÂÚ· ÂÚ›ÏÔÎÔ ˙‹ÙËÌ·, ·ÊÔ‡ ÌÔÚ› Ó· ˘ÔÛÙËÚȯÙ› Ë ¿Ô„Ë (fiÛÔ Î·È ·Ó ·ÎÔ‡ÁÂÙ·È ÂÚ›ÂÚÁË) fiÙÈ Ù· ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈο ηٷÛ΢·Ṳ̂ӷ «Á˘Ó·ÈΛ·» ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚÈÛÙÈο ‰ÂÓ ·ÔÎÏÂ›Ô˘Ó _Î·È ›Ûˆ˜ ÙÔ ·ÓÙ›ıÂÙÔ, ηıÈÛÙÔ‡Ó ·Ôχو˜ ηٿÏÏËϘ_ ÙȘ Á˘Ó·›Î˜ ÁÈ· ‰È¢ı‡ÓÙÚȘ ÙˆÓ Û¯ÔÏ›ˆÓ. ∞ÊÔ‡ ·˘Ù¿ Ù· ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚÈÛÙÈο ˆ˜ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈΤ˜ ηٷÛ΢¤˜ (Î·È fi¯È ˆ˜ ‚ÈÔÏÔÁÈο ‰Â‰Ô̤ӷ) ÌÔÚÔ‡Ó Ó· ·Ô‰ÔıÔ‡Ó ÂÍ›ÛÔ˘ Û ¿Ó‰Ú˜ Î·È Á˘Ó·›Î˜, fiˆ˜ Â›Û˘ Î·È Ù· ‰‡Ô ʇϷ ÌÔÚÔ‡Ó ÂÍ›ÛÔ˘ Ó· ‰È·ÌÔÚÊÒÛÔ˘Ó ÔÚÁ·ÓˆÙÈΤ˜ ‰Ô̤˜ Î·È ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ›Â˜ ÔÈ Ôԛ˜ ηÏÏÈÂÚÁÔ‡Ó Ù· ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚÈÛÙÈο ·˘Ù¿. ∏ ˘¤Ú‚·ÛË, ÂÔ̤ӈ˜, ÙˆÓ ·Ú·‰ÔÛÈ·ÎÒÓ ÚÔÛÂÁÁ›ÛÂˆÓ Ù˘ ·ÓÈÛfiÙËÙ·˜ ÙˆÓ Ê‡ÏˆÓ ÛÙË ‰ÈÔ›ÎËÛË Ù˘ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘ ‰ÂÓ ÌÔÚ› Ó· ‚·Û›˙ÂÙ·È ÛÙËÓ ·ÓÙÈηٿÛÙ·ÛË ÌÈ·˜ ·Ó‰ÚÔÎÚ·ÙÈ΋˜ ÔÙÈ΋˜ ·fi ÌÈ· ÎÔÈÓ¿ ·Ô‰ÂÎÙ‹ ·fi ¿Ó‰Ú˜ Î·È Á˘Ó·›Î˜ ‹ ·ÎfiÌ· Î·È ·fi ÌÈ· ÊÂÌÈÓÈÛÙÈ΋ ÔÙÈ΋. √Ê›ÏÂÈ Ó· ·ÔÚÚ›ÙÂÈ ÙÔ˘˜ ·ÏÔ˚ÎÔ‡˜ ÔÚÈÛÌÔ‡˜ ÙˆÓ ‰È·ÎÚ›ÛÂˆÓ «¿Ó‰Ú·˜» Î·È «Á˘Ó·›Î·» Î·È Ó· ·›ÚÓÂÈ ˘fi„Ë Ù˘ ÙË Û˘ÓıÂÙfiÙËÙ· ÙˆÓ ·ÙÔÌÈÎÒÓ Ù·˘ÙÔÙ‹ÙˆÓ Î·È ÙË Û˘Ó¿ÚÙËÛ‹ ÙÔ˘˜ Ì ÙȘ ÔÈΛϘ ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ˜ Î·È ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ›Â˜ Ù˘ ‰ÈÔ›ÎËÛ˘ Ù˘ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘. ªÂ Ï›Á· ÏfiÁÈ·, ÔÊ›ÏÂÈ Ó· ÂÈÛ¿ÁÂÈ ÛÙÔÓ ÚÔ‚ÏËÌ·ÙÈÛÌfi ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ÈÛfiÙËÙ· ÙˆÓ Ê‡ÏˆÓ ÛÙË ‰ÈÔ›ÎËÛË Ù˘ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘ ÙËÓ ÔÙÈ΋ Ù˘ ÛÂÍÔ˘·ÏÈÎfiÙËÙ·˜. ŒÓ· ‚‹Ì· ÙÔ ÔÔ›Ô ı· ¤¯ÂÈ ÔÏÏ·Ϥ˜ ıÂÙÈΤ˜ ÂÈÙÒÛÂȘ ηْ ·Ú¯‹Ó Î·È ÙÔ˘Ï¿¯ÈÛÙÔÓ ÛÙÔÓ ·ÓÙ›ÛÙÔÈ¯Ô ıˆÚËÙÈÎfi ÚÔ‚ÏËÌ·ÙÈÛÌfi.

™∂•√À∞§π∫√∆∏∆∞ ∫∞π ∂∫¶∞π¢∂À™∏: ¢À√ ™À¡∆√ª∞ ™Ã√§π∞ ∏ ηÙÂÛÙË̤ÓË ÏÔÁÈ΋ ¤¯ÂÈ ˆ˜ ·ÊÂÙËÚ›· Ù˘ ÙËÓ ·Ú·‰Ô¯‹ (Î·È ·˘Ùfi ›Ûˆ˜ ÛÙÔ fiÓÔÌ· Ù˘ Ô˘‰ÂÙÂÚfiÙËÙ·˜ Ù˘ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘) fiÙÈ ÙÔ Ê‡ÏÔ Î·È Ë ÛÂÍÔ˘·ÏÈÎfiÙËÙ· ‰ÂÓ ¤¯Ô˘Ó η̛· ı¤ÛË ÛÙÔ Û¯ÔÏ›Ô, ¿Ú· Î·È Î·Ì›· Û¯¤ÛË Ì ÙËÓ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË. ∏ ·Ú·‰Ô¯‹ ·˘Ù‹ ‚·Û›˙ÂÙ·È ÛÂ, Î·È Ì ÙË ÛÂÈÚ¿ Ù˘ Û˘ÓÂ¿ÁÂÙ·È, ‰‡Ô ı¤ÛÂȘ: 1. ∏ Ì¿ıËÛË Â›Ó·È Ô˘‰¤ÙÂÚË, ÂχıÂÚË ·ÍÈÒÓ ·ÓıÚÒÈÓË ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ·, ÚÔ˚fiÓ ÌÈ·˜ ¿ÌÂÛ˘ Î·È Î·ı·Ú‹˜ ÌÂÙ·ÊÔÚ¿˜ ÏËÚÔÊÔÚÈÒÓ, ÂÎÌ¿ıËÛ˘ ‰ÂÍÈÔÙ‹ÙˆÓ ‹ ·ÙÔÌÈ΋˜ ηٷÛ΢‹˜ (ηٿ ÙËÓ ÂοÛÙÔÙ ΢ڛ·Ú¯Ë ıˆڛ· Ì¿ıËÛ˘),


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ŒÌÊ˘Ï˜ Ù·˘ÙfiÙËÙ˜ Î·È ‰ÈÔ›ÎËÛË Ù˘ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘

79

ÛÙËÓ ÔÔ›· Ù· ÚÔÛˆÈο ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚÈÛÙÈο Ì·ıËÙÒÓ Î·È ‰·ÛÎ¿ÏˆÓ ‰ÂÓ ·ÚÂÌ‚·›ÓÔ˘Ó, Â›Ó·È ¿Û¯ÂÙ·. ™Â ·˘Ù‹ ÙËÓ ·ÓÙ›ÏË„Ë Ù˘ Ì¿ıËÛ˘ ÂÌÂÚȤ¯ÂÙ·È, ‚¤‚·È·, ÌÈ· ËıÈ΋ ÔÙÈ΋, Ë ÔÔ›· ηٿ ÙÔÓ Doyle (1997) ÁÈ· ÙÔ˘˜ Û˘ÓÙËÚËÙÈÎÔ‡˜ ÛËÌ·›ÓÂÈ ·ÓÂÎÙÈÎfiÙËÙ· ÂÓÒ Î·Ù¿ ÙÔÓ Comell (1991) ÁÈ· ÙÔ˘˜ ÚÔԉ¢ÙÈÎÔ‡˜ Â›Ó·È ¿Ó¢ Ô˘Û›·˜. Œ¯ÂÈ ÂӉȷʤÚÔÓ ‚¤‚·È· fiÙÈ Î·È ÔÈ ‰‡Ô ÔÙÈΤ˜ ıˆÚÔ‡Ó ÂÓÙ¤ÏÂÈ ÙËÓ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË ˆ˜ «ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË» Û ·Í›Â˜ Î·È ˆ˜ ηٷÛ΢‹ Ù·˘ÙÔًوÓ. 2. ∏ ‰Â‡ÙÂÚË ı¤ÛË ·ÊÔÚ¿ ÙÔ˘˜ ÛÎÔÔ‡˜ Ù˘ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘. ∞˘ÙÔ› Ô˘ ÔÚ›˙Ô˘Ó ÙÔ˘˜ ÛÎÔÔ‡˜ Ù˘ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘ ·ÔÎÏÂÈÛÙÈο Ì fiÚÔ˘˜ Ì¿ıËÛ˘ Î·È ·fiÎÙËÛ˘ ‰ÂÍÈÔÙ‹ÙˆÓ ·ÔÎÏÂ›Ô˘Ó ·fi ÙÔ ÂÚȯfiÌÂÓfi Ù˘ ˙ËÙ‹Ì·Ù· ÈÛfiÙËÙ·˜ ÙˆÓ Ê‡ÏˆÓ, ÛÂÍÔ˘·ÏÈ΋˜ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘ ÎÏ. ªÈ· ı¤ÛË Ë ÔÔ›·, ·Ó ÌË ÙÈ ¿ÏÏÔ, Â›Ó·È ÂÎÙfi˜ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÎfiÙËÙ·˜, ·ÊÔ‡ Ì·ıËÙ¤˜ Î·È ‰¿ÛηÏÔÈ ‰ÂÓ ÌÔÚÔ‡Ó Î·È ‰ÂÓ ·Ê‹ÓÔ˘Ó ÛÙËÓ fiÚÙ· ÙÔ˘ Û¯ÔÏ›Ԣ ÙË ÛÂÍÔ˘·ÏÈ΋ ÙÔ˘˜ Ù·˘ÙfiÙËÙ· (Johnson 2007: 206). ∏ ‰˘Ó·ÌÈ΋ ÙˆÓ Ê‡ÏˆÓ Î·È Ë ÛÂÍÔ˘·ÏÈÎfiÙËÙ·, fiˆ˜ Â›Û˘ Î·È Ù· ÌËӇ̷ٷ ÙÔ˘ ÎÚ˘ÊÔ‡ ·Ó·Ï˘ÙÈÎÔ‡ ÚÔÁÚ¿ÌÌ·ÙÔ˜ Â›Ó·È ˘·ÚÎÙ¿ ÛÙÔȯ›· Ù˘ ηıËÌÂÚÈÓfiÙËÙ·˜ ÙÔ˘ Û¯ÔÏ›Ԣ.

¢À√ £∂øƒ∏∆π∫∂™ √¶∆π∫∂™ ªÂ ·˘Ù¿ ˆ˜ ‰Â‰Ô̤ӷ, ıˆڛ˜ Ô˘ ÌÔÚ› Ó· ‰È·ÎÚÈıÔ‡Ó Û ‰‡Ô ÔÙÈΤ˜ ÚÔÛÂÁÁ›˙Ô˘Ó Ù· ˙ËÙ‹Ì·Ù· ÙÔ˘ ʇÏÔ˘ Î·È Ù˘ ÛÂÍÔ˘·ÏÈÎfiÙËÙ·˜ ÛÙË ‰ÈÔ›ÎËÛË Ù˘ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘: ÔÈ ÊÂÌÈÓÈÛÙÈΤ˜ ıˆڛ˜ Î·È ÔÈ queer ıˆڛ˜ ‹ ÁÂÓÈÎfiÙÂÚ· ÔÈ ıˆڛ˜ Ù˘ Ú¢ÛÙfiÙËÙ·˜ ÙÔ˘ ʇÏÔ˘. √È ÊÂÌÈÓÈÛÙÈΤ˜ ıˆڛ˜ ¤¯Ô˘Ó Û˘Ì‚¿ÏÂÈ ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈο ÛÙËÓ Î·Ù·ÓfiËÛË ÙÔ˘ ÚfiÏÔ˘ ÙˆÓ Ê‡ÏˆÓ, Ù˘ ηٷÛ΢‹˜ ÙˆÓ Ù·˘ÙÔÙ‹ÙˆÓ ÙÔ˘ ʇÏÔ˘ Î·È ÛÙȘ Û¯¤ÛÂȘ ÙˆÓ Ê‡ÏˆÓ. Œ¯Ô˘Ì ۋÌÂÚ· ÛÙË ‰È¿ıÂÛ‹ Ì·˜ ¤Ó· ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈÎfi Î·È Û‡ÓıÂÙÔ ıˆÚËÙÈÎfi ·fiıÂÌ·. ™ÙËÓ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÎfiÙËÙ· ‚¤‚·È· ‰ÂÓ ˘¿Ú¯ÂÈ ¤Ó·˜ ·Ïfi˜ Î·È Û·Ê‹˜ ÔÚÈÛÌfi˜ ÌÈ·˜ ıˆڛ·˜ ˆ˜ ÊÂÌÈÓÈÛÙÈ΋˜, Ì ·ÔÙ¤ÏÂÛÌ· Ó· ÂÓÙ¿ÛÛÔÓÙ·È ÛÙË ÊÂÌÈÓÈÛÙÈ΋ ÔÙÈ΋ ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈο ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈΤ˜ ÌÂٷ͇ ÙÔ˘˜ ıˆڛ˜ (Bowen & Wyatt 1993). ¶fiÛÔ Ì¿ÏÏÔÓ fiÙ·Ó fiϘ ÔÈ ÊÂÌÈÓÈÛÙÈΤ˜ ıˆڛ˜ ·ÔÚÚ›ÙÔ˘Ó ÙÔ˘˜ ÔÚÈÛÙÈÎÔ‡˜ ηıÔÚÈÛÌÔ‡˜. ∫·Ù¿ ÙÔ˘˜ Bowen & Wyatt (1993), ÔÈ ıˆڛ˜ Ô˘ ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚ›˙ÔÓÙ·È ÊÂÌÈÓÈÛÙÈΤ˜ ˘ÈÔıÂÙÔ‡Ó Û ÌÈÎÚfiÙÂÚË ‹ ÌÂÁ·Ï‡ÙÂÚË ¤ÎÙ·ÛË ÙȘ ·ÎfiÏÔ˘ı˜ ÔÙÈΤ˜:


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∂ϤÓË °È·ÓÓ·ÎÔÔ‡ÏÔ˘

– ÂÈÎÂÓÙÚÒÓÔÓÙ·È ÛÙËÓ ÂÌÂÈÚ›· ÙˆÓ Á˘Ó·ÈÎÒÓ, ÂȉÈÒÎÔÓÙ·˜ Ó· ÙȘ ÌÂٷʤÚÔ˘Ó ·fi ÙÔ ÂÚÈıÒÚÈÔ ÛÙÔ Î¤ÓÙÚÔ ÂÓfi˜ ıˆÚËÙÈÎÔ‡ ÂӉȷʤÚÔÓÙÔ˜ – ÂȯÂÈÚÔ‡Ó Ó· ‰Â›ÍÔ˘Ó ÙȘ ‰È·‰Èηۛ˜ ̤۷ ·fi ÙȘ Ôԛ˜ ÔÈ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈΤ˜ Û¯¤ÛÂȘ Î·È Ë ·Î·‰ËÌ·˚΋ ÚËÙÔÚÈ΋ ¤¯Ô˘Ó ‰È·ÌÔÚÊÒÛÂÈ Î·È ÂÓÈÛ¯‡Ô˘Ó ÙȘ ·ÓÙÈÏ‹„ÂȘ ÁÈ· ÙÔ Ê‡ÏÔ Î·È ÙÔ ÚfiÏÔ ÙˆÓ Ê‡ÏˆÓ (gender) – ‰ÈÂÚ¢ÓÔ‡Ó ÙÔ˘˜ ÙÚfiÔ˘˜ Ù˘ ¿ÓÈÛ˘ ηٷÓÔÌ‹˜ ÙÔ˘ ÏÔ‡ÙÔ˘, Ù˘ ÂÍÔ˘Û›·˜, Ù˘ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋˜ ı¤Û˘, Ù˘ ÚfiÛ‚·Û˘ Û Â·ÁÁ¤ÏÌ·Ù· Î·È ÙˆÓ ÏÔÈÒÓ ·ÍÈfiÏÔÁˆÓ fiÚˆÓ ÛÙË ‚¿ÛË ÙÔ˘ «Ê‡ÏÔ˘» Î·È ¿ÏÏˆÓ «‰È·ÊÔÚÒÓ» – ‰ÈÂÚ¢ÓÔ‡Ó ÙÔ˘˜ ÙÚfiÔ˘˜ Ì ÙÔ˘˜ ÔÔ›Ô˘˜ Ë ÁÏÒÛÛ· ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔÈÂ›Ù·È ÁÈ· Ó· ÂÓÈÛ¯‡ÛÂÈ ÙËÓ Î˘Ú›·Ú¯Ë ÔÙÈ΋ Ù˘ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋˜ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÎfiÙËÙ·˜ – ·Ó·ÁÓˆÚ›˙Ô˘Ó fiÙÈ Ù· ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈο Ê·ÈÓfiÌÂÓ· Â›Ó·È Û‡ÓıÂÙ· Î·È ÂÔ̤ӈ˜ Ë ‰ÈÂÚ‡ÓËÛ‹ ÙÔ˘˜ ··ÈÙ› ÌÈ· ÔÈÎÈÏ›· ÌÂıfi‰ˆÓ Î·È Ù¯ÓÈÎÒÓ – ·ÌÊÈÛ‚ËÙÔ‡Ó Ù· Û˘Ì‚·ÙÈο ÎÚÈÙ‹ÚÈ· ·fi‰ÔÛ˘ ·Í›·˜ Û ÔÚÈṲ̂ÓÔ˘˜ Ù‡Ô˘˜ Î·È Â›‰Ë ÁÓÒÛ˘, Î·È – ıˆÚÔ‡Ó ÙËÓ ¤Ú¢ӷ ˆ˜ ÎÔÈÓ‹ ˘fiıÂÛË ÂÚ¢ÓËÙÒÓ Î·È ÂÚ¢ÓËÙÒÓ Î·È ÂÚ¢ÓÔ‡ÌÂÓˆÓ. √È ÔÙÈΤ˜ ·˘Ù¤˜ ·ÌÊÈÛ‚ËÙÔ‡Ó ÙË ‰˘Ó·ÙfiÙËÙ· ÙˆÓ ·Ú·‰ÔÛÈ·ÎÒÓ ıˆÚÈÒÓ ÔÚÁ¿ÓˆÛ˘ Ó· ηٷÓÔ‹ÛÔ˘Ó Î·È Ó· ÂÚÌËÓ‡ÛÔ˘Ó Ê·ÈÓfiÌÂÓ· Ù· ÔÔ›· Û¯ÂÙ›˙ÔÓÙ·È Ì ÙÔ Ê‡ÏÔ Î·È ÙË ÛÂÍÔ˘·ÏÈÎfiÙËÙ· Û ÔÚÁ·ÓÈÛÌÔ‡˜ fiˆ˜ Â›Ó·È ÙÔ Û¯ÔÏ›Ô. ∂ÓÒ ÔÈ ›‰È˜ ÔÈ ÊÂÌÈÓÈÛÙÈΤ˜ ıˆڛ˜, ÂÂȉ‹ ·ÎÚÈ‚Ò˜ Â›Ó·È ÎÚÈÙÈΤ˜ Î·È ‰ÂÎÙÈΤ˜ ÙˆÓ ÔÏÏ·ÏÒÓ fi„ÂˆÓ ÌÈ·˜ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÎfiÙËÙ·˜, ¤¯Ô˘Ó Û˘Ì‚¿ÏÂÈ ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈο ÛÙËÓ ·Ó¿‰ÂÈÍË ÙˆÓ ‰È·ÊÔÚÒÓ Î·È ÙˆÓ ‰È·ÎÚ›ÛÂˆÓ ÌÂٷ͇ ·Ó‰ÚÒÓ Î·È Á˘Ó·ÈÎÒÓ ÛÙȘ ÎÔÈӈӛ˜ ÙÔ˘ ηÈÚÔ‡ Ì·˜. ªÂ ‰‡Ô Ôχ ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈΤ˜ Û˘ÓÂÈÛÊÔÚ¤˜. ∏ ÚÒÙË Â›Ó·È fiÙÈ ‰È·¯ÒÚÈÛ ÙÔ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎfi ·fi ÙÔ ‚ÈÔÏÔÁÈÎfi, ÂÈ̤ÓÔÓÙ·˜ ˆ˜ ˘¿Ú¯ÂÈ ‰È·ÊÔÚ¿ ·Ó¿ÌÂÛ· Û ·˘Ùfi Ô˘ Â›Ó·È ÚÔ˚fiÓ ÙˆÓ ·ÓıÚÒÈÓˆÓ È‰ÂÒÓ Î·È ¿Ú· ·ÛÙ·ı¤˜ Î·È Â˘ÌÂÙ¿‚ÏËÙÔ, Î·È Û ·˘Ùfi Ô˘ Â›Ó·È ÚÔ˚fiÓ Ù˘ ‚ÈÔÏÔÁ›·˜ Î·È ¿Ú· (Û˘ÁÎÚÈÙÈο) ÛÙ·ıÂÚfi Î·È ·ÌÂÙ¿‚ÏËÙÔ. ∏ ‰Â‡ÙÂÚË Û˘ÓÂÈÛÊÔÚ¿ Û¯ÂÙ›˙ÂÙ·È Ì ÙËÓ ÚÒÙË: ‰È·¯ˆÚ›˙ÔÓÙ·˜ ÙÔ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎfi ·fi ÙÔ ‚ÈÔÏÔÁÈÎfi, ÙÔ Î·Ù·Û΢·Ṳ̂ÓÔ ·fi ÙÔ ¤ÌÊ˘ÙÔ, Ë ÊÂÌÈÓÈÛÙÈ΋ ıˆڛ· Â¤ÌÂÈÓ ˆ˜ ÙÔ Á¤ÓÔ˜ ‰ÂÓ ‹Ù·Ó «ıÂÌÂÏÈ҉˜» ÁÈ· ÙËÓ Ù·˘ÙfiÙËÙ· ÂÓfi˜ ·ÙfiÌÔ˘. Ÿˆ˜ ÔÈ ÊÂÌÈÓÈÛÙÈΤ˜ ıˆڛ˜ ·Ó·‰Â›¯ÙËÎ·Ó Ì¤Û· ·fi ÙËÓ ÎÚÈÙÈ΋ Î·È ÙËÓ ÂÈÛ‹Ì·ÓÛË ÙˆÓ ·ÓÂ·ÚÎÂÈÒÓ ÙˆÓ ·Ó‰ÚÔÎÚ·ÙÈο ÚÔηÙÂÈÏËÌÌ¤ÓˆÓ ıˆÚÈÒÓ, ÌÈ· ¿ÏÏË ıˆÚËÙÈ΋ ÔÙÈ΋, Ë ÔÔ›· Â›Û˘ ÂÚÈÏ·Ì‚¿ÓÂÈ ¤Ó· Û‡ÓÔÏÔ ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈÎÒÓ ÌÂٷ͇ ÙÔ˘˜ ıˆÚÈÒÓ ˘fi ÙÔÓ fiÚÔ queer theories, ·Ó·‰‡ÂÙ·È Ì¤Û·


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·fi ÙËÓ ÎÚÈÙÈ΋ Î·È ÙËÓ ÂÈÛ‹Ì·ÓÛË ÙˆÓ ·ÓÂ·ÚÎÂÈÒÓ ÙˆÓ ÊÂÌÈÓÈÛÙÈÎÒÓ ıˆÚÈÒÓ Î·È ·ÔÙÂÏ› –ηٿ ÌÈ· ¤ÓÓÔÈ·– Â¤ÎÙ·Û‹ Ù˘. √È “queer theories” ÍÂÎÈÓÔ‡Ó ·fi ÙËÓ ·Ú·‰Ô¯‹ fiÙÈ ÔÈ ÛÂÍÔ˘·ÏÈΤ˜ Ù·˘ÙfiÙËÙ˜ ÙˆÓ ·ÙfiÌˆÓ ‰ÂÓ Â›Ó·È ‰Â‰Ô̤Ó˜ (Ô‡Ù ‚ÈÔÏÔÁÈο Ô‡Ù ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈο) Î·È ‰ÂÓ Î·ıÔÚ›˙Ô˘Ó ·fi ÌfiÓ˜ ÙÔ˘˜ ¤Ó· ¿ÙÔÌÔ. ∞ÓÙ›ıÂÙ·, ÌÔÚ› Ó· ‰È·ÊÔÚÔÔÈÔ‡ÓÙ·È Û˘Ó¯Ҙ ˆ˜ ·ÔÙ¤ÏÂÛÌ· ÂÈÏÔÁÒÓ ÙˆÓ ·ÙfïÓ, ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁÒÓÙ·˜ ÔÏϤ˜ ÂΉԯ¤˜ Î·È ‰˘Ó·ÙfiÙËÙ˜ ·˘ÙÔηıÔÚÈÛÌÔ‡. √È ·ÙÔÌÈΤ˜ ÔÙÈΤ˜, ÂÔ̤ӈ˜, Â›Ó·È ÔχÏ¢Ú˜, ·ÊÔ‡ ‰ڿ˙ÔÓÙ·È ÛÙȘ ·ÙÔÌÈΤ˜ Ù·˘ÙfiÙËÙ˜, ÔÈ Ôԛ˜ Â›Ó·È Î·È ÔÈ ›‰È˜ ÔÏ˘ÛıÂÓ›˜ (¤¯Ô˘Ó ÔÏϤ˜ fi„ÂȘ). √ fiÚÔ˜ queer (queer=ÂÚ›ÂÚÁÔ˜, ·ÏÏfiÎÔÙÔ˜, ·Ê‡ÛÈÎÔ˜) ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔÈ‹ıËΠÛÙË ‰ÂηÂÙ›· ÙÔ˘ 1960 ÁÈ· Ó· ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚ›ÛÂÈ ÙÔ˘˜ ÔÌÔÊ˘ÏfiÊÈÏÔ˘˜, ·ÏÏ¿ ˘ÈÔıÂÙ‹ıËΠٷ ÙÂÏÂ˘Ù·›· ¯ÚfiÓÈ· Û ıˆÚËÙÈΤ˜ ·Ó·Ï‡ÛÂȘ ÙÔ˘ ʇÏÔ˘ Î·È Ù˘ ÛÂÍÔ˘·ÏÈÎfiÙËÙ·˜ ˆ˜ ÁÂÓÈÎfi˜ fiÚÔ˜ Ù˘ ÛÂÍÔ˘·ÏÈ΋˜ Ù·˘ÙfiÙËÙ·˜ Î·È Û˘ÌÂÚÈÊÔÚ¿˜ ÙˆÓ ·ÙfiÌˆÓ Û ·ÓÙÈηٿÛÙ·ÛË Î·È ÚÔ˜ ˘¤Ú‚·ÛË ÙˆÓ ÂÚÈÔÚÈÛÙÈÎÒÓ fiÚˆÓ ¿Ó‰Ú·˜, Á˘Ó·›Î·, ÁΤÈ, ÏÂÛ‚›· ÎÏ.

∏ ¢π√π∫∏™∏ ∆∏™ ∂∫¶∞π¢∂À™∏™ ∫∞π √π º∂ªπ¡π™∆π∫∂™ √¶∆π∫∂™: ∂¶π§∂∫∆π∫∞ ™Ã√§π∞ √È ÊÂÌÈÓÈÛÙÈΤ˜ ıˆڛ˜ ˘ÔÛÙËÚ›˙Ô˘Ó fiÙÈ Ë ‰ÈÔ›ÎËÛË Ù˘ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘ fi¯È ÌfiÓÔ ˆ˜ ıˆÚËÙÈÎfi ‰›Ô ·ÏÏ¿ ·ÎfiÌ· Î·È ˆ˜ ÂÓÓÔÈÔÏÔÁÈ΋ ηٷÛ΢‹ ΢ÚÈ·Ú¯Â›Ù·È ·fi ÙÔ˘˜ ¿Ó‰Ú˜. ∏ ÂÎ·��‰Â˘ÙÈ΋ ıˆڛ· Î·È Ë ‰ÈÔÈÎËÙÈ΋ Ú·ÎÙÈ΋ ΢ÚÈ·Ú¯‹ıËÎ·Ó Î·È Î˘ÚÈ·Ú¯Ô‡ÓÙ·È ·fi ÙÔ˘˜ ¿Ó‰Ú˜, ÔÈ ÔÔ›ÔÈ ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁÔ‡Ó ˆ˜ ʇϷΘ (gate keepers) ı¤ÙÔÓÙ·˜ Ù· ÚfiÙ˘·, ·Ú¿ÁÔÓÙ·˜ ÙËÓ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋ ÁÓÒÛË, ıÂÛ›˙ÔÓÙ·˜ ÙÈ Â›Ó·È ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈÎfi Û¯ÂÙÈÎfi Î·È ÛÔ˘‰·›Ô Ì ‚¿ÛË ·ÔÎÏÂÈÛÙÈο ÙȘ ‰ÈΤ˜ ÙÔ˘˜ ÂÌÂÈڛ˜ (Blackmore 1993: 27). ∞˘Ùfi Ô˘ Ë Blackmore (1993) Î·È ¿ÏϘ, fiˆ˜ Ë Schmitt (1994), ÈÛ¯˘Ú›˙ÔÓÙ·È Â›Ó·È fiÙÈ ˘¿Ú¯ÂÈ ÌÈ· ·Ó‰ÚÔÎÚ·ÙÈ΋ ËÁÂÌÔÓ›· Î·È ÛÙË ıˆڛ· Î·È ÛÙËÓ Ú·ÎÙÈ΋ Ù˘ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈ΋˜ ‰ÈÔ›ÎËÛ˘. §ÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁÒÓÙ·˜ Û ·˘Ùfi ÙÔ ·Ó‰ÚÔÎÚ·ÙÈο ηıÔÚÈṲ̂ÓÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ, ·ÎfiÌ· Î·È ÂΛӘ ÔÈ Á˘Ó·›Î˜ ÔÈ Ôԛ˜ ·Ó·Ï·Ì‚¿ÓÔ˘Ó Î·È ·ÛÎÔ‡Ó ‰ÈÔÈÎËÙÈΤ˜ ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ›Â˜ ÂÈÙ˘Á¯¿ÓÔ˘Ó Û ¤Ó·Ó «·Ó‰ÚÈÎfi ÎfiÛÌÔ». ∞Ó Î·È Ë ÂÈÙ˘¯‹˜ ¿ÛÎËÛË ·˘ÙÒÓ ÙˆÓ Î·ıËÎfiÓÙˆÓ Â›Ó·È ¤Ó· ηÙfiÚıˆÌ·, ¯ˆÚ›˜ ·ÌÊÈ‚ÔÏ›· «‰ÂÓ ·ÌÊÈÛ‚ËÙ› ÙËÓ ËÁÂÌÔÓÈ΋ ·Ó‰ÚÔÚ¤ÂÈ· Ë ÔÔ›· Â›Ó·È ÂÓۈ̷و̤ÓË ÛÙȘ ·Ú¯¤˜ Î·È ÛÙȘ ‰Ô̤˜ Ù˘ ‰ÈÔ›ÎËÛ˘» (Blackmore 1993: 45). ∂Ô̤ӈ˜, ‰ÈÂΉ›ÎËÛË ·‡ÍËÛ˘ ÙÔ˘ ·ÚÈıÌÔ‡ ÙˆÓ Á˘Ó·ÈÎÒÓ Û ‰ÈÔÈÎËÙÈΤ˜ ı¤ÛÂȘ Ù˘ ÂÎ·›-


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∂ϤÓË °È·ÓÓ·ÎÔÔ‡ÏÔ˘

‰Â˘Û˘ Â›Ó·È ÌÂÓ ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈÎfi˜ ÛÙfi¯Ô˜ ·ÏÏ¿ ·Ôχو˜ ·ÓÂ·Ú΋˜ ·fi ÙËÓ ÔÙÈ΋ ÙˆÓ ÊÂÌÈÓÈÛÙÈÎÒÓ ıˆÚÈÒÓ. ∞˘Ùfi Ô˘ Ë Blackmore Î·È ¿ÏϘ ıˆÚËÙÈÎÔ› ˘ÔÛÙËÚ›˙Ô˘Ó Â›Ó·È Ë ·Ó¿ÁÎË ÂÓfi˜ Ó¤Ô˘ ÔÚÈÛÌÔ‡ Ù˘ ¤ÓÓÔÈ·˜ Ù˘ ‰È‡ı˘ÓÛ˘ (leadership), Ô ÔÔ›Ô˜ ı· Â›Ó·È ÂÚÈÂÎÙÈÎfi˜ ÔÏÏ·ÏÒÓ ÔÙÈÎÒÓ, Û˘ÌÂÚÈÏ·Ì‚·ÓÔÌ¤ÓˆÓ Î·È ÂÎÂ›ÓˆÓ ÔÈ Ôԛ˜ ‚·Û›˙ÔÓÙ·È ÛÙÔ Ê‡ÏÔ Î·È ÛÙË ÛÂÍÔ˘·ÏÈÎfiÙËÙ·. ∞˘Ùfi ‚¤‚·È· ÛÙÔ Â›Â‰Ô Ù˘ ıˆڛ·˜, ÁÈ·Ù› ¤Ó· Ù¤ÙÔÈÔ ÂÁ¯Â›ÚËÌ· Û Â›Â‰Ô Ú·ÎÙÈ΋˜ Â›Ó·È ÂÍ·ÈÚÂÙÈο ‰‡ÛÎÔÏÔ. ™˘ÌÏËڈ̷ÙÈο, Ë Schmitt (1994) ˘ÔÛÙËÚ›˙ÂÈ Î·È ÙÂÎÌËÚÈÒÓÂÈ ÂÚ¢ÓËÙÈο fiÙÈ Î·È Ë ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË Ë ÔÔ›· ÚÔÂÙÔÈÌ¿˙ÂÈ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎÔ‡˜ ÁÈ· ‰È¢ı˘ÓÙÈΤ˜ ı¤ÛÂȘ Â›Ó·È ÔÚÁ·ÓˆÌ¤ÓË Ì ‚¿ÛË ÙȘ ÂÌÂÈڛ˜ ÙˆÓ ·Ó‰ÚÒÓ Î·È ÙȘ ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ›Â˜ Û ·Ó‰ÚÈο ÂÚÈ‚¿ÏÏÔÓÙ·. ªÔÚ› Ó· ˘ÔÛÙËÚȯÙ› Ë ¿Ô„Ë fiÙÈ ·˘Ùfi ÔÊ›ÏÂÙ·È ÛÙËÓ ÈÛÙÔÚÈ΋ ÂͤÏÈÍË Ù˘ ÔÚÁ¿ÓˆÛ˘ Ù˘ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘ Î·È ÛÙË ‰È·ÈÛو̤ÓË ·ÓÙ›ÛÙ·ÛË ÙˆÓ ÔÚÁ·ÓÈÛÌÒÓ Û ·ÏÏ·Á¤˜ Ù˘ ‰ÔÌ‹˜ ÙÔ˘˜. ∫·Ù¿ ÙȘ ÊÂÌÈÓÈÛÙÈΤ˜ ıˆڛ˜, ÌÈ· Ù¤ÙÔÈ· ÂÚÌËÓ›· Â›Ó·È ·ÏÔ˘ÛÙ¢ÙÈ΋, ·ÊÔ‡ ·ÁÓÔ› ÙËÓ ËÁÂÌÔÓÈ΋ ‰‡Ó·ÌË Ù˘ ·Ó‰ÚÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜. ∫·Ù¿ ÙȘ ıˆڛ˜ ·˘Ù¤˜, ÔÈ ¿Ó‰Ú˜ ΢ÚÈ·Ú¯Ô‡Ó Û fiϘ ÙȘ ‚·ıÌ›‰Â˜ Ù˘ ‰ÈÔ›ÎËÛ˘ Ù˘ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘ ÁÈ·Ù› Â›Ó·È Î·Ù·ÏÏËÏfiÙÂÚ· ÚÔÂÙÔÈÌ·Ṳ̂ÓÔÈ Î·È ·ÛÎÔ‡Ó Î·Ï‡ÙÂÚ· ÙȘ ··ÈÙÔ‡ÌÂÓ˜ ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ˜ Û ÌÈ· ‰ÈÔÈÎËÙÈ΋ Î·È ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁÈ΋ ‰ÔÌ‹ Ë ÔÔ›· ¤¯ÂÈ ·Ú·‰ÔÛȷο Û˘ÁÎÚÔÙËı› Ì ‚¿ÛË ·Ó‰ÚÈο ÚfiÙ˘·. ªÂ ÌÈ· ‰È¢ÎÚ›ÓÈÛË: ÔÈ ¿Ó‰Ú˜ ‰ÂÓ ¤¯Ô˘Ó ÚÔÂÙÔÈÌ·ÛÙ› ηχÙÂÚ· ÁÈ· Ó· ‰È¢ı‡ÓÔ˘Ó Ù· Û¯ÔÏ›·, ¤¯Ô˘Ó ÚÔÂÙÔÈÌ·ÛÙ› ηχÙÂÚ· ÁÈ· Ó· ηٷϿ‚Ô˘Ó ı¤ÛÂȘ ÔÈ Ôԛ˜ ¤¯Ô˘Ó ÔÚÈÛı› (ηÓÔÓÈÎÔÔÈËı› Ì ÙÔÓ ÊÔ˘ÎˆÈÎfi fiÚÔ) Ì ‚¿ÛË ÙȘ ÂÌÂÈڛ˜ ÙˆÓ ·Ó‰ÚÒÓ, ÔÈ ÔÔ›ÔÈ Î·Ù›¯·Ó ÛÙÔ ·ÚÂÏıfiÓ ÙȘ ı¤ÛÂȘ ·˘Ù¤˜ (Hoyle & Skra 1999, Skra 2000). ™ÙË ‚¿ÛË ·˘Ù‹ Ô Î‡ÎÏÔ˜ Ô ¿Ó‰Ú·˜ ˆ˜ ‰È¢ı˘ÓÙ‹˜ Î·È Ô ‰È¢ı˘ÓÙ‹˜ ˆ˜ ¿Ó‰Ú·˜ ÔÚ›˙ÂÈ ÙËÓ ¤ÓÓÔÈ· Ù˘ ‰ÈÔ›ÎËÛ˘ Ù˘ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘ Î·È Î¿ı ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈ΋ ¿Ô„Ë Ë ÔÔ›· ·ÌÊÈÛ‚ËÙ› ÙÔ˘˜ ·Ú·‰ÔÛȷο ·Ó‰ÚÈÎÔ‡˜ ÚfiÏÔ˘˜ ÛÙË ‰ÈÔ›ÎËÛË ÂÚÈıˆÚÈÔÔÈ›ٷÈ. ™ÙÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ ·˘Ùfi ÔÈ Á˘Ó·›Î˜ Û ‰È¢ı˘ÓÙÈΤ˜ ı¤ÛÂȘ ·ÓÙÈÌÂÙˆ›˙Ô˘Ó ‰È·ÚÎÒ˜ ÌÈ· Û‡ÁÎÚÔ˘ÛË ÚfiψÓ. ªÈ· ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈ΋ fi„Ë ·˘Ù‹˜ Ù˘ Û‡ÁÎÚÔ˘Û˘ ·Ó·‰ÂÈÎÓ‡ÂÙ·È, ÁÈ· ·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ·, fiÙ·Ó ÔÈ ÚÔÛ‰Ô˘ ÙˆÓ Û˘Ó·‰¤ÏÊˆÓ ÙˆÓ Á˘Ó·ÈÎÒÓ ‰È¢ı˘ÓÙÒÓ ·ÏÈÓ‰ÚÔÌÔ‡Ó ·Ó¿ÌÂÛ· ÛÙÔ Ò˜ Û˘ÌÂÚÈʤÚÂÙ·È ÌÈ· Á˘Ó·›Î· Î·È Ò˜ Û˘ÌÂÚÈʤÚÂÙ·È ¤Ó·˜ «‰È¢ı˘ÓÙ‹˜».


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ŒÌÊ˘Ï˜ Ù·˘ÙfiÙËÙ˜ Î·È ‰ÈÔ›ÎËÛË Ù˘ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘

83

∏ ¢π√I∫∏™∏ ∆∏™ ∂∫¶∞π¢∂À™∏™ ∫∞π √π £∂øƒπ∂™ ∆∏™ ƒ∂À™∆√∆∏∆∞™ ∆√À ºÀ§√À √È ÊÂÌÈÓÈÛÙÈΤ˜ ÔÙÈΤ˜ ÍÂΛÓËÛ·Ó ‰ÈÂΉÈÎÒÓÙ·˜ Ó· ·Ô‰ÔÌ‹ÛÔ˘Ó ÙȘ ΢ڛ·Ú¯Â˜, ‚·ÛÈṲ̂Ó˜ ÛÙËÓ ·Ó‰ÚÈ΋ ÔÙÈ΋, ·ÓÙÈÏ‹„ÂȘ Î·È Î·Ù·ÓÔ‹ÛÂȘ Ì ‚¿ÛË ÙËÓ ·Ú¯‹ Ù˘ ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈÎfiÙËÙ·˜ ÙˆÓ Á˘Ó·ÈÎÒÓ. ¶ÚÔ¤‚·ÏÏ·Ó, ÂÔ̤ӈ˜, ÙËÓ ·Ó¿ÁÎË Û˘ÁÎÚfiÙËÛ˘ ÌÈ·˜ Á˘Ó·ÈΛ·˜ Ù·˘ÙfiÙËÙ·˜, Ë ÔÔ›· ı· Û˘Ó‰‡·˙ ÙË ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈÎfiÙËÙ· ÙˆÓ Á˘Ó·ÈÎÒÓ ¤Ó·ÓÙÈ ÙˆÓ ·Ó‰ÚÒÓ Ì ÙËÓ ÔÌÔÈfiÙËÙ· ÙˆÓ Á˘Ó·ÈÎÒÓ ÌÂٷ͇ ÙÔ˘˜. √È ÌÂÙ·ÌÔÓÙ¤ÚÓ˜ ÎÚÈÙÈΤ˜ ÛÙȘ ÊÂÌÈÓÈÛÙÈΤ˜ ıˆڛ˜ Úfi‚·Ï·Ó ÙÔÓ ÂÚÈÔÚÈṲ̂ÓÔ ¯·Ú·ÎÙ‹Ú· ·˘Ù‹˜ Ù˘ ‰ÈÏ‹˜ ‰È·ÊÔÚÔÔ›ËÛ˘, Ë ÔÔ›· ηٷÛ··˙ ÙË Á˘Ó·ÈΛ· Ù·˘ÙfiÙËÙ· ÛÙË ‚¿ÛË ÙÔ˘ ÂÓfi˜ ·fi ‰‡Ô fiÏÔ˘˜ ¿Ó‰Ú·˜-Á˘Ó·›Î·, ηı¤Ó·˜ ÂÎ ÙˆÓ ÔÔ›ˆÓ ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚÈ˙fiÙ·Ó ·fi Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤Ó˜ ȉÈfiÙËÙ˜, ÂӉȷʤÚÔÓÙ· Î·È Û˘Ì‚¿ÛÂȘ. ™ÙË ÏÔÁÈ΋ ·˘Ù‹ ÔÈ Á˘Ó·›Î˜ Â›Ó·È ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈΤ˜ ·fi ÙÔ˘˜ ¿Ó‰Ú˜ Î·È ÔÈ ¿Ó‰Ú˜ ·fi ÙȘ Á˘Ó·›Î˜, ÂÓÒ ÔÈ Á˘Ó·›Î˜ ‰ÂÓ Â›Ó·È ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈΤ˜ ÌÂٷ͇ ÙÔ˘˜, fiˆ˜ Î·È ÔÈ ¿Ó‰Ú˜ ‰ÂÓ ¤¯Ô˘Ó ÌÂٷ͇ ÙÔ˘˜ ‰È·ÊÔÚ¤˜. ∞˘Ù‹ Ë ‰È¯ÔÙÔÌ›· ‚¤‚·È· ‰ÂÓ ·Ê‹ÓÂÈ ÂÚÈıÒÚÈ· ÁÈ· ·Ú·¤Ú· ‰È·ÊÔÚÔÔÈ‹ÛÂȘ, fiˆ˜ Î·È ‰ÂÓ ·Ê‹ÓÂÈ ÂÚÈıÒÚÈ· ÁÈ· ÙË ‰ÈÂÚ‡ÓËÛË Î·È ÙËÓ Î·Ù·ÓfiËÛË Ù˘ Ù·˘ÙfiÙËÙ·˜ ÙˆÓ ·ÙfiÌˆÓ ¤Ú· ·fi ÙȘ ‰‡Ô ‚ÈÔÏÔÁÈο ÔÚÈṲ̂Ó˜ ηÙËÁÔڛ˜ ·ÚÛÂÓÈÎÔ‡ Î·È ıËÏ˘ÎÔ‡. ™‡Ìʈӷ Ì ÙËÓ Butler (1990), ÔÈ ÊÂÌÈÓÈÛÙÈΤ˜ ıˆڛ˜, ·ÔÚÚ›ÙÔÓÙ·˜ ÙË ı¤ÛË fiÙÈ Ë ‚ÈÔÏÔÁ›· ηıÔÚ›˙ÂÈ ÙËÓ Ù·˘ÙfiÙËÙ· ÙˆÓ ·ÙfiÌˆÓ Î·È ·ÓÙÈηıÈÛÙÒÓÙ·˜ ÙËÓ Ì ÙË ı¤ÛË fiÙÈ Ë ·ÙÚÈ·Ú¯È΋ ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú· ÂÈ‚¿ÏÏÂÈ ·ÚÛÂÓÈÎÔ‡˜ Î·È ıËÏ˘ÎÔ‡˜ ÚfiÏÔ˘˜ ÛÙÔ˘˜ ¿Ó‰Ú˜ Î·È ÛÙȘ Á˘Ó·›Î˜ ·ÓÙ›ÛÙÔȯ·, ηٷϋÁÔ˘Ó ÛÙÔ ›‰ÈÔ ·ÔÙ¤ÏÂÛÌ· Ì ÂΛÓÔ Ù˘ ‚ÈÔÏÔÁÈ΋˜ ‰È¿ÎÚÈÛ˜Ë ·Ó‰ÚÒÓ Î·È Á˘Ó·ÈÎÒÓ ÙËÓ ÔÔ›· ·ÔÚÚ›ÙÔ˘Ó. µ·ÛÈṲ̂ÓË ÛÙȘ ıˆÚËÙÈΤ˜ ÂÂÍÂÚÁ·Û›Â˜ ÙÔ˘ ºÔ˘ÎÒ, Ë Butler ·Ô‰ÔÌ› ÙÔ ‰›ÔÏÔ ÙÔ˘ ‚ÈÔÏÔÁÈÎÔ‡ ʇÏÔ˘ (·ÚÛÂÓÈÎfi-ıËÏ˘Îfi), ÙÔ ÔÔ›Ô ·Ú¿ÁÂÈ ÙÔ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎfi ʇÏÔ (¿Ó‰Ú·˜-Á˘Ó·›Î·) Î·È ÙÔ ÔÔ›Ô Ì ÙË ÛÂÈÚ¿ ÙÔ˘ ÚÔηÏ› ÙËÓ ÂÈı˘Ì›· ÁÈ· ÙÔ ¿ÏÏÔ Ê‡ÏÔ, ıˆÚÒÓÙ·˜ ˆ˜ ‰Â‰Ô̤ÓÔ ÛÙȘ ·Ó·Ï‡ÛÂȘ Ù˘ fiÙÈ ÙÔ Ê‡ÏÔ Î·È Ë ÂÈı˘Ì›· ÁÈ· ÙÔ ¿ÏÏÔ Ê‡ÏÔ Â›Ó·È ÂÓÙÂÏÒ˜ ·ÓÂÍ¿ÚÙËÙ· ·fi ‚ÈÔÏÔÁÈο ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚÈÛÙÈο Î·È ·Ôχو˜ Ú¢ÛÙ¿ ˆ˜ ÂÓÓÔÈÔÏÔÁÈΤ˜ ηٷÛ΢¤˜ Î·È ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈΤ˜ Ú·ÎÙÈΤ˜. ∆Ô Ê‡ÏÔ ÛÙË ÏÔÁÈ΋ Ù˘ Â›Ó·È Î¿ÙÈ Ô˘ Ù· ¿ÙÔÌ· ˘Ô‰‡ÔÓÙ·È Î·È fi¯È οÙÈ Ô˘ ›ӷÈ. ∞˘Ù‹ Ë È‰¤· ÙÔ˘ ÚfiÏÔ˘ ÙÔ˘ ʇÏÔ˘ ˆ˜ ÂÛÎÂÌ̤Ó˘ ÂÈÏÔÁ‹˜ ÙˆÓ ·ÙfïÓ, Ë ÔÔ›· ÌÔÚ› Ó· ÌÂÙ·‚¿ÏÏÂÙ·È


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∂ϤÓË °È·ÓÓ·ÎÔÔ‡ÏÔ˘

ÛÙÔ ¯ÚfiÓÔ Î·È ÛÙÔÓ ÙfiÔ, Î·È ¿Ú· Ù˘ Ú¢ÛÙfiÙËÙ·˜ ÙÔ˘ ʇÏÔ˘ ÙˆÓ ·ÙfiÌˆÓ Â›Ó·È ÎÂÓÙÚÈ΋ ÙˆÓ queer ıˆÚÈÒÓ. ªÈ· Ù¤ÙÔÈ· ÚÔÛ¤ÁÁÈÛË ÛÙË ‰ÈÔ›ÎËÛË Ù˘ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘ ÌÔÈ¿˙ÂÈ ÂÍ·ÈÚÂÙÈο ÂӉȷʤÚÔ˘Û·, ·ÏÏ¿ Î·È ıˆÚËÙÈο Û‡ÓıÂÙË, ·ÊÔ‡ ÚÒÙ· ·’ fiÏ· ÚÔ¸Ôı¤ÙÂÈ ÌÈ· Ó¤· ÂΉԯ‹ Ù˘ «Î·ÓÔÓÈÎfiÙËÙ·˜» Î·È ÌÈ· ηÈÓÔÙÔÌÈ΋ ÚÔÛ¤ÁÁÈÛË ÙˆÓ Û¯¤ÛÂˆÓ ÂÍÔ˘Û›·˜ ÙȘ Ôԛ˜ ¤¯ÂÈ ÂÁηıȉڇÛÂÈ Î·È ÓÔÌÈÌÔÔÈ‹ÛÂÈ Ë Î˘Ú›·Ú¯Ë ÏÔÁÈ΋ ÙÔ˘ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎÔ‡ Û˘ÛÙ‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ _ Î·È Â‰Ò ··ÈÙÂ›Ù·È Ë ÂÊ·ÚÌÔÁ‹ Ù˘ ı¤Û˘ ÙÔ˘ ºÔ˘ÎÒ: «∏ ÂÍÔ˘Û›· Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ·Ó·Ï˘ı› ˆ˜ οÙÈ Ô˘ ΢ÎÏÔÊÔÚ›, ‹ Ì¿ÏÏÔÓ ˆ˜ οÙÈ Ô˘ ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ› Ì ÙË ÌÔÚÊ‹ ÌÈ·˜ ·Ï˘Û›‰·˜. ¢ÂÓ ÂÓÙÔ›˙ÂÙ·È ÔÙ¤ ÛÙÔ ¤Ó· Ë ÛÙÔ ¿ÏÏÔ Ì¤ÚÔ˜, ÔÙ¤ ÛÙ· ¯¤ÚÈ· οÔÈÔ˘. ∫·Ó¤Ó·˜ ‰ÂÓ ÙËÓ È‰ÈÔÔÈÂ›Ù·È ÔÙ¤ ˆ˜ ÂÌfiÚÂ˘Ì· Ë ÎÔÌÌ¿ÙÈ Ïo‡Ùo˘. ∏ ÂÍÔ˘Û›· ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔÈÂ›Ù·È Î·È ·ÛÎÂ›Ù·È Ì¤Ûˆ ÌÈ·˜ ÔÚÁ¿ÓˆÛ˘ Ô˘ ÌÔÈ¿˙ÂÈ Ì ‰›¯Ù˘. ∫·È Ù· ¿ÙÔÌ· fi¯È ÌfiÓÔ Î˘ÎÏÔÊÔÚÔ‡Ó ·Ó¿ÌÂÛ· ÛÙ· Ó‹Ì·Ù¿ Ù˘ ·ÏÏ¿ Â›Ó·È ¿ÓÙ· ÛÙË ı¤ÛË fiÔ˘ Û˘Á¯ÚfiÓˆ˜ ˘Ê›ÛÙ·ÓÙ·È Î·È ·ÛÎÔ‡Ó ÙËÓ ÂÍÔ˘Û›· ·˘Ù‹. ∆· ¿ÙÔÌ· ‰ÂÓ Â›Ó·È ÌfiÓÔ Ô ·‰Ú·Ó‹˜ ‹ Ô Û˘Ó·ÈÓÒÓ ÛÙfi¯Ô˜ Ù˘, Â›Ó·È ¿ÓÙÔÙÂ Î·È Ù· ÛÙÔȯ›· ¿ÚıÚˆÛ‹˜ Ù˘. ªÂ ·ÏÏ¿ ÏfiÁÈ·, Ù· ¿ÙÔÌ· Â›Ó·È ÔÈ ÊÔÚ›˜ Ù˘ ÂÍÔ˘Û›·˜, fi¯È Ù· ÛËÌ›· ÂÊ·ÚÌÔÁ‹˜ Ù˘» (ºÔ˘ÎÒ 1991: 107). ∏ ηٷÓfiËÛË ÙˆÓ Û¯¤ÛÂˆÓ ÂÍÔ˘Û›·˜ ··ÈÙ›, ·Ú¿ÏÏËÏ·, Û‡Ìʈӷ Ì ÙȘ queer ıˆڛ˜ ÌÈ· ¿ÏÏË ÚÔÛ¤ÁÁÈÛË Î·È Î·Ù·ÓfiËÛË Ù˘ ¤ÓÓÔÈ·˜ Ù˘ Ù·˘ÙfiÙËÙ·˜ ÙˆÓ ·ÙfïÓ. ∞ÊÔ‡, Û‡Ìʈӷ ¿ÏÈ Ì ÙÔÓ ºÔ˘ÎÒ, Û’ ·˘Ùfi ÙÔ ϤÁÌ· ÂÍÔ˘Û›·˜, «ÙÔ ¿ÙÔÌÔ [individual] ‰ÂÓ Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· Û˘ÏÏ·Ì‚¿ÓÂÙ·È ˆ˜ ¤Ó· ›‰Ô˜ ÛÙÔȯÂÈÒ‰Ô˘˜ ˘Ú‹Ó·, ¤Ó· ÚˆÙfiÁÔÓÔ ¿ÙÔÌÔ [atom], ¤Ó· ÔÏÏ·Ïfi Î·È ·‰Ú·Ó¤˜ ˘ÏÈÎfi ¿Óˆ ÛÙÔ ÔÔ›Ô ÛÙÂÚÂÒÓÂÙ·È Ë ÂÍÔ˘Û›· Ë ÂÓ·ÓÙ›ÔÓ ÙÔ˘ ÔÔ›Ô˘ ÛÙÚ¤ÊÂÙ·È Î·È, ηıÒ˜ ÙÔ Î¿ÓÂÈ ·˘Ùfi, ηı˘ÔÙ¿ÛÛÂÈ Ë Û˘ÓÙÚ›‚ÂÈ Ù· ¿ÙÔÌ·. ¶Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈο, ¤Ó· ·fi Ù· ÚÒÙÈÛÙ· ·ÔÙÂϤÛÌ·Ù· Ù˘ ÂÍÔ˘Û›·˜ Â›Ó·È ‹‰Ë fiÙÈ ÔÚÈṲ̂ӷ ÛÒÌ·Ù·, ÔÚÈṲ̂Ó˜ ¯ÂÈÚÔÓƠ̂˜/ÎÈÓ‹ÛÂȘ, ÔÚÈṲ̂ÓÔÈ ÏfiÁÔÈ, ÔÚÈṲ̂Ó˜ ÂÈı˘Ì›Â˜ ¤Ú¯ÔÓÙ·È Î·È Ù·˘Ù›˙ÔÓÙ·È Î·È Û˘ÁÎÚÔÙÔ‡ÓÙ·È ˆ˜ ¿ÙÔÌ·. ∆Ô ¿ÙÔÌÔ ‰ËÏ·‰‹ ‰ÂÓ Â›Ó·È ÙÔ vis-a-vis Ù˘ ÂÍÔ˘Û›·˜. ›ӷÈ, ηٿ ÙË ÁÓÒÌË ÌÔ˘, ¤Ó· ·fi Ù· ÚÒÙÈÛÙ· ·ÔÙÂϤÛÌ·Ù¿ Ù˘. ∆Ô ¿ÙÔÌÔ Â›Ó·È ¤Ó· ·ÔÙ¤ÏÂÛÌ· ÂÍÔ˘Û›·˜ Î·È Û˘Á¯ÚfiÓˆ˜, ‹, ÛÙÔ ‚·ıÌfi ·ÎÚÈ‚Ò˜ Ô˘ Â›Ó·È ·˘Ùfi ÙÔ ·ÔÙ¤ÏÂÛÌ·, Â›Ó·È Î·È ÛÙÔÈ¯Â›Ô Ù˘ ¿ÚıÚˆÛ‹˜ Ù˘. ∆Ô ¿ÙÔÌÔ Ô˘ ¤¯ÂÈ Û˘ÁÎÚÔÙËı› ·fi ÙËÓ ÂÍÔ˘Û›· Â›Ó·È Û˘Á¯ÚfiÓˆ˜ Î·È ÊÔÚ¤·˜ Ù˘» (ºÔ˘ÎÒ 1991) . ŒÍˆ ·fi ¤Ó· Ù¤ÙÔÈÔ ıˆÚËÙÈÎfi Ï·›ÛÈÔ ‰ÔÌË̤ÓÔ ÛÙËÓ ·ÌÊÈÛ‚‹ÙËÛË Ù˘ ηÓÔÓÈÎfiÙËÙ·˜, ÙˆÓ Û¯¤ÛÂˆÓ ÂÍÔ˘Û›·˜ Î·È Ù˘ Ù·˘ÙfiÙËÙ·˜ ÙˆÓ ·ÙfïÓ, οı ÊÂÌÈÓÈÛÙÈ΋ ÚÔÛ¤ÁÁÈÛË ÛÙË ‰ÈÔ›ÎËÛË Ù˘ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘ ηٷϋÁÂÈ ·ÏÒ˜ ÛÙ· ÊÈÏÂχıÂÚ· ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·ÙÈο ·ÈÙ‹Ì·Ù· Ù˘ ·ÙÔÌÈ΋˜ ÂÏ¢ıÂÚ›·˜ Î·È ÙÔ˘ ·ÙÔÌÈÎÔ‡ ·˘ÙÔÚÔÛ‰ÈÔÚÈÛÌÔ‡ (Strachan 1999).


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ªÈ· ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁÈ΋ ÚÔÛ¤ÁÁÈÛË ÙˆÓ ˙ËÙËÌ¿ÙˆÓ ·˘ÙÒÓ ÌÔÚ› Ó· ‚·ÛÈÛÙ› ÛÙË ıÂÛÌÈ΋ ÂıÓÔÁÚ·Ê›· Ÿˆ˜ ·Ó·Ê¤ÚÂÈ Ë Wright (2003), Ë ıÂÛÌÈ΋ ÂıÓÔÁÚ·Ê›· ÂÚÈÁÚ¿ÊÂÙ·È ˆ˜ «Ë ÂÌÂÈÚÈ΋ ‰ÈÂÚ‡ÓËÛË ÙˆÓ Û˘Ó‰¤ÛÌˆÓ ·Ó¿ÌÂÛ· Û ÙÔÈΤ˜ ηٷÛÙ¿ÛÂȘ Ù˘ ηıËÌÂÚÈÓ‹˜ ˙ˆ‹˜, ÔÚÁ·ÓˆÙÈΤ˜ ‰Ô̤˜ Î·È ˘ÂÚÙÔÈΤ˜ ‰ÈÔÈÎËÙÈΤ˜ ‰È·‰Èηۛ˜» (Devault and McCoy 2002: 751) Î·È ÂÈÎÂÓÙÚÒÓÂÙ·È ÛÙÔ˘˜ ÙÚfiÔ˘˜ Ì ÙÔ˘˜ ÔÔ›Ô˘˜ Ë Î·ıËÌÂÚÈÓ‹ ÂÌÂÈÚ›· ÙˆÓ ·ÓıÚÒˆÓ ÔÚÁ·ÓÒÓÂÙ·È ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈο ÂȯÂÈÚÒÓÙ·˜ Ó· Û˘Ì‚¿ÏÏÂÈ ÛÙËÓ Î·Ù·ÓfiËÛË ÙˆÓ ‰È·‰ÈηÛÈÒÓ ‰È¿ ÙˆÓ ÔÔ›ˆÓ ÔÈ ÂÚÁ·ÛȷΤ˜ ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ˜, Ú·ÎÙÈΤ˜ Î·È Û¯¤ÛÂȘ, ÔÈ Ôԛ˜ Â›Ó·È ÔÚÁ·ÓˆÌ¤Ó˜ Á‡Úˆ ·fi ÌÈ· Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤ÓË ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋ ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ›· (fiˆ˜ Â›Ó·È Ë ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË, Ë ‰ÈηÈÔÛ‡ÓË, Ë ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋ ÚfiÓÔÈ· ÎÏ,) Î·È ÔÈ Ôԛ˜ ÂÌÊ·Ó›˙ÔÓÙ·È Û ÔÈΛÏÔ˘˜ ÙfiÔ˘˜, ·ÔÙÂÏÔ‡Ó Ì¤ÚÔ˜ ÙÔ˘ Ì˯·ÓÈÛÌÔ‡ ΢ÚÈ·Ú¯›·˜ (ruling apparatus) ÌÈ·˜ ÎÔÈÓˆÓ›·˜ (Grahame &Grahame 2000). ∏ ·ÚÈ· ÂÚÒÙËÛË ÙËÓ ÔÔ›· ı¤ÙÂÈ Ë ıÂÛÌÈ΋ ÂıÓÔÁÚ·Ê›· Â›Ó·È «Ò˜ Û˘Ì‚·›ÓÂÈ ·˘Ùfi Ô˘ Û˘Ì‚·›ÓÂÈ; ¶Ò˜ ÔÚÁ·ÓÒÓÔÓÙ·È ·˘Ù¤˜ ÔÈ Û¯¤ÛÂȘ ΢ÚÈ·Ú¯›·˜;» (Campbell &Gregor 2002: 7), ÔÈ Ôԛ˜ Ú˘ıÌ›˙Ô˘Ó Î·È ÂϤÁ¯Ô˘Ó ÙȘ ˙ˆ¤˜ ÙˆÓ ·ÓıÚÒˆÓ «Ï›ÁÔ ‹ Ôχ Ì˘ÛÙËÚȈ‰Ò˜ Î·È ¯ˆÚ›˜ ÙËÓ Â›ÁÓˆÛË ÙˆÓ ÂÌÏÂÎÔÌ¤ÓˆÓ ·Ùfïӻ (Campbell &Gregor 2002: 18). √È Û¯¤ÛÂȘ ΢ÚÈ·Ú¯›·˜ ÛÙË ıÂÛÌÈ΋ ÂıÓÔÁÚ·Ê›· ÔÚ›˙ÔÓÙ·È ÚˆÙ›ÛÙˆ˜ ˆ˜ ÔÈ «ÎÂÈÌÂÓÈÎÔ› ÙfiÔÈ» (textual venues) ÛÙÔ˘˜ ÔÔ›Ô˘˜ Î·È ‰È¿ ÙˆÓ ÔÔ›ˆÓ Û˘ÁÎÚÔÙÂ›Ù·È Î·È ÂÈ‚¿ÏÏÂÙ·È Ë ÂÍÔ˘Û›· Û ‰È¿ÊÔÚ· ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈο Ï·›ÛÈ· (fiˆ˜ Â›Ó·È Ë ÓÔÌÔıÂÛ›·, Ë ‰ÈÔ›ÎËÛË, Ë ‰È‡ı˘ÓÛË, Ô ÚÔÁÚ·ÌÌ·ÙÈÛÌfi˜). ∏ ¤ÓÓÔÈ· Ù˘ ÂÍÔ˘Û›·˜, ÂÔ̤ӈ˜, η٤¯ÂÈ ÚˆÙÂ‡Ô˘Û· ı¤ÛË ÛÙË ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁ›· Ù˘ ıÂÛÌÈ΋˜ ÂıÓÔÁÚ·Ê›·˜ ˆ˜ ·Ó·Ï˘ÙÈÎfi ÂÚÁ·ÏÂ›Ô ‰ÈÂÚ‡ÓËÛ˘ Î·È Î·Ù·ÓfiËÛ˘ Î·È ÙˆÓ Ú·ÎÙÈÎÒÓ ÔÈ Ôԛ˜ ÂÚÈıˆÚÈÔÔÈÔ‡Ó ¿ÙÔÌ· Î·È ·fi„ÂȘ Î·È ÙˆÓ Ú·ÎÙÈÎÒÓ ‰È¿ ÙˆÓ ÔÔ›ˆÓ ÔÈ Û¯¤ÛÂȘ ΢ÚÈ·Ú¯›·˜ ÌÂÙ·‚È‚¿˙ÔÓÙ·È Ì¤Û· ·fi ÙË ÁÓÒÛË, ÙËÓ ÂÌÂÈÚÔÁÓˆÌÔÛ‡ÓË, ÙÔ ÏfiÁÔ Î·È ÙÔ˘˜ ıÂÛÌÔ‡˜. √È Û¯¤ÛÂȘ ΢ÚÈ·Ú¯›·˜, fiˆ˜ ÚԷӷʤÚıËÎÂ, ÚÔÛÏ·Ì‚¿ÓÔÓÙ·È Î·È ‰ÈÂÚ¢ÓÒÓÙ·È ˆ˜ «Î›ÌÂÓ·». ™ÙȘ ÔÈΛϘ ÌÔÚʤ˜ ÙÔ˘˜ Ù· ΛÌÂÓ· ·˘Ù¿ ·ÔηχÙÔ˘Ó ÙÔ˘˜ ÙÚfiÔ˘˜ ‰È¿ ÙˆÓ ÔÔ›ˆÓ Ë ÂÍÔ˘Û›· ÂÓۈ̷ÙÒÓÂÙ·È ÛÙȘ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈΤ˜ ‰Ô̤˜ Î·È ÛÙÔ˘˜ ıÂÛÌÔ‡˜ ÌÈ·˜ ÎÔÈÓˆÓ›·˜. ™ÙËÓ ˘ÏÈÎfiÙËÙ¿ ÙÔ˘˜, ‚¤‚·È·, Ù· ΛÌÂÓ· Â›Ó·È ¤ÁÁÚ·Ê·, ËÏÂÎÙÚÔÓÈο ·Ú¯Â›·, Û¯¤‰È· Î·È ÂÈÎfiÓ˜, οı ›‰Ô˘˜ ÁÚ·Ù¿ ÙÂÎÌ‹ÚÈ· Î·È Î¿ı ›‰Ô˘˜ Î·È ÌÔÚÊ‹˜ ·Ó··Ú·ÛÙ¿ÛÂȘ (representations), ÔÈ Ôԛ˜ ·Ú¤¯Ô˘Ó ÙËÓ Â˘¯¤ÚÂÈ· ·Ó··Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜, ·ÓÙÈÁÚ·Ê‹˜ Î·È ‰È¿‰ÔÛ˘ Û ‰È¿ÊÔÚÔ˘˜ ¯Ú‹ÛÙ˜ Û ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈΤ˜ ¯ÚÔÓÈΤ˜ ÛÙÈÁ̤˜


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(Grahame & Grahame 2000). ™Â Û˘Ì‚ÔÏÈÎfi Â›‰Ô, Ù· ΛÌÂÓ· ·˘Ù¿ ÔÚÁ·ÓÒÓÔ˘Ó Î·È ÂÈ‚¿ÏÏÔ˘Ó ¤Ó·Ó ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎfi Î·È ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈÎfi ¯ÒÚÔ ÛÂ Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤ӷ ¿ÙÔÌ· Î·È ÔÌ¿‰Â˜, ÂÓÒ ·Ú¿ÏÏËÏ· ·Ô‰›‰Ô˘Ó ÂÍÔ˘Û›· Û ȉÂÔÏÔÁ›Â˜ Î·È Ú·ÎÙÈΤ˜. ªÈ· ÂÚ¢ÓËÙÈ΋ ÚÔÛ¤ÁÁÈÛË, fiˆ˜ Ë ıÂÛÌÈ΋ ÂıÓÔÁÚ·Ê›·, ÚÔÛʤÚÂÈ ÔÏÏ·Ï¿ ÏÂÔÓÂÎÙ‹Ì·Ù· ÛÙË ‰ÈÂÚ‡ÓËÛË Ù˘ ‰ÈÔ›ÎËÛ˘ Ù˘ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘ ·fi ÙËÓ ÔÙÈ΋ ÙÔ˘ ʇÏÔ˘ Î·È ÁÂÓÈÎfiÙÂÚ· Ù˘ ÛÂÍÔ˘·ÏÈÎfiÙËÙ·˜ ÙˆÓ ÂÌÏÂÎfiÌÂÓˆÓ ·ÙfïÓ, fiˆ˜ ·) Û˘Ó‰˘¿˙ÂÈ ·Ó·Ï‡ÛÂȘ Û ÌÈÎÚÔ- Î·È Ì·ÎÚÔÂ›‰Ô, ‚) Û˘Û¯ÂÙ›˙ÂÈ Ê·ÈÓfiÌÂÓ· Û ¤Ó· ÚÒÙÔ Â›Â‰Ô ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈο ÌÂٷ͇ ÙÔ˘˜, Á) ·ÔηχÙÂÈ ÙË ‰˘Ó·ÙfiÙËÙ· ÙˆÓ ÎÂÈÌ¤ÓˆÓ Ó· ‰È·ÌÔÚÊÒÓÔ˘Ó Î·È Ó· ÂϤÁ¯Ô˘Ó ÙȘ ˙ˆ¤˜ ÙˆÓ ·ÓıÚÒˆÓ Ì ·ÚfiÛÌÂÓÔ˘˜ ÙÚfiÔ˘˜ Î·È ‰) ·Ú¤¯ÂÈ Ú·ÎÙÈο ̤۷ Èηӿ Ó· ÂÓÈÛ¯‡ÛÔ˘Ó ·ÏÏ·Á¤˜ Ú·ÎÙÈÎÒÓ Î·È Û˘ÌÂÚÈÊÔÚÒÓ, ÙÔ˘Ï¿¯ÈÛÙÔÓ Û ÙÔÈÎfi Â›‰Ô. ∂ÈÁÚ·ÌÌ·ÙÈο, ÌÔÚ› Ó· Û˘Ì‚¿ÏÂÈ ÛÙËÓ Î·Ù·ÓfiËÛË ÙˆÓ ‰È·‰ÈηÛÈÒÓ ‰È¿ ÙˆÓ ÔÔ›ˆÓ Ù· ÌÈÎÚÔ- Î·È Ì·ÎÚÔÎÔÈÓˆÓÈο Û˘ÛÙ‹Ì·Ù· Î·È ÔÈ ıÂÛÌÔ› ‰È·ÌÔÚÊÒÓÔ˘Ó ÙȘ ·ÙÔÌÈΤ˜ ÂÌÂÈڛ˜ ÙˆÓ ·ÓıÚÒˆÓ, ·ÔηχÙÔÓÙ·˜ ÙȘ Û˘Ó¿ÊÂȘ Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈÌ¤ÓˆÓ ÔÚÁ·ÓˆÙÈÎÒÓ ‰ÔÌÒÓ (Î·È ÂÓ ÚÔÎÂÈ̤ÓÔ˘ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎÒÓ) Ì ÙȘ ·Ó··Ú·ÁˆÁ‹ Î·È ÂÈ‚ÔÏ‹ ÙˆÓ Û¯¤ÛÂˆÓ Î˘ÚÈ·Ú¯›·˜ ÛÙËÓ ÎÔÈÓˆÓ›· Ì·˜. µπµ§π√°ƒ∞ºπ∫∂™ ∞¡∞º√ƒ∂™ Blackmore, J. (1993), “In the shadow of men: The historical construction of educational administration as a masculinist enterprise”, Blackmore J., J Kenway (eds), Gender matters in educational administration policy: A feminist introduction, Farmer Press, Washington, Û. 2745). Bowen, S., Wyatt, N. (1993), Transforming visions: Feminist critiques in communication studies, Hampton Press, Cresskill, NJ. Butler, J. (1990), Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity, Routledge, New York & London. Campbell, M., Frances, G. (2002), Mapping the social: A primer in doing institutional ethnography, Garamond Press, Aurora, On. Comell, D. (1991), Beyond accommodation: Ethical feminism, deconstruction and the law, Routledge, New York. Devault, M.L., McCoy, L. (2002), “Institutional ethnography: Using interviews to investigate ruling relations”, Gubrium J., Holstein J.A. (eds.), Handbook of interview research, Sage, Thousand Oaks, Û. 751-776. Doyle D. (1997), “Education and character: A conservative view”, Phi Delta Kappan, 78 (6), Û. 440-443.


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Grahame, P.R., Grahame,K.M. (2000), “Official knowledge and the relations of ruling: Explorations in institutional ethnography”, Journal for Pedagogy,Pluralism,&Practice, 5, http://www.lesley.edu/journals/jppp/5/grahame.html [ 3.5.2009]. Hoyle, J. R., Skrla, L. (1999), “The politics of superintendent evaluation”, Journal of Personnel Evaluation in Education, 13(4), Û. 405-419. Johnson, J. (2007), “Gender, sexuality and leadership”, Howley A., Howley C. (eds.), Thinking about schools. New theories and innovative practice, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers, London , Û. 205-232. Johnson, J. (2007), “Critical theory and school leadership”, Howley A., Howley C. (eds.), Thinking about schools. New theories and innovative practice, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers, London , Û. 233-265. ∫∂£π-∫¤ÓÙÚÔ ∂Ú¢ÓÒÓ ÁÈ· £¤Ì·Ù· πÛfiÙËÙ·˜ (2008), ∫·Ù¿ ʇÏÔ Â·ÁÁÂÏÌ·ÙÈÎfi˜ ‰È·¯ˆÚÈÛÌfi˜ (οıÂÙÔ˜ Î·È ÔÚÈ˙fiÓÙÈÔ˜): ¢È·ÎÚ›ÛÂȘ Î·È ·ÓÈÛfiÙËÙ˜ ηٿ ÙˆÓ Á˘Ó·ÈÎÒÓ ÛÙËÓ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË, ∞ı‹Ó·. Schmitt, D. (1994), “Integrating new theory and practice to prepare women for roles I Educational Administration”, Paper prepared for the Annual Meeting of the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education. Skrla, L. (2000), “The social construction of gender in the superintendency”, Journal of Educational Policy, 15, Û. 293-316. Strachan, J. (1999), “Feminist Educational Leadership: locating the concepts in practice”, Gender and Education, (11)3, Û. 309-322. ºÔ˘ÎÒ, ª. (1991), «¶ÂÈı·Ú¯È΋ ÂÍÔ˘Û›· Î·È ˘ÔÙ¤ÏÂÈ·», ∏ ÌÈÎÚÔÊ˘ÛÈ΋ Ù˘ ÂÍÔ˘Û›·˜, ÌÙÊÚ. §. ∆ÚÔ˘ÏÈÓÔ‡, ⁄„ÈÏÔÓ, ∞ı‹Ó·, Û. 101-118. Wright, U.T. (2003), “Institutional Ethnography: A Tool for Merging Research and Practice”, Paper presented at the Midwest Research to Practice Conference in Adult, Continuing and Community Education, https://idea.iupui.edu/dspace/handle/1805/353 [ 3.5.2009].


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Ӥ˜ ΢ÎÏÔÊÔڛ˜ ·fi ÙȘ ÂΉfiÛÂȘ Ó‹ÛÔ˜

∆Ô Â˘¿ÏˆÙÔ, ÙÔ ÙÚˆÙfi, Ë ÂÈıÂÙÈÎfiÙËÙ·, Ë ‚›·, Ô ı˘Ìfi˜.

∏ ˘ÂÚ¿ÛÈÛË ÙÔ˘ §fiÁÔ˘ Î·È Ù˘ ‰È·ÓfiËÛ˘ Û ÌÈ· ÂÔ¯‹ ÂÈıÂÙÈ΋˜ ·ÌÊÈÛ‚‹ÙËÛ‹˜ ÙÔ˘˜.

ªÈ· ·Ó·¿ÓÙ¯· Û˘ÓÂ‹˜ ÎÚÈÙÈ΋ Ì·ÙÈ¿, Ô˘ Ì·˜ ÂÈÙÚ¤ÂÈ Ó· ‰Ô‡Ì Ì ¿ÏÏ· Ì¿ÙÈ· ÙÔ ÎÔÈÓfiÙÔÔ Ù˘ ÂÚÈÚÚ¤Ô˘Û·˜ ·ÁÚÈfiÙËÙ·˜.

∫ÂÓÙÚÈ΋ ‰È¿ıÂÛË: ™·ÚÚ‹ 14, 10553 ∞ı‹Ó·, ÙËÏ./Ê·Í 210 3250058 µÈ‚ÈÔˆÏ›Ô: ¶ÂÛÌ·˙fiÁÏÔ˘ 5 (™ÙÔ¿ ÙÔ˘ ‚È‚Ï›Ô˘) ÙËÏ.: 210 3213583


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∫ƒπ∆π∫∏ / ∂¶π™∆∏ª∏ & ∂∫¶∞π¢∂À™∏: 9/09, 89-105

∂ÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ̤ıÔ‰Ô˜ Î·È ··ÁˆÁÈ΋ ˘ÔÛÙ‹ÚÈÍË ÙÔ˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÔ‡ Ú·ÏÈÛÌÔ‡ ∫ÒÛÙ·˜ ™ÙÂÚÁÈfiÔ˘ÏÔ˜ ∂ÏÏËÓÈÎfi ∞ÓÔÈÎÙfi ¶·ÓÂÈÛÙ‹ÌÈÔ ¢Â˘ÙÂÚÔ‚¿ıÌÈ· ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË

™‡Ìʈӷ Ì ÙÔÓ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎfi Ú·ÏÈÛÌfi, ÙÔ ˙‹ÙËÌ· ·È¯Ì‹˜ ÛÙË ‰È·Ì¿¯Ë Ú·ÏÈÛÌÔ‡/·ÓÙÈÚÚ·ÏÈÛÌÔ‡ ·ÊÔÚ¿ ÙËÓ ÂÍ‹ÁËÛË Ù˘ ÂÚÁ·ÏÂȷ΋˜ ·ÍÈÔÈÛÙ›·˜ Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋˜ ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁ›·˜. ¶Ò˜ ÌÔÚ› Ó· ÂÍËÁËı› ÙÔ ÂӉ¯ÔÌÂÓÈÎfi ÁÂÁÔÓfi˜ fiÙÈ Ë ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ̤ıÔ‰Ô˜ Û fiϘ ÙȘ ÂÎÊ¿ÓÛÂȘ Ù˘ (Û˘ÁÎÚfiÙËÛË Î·È ÂÈÚ·Ì·ÙÈ΋ ·ÔÙ›ÌËÛË ıˆÚÈÒÓ, ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹ ηÈÓÔÊ·ÓÒÓ ÚԂϤ„ÂˆÓ ÎÏ.) Â›Ó·È ¤Ó· ÂÍfi¯ˆ˜ ·ÍÈfiÈÛÙÔ fiÚÁ·ÓÔ; ¶ÈÔ Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤ӷ, ·Ó Ë Ì¤ıÔ‰Ô˜ Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ ‰ÂÓ ··ÚÙ›˙ÂÙ·È ·fi ¤Ó· Û‡ÛÙËÌ· a priori ‰ÈηÈÔÏÔÁ‹ÛÈÌˆÓ Î·ÓfiÓˆÓ, fiˆ˜ ˘ÔÛÙ‹ÚÈ˙Â Ô ·Ú·‰ÔÛÈ·Îfi˜ ÂÌÂÈÚÈÛÌfi˜ Î·È Ú·ÛÈÔÓ·ÏÈÛÌfi˜, ·ÏÏ¿, Û‡Ìʈӷ Ì ÙË Ê˘ÛÈÔÎÚ·ÙÈ΋ ÂÚÌËÓ›· Ô˘ ·Ô‰¤¯ÂÙ·È Ô ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎfi˜ Ú·ÏÈÛÌfi˜, ÂÍ·ÚÙ¿Ù·È Ô˘ÛȈ‰Ò˜ Î·È Û˘ÁÎÚÔÙÂ›Ù·È ·fi ÙËÓ ÂοÛÙÔÙ ·Ô‰ÂÎÙ‹ ıˆڛ· (‹, ¢ڇÙÂÚ·, ·fi ÙËÓ ÂοÛÙÔÙ ÎÚ·ÙÔ‡Û· ıˆÚËÙÈ΋ ·Ú¿‰ÔÛË), ÙfiÙ ÙÈ Â›Ó·È ·˘Ùfi Ô˘ ÂÍËÁ› ÙËÓ ·ÍÈÔÈÛÙ›· Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋˜ ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘; ∫·Ù¿ ÙÔ˘˜ Boyd (1984:59) Î·È Psillos (1999:78), Ë Î·Ï‡ÙÂÚË ‰˘Ó·Ù‹, ‹ «Ë ÌfiÓË ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈο ‡ÏÔÁË», ÂÍ‹ÁËÛË Û˘Ó›ÛÙ·Ù·È ÛÙÔ fiÙÈ ÔÈ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈΤ˜ ıˆڛ˜ Ô˘ ˘·ÁÔÚÂ‡Ô˘Ó ÙȘ ·ÍÈfiÈÛÙ˜ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈΤ˜ ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘˜ Û˘ÁÎÚfiÙËÛ˘ Î·È ÂϤÁ¯Ô˘ Ó¤ˆÓ ıˆÚÈÒÓ Â›Ó·È ÚÔÛÂÁÁÈÛÙÈο ·ÏËı›˜. ™Â fiÛ· ·ÎÔÏÔ˘ıÔ‡Ó ı· ˘ÔÛÙËڛ͈ fiÙÈ ·˘Ù‹ Ë ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁÈ΋ ÂΉԯ‹ ÙÔ˘ ÂȯÂÈÚ‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ Ù˘ «Û˘Ó·ÁˆÁ‹˜ ÛÙËÓ Î·Ï‡ÙÂÚË ÂÍ‹ÁËÛË» Â›Ó·È Â›Ù ·ÙÂϤÛÊÔÚË Â›Ù ÚÔ‚ÏËÌ·ÙÈ΋. ∏ ÂÍ¿ÚÙËÛË Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋˜ ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁ›·˜ ·fi ÙËÓ ÂοÛÙÔÙ ˘ÔΛÌÂÓË ıˆڛ· ·ÔÙÂÏ› ÌÂÓ ÌÈ·Ó ÔÚı‹ ‰È·›ÛÙˆÛË, ·ÏÏ¿ ‰ÂÓ ÌÔÚ› Ó· ÂÍËÁ‹ÛÂÈ Â› ÙË ‚¿ÛÂÈ Ù˘ ·Ï‹ıÂÈ·˜ Ù˘ ˘ÔΛÌÂÓ˘ ıˆڛ·˜ ÙË ‰È·¯ÚÔÓÈ΋ ÂÈÙ˘¯›· Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘, ‰ÈfiÙÈ ÚÔ¸Ôı¤ÙÂÈ ÌÈ· «ÁÚ·ÌÌÈ΋» ·ÏÏËÏԉȷÏÔ΋ ıˆڛ·˜-ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘, Ë ÔÔ›· ·Ú·‚È¿˙ÂÈ Î¿ı ‡ÏÔÁË ÂÚÌËÓ›· Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ ˆ˜ ÈÛÙÔÚÈÎÔ‡ Ê·ÈÓÔ̤ÓÔ˘. √ Boyd ·ÓÙÈ·Ú·ı¤ÙÂÈ ÛÙËÓ ÎÔ˘ÓÈ·Ó‹˜ ¤ÌÓ¢Û˘ «·ÓÙÈÚ·ÏÈÛÙÈ΋-ηٷÛ΢·ÛÙÈ΋» ÂÍ‹ÁËÛË fiÙÈ Ë ÔÚı‹ ·¿ÓÙËÛË ÛÙÔ ÂÚÒÙËÌ· «Ò˜ Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· Â›Ó·È Ô ÎfiÛÌÔ˜ ÒÛÙ ÌÈ· ÙfiÛÔ ıˆÚËÙÈο ‚‚·ÚË̤ÓË ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁ›· Ó· Â›Ó·È ·ÍÈfi-


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∫ÒÛÙ·˜ ™ÙÂÚÁÈfiÔ˘ÏÔ˜

ÈÛÙË;» Â›Ó·È fiÙÈ Ô ÎfiÛÌÔ˜ ÔÚ›˙ÂÙ·È ‹ Û˘ÁÎÚÔÙÂ›Ù·È Î·Ù¿ Ôχ ·fi ÙË ıˆÚËÙÈ΋ ·Ú¿‰ÔÛË Ô˘ Û˘Ó¤¯ÂÈ ·˘Ù‹ ÙË ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁ›·. ∆Ô Âȯ›ÚËÌ· ÙÔ˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÔ‡ Ú·ÏÈÛÌÔ‡ ·ÔÙÂÏ› ÌÈ· ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁÈ΋ ÂÚÌËÓ›· Ù˘ «Û˘Ó·ÁˆÁ‹˜ ÛÙË ‚¤ÏÙÈÛÙË ÂÍ‹ÁËÛË», Î·È fiˆ˜ ÙÔ ·Ó·Û˘ÁÎÚÔÙ› Ô ™Ù¿ı˘ æ‡ÏÏÔ˜ (1999: 78) ¤¯ÂÈ ˆ˜ ÂÍ‹˜: «∂›Ó·È ·Ó·ÌÊÈÛ‚‹ÙËÙÔ fiÙÈ ÔÈ Ì¤ıÔ‰ÔÈ Ì¤Ûˆ ÙˆÓ ÔÔ›ˆÓ ÔÈ ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌÔÓ˜ ·Ú¿ÁÔ˘Ó Î·È ÂϤÁ¯Ô˘Ó ÙȘ ıˆÚËÙÈΤ˜ ÚԂϤ„ÂȘ Â›Ó·È ‚‚·ÚË̤Ó˜ Ì ıˆڛ·. √È ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌÔÓ˜ ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔÈÔ‡Ó ÙÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ ÙˆÓ ‹‰Ë ·Ô‰ÂÎÙÒÓ ıˆÚÈÒÓ ÚÔÎÂÈ̤ÓÔ˘ Ó· Û¯ËÌ·Ù›ÛÔ˘Ó ÙȘ ‰ÈΤ˜ ÙÔ˘˜ ˘Ôı¤ÛÂȘ, Ó· ÂÈϤÍÔ˘Ó ÙȘ Û¯ÂÙÈΤ˜ ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘˜ ÂϤÁ¯Ô˘ ÙˆÓ ıˆÚÈÒÓ, Ó· ÂÈÓÔ‹ÛÔ˘Ó ÙÔÓ ÂÈÚ·Ì·ÙÈÎfi ÂÍÔÏÈÛÌfi, Ó· ‚·ıÌÔÓÔÌ‹ÛÔ˘Ó Ù· fiÚÁ·Ó· ̤ÙÚËÛ˘, Ó· ·ÔÙÈÌ‹ÛÔ˘Ó ÙȘ ÂÈÚ·Ì·ÙÈΤ˜ ÂӉ›ÍÂȘ, Ó· ÂÈϤÍÔ˘Ó ÌÂٷ͇ ·ÓÙ·ÁˆÓÈÛÙÈÎÒÓ ıˆÚÈÒÓ, Ó· ·ÔÙÈÌ‹ÛÔ˘Ó ÙȘ ÚfiÛÊ·Ù˜ ˘Ôı¤ÛÂȘ ÎÏ. ŸÏ˜ ÔÈ fi„ÂȘ Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋˜ ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁ›·˜ Â›Ó·È ÂȘ ‚¿ıÔ˜ ıˆÚËÙÈο ÂÓËÌÂڈ̤Ó˜ Î·È ¤ÌÊÔÚÙ˜ ·fi ıˆڛ·. ∫·Ù’ Ô˘Û›·Ó, Ë ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁ›· ÂÍ·ÚÙ¿Ù·È Û��‰fiÓ ÁÚ·ÌÌÈο ·fi ÙÔ ˘fi‚·ıÚÔ ÙˆÓ ·Ô‰ÂÎÙÒÓ ıˆÚÈÒÓ: Â›Ó·È ·˘Ù¤˜ ÔÈ ıˆڛ˜ Ô˘ οÓÔ˘Ó ÙÔ˘˜ ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌÔÓ˜ Ó· ˘ÈÔıÂÙ‹ÛÔ˘Ó, Ó· ·Ó·Ù‡ÍÔ˘Ó, ‹ Ó· ÙÚÔÔÔÈ‹ÛÔ˘Ó ÙȘ ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘˜ ̤ۈ ÙˆÓ ÔÔ›ˆÓ ·ÏÏËÏÂȉÚÔ‡Ó Ì ÙÔÓ ÎfiÛÌÔ, Î·È ÙȘ ‰È·‰Èηۛ˜ Ô˘ ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔÈÔ‡Ó ÁÈ· Ó· Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÔÔÈ‹ÛÔ˘Ó ÙȘ ÌÂÙÚ‹ÛÂȘ Î·È Ó· ÂϤÁÍÔ˘Ó ÙȘ ıˆڛ˜. ∞˘Ù¤˜ ÔÈ ‚‚·ÚË̤Ó˜ ·fi ıˆڛ· ̤ıÔ‰ÔÈ Ô‰ËÁÔ‡Ó Û ÔÚı¤˜ ÚԂϤ„ÂȘ Î·È ÂÈÚ·Ì·ÙÈΤ˜ ÂÈÙ˘¯›Â˜.¶Ò˜ ÂÍËÁÂ›Ù·È ·˘Ùfi ÙÔ ÁÂÁÔÓfi˜; ∏ ηχÙÂÚË ÂÍ‹ÁËÛË Ù˘ ÂÚÁ·ÏÂȷ΋˜ ·ÍÈÔÈÛÙ›·˜ Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋˜ ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁ›·˜ Â›Ó·È Ë ÂÍ‹˜: ÔÈ ÚÔÙ¿ÛÂȘ Ù˘ ıˆڛ·˜ ÔÈ Ôԛ˜ ‰ËÏÒÓÔ˘Ó ÙȘ ÂȉÈΤ˜ ·ÈÙȷΤ˜ Û˘Ó‰¤ÛÂȘ ‹ Ì˯·ÓÈÛÌÔ‡˜, ‚¿ÛÂÈ ÙˆÓ ÔÔ›ˆÓ ÔÈ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈΤ˜ ̤ıÔ‰ÔÈ ·Ú¿ÁÔ˘Ó ÂÈÙ˘¯Â›˜ ÚԂϤ„ÂȘ, Â›Ó·È ·ÏËı›˜». ¶ÚÈÓ fï˜ ÂϤÁÍÔ˘Ì ÙË ‚·ÛÈÌfiÙËÙ· ·˘ÙÔ‡ ÙÔ˘ ÂȯÂÈÚ‹Ì·ÙÔ˜, ·˜ ÂÍÂÙ¿ÛÔ˘Ì ÁÈ·Ù› ÙÔ ˙‹ÙËÌ· Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋˜ ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁ›·˜ Â›Ó·È ÙfiÛÔ ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈÎfi ÛÙËÓ ÂÍËÁËÙÈ΋ ˘ÂÚ¿ÛÈÛË ÙÔ˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÔ‡ Ú·ÏÈÛÌÔ‡. °È·Ù› ‰ËÏ·‰‹ ÔÈ Boyd (1981 Î·È 1984) Î·È Psillos (1999 Î·È 2000) ‰ÂÓ ·ÚÎÔ‡ÓÙ·È ϤÔÓ ÛÙÔ Ó· ˘ÔÛÙËÚ›ÍÔ˘Ó ÙËÓ ¿ÌÂÛË Û˘Û¯¤ÙÈÛË ÂÈÙ˘¯›·˜ Î·È ·Ï‹ıÂÈ·˜ ÙˆÓ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÒÓ ıˆÚÈÒÓ, fiˆ˜ ÂÈÛËÁÂ›Ù·È Ô Putnam (1975) Ì ÙÔ «Âȯ›ÚËÌ· ·ÔÎÏÂÈÛÌÔ‡ ÙÔ˘ ı·‡Ì·ÙÔ˜», ·ÏÏ¿ ·Ó·‰ÂÈÎÓ‡Ô˘Ó ÙËÓ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ̤ıÔ‰Ô ˆ˜ ÚÔÓÔÌÈ·Îfi ¤‰·ÊÔ˜ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ˘ÔÛÙ‹ÚÈÍË ÙÔ˘ Ú·ÏÈÛÌÔ‡; £· ‹Ù·Ó Ï¿ıÔ˜ Ó· ıˆڋÛÔ˘Ì fiÙÈ ·˘Ùfi ÙÔ ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁÈÎfi Âȯ›ÚËÌ· ‰ÂÓ Â›Ó·È ·Ú¿ ÌÈ· Â·Ó·‰È·Ù‡ˆÛË ÙÔ˘ Ú·ÏÈÛÙÈÎÔ‡ ÂȯÂÈÚ‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ Ù˘ «Û˘Ó·ÁˆÁ‹˜ ÛÙËÓ Î·Ï‡ÙÂÚË ‰˘Ó·Ù‹ ÂÍ‹ÁËÛË». ªÔÏÔÓfiÙÈ Î·È Ù· ‰‡Ô ·ÎÔÏÔ˘ıÔ‡Ó ÙÔ ›‰ÈÔ Û˘Ó·ÁˆÁÈÎfi ÚfiÙ˘Ô, ÙÔ Ó¤Ô Âȯ›ÚËÌ· Â›Ó·È Ì¿ÏÏÔÓ ¤Ó· «ÙÔÈÎfi» Âȯ›ÚËÌ·, ÙÔ ÔÔ›Ô Û˘Ó¿ÁÂÈ Ì¤Ûˆ ÌÈ·˜ «ÂÈ̤ÚÔ˘˜ ÂÍ‹ÁËÛ˘» –Û ·ÓÙ›ıÂÛË Ì ÙË


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∂ÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ̤ıÔ‰Ô˜ Î·È ··ÁˆÁÈ΋ ˘ÔÛÙ‹ÚÈÍË ÙÔ˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÔ‡ Ú·ÏÈÛÌÔ‡

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«Û˘ÓÔÏÈ΋ ÂÍ‹ÁËÛË» Ô˘ ÚÔÛʤÚÂÈ ÙÔ ÚÒÙÔ– ÙËÓ (ÚÔÛÂÁÁÈÛÙÈ΋) ·Ï‹ıÂÈ· Ù˘ ıˆÚËÙÈ΋˜ ·Ú¿‰ÔÛ˘ Ô˘ Â›Ó·È ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁÈο ÁfiÓÈÌË. ∂ÎÙfi˜ ÙÔ‡ÙÔ˘, ÓÔÌ›˙ˆ fiÙÈ ˘¿Ú¯Ô˘Ó ‰‡Ô ÂÈϤÔÓ ÏfiÁÔÈ Ô˘ ÂÍËÁÔ‡Ó ÙËÓ ÂȯÂÈÚËÌ·ÙÔÏÔÁÈ΋ ÛÔ˘‰·ÈfiÙËÙ· Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋˜ ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘ ÛÙËÓ ˘ÔÛÙ‹ÚÈÍË ÙÔ˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÔ‡ Ú·ÏÈÛÌÔ‡. √ ÚÒÙÔ˜ Â›Ó·È fiÙÈ ÛÙÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ Ù˘ Ê˘ÛÈÔÎÚ·ÙÈ΋˜ ÚÔÛ¤ÁÁÈÛ˘, ÂÓÙfi˜ Ù˘ ÔÔ›·˜ ˘ÔÛÙËÚ›˙ÂÙ·È Ô ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎfi˜ Ú·ÏÈÛÌfi˜, Ë ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ̤ıÔ‰Ô˜ Û˘ÓÈÛÙ¿ ÙÔ ÚfiÙ˘Ô Î·È ÙËÓ Â‰Ú·›· ‰ÈηÈÔÏfiÁËÛË Ù˘ ›‰È·˜ Ù˘ ÊÈÏÔÛÔÊÈ΋˜ ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘. ªÂ ·˘Ù‹ ÙËÓ ¤ÓÓÔÈ·, Ë ·Ó¿‰ÂÈÍË Ù˘ ÛËÌ·Û›·˜ Î·È Ë ‰ÈηÈÔÏfiÁËÛË Ù˘ ·ÍÈÔÈÛÙ›·˜ Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋˜ ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘ ηı›ÛÙ·Ù·È ÚˆÙ‡ÔÓ ÊÈÏÔÛÔÊÈÎfi ̤ÏËÌ·. ∞ÎfiÌË ÈÔ ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈÎfi˜ fï˜ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ÂÚÌËÓ›· ÙÔ˘ Ú·ÏÈÛÌÔ‡ Ô˘ ÂÍÂÙ¿˙Ô˘ÌÂ Â‰Ò Â›Ó·È Ô ‰Â‡ÙÂÚÔ˜ ÏfiÁÔ˜, Û‡Ìʈӷ Ì ÙÔÓ ÔÔ›Ô Ë ·ÍÈÔÈÛÙ›· Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋˜ ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘ ÌÔÚ› Ó· ‰ÈηÈÔÏÔÁ‹ÛÂÈ fi¯È ÌfiÓÔÓ ÙË Ú·ÏÈÛÙÈ΋ ·ÔÙ›ÌËÛË Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ ÙÔ˘ ·ÚÂÏıfiÓÙÔ˜ ·ÏÏ¿ Î·È ÙËÓ ·ÈÛÈÔ‰ÔÍ›· fiÙÈ Ë ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌË Î·È ÛÙÔ Ì¤ÏÏÔÓ ı· ÂÍ·ÎÔÏÔ˘ı‹ÛÂÈ Ó· Û˘ÏÏ·Ì‚¿ÓÂÈ ÙËÓ ·Ï‹ıÂÈ·. ∂›Ó·È ·ÎÚÈ‚Ò˜ ·˘Ù‹ Ë ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁÈ΋ Û˘Ó¤¯ÂÈ· Ô˘ ηıÈÛÙ¿ ÊÈÏÔÛÔÊÈο ‰È·¯ÂÈÚ›ÛÈÌË Î·È ·ÍÈÔÔÈ‹ÛÈÌË ÙËÓ ÂÈÙ˘¯›· Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ ˆ˜ ÚÔΛÌÂÓ˘ ÛÙÔ ··ÁˆÁÈÎfi Ú·ÏÈÛÙÈÎfi Âȯ›ÚËÌ·. ¢ÈfiÙÈ, ÁÈ· Ó· ‰ÈηÈÔÏÔÁ‹ÛÂÈ ÙËÓ ÂÈÛÙËÌÈ΋ ·ÈÛÈÔ‰ÔÍ›· ÙÔ˘, Ô ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎfi˜ Ú·ÏÈÛÙ‹˜ ‰ÂÓ ÌÔÚ› Ó· ·ÚÎÂÛÙ› ÛÙÔ Ó· ÚÔ‚¿ÏÏÂÈ ¤Ó· Â·ÁˆÁÈÎfi Âȯ›ÚËÌ·, ηıfiÙÈ, ·ÎfiÌË Î·È ·Ó ‰Â¯ıԇ̠ÙË Ú·ÏÈÛÙÈ΋ ÂÍ‹ÁËÛË Ù˘ ÂÈÙ˘¯›·˜ Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ ÛÙÔ ·ÚÂÏıfiÓ, Ù›ÔÙ· ‰ÂÓ Ì·˜ ‰È·ÛÊ·Ï›˙ÂÈ fiÙÈ Î·È ÛÙÔ Ì¤ÏÏÔÓ Ë ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌË ı· Û˘Ó¯›ÛÂÈ Ó· ÂÈÙ˘Á¯¿ÓÂÈ ÛÙËÓ ÂÍÂÚ‡ÓËÛË ÙÔ˘ ÎfiÛÌÔ˘ – ÛÙÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ Ù˘ Â·ÁˆÁ‹˜ Â›Ó·È ¿ÓÙ· ‰˘Ó·ÙfiÓ ÔÈ ·ÚÂÏıÔ‡Û˜ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈΤ˜ ıˆڛ˜ Ó· ‹Ù·Ó Û˘Ìو̷ÙÈο ·ÏËı›˜, ÂÓÒ ÔÈ ÌÂÏÏÔÓÙÈΤ˜ Ó· Â›Ó·È (Û˘Ìو̷ÙÈο) „¢‰Â›˜. ∞ÓÙ›ıÂÙ·, Ô ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎfi˜ Ú·ÏÈÛÙ‹˜ Ì ÙÔ ÚÔ·Ó·ÊÂÚı¤Ó ··ÁˆÁÈÎfi Âȯ›ÚËÌ· Â›Ó·È Û ı¤ÛË Ó· ˘ÔÛÙËÚ›ÍÂÈ fiÙÈ fiÛÔ ‰È·ÚΛ Ë ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁÈ΋ Û˘Ó¤¯ÂÈ·, fiÛÔ ‰ËÏ·‰‹ ı· ÂÍ·ÎÔÏÔ˘ıÔ‡Ó Ó· ˘¿Ú¯Ô˘Ó ·ÍÈfiÈÛÙ˜ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈΤ˜ ̤ıÔ‰ÔÈ, ÙfiÛÔ Ë ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌË ı· Û˘Ó¯›˙ÂÈ Ó· ÂÈÙ˘Á¯¿ÓÂÈ Î·È, Û˘ÓÂÒ˜, Ó· ηٷÎÙ¿ ÙËÓ ·Ï‹ıÂÈ·. ªÂ ·˘Ù‹ ÙËÓ ¤ÓÓÔÈ·, ı· ‹Ù·Ó Ï¿ıÔ˜ Ó· ıˆڋÛÔ˘Ì fiÙÈ Â‰Ò Ô ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎfi˜ Ú·ÏÈÛÙ‹˜ Âȉ›‰ÂÙ·È (‹ ı· ÌÔÚÔ‡Û ӷ ·ÚÎÂÛÙ› ÛÂ) ÌÈ·Ó Â·ÁˆÁÈ΋ ÁÂӛ΢ÛË Ù˘ ··ÁˆÁ‹˜.1 ∞˘Ùfi Ô˘ ‰ÈηÈÔÏÔÁ› ÙËÓ ÂÈÛÙËÌÈ΋ ·ÈÛÈÔ‰ÔÍ›· ÁÈ· ÙË ÌÂÏÏÔÓÙÈ΋ ÂÈÙ˘¯›· Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ ‰ÂÓ Â›Ó·È Ë ÂÌÈÛÙÔÛ‡ÓË ÛÙËÓ Â·ÁˆÁÈ΋ ÁÂӛ΢ÛË Ù˘ ·ÍÈÔÈÛÙ›·˜ Ù˘ ··ÁˆÁ‹˜ ·ÏÏ¿ Ë ‡·ÚÍË ÙÔ˘ ·ÈÙÈÒ‰Ô˘˜ ÂΛÓÔ˘ ·Ú¿ÁÔÓÙ· ÂÈÙ˘¯›·˜, ‰ËÏ·‰‹ Ù˘ ÂÚÁ·ÏÂȷο ·ÍÈfiÈÛÙ˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋˜


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∫ÒÛÙ·˜ ™ÙÂÚÁÈfiÔ˘ÏÔ˜

ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘ ˆ˜ ÈηӋ˜ (Î·È ·Ó·Áη›·˜;) Û˘Óı‹Î˘ Ù˘ ÂÈÙ˘¯›·˜ Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘. ∞Ó Â›Ó·È ÔÚı‹ Ë ÂÚÌËÓ›· ·˘Ù‹, ı· ÌÔÚÔ‡Û·Ì ӷ ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚ›ÛÔ˘Ì ÙÔ ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁÈÎfi Âȯ›ÚËÌ· ÙÔ˘ Ú·ÏÈÛÌÔ‡ ˆ˜ ¤Ó· ›‰Ô˜ «Û˘Ó·ÁˆÁ‹˜ ÛÙË ‚¤ÏÙÈÛÙË ·ÈÙȷ΋ ÂÍ‹ÁËÛË» Ù˘ ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁÈ΋˜ ·ÍÈÔÈÛÙ›·˜ ÙˆÓ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÒÓ ıˆÚÈÒÓ. ™Â οı ÂÚ›ÙˆÛË, ¿ÓÙˆ˜, ÙÔ Âȯ›ÚËÌ· Ù˘ ‰È·ÏÂÎÙÈ΋˜ ıˆڛ·˜-ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘ ‰È·Ê¤ÚÂÈ ·fi ÙÔ ÌÂÙ···ÁˆÁÈÎfi Âȯ›ÚËÌ· Ô˘ ÂÍÂÙ¿Û·Ì ‹‰Ë (Î·È ·˘Ù‹ ı· ÌÔÚÔ‡Û ӷ Â›Ó·È ÌÈ· ÚfiÛıÂÙË ‰È·ÊÔÚ¿ ÙÔ˘˜) ηٿ ÙÔ fiÙÈ ÊÈÏÔ‰ÔÍ› Ó· ÂÚÌËÓ‡ÛÂÈ Î·È Ó· ÂÍËÁ‹ÛÂÈ ÙË ‰È·¯ÚÔÓÈ΋ Û˘Ó¤¯ÂÈ· Ù˘ ÂÈÙ˘¯›·˜ Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ Î·È fi¯È οÔÈ·˜ ÚÔÓÔÌȷ΋˜ ÛÙÈÁÌ‹˜ Ù˘_ ÂÔÙ‡ÂÈ ÙËÓ ÈÛÙÔÚÈ΋ ÂͤÏÈÍË Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ Î·È ÂÍËÁ› ÙË ‰È¿ÚÎÂÈ· Ù˘ ÂÈÙ˘¯›·˜, Î·È fi¯È Ù· ÛÙÈÁÌÈfiÙ˘¿ Ù˘. ŒÙÛÈ ÂÚÌËÓÂ˘Ì¤ÓÔ, ÙÔ Âȯ›ÚËÌ· ·˘Ùfi ı· ÌÔÚÔ‡Û ӷ ıˆÚËı› ˆ˜ ·¿ÓÙËÛË ÛÙËÓ ÚfiÎÏËÛË ÙÔ˘ Thomas Kuhn fiÙÈ Ë ÈÛÙÔÚ›· Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ ηıÈÛÙ¿ ‰˘Û¯ÂÚ‹ ·Ó fi¯È ·‰‡Ó·ÙË ÌÈ· Ú·ÏÈÛÙÈ΋ ÂÚÌËÓ›· Ù˘ ÂͤÏÈ͢ Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘. ™ÙÔ ÛËÌÂ›Ô ·˘Ùfi, ÁÈ· Ó· Â›Ó·È ÔÏÔÎÏËڈ̤ÓË Ë ÂÈÎfiÓ· Ù˘ Ú·ÏÈÛÙÈ΋˜ ÛÙÚ·ÙËÁÈ΋˜, Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ÂÈÛËÌ¿ÓÔ˘Ì ÙÔÓ Û˘ÌÏËڈ̷ÙÈÎfi ÚfiÏÔ ÂӉ¯ÔÌÂÓÈÎfiÙËÙ·˜ Î·È ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁ›·˜: fiˆ˜ ÙÔ Î·ıÂÛÙÒ˜ ÚÈ˙È΋˜ ÂӉ¯ÔÌÂÓÈÎfiÙËÙ·˜, ˆ˜ Ô˘ÛÈ҉˜ ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚÈÛÙÈÎfi Ù˘ ÌÂÙ·Ê˘ÛÈ΋˜ ·ÓÂÍ·ÚÙËÛ›·˜ ÙÔ˘ ÎfiÛÌÔ˘, ·ÚΛ Ó· ‰È·ÛÊ·Ï›ÛÂÈ fiÙÈ Ë ÂÈÙ˘¯›· Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ Û˘ÓÈÛÙ¿ ÂÈÙ˘¯›· ·˘ıÂÓÙÈ΋˜ ·Ó·Î¿Ï˘„˘ Ù˘¯ÒÓ Ù˘ ·ÓÂÍ¿ÚÙËÙ˘ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÎfiÙËÙ·˜ Î·È fiÙÈ ‰ÂÓ ÌÔÚ› Ó· ÂÚÌËÓ¢Ù› ˆ˜ ·ÔÙ¤ÏÂÛÌ· «Î·Ù·Û΢‹˜» ‹ ÚÔ‚ÔÏ‹˜ ÂΠ̤ÚÔ˘˜ ÙÔ˘ ÁÓˆÚ›˙ÔÓÙÔ˜ ˘ÔÎÂÈ̤ÓÔ˘, ¤ÙÛÈ Î·È Ë ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁÈ΋ Û˘Ó¤¯ÂÈ· ‰È·ÛÊ·Ï›˙ÂÈ fiÙÈ ÔÈ Ì¤¯ÚÈ ÙÒÚ· ÂÈÙ˘¯›Â˜ Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ ‰ÂÓ ‹Ù·Ó ·ÔÙ¤ÏÂÛÌ· ηϋ˜ Ù‡¯Ë˜ ·ÏÏ¿ ÁÓ‹ÛÈÔ ÚÔ˚fiÓ Ù˘ ‰ÈηÈÔÏÔÁË̤ӷ ·ÍÈfiÈÛÙ˘ ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘. øÛÙfiÛÔ, Ë Û˘Ó-ÏÔ΋ ÂӉ¯ÔÌÂÓÈÎfiÙËÙ·˜ Î·È ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁÈ΋˜ Û˘Ó¤¯ÂÈ·˜ ‰ÂÓ Â›Ó·È ‰˘Ó·Ù‹ ¯ˆÚ›˜ ÚÔ‚Ï‹Ì·Ù·. ™Ù· ·ÎfiÏÔ˘ı·, ·ÎÔÏÔ˘ıÒÓÙ·˜ ÙËÓ ·Ó¿Ù˘ÍË Ù˘ ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁÈ΋˜ ˘ÔÛÙ‹ÚÈ͢ ÙÔ˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÔ‡ Ú·ÏÈÛÌÔ‡, ı· ÂÍÂÙ¿ÛÔ˘Ì Ò˜ Î·È ÔÈ· Â›Ó·È ·˘Ù¿ Ù· ÚÔ‚Ï‹Ì·Ù· Ô˘ ÚÔ·ÙÔ˘Ó. ∂ÁηÈÓÈ¿˙ÔÓÙ·˜ ÙË Ê˘ÛÈÔÎÚ·ÙÈ΋ ÛÙÚ·ÙËÁÈ΋ ˘ÔÛÙ‹ÚÈ͢ ÙÔ˘ Ú·ÏÈÛÌÔ‡, Ô Boyd (1981,1984) ÚÔÙ›ÓÂÈ ÌÈ· Ó¤· ıÂÒÚËÛË Ù˘ ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁ›·˜ Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ Ô˘ ηٿ ÙË ÁÓÒÌË ÙÔ˘ fi¯È ÌfiÓÔ ÌÔÚ› Ó· ÂÍËÁ‹ÛÂÈ ÙÔ ÁÈ·Ù› ·ÔÙ˘Á¯¿ÓÔ˘Ó Ù· ·Ú·‰ÔÛȷο Ú·ÏÈÛÙÈο ÂȯÂÈÚ‹Ì·Ù· ÂÓ·ÓÙ›ÔÓ ÙÔ˘ ÂÌÂÈÚÈÛÙÈ΋˜ ¤ÌÓ¢Û˘ ·ÓÙÈÚÚ·ÏÈÛÌÔ‡, ·ÏÏ¿, ÂÈϤÔÓ, ÌÔÚ› Ó· ˘ԉ›ÍÂÈ ÙÔÓ ·ÔÙÂÏÂÛÌ·ÙÈÎfi ÙÚfiÔ ÁÈ· Ó· ηÌÊıÔ‡Ó ÔÈ Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓ˜ ·ÓÙÈÚÚ·ÏÈÛÙÈΤ˜ ÂÓÛÙ¿ÛÂȘ. ∞ÊÂÙËÚ›· ÁÈ· ÙË Ó¤· ıÂÒÚËÛË Â›Ó·È Ë ‰È¿ÁÓˆÛË fiÙÈ fiϘ ÔÈ Ï¢ڤ˜ Ù˘ ‰È·Ì¿¯Ë˜


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∂ÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ̤ıÔ‰Ô˜ Î·È ··ÁˆÁÈ΋ ˘ÔÛÙ‹ÚÈÍË ÙÔ˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÔ‡ Ú·ÏÈÛÌÔ‡

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Û¯ÂÙÈο Ì ÙÔ Ú·ÏÈÛÌfi Û˘Ó·ÈÓÔ‡Û·Ó ÛÙÔÓ a priori ¯·Ú·ÎÙ‹Ú· ÙˆÓ ÌÂıfi‰ˆÓ Î·È Ù˘ ÏÔÁÈ΋˜ Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ Î·È ‰È·ÊˆÓÔ‡Û·Ó ÛÙÔ Â¿Ó Î·È Ò˜ ·˘Ù¤˜ ÔÈ Ì¤ıÔ‰ÔÈ Î·È ·˘Ù‹ Ë ÏÔÁÈ΋ ‹Ù·Ó ηٿÏÏËϘ Ó· ÂÁÁ˘ËıÔ‡Ó ÙË ıˆÚËÙÈ΋ ÁÓÒÛË ÌÈ·˜ ·ÓÂÍ¿ÚÙËÙ˘ ·fi ÙË ıˆڛ· Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÎfiÙËÙ·˜. Ÿˆ˜ ÛËÌÂÈÒÓÂÈ Ô Boyd (1984:64), ·fi ÙÔÓ ∫·ÚÙ¤ÛÈÔ Î·È ÙÔÓ Kant ̤¯ÚÈ Î·È ÙÔ˘˜ ÏÔÁÈÎÔ‡˜ ÂÌÂÈÚÈÛÙ¤˜ fiÏÔÈ Û˘ÌʈÓÔ‡Û·Ó fiÙÈ Ë ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ̤ıÔ‰Ô˜ –›Ù ıˆڋÛÔ˘Ì fiÙÈ Â›Ó·È ˘ÔıÂÙÈÎÔ·Ú·ÁˆÁÈ΋ ›Ù Â·ÁˆÁÈ΋– Âȉ¤¯ÂÙ·È a priori ‰ÈηÈÔÏfiÁËÛË. ∞ÓÙ›ıÂÙ· Ì ÙËÓ ·Ú·‰ÔÛȷ΋ ·ÓÙ›ÏË„Ë, Ô Boyd ÚÔÙ›ÓÂÈ ÌÈ· Ú·ÏÈÛÙÈ΋ Î·È «‰È·ÏÂÎÙÈ΋», fiˆ˜ ÙËÓ ÔÓÔÌ¿˙ÂÈ, ıÂÒÚËÛË Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋˜ ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁ›·˜: «∏ ·ÍÈÔÈÛÙ›· Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋˜ ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘ ˆ˜ Ô‰ËÁÔ‡ ÛÙËÓ (ÚÔÛÂÁÁÈÛÙÈ΋) ·Ï‹ıÂÈ· Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ÂÍËÁÂ›Ù·È ÌfiÓÔ Ì ÙËÓ ˘fiıÂÛË fiÙÈ Ë ıˆÚËÙÈ΋ ·Ú¿‰ÔÛË Ô˘ ÔÚ›˙ÂÈ ÙȘ ÂÓÂÚÁ¤˜ ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁÈΤ˜ ·Ú¯¤˜ ·ÓÙ·Ó·ÎÏ¿ ÌÈ· ÚÔÛÂÁÁÈÛÙÈο ·ÏËı‹ ÂÚÈÁÚ·Ê‹ ÙÔ˘ Ê˘ÛÈÎÔ‡ ÎfiÛÌÔ˘. ™‡Ìʈӷ Ì ÙËÓ ˘fiıÂÛË ·˘Ù‹, ÔÈ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈΤ˜ ̤ıÔ‰ÔÈ ı· Ô‰ËÁ‹ÛÔ˘Ó Û ÈÔ ·ÎÚȂ›˜ ıˆڛ˜ Î·È ‰È·‰Ô¯Èο Û ÈÔ ·ÍÈfiÈÛÙ˜ ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁÈΤ˜ Ú·ÎÙÈΤ˜» (Boyd 1984: 64). ™Â ·˘Ù‹ ÙË Ú·ÏÈÛÙÈ΋ Î·È ‰È·ÏÂÎÙÈ΋ ıÂÒÚËÛË, Ë ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ̤ıÔ‰Ô˜ ‰ÂÓ Â›Ó·È ¤Ó·˜ ÎÂÓfi˜ ÂÚȯÔ̤ÓÔ˘ ÏÔÁÈÛÌfi˜ ‹ ¤Ó· Û‡ÓÔÏÔ a priori ‰ÈηÈÔÏÔÁ‹ÛÈ̈Ó, ·ÈÒÓÈˆÓ Î·È ·Ó·Áη›ˆÓ ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁÈÎÒÓ ·ÏËıÂÈÒÓ, ·ÏÏ¿ ¤Ó· ÛÒÌ· ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁÈÎÒÓ Ú·ÎÙÈÎÒÓ ÌÂÛÙÒÓ ÂÚȯÔ̤ÓÔ˘, ÙˆÓ ÔÔ›ˆÓ Ë ÂÁ΢ÚfiÙËÙ· Î·È ·ÔÙÂÏÂÛÌ·ÙÈÎfiÙËÙ· ÂϤÁ¯ÂÙ·È ·ÂÓ¿ˆ˜ Û ‰È·Ú΋ ·ÌÔÈ‚·ÈfiÙËÙ· Ì ÙËÓ ›‰È· ÙËÓ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ¤Ú¢ӷ ηÈ, Û˘ÓÂÒ˜, ‰ÈηÈÔÏÔÁÂ›Ù·È ÌfiÓÔÓ a posteriori.2 ™‡Ìʈӷ Ì ÙË ‰È·Ù‡ˆÛË ÙÔ˘ æ‡ÏÏÔ˘, ÛÙÔ Âȯ›ÚËÌ· Ô˘ ·Ú·ı¤Û·ÌÂ, «ÔÈ Ì¤ıÔ‰ÔÈ Ì ÙȘ Ôԛ˜ ÔÈ ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌÔÓ˜ ·Ú¿ÁÔ˘Ó Î·È ÂϤÁ¯Ô˘Ó ÙȘ ıˆÚËÙÈΤ˜ ÚԂϤ„ÂȘ Â›Ó·È ‚‚·ÚË̤Ó˜ Ì ıˆڛ· (theory-laden) […] √˘ÛÈ·ÛÙÈο, Ë ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁ›· ÂÍ·ÚÙ¿Ù·È Û¯Â‰fiÓ ÁÚ·ÌÌÈο ·fi ÙÔ ˘fi‚·ıÚÔ ÙˆÓ ·Ô‰ÂÎÙÒÓ ıˆÚÈÒÓ: Â›Ó·È ·˘Ù¤˜ ÔÈ [·Ô‰ÂÎÙ¤˜] ıˆڛ˜ Ô˘ οÓÔ˘Ó ÙÔ˘˜ ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌÔÓ˜ Ó· ˘ÈÔıÂÙ‹ÛÔ˘Ó, Ó· ·Ó·Ù‡ÍÔ˘Ó ‹ Ó· ÙÚÔÔÔÈ‹ÛÔ˘Ó ÙȘ ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘˜ ̤ۈ ÙˆÓ ÔÔ›ˆÓ ·ÏÏËÏÂȉÚÔ‡Ó Ì ÙÔÓ ÎfiÛÌÔ, Î·È ÙȘ ‰È·‰Èηۛ˜ Ô˘ ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔÈÔ‡Ó ÁÈ· Ó· Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÔÔÈ‹ÛÔ˘Ó ÌÂÙÚ‹ÛÂȘ Î·È Ó· ÂϤÁÍÔ˘Ó [ÙȘ Ӥ˜] ıˆڛ˜» (1999:78) [Ë ¤ÌÊ·ÛË Â›Ó·È ‰È΋ ÌÔ˘]. ∞ÏÏ¿ Â¿Ó Ë ÂÍ¿ÚÙËÛË Ù˘ ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘ ·fi ÙË ıˆڛ· Â›Ó·È Û¯Â‰fiÓ ÁÚ·ÌÌÈ΋, ÙfiÙ ·fi ÙË ÌÈ· ‰ÂÓ ÌÔÚ› Ó· ˘¿ÚÍÂÈ Ì¤ıÔ‰Ô˜ ¯ˆÚ›˜ ÌÈ· ˘ÔΛÌÂÓË ıˆڛ· (‹, ¢ڇÙÂÚ·, ıˆÚËÙÈ΋ ·Ú¿‰ÔÛË) Î·È ·fi ÙËÓ ¿ÏÏË, ÏfiÁˆ Ù˘ ÈÛÔÙÚÔ›·˜ Ù˘ ÁÚ·ÌÌÈ΋˜ ÂÍ¿ÚÙËÛ˘, Ë Ó¤· ıˆڛ· ÂÍ·ÚÙ¿Ù·È (ۯ‰fiÓ) ÁÚ·ÌÌÈο ·fi ÙË Ì¤ıÔ‰Ô ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜ Ù˘, Û˘ÓÂÒ˜ ‰ÂÓ ÌÔÚ› Ó· ÂÌÊ·ÓÈÛı› ηÌÈ¿ ıˆ-


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∫ÒÛÙ·˜ ™ÙÂÚÁÈfiÔ˘ÏÔ˜

Ú›· ¯ˆÚ›˜ Ó· ÚÔ¸¿Ú¯ÂÈ Ë Î·Ù¿ÏÏËÏË Ì¤ıÔ‰Ô˜.3,4 ∞Ó fï˜ Ë ·ÏÏËÏÂÍ¿ÚÙËÛË ıˆڛ·˜-ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘ Â›Ó·È ÙfiÛÔ ÈÛ¯˘Ú‹, Ò˜ ÍÂΛÓËÛÂ Ë ‰È·ÏÂÎÙÈ΋ ‰È·‰Èηۛ· ıˆڛ·˜-ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘, Ô˘ ηٿ ÙË Ú·ÏÈÛÙÈ΋ ÂÚÈÁÚ·Ê‹ Û˘ÓÈÛÙ¿ ÙË ‰˘Ó·ÌÈ΋ Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘;

∏ ∞¶∞ƒÃ∏ ∆∏™ ∂¶π™∆∏ª∏™: ª∂£√¢√™ ◊ £∂øƒπ∞; ∆Ô Úfi‚ÏËÌ· Â‰Ò ·ÊÔÚ¿ ÛÙȘ ··Ú¯¤˜ Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘: ¶ÚÒÙ· ÂÌÊ·Ó›ÛÙËΠÛÙÔ ÚÔÛ΋ÓÈÔ Ù˘ ÈÛÙÔÚ›·˜ Ë Ì¤ıÔ‰Ô˜ ‹ Ë ıˆڛ·;5 £· ÌÔÚÔ‡Û ‚¤‚·È· οÔÈÔ˜ Ó· ·ÓÙÈÙ›ÓÂÈ fiÙÈ Ô Ú·ÏÈÛÙ‹˜ ‰ÂÓ Â›Ó·È ˘Ô¯Úˆ̤ÓÔ˜ Ó· ‰ÂÛÌ¢Ù› Û ÌÈ· ÙfiÛÔ ÈÛ¯˘Ú‹ ÂΉԯ‹ Û‡˙¢Í˘ ıˆڛ·˜-ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘, fiˆ˜ ·˘Ù‹ Ô˘ ÚÔÙ›ÓÂÈ Ô æ‡ÏÏÔ˜, Î·È Û˘ÓÂÒ˜ ‰ÂÓ Â›Ó·È ˘Ô¯Úˆ̤ÓÔ˜ Ó· ·ÓÙÈÌÂÙˆ›ÛÂÈ ÙÔ ÁÚ›ÊÔ Ù˘ ·Ó¿‰˘Û˘ Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘. øÛÙfiÛÔ, ÌÈ· Ù¤ÙÔÈ· ·Ô‰¤ÛÌ¢ÛË ‰ÂÓ Â›Ó·È ‰˘Ó·Ù‹ ‰›¯ˆ˜ ÙËÓ ·Ô‰˘Ó¿ÌˆÛË fiÏÔ˘ ÙÔ˘ Ú·ÏÈÛÙÈÎÔ‡ ÂȯÂÈÚ‹Ì·ÙÔ˜. ∂›Ó·È ·ÎÚÈ‚Ò˜ Ë «Û¯Â‰fiÓ ÁÚ·ÌÌÈ΋ ÂÍ¿ÚÙËÛË» ıˆڛ·˜-ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘ Ô˘ ÂÈÙÚ¤ÂÈ ÛÙÔÓ Ú·ÏÈÛÙ‹ Ó· ÂÍËÁ‹ÛÂÈ ÙËÓ ÂÈÙ˘¯›· ÙˆÓ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÒÓ ıˆÚÈÒÓ Ì¤Ûˆ Ù˘ ·Ï‹ıÂÈ·˜ ÙˆÓ ıˆÚÈÒÓ ˘Ô‚¿ıÚÔ˘. ŒÙÛÈ Ë ÂÈÏÔ΋ Ù˘ ·ÊÂÙËÚ›·˜ Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ ·ÔÙÂÏ› ¤Ó· ÁÓ‹ÛÈÔ Úfi‚ÏËÌ·. ∫·Ù’ ·Ú¯¿˜, Ô ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎfi˜ Ú·ÏÈÛÙ‹˜ ·ÔÎÏ›ÂÈ ÙÔ ÂӉ¯fiÌÂÓÔ Ó· ÍÂΛÓËÛÂ Ë ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌË Ì ·ÊÂÙËÚ›· ÌfiÓÔ ÌÈ· ÚÔ¸¿Ú¯Ô˘Û· ·ÍÈfiÈÛÙË Ì¤ıÔ‰Ô, ÈηӋ Ó· ‰ÒÛÂÈ ÙËÓ ·Ú¯È΋ ÒıËÛË ÁÈ· ÙË ÁÓˆÛȷ΋ ÂÍÂÚ‡ÓËÛË ÙÔ˘ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÎÔ‡. √ ÏfiÁÔ˜ ‰ÂÓ Â›Ó·È fiÙÈ ‰ÂÓ ˘‹Ú¯Â ·˘Ù‹ Ë Ì¤ıÔ‰Ô˜, ·ÏÏ¿ fiÙÈ ¯ˆÚ›˜ ÌÈ· ÂÏ¿¯ÈÛÙË ·Ú¯È΋ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ÁÓÒÛË, ¯ˆÚ›˜ ‰ËÏ·‰‹ ÌÈ· Â·Ú΋ ÚˆÙ·Ú¯È΋ Û˘ÛÛÒÚ¢ÛË ÚÔÛÂÁÁÈÛÙÈο ·ÏËıÒÓ ıˆÚÈÒÓ, Ë ÚÔ·ÙÔ˘Û· ÁÓˆÛȷ΋ ‰È·‰Èηۛ· ‰ÂÓ Û˘ÓÈÛÙ¿ ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌË ·ÏÏ¿ ÙËÓ Î·ıËÌÂÚÈÓ‹ ‚Ȉ̷ÙÈ΋ (ÚÔ-ıˆÚËÙÈ΋) ÁÓˆÛȷ΋ Ú·ÎÙÈ΋. ¶Ú¿ÁÌ·ÙÈ, Ô ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎfi˜ Ú·ÏÈÛÌfi˜, ÙÔ˘Ï¿¯ÈÛÙÔÓ fiˆ˜ ÂȯÂÈÚËÌ·ÙÔÏÔÁÂ›Ù·È ·fi ÙÔÓ Boyd (1981, 1984, 1985), ‰¤¯ÂÙ·È fiÙÈ Ë ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ̤ıÔ‰Ô˜ Â›Ó·È Â·ÁˆÁÈ΋, Û˘ÓÂÒ˜, ÛÙÔ ‚·ıÌfi Ô˘ Ë Â·ÁˆÁÈ΋ Û˘ÏÏÔÁÈÛÙÈ΋ ‰È·ÙÚ¤¯ÂÈ ÙËÓ ÚÔÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ηıËÌÂÚÈÓ‹ ÁÓÒÛË, ‰ÂÓ ··ÈÙÂ›Ù·È Ó· ¤¯ÂÈ ˘¿ÚÍÂÈ ÛÙËÓ ÈÛÙÔÚ›· Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ ÌÈ· È‰Ú˘ÙÈ΋ Ú¿ÍË ÂÈÓfiËÛ˘ Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋˜ ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘. ∞ÏÏ¿ Ë ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁÈ΋ Û˘Ó¤¯ÂÈ· ÌÂٷ͇ ηıËÌÂÚÈÓ‹˜ ÁÓˆÛȷ΋˜ Ú·ÎÙÈ΋˜ Î·È ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ ‰ÂÓ ·ÚΛ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ÂÁηı›‰Ú˘ÛË Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ ¯ˆÚ›˜ ÙËÓ ÂÌÊ¿ÓÈÛË ÌÈ·˜ ÚÒÙ˘ ÚÔÛÂÁÁÈÛÙÈο ·ÏËıÔ‡˜ ıˆڛ·˜ (‹ ıˆÚÈÒÓ) ÛÙËÓ ·Ú¯È΋ Ê¿ÛË ÂÎΛÓËÛ˘ Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘. √ Ú·ÏÈÛÙ‹˜, ÁÈ· Ó·


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∂ÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ̤ıÔ‰Ô˜ Î·È ··ÁˆÁÈ΋ ˘ÔÛÙ‹ÚÈÍË ÙÔ˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÔ‡ Ú·ÏÈÛÌÔ‡

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ÂÍËÁ‹ÛÂÈ Ò˜ Û˘ÁÎÚÔÙ‹ıËÎ·Ó ÔÈ ÚÒÙ˜ ·ÏËı›˜ ıˆڛ˜, «‰ÂÓ ÌÔÚ› Ó· ÂÈηÏÂÛÙ› ÙËÓ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ̤ıÔ‰Ô ˆ˜ ÌÈ· ÂÍ‹ÁËÛË, ÂÂȉ‹ ·˘Ù‹ Ë Ì¤ıÔ‰Ô˜ Â›Ó·È ÂÈÛÙËÌÈο ·ÍÈfiÈÛÙË ÌfiÓÔ Ì ÙËÓ ÚÔ¸fiıÂÛË fiÙÈ Ë Û˘Ó·Ê‹˜ ıˆÚËÙÈ΋ ·Ú¿‰ÔÛË ÂÚÈÏ·Ì‚¿ÓÂÈ ‹‰Ë ÌÈ· Â·ÚÎÒ˜ ηϋ ÚÔÛ¤ÁÁÈÛË ÛÙËÓ ·Ï‹ıÂÈ·. √ Ú·ÏÈÛÙ‹˜ […] ı· Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ˘ÔÛÙËÚ›ÍÂÈ fiÙÈ Ë ·ÍÈÔÈÛÙ›· Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘ ‰ڿ˙ÂÙ·È Â¿Óˆ ÛÙË ÏÔÁÈο, ÂÈÛÙËÌÈο Î·È ÈÛÙÔÚÈο ÂӉ¯ÔÌÂÓÈ΋ ·Ó¿‰˘ÛË ÙˆÓ Â·ÚÎÒ˜ ÚÔÛÂÁÁÈÛÙÈÎÒÓ ·ÏËıÒÓ ıˆÚÈÒÓ» (Boyd 1984: 64-5). ŒÙÛÈ, fï˜, Ë È‰Ú˘ÙÈ΋ Ú¿ÍË Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ ηı›ÛÙ·Ù·È ÔÌÔÏÔÁÔ˘Ì¤Óˆ˜ ›Ù ·ÓÂÍ‹ÁËÙË Â›Ù ı·‡Ì·. ™ÙËÓ ·Ú·‰Ô¯‹ ·˘ÙÔ‡ ·ÎÚÈ‚Ò˜ ÙÔ˘ ·ÓÂÍ‹ÁËÙÔ˘ È‰Ú˘ÙÈÎÔ‡ Û˘Ì‚¿ÓÙÔ˜ ÔÊ›ÏÂÙ·È ÙÔ fiÙÈ ÛÙÔ ›‰ÈÔ ¿ÚıÚÔ Ô Boyd ÂÚÈÁÚ¿ÊÂÈ, ·Ú·‰fi͈˜, Î·È ÙË ‰˘Ó·ÙfiÙËÙ· Ó· ÂÌÊ·ÓÈÛı› ÌÈ· ÂÈÙ˘¯‹˜ Â·ÁˆÁÈ΋ ÁÂӛ΢ÛË, ‰ËÏ. ÌÈ· ÂÓÂÚÁ‹ ̤ıÔ‰Ô˜, ¯ˆÚ›˜ Ó· ÚÔ¸ÔÙ›ıÂÙ·È Ë ‡·ÚÍË ÂÓfi˜ ˘Ô‚¿ıÚÔ˘ ÚÔÛÂÁÁÈÛÙÈο ·ÏËıÒÓ ıˆÚÈÒÓ: «°È· Ó· Â›Ó·È ÂÈÙ˘¯¤˜ οı Â·ÁˆÁÈÎfi ÂÁ¯Â›ÚËÌ· ı· Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ˘¿Ú¯ÂÈ Ë Î·Ù¿ÏÏËÏË ·ÓÙÈÛÙÔȯ›· ÌÂٷ͇ ÙˆÓ Î·ÙËÁÔÚÈÒÓ, ˘fi ÙÔ˘˜ fiÚÔ˘˜ ÙˆÓ ÔÔ›ˆÓ Ù·ÍÈÓÔÌÔ‡ÓÙ·È Ù· Ê·ÈÓfiÌÂÓ· [Î·È ÚÔÛ‰ÈÔÚ›˙ÔÓÙ·È Ù· ÚÔ‚ÔÏÈο ηÙËÁÔÚ‹Ì·Ù·6], Î·È ÙˆÓ Û˘Ó·ÊÒÓ ·ÈÙÈ·ÎÒÓ ‰˘Ó¿ÌˆÓ. ¢ÂÓ ˘¿Ú¯ÂÈ, fï˜, Ù›ÔÙ· Ô˘ Ó· ÂÌÔ‰›˙ÂÈ ÙÔ˘˜ ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌÔÓ˜ ‹ ¿ÏÏÔ˘˜ ·fi ÙÔ Ó· ‚ÚÔ˘Ó Û˘Ìو̷ÙÈο ηÙËÁÔڛ˜, Ô˘ Â›Ó·È Î·Ù¿ÏÏËϘ ÁÈ· ÌÂÚÈΤ˜ ÂÚÈÔÚÈṲ̂Ó˜ Ù¿ÍÂȘ ÁÂÓÈ·ۈÓ, ·fi Ù‡¯Ë Ì¿ÏÏÔÓ ·Ú¿ ÏfiÁˆ ıˆÚËÙÈ΋˜ ηٷÓfiËÛ˘» (Boyd 1984:76). ∞ÓÂÍ¿ÚÙËÙ· ¿ÓÙˆ˜ ·fi ÙÔ ÔÈÔ ‹Ù·Ó ÙÔ ÂÚȯfiÌÂÓÔ ÙÔ˘ Ì˯·ÓÈÛÌÔ‡ Ô˘ ¤ıÂÛ ÙËÓ ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌË ÛÙËÓ ÙÚԯȿ Ù˘ ÁÓÒÛ˘, ÙÔ ··ÁˆÁÈÎfi ÂÍËÁËÙÈÎfi Âȯ›ÚËÌ· fi¯È ÌfiÓÔ ‰ÂÓ ‚Ú›ÛÎÂÈ ÂÊ·ÚÌÔÁ‹ ÛÙÔ È‰Ú˘ÙÈÎfi ÛÙ¿‰ÈÔ Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘, ·ÏÏ¿ ·Ó·‰ÚÔÌÈο ı¤ÙÂÈ Ù¤ÙÔȘ ··ÈÙ‹ÛÂȘ-ÚÔ¸Ôı¤ÛÂȘ ÛÙËÓ ·Ú¯È΋ ηٿÛÙ·ÛË Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ Ô˘ ÌfiÓÔÓ ÂÎ ı·‡Ì·ÙÔ˜ Â›Ó·È ‰˘Ó·ÙfiÓ Ó· ÏËÚÔ‡ÓÙ·È. ¶Ò˜ Â›Ó·È ‰˘Ó·ÙfiÓ ÔÈ ÚˆÙÔÂÈÛÙ‹ÌÔÓ˜ Ó· ‰È¤ÎÚÈÓ·Ó fiÙÈ ·˘Ùfi Ô˘ ›¯·Ó Û˘Ó·ÓÙ‹ÛÂÈ Ù˘¯·›· ÌÚÔÛÙ¿ ÙÔ˘˜ ‹Ù·Ó Ù· ÚÔ‚ÔÏÈο ηÙËÁÔÚ‹Ì·Ù· (projectible predicates) Î·È fi¯È Ù· ÌË ÚÔ‚ÔÏÈο; ∏ Â›ÎÏËÛË ·fi ÙÔÓ Boyd, ÛÙÔ ·fiÛ·ÛÌ· Ô˘ ·Ú·ı¤Û·Ì ÚÔËÁÔ˘Ì¤Óˆ˜, Ù˘ ÂӉ¯ÔÌÂÓÈÎfiÙËÙ·˜ ηÈ, ̤ۈ ·˘Ù‹˜, Ù˘ Ù‡¯Ë˜ ‰ÂÓ Ï‡ÓÂÈ Ô‡Ù ηٷÚÁ› ÙÔ Úfi‚ÏËÌ·, ·ÏÏ¿ Ì¿ÏÏÔÓ ÙÔ ˘ÔηıÈÛÙ¿ Ì ¤Ó· Ï·ÛÙfi Úfi‚ÏËÌ·. ∆Ô ˙‹ÙËÌ· Â‰Ò ‰ÂÓ Â›Ó·È ÙÔ Â¿Ó Ë ·Ó¿‰˘ÛË Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ ‹Ù·Ó ·Ó·Áη›· ‹ ÂӉ¯ÔÌÂÓÈ΋, ·ÏÏ¿ Ì¿ÏÏÔÓ ÙÔ Ò˜ η٤ÛÙË ‰˘Ó·Ù‹. ™ÙËÓ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÎfiÙËÙ· ÛÙÔ ¤ÚÁÔ ÙÔ˘ Boyd ÌÔÚ› ηÓ›˜ Ó· ‚ÚÂÈ ‰‡Ô ÂΉԯ¤˜ ·ÓÙÈÌÂÙÒÈÛ˘ ÙÔ˘ ÁÚ›ÊÔ˘ Û¯ÂÙÈο Ì ÙËÓ ·ÊÂÙËÚ›· Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘. ™ÙËÓ ÂΉԯ‹ Ô˘ ‰ÈÂÚÂ˘Ó‹Û·Ì (Boyd 1984), ÛÙËÓ ·ÚıÂÓÈ΋ ÂÌÊ¿ÓÈÛË Ù˘ ÂÈ-


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ÛÙ‹Ì˘ Ë ÚÒÙË ÚÔÛÂÁÁÈÛÙÈο ·ÏËı‹˜ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ıˆڛ· Û˘ÁÎÚÔÙ‹ıËΠ·fi ηϋ Ù‡¯Ë. ™Â ÌÈ· ¿ÏÏË ÂΉԯ‹ (Boyd 1981), ÙÔ ˙‹ÙËÌ· ÙÔ˘ Ò˜ ·Ó·‰‡ıËÎÂ Ë ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌË ‰ÂÓ Ù›ıÂÙ·È Î·Ó ˆ˜ ¤Ó· ÂȉÈÎfi Úfi‚ÏËÌ· ÛÙÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ Ù˘ Ú·ÏÈÛÙÈ΋˜ Ê˘ÛÈÔÎÚ·ÙÈ΋˜ ÁÓˆÛÈÔÏÔÁ›·˜, ηıfiÙÈ Û˘ÓÈÛÙ¿ ÁÓ‹ÛÈÔ _·ÏÏ¿ ÌË ÂÈχÛÈÌÔ_ Úfi‚ÏËÌ· ÛÙȘ ÁÓˆÛÈÔÏÔÁ›Â˜ ÂΛӘ Ô˘ ˘ÔÛÙËÚ›˙Ô˘Ó fiÙÈ ¤¯Ô˘Ó Û˘ÁÎÚÔÙ‹ÛÂÈ ÙÔÓ Î·Ù¿ÏÏËÏÔ ÔÚÈÛÌfi Ù˘ ÁÓÒÛ˘. ŒÙÛÈ, ηٿ ÙÔÓ Boyd, Î·È ÛÙËÓ ·Ú·‰ÔÛȷ΋ ÁÓˆÛÈÔÏÔÁ›·, fiÔ˘ ÁÓÒÛË Â›Ó·È Ë ·ÏËı‹˜ Î·È ‰ÈηÈÔÏÔÁË̤ÓË ÂÔ›ıËÛË, fiˆ˜ Î·È ÛÙËÓ ·ÍÈÔÈÛÙÔÎÚ·ÙÈ΋ ÁÓˆÛÈÔÏÔÁ›·, fiÔ˘ ÁÓÒÛË Â›Ó·È Ë ·ÏËı‹˜ ÂÔ›ıËÛË Ô˘ ·Ú¿ÁÂÙ·È Ì¤Ûˆ ·ÍÈfiÈÛÙ˘ ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘, Ë ÚÒÙË ÚÔÛÂÁÁÈÛÙÈο ·ÏËı‹˜ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ıˆڛ· ‰ÂÓ ÌÔÚ› Ó· Ù·ÍÈÓÔÌËı› Ô‡Ù ˆ˜ ÁÓÒÛË Ô‡Ù ˆ˜ ÌË ÁÓÒÛË. ™ÙËÓ ·Ú·‰ÔÛȷ΋ ÁÓˆÛÈÔÏÔÁ›·, Ë ‰˘Û¯¤ÚÂÈ· ÂÓÙÔ›˙ÂÙ·È ÛÙË ‰È·‰Èηۛ· Ù˘ ‰ÈηÈÔÏfiÁËÛ˘: Ò˜ ı· ‰ÈηÈÔÏÔÁËı› Ë ÂÔ›ıËÛË fiÙÈ Ë ÚÒÙË ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ıˆڛ· Â›Ó·È ·ÏËı‹˜; ™ÙËÓ ·ÍÈÔÈÛÙÔÎÚ·ÙÈ΋ ÁÓˆÛÈÔÏÔÁ›· Ù˘ Ë ‰˘Û¯¤ÚÂÈ· ·ÊÔÚ¿ ÙËÓ ·ÍÈÔÈÛÙ›· Ù˘ ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘: ¶Ò˜ ÌÔÚ› Ó· Û˘ÓÈÛÙ¿ ÁÓÒÛË Ë ÚÒÙË ıˆڛ·, ‰ËÏ·‰‹ Ë ÂÔ›ıËÛË Ô˘ ¤¯ÂÈ ·Ú·¯ı› ¯ˆÚ›˜ ÌÈ· ‹‰Ë ˘¿Ú¯Ô˘Û· ·ÍÈfiÈÛÙË Ì¤ıÔ‰Ô; ™ÙË ‰È¿ÁÓˆÛË ÙÔ˘ Boyd, ÙÔ ·‰È¤ÍÔ‰Ô Ô˘ ÂÈÛËÌ¿Ó·Ì ÔÊ›ÏÂÙ·È ÛÙËÓ ÂÁÁÂÓ‹ ÁÓˆÛÈÔÏÔÁÈ΋ ·ÚÔÛ‰ÈÔÚÈÛÙ›· Ô˘ ‰È¤ÂÈ ÙÔ È‰Ú˘ÙÈÎfi ηıÂÛÙÒ˜ Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ (1981: 629). ¶Ò˜, fï˜, ·Ó·ÚˆÙÈ¤Ù·È Ô Boyd, Ë ÚÔÙÂÈÓfiÌÂÓË ·fi ·˘ÙfiÓ «‰È·ÏÂÎÙÈ΋ Î·È Ê˘ÛÈÔÎÚ·ÙÈ΋ ÂÚÈÁÚ·Ê‹ Ù˘ ÁÓÒÛ˘ Ì·˜ ‚ÔËı¿ Ó· ηٷÓÔ‹ÛÔ˘Ì ÙÔ ˙‹ÙËÌ· Ù˘ Ù·ÍÈÓfiÌËÛ˘ Ù˘ ÚÒÙ˘ ‹ ‰Â‡ÙÂÚ˘ ÁÂÓÈ¿˜ (ÚÔÛÂÁÁÈÛÙÈο) ·ÏËıÒÓ ıˆÚÈÒÓ ÂÓfi˜ ‰Â‰Ô̤ÓÔ˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÔ‡ ÎÏ¿‰Ô˘; ∏ ÂÎÏ‹ÛÔ˘Û· ·¿ÓÙËÛË Â›Ó·È fiÙÈ… ÌÈ· Ù¤ÙÔÈ· Ù·ÍÈÓfiÌËÛË ‰ÂÓ ı· Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· Â›Ó·È ÛÙfi¯Ô˜ ÌÈ·˜ ıˆڛ·˜ Ù˘ ÁÓÒÛ˘. ∂¿Ó ÛÎÔfi˜ Ù˘ ÁÓˆÛÈÔÏÔÁ›·˜ Â›Ó·È Ó· ÂÈ ÔÈ· ÁÓÒÛË Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈο ˘¿Ú¯ÂÈ, ÙfiÙ ‰ÂÓ ı· Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ·ÔÙÂÏ› ̤ÚÔ˜ ÙÔ˘ ÛÎÔÔ‡ Ù˘ ÁÓˆÛÈÔÏÔÁ›·˜ ÙÔ Ó· ÂÈχÛÂÈ Ù¤ÙÔȘ ‰È·Ì¿¯Â˜ ·Ó·ÊÔÚÈο Ì ÙËÓ ÔÚȷ΋ ÁÚ·ÌÌ‹ ÌÂٷ͇ ÂÎÂ›ÓˆÓ ÙˆÓ ÂÔÈı‹ÛÂˆÓ Ô˘ Â›Ó·È ÂÚÈÙÒÛÂȘ ÁÓÒÛÂȘ Î·È ÂÎÂ›ÓˆÓ Ô˘ ‰ÂÓ Â›Ó·È. ∏ ıˆڛ· Ù˘ ÁÓÒÛ˘ ı· Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ÂÁηٷÏ›„ÂÈ ·˘Ùfi ÙÔ ÚfiÁÚ·ÌÌ· fi¯È ΢ڛˆ˜ ÂÂȉ‹ ˘¿Ú¯Ô˘Ó ÔÏϤ˜ ··ÙËϤ˜ “ÂÚÈÙÒÛÂȘ Û˘ÓÔÚȷο ·ÌÊ›‚ÔÏ˘” ÁÓÒÛ˘, ·ÏÏ¿ Ì¿ÏÏÔÓ ÂÂȉ‹ Â¿Ó Ë ÁÓÒÛË Â›Ó·È ÌÈ· ‰È·ÏÂÎÙÈ΋ ˘fiıÂÛË, ÙfiÙ ÙÔ ÚfiÁÚ·ÌÌ· ·˘Ùfi Â›Ó·È ‚·ÛÈο ÌÈ· ·Ú·ÓfiËÛË» (1981: 631). ŒÙÛÈ, ÛÙË ‰È·ÏÂÎÙÈ΋ ÁÓˆÛÈÔÏÔÁ›· ÙÔ˘ Boyd ÙÔ Î‡ÚÈÔ ˙‹ÙËÌ· ‰ÂÓ Â›Ó·È Ë ·ÍÈÔÈÛÙ›· Ù˘ ·Ú¯È΋˜ ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜, ‹ Ù˘ ·Ô‰Ô¯‹˜ Û ÌÈ· ‰Â‰Ô̤ÓË ÛÙÈÁÌ‹, ÙˆÓ È‰È·›ÙÂÚˆÓ ÂÔÈı‹ÛˆÓ, ·ÏÏ¿ Ë ‰È·¯ÚÔÓÈ΋ ÚÔÛ¤ÁÁÈÛË ÙˆÓ ÂÔÈı‹ÛˆÓ


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∂ÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ̤ıÔ‰Ô˜ Î·È ··ÁˆÁÈ΋ ˘ÔÛÙ‹ÚÈÍË ÙÔ˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÔ‡ Ú·ÏÈÛÌÔ‡

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ÛÙËÓ ·Ï‹ıÂÈ· Î·È Ë ÈηÓfiÙËÙ· ‰ÈËÓÂÎÔ‡˜ ÙÚÔÔÔ›ËÛ˘ ÙˆÓ ÂÔÈı‹ÛÂˆÓ ÛÙËÓ Î·Ù‡ı˘ÓÛË ‚ÂÏÙ›ˆÛ˘ Ù˘ ÚÔÛ¤ÁÁÈÛ˘. ∞ÎfiÌË, fï˜, ÎÈ ·Ó ˘Ôı¤ÛÔ˘Ì fiÙÈ ·˘ÙÔ‡ ÙÔ˘ ›‰Ô˘˜ Ë ÂÍÂÏÈÎÙÈ΋ ÁÓˆÛÈÔÏÔÁ›· ÂÈχÂÈ ‹ ‰È·Ï‡ÂÈ ÙÔ Úfi‚ÏËÌ· Ù˘ ·ÊÂÙËÚ›·˜ Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘, ÙÔ fiÊÂÏÔ˜ ÁÈ· ÙÔÓ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎfi Ú·ÏÈÛÌfi Â›Ó·È Ìˉ·ÌÈÓfi, ·ÊÔ‡, ÛÙÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ ·˘Ù‹˜ Ù˘ ıˆڛ·˜ Ù˘ ÁÓÒÛ˘, Ë ÂÍ‹ÁËÛË Ù˘ ·ÍÈÔÈÛÙ›·˜ Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋˜ ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘ ·Î˘ÚÒÓÂÙ·È, Î·È Û˘ÓÂÒ˜ ÙÔ ··ÁˆÁÈÎfi Âȯ›ÚËÌ· ÙÔ˘ Ú·ÏÈÛÌÔ‡ ηı›ÛÙ·Ù·È ·ÓÂÓÂÚÁfi. ¶Ò˜ ÌÔÚԇ̠ӷ ÈÛ¯˘ÚÈÛÙԇ̠fiÙÈ ÔÈ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈΤ˜ ıˆڛ˜ ÛÙÔ ÛÙ¿‰ÈÔ Ù˘ ˆÚÈÌfiÙËÙ¿˜ ÙÔ˘˜ Â›Ó·È ÚÔÛÂÁÁÈÛÙÈο ·ÏËı›˜ ·Ó ‰ÂÓ ÌÔÚԇ̠fi¯È ÌfiÓÔ Ó· ·Ô‰ÒÛÔ˘Ì ¤Ó·, ÔÛÔ‰‹ÔÙ ÈÛ¯Ófi, ÁÓˆÛÈ·Îfi ÂÚȯfiÌÂÓÔ ÛÙȘ ÚÒÈ̘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈΤ˜ ıˆڛ˜, ·ÏÏ¿ Ô‡ÙÂ Î·Ó Ó· ÙȘ Ù·ÍÈÓÔÌ‹ÛÔ˘Ì Ì ÎÚÈÙ‹ÚÈÔ ÙÔ ·Ó Û˘ÓÈÛÙÔ‡Ó ÁÓÒÛË; ∞Ó ‰ËÏ·‰‹ ÔÈ ÚÒÈ̘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈΤ˜ ıˆڛ˜ ‹Ù·Ó „¢‰Â›˜, Ò˜ Ô Ú·ÏÈÛÙ‹˜ ÌÔÚ› Ó· ÂÍËÁ‹ÛÂÈ Â› ÙË ‚¿ÛÂÈ Ù˘ ‰È·ÏÂÎÙÈ΋˜ ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁ›·˜ ÙËÓ ÂÌÊ¿ÓÈÛË ÙˆÓ ÚÔÛÂÁÁÈÛÙÈο ·ÏËıÒÓ ÒÚÈÌˆÓ ıˆÚÈÒÓ; ∂ÈϤÔÓ, ÙÈ Â›Ó·È ·˘Ùfi Ô˘ ηıÈÛÙ¿ ÙȘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈΤ˜ ıˆڛ˜ ÂÓfi˜ Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤ÓÔ˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÔ‡ ÎÏ¿‰Ô˘ ·fi οÔÈ· ÂÚ›Ô‰Ô Î·È ÌÂÙ¿ ÒÚÈ̘; µÂ‚·›ˆ˜, ÁÈ· Ó· ÌËÓ ·‰È΋ÛÔ˘Ì ÙÔÓ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎfi Ú·ÏÈÛÌfi, Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ÛËÌÂÈÒÛÔ˘Ì fiÙÈ ÙÔ ÁÓˆÛÈÔÏÔÁÈÎfi ηıÂÛÙÒ˜ Ù˘ ÚÒÙ˘ ÁÂÓÈ¿˜ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÒÓ ıˆÚÈÒÓ Î·È Ë ‰È·‰Èηۛ· ‰È·‰Ô¯‹˜ ÙÔ˘˜ Û˘ÓÈÛÙ¿ ÁÓ‹ÛÈÔ Úfi‚ÏËÌ· ÁÈ· fiϘ ÂΛӘ ÙȘ ÊÈÏÔÛÔʛ˜ Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ Ô˘ ˘Ôı¤ÙÔ˘Ó ÌÈ· È‰Ú˘ÙÈ΋ ·ÊÂÙËÚ›· Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘. ∂ȉÈο, fï˜, ÛÙËÓ ÂÍÂÏÈÎÙÈ΋ ÂÈÎfiÓ· Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ Ô˘ ÚÔ¸Ôı¤ÙÂÈ ÙÔ ··ÁˆÁÈÎfi Âȯ›ÚËÌ· ÙÔ˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÔ‡ Ú·ÏÈÛÌÔ‡, Ë ‰È·ÏÂÎÙÈ΋ Û¯¤ÛË ıˆڛ·˜-ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘, ̤ۈ Ù˘ ÔÔ›·˜ ·Ó·Ù‡ÛÛÂÙ·È Ë ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌË, ÛÂ Û˘Ó‰˘·ÛÌfi Ì ÙË Û¯Â‰fiÓ ÁÚ·ÌÌÈ΋ ÂÍ¿ÚÙËÛË Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋˜ ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘ ·fi ÙË ıˆڛ·, ηıÈÛÙ¿ ÂÈÙ·ÎÙÈ΋ ÙË ‰ÈηÈÔÏfiÁËÛË Ù˘ Ù·˘Ùfi¯ÚÔÓ˘ ·Ó¿‰˘Û˘ ÌÈ·˜ ·ÍÈfiÈÛÙ˘ ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘ Î·È ÌÈ·˜ ÚÔÛÂÁÁÈÛÙÈο ·ÏËıÔ‡˜ ıˆڛ·˜.7 ∂¿Ó Ô Ú·ÏÈÛÙ‹˜ ÚÔÛ·ı‹ÛÂÈ Ó· ·Ú·Î¿Ì„ÂÈ ÙÔ Úfi‚ÏËÌ· Ì ÙÔ Ó· ‰È·ÎÚ›ÓÂÈ ÙËÓ ÒÚÈÌË ·fi ÙË ÌË ÒÚÈÌË ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌË, ÙfiÙ ›Ù ÙÔ Úfi‚ÏËÌ· Â·ÓÂÌÊ·Ó›˙ÂÙ·È ÛÙË ‰È·‰Èηۛ· ÌÂÙ·ÙÚÔ‹˜ Ù˘ ÌË ÒÚÈÌ˘ Û ÒÚÈÌË ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌË, Â¿Ó ·˘Ù‹ Ë ÌÂÙ·‚ÔÏ‹ ıˆÚËı› ÈÛÙÔÚÈο ÛÙÈÁÌÈ·›·, ›ÙÂ Ë ·ÓˆÚÈÌfiÙËÙ· Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ _ÔÛÔ‰‹ÔÙ ÌÈÎÚ‹ Î·È ·Ó ıˆÚËı›_ ‰È·¯¤ÂÙ·È Û fiÏË ÙËÓ ÈÛÙÔÚ›· Ù˘ ·ÂÈÏÒÓÙ·˜ ÙÒÚ· ¿ÌÂÛ· ÙÔ ›‰ÈÔ ÙÔ Ú·ÏÈÛÙÈÎfi Û˘Ì¤Ú·ÛÌ·. ªÈ· ÁÂÓÈÎfiÙÂÚË ¤ÓÛÙ·ÛË Ô˘ ÌÔÚԇ̠ӷ ·¢ı‡ÓÔ˘ÌÂ Â‰Ò ÛÙÔÓ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎfi Ú·ÏÈÛÙ‹ Â›Ó·È fiÙÈ Ô fiÚÔ˜ «ÒÚÈÌË ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ıˆڛ·» ‰ÂÓ ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔÈÂ›Ù·È ·fi ·˘ÙfiÓ ˆ˜ ¤Ó·˜ Ô˘‰¤ÙÂÚÔ˜ (fiÛÔÓ ·ÊÔÚ¿ ÛÙË ‰È·Ì¿¯Ë Ú·ÏÈ-


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ÛÌÔ‡-·ÓÙÈÚÚ·ÏÈÛÌÔ‡) ÂÚÈÁÚ·ÊÈÎfi˜ fiÚÔ˜ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ÈÛÙÔÚÈ΋ ·ÔÙ›ÌËÛË ÙˆÓ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÒÓ ıˆÚÈÒÓ, ·ÏÏ¿ Ì¿ÏÏÔÓ ÌÈ· Ú·ÏÈÛÙÈο ÚÔηÙÂÈÏËÌ̤ÓË Û˘ÓÙfiÌ¢ÛË-·Ú¿ÊÚ·ÛË ÙÔ˘ fiÚÔ˘ «ÚÔÛÂÁÁÈÛÙÈο ·ÏËı‹˜ ıˆڛ·». ∞Ó Â›Ó·È ‚¿ÛÈÌË Ë ¤ÓÛÙ·ÛË ·˘Ù‹, ÙfiÙÂ Ë ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁÈ΋ ÂÍ‹ÁËÛË ÙÔ˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÔ‡ Ú·ÏÈÛÙ‹ ‰ÂÓ Û˘ÓÈÛÙ¿ ÁÓ‹ÛÈ· ÂÍ‹ÁËÛË Ù˘ ÈÛÙÔÚÈ΋˜ ·Ó¿‰˘Û˘ Ù˘ (ÒÚÈÌ˘) ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘, ·ÏÏ¿ Ì¿ÏÏÔÓ Ï‹„Ë ÙÔ˘ Ú·ÏÈÛÙÈÎÔ‡ ˙ËÙÔ˘Ì¤ÓÔ˘. ™Â οı ÂÚ›ÙˆÛË, Ë ‰È·ÏÂÎÙÈ΋ ÁÓˆÛÈÔÏÔÁ›· ÙËÓ ÔÔ›· ÂÈÛËÁÂ›Ù·È Ô Boyd (1981) ÚÔÎÂÈ̤ÓÔ˘ Ó· ¿ÚÂÈ ÙÔ ·‰È¤ÍÔ‰Ô Ô˘ ·ÓÙÈÌÂÙˆ›˙ÂÈ Û¯ÂÙÈο Ì ÙËÓ ·Ó¿‰˘ÛË Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ ‰ÂÓ Ô‰ËÁ› ηْ ·Ó¿ÁÎËÓ ÛÙÔÓ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎfi Ú·ÏÈÛÌfi. ∏ Ú·ÏÈÛÙÈ΋ ÂÚÌËÓ›· Ù˘ ‰È·ÏÂÎÙÈ΋˜ ÁÓˆÛÈÔÏÔÁ›·˜ ÌÔÚ› Ó· Êı¿ÛÂÈ ÌfiÓÔ Ì¤¯ÚÈ ÙÔ ÛËÌÂ›Ô Ó· ˘ÔÛÙËÚ›ÍÂÈ ÙË ı¤ÛË fiÙÈ Ë ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌË ¤¯ÂÈ ÙËÓ Ù¿ÛË Ó· ÚÔԉ‡ÂÈ ÛÙËÓ Î·Ù‡ı˘ÓÛË Ù˘ ηχÙÂÚ˘ ÚÔÛ¤ÁÁÈÛ˘ ÛÙËÓ ·Ï‹ıÂÈ·, Ó· ˘ÔÛÙËÚ›ÍÂÈ ‰ËÏ·‰‹ ÌÈ· ı¤ÛË Ô˘ Â›Ó·È ·Ô‰ÂÎÙ‹ ·ÎfiÌË Î·È ·fi οÔÈÔÓ Ô˘ ·ÔÚÚ›ÙÂÈ ÙË ı¤ÛË ÙÔ˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÔ‡ Ú·ÏÈÛÌÔ‡ fiÙÈ ÔÈ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈΤ˜ ıˆڛ˜ Ù˘ ÒÚÈÌ˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ Â›Ó·È ÚÔÛÂÁÁÈÛÙÈο ·ÏËı›˜. ŒÙÛÈ Â‰Ò ··ÈÙÂ›Ù·È ÌÈ· ÚfiÛıÂÙË Î·È ·ÓÂÍ¿ÚÙËÙË ÚÔΛÌÂÓË fiÙÈ Ë Ù¿ÛË ÁÈ· ÚÔÛ¤ÁÁÈÛË ÛÙËÓ ·Ï‹ıÂÈ· Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÒÓÂÙ·È ÛÙÔÓ ÂÓÂÚÁ›· ÎfiÛÌÔ Ì·˜, Ë ÔÔ›· fï˜ ‰ÂÓ Â›Ó·È ‰˘Ó·Ù‹ ·Ú¿ ÌfiÓÔ ·fi ÙË ÛÎÔÈ¿ ÙÔ˘ £ÂÔ‡. ™˘ÓÂÒ˜, ÛÙÔ ‚·ıÌfi Ô˘ Ë ‰È·ÏÂÎÙÈ΋ ÁÓˆÛÈÔÏÔÁ›· ÂÈχÂÈ –‹, ÔÚıfiÙÂÚ·, ηٷÚÁ›– ÙÔ Úfi‚ÏËÌ· Ù˘ ·ÊÂÙËÚ›·˜ Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘, ÛÙÔÓ ›‰ÈÔ ‚·ıÌfi ηıÈÛÙ¿ ÙÔ ··ÁˆÁÈÎfi Âȯ›ÚËÌ· ·ÙÂϤÛÊÔÚÔ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ˘ÂÚ¿ÛÈÛË ÙÔ˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÔ‡ Ú·ÏÈÛÌÔ‡ ‰›¯ˆ˜ ÌÈ· ˘ÂÚ‚·ÙÔÏÔÁÈ΋ ÂÁÁ‡ËÛË.

∏ «°ƒ∞ªªπ∫∏» ∂•∞ƒ∆∏™∏ £∂øƒπ∞™-ª∂£√¢√À ∂ÎÙfi˜ fï˜ ·fi ÙÔ È‰Ú˘ÙÈÎfi ÛÙ¿‰ÈÔ ÂÎΛÓËÛ˘ Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘, ÙÔ ˙‹ÙËÌ· Ù˘ ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘ ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁ› ÚÔ‚Ï‹Ì·Ù· ÛÙËÓ ÂȯÂÈÚËÌ·ÙÔÏÔÁ›· ÙÔ˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÔ‡ Ú·ÏÈÛÌÔ‡ ·ÎfiÌË Î·È ÛÙÔ ÛÙ¿‰ÈÔ Ù˘ ÒÚÈÌ˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘. ª¤¯ÚÈ ÙÒÚ· ·Û¯ÔÏËı‹Î·Ì ΢ڛˆ˜ Ì ÙȘ ‰˘Û¯¤ÚÂȘ Ô˘ ·ÓÙÈÌÂÙˆ›˙ÂÈ Ô Ú·ÏÈÛÙ‹˜ ÛÙËÓ ÚÔÛ¿ıÂÈ¿ ÙÔ˘ Ó· ÂÍËÁ‹ÛÂÈ Ò˜ Û˘ÁÎÚÔÙ‹ıËÎ·Ó ÔÈ ÚÒÙ˜ ÚÔÛÂÁÁÈÛÙÈο ·ÏËı›˜ ıˆڛ˜ ¯ˆÚ›˜ ÙË Û˘Ó‰ÚÔÌ‹ Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋˜ ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘. ∞ÏÏ¿ ÙÒÚ· ÌÔÚÔ‡ÌÂ Î·È Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ÂÍÂÙ¿ÛÔ˘Ì ÙÔ ·ÓÙ›ÛÙÚÔÊÔ Úfi‚ÏËÌ·: ¶Ò˜ ÌÈ· Û˘ÁÎÚÔÙË̤ÓË ıˆÚËÙÈ΋ ·Ú¿‰ÔÛË ˘·ÁÔÚ‡ÂÈ ÙËÓ Î·Ù¿ÏÏËÏË Ì¤ıÔ‰Ô Ô˘ ı· ·ÔÙÂϤÛÂÈ ÙÔ fiÚÁ·ÓÔ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ÂÚ·ÈÙ¤Úˆ ·Ó¿Ù˘ÍË, Û˘ÌÏ‹ÚˆÛË, ‰ÈfiÚıˆÛË ÎÏ.


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∂ÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ̤ıÔ‰Ô˜ Î·È ··ÁˆÁÈ΋ ˘ÔÛÙ‹ÚÈÍË ÙÔ˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÔ‡ Ú·ÏÈÛÌÔ‡

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Ù˘ ˘¿Ú¯Ô˘Û·˜ ıˆڛ·˜; ∏ ·¿ÓÙËÛË Ô˘, ηٿ ÙÔÓ Boyd, ‚Ú›ÛÎÂÙ·È Ì¤Û· ÛÙÔ ¤ÚÁÔ ÙÔ˘ Kuhn, ¤¯ÂÈ ˆ˜ ÂÍ‹˜: «∏ ıˆÚËÙÈ΋ ·Ú¿‰ÔÛË ˘·ÁÔÚ‡ÂÈ ÙÔ˘˜ fiÚÔ˘˜ ˘fi ÙÔ˘˜ ÔÔ›Ô˘˜ Ù›ıÂÓÙ·È ÔÈ ÂÚˆÙ‹ÛÂȘ Î·È ÙÔ˘˜ fiÚÔ˘˜ ˘fi ÙÔ˘˜ ÔÔ›Ô˘˜ Û¯ËÌ·Ù›˙ÔÓÙ·È ÔÈ ‰˘Ó·Ù¤˜ ··ÓÙ‹ÛÂȘ. ªÂ ·ÚfiÌÔÈÔ ÙÚfiÔ, ıˆÚËÙÈÎÔ› ·Ú¿ÁÔÓÙ˜ ˘·ÁÔÚÂ‡Ô˘Ó Ù· ÚfiÙ˘· ÁÈ· ÙÔÓ ÂÈÚ·Ì·ÙÈÎfi ۯ‰ȷÛÌfi Î·È ÙËÓ ·ÔÙ›ÌËÛË ÙˆÓ ÂÈÚ·Ì·ÙÈÎÒÓ ÂӉ›Íˆӻ (Boyd 1984:57). ¶ÈÔ Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤ӷ, ÔÈ ÎÚ›ÛÂȘ Ô˘ οÓÔ˘Ó ÔÈ ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌÔÓ˜ Û¯ÂÙÈο Ì ÙËÓ «ÚÔ‚ÔÏÈÎfiÙËÙ·» ÙˆÓ Î·ÙËÁÔÚËÌ¿ÙˆÓ, Ë ÂÈÏÔÁ‹ ·fi ÙȘ ¿ÂÈÚ˜ ÙÔ Ï‹ıÔ˜ ıˆڛ˜ (Ô˘ Â›Ó·È Û˘ÓÂ›˜ Ì οÔÈÔ ÛÒÌ· ‰Â‰Ô̤ӈÓ) ÂÎÂ›ÓˆÓ Ô˘ Â›Ó·È Ú¿ÁÌ·ÙÈ ˘Ô„‹ÊȘ Ó· Á›ÓÔ˘Ó ·Ô‰ÂÎÙ¤˜, ηıÒ˜ Î·È Ù· ÎÚÈÙ‹ÚÈ· Ì ٷ ÔÔ›· ηıÔÚ›˙ÂÙ·È Ô «‚·ıÌfi˜ ÂÈ·ڈÛ˘» Ô˘ Âȉ¤¯ÂÙ·È ÌÈ· ıˆڛ· ·fi ÙȘ ÂӉ›ÍÂȘ ÂÍ·ÚÙÒÓÙ·È ÈÛ¯˘Ú¿ ·fi ÙȘ ıˆڛ˜ Ô˘ ··ÚÙ›˙Ô˘Ó ÙËÓ ˘¿Ú¯Ô˘Û· ıˆÚËÙÈ΋ ·Ú¿‰ÔÛË ‹ ·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ·. ∂ÈϤÔÓ, Â›Ó·È ·ÎÚÈ‚Ò˜ ·˘Ù‹ Ë ıˆÚËÙÈ΋ ÂÍ¿ÚÙËÛË Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋˜ ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘ Ô˘, ηٿ ÙÔÓ Boyd, ηıÈÛÙ¿ ·ÓÂÈÙ˘¯Â›˜ Ù˘ ÂÍËÁ‹ÛÂȘ Ù˘ ÂÚÁ·ÏÂȷ΋˜ ·ÍÈÔÈÛÙ›·˜ Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋˜ ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘ Ô˘ ÂÈÛËÁÔ‡ÓÙ·È «Î·Ù·Û΢·ÛÙÈΤ˜» ıˆڋÛÂȘ Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ Ù‡Ô˘ Kuhn Î·È ÂÌÂÈÚÈÛÙÈΤ˜ ·ÓÙÈÏ‹„ÂȘ fiˆ˜ ·˘Ù¤˜ ÙÔ˘ Carnap ÙˆÓ ·Ú¯ÒÓ Ù˘ ‰ÂηÂÙ›·˜ ÙÔ˘ ’50. ªÂ ·˘Ù‹ ÙËÓ ¤ÓÓÔÈ·, ÙÔ ÎÚ›ÛÈÌÔ Î·È ÂÈÙ·ÎÙÈÎfi ÂÚÒÙËÌ· Ô˘ ·ÓÙÈÌÂÙˆ›˙ÂÈ Ô ·ÓÙÈÚ·ÏÈÛÙ‹˜ Â›Ó·È Ó· ÂÍËÁ‹ÛÂÈ «ÁÈ·Ù› ÌÈ· ÙfiÛÔ Ôχ ıˆÚËÙÈο ÂÍ·ÚÙË̤ÓË ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁ›· Â›Ó·È ·ÍÈfiÈÛÙË ÛÙËÓ ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹ ÁÓÒÛ˘ Ô˘ ·ÊÔÚ¿ Ù· –ηٿ Ôχ ·ÓÂÍ¿ÚÙËÙ· ·fi ÙËÓ ıˆڛ·– ·Ú·ÙËÚ‹ÛÈÌ· Ê·ÈÓfiÌÂÓ·;» (Boyd 1984: 57). ∞Ê‹ÓÔÓÙ·˜ ÚÔ˜ ÙÔ ·ÚfiÓ Î·Ù¿ ̤ÚÔ˜ ÙÔ Â¿Ó ÔÈ ÂÈÛËÌ¿ÓÛÂȘ ÙÔ˘ Boyd ı›ÁÔ˘Ó Ú¿ÁÌ·ÙÈ ÙËÓ ÈÛÙÔÚÈÎÈÛÙÈ΋ ıÂÒÚËÛË Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ Ô˘ ÂÁηÈÓ›·ÛÂ Ô Kuhn (Î·È fi¯È ÌfiÓÔ ÙË Ê˘ÛÈÎÔÔÈË̤ÓË ÚÔÎÚÔ‡ÛÙÂÈ· ÂΉԯ‹ Ù˘ Ô˘ ·Ó·Û˘ÁÎÚÔÙ› Ô Boyd, fiˆ˜ ı· Ê·Ó› ÛÙ· ÂfiÌÂÓ·), ÂΛÓÔ Ô˘ ¤¯ÂÈ ÌÂÁ·Ï‡ÙÂÚË ÛËÌ·Û›· ÙÒÚ· Â›Ó·È Ó· ÂÍÂÙ¿ÛÔ˘Ì ÙÔ Â¿Ó Ú¿ÁÌ·ÙÈ Ë ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁ›· Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ ÙËÓ ÔÔ›· ÂÈÛËÁÂ›Ù·È Ô ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎfi˜ Ú·ÏÈÛÌfi˜ ÌÔÚ› Ó· ʤÚÂÈ ÈηÓÔÔÈËÙÈο ÙÔ «‚¿ÚÔ˜» Ô˘ Ù˘ ÂÈ‚¿ÏÏÂÈ ÙÔ ··ÁˆÁÈÎfi Ú·ÏÈÛÙÈÎfi Âȯ›ÚËÌ·. ¶ÚÒÙÔÓ, ÁÈ· Ó· ÌÔÚ¤ÛÂÈ Ó· ·Ô‰ÒÛÂÈ ÙËÓ ÂÚÁ·ÏÂȷ΋ ·ÍÈÔÈÛÙ›· Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋˜ ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘ ÛÙËÓ ·Ï‹ıÂÈ· ÙÔ˘ ıˆÚËÙÈÎÔ‡ ˘Ô‚¿ıÚÔ˘, Ô Ú·ÏÈÛÙ‹˜ Â›Ó·È ˘Ô¯Úˆ̤ÓÔ˜ Ó· ÚÔ¸Ôı¤ÛÂÈ ÌÈ· ÙfiÛÔ ÛÙÂÓ‹, «Û¯Â‰fiÓ ÁÚ·ÌÌÈ΋» ÂÍ¿ÚÙËÛË ıˆڛ·˜-ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘, Ô˘ ÛÙËÓ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÎfiÙËÙ· ηٷÚÁ› ÙËÓ –¤ÛÙˆ Î·È Û¯ÂÙÈ΋– ·˘ÙÔÓÔÌ›· Ù˘ ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘. «™‡Ìʈӷ Ì ÙË ‰È·ÎÚÈÙ¿ Ú·ÏÈÛÙÈ΋ ÂÚÈÁÚ·Ê‹ Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋˜ ÁÓÒÛ˘, Ë ·ÍÈÔÈÛÙ›· Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋˜ ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘ ˆ˜ Ô‰ËÁÔ‡ ÛÙËÓ (ÚÔÛÂÁÁÈÛÙÈ΋) ·Ï‹ıÂÈ· Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ÂÍËÁÂ›Ù·È ÌfiÓÔ Ì ÙËÓ ˘fiıÂÛË fiÙÈ Ë


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∫ÒÛÙ·˜ ™ÙÂÚÁÈfiÔ˘ÏÔ˜

ıˆÚËÙÈ΋ ·Ú¿‰ÔÛË Ô˘ ÔÚ›˙ÂÈ ÙȘ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈΤ˜ ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁÈΤ˜ ·Ú¯¤˜ ·ÓÙ·Ó·ÎÏ¿ ÌÈ· ÚÔÛÂÁÁÈÛÙÈο ·ÏËı‹ ÂÚÈÁÚ·Ê‹ ÙÔ˘ Ê˘ÛÈÎÔ‡ ÎfiÛÌÔ˘. ™‡Ìʈӷ Ì ·˘Ù‹ ÙËÓ ˘fiıÂÛË, Ë ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ̤ıÔ‰Ô˜ ı· Ô‰ËÁ‹ÛÂÈ Û ‰È·‰Ô¯Èο ÈÔ ·ÎÚȂ›˜ ıˆڛ˜ Î·È Û ‰È·‰Ô¯Èο ÈÔ ·ÍÈfiÈÛÙ˜ ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁÈΤ˜ Ú·ÎÙÈΤ˜» (Boyd 1984:64). ™ÙËÓ ÂÚÌËÓ›· ·˘Ù‹, Ë ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ̤ıÔ‰Ô˜ ηı›ÛÙ·Ù·È ÌÈ· ¢ı›· ÂÚÁ·ÏÂȷ΋ ÚÔ¤ÎÙ·ÛË Ù˘ ·Ô‰ÂÎÙ‹˜ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋˜ ıˆڛ·˜ (Boyd 1984: 60-61). ªÂ ¿ÏÏ· ÏfiÁÈ·, Ô ıˆÚËÙÈÎfi˜ ÂÈηıÔÚÈÛÌfi˜ Ù˘ ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁ›·˜ Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ Â›Ó·È ÙfiÛÔ ·ÛÊ˘ÎÙÈÎfi˜ Ô˘ ·Ê˘‰·ÙÒÓÂÈ ÂÓÙÂÏÒ˜ ÙÔ ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁÈÎfi ÂÚȯfiÌÂÓÔ Ù˘ ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘ ÒÛÙÂ Ë ÙÂÏÂ˘Ù·›· Ó· ÂÍ·ÓÙÏÂ›Ù·È Û ÌÈ· ÌÔÓÔÛ‹Ì·ÓÙË ÂȯÂÈÚËÛȷ΋ ÌÂÙ¿ÊÚ·ÛË Ù˘ ıˆڛ·˜: Ë ›‰È· Ë ıˆڛ· ηı›ÛÙ·Ù·È ÙÔ Ì¤ÛÔ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ÂÚ·ÈÙ¤Úˆ ·Ó¿Ù˘Í‹ Ù˘. ∂ÓÙ¤ÏÂÈ, ·Ó Ë ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁÈ΋ ı¤ÛË ÙÔ˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÔ‡ Ú·ÏÈÛÌÔ‡ Â›Ó·È ÔÚı‹, ÙfiÙ fiÏË Ë Û˘˙‹ÙËÛË Î·È ‰È·Ì¿¯Ë Û¯ÂÙÈο Ì ÙÔ Úfi‚ÏËÌ· Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋˜ ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘ Ô˘ ·Ó·fiÛ·ÛÙ· Û˘Óԉ‡ÂÈ ÙËÓ ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌË ·fi ÙËÓ ÂÁηı›‰Ú˘Û‹ Ù˘ ̤¯ÚÈ ÙȘ ̤Ú˜ Ì·˜ Â›Ó·È fi¯È ÌfiÓÔ ¿ÁÔÓË, ·ÏÏ¿ ·ÔÙ¤ÏÂÛÌ· ÌÈ·˜ Ï¿Ó˘: Ë ÌfiÓË Û˘˙‹ÙËÛË ÛÙËÓ ÔÔ›· ¤¯ÂÈ ÓfiËÌ· –·Ó ˘¿Ú¯ÂÈ Î¿ÔÈÔ– Ó· ÂÌϷΛ ηÓ›˜ Â›Ó·È ·˘Ù‹ Ô˘ ‰ÈÂÓÂÚÁÂ›Ù·È ÛÙÔ ÂÛˆÙÂÚÈÎfi Î·È ˘fi ÙÔ Êˆ˜ Ù˘ ›‰È·˜ Ù˘ ıˆڛ·˜. ∂ÈϤÔÓ, Ë ÈÛ¯˘Ú‹ ıˆÚËÙÈ΋ ÂÍ¿ÚÙËÛË Ù˘ ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘ ·fi ÙË ıˆڛ· fi¯È ÌfiÓÔ Î·Ù·ÚÁ› ÙËÓ ·Ó·ÌÊÈÛ‚‹ÙËÙË ·˘ÙÔÓÔÌ›· Î·È Â˘ÚÂÙÈ΋ ÁÔÓÈÌfiÙËÙ· ÙÔ˘ ÂÈÚ·Ì·ÙÈÛÌÔ‡ Ô˘ ·Ó¤‰ÂÈÍÂ Ô Hacking (1983), ·ÏÏ¿ ��·È ÂÍ·ÓÙÏ› ÙË ¯ÚËÛÈÌfiÙËÙ¿ ÙÔ˘ ÛÙÔÓ ¤ÏÂÁ¯Ô Ù˘ ıˆڛ·˜. √ ÂÈÚ·Ì·ÙÈÛÌfi˜ Â‰Ò ÌÔÈ¿˙ÂÈ Ì ÌÈ· Ì˯·ÓÈ΋ ‰È·‰Èηۛ·, ÙÔ ÏÔÁÈÛÌÈÎfi Ù˘ ÔÔ›·˜ ˘·ÁÔÚ‡ÂÙ·È ·fi ÙËÓ ·Ô‰ÂÎÙ‹ ıˆÚËÙÈ΋ ·Ú¿‰ÔÛË, ÂÓÒ Ë ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ›· Ù˘ Û˘Ó›ÛÙ·Ù·È ÛÙÔ Ó· ·ÓÙÏ› ·fi ÙËÓ ˘ÏÈ΋ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÎfiÙËÙ· ··ÓÙ‹ÛÂȘ Û ÂÚˆÙ‹ÛÂȘ Ô˘ ¤¯ÂÈ ˘Ô‚¿ÏÂÈ Ë ˘fi ÎÚ›ÛË ıˆڛ·. ŒÙÛÈ, ı· ÌÔÚÔ‡Û·Ì ӷ ԇ̠fiÙÈ ÁÈ· ÙÔÓ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎfi Ú·ÏÈÛÙ‹, ÙÔ ›ڷ̷ (‹ Ë ·Ú·Ù‹ÚËÛË) Â›Ó·È fi¯È ÌfiÓÔÓ «‚‚·ÚË̤ÓÔ ·fi ıˆڛ·» ·ÏÏ¿ Î·È «¯ÂÈÚ·ÁˆÁË̤ÓÔ ·fi ıˆڛ·». ™˘ÓÂÒ˜, ÛÙÔ ÂÍËÁËÙÈÎfi Âȯ›ÚËÌ· ÙÔ˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÔ‡ Ú·ÏÈÛÌÔ‡ Ë ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ̤ıÔ‰Ô˜ ηÏÂ›Ù·È Ó· ·›ÍÂÈ ÙÔ ÚfiÏÔ ÂÓfi˜ ÈÌ¿ÓÙ· Ô˘ ÌÂٷʤÚÂÈ Ì ۯ‰fiÓ ·‰È·ÌÂÛÔÏ¿‚ËÙÔ ÙÚfiÔ Î·È ÌÂÙ·Û¯ËÌ·Ù›˙ÂÈ Ì ۯ‰fiÓ Ì·ÁÈÎfi ÙÚfiÔ ÙËÓ ÂÚÁ·ÏÂȷ΋ ·ÍÈÔÈÛÙ›· Û ·Ï‹ıÂÈ·. øÛÙfiÛÔ, ·ÓÂÍ¿ÚÙËÙ· ·fi ÙÔÓ ·Ó fiÓÙˆ˜ Ë ÂÚÁ·ÏÂȷ΋ ·ÍÈÔÈÛÙ›· ÌÂÙ·Û¯ËÌ·Ù›˙ÂÙ·È ÙfiÛÔ ¿ÌÂÛ· Û ·Ï‹ıÂÈ·, Ë ›‰È· Ë ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁÈ΋ ÂÈÎfiÓ· ÙˆÓ Û¯¤ÛÂˆÓ ıˆڛ·˜-ÂÈÚ¿Ì·ÙÔ˜ Â›Ó·È ÌÈ· ÊÙˆ¯‹ ÂÚÈÁÚ·Ê‹ Î·È ÂÚÌËÓ›· Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋˜ Ú·ÎÙÈ΋˜ fi¯È ÌfiÓÔ Û ۯ¤ÛË Ì ÙËÓ ÂÚÈÁÚ·Ê‹ ÙÔ˘ Hacking (1983) ·ÏÏ¿ Î·È Û˘ÁÎÚÈÓfiÌÂÓË Ì ·˘Ù‹ ÙÔ˘ van Fraassen (1980:73-83).


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∂ÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ̤ıÔ‰Ô˜ Î·È ··ÁˆÁÈ΋ ˘ÔÛÙ‹ÚÈÍË ÙÔ˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÔ‡ Ú·ÏÈÛÌÔ‡

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¢Â‡ÙÂÚÔÓ, ·ÎfiÌË Î·È ·Ó ˘Ôı¤ÛÔ˘Ì fiÙÈ Ë ‰È·ÏÂÎÙÈ΋ Ù˘ ·ÏÏËÏԉȷ‰Ô¯‹˜ ıˆڛ·˜-ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘ ÌÔÚ› Ó· Û˘Ì‚È‚·ÛÙ› Ì ÙȘ ȉȷ›ÙÂÚ˜ ··ÈÙ‹ÛÂȘ ÙÔ˘ Ú·ÏÈÛÙÈÎÔ‡ ÂȯÂÈÚ‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ ÛÙÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ Ù˘ ÎÔ˘ÓÈ·Ó‹˜ «Î·ÓÔÓÈ΋˜ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘», ÌÈ· ·ÚfiÌÔÈ· ‰˘Û¯¤ÚÂÈ·, ·ÏÏ¿ ÙÒÚ· ÂÚÈÛÛfiÙÂÚÔ ¤ÓÙÔÓË, ÂÌÊ·Ó›˙ÂÙ·È ÛÙÔ ÛÙ¿‰ÈÔ Ù˘ «È‰ÈfiÚÚ˘ıÌ˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘», ‰ËÏ·‰‹ Û ÂÚÈfi‰Ô˘˜ ÎÚ›Û˘ ÙÔ˘ ¶·Ú·‰Â›ÁÌ·ÙÔ˜. ¶Ò˜ Â›Ó·È ‰˘Ó·ÙfiÓ ¤Ó· ¶·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ· Ó· ˘·ÁÔÚ‡ÛÂÈ ÙËÓ Î·Ù¿ÏÏËÏË Ì¤ıÔ‰Ô ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ·ÓÙÈηٿÛÙ·Û‹ ÙÔ˘ ·fi ÙÔ Ó¤Ô ¶·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ·; ¶Ò˜ Â›Ó·È ‰˘Ó·ÙfiÓ Ë ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ÎÔÈÓfiÙËÙ· ÛÙÔ ÂÛˆÙÂÚÈÎfi ÂÓfi˜ ¶·Ú·‰Â›ÁÌ·ÙÔ˜ fi¯È ÌfiÓÔ Ó· ‰È·ÈÛÙÒÛÂÈ fiÙÈ ÔÚÈṲ̂ӷ ÚÔ‚Ï‹Ì·Ù· Ô˘ ·ÓÙÈÌÂÙˆ›˙ÂÈ Ë «Î·ÓÔÓÈ΋ ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌË» Û˘ÓÈÛÙÔ‡Ó, Ì ٷ ‰È·ı¤ÛÈÌ· ·fi ÙÔ ¶·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ· ̤۷, ÌË ÂÈχÛÈÌ· ÚÔ‚Ï‹Ì·Ù·, ·ÏÏ¿ Î·È Ó· ÂÈÛËÁËı› ÙËÓ Î·Ù¿ÏÏËÏË Ì¤ıÔ‰Ô Û˘ÁÎÚfiÙËÛ˘ ÙÔ˘ Ó¤Ô˘ ¶·Ú·‰Â›ÁÌ·ÙÔ˜ Ô˘ ı· ÂÈχÛÂÈ ‹ ı· ‰È·Ï‡ÛÂÈ ÙÔ˘˜ ÁÚ›ÊÔ˘˜ ÙÔ˘ ÚÔËÁÔ‡ÌÂÓÔ˘; ∂ÈϤÔÓ, ·ÎfiÌË Î·È ·Ó ·ÁÓÔ‹ÛÔ˘Ì ÙËÓ ÎÔ˘ÓÈ·Ó‹ ·Ó¿ÁÓˆÛË Ù˘ ÈÛÙÔÚ›·˜ Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘, Ò˜ Â›Ó·È ‰˘Ó·ÙfiÓ ÌÈ· Ï·Óı·Ṳ̂ÓË ıˆڛ· Ó· ˘·ÁÔÚ‡ÛÂÈ ÙË Ì¤ıÔ‰Ô Û˘ÁÎÚfiÙËÛ˘ Ù˘ Ó¤·˜ (·ÏËıÔ‡˜) ıˆڛ·˜; ¶Ò˜, ÛÙËÓ ÂÚ›ÙˆÛË ·˘Ù‹, ÌÔÚ› Ô ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎfi˜ Ú·ÏÈÛÙ‹˜ Ó· ÂÍËÁ‹ÛÂÈ ÙËÓ ÂÚÁ·ÏÂÈÔÎÚ·ÙÈ΋ ·ÍÈÔÈÛÙ›· Ù˘ ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘, ·ÊÔ‡ ÙÒÚ· ‰ÂÓ ÌÔÚ› Ó· ÂÈηÏÂÛÙ› ÙËÓ ÚÔÛÂÁÁÈÛÙÈο ·ÏËı‹ ıˆÚËÙÈ΋ ·Ú¿‰ÔÛË; ∞˘Ùfi Â›Ó·È ¤Ó· Ô͇ Úfi‚ÏËÌ·, ÙÔ ÔÔ›Ô Ô ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎfi˜ Ú·ÏÈÛÙ‹˜ ‰ÂÓ ÌÔÚ› Ó· ·ÓÙÈÌÂÙˆ›ÛÂÈ. Ÿˆ˜ ·Ú·ÙËÚ› Ô van Fraassen, ÌÈ· Ê˘ÛÈÔÎÚ·ÙÈ΋ ÁÓˆÛÈÔÏÔÁ›· ‰ÂÓ ÌÔÚ› Ó· ÚÔÛʤÚÂÈ Î·Ì›· ÈηÓÔÔÈËÙÈ΋ ·¿ÓÙËÛË ÛÙÔ ÂÚÒÙËÌ·: «¶Ò˜ Â›Ó·È ‰˘Ó·Ùfi Ó· ηٷÓÔ‹ÛÔ˘ÌÂ Î·È Ó· ıˆڋÛÔ˘Ì ˆ˜ ‚ÈÒÛÈÌË ÂÓ·ÏÏ·ÎÙÈ΋ χÛË Î¿ÙÈ Ô˘ Â›Ó·È ·Ú¿ÏÔÁÔ ·fi ÙËÓ ÙˆÚÈÓ‹ ÛÎÔÈ¿ Ì·˜; ∫·È Ò˜ ÌÔÚ› οÙÈ Ó· Â›Ó·È ÌÈ· ·˘ıÂÓÙÈο ·ÓÙ›·ÏË ÂÓ·ÏÏ·ÎÙÈ΋ χÛË ÛÙÔÓ ÙˆÚÈÓfi ÙÚfiÔ Ì ÙÔÓ ÔÔ›Ô ‚ϤÔ˘ÌÂ Î·È Û˘ÏÏ·Ì‚¿ÓÔ˘Ì ÂÌ¿˜ ÙÔ˘˜ ›‰ÈÔ˘˜ ÛÙÔÓ ÎfiÛÌÔ ·Ó ·˘Ùfi ‰ÂÓ Â›Ó·È ·Ú¿ÏÔÁÔ ·fi ÙËÓ ÙˆÚÈÓ‹ Ì·˜ ÛÎÔÈ¿;» (2000: 72). √ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎfi˜ Ú·ÏÈÛÙ‹˜ ÌÔÚ› ‚‚·›ˆ˜ Ó· ·ÚÓËı› (Î·È Ú¿ÁÌ·ÙÈ ·˘Ùfi οÓÂÈ) ÙËÓ ‡·ÚÍË ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÒÓ Â·Ó·ÛÙ¿ÛÂˆÓ ‹ ÚÈ˙ÈÎÒÓ ÂÓÓÔÈÔÏÔÁÈÎÒÓ ÌÂÙ·ÛÙÚÔÊÒÓ Î·È ¤ÙÛÈ ÌÔÚ› Ó· ÈÛ¯˘ÚÈÛı› fiÙÈ Ë ·Ï‹ıÂÈ· Ù˘ ·ÏÈ¿˜ ıˆڛ·˜ Â›Ó·È ‰˘Ó·ÙfiÓ Ó· ‰È·Ûˆı› ÂÓ Ì¤ÚÂÈ, ÂÊfiÛÔÓ ‰Âȯı› fiÙÈ ·˘Ù‹ Û˘ÓÈÛÙ¿ ÌÈ· ÂȉÈ΋ ‹ ÔÚȷ΋ ÂÚ›ÙˆÛË Ù˘ Ó¤·˜, ¢ڇÙÂÚ˘ ıˆڛ·˜. ∞ÎÔÏÔ˘ıÒÓÙ·˜ ·˘Ù‹ ÙË ÁÚ·ÌÌ‹, ÈÛ¯˘Ú›˙ÂÙ·È fiÙÈ, ÁÈ· ·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ·, ·Ó ‰Âȯı› fiÙÈ Ë Ó¢ÙÒÓÂÈ· Ì˯·ÓÈ΋ ·ÔÙÂÏ› ÔÚȷ΋ ÂÚ›ÙˆÛË Ù˘ ıˆڛ·˜ Ù˘ Û¯ÂÙÈÎfiÙËÙ·˜, ÙfiÙÂ, ·ÊÂÓfi˜, ‰È·ÛÒ˙ÂÙ·È ÙÔ Â·ÚΤ˜ (ÁÈ· ÙȘ ·Ó¿ÁΘ ÙÔ˘ ··ÁˆÁÈÎÔ‡ Ú·ÏÈÛÙÈÎÔ‡ ÂȯÂÈÚ‹Ì·ÙÔ˜) ÂÚȯfiÌÂÓÔ ·Ï‹ıÂÈ·˜ ÙÔ˘ Ó¢ÙÒÓÂÈÔ˘ ıˆÚËÙÈÎÔ‡ ˘Ô‚¿ıÚÔ˘ Î·È ·ÊÂ-


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Ù¤ÚÔ˘, Ë ÓÂ˘ÙˆÓÈ΋ Ì˯·ÓÈ΋ ·ÔÎÙ¿ ÌÈ· ÚfiÛıÂÙË – ·ÚfiÙÈ ¤ÌÌÂÛË– ÂÈ·ڈÛË. øÛÙfiÛÔ, ·ÎfiÌË Î·È ·Ó ˘Ôı¤ÛÔ˘ÌÂ, ·ÁÓÔÒÓÙ·˜ ÙÔ ˙‹ÙËÌ· Ù˘ ·Û˘ÌÌÂÙÚ›·˜ Ô˘ ·Ó¤‰ÂÈÍ·Ó ÔÈ Kuhn (1981) Î·È Feyerabend (1982), fiÙÈ ÌÔÚ› Ó· Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÔÔÈËı› Ë ·Ó·ÁˆÁ‹ Ù˘ ÎÏ·ÛÈ΋˜ ÛÙË Û¯ÂÙÈÎÈÛÙÈ΋ Ì˯·ÓÈ΋, ¤¯ÂÈ È‰È·›ÙÂÚË ÛËÌ·Û›· Ó· ·Ú·ÙËÚ‹ÛÔ˘Ì fiÙÈ, fiˆ˜ ¤¯ÂÈ ˘ÔÁÚ·ÌÌ›ÛÂÈ Ô Baltas (2004), Ë ·Ó·ÁˆÁ‹ ·˘Ù‹ Â›Ó·È ¿ÓÙ· Î·È ÌfiÓÔÓ ·Ó·‰ÚÔÌÈ΋. ªfiÓÔÓ ·fi ÙËÓ ÛÎÔÈ¿ Ù˘ Ó¤·˜ ıˆڛ·˜ Â›Ó·È ‰˘Ó·ÙfiÓ Ó· ‰Âȯı› fiÙÈ Ô ÓfiÌÔ˜ ΛÓËÛ˘ ÙÔ˘ ¡Â‡ÙˆÓ· ·ÔÚÚ¤ÂÈ ·fi ÙÔÓ ·ÓÙ›ÛÙÔÈ¯Ô ÙÔ˘ ∞˚ÓÛÙ¿ÈÓ – ÂÊfiÛÔÓ ‚‚·›ˆ˜ ˘Ôı¤ÛÔ˘Ì ٷ¯‡ÙËÙ˜ Ôχ ÌÈÎÚfiÙÂÚ˜ ·fi ÙËÓ Ù·¯‡ÙËÙ· ÙÔ˘ ʈÙfi˜. ∞ÏÏ¿ ÂÍ ·˘ÙÔ‡ ‰ÂÓ ÚÔ·ÙÂÈ Î·Ó¤Ó·˜ ÙÚfiÔ˜ Û‡Ìʈӷ Ì ÙÔÓ ÔÔ›Ô ı· ‹Ù·Ó ‰˘Ó·ÙfiÓ Ë Ó¢ÙÒÓÂÈ· Ì˯·ÓÈ΋ Ó· ‰È·ÁÓÒÛÂÈ Î·È ˘ԉ›ÍÂÈ ÔÈ· ·fi Ù· ·ÍÈÒÌ·Ù¿ Ù˘ Ú¤ÂÈ ÛÙÔ Ì¤ÏÏÔÓ Ó· ·ÓÙÈηٷÛÙ·ıÔ‡Ó ‹ Ó· ÙÚÔÔÔÈËıÔ‡Ó ˆ˜ ÌË ÔÚı¿, ÚÔÎÂÈ̤ÓÔ˘ Ë ÚÔ·ÙÔ˘Û· Ó¤· ıˆڛ· Ó· ·ÔʇÁÂÈ Ù· ·‰È¤ÍÔ‰· Ù˘ Ó¢ÙÒÓÂÈ·˜. ∂ÈϤÔÓ, ÙÔ fiÙÈ ÌÔÚԇ̠ӷ ·ÔηٷÛÙ‹ÛÔ˘Ì ÙËÓ ·Ó·‰ÚÔÌÈ΋ Û˘Ó¤¯ÂÈ· Ù˘ ıˆڛ·˜, ‰ÂÓ ÛËÌ·›ÓÂÈ ·˘ÙÔÌ¿Ùˆ˜ fiÙÈ Â› ÙË ‚¿ÛÂÈ Ù˘ ‰È·ÏÂÎÙÈ΋˜ ıˆڛ·˜-ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘ ˘¿Ú¯ÂÈ Â‡ÏÔÁÔ˜ ÙÚfiÔ˜ Ó· ·ÔηٷÛÙ‹ÛÔ˘Ì ·Ó·‰ÚÔÌÈο ÙË Û˘Ó¤¯ÂÈ· Ù˘ ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁ›·˜. ∞fi ÙÔ ÁÂÁÔÓfi˜ fiÙÈ ÙÔ ·ÏËı¤˜ ÂÚȯfiÌÂÓÔ Ù˘ ·ÏÈ¿˜ ıˆڛ·˜ Â›Ó·È ˘fi fiÚÔ˘˜ ÂÓۈ̷ÙÒÛÈÌÔ ÛÙÔ ÂÚȯfiÌÂÓÔ Ù˘ Ó¤·˜ ıˆڛ·˜, ‰ÂÓ ÚÔ·ÙÂÈ fiÙÈ Ë ·ÏÈ¿ ıˆڛ· ‰È¤ıÂÙ ÙÔÓ ·Ó·Áη›Ô ÏÔÁÈÎfi ¯ÒÚÔ ÁÈ· Ó· ÊÈÏÔÍÂÓ‹ÛÂÈ –Î·È Ôχ ÂÚÈÛÛfiÙÂÚÔ Ó· ˘ԉ›ÍÂÈ– ÂÓÓÔÈÔÏÔÁÈο ÙË Ó¤· ıˆڛ· Î·È Û˘ÓÂÒ˜, ·Ó Ï¿‚Ô˘Ì ˘fi„Ë ÙË Û¯Â‰fiÓ «ÁÚ·ÌÌÈ΋ ÂÍ¿ÚÙËÛË» ıˆڛ·˜ ˘Ô‚¿ıÚÔ˘ Î·È ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘, ‰ÂÓ Â›Ó·È ‰˘Ó·ÙfiÓ Ó· ηٷÓÔ‹ÛÔ˘Ì Ò˜ Ë ·ÏÈ¿ ıˆڛ· ı· ÌÔÚÔ‡Û ӷ ÊÈÏÔÍÂÓ‹ÛÂÈ Î·È Ó· ˘·ÁÔÚ‡ÛÂÈ ÙË Ì¤ıÔ‰Ô Û˘ÁÎÚfiÙËÛ˘ Ù˘ Ó¤·˜ ıˆڛ·˜, ‰ËÏ·‰‹ ÙË Ì¤ıÔ‰Ô ·˘ÙÔ¸¤Ú‚·Û‹˜ Ù˘. ∂ȉÈÎfiÙÂÚ·, ÔÈ fiÚÔÈ ˘fi ÙÔ˘˜ ÔÔ›Ô˘˜ Â›Ó·È ‰˘Ó·Ù‹ Ë ˘·ÁˆÁ‹ ÙÔ˘ ‰È·Ûˆı¤ÓÙÔ˜ ÙÌ‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ Ù˘ ·ÏÈ¿˜ ıˆڛ·˜ ÛÙË Ó¤· Â›Ó·È ÂÓÓÔÈÔÏÔÁÈο ·‰ÈfiÚ·ÙÔÈ, Î·È Û˘ÓÂÒ˜ ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁÈο ·‰È¿ÁÓˆÛÙÔÈ ·fi ÙÔ ÂÛˆÙÂÚÈÎfi Ù˘ ·ÏÈ¿˜. ™Â οı ÂÚ›ÙˆÛË, Ë ·Ó·‰ÚÔÌÈ΋ ·ÔηٿÛÙ·ÛË Ù˘ ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁÈ΋˜ Û˘Ó¤¯ÂÈ·˜ ‰ÂÓ Â›Ó·È ‰˘Ó·Ù‹ ¯ˆÚ›˜ ÙË Û˘Ó‰ÚÔÌ‹ ÌÈ·˜ ÚÈ˙Èο ηÓÔÓÈÛÙÈ΋˜ Î·È ·Ó·¯ÚÔÓÈÛÙÈ΋˜ Â·ÓÂÚÌËÓ›·˜ Î·È ·ÔÙ›ÌËÛ˘ Ù˘ ·˘ıÂÓÙÈ΋˜ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋˜ Ú·ÎÙÈ΋˜, ÌÈ·˜ ·ÔÙ›ÌËÛ˘ Ë ÔÔ›· ·ÍÈÔÏÔÁ› ˆ˜ ÔÚı¤˜ ÂΛӘ ÙȘ fi„ÂȘ Ù˘ ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁ›·˜ Ô˘ ‰È·ÙËÚ‹ıËηÓ, Î·È ˆ˜ ÂÛÊ·Ï̤Ó˜ ·˘Ù¤˜ Ô˘ ·ÔÚÚ›ÊıËηÓ, ÛÙÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ Ù˘ Ó¤·˜ ıˆڛ·˜.


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∂ÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ̤ıÔ‰Ô˜ Î·È ··ÁˆÁÈ΋ ˘ÔÛÙ‹ÚÈÍË ÙÔ˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÔ‡ Ú·ÏÈÛÌÔ‡

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√ Ú·ÏÈÛÙ‹˜, ˆÛÙfiÛÔ, ÌÔÚ› Ó· ·ÓÙÈÙ›ÓÂÈ fiÙÈ ·Ó ˘ÈÔıÂÙ‹ÛÂÈ Î¿ÔÈÔ˜ ÙËÓ ÚÔÙÂÈÓfiÌÂÓË Â‰Ò ÂÚÌËÓ›· Î·È ‰ÂÓ ‰Â¯ı› ÙË ‰È·Ù‹ÚËÛË (̤ÚÔ˘˜) Ù˘ ·Ï‹ıÂÈ·˜ Ù˘ ·ÏÈ¿˜ ıˆڛ·˜ ηٿ ÙËÓ ·ÏÏ·Á‹ ¶·Ú·‰Â›ÁÌ·ÙÔ˜, ÙfiÙ ‰ÂÓ ÌÔÚ› Ó· ηٷÓÔ‹ÛÂÈ Ô‡Ù ÙË Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓ‹ Ì·˜ ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌË. ¶Ò˜ ·ÏÏÈÒ˜ ı· ÌÔÚÔ‡Û ӷ ÂÍËÁ‹ÛÂÈ ÙÔ ÁÂÁÔÓfi˜, ¯ˆÚ›˜ Ó· ˘Ôı¤ÛÂÈ fiÙÈ Â›Ó·È (ÚÔÛÂÁÁÈÛÙÈο) ·ÏËı‹˜, fiÙÈ Ë Ó¢ÙÒÓÂÈ· Ì˯·ÓÈ΋ ‰È·ÙËÚ› ·Ì›ˆÙË ÙË ¯ÚËÛÈÌfiÙËÙ· Î·È ÙËÓ ·ÍÈÔÈÛÙ›· Ù˘ ·ÎfiÌË Î·È ÌÂÙ¿ ÙÔÓ ∞˚ÓÛÙ¿ÈÓ; ¶Ú¿ÁÌ·ÙÈ, Ë ÂÈÛ‹Ì·ÓÛË Â›Ó·È ÔÚı‹, ·ÏÏ¿ ÂÍ ·˘Ù‹˜ ‰ÂÓ ÚÔ·ÙÂÈ Î·Ì›· ÚfiÛıÂÙË ÛÙ‹ÚÈÍË ÙÔ˘ Ú·ÏÈÛÙÈÎÔ‡ ··ÁˆÁÈÎÔ‡ ÂȯÂÈÚ‹Ì·ÙÔ˜. ∆Ô ÎÚ›ÛÈÌÔ ˙‹ÙËÌ· ‰ÂÓ Â›Ó·È ÙÔ Â¿Ó Ë Ó¢ÙÒÓÂÈ· Ì˯·ÓÈ΋ Â›Ó·È ·ÎfiÌË Î·È Û‹ÌÂÚ· ÌÈ· (ÚÔÛÂÁÁÈÛÙÈο) ·ÏËı‹˜ ıˆڛ·, ·ÏÏ¿ ÙÔ fiÙÈ Â›Ó·È ·ÏËı‹˜ ÌfiÓÔÓ Û’ ÂΛÓË ÙËÓ ÂÚÈÔ¯‹ ÙˆÓ ·ÍÈÒÛÂÒÓ Ù˘ Ô˘ ‰ÂÓ Û˘ÁÎÚÔ‡ÔÓÙ·È Ì ÙË ıˆڛ· Ù˘ Û¯ÂÙÈÎfiÙËÙ·˜. ªÂ ·˘Ù‹ ÙËÓ ¤ÓÓÔÈ·, Ë ·ÓÙ›ÚÚËÛ‹ Ì·˜ Û¯ÂÙÈο Ì ÙËÓ Î·Ù·ÏÏËÏfiÙËÙ· Ù˘ ‰È·ÏÂÎÙÈ΋˜ ıˆڛ·˜-ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘ ηٿ ÙȘ ·ÏÏ·Á¤˜ ¶·Ú·‰Â›ÁÌ·ÙÔ˜ ÂÍ·ÎÔÏÔ˘ı› Ó· Â›Ó·È ‚¿ÛÈÌË Î·È ÈÛ¯˘Ú‹. ¶Ò˜ ·fi ÙÔÓ ÂÚÈÔÚÈṲ̂ÓÔ ÔÚ›˙ÔÓÙ· ÙÔ˘ ·ÏÈÔ‡ ¶·Ú·‰Â›ÁÌ·ÙÔ˜, Â›Ó·È ‰˘Ó·ÙfiÓ Ó· ηıÔ‰ËÁËı› ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁÈο ÙÔ Ó¤Ô ¶·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ·; ∫·È ÙÔ ÈÔ ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈÎfi, Ò˜ Â›Ó·È ‰˘Ó·ÙfiÓ Ë ˘ÔÙÈı¤ÌÂÓË ·ÍÈÔÈÛÙ›· Ù˘ ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘ ÛÙËÓ ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹ Ù˘ Ó¤·˜ ıˆڛ·˜ Ó· ÂÍËÁËı› ‚¿ÛÂÈ Ù˘ ÂÚÈÔÚÈṲ̂Ó˘ ·Ï‹ıÂÈ·˜ ÙÔ˘ ıˆÚËÙÈÎÔ‡ ˘Ô‚¿ıÚÔ˘; ø˜ ·ÔÙ¤ÏÂÛÌ·, ÛÙÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ ÙÔ˘ Ú·ÏÈÛÙÈÎÔ‡ ÂȯÂÈÚ‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ ‰ÂÓ Â›Ó·È ‰˘Ó·ÙfiÓ Ó· ÂÍËÁËı› Ë ÂÚÁ·ÏÂȷ΋ ·ÍÈÔÈÛÙ›· Ù˘ Û¯ÂÙÈÎÈÛÙÈ΋˜ Ì˯·ÓÈ΋˜ ̤ۈ Ù˘ ·Ï‹ıÂÈ·˜ Ù˘ ÓÂ˘ÙˆÓÈ΋˜ Ì˯·ÓÈ΋˜. ™Â οı ÂÚ›ÙˆÛË, Ô Ú·ÏÈÛÙ‹˜ Â›Ó·È ˘Ô¯Úˆ̤ÓÔ˜ ›Ù ӷ ·ÚÓËı› ÙËÓ ‡·ÚÍË Ú‹ÍÂˆÓ ‹ Â·Ó·ÛÙ¿ÛÂˆÓ ÛÙËÓ ÈÛÙÔÚ›· Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ ›Ù ӷ ·Ú·ÈÙËı› ·fi ÙË Ú·ÏÈÛÙÈ΋ ÂÚÌËÓ›· ÙÔ˘˜, ıˆÚÒÓÙ·˜ Ù˜ ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁÈÎÒ˜ ·‰È¿ÁÓˆÛÙ· Û˘Ì‚¿ÓÙ·. ∏ Ú·ÏÈÛÙÈ΋ ÂÍ‹ÁËÛË Ù˘ ‰È·ÏÂÎÙÈ΋˜ ·ÏÏËÏԉȷ‰Ô¯‹˜ ıˆڛ·˜-ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘ ÚÔ¸Ôı¤ÙÂÈ ÌÈ· ۯ‰fiÓ ÁÚ·ÌÌÈ΋ Î·È ÛˆÚ¢ÙÈ΋ ·Ó¿Ù˘ÍË Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘. ¢˘ÛÙ˘¯Ò˜ fï˜ Ë Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈ΋ ÈÛÙÔÚ›· Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ ‰ÂÓ Ê·›ÓÂÙ·È Ó· Û˘ÌÌÔÚÊÒÓÂÙ·È Û’ ·˘Ù¤˜ ÙȘ ··ÈÙ‹ÛÂȘ. ∞Ó Ù· ÚÔËÁÔ‡ÌÂÓ· Â›Ó·È ÔÚı¿, ÙÔ ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁÈÎfi Âȯ›ÚËÌ· Ô˘ ÂÍÂÙ¿Û·Ì ·ÔÙ˘Á¯¿ÓÂÈ Ó· ÚÔÛʤÚÂÈ Î·ÏÔ‡˜ ÏfiÁÔ˘˜ Ó· ·ԉ¯ıԇ̠ÙÔÓ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎfi Ú·ÏÈÛÌfi. ∞ÏÏ¿ fiˆ˜ Î·È ÛÙËÓ ÂÚ›ÙˆÛË ÙÔ˘ ÁÂÓÈÎÔ‡ ··ÁˆÁÈÎÔ‡ ÂȯÂÈÚ‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ Ù˘ «Û˘Ó·ÁˆÁ‹˜ ÛÙËÓ Î·Ï‡ÙÂÚË ÂÍ‹ÁËÛË»,8 ·˘Ùfi ‰ÂÓ ÛËÌ·›ÓÂÈ fiÙÈ ı· Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ·ÔÚÚ›„Ô˘Ì ÙÔ ›‰ÈÔ ÙÔ Âȯ›ÚËÌ·, ·ÏÏ¿ Ì¿ÏÏÔÓ ÙȘ ÌÂÙ·Ê˘ÛÈΤ˜ Î·È ÁÓˆÛÈÔÏÔÁÈΤ˜ ÚÔ¸Ôı¤ÛÂȘ ˘fi ÙȘ Ôԛ˜ ·˘Ùfi ÂÚÌËÓ‡ÂÙ·È ·fi ÙÔÓ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎfi Ú·ÏÈÛÙ‹. ∂ȉÈÎfiÙÂÚ·, ÙÔ Âȯ›ÚËÌ· ·˘Ùfi fi¯È ÌfiÓÔ ‰ÂÓ


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ηÙÔÚıÒÓÂÈ Ó· ÚÔÛʤÚÂÈ ÌÈ· ÈηÓÔÔÈËÙÈ΋ ·¿ÓÙËÛË ÛÙËÓ «Î·Ù·Û΢·ÛÙÈ΋» ‹ ÈÛÙÔÚÈÎÈÛÙÈ΋ ÚfiÎÏËÛË ÙÔ˘ Kuhn –fiˆ˜ ÊÈÏÔ‰ÔÍÔ‡ÛÂ Ô Boyd– ‰›¯ˆ˜ Ó· ηٷʇÁÂÈ Û ÌÈ· ıÂÙÈÎÈÛÙÈ΋ ÂÚÌËÓ›· Ù˘ ÈÛÙÔÚ›·˜ Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘, ·ÏÏ¿ Î·È ÂÚÈÔÚ›˙ÂÈ ·ÛÊ˘ÎÙÈο ÙËÓ È‰¤· ÌÈ·˜ ‰È·ÏÂÎÙÈ΋˜ Û¯¤Û˘ ÌÂٷ͇ ıˆڛ·˜ Î·È ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘ ÛÙË Û¯Â‰fiÓ «ÁÚ·ÌÌÈ΋ ÂÍ¿ÚÙËÛË» Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋˜ ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘ ·fi ÙÔ ıˆÚËÙÈÎfi ˘fi‚·ıÚÔ.

™∏ª∂πø™∂π™ 1 Ÿˆ˜ ‰Â›¯ÓÂÈ Ô Psillos (1999: 93-5), ÌÈ· Â·ÁˆÁÈ΋ ÁÂӛ΢ÛË ÙˆÓ ÂÈÙ˘¯ÒÓ ··ÁˆÁÈÎÒÓ Û˘Ó·ÁˆÁÒÓ ÙÔ˘ ·ÚÂÏıfiÓÙÔ˜ ‰ÂÓ ı· ÚÔÛÊÂÚfiÙ·Ó Ô‡Ù Û ÌÈ· ÌË Ú·ÏÈÛÙÈ΋ ‰ÈηÈÔÏfiÁËÛË Ù˘ ÂÓ Á¤ÓÂÈ ·ÍÈÔÈÛÙ›·˜ Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋˜ ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘: ·Ê’ ÂÓfi˜ ‰ÂÓ ı· ‹Ù·Ó ÌÈ· ÂÍ‹ÁËÛË ÙÔ˘ ÁÈ·Ù› Ë ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ̤ıÔ‰Ô˜ Â›Ó·È ·ÍÈfiÈÛÙË, ·Ê’ ÂÙ¤ÚÔ˘ ‰ÂÓ ı· ÌÔÚÔ‡Û ӷ ·ÔʇÁÂÈ ÙË ıˆÚËÙÈ΋ ‰¤ÛÌ¢ÛË Û ÌË ·Ú·ÙËÚ‹ÛÈ̘ ÔÓÙfiÙËÙ˜. 2 ∫·Ù¿ ÙÔÓ Boyd (1984: 67), Ë ‚·ıÈ¿ ıˆÚËÙÈ΋ ÂÍ¿ÚÙËÛË ÙˆÓ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÒÓ ÌÂıfi‰ˆÓ ÂÈÛËÌ¿ÓıËΠ΢ڛˆ˜ ·fi ÙÔ˘˜ Hanson Î·È Kuhn. 3 ¶·Ú·ÊÚ¿˙ÔÓÙ·˜ ÙÔÓ Kant ı· ÌÔÚÔ‡Û·Ì ӷ ԇ̠fiÙÈ «Ì¤ıÔ‰Ô˜ ¯ˆÚ›˜ ıˆڛ· (˘Ô‚¿ıÚÔ˘) Â›Ó·È ÎÂÓ‹ ÂÓÒ ıˆڛ· ¯ˆÚ›˜ ̤ıÔ‰Ô Â›Ó·È Ù˘ÊÏ‹». 4 °ÂÓÈÎfiÙÂÚ·, ÙÔ ›‰ÈÔ Úfi‚ÏËÌ· ·Ó·Î‡ÙÂÈ Û οı ·ÍÈÔÈÛÙÔÎÚ·ÙÈ΋ (reliabilism) ÁÓˆÛÈÔıˆڛ·: ·Ó ÁÓÒÛË Â›Ó·È Ë ·ÏËı‹˜ ÂÔ›ıËÛË Ô˘ ÚÔ·ÙÂÈ Ì¤Ûˆ ÌÈ·˜ ·ÍÈfiÈÛÙ˘ ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘, ÙfiÙ ¯ˆÚ›˜ ÙËÓ ‡·ÚÍË Ù˘ ηٿÏÏËÏ˘ ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘ Ë ·ÔÎÙÒÌÂÓË ·ÏËı‹˜ ÂÔ›ıËÛË ı· Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ıˆÚËı› ˆ˜ Û˘Ìو̷ÙÈ΋ ‹ ·Ù˘¯ËÌ·ÙÈ΋ «ÁÓÒÛË», ‰ËÏ·‰‹ Ó· ÌË ÏÔÁ›˙ÂÙ·È ˆ˜ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈ΋ ÁÓÒÛË. 5 ŒÓ· ·ÚfiÌÔÈÔ Úfi‚ÏËÌ· ·ÓÙÈÌÂÙˆ›˙Ô˘Ó fiϘ ÔÈ ÙÔÔıÂÙ‹ÛÂȘ ÛÙË ÊÈÏÔÛÔÊ›· Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ Ô˘ ˘ÔÛÙËÚ›˙Ô˘Ó ÙËÓ ‡·ÚÍË ÌÈ·˜ ‰È·ÏÂÎÙÈ΋˜ ‰È·‰Èηۛ·˜ ·Ó¿Ù˘Í˘ Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘. °È· ·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ·, ÛÙÔ ÙÚÈ·‰ÈÎfi Û¯‹Ì· ÙÔ˘ Popper (1959) «£ÂˆÚ›·-¶Úfi‚ÏËÌ·-£ÂˆÚ›·» ·Ó·Î‡ÙÂÈ ÙÔ ÂÚÒÙËÌ· ·Ó ÛÙËÓ ·Ú¯‹ ÂÌÊ·Ó›ÛÙËΠÌÈ· ıˆڛ· ‹ ¤Ó· Úfi‚ÏËÌ·. øÛÙfiÛÔ, ÂÂȉ‹ ÙÔ Û¯‹Ì· ÙÔ˘ Popper ‰ÂÓ ÚÔ¸Ôı¤ÙÂÈ ¤Ó· È‰Ú˘ÙÈÎfi ÁÂÁÔÓfi˜ ÛÙËÓ ·ÊÂÙËÚ›· Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘, Ë ·¿ÓÙËÛ‹ ÙÔ˘ ÛÙÔ ÂÚÒÙËÌ· ·˘Ùfi Â›Ó·È Ì¿ÏÏÔÓ Â˘¯ÂÚ‹˜. 6 ¶ÚÔ‚ÔÏÈο Â›Ó·È Ù· ηÙËÁÔÚ‹Ì·Ù· Ô˘ ÌÔÚÔ‡Ó Ó· ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔÈËıÔ‡Ó ˆ˜ ·ÍÈfiÈÛÙÔÈ Ô‰ËÁÔ› ÁÈ· ‰È·ÈÛıËÙÈο ‡ÏÔÁ˜ Â·ÁˆÁÈΤ˜ ÁÂÓÈ·ÛÂȘ. 7 ªÈ· ‰˘Ó·Ù‹ ÂÚÌËÓ›· ı· ‹Ù·Ó Â‰Ò Ë ·Ú·‰Ô¯‹ ‡·Ú͢ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÒÓ Â·Ó·ÛÙ¿ÛˆÓ, ‹ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÏÔÁÈÎÒÓ ÙÔÌÒÓ Î·È ÚÈ˙ÈÎÒÓ ·Û˘Ó¯ÂÈÒÓ ÎÏ. ∞ÏÏ¿, fiˆ˜ ı· ‰Ô‡ÌÂ, Ô ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎfi˜ Ú·ÏÈÛÙ‹˜ Â›Ó·È ˘Ô¯Úˆ̤ÓÔ˜ Ó· ·ÚÓÂ›Ù·È ÙËÓ ‡·ÚÍË Ù¤ÙÔÈÔ˘ ›‰Ô˘˜ ÌË ÔÚıÔÏÔÁÈÎÒÓ ‹ «È‰ÂÔÏÔÁÈÎÒÓ» Û˘Ì‚¿ÓÙˆÓ. 8 µÏ. ™ÙÂÚÁÈfiÔ˘ÏÔ˜ 2008.


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∂ÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ̤ıÔ‰Ô˜ Î·È ··ÁˆÁÈ΋ ˘ÔÛÙ‹ÚÈÍË ÙÔ˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÔ‡ Ú·ÏÈÛÌÔ‡

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µπµ§π√°ƒ∞ºπ∫∂™ ∞¡∞º√ƒ∂™ Baltas, A. (2004), “On the Grammatical Aspects of Radical Scientific Discovery”, Philosophia Scientia, 8(1). Boyd, R. (1981), “Scientific Realism and Naturalistic Epistemology”, PSA, 2, Û. 613-662. Boyd, R. (1984), “The Current Status of Scientific Realism”, Leplin J. (ed.), Scientific Realism, University of California Press, Berkeley. Boyd, R. (1985), “Lex Orandi est Lex Credenti”, Churchland P.M., Hooker C.A. (eds), Images of Science, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Feyerabend, P. (1982), ∂Ó¿ÓÙÈ· ÛÙË ª¤ıÔ‰Ô, ÌÙÊÚ. °. ∫·˘Î·Ï¿˜, °. °ÎÔ˘ÓÙ·ÚÔ‡Ï˘, ™‡Á¯ÚÔÓ· £¤Ì·Ù·. Hacking, I. (1983), Representing and Intervening, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Kuhn, T.S. (1981), ∏ ¢ÔÌ‹ ÙˆÓ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÒÓ ∂·Ó·ÛÙ¿ÛˆÓ, ™‡Á¯ÚÔÓ· £¤Ì·Ù·. Popper, K.R. (1959), The Logic of Scientific Discovery, Hutchinson, London. Psillos, S. (1999), Scientific Realism: How Science Tracks Truth, Routledge, New York. Psillos, S. (2000), “The Present State of the Scientific Realism Debate”, British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 51. Putnam, H. (1975), “What Theories are not”, Philosophical Papers, 1: Mathematics, Matter and Method, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Û. 215-227. ™ÙÂÚÁÈfiÔ˘ÏÔ˜, ∫. (2007), «∞ÓÂÍ·ÚÙËÛ›· ‹ °ÓˆÛÈÌfiÙËÙ· ÙÔ˘ ¶Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÎÔ‡; √ ƒÂ·ÏÈÛÌfi˜ ÌÂٷ͇ ™ÎÂÙÈÎÈÛÌÔ‡ Î·È π‰Â·ÏÈÛÌÔ‡», ¢Â˘Î·Ï›ˆÓ, 25/2, Û. 271-306. ™ÙÂÚÁÈfiÔ˘ÏÔ˜, ∫. (2008), «∂›Ó·È ∂Ӊ¯ÔÌÂÓÈ΋ Ë ÂÈÙ˘¯›· Ù˘ ∂ÈÛÙ‹Ì˘», ∫ÚÈÙÈ΋ /∂ÈÛÙ‹ÌË Î·È ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË, 7, Û. 43-62. Van Fraassen, B.C. (1980), The Scientific Image, Clarendon Press, Oxford (ÂÏÏËÓÈ΋ ÌÂÙ¿ÊÚ·ÛË: ∏ ∂ÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋ ∂ÈÎfiÓ·, ÌÙÊÚ. ∫. ™ÙÂÚÁÈfiÔ˘ÏÔ˜, Leader Books, (˘fi ¤Î‰ÔÛË)). Van Fraassen, B. C. (2000), “Michel Gins on the Empirical Versus the Theoretical”, Foundations of Physics, 30/10, Û. 1655-1661.


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∫ƒπ∆π∫∏ / ∂¶π™∆∏ª∏ & ∂∫¶∞π¢∂À™∏: 9/09, 107

¶∞¡∂¶π™∆∏ªπ∞∫√π ¢∏§ø¡√À¡: «∂πª∞™∆∂ ∆√ π¢π√ ∂¡√Ã√π ª∂ ∆√¡ ™À¡∞¢∂§º√ ∆∞∫∏ ¶√§π∆∏!» √ ∆¿Î˘ ¶ÔÏ›Ù˘, ̤ÏÔ˜ Ù˘ ™˘ÓÙ·ÎÙÈ΋˜ ∂ÈÙÚÔ‹˜ ÙÔ˘ ¶ÂÚÈÔ‰ÈÎÔ‡ ∫ƒπ∆π∫∏, ÚÒËÓ Úfi‰ÚÔ˜ ÙÔ˘ ™˘ÏÏfiÁÔ˘ ¢È‰·ÛÎfiÓÙˆÓ ¶·ÓÂÈÛÙËÌ›Ô˘ £ÂÛÛ·Ï›·˜ Î·È ÚÒËÓ ∂ȉÈÎfi˜ °Ú·ÌÌ·Ù¤·˜ Ù˘ ¶√™¢∂¶, ‰ÈοÛÙËΠÛÙÔ ªÔÓÔÌÂϤ˜ ¶ÚˆÙÔ‰ÈÎÂ›Ô µfiÏÔ˘ ... ÁÈ· ÙË Û˘Ó‰ÈηÏÈÛÙÈ΋ ÙÔ˘ ‰Ú¿ÛË ÙË ¢Â˘Ù¤Ú· 11 ª·˝Ô˘ 2009. ∏ ‰›ÎË Û˘Ó¯›˙ÂÙ·È ÛÙȘ 12 √ÎÙˆ‚Ú›Ô˘ 2009.

∞Ó ıˆÚÂ›Ù·È «·¿ÙË ÂȘ ‚¿ÚÔ˜ ÙÔ˘ ¢ËÌÔÛ›Ô˘» Ë ¿ÛÎËÛË ÙÔ˘ ‰ÈηÈÒÌ·ÙÔ˜ Ù˘ ·ÂÚÁ›·˜ Ô˘ ·ÔÊ·Û›˙ÂÙ·È Û˘ÏÏÔÁÈο Î·È ‰ËÏÒÓÂÙ·È ‰ËÌfiÛÈ·, ÙfiÙ ÌÔÈÚ·˙fiÌ·ÛÙ ÙËÓ ›‰È· ¢ı‡ÓË Ì ÙÔÓ Û˘Ó¿‰ÂÏÊfi Ì·˜. ∞Ó Ô Û˘Ó¿‰ÂÏÊÔ˜ Â›Ó·È ¤ÓÔ¯Ô˜ ÂÂȉ‹ ˘ÂÚ·Û›ÛÙËΠ-Ì·˙› Ì ÔÏÏÔ‡˜ ¿ÏÏÔ˘˜ ·ÓÂÈÛÙËÌÈ·ÎÔ‡˜ ÛÙË ¯ÒÚ·- ÙÔ ‰ËÌfiÛÈÔ ¶·ÓÂÈÛÙ‹ÌÈÔ Î·È ÙËÓ Ù‹ÚËÛË ÙˆÓ Û˘ÓÙ·ÁÌ·ÙÈÎÒÓ ‰È·Ù¿ÍÂˆÓ Ô˘ ÙÔ ÂÁÁ˘ÒÓÙ·È, ÙfiÙ ›̷ÛÙ ÙÔ ›‰ÈÔ ¤ÓÔ¯ÔÈ Ì Î›ÓÔÓ! ∞Ó ıˆÚÂ›Ù·È ·¿ÙË ÂȘ ‚¿ÚÔ˜ ÙÔ˘ ¢ËÌÔÛ›Ô˘ ÙÔ fiÙÈ ¿ÛÎËÛ ÓfiÌÈÌÔ ‰Èη›ˆÌ¿ ÙÔ˘ Ó· ÌËÓ ˘Ô‚¿ÏÂÈ ·ÙÔÌÈ΋ ‰‹ÏˆÛË ÛÙÔ ›‰Ú˘Ì¿ ÙÔ˘ fiÙÈ ·‹ÚÁËÛÂ, ÙfiÙ ÎÈ ÂÌ›˜ ¤¯Ô˘Ì ‰È·Ú¿ÍÂÈ ·˘Ù‹ ÙËÓ «·¿ÙË». ø˜ ˘‡ı˘ÓÔÈ ·ÓÂÈÛÙËÌÈ·ÎÔ› ‰¿ÛηÏÔÈ Î·È ‰ËÌfiÛÈÔÈ ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁÔ› ·Ó·ÏËÚÒÓÔ˘Ì Û ‡ıÂÙÔ ¯ÚfiÓÔ ÙÔ ¤ÚÁÔ Ô˘ ‰ÂÓ ÂÈÙÂÏԇ̠fiÙ·Ó ·ÂÚÁԇ̠‹ ·¤¯Ô˘Ì ·fi οÔȘ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈΤ˜ ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ›Â˜ Ì·˜. ∞Ó ·˘Ù‹ Ë Ú¿ÍË ıˆÚÂ›Ù·È fiÙÈ ÂÓ¤¯ÂÈ ‰fiÏÔ ÁÈ· ·fiÎÙËÛË «·Ú¿ÓÔÌÔ˘ ÂÚÈÔ˘ÛÈ·ÎÔ‡ ÔʤÏÔ˘˜», ÙfiÙ ÎÈ ÂÌ›˜ ıˆÚԇ̠fiÙÈ ı· ¤ÚÂ ӷ ‚ÚÈÛÎfiÌ·ÛÙ ÛÙÔ Â‰ÒÏÈÔ ÙÔ˘ ηÙËÁÔÚÔ˘Ì¤ÓÔ˘ Ì·˙› Ì ÙÔÓ Û˘Ó¿‰ÂÏÊÔ ∆¿ÎË ¶ÔÏ›ÙË. °È· fiÏÔ˘˜ ·˘ÙÔ‡˜ ÙÔ˘˜ ÏfiÁÔ˘˜, ÔÈ ˘ÔÁÚ¿ÊÔÓÙ˜ ·ÓÂÈÛÙËÌÈ·ÎÔ› ›̷ÛÙ ·ÏÏËϤÁÁ˘ÔÈ ÛÙÔÓ ‰ÈˆÎfiÌÂÓÔ Û˘Ó¿‰ÂÏÊÔ ∆¿ÎË ¶ÔÏ›ÙË.


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17-06-09

13:37

™ÂÏ›‰·108


008

19-06-09

16:02

™ÂÏ›‰·109

∫ƒπ∆π∫∏ / ∂¶π™∆∏ª∏ & ∂∫¶∞π¢∂À™∏: 9/09

√‰ËÁ›Â˜ ÚÔ˜ ÙÔ˘˜ Û˘ÁÁÚ·Ê›˜ ¢È¢ı‡ÓÛÂȘ ÁÈ· ·ÔÛÙÔÏ‹ ÙˆÓ ÂÚÁ·ÛÈÒÓ: ∂˘ÁÂÓ›· ∫ÔϤ˙· ¶·È‰·ÁˆÁÈÎfi ∆Ì‹Ì· ¢∂, ¶·ÓÂÈÛÙ‹ÌÈÔ ¶·ÙÚÒÓ, ƒ›Ô 26504 ñ email: ekoleza@upatras.gr £‡ÌÈÔ˜ ¡ÈÎÔÏ·˝‰Ë˜ ∫¤ÓÙÚÔ ¡ÂÔÂÏÏËÓÈÎÒÓ ∂Ú¢ÓÒÓ, ∂ıÓÈÎfi ÿ‰Ú˘Ì· ∂Ú¢ÓÒÓ, µ·Û. ∫ˆÓÛÙ·ÓÙ›ÓÔ˘ 48, 11635 ∞ı‹Ó· ñ email: efnicol@eie.gr ∫ˆÓÛÙ·ÓÙ›ÓÔ˜ ™ÎÔÚ‰Ô‡Ï˘ ¶·È‰·ÁˆÁÈÎfi ∆Ì‹Ì· ¢∂, ¶·ÓÂÈÛÙ‹ÌÈÔ ∞ıËÓÒÓ, ¡·˘·Ú›ÓÔ˘ 13·, 10680 ∞ı‹Ó· ñ email: kskordul@primedu.uoa.gr ¢ËÌ‹ÙÚ˘ ÷ۿ˘ ∆Ì‹Ì· ∂Î·›‰Â˘Û˘ Î·È ∞ÁˆÁ‹˜ ÛÙËÓ ¶ÚÔÛ¯ÔÏÈ΋ ∏ÏÈΛ·, ¶·ÓÂÈÛÙ‹ÌÈÔ ∞ıËÓÒÓ, πÔÎÚ¿ÙÔ˘˜ 35, 10680 ∞ı‹Ó· ñ email: dchasapis@esd.uoa.gr

√È ÂÚÁ·Û›Â˜ Ô˘ ˘Ô‚¿ÏÏÔÓÙ·È ÁÈ· ÎÚ›ÛË Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· Â›Ó·È ÚˆÙfiÙ˘˜ Î·È Ó· ·ÔÛÙ¤ÏÏÔÓÙ·È Û ¤Ó· ·fi Ù· ̤ÏË Ù˘ °Ú·ÌÌ·Ù›·˜ ™‡ÓÙ·Í˘. ∏ ˘Ô‚ÔÏ‹ ÂÚÁ·Û›·˜ ¤¯ÂÈ Î·È ÙËÓ ¤ÓÓÔÈ· ÈÛÙÔÔ›ËÛ˘ fiÙÈ ‰ÂÓ ¤¯ÂÈ ‰ËÌÔÛÈ¢ı› ‹ ˘Ô‚ÏËı› ÁÈ· ‰ËÌÔÛ›Â˘ÛË Û ¿ÏÏÔ ¤ÓÙ˘Ô ‹ ËÏÂÎÙÚÔÓÈÎfi ̤ÛÔ. √È ÂÚÁ·Û›Â˜ ‰ËÌÔÛȇÔÓÙ·È ÌÂÙ¿ ·fi ‰È·‰Èηۛ· ·ÓÒÓ˘Ì˘ ÎÚ›Û˘ ·fi ‰‡Ô ÙÔ˘Ï¿¯ÈÛÙÔÓ ÎÚÈÙ¤˜. ™Â ÂÚ›ÙˆÛË ·Û˘Ìʈӛ·˜ ÙˆÓ ÎÚÈÙÒÓ ˙ËÙÂ›Ù·È Ë ÁÓÒÌË Î·È ÙÚ›ÙÔ˘ ÎÚÈÙ‹.

ªÔÚÊ‹ ÂÚÁ·ÛÈÒÓ √È ÂÚÁ·Û›Â˜ ˘Ô‚¿ÏÏÔÓÙ·È Û ÙÚ›· ·ÓÙ›Ù˘· Î·È ËÏÂÎÙÚÔÓÈο Û ·Ú¯Â›Ô MS Word 2000 ‹ ÓÂfiÙÂÚÔ. ∆Ô Î›ÌÂÓÔ Â›Ó·È ÁÚ·Ì̤ÓÔ Û ÌÈ· ÏÂ˘Ú¿ ÛÂÏ›‰·˜ ∞4, Ì ÂÚÈıÒÚÈ· 3cm ·fi fiϘ ÙȘ Ï¢ڤ˜, Û ‰ÈÏfi ‰È¿ÛÙËÌ· Î·È Ì¤ÁÂıÔ˜ ÁÚ·ÌÌ·ÙÔÛÂÈÚ¿˜ 12, Ì ·Ú›ıÌËÛË ÛÂÏ›‰ˆÓ. ™ÙËÓ ÚÒÙË ÛÂÏ›‰· ÂÌÊ·Ó›˙ÂÙ·È Ô Ù›ÙÏÔ˜, Ù· ÔÓfiÌ·Ù· Î·È Ù· Ï‹ÚË ÛÙÔȯ›· ÙˆÓ Û˘ÁÁڷʤˆÓ, ˘Ô‰ÂÈÎÓ‡ÔÓÙ·˜ ÙÔÓ ˘‡ı˘ÓÔ ÁÈ· ÂÈÎÔÈÓˆÓ›·. ™ÙË ‰Â‡ÙÂÚË ÛÂÏ›‰· ÂÌÊ·Ó›˙ÂÙ·È ÌfiÓÔ Ô Ù›ÙÏÔ˜ Ù˘ ÂÚÁ·Û›·˜, ¯ˆÚ›˜ Ù· ÛÙÔȯ›· ÙˆÓ Û˘ÁÁڷʤˆÓ. ¶ÂÚ›ÏË„Ë 100-150 ϤÍÂˆÓ ÛÙ· ·ÁÁÏÈο ÚÔËÁÂ›Ù·È ÙÔ˘ ΢ڛˆ˜ ¿ÚıÚÔ˘. √È ˘ÔÛËÌÂÈÒÛÂȘ ‚Ú›ÛÎÔÓÙ·È ÛÙÔ Ù¤ÏÔ˜ Ù˘ ·ÓÙ›ÛÙÔȯ˘ ÛÂÏ›‰·˜ Î·È ·ÚÈıÌÔ‡ÓÙ·È Ì ÙË ÌÔÚÊ‹ ÂÎı¤ÙË ¯ˆÚ›˜ ·ÚÂÓı¤ÛÂȘ ‹ ·Á·Ϙ. √È ÂÈÎfiÓ˜ ·Ó·Ê¤ÚÔÓÙ·È ÛÙÔ Î›ÌÂÓÔ, ÂÌÊ·Ó›˙ÔÓÙ·È Ì ·ÚÈıÌËÙÈ΋ ÛÂÈÚ¿ Î·È ÂÚÈÁÚ¿ÊÔÓÙ·È


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19-06-09

16:02

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110

√‰ËÁ›Â˜ ÚÔ˜ ÙÔ˘˜ Û˘ÁÁÚ·Ê›˜

·fi ˘fiÙÈÙÏÔ˘˜. ∫¿ı ÂÈÎfiÓ· ·ÔÙÂÏ› ͯˆÚÈÛÙfi ·Ú¯Â›Ô ˘„ËÏ‹˜ ·Ó¿Ï˘Û˘ ÌÔÚÊ‹˜ .tiff. √È ÊˆÙÔÁڷʛ˜ Î·È ÂÎÙ˘ÒÛÂȘ Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· Â›Ó·È Û ÙfiÓÔ˘˜ ÙÔ˘ ÁÎÚÈ Î·È ˘„ËÏ‹˜ ÔÈfiÙËÙ·˜ ÁÈ· ÔÈÔÙÈ΋ ·Ó··Ú·ÁˆÁ‹. ¡· ·ÔʇÁÂÙ·È ÙÔ Ì·‡ÚÔ ‹ ÛÎÔ‡ÚÔ ÊfiÓÙÔ. √È ÂÈÎfiÓ˜ ‚Ú›ÛÎÔÓÙ·È Û Í¯ˆÚÈÛÙ‹ ÛÂÏ›‰· Ë Î¿ı ̛· Î·È Ë ı¤ÛË ÙÔ˘˜ ˘Ô‰ÂÈÎÓ‡ÂÙ·È ÛÙÔ ÛÒÌ· ÙÔ˘ ¿ÚıÚÔ˘ ·Ó·Ê¤ÚÔÓÙ·˜: -ı¤ÛË ÂÈÎfiÓ·˜ 1-. √È ›Ó·Î˜ ·Ó·Ê¤ÚÔÓÙ·È ÛÙÔ Î›ÌÂÓÔ, ÂÌÊ·Ó›˙ÔÓÙ·È Ì ·ÚÈıÌËÙÈ΋ ÛÂÈÚ¿ Î·È ÂÚÈÁÚ¿ÊÔÓÙ·È ·fi Ù›ÙÏÔ˘˜. √È ›Ó·Î˜ ‚Ú›ÛÎÔÙ·È Û Í¯ˆÚÈÛÙ‹ ÛÂÏ›‰· Ô Î¿ı ¤Ó·˜ Î·È Ë ı¤ÛË ÙÔ˘˜ ˘Ô‰ÂÈÎÓ‡ÂÙ·È ÛÙÔ ÛÒÌ· ÙÔ˘ ¿ÚıÚÔ˘ ·Ó·Ê¤ÚÔÓÙ·˜: ı¤ÛË ›Ó·Î· 1-. √È ›Ó·Î˜ ÂÚȤ¯Ô˘Ó ÌfiÓÔ ÔÚÈ˙fiÓÙȘ ÁÚ·Ì̤˜ ÔÈ Ôԛ˜ ÔÚ›˙Ô˘Ó ÙËÓ ·Ú¯‹ Î·È ÙÔ Ù¤ÏÔ˜ ÙÔ˘˜ Î·È ‰È·¯ˆÚ›˙Ô˘Ó Ù· ‰Â‰Ô̤ӷ ·fi ÙÔ˘˜ Ù›ÙÏÔ˘˜.

µÈ‚ÏÈÔÁÚ·ÊÈΤ˜ ·Ó·ÊÔÚ¤˜ √È ‚È‚ÏÈÔÁÚ·ÊÈΤ˜ ·Ó·ÊÔÚ¤˜ ÂÈÛËÌ·›ÓÔÓÙ·È ÛÙÔ ÛÒÌ· ÙÔ˘ ÎÂÈ̤ÓÔ˘ Ì ÙÔ ÂÒÓ˘ÌÔ ÙÔ˘/ÙˆÓ Û˘ÁÁڷʤ·/ˆÓ Î·È ÙË ¯ÚÔÓÔÏÔÁ›· ¤Î‰ÔÛ˘, fiˆ˜ (James 2002) ‹ (Smith and Johnson 1994). ÕÚıÚ· Ì ÙÚÂȘ ‹ ÂÚÈÛÛfiÙÂÚÔ˘˜ Û˘ÁÁÚ·Ê›˜ ı· Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ·Ó·Ê¤ÚÔÓÙ·È ˆ˜ (Powels et al. 2000). √È ·Ó·ÊÔÚ¤˜ ı· Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ‰È·Ù¿ÛÛÔÓÙ·È ÛÙÔ Ù¤ÏÔ˜ ÙÔ˘ ¿ÚıÚÔ˘ Ì ·ÏÊ·‚ËÙÈ΋ ÛÂÈÚ¿. √È Û˘ÁÁÚ·Ê›˜ ı· Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ‰È·ÛÊ·Ï›ÛÔ˘Ó fiÙÈ fiϘ ÔÈ ·Ó·ÊÔÚ¤˜ ÂÌÂÚȤ¯ÔÓÙ·È ÛÙÔ ‚·ÛÈÎ��� ÛÒÌ· ÙÔ˘ ÎÂÈ̤ÓÔ˘ Î·È ·ÓÙ›ÛÙÚÔÊ·, fiÙÈ Ë Ï›ÛÙ· ÙˆÓ ·Ó·ÊÔÚÒÓ Â›Ó·È ÔÏÔÎÏËڈ̤ÓË, Ì Ï‹ÚË ÛÙÔȯ›· Û˘ÌÂÚÈÏ·Ì‚·ÓÔÌ¤ÓˆÓ Î·È ÙˆÓ ·ÚÈıÌÒÓ ÙˆÓ ÙfiÌˆÓ Î·È ÙˆÓ ÛÂÏ›‰ˆÓ. √È Û˘ÁÁÚ·Ê›˜ ÂÓı·ÚÚ‡ÓÔÓÙ·È Ó· ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔÈÔ‡Ó ÙÔ ÛÙ˘Ï ·Ó·ÊÔÚÒÓ, Î·È ÙÔÓ ËıÈÎfi ÎÒ‰Èη ÁÚ·Ê‹˜ ÙÔ˘ American Psychological Association. ∞ÔÙÂÏ› ÛÙ·ıÂÚ‹ ÂΉÔÙÈ΋ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋ ÙÔ˘ ÂÚÈÔ‰ÈÎÔ‡ fiÙÈ Î·Ó¤Ó·˜/η̛· Û˘ÁÁڷʤ·˜ ‰ÂÓ ÌÔÚ› Ó· ˘ÔÛÙ› ıÂÙÈ΋ ‹ ·ÚÓËÙÈ΋ ‰È¿ÎÚÈÛË fiÛÔÓ ·ÊÔÚ¿ ÛÙÔ Ê‡ÏÔ, ÙË Ê˘Ï‹, ÙË ıÚËÛΛ· ‹ ÙËÓ ÂıÓÈÎfiÙËÙ·. ∆· ¿ÚıÚ· ÎÚ›ÓÔÓÙ·È ÛÙË ‚¿ÛË Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈ΋˜ Â¿ÚÎÂÈ·˜ Î·È ÌfiÓÔ. ∂Ó ÙÔ‡ÙÔȘ, Ë ∂ΉÔÙÈ΋ √Ì¿‰· ‰È·ÙËÚ› ÙÔ ‰Èη›ˆÌ· Ó· ·ÚÓËı› ÙË ‰ËÌÔÛ›Â˘ÛË ÂÓfi˜ ¿ÚıÚÔ˘, ·Ó ˘¿Ú¯Ô˘Ó ÂӉ›ÍÂȘ fiÙÈ ·˘Ùfi ·˯› ‹ ˘ÔÛÙËÚ›˙ÂÈ ÛÂÍÈÛÙÈο, Ú·ÙÛÈÛÙÈο Î·È ÁÂÓÈÎfiÙÂÚ· ÚÔÛ‚ÏËÙÈο Û¯fiÏÈ· ‹ ·fi„ÂȘ Ô˘ ηÙ¢ı‡ÓÔÓÙ·È ÂÓ·ÓÙ›ÔÓ ÌÈ·˜ ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈ΋˜, ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋˜, ıÚËÛ΢ÙÈ΋˜ ‹ ÂıÓÈ΋˜ ÌÂÈÔÓfiÙËÙ·˜.


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16:02

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∫ƒπ∆π∫∏ / ∂¶π™∆∏ª∏ & ∂∫¶∞π¢∂À™∏: 9/09

™ËÌ›ˆÌ· Ù˘ ™˘ÓÙ·ÎÙÈ΋˜ ∂ÈÙÚÔ‹˜ ∆Ô ÂÚÈÔ‰ÈÎfi «∫ÚÈÙÈ΋ / ∂ÈÛÙ‹ÌË & ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË» ·ÔÙÂÏ› ÚÔ˚fiÓ ÂÚÁ·Û›·˜ ÂÓfi˜ ‰ÈÎÙ‡Ô˘ ÂÚ¢ÓËÙÒÓ Ô˘ Û˘ÁÎÚÔÙÂ›Ù·È Ì ‚·ÛÈÎfi ÂÓÔÔÈËÙÈÎfi ÛÙÔÈ¯Â›Ô ÙË ‚Ô‡ÏËÛË ÁÈ· ÙË ıˆÚËÙÈ΋ ·Ó·Û˘ÁÎÚfiÙËÛË Ù˘ ÚÈ˙ÔÛ·ÛÙÈ΋˜ ÚÔÔÙÈ΋˜ ÛÙËÓ ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌË Î·È ÛÙËÓ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË. ∞ÔÙÂÏ› ÂÔ›ıËÛË ÙˆÓ ÂÚÈÛÛÔÙ¤ÚˆÓ ÌÂÏÒÓ ÙÔ˘ ‰ÈÎÙ‡Ô˘ fiÙÈ Ë ÚÈ˙ÔÛ·ÛÙÈ΋ ÚÔÔÙÈ΋ ‰ÂÓ ÌÔÚ› Ó· ·Ó·Ù˘¯ı› ·ÁÓÔÒÓÙ·˜ ÙȘ ıˆÚËÙÈΤ˜ Û˘ÓÂÈÛÊÔÚ¤˜ Î·È ·Ú·Î·Ù·ı‹Î˜ ÙˆÓ ‰È·ÊfiÚˆÓ ÚÂ˘Ì¿ÙˆÓ Ô˘ Û˘Ó·ÚıÚÒÓÔ˘Ó ÙË Ì·ÚÍÈÛÙÈ΋ ·Ú¿‰ÔÛË. ∂ȉ›ˆÍË fiψÓ, fï˜, Â›Ó·È Ë ·ÍÈÔÔ›ËÛË ·˘ÙÒÓ ÙˆÓ ıˆÚËÙÈÎÒÓ ÎÂÎÙËÌ¤ÓˆÓ Û ÌÈ· ÔÚ›· ·ÏÏËÏÂ›‰Ú·Û˘ Ì ÙȘ ·Ó·‰˘fiÌÂÓ˜ ÚÔÛÂÁÁ›ÛÂȘ, ÙȘ Ôԛ˜ Û˘Ó·ÓÙ¿Ì ۋÌÂÚ· Û ÔÏÏ¿ ·ÓÂÈÛÙËÌȷο ÚÔÁÚ¿ÌÌ·Ù· ÛÔ˘‰ÒÓ ˆ˜ ™Ô˘‰¤˜ ÛÙËÓ ∂ÈÛÙ‹ÌË, ¶ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈΤ˜ ™Ô˘‰¤˜, ™Ô˘‰¤˜ º‡ÏÔ˘, ¶ÂÚÈ‚·ÏÏÔÓÙÈΤ˜ ™Ô˘‰¤˜, ·ÏÏ¿ Î·È Ì ÙȘ Ӥ˜ ÚÔÛÂÁÁ›ÛÂȘ ÛÙË πÛÙÔÚ›· ÙˆÓ ∂ÈÛÙËÌÒÓ. ∂›Ó·È ÁÓˆÛÙfi fiÙÈ ÛÙÔ ¯ÒÚÔ Ù˘ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘, ÛÙÔÓ ·ÁÁÏÔ۷͈ÓÈÎfi ÙÔ˘Ï¿¯ÈÛÙÔÓ ÎfiÛÌÔ ·fi fiÔ˘ Î·È ·ÓÙÏÂ›Ù·È Ô Î‡ÚÈÔ˜ fiÁÎÔ˜ Ù˘ Û¯ÂÙÈ΋˜ ‚È‚ÏÈÔÁÚ·Ê›·˜, ÙÔ Ú‡̷ Ù˘ ∫ÚÈÙÈ΋˜ ¶·È‰·ÁˆÁÈ΋˜ ¤¯ÂÈ ·ÓÙÈÌÂÙˆ›ÛÂÈ Ì η¯˘Ô„›· ‹ Î·È Ì ‰È¿ıÂÛË ˘ÂÚ‚ÔÏÈ΋˜ ·˘ÛÙËÚfiÙËÙ·˜ ÙȘ ÚÔÛÂÁÁ›ÛÂȘ Ô˘ ÚԷӷʤÚıËηÓ. ¶·Ú’ fiÏ· ·˘Ù¿, fï˜, ÔÈΛϷ ˙ËÙ‹Ì·Ù· Ô˘ ¤¯Ô˘Ó Û¯¤ÛË Ì ÙËÓ ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈÎfiÙËÙ·, Ì ÙËÓ ˘Ô-ÂÎÚÔÛÒËÛË Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈÌ¤ÓˆÓ ÔÌ¿‰ˆÓ ÏËı˘ÛÌÔ‡ ÛÙ· ÁÓˆÛÙÈο ·ÓÙÈΛÌÂÓ· ÙˆÓ Ê˘ÛÈÎÔÌ·ıËÌ·ÙÈÎÒÓ ÂÈÛÙËÌÒÓ, Ì ˙ËÙ‹Ì·Ù· ËıÈ΋˜ Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ Î.·., ‰ÂÓ ÌÔÚÔ‡Ó Ó· ·Ó·Ï˘ıÔ‡Ó ÛÙËÓ Ï‹ÚË ¤ÎÙ·Û‹ ÙÔ˘˜ ÛÙÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ Ù˘ ∫ÚÈÙÈ΋˜ ∂Î·›‰Â˘Û˘ ·ÔÎÏÂÈÛÙÈο. ¶ÂÚ·ÈÙ¤Úˆ ıˆÚËÙÈΤ˜ Û˘ÓÂÈÛÊÔÚ¤˜ Â›Ó·È ·Ó·Áη›Â˜. ™ÙÔÓ ‰ÈÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎfi ÙÔ̤· Ù˘ ÈÛÙÔÚ›·˜ ÙˆÓ ÂÈÛÙËÌÒÓ, ÙȘ ÙÂÏÂ˘Ù·›Â˜ ‰ÂηÂٛ˜ ¤¯ÂÈ ·Ó·Ù˘¯ı› Ô ÚÔ‚ÏËÌ·ÙÈÛÌfi˜ Á‡Úˆ ·fi ÙÔ˘˜ ÙÚfiÔ˘˜ ‰È¿‰ÔÛ˘ Ù˘ ΢ڛ·Ú¯Ë˜ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ Î·È Ù¯ÓÔÏÔÁ›·˜ ηıÒ˜ Î·È ÔÈ Û˘ÁÎÚÈÙÈΤ˜ ÌÂϤÙ˜ ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈÎÒÓ ÂÈÛÙËÌÔÓÈÎÒÓ Î·È Ù¯ÓÔÏÔÁÈÎÒÓ ·Ú·‰fiÛˆÓ. ∏ ÚÈ˙ÔÛ·ÛÙÈ΋ ÚÔÛ¤ÁÁÈÛË ·˘ÙÒÓ ÙˆÓ ıÂÌ¿ÙˆÓ ‰ÂÓ ·ÚÎÂ›Ù·È ÛÙÔ Ó· ·Ó·ÁÓˆÚ›˙ÂÈ ÙȘ «È‰È·ÈÙÂÚfiÙËÙ˜» ·ÏÏ¿ ÌÂÏÂÙ¿ Î·È ÚÔ‚¿ÏÏÂÈ ÙȘ Û¯¤ÛÂȘ ÂÍÔ˘Û›·˜ Î·È ·ÏÏËÏÂÍ¿ÚÙËÛ˘ ηıÒ˜ Î·È ÙȘ ¯Ú‹ÛÂȘ Ù˘ ÂÈÛÙ‹Ì˘ ·fi ÙȘ ΢ڛ·Ú¯Â˜ Ù¿ÍÂȘ. ™Ù¤ÎÔÓÙ·˜ ÎÚÈÙÈο ·¤Ó·ÓÙÈ Û ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÔÏÔÁÈΤ˜ ÚÔÛÂÁÁ›ÛÂȘ Ô˘ ÚÔÛ·ıÔ‡Ó Ó· ˘Ô‚·ıÌ›ÛÔ˘Ó ÙËÓ ÈÛÙÔÚÈ΋ ·Ó¿Ï˘ÛË ÙˆÓ Û¯¤ÛÂˆÓ ÂÍ¿ÚÙËÛ˘, Ë ÚÈ˙ÔÛ·ÛÙÈ-


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΋ ÚÔÛ¤ÁÁÈÛË ÌÂÏÂÙ¿ ÙȘ Û¯¤ÛÂȘ ÌÂٷ͇ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎÒÓ Ù¿ÍˆÓ, ÎÚ·ÙÈÎÒÓ ÌÔÚÊˆÌ¿ÙˆÓ ‹/Î·È ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÒÓ. ∫ÔÈÓfi ÛÙÔÈ¯Â›Ô fiÏˆÓ fiÛˆÓ Û˘ÌÌÂÙ¤¯Ô˘Ó Û’ ·˘Ù‹ ÙËÓ ÚÔÛ¿ıÂÈ· Â›Ó·È Ë ÂÔ›ıËÛË fiÙÈ ÌÈ· ¿ÏÏË ÚÔÔÙÈ΋ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌË Î·È ÙËÓ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË (·ÎfiÌ· Î·È ÌÈ· ¿ÏÏË ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌË Î·È ÌÈ· ¿ÏÏË ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË) Â›Ó·È ÂÊÈÎÙ‹. ¶ÈÛÙ‡ԢÌ fiÙÈ ÔÈ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈΤ˜ ‰˘Ó¿ÌÂȘ Ù˘ ÂÚÁ·Û›·˜ Î·È ÙˆÓ ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈÎÒÓ ·ÓÙÈÛÙ¿ÛÂˆÓ ‰È·ÙËÚÔ‡Ó ÙËÓ ·Ó·ÓˆÙÈ΋ ‰˘Ó·ÌÈ΋ ÙÔ˘˜ Î·È fiÙÈ ¤Ó·˜ ¿ÏÏÔ˜ ÎfiÛÌÔ˜ Â›Ó·È ÂÊÈÎÙfi˜, ·Ú¿ ÙËÓ ËÁÂÌÔÓ›· ÂÓfi˜ ÔÏÈÙÈÎÔ‡ Î·È ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈÎÔ‡ Û˘ÓÙËÚËÙÈÛÌÔ‡ Ô˘ ¤¯ÂÈ Ô‰ËÁ‹ÛÂÈ ÛÙÔÓ Î·Ù·ÎÂÚÌ·ÙÈÛÌfi fi¯È ÌfiÓÔ ÙÔ˘ Û˘ÏÏÔÁÈÎÔ‡, ·ÏÏ¿ Î·È ÙÔ˘ ·ÙÔÌÈÎÔ‡ ˘ÔÎÂÈ̤ÓÔ˘. ∏ ·Ó·Û˘ÁÎÚfiÙËÛË ÙÔ˘ ˘ÔÎÂÈ̤ÓÔ˘ (Û˘ÏÏÔÁÈÎÔ‡ Î·È ·ÙÔÌÈÎÔ‡), ÂÓfi˜ ˘ÔÎÂÈ̤ÓÔ˘ Ô˘ ‰È·ı¤ÙÂÈ ÙËÓ ÈηÓfiÙËÙ· ÁÈ· ‰Ú¿ÛË, Û˘Ó‰¤ÂÙ·È ¿ÌÂÛ· Ì ÙÔÓ ıˆÚËÙÈÎfi ÂÍÔÏÈÛÌfi ÙÔ˘. ªÂ ¿ÍÔÓ· ·˘ÙfiÓ ÙÔÓ ÚÔ‚ÏËÌ·ÙÈÛÌfi, Ë ÔÌ¿‰· Ô˘ ÂΉ›‰ÂÈ ÙÔ ÂÚÈÔ‰ÈÎfi ‰ÈÔÚÁ·ÓÒÓÂÈ Î¿ı ηÏÔη›ÚÈ (Û˘Ó‹ıˆ˜ ÙÔ ‰Â‡ÙÂÚÔ ‰ÂηÂÓı‹ÌÂÚÔ ÙÔ˘ πÔ˘Ï›Ô˘) ™˘Ó·ÓÙ‹ÛÂȘ ∂ÚÁ·Û›·˜-Workshops Ì ı¤Ì·: «∫ÚÈÙÈΤ˜ ¶ÚÔÛÂÁÁ›ÛÂȘ ÛÙȘ ∂ÈÛً̘ Î·È ÛÙËÓ ∂Î·›‰Â˘ÛË». √È ™˘Ó·ÓÙ‹ÛÂȘ ÍÂΛÓËÛ·Ó Ó· Á›ÓÔÓÙ·È ÙÔ 2004 ÛÙË ™‡ÚÔ ÛÙÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ ÙˆÓ «™ÂÌÈÓ·Ú›ˆÓ Ù˘ ∂ÚÌÔ‡ÔÏ˘». ∞fi ÙÔ Î·ÏÔη›ÚÈ ÙÔ˘ 2007 ÔÈ ™˘Ó·ÓÙ‹ÛÂȘ Á›ÓÔÓÙ·È ÛÙËÓ ∂Ï¿ÙË ∆ÚÈοψÓ. ∆Ô ÂÚÈÔ‰ÈÎfi ‰ËÌÔÛȇÂÈ Î˘Ú›ˆ˜ ¿ÚıÚ·, Ù· ÔÔ›· ‚·Û›˙ÔÓÙ·È ÛÙȘ ÂÈÛËÁ‹ÛÂȘ Ô˘ ·Ó·ÎÔÈÓÒÓÔÓÙ·È Î·Ù¿ ÙȘ Û˘Ó·ÓÙ‹ÛÂȘ ÂÚÁ·Û›·˜. ∂›Ó·È fï˜ ·ÓÔÈÎÙfi, Î·È ÚÔÛηÏ› ¿ÚıÚ· Ô˘ ÂÓÙ¿ÛÛÔÓÙ·È ÛÙË ıÂÌ·ÙÔÏÔÁ›· ÙÔ˘ Î·È ÚÔ¿ÁÔ˘Ó ÙÔÓ ıˆÚËÙÈÎfi ÚÔ‚ÏËÌ·ÙÈÛÌfi, ¤ÙÛÈ fiˆ˜ ÛÎÈ·ÁÚ·Ê‹ıËΠÛÙȘ ·Ú·¿Óˆ ÁÚ·Ì̤˜. À‡ı˘ÓË ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ·ÚÙÈfiÙËÙ· Î·È ÂÁ΢ÚfiÙËÙ· ÙˆÓ ÂÚÁ·ÛÈÒÓ Ô˘ ‰ËÌÔÛȇÔÓÙ·È Â›Ó·È Ë ™˘ÓÙ·ÎÙÈ΋ ∂ÈÙÚÔ‹ ÙÔ˘ ÂÚÈÔ‰ÈÎÔ‡.

∏ ÈÛÙÔÛÂÏ›‰· ÙÔ˘ ÂÚÈÔ‰ÈÎÔ‡ ÛÙÔ ‰È·‰›ÎÙ˘Ô Â›Ó·È:

http://asel.primedu.uoa.gr/kritiki/index.htm ÂΛ οı ÂӉȷÊÂÚfiÌÂÓÔ˜-Ë ÌÔÚ› Ó· ‰È·‚¿ÛÂÈ (‹ Î·È Ó· ÂÎÙ˘ÒÛÂÈ) Ù· ·Ï·ÈfiÙÂÚ· Ù‡¯Ë.


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ISSN: 1790-4056

June 2009

KRITIKI Critical Science & Education Published semi-annualy Cover: Marc Chagall, The Circus

Publisher: nissos publications Production: ISOGRAPH V. Hugo 32, Athens tel. 210 5247309 Volume Price: 10

Subscription: Individuals: 20 € Institutions: 30 € Dispatch Subscription: Kayalis Panagiotis Nissos Publications 14 Sarri Str. 10553 Athens Tel./fax: +30 210 3250058 e-mail: info@nissos.gr URL: www.nissos.gr

VOLUME 9 CONTENTS

Constantine D. Skordoulis Towards a Philosophy of Critical Science Education

3

Aristotelis S. Gkiolmas, Ioanna K. Stavrou Global Education as an alternative model of education for Sustainability and Social and Environmental Justice. A Critical Assessment.

15

Vasilis Tselfes & Antigoni Paroussi Theatrical narration of scientific ideas: an opportunity to approach learning in a dialectical manner

33

Manos Skoufoglou The urban spatial structure during the transition from feudalism to capitalism: the case of the Netherlands

59

Eleni Gianakopoulou Gender identities and educational administration 77 Kostas Stergiopoulos Scientific Method and Abductive Defence of Scientific Realism

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Critical/ Science & Education

Towards a Philosophy of Critical Science Education Constantine D. Skordoulis Faculty of Primary Education, University of Athens. This paper is devoted to the study of the preconditions for the establishment of the axes for a Critical Science Education. These axes are deduced from the analysis of the theoretical developments in the fields of Critical Theory and Critical Pedagogy with a special emphasis on the contribution of Cultural Studies and Revolutionary Pedagogy. It is also underlined that a Critical Science Education ought to have the education of teachers as a starting point.

Global Education as an alternative model of education for Sustainability and Social and Environmental Justice. A Critical Assessment. Aristotelis S. Gkiolmas, Ioanna K. Stavrou Faculty of Primary Education, University of Athens. In the present paper a comparatively new model of education applied worldwide, the so called Global Education, is investigated. At first, the historical course and necessities that lead to the formation of this field are examined, together with the pre-existing trends in the field of international education. Then, a primary definition of this model of education is presented, as well as its main aims and objectives. At a second phase, the aspects and dimensions of Global Education, within its theoretical framework, are scrutinized. Then, the two main relationships that Global Education bears are critically investigated: the one with the concept of Sustainability and the one with the concept of Social Justice. Specifically, as far as the latter is concerned, the aimed balance between cultural Unity and cultural Diversity, as well as the notion of literate citizenship, are examined, in their connection with Global Education.


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Finally, some critical Marxist positions regarding Global Education and possible alternatives are presented, namely the Revolutionary Critical Pedagogy against globalized capitalism and the Radical Education with its statements.

Theatrical narration of scientific ideas: an opportunity to approach learning in a dialectical manner Vasilis Tselfes & Antigoni Paroussi Department of Early Childhood Education, University of Athens In this paper our arguments are based on the following hypotheses: A. In education, inevitably, scientific texts (professional, educational, popular etc) are the source to derive the scientific ideas/concepts for teaching. This constrain establishes, also inevitably, rather reproductive teaching-learning processes and practices. B. The ‘language’ of scientific texts, apart from its syntax and grammar difficulties, is convincing in a context dominated by logic, at least in its typical form. However, typical logical reasoning seems to leave students indifferent. Therefore, the limited success of constructivism is reasonable, as the logic seems to be the “key” of conceptual conflict. Furthermore, it is reasonable that for the education of children we need more familiar teaching-learning contexts, where the functions of scientific ideas are approached by narration or image, and anyway not simply by reason. C. The “narrative” approach is more familiar to the students but this does not change the fact that learning takes place through processes of reproduction. In any case, narrations using scientific ideas do almost not exist. We also think that a theory representing learning in a reproductive context does not exist. Both should be constructed. In this essay we present the main characteristics of a theory representing learning as a dialectic entity emerging in the context of social-cultural reproduction. We also attempt to support this theory analyzing qualitative some of our data collected from a long project of teaching Science in a theatrical / narrative manner.


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The urban spatial structure during the transition from feudalism to capitalism: the case of the Netherlands Manos Skoufoglou NTUA The current contribution is based on a research project focused on the historical processes of the transition from feudalism to capitalism in the Netherlands, as well as on the complex connection of these processes to the spatial transformations, to the evolution of the relation between towns and the countryside and to urbanization. What is attempted in this contribution is to spot some specific conditions, historical circumstances and features that differentiate the transitional period in the Netherlands from the general pattern of the transition in Western Europe. This approach could help to explain the regression of the Netherlands from the world trade’s centre, that it used to be during the 17th century, to a backward rural economy one century later. It could also illuminate some inborn tensions and characteristics inscribed in the social, as well as spatial, structure of Dutch capitalism.

Gender identities and educational administration Eleni Gianakopoulou Hellenic Open University In this paper selected issues concerning gender prejudices characterizing the mainstream approaches to educational administration are concisely presented and founding aspects of alternative theories concerning the role of gender and sexual identities in this field are outlined. These theories attempt to correlate gender issues to social relations of power in a world wherein various social roles and their associated functions – roles and functions of teachers, education managers, school administrators, parents and students – are reproduced from a generation to the next already gendered. Imprinted by features determining the usual, the permissible, the “normal” for man and women. Besides, it is


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argued for a methodological approach, which is based on institutional ethnography as being most suitable for the research of gender issues in educational administration.

Scientific Method and Abductive Defence of Scientific Realism Kostas Stergiopoulos Hellenic Open University This paper argues that the methodological version of the “inference to the best explanation” argument of Boyd and Psillos, is either ineffective or problematic. The fact that “scientific methodology is almost linearly dependent on accepted background theories” cannot provide, on the basis of the truth of the subject theory, a good explanation of the diachronic success of science without violating history of science.


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Kritiki, issue 9